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Sample records for dust samplers preliminary

  1. Laboratory evaluation of the CIP 10 personal dust sampler.

    PubMed

    Gero, A; Tomb, T

    1988-06-01

    The "capteur individuel de poussiere" CIP 10 personal dust sampler--developed by the Centre d'Etudes et Recherches de Charbonnages de France (CERCHAR) research organization--is a small, quiet, lightweight unit which samples at a flow rate of 10 L/min. It is a three-stage sampler, using two stages to remove nonrespirable dust particles and one stage to collect the respirable fraction. Airflow through the sampler is induced by the third stage, which is a rotating collector cup that contains a fine grade sponge. Laboratory tests were conducted in a dust chamber using aerosols of Arizona road dust, coal dust and silica dust. Aerosol concentrations measured with the CIP 10 were compared to those measured with the coal mine dust personal sampler unit used in the United States. The results of this study showed that aerosol concentrations measured with the CIP 10 were linearly related to those obtained with the coal mine dust personal sampler. The relationship, however, was dependent on preselector configuration and aerosol characteristics. The collection medium allows some small particles (less than 3 microns) to pass through the sampler without being collected. As much as 13% (by weight) of the aerosol that penetrated through the preseparating stages was exhausted from the sampler.

  2. Determining particle size distributions in the inhalable size range for wood dust collected by air samplers.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Muller, Brian S; Bartolucci, Al

    2002-10-01

    In the absence of methods for determining particle size distributions in the inhalable size range with good discrimination, the samples collected by personal air sampling devices can only be characterized by their total mass. This parameter gives no information regarding the size distribution of the aerosol or the size-selection characteristics of different samplers in field use conditions. A method is described where the particles collected by a sampler are removed, suspended, and re-deposited on a mixed cellulose-ester filter, and examined by optical microscopy to determine particle aerodynamic diameters. This method is particularly appropriate to wood dust particles which are generally large and close to rectangular prisms in shape. Over 200 wood dust samples have been collected in three different wood-products industries, using the traditional closed-face polystyrene/acrylonitrile cassette, the Institute of Occupational Medicine inhalable sampler, and the Button sampler developed by the University of Cincinnati. A portion of these samples has been analyzed to determine the limitations of this method. Extensive quality control measures are being developed to improve the robustness of the procedure, and preliminary results suggest the method has an accuracy similar to that required of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods. The results should provide valuable insights into the collection characteristics of the samplers and the impact of these characteristics on comparison of sampler results to present and potential future limit values. The NIOSH Deep South Education and Research Center has a focus on research into hazards of the forestry and associated wood-products industry, and it is hoped to expand this activity in the future.

  3. Quartz measurement in coal dust with high-flow rate samplers: laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taekhee; Lee, Eun Gyung; Kim, Seung Won; Chisholm, William P; Kashon, Michael; Harper, Martin

    2012-05-01

    A laboratory study was performed to measure quartz in coal dust using high-flow rate samplers (CIP10-R, GK2.69 cyclone, and FSP10 cyclone) and low-flow rate samplers [10-mm nylon and Higgins-Dewell type (BGI4L) cyclones] and to determine whether an increased mass collection from high-flow rate samplers would affect the subsequent quartz measurement by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analytical procedures. Two different sizes of coal dusts, mass median aerodynamic diameter 4.48 μm (Coal Dust A) and 2.33 μm (Coal Dust B), were aerosolized in a calm air chamber. The mass of coal dust collected by the samplers was measured gravimetrically, while the mass of quartz collected by the samplers was determined by FTIR (NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method 7603) and XRD (NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method 7500) after one of two different indirect preparations. Comparisons between high-flow rate samplers and low-flow rate samplers were made by calculating mass concentration ratios of coal dusts, net mass ratios of coal dusts, and quartz net mass. Mass concentrations of coal dust from the FSP10 cyclone were significantly higher than those from other samplers and mass concentrations of coal dust from 10-mm nylon cyclone were significantly lower than those from other samplers, while the CIP10-R, GK2.69, and BGI4L samplers did not show significant difference in the comparison of mass concentration of coal dusts. The BGI4L cyclone showed larger mass concentration of ∼9% compared to the 10-mm nylon cyclone. All cyclones provided dust mass concentrations that can be used in complying with the International Standard Organization standard for the determination of respirable dust concentration. The amount of coal dust collected from the high-flow rate samplers was found to be higher with a factor of 2-8 compared to the low-flow rate samplers but not in direct proportion of increased flow rates. The high-flow rate samplers collected more quartz compared to

  4. [Assessment of measured respirable dust sampler penetration and the sampling convention for work environment measurement].

    PubMed

    Myojo, Toshihiko

    2005-11-01

    The relationship between dust size and penetration for a static horizontal elutriator (Sibata C-30) was measured in calm air. The elutriator as a low-volume air sampler is widely used as a dust size classifier in work environment measurements. The actual penetrations were compared with the theoretical models of the sampler and with sampling convention for respirable dust in work environment measurement. The sampling convention was recently introduced into the Japanese standard for work environment measurement and is based on the ISO 7708 respirable dust convention. The bias of sampled masses from the respirable dust was calculated for two flow rates of the sampler, i.e., 50% cut sizes of 4 microm and 5 microm, from measured penetration curves. The bias of the sampler was overestimated in the 5 microm, 50% cut condition and underestimated in the 4 microm, 50% cut condition for most workplace sampling situations.

  5. 30 CFR 74.5 - Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units. 74.5 Section 74.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES Approval Requirements for Coal Mine...

  6. 30 CFR 74.5 - Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units. 74.5 Section 74.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES Approval Requirements for Coal Mine...

  7. Wood dust sampling: field evaluation of personal samplers when large particles are present.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Slaven, James E; Lee, Kiyoung; Rando, Roy J; Maples, Elizabeth H

    2011-03-01

    Recent recommendations for wood dust sampling include sampling according to the inhalable convention of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7708 (1995) Air quality--particle size fraction definitions for health-related sampling. However, a specific sampling device is not mandated, and while several samplers have laboratory performance approaching theoretical for an 'inhalable' sampler, the best choice of sampler for wood dust is not clear. A side-by-side field study was considered the most practical test of samplers as laboratory performance tests consider overall performance based on a wider range of particle sizes than are commonly encountered in the wood products industry. Seven companies in the wood products industry of the Southeast USA (MS, KY, AL, and WV) participated in this study. The products included hardwood flooring, engineered hardwood flooring, door skins, shutter blinds, kitchen cabinets, plywood, and veneer. The samplers selected were 37-mm closed-face cassette with ACCU-CAP™, Button, CIP10-I, GSP, and Institute of Occupational Medicine. Approximately 30 of each possible pairwise combination of samplers were collected as personal sample sets. Paired samplers of the same type were used to calculate environmental variance that was then used to determine the number of pairs of samples necessary to detect any difference at a specified level of confidence. Total valid sample number was 888 (444 valid pairs). The mass concentration of wood dust ranged from 0.02 to 195 mg m(-3). Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) and arithmetic mean (standard deviation) of wood dust were 0.98 mg m(-3) (3.06) and 2.12 mg m(-3) (7.74), respectively. One percent of the samples exceeded 15 mg m(-3), 6% exceeded 5 mg m(-3), and 48% exceeded 1 mg m(-3). The number of collected pairs is generally appropriate to detect a 35% difference when outliers (negative mass loadings) are removed. Statistical evaluation of the nonsimilar sampler pair results

  8. Field and wind tunnel comparison of four aerosol samplers using agricultural dusts.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stephen J; Nakatsu, Jason; Tillery, Marvin; Keefe, Thomas; Mehaffy, John; Thorne, Peter S; Donham, Kelley; Nonnenmann, Matthew; Golla, Vijay; O'shaughnessy, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    Occupational lung disease is a significant problem among agricultural workers exposed to organic dusts. Measurements of exposure in agricultural environments in the USA have traditionally been conducted using 37-mm closed-face cassettes (CFCs) and respirable Cyclones. Inhalable aerosol samplers offer significant improvement for dose estimation studies to reduce respiratory disease. The goals of this study were to determine correction factors between the inhalable samplers (IOM and Button) and the CFC and Cyclone for dusts sampled in livestock buildings and to determine whether these factors vary among livestock types. Determination of these correction factors will allow comparison between inhalable measurements and historical measurements. Ten sets of samples were collected in swine, chicken, turkey, and dairy facilities in both Colorado and Iowa. Pairs of each sampling device were attached to the front and back of a rotating mannequin. Laboratory studies using a still-air chamber and a wind tunnel provided information regarding the effect of wind speed on sampler performance. Overall, the IOM had the lowest coefficient of variation (best precision) and was least affected by changes in wind speed. The performance of the Button was negatively impacted in poultry environments where larger (feather) particulates clogged the holes in the initial screen. The CFC/IOM ratios are important for comparisons between newer and older studies. Wind speed and dust type were both important factors affecting ratios. Based on the field studies (Table 6), a ratio of 0.56 is suggested as a conversion factor for the CFC/IOM (average for all environments because of no statistical difference). Suggested conversion factors for the Button/IOM are swine (0.57), chicken (0.80), turkey (0.53), and dairy (0.67). Any attempt to apply a conversion factor between the Cyclone and inhalable samplers is not recommended.

  9. Field and Wind Tunnel Comparison of Four Aerosol Samplers Using Agricultural Dusts

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Stephen J.; Nakatsu, Jason; Tillery, Marvin; Keefe, Thomas; Mehaffy, John; Thorne, Peter S.; Donham, Kelley; Nonnenmann, Matthew; Golla, Vijay; O'shaughnessy, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Occupational lung disease is a significant problem among agricultural workers exposed to organic dusts. Measurements of exposure in agricultural environments in the USA have traditionally been conducted using 37-mm closed-face cassettes (CFCs) and respirable Cyclones. Inhalable aerosol samplers offer significant improvement for dose estimation studies to reduce respiratory disease. The goals of this study were to determine correction factors between the inhalable samplers (IOM and Button) and the CFC and Cyclone for dusts sampled in livestock buildings and to determine whether these factors vary among livestock types. Determination of these correction factors will allow comparison between inhalable measurements and historical measurements. Ten sets of samples were collected in swine, chicken, turkey, and dairy facilities in both Colorado and Iowa. Pairs of each sampling device were attached to the front and back of a rotating mannequin. Laboratory studies using a still-air chamber and a wind tunnel provided information regarding the effect of wind speed on sampler performance. Overall, the IOM had the lowest coefficient of variation (best precision) and was least affected by changes in wind speed. The performance of the Button was negatively impacted in poultry environments where larger (feather) particulates clogged the holes in the initial screen. The CFC/IOM ratios are important for comparisons between newer and older studies. Wind speed and dust type were both important factors affecting ratios. Based on the field studies (Table 6), a ratio of 0.56 is suggested as a conversion factor for the CFC/IOM (average for all environments because of no statistical difference). Suggested conversion factors for the Button/IOM are swine (0.57), chicken (0.80), turkey (0.53), and dairy (0.67). Any attempt to apply a conversion factor between the Cyclone and inhalable samplers is not recommended. PMID:19443852

  10. Quartz in coal dust deposited on internal surface of respirable size selective samplers.

    PubMed

    Soo, Jhy-Charm; Lee, Taekhee; Kashon, Michael; Kusti, Mohannad; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to quantify quartz mass in coal dust deposited on the internal cassette surface of respirable size-selective samplers. Coal dust was collected with four different respirable size-selective samplers (10 mm Dorr-Oliver nylon [Sensidyne, St. Petersburg, Fla.], SKC Aluminum [SKC Inc., Eighty Four, Pa.], BGI4L [BGI USA Inc., Waltham, Mass.], and GK2.69 cyclones [BGI USA Inc.]) with two different cassette types (polystyrene and static-dissipative polypropylene cassettes). The coal dust was aerosolized in a calm air chamber by using a fluidized bed aerosol generator without neutralization under the assumption that the procedure is similar to field sampling conditions. The mass of coal dust was measured gravimetrically and quartz mass was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Manual of Analytical Methods, Method 7603. The mass fractions of the total quartz sample on the internal cassette surface are significantly different between polystyrene and static-dissipative cassettes for all cyclones (p < 0.05). No consistent relationship between quartz mass on cassette internal surface and coal dust filter mass was observed. The BGI4L cyclone showed a higher (but not significantly) and the GK2.69 cyclone showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) internal surface deposit quartz mass fraction for polystyrene cassettes compared to other cyclones. This study confirms previous observations that the interior surface deposits in polystyrene cassettes attached to cyclone pre-selectors can be a substantial part of the sample, and therefore need to be included in any analysis for accurate exposure assessment. On the other hand, the research presented here supports the position that the internal surface deposits in static-dissipative cassettes used with size-selective cyclones are negligible and that it is only necessary to analyze the filter catch.

  11. Evaluating the applicability of a semi-continuous aerosol sampler to measure Asian dust particles.

    PubMed

    Son, Se-Chang; Park, Seung Shik

    2015-03-01

    A Korean prototype semi-continuous aerosol sampler was used to measure Asian dust particles. During two dust-storm periods, concentrations of crustal and trace elements were significantly enriched. Dust storms are one of the most significant natural sources of air pollution in East Asia. The present study aimed to evaluate use of a Korean semi-continuous aerosol sampler (K-SAS) in observation of mineral dust particles during dust storm events. Aerosol slurry samples were collected at 60 min intervals using the K-SAS, which was operated at a sampling flow rate of 16.7 L min(-1) through a PM10 cyclone inlet. The measurements were made during dust storm events at an urban site, Gwangju in Korea, between April 30 and May 5, 2011. The K-SAS uses particle growth technology as a means of collecting atmospheric aerosol particles. Concentrations of 16 elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, K, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ti, V, Ni, Co, As, and Se) were determined off-line in the collected slurry samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The sampling periods were classified into two types, based on the source regions of the dust storms and the transport pathways of the air masses reaching the sampling site. The first period "A" was associated with dust particles with high Ca content, originating from the Gobi desert regions of northern China and southern Mongolia. The second period "B" was associated with dust particles with low Ca content, originating from northeastern Chinese sandy deserts. The results from the K-SAS indicated noticeable differences in concentrations of crustal and trace elements in the two sampling periods, as a result of differences in the source regions of the dust storms, the air mass transport pathways, and the impact of smoke from forest fires. The concentrations of the crustal (Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe) and anthropogenic trace elements (Vi, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb) were enriched significantly during the two dust storm periods. However, the

  12. Field-testing a new directional passive air sampler for fugitive dust in a complex industrial source environment.

    PubMed

    Ferranti, E J S; Fryer, M; Sweetman, A J; Garcia, M A Solera; Timmis, R J

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the sources of fugitive dusts on complex industrial sites is essential for regulation and effective dust management. This study applied two recently-patented Directional Passive Air Samplers (DPAS) to measure the fugitive dust contribution from a Metal Recovery Plant (MRP) located on the periphery of a major steelworks site. The DPAS can collect separate samples for winds from different directions (12 × 30° sectors), and the collected dust may be quantified using several different measurement methods. The DPASs were located up and down-prevailing-wind of the MRP processing area to (i) identify and measure the contribution made by the MRP processing operation; (ii) monitor this contribution during the processing of a particularly dusty material; and (iii) detect any changes to this contribution following new dust-control measures. Sampling took place over a 12-month period and the amount of dust was quantified using photographic, magnetic and mass-loading measurement methods. The DPASs are able to effectively resolve the incoming dust signal from the wider steelworks complex, and also different sources of fugitive dust from the MRP processing area. There was no confirmable increase in the dust contribution from the MRP during the processing of a particularly dusty material, but dust levels significantly reduced following the introduction of new dust-control measures. This research was undertaken in a regulatory context, and the results provide a unique evidence-base for current and future operational or regulatory decisions.

  13. Comparison of particle size distribution data obtained with cascade impaction samplers and from Voulter counter analysis of total dust samples

    SciTech Connect

    Treaftis, H.N.; Kacsmar, P.; Suppers, K., Tomb, T.F.

    1986-02-01

    The paper discusses the results of a study conducted to evaluate two different methods used to measure the particle size distribution of an aerosol. Comparative samples were collected in the laboratory with Sierra's Models 260 and 298 cascade impaction samplers and a sampler consisting of a pump and filter using coal and limestone aerosols of varying particle size distributions. The particle size distributions determined from each of the impaction samples were compared to each other as well as to the particle size distribution determined from data obtained from a Coulter Counter analysis of the total dust sample collected on the filter. The results of the laboratory study are discussed and compared to a limited amount of similar data obtained from samples collected with the impaction samplers in underground coal mines.

  14. Performance of High-Flow-Rate Samplers for Respirable Crystalline Silica Measurement Under Field Conditions: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Marie A.; Healy, Catherine B.; Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Restoration stone work regularly involves work with high-silica-content materials (e.g., sandstone), but low-silica-content materials (<2 % quartz) such as limestone and lime mortar are also used. A combination of short sample duration and low silica content makes the quantification of worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) difficult. This problem will be further compounded by the introduction of lower occupational exposure standards for RCS. The objective of this work was to determine whether higher-flow samplers might be an effective tool in characterizing lower RCS concentrations. A short study was performed to evaluate the performance of three high-flow samplers (FSP10, CIP10-R, and GK2.69) using side-by-side sampling with low-flow samplers (SIMPEDS and 10-mm nylon cyclones) for RCS exposure measurement at a restoration stonemasonry field site. A total of 19 side-by-side sample replicates for each high-flow and low-flow sampler pair were collected from work tasks involving limestone and sandstone. RESULTS. Most of the RCS (quartz) masses collected with the high-flow-rate samplers were above the limit of detection (62 % to 84 %) relative to the low-flow-rate samplers (58 % to 78 %). The average of the respirable mass concentration ratios for CIP10-R/SIMPEDS, GK2.69/10-mm nylon, FSP10/SIMPEDS, and FSP10/10-mm nylon pairs and the range of the quartz concentration ratios for the CIP10-R/SIMPEDS, CIP10-R/10-mm nylon, GK2.69/10-mm nylon, FSP10/SIMPEDS, and FSP10/10-mm nylon pairs included unity with an average close to unity, indicating no likely difference between the reported values for each sampler. Workers reported problems related to the weight of the sampling pumps for the high-flow-rate samplers. Respirable mass concentration data suggest that the high-flow-rate samplers evaluated would be appropriate for sampling respirable dust concentrations during restoration stone work. Results from the comparison of average quartz concentration ratios

  15. Use of dust fall filters as passive samplers for metal concentrations in air for communities near contaminated mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Beamer, P I; Sugeng, A J; Kelly, M D; Lothrop, N; Klimecki, W; Wilkinson, S T; Loh, M

    2014-05-01

    Mine tailings are a source of metal exposures in many rural communities. Multiple air samples are necessary to assess the extent of exposures and factors contributing to these exposures. However, air sampling equipment is costly and requires trained personnel to obtain measurements, limiting the number of samples that can be collected. Simple, low-cost methods are needed to allow for increased sample collection. The objective of our study was to assess if dust fall filters can serve as passive air samplers and be used to characterize potential exposures in a community near contaminated mine tailings. We placed filters in cylinders, concurrently with active indoor air samplers, in 10 occupied homes. We calculated an estimated flow rate by dividing the mass on each dust fall filter by the bulk air concentration and the sampling duration. The mean estimated flow rate for dust fall filters was significantly different during sampling periods with precipitation. The estimated flow rate was used to estimate metal concentration in the air of these homes, as well as in 31 additional homes in another rural community impacted by contaminated mine tailings. The estimated air concentrations had a significant linear association with the measured air concentrations for beryllium, manganese and arsenic (p < 0.05), whose primary source in indoor air is resuspended soil from outdoors. In the second rural community, our estimated metal concentrations in air were comparable to active air sampling measurements taken previously. This passive air sampler is a simple low-cost method to assess potential exposures near contaminated mining sites.

  16. Collection efficiencies of high flow rate personal respirable samplers when measuring Arizona road dust and analysis of quartz by x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Peter; Lee, Taekhee; Thorpe, Andrew; Roberts, Paul; Frost, Gillian; Harper, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) causes silicosis and is also considered a cause of cancer. To meet emerging needs for precise measurements of RCS, from shorter sampling periods (<4 h) and lower air concentrations, collaborative work was done to assess the differences between personal respirable samplers at higher flow rates. The performance of FSP10, GK2.69, and CIP 10 R samplers were compared with that of the Safety In Mines Personal Dust Sampler (SIMPEDS) sampler as a reference, which is commonly used in the UK for the measurement of RCS. In addition, the performance of the FSP10 and GK 2.69 samplers were compared; at the nominal flow rates recommended by the manufacturers of 10 and 4.2 l · min(-1) and with flow rates proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of 11.2 and 4.4 l · min(-1). Samplers were exposed to aerosols of ultrafine and medium grades of Arizona road dust (ARD) generated in a calm air chamber. All analyses for RCS in this study were performed at the Health and Safety Laboratory. The difference in flow rates for the GK2.69 is small and does not result in a substantial difference in collection efficiency for the dusts tested, while the performance of the FSP10 at 11.2 l · min(-1) was more comparable with samples from the SIMPEDS. Conversely, the GK2.69 collected proportionately more crystalline silica in the respirable dust than other samplers, which then produced RCS results most comparable with the SIMPEDS. The CIP 10 R collected less ultrafine ARD than other samplers, as might be expected based on earlier performance evaluations. The higher flow rate for the FSP10 should be an added advantage for task-specific sampling or when measuring air concentrations less than current occupational exposure limits.

  17. 30 CFR 74.5 - Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 74.5 Section 74.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES Approval Requirements for Coal Mine Dust... Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and Human Services, shall conduct tests...

  18. 30 CFR 74.5 - Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 74.5 Section 74.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES Approval Requirements for Coal Mine Dust... Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and Human Services, shall conduct tests...

  19. 30 CFR 74.5 - Tests of coal mine dust personal sampler units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 74.5 Section 74.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES Approval Requirements for Coal Mine Dust... Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and Human Services, shall conduct tests...

  20. Preliminary analysis of cometary dust trails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, M. V.; Hunten, D. M.; Low, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Dust trails are observed in the orbits of some short-period comets. Large particles, having diameters in the submillimeter range and larger, are ejected by these comets into orbits close to that of the parent comet. By considering the effects of ejection and radiation forces, the spread of particles of different diameters along a parent comet's orbit, both ahead and behind the comet in mean anomaly were modeled. Using this model, the ages of the dust trail material associated with P/Tempel 2, P/Gunn, P/Encke, and P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 were estimated; they are found to consist of emissions occurring over a minimum of one to a few orbital periods. It also becomes possible to constrain the particle diameters in a trail segment forward of a comet's orbital position. Such a forward extension is observed in the Tempel 2 and Gunn dust trails, but not the Encke and S-W 1 dust trails. Relative particle sizes among these trails are discussed. The Tempel 2 dust trail is found to have an excess of particles with diameters greater than 1 mm.

  1. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}}), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A {sub O} = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f{sub H{sub 2}} can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A {sub O}-D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A {sub O} is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H{sub 2} and stellar masses and higher f{sub H{sub 2}}. Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z.

  2. Behaviordelia Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Richard W., Ed.

    Behaviordelia Sampler is based on the same principle as a candy sampler or record sampler. It compiles excerpts from a variety of texts which Behaviordelia is now publishing. It is intended as a supplementary book of readings for courses in psychology and related fields and also as a catalog of their materials. Much of the sampler uses a comic…

  3. Validation of a new method for directional dust monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datson, Hugh; Hall, David; Birch, Bill

    2012-04-01

    Fugitive dust from industrial sites is problematic to quantify and can be associated with nuisance complaints. Despite significant limitations, the British Standard 1747 Part 5 (BS 1747:5) directional dust gauge remains preferred for monitoring fugitive dust flux on site boundaries. An alternative directional dust gauge, DustScan, was developed at the University of Leeds, UK, and uses cylindrical adhesive 'sticky pads' to sample dust in flux. With this sampler, dust capture is measured as soiling, as opposed to mass, with the BS 1747:5 sampler. An Aerosol Test Tunnel (ATT) was developed to evaluate the performance of the DustScan sampler. Atmospheric turbulence was simulated using a coarse grid generator and maintained as rough-wall channel flow by roughness elements fixed to its floor and roof of the ATT. A polydisperse test dust was introduced upwind to form a cloud at the sampler. DustScan directional dust gauges were repeatedly exposed to aliquots of test dust at wind speeds of 2-10 m s-1 in the ATT. Dust soiling levels either side of the gauge's centreline (relative to the incident direction) were compared to demonstrate that the DustScan sampler is directionally accurate. Much lower proportions of antithetic sampling (dust catch on the downwind face of the gauge) occurred than for the BS 1747:5 sampler. The sampled particle size selection was related to the ratio of particle stop distance (s) to sampler diameter (D) ratio, s/D, showing that the particle size cut point fell with increasing wind speeds. A preliminary assessment of collection efficiency (CE) was made by determining dust mass after controlled ignition of selected sticky pad samples. Although dust saturation of the sticky pads can lead to sample loss over prolonged exposure periods, this loss is relatively small over the 1-2 week intervals established as appropriate for the DustScan sampler. This need for shorter sampling intervals is considered to outweigh the convenience of the longer exposure

  4. A comparison of two laboratories for the measurement of wood dust using button sampler and diffuse reflection infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).

    PubMed

    Chirila, Madalina M; Sarkisian, Khachatur; Andrew, Michael E; Kwon, Cheol-Woong; Rando, Roy J; Harper, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The current measurement method for occupational exposure to wood dust is by gravimetric analysis and is thus non-specific. In this work, diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for the analysis of only the wood component of dust was further evaluated by analysis of the same samples between two laboratories. Field samples were collected from six wood product factories using 25-mm glass fiber filters with the Button aerosol sampler. Gravimetric mass was determined in one laboratory by weighing the filters before and after aerosol collection. Diffuse reflection mid-infrared spectra were obtained from the wood dust on the filter which is placed on a motorized stage inside the spectrometer. The metric used for the DRIFTS analysis was the intensity of the carbonyl band in cellulose and hemicellulose at ~1735 cm(-1). Calibration curves were constructed separately in both laboratories using the same sets of prepared filters from the inhalable sampling fraction of red oak, southern yellow pine, and western red cedar in the range of 0.125-4 mg of wood dust. Using the same procedure in both laboratories to build the calibration curve and analyze the field samples, 62.3% of the samples measured within 25% of the average result with a mean difference between the laboratories of 18.5%. Some observations are included as to how the calibration and analysis can be improved. In particular, determining the wood type on each sample to allow matching to the most appropriate calibration increases the apparent proportion of wood dust in the sample and this likely provides more realistic DRIFTS results.

  5. Comparison of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust samples collected from used vacuum cleaner bags and from a high-volume surface sampler.

    PubMed

    Colt, J S

    1998-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the association between residential pesticide use and cancer risk require an assessment of past pesticide exposures. Pesticide levels in carpet dust are believed to reflect long-term pesticide use. Recent epidemiologic studies have found collection of dust samples using the high-volume surface sampler (HVS3) to be expensive and cumbersome. We compared the levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust obtained from subjects' personal used vacuum cleaner bags to that collected by the HVS3 to see if this simpler method could replace the HVS3 in epidemiologic research. We visited the homes of 15 subjects, took the used bags from their vacuums, and collected carpet dust samples with the HVS3. The samples were analyzed for 42 target compounds: 26 pesticides, 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using GC/MS in selected ion monitoring mode. The two methods agreed in detecting the presence of the target compounds between 80% and 100% of the time. Neither sampling method was consistently more sensitive. The median target compound concentrations were similar, and a paired t-test showed no significant differences. For many compounds, the concentrations of compounds in the HVS3 samples were higher than those in the used bag samples at the upper end of the concentration ranges. However, the Spearman rank correlation coefficients were 0.85 or higher for most compounds, indicating that homes would be ranked similarly using both methods. Overall, there appears to be no clear difference in the quality of the pesticide, PAH, or PCB concentration data for the two dust collection methods.

  6. Comparison of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust samples collected from used vacuum cleaner bags and from a high-volume surface sampler.

    PubMed Central

    Colt, J S

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the association between residential pesticide use and cancer risk require an assessment of past pesticide exposures. Pesticide levels in carpet dust are believed to reflect long-term pesticide use. Recent epidemiologic studies have found collection of dust samples using the high-volume surface sampler (HVS3) to be expensive and cumbersome. We compared the levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust obtained from subjects' personal used vacuum cleaner bags to that collected by the HVS3 to see if this simpler method could replace the HVS3 in epidemiologic research. We visited the homes of 15 subjects, took the used bags from their vacuums, and collected carpet dust samples with the HVS3. The samples were analyzed for 42 target compounds: 26 pesticides, 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using GC/MS in selected ion monitoring mode. The two methods agreed in detecting the presence of the target compounds between 80% and 100% of the time. Neither sampling method was consistently more sensitive. The median target compound concentrations were similar, and a paired t-test showed no significant differences. For many compounds, the concentrations of compounds in the HVS3 samples were higher than those in the used bag samples at the upper end of the concentration ranges. However, the Spearman rank correlation coefficients were 0.85 or higher for most compounds, indicating that homes would be ranked similarly using both methods. Overall, there appears to be no clear difference in the quality of the pesticide, PAH, or PCB concentration data for the two dust collection methods. Images Figure 1 PMID:9799187

  7. Preliminary Results from Ultrahigh Vacuum and Cryogenic Dust Adhesion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perko, H. A.; Green, J. R.; Nelson, J. D.

    2000-10-01

    Dust adhesion is a major factor affecting the design and performance of spacecraft for planetary surface and comet exploration. Dust adhesion is caused by a combination of electrostatic and van der Waals forces. A theoretical model has been constructed that indicates the magnitude of these forces is a function of pressure, temperature, and ambient gas composition1. A laboratory investigation is in progress to verify the theoretical model over a broad range of planetary environments from Earth-like to comet-like conditions. The experiments being conducted consist of depositing dust onto various spacecraft materials under different environmental conditions and attempting to mechanically shake the dust off to obtain a measure of adhesion. More specifically, the materials being used include pairs of aluminum, glass, stainless steel, and black painted specimens. One of the specimens from each pair is mounted to an electrometer and is used to witness accumulated dust mass and charge. The other specimen from each pair is affixed to a vibrating cantilever beam used to induce dust separation. Dust is sifted onto the specimens in the vacuum and cryogenic chamber. Dust adhesion force is determined from the amplitude and frequency of beam vibrations and the mass and size of dust particles. In order to enable comparison with the theoretical model, which assumes ideal spheres resting on a surface, the predominant dust material being used consists of 50 to 70 μ m glass spheres. This size glass sphere exerts an adhesive force that is capable of being measured by the experimental apparatus. The intent of this research is to increase our fundamental understanding of the effects of environmental conditions on dust adhesion and improve our ability to develop suitable dust mitigation techniques for the exploration of comet, asteroid and planetary surfaces. 1 Perko, H.A. (1998) ``Surface Cleanliness Based Dust Adhesion Model" Proceedings of the International Conference on Construction

  8. Household vacuum cleaners vs. the high-volume surface sampler for collection of carpet dust samples in epidemiologic studies of children

    PubMed Central

    Colt, Joanne S; Gunier, Robert B; Metayer, Catherine; Nishioka, Marcia G; Bell, Erin M; Reynolds, Peggy; Buffler, Patricia A; Ward, Mary H

    2008-01-01

    Background Levels of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust can be useful indicators of exposure in epidemiologic studies, particularly for young children who are in frequent contact with carpets. The high-volume surface sampler (HVS3) is often used to collect dust samples in the room in which the child had spent the most time. This method can be expensive and cumbersome, and it has been suggested that an easier method would be to remove dust that had already been collected with the household vacuum cleaner. However, the household vacuum integrates exposures over multiple rooms, some of which are not relevant to the child's exposure, and differences in vacuuming equipment and practices could affect the chemical concentration data. Here, we compare levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust from household vacuums to that collected using the HVS3. Methods Both methods were used in 45 homes in California. HVS3 samples were collected in one room, while the household vacuum had typically been used throughout the home. The samples were analyzed for 64 organic compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), using GC/MS in multiple ion monitoring mode; and for nine metals using conventional microwave-assisted acid digestion combined with ICP/MS. Results The methods agreed in detecting the presence of the compounds 77% to 100% of the time (median 95%). For compounds with less than 100% agreement, neither method was consistently more sensitive than the other. Median concentrations were similar for most analytes, and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.60 or higher except for allethrin (0.15) and malathion (0.24), which were detected infrequently, and benzo(k)fluoranthene (0.55), benzo(a)pyrene (0.55), PCB 105 (0.54), PCB 118 (0.54), and PCB 138 (0.58). Assuming that the HVS3 method is the "gold standard," the extent to which the household vacuum cleaner method yields relative risk estimates closer to

  9. A preliminary investigation into the use of Red Pine (Pinus Resinosa) tree cores as historic passive samplers of POPs in outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The suitability of Red Pine trees (Pinus Resinosa) to act as passive samplers for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in outdoor air and to provide historic information on air concentration trends was demonstrated in this preliminary investigation. Red Pine tree cores from Toronto, Canada, were tested for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), alkylated-PAHs, nitro and oxy-PAHs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (novel BFRs). The PBDEs and novel BFRs demonstrated a similar relative contribution in cores representing 30 years of tree growth, to that reported in contemporary air samples. Analysis of tree ring segments of 5-15 years resulted in detectable concentrations of some PAHs and alk-PAHs and demonstrated a transition from petrogenic sources to pyrogenic sources over the period 1960-2015. A simple uptake model was developed that treats the tree rings as linear-phase passive air samplers. The bark infiltration factor, IFBARK, is a key parameter of the model that reflects the permeability of the bark to allow chemicals to be transferred from ambient air to the outer tree layer (cambium). An IFBARK of about 2% was derived for the Red Pine trees based on tree core and air monitoring data.

  10. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination II: Curating the Interstellar Dust Collector, Picokeystones, and Sources of Impact Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Gainsforth, Zack; Butterworth, Anna L.; Bastien, Ronald K.; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Bechtel, Hans A.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the inherent difficulties that arise during "ground truth" characterization of the Stardust interstellar dust collector. The challenge of identifying contemporary interstellar dust impact tracks in aerogel is described within the context of background spacecraft secondaries and possible interplanetary dust particles and beta-meteoroids. In addition, the extraction of microscopic dust embedded in aerogel is technically challenging. Specifically, we provide a detailed description of the sample preparation techniques developed to address the unique goals and restrictions of the Interstellar Preliminary Exam. These sample preparation requirements and the scarcity of candidate interstellar impact tracks exacerbate the difficulties. We also illustrate the role of initial optical imaging with critically important examples, and summarize the overall processing of the collection to date.

  11. Geomorphology of MODIS-Visible Dust Plumes in the Chihuahuan Desert - Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, T. E.; Mbuh, M. J.; Dominguez, M. A.; Lee, J. A.; Baddock, M. C.; Lee, C. E.; Whitehead, S. C.; Rivera Rivera, N. I.; Peinado, P.

    2009-12-01

    We identified 28 days since 2001 when blowing dust impacted El Paso, Texas and dust plumes were visible on NASA MODIS Terra/Aqua satellite images in the surrounding Chihuahuan Desert. Initiation points of >270 individual plumes were located on the MODIS images. Land use/land cover for each point was determined by field work, aerial photography, and/or soil/geological maps, and points were assigned to the geomorphic classes proposed by Bullard et al. (this session). Although dust plume identification is subjective (weak plumes, plumes obscured by clouds, and plumes occurring when the satellites are not overhead will be missed), these data provide preliminary information on the relationship between geomorphology and the initiation of major dust storms in the Chihuahuan Desert. Ephemeral lakes and alluvial low-relief non-incised lands are roughly equal producers of satellite-visible dust plumes in the Chihuahuan Desert. Anthropogenic modification of alluvial floodplains for cropping (primarily in the Casas Grandes and Del Carmen river basins) impacts dust generation, since about 2/3 of alluvial low-relief sites show evidence of agriculture. These agricultural fields are generally fallow during the November- April windy season. Not including agricultural lands, playas represent ~2x the number of sources as low-relief alluvial deposits. Aeolian sand deposits (predominantly coppice dunes and sand sheets overlaying alluvial or lacustrine sediments) account for about 1/7 of the points. These sands may act as erosional agents, providing saltating particles for sandblasting and bombardment of other sediments exposed nearby. Edges of ephemeral lakes are proportionally important sources (~10% of the points), likely due to the convergence of saltating sand, fine lacustrine sediments, and low roughness lengths of playa surfaces. Alluvial fans and alluvial uplands are minor dust sources compared to their overall prevalence in the region. Gobi/gibber/stony deposits are known dust

  12. DUSTER (Dust in the Upper Stratosphere Tracking Experiment and Retrieval) . PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciucci, A.; Palumbo, P.; Brunetto, R.; Della Corte, V.; De Angelis, S.; Rotundi, A.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Zona, E.; Colangeli, L.; Esposito, F.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Mennella, V.; Inarta, S.; Peterzen, S.; Masi, S.; Ibba, R.

    The DUSTER project is aimed at uncontaminated collection and retrieval of stratospheric solid aerosol particles, in the submicron/micron range. The Earth stratosphere contains extraterrestrial dust, dust from natural and anthropogenic activities. Our main target is the study of dust originated in our planetary system. We present here the preliminary results of the June 2008 campaign. After recovery, collected particles were identified by comparing FESEM images taken on the pre-flight collector with those obtained on the post-fight collector. Possible contamination was monitored by FESEM observation of the 'Blank'. Morphology, dimension, and composition of collected particles were defined using a FESEM equipped with an EDX system. The collected sample are in the size range 0.5-150 μm, ≈30% of aerosols sizing 0.5-1.5 μm, a range poorly studied so far.

  13. Laboratory study of selected personal inhalable aerosol samplers.

    PubMed

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Wrobel, Richard; Kauffer, Edmond; Witschger, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    Assessment of inhalable dust exposure requires reliable sampling methods in order to measure airborne inhalable particles' concentrations. Many inhalable aerosol samplers can be used but their performances widely vary and remain unknown in some cases. The sampling performance of inhalable samplers is strongly dependent on particle size and ambient air velocity. Five inhalable aerosol samplers have been studied in two laboratory wind tunnels using polydisperse glass-beads' test aerosol. Samplers tested were IOM sampler (UK), two versions of CIP 10-I sampler, v1 and v2 (F), 37-mm closed face cassette sampler (USA), 37-mm cassette fitted up with an ACCU-CAP insert (USA), and Button sampler (USA). Particle size-dependent sampling efficiencies were measured in a horizontal wind tunnel under a 1 m s(-1) wind velocity and in a vertical tunnel under calm air, using a specific method with Coulter(R) counter particle size number distribution determinations. Compared with CEN-ISO-ACGIH sampling criteria for inhalable dust, the experimental results show fairly high sampling efficiency for the IOM and CIP 10-I v2 samplers and slightly lower efficiencies for the Button and CIP 10-I v1 samplers. The closed face cassette (4-mm orifice) produced the poorest performances of all the tested samplers. This can be improved by using the ACCU-CAP internal capsule, which prevents inner wall losses inside the cassette. Significant differences between moving air and calm air sampling efficiency were observed for all the studied samplers.

  14. Sludge sampler

    DOEpatents

    Ward, R.C.

    1981-06-25

    The disclosure relates to a sludge sampler comprising an elongated generally cylindrical housing containing a baffle containing an aperture. Connected to the aperture is a flexible tubing having a valve for maintaining and releasing pressure in the lower end of the housing and exiting the upper end of the housing. The lower end of the housing contains a ball check valve maintained in closed position by pressure. When the lower end of the device contacts the sludge bed, the pressure valve is opened, enabling sludge to enter the lower end of the housing. After the sample is collected the valve is closed. An upsetting pin opens the valve to empty a sludge sample after the sample is removed from the fluid.

  15. Sludge sampler

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Ralph C.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a sludge sampler comprising an elongated generally cylindrical housing containing a baffle containing an aperture. Connected to the aperture is a flexible tubing having a valve for maintaining and releasing pressure in the lower end of the housing and exiting the upper end of the housing. The lower end of the housing contains a ball check valve maintained in closed position by pressure. When the lower end of the device contacts the sludge bed, the pressure valve is opened, enabling sludge to enter the lower end of the housing. After the sample is collected the valve is closed. An upsetting pin opens the valve to empty a sludge sample after the sample is removed from the fluid.

  16. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination III: Infrared spectroscopic analysis of interstellar dust candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, Hans A.; Flynn, George J.; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, SašA.; Bastien, Ron K.; Bassim, Nabil; Borg, Janet; Brenker, Frank E.; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Burchell, Mark; Burghammer, Manfred; Butterworth, Anna L.; Changela, Hitesh; Cloetens, Peter; Davis, Andrew M.; Doll, Ryan; Floss, Christine; Frank, David R.; Gainsforth, Zack; Grün, Eberhard; Heck, Philipp R.; Hillier, Jon K.; Hoppe, Peter; Hudson, Bruce; Huth, Joachim; Hvide, Brit; Kearsley, Anton; King, Ashley J.; Lai, Barry; Leitner, Jan; Lemelle, Laurence; Leroux, Hugues; Leonard, Ariel; Lettieri, Robert; Marchant, William; Nittler, Larry R.; Ogliore, Ryan; Ong, Wei Ja; Postberg, Frank; Price, Mark C.; Sandford, Scott A.; Tresseras, Juan-Angel Sans; Schmitz, Sylvia; Schoonjans, Tom; Silversmit, Geert; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Solé, Vicente A.; Srama, Ralf; Stadermann, Frank J.; Stephan, Thomas; Sterken, Veerle J.; Stodolna, Julien; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sutton, Steven; Trieloff, Mario; Tsou, Peter; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; von Korff, Joshua; Westphal, Andrew J.; Wordsworth, Naomi; Zevin, Daniel; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-09-01

    Under the auspices of the Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination, picokeystones extracted from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector were examined with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy to establish whether they contained extraterrestrial organic material. The picokeystones were found to be contaminated with varying concentrations and speciation of organics in the native aerogel, which hindered the search for organics in the interstellar dust candidates. Furthermore, examination of the picokeystones prior to and post X-ray microprobe analyses yielded evidence of beam damage in the form of organic deposition or modification, particularly with hard X-ray synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. From these results, it is clear that considerable care must be taken to interpret any organics that might be in interstellar dust particles. For the interstellar candidates examined thus far, however, there is no clear evidence of extraterrestrial organics associated with the track and/or terminal particles. However, we detected organic matter associated with the terminal particle in Track 37, likely a secondary impact from the Al-deck of the sample return capsule, demonstrating the ability of synchrotron FTIR to detect organic matter in small particles within picokeystones from the Stardust interstellar dust collector.

  17. Development of Preliminary Remediation Goals for Indoor Dust at the Colonie FUSRAP Site - 12273

    SciTech Connect

    Watters, David J.; Opdyke, Clifford P.; Moore, James T.

    2012-07-01

    The Colonie FUSRAP Site is located in the Town of Colonie, Albany County, New York. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is currently addressing environmental contamination associated with the Site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) process as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Soil remediation activities have been substantially completed at the Colonie FUSRAP Site and its vicinity properties under the FUSRAP. A study unrelated to FUSRAP was recently performed by an independent party to establish the distribution of DU contamination in various media in the environs of the Site. As part of this study, dust samples were collected in residencies and businesses in the immediate vicinity of the Site. These samples were collected in non-living areas such as basement window sills and garages. Many of these samples tested positive for DU. An assessment was performed to establish preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) for indoor dust in non-living areas of residential homes and businesses in the vicinity of the Site. The results of this assessment provide estimates of dose-based, carcinogenic risk-based, and noncarcinogenic-based PRGs derived from a hypothetical exposure scenario with reasonable levels of conservatism. Ultimately, the PRGs will be compared to results of dust sampling and analyses in residences and businesses in proximity of the Site to determine whether a response action is appropriate. This assessment estimates PRGs for DU contaminated dust in non-living areas of residences in the vicinity of the Colonie FUSRAP site based on a reasonably conservative exposure scenario. Estimated PRGs based on residential receptors are considered to be conservatively representative of workers in nearby businesses based on the considerably longer exposure duration of residents relative to workers. This assessment provides reasonably conservative estimates of PRGs for DU contaminated dust in non

  18. Fugitive Dust Emissions: Development of a Real-time Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Figure 2. (a) a top view of the LPI without the top lid, (b) side view with 1 cm slit , (c) Clarkson’s aerosol wind tunnel,. (d) preliminary results of...Agency FD – fugitive dust Hivol – high volume sampler LPI – large particle inlet LPI-FM-100 – large particle inlet coupled with a FM-100 instrument...laboratory, wind-tunnel and field experiments and compare its performance to traditional, commercially available samplers . The LPI-FM-100 should be able to

  19. Site comparison of selected aerosol samplers in the wood industry.

    PubMed

    Kauffer, Edmond; Wrobel, Richard; Görner, Peter; Rott, Christelle; Grzebyk, Michel; Simon, Xavier; Witschger, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    Several samplers (IOM, CIP 10-I v1, ACCU-CAP, and Button) were evaluated at various wood industry companies using the CALTOOL system. The results obtained show that compared to the CALTOOL mouth, which can be considered to be representative of the exposure of a person placed at the same location under the same experimental conditions, the concentrations measured by the IOM, CIP 10-I v1, and ACCU-CAP samplers are not significantly different (respectively, 1.12, 0.94, and 0.80 compared to 1.00), the Button sampler (0.86) being close to the ACCU-CAP sampler. Comparisons of dust concentrations measured using both a closed-face cassette (CFC) and one of the above samplers were also made. In all, 235 sampling pairs (sampler + CFC) taken at six companies provided us with a comparison of concentrations measured using IOM, CIP 10-I v1, ACCU-CAP, and Button samplers with concentrations measured using a CFC. All the studied samplers collected systematically more dust than the CFC (2.0 times more for the IOM sampler, 1.84 times more for the CIP 10-I v1 sampler, 1.68 times more for the ACCU-CAP sampler, and 1.46 times more for the Button sampler). The literature most frequently compares the IOM sampler with the CFC: published results generally show larger differences compared with the CFC than those found during our research. There are several explanations for this difference, one of which involves CFC orientation during sampling. It has been shown that concentrations measured using a CFC are dependent on its orientation. Different CFC positions from one sampling session to another are therefore likely to cause differences during CFC-IOM sampler comparisons.

  20. Design and validation of a passive deposition sampler.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Stephanie A; Yu, Chang-Ho; Mainelis, Gediminas; Chen, Lung Chi; Weisel, Clifford P; Lioy, Paul J

    2012-09-01

    A new, passive particle deposition air sampler, called the Einstein-Lioy Deposition Sampler (ELDS), has been developed to fill a gap in passive sampling for near-field particle emissions. The sampler can be configured in several ways: with a protective hood for outdoor sampling, without a protective hood, and as a dust plate. In addition, there is an XRF-ready option that allows for direct sampling onto a filter-mounted XRF cartridge which can be used in conjunction with all configurations. A wind tunnel was designed and constructed to test the performance of different sampler configurations using a test dust with a known particle size distribution. The sampler configurations were also tested versus each other to evaluate whether or not the protective hood would affect the collected particle size distribution. A field study was conducted to test the sampler under actual environmental conditions and to evaluate its ability to collect samples for chemical analysis. Individual experiments for each configuration demonstrated precision of the sampler. The field experiment demonstrated the ability of the sampler to both collect mass and allow for the measurement of an environmental contaminant i.e. Cr(6+). The ELDS was demonstrated to be statistically not different for Hooded and Non-Hooded models, compared to each other and the test dust; thus, it can be used indoors and outdoors in a variety of configurations to suit the user's needs.

  1. Design and validation of a passive deposition sampler

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang-Ho; Mainelis, Gediminas; Chen, Lung Chi; Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    A new, passive particle deposition air sampler, called the Einstein–Lioy Deposition Sampler (ELDS), has been developed to fill a gap in passive sampling for near-field particle emissions. The sampler can be configured in several ways: with a protective hood for outdoor sampling, without a protective hood, and as a dust plate. In addition, there is an XRF-ready option that allows for direct sampling onto a filter-mounted XRF cartridge which can be used in conjunction with all configurations. A wind tunnel was designed and constructed to test the performance of different sampler configurations using a test dust with a known particle size distribution. The sampler configurations were also tested versus each other to evaluate whether or not the protective hood would affect the collected particle size distribution. A field study was conducted to test the sampler under actual environmental conditions and to evaluate its ability to collect samples for chemical analysis. Individual experiments for each configuration demonstrated precision of the sampler. The field experiment demonstrated the ability of the sampler to both collect mass and allow for the measurement of an environmental contaminant i.e. Cr6+. The ELDS was demonstrated to be statistically not different for Hooded and Non-Hooded models, compared to each other and the test dust; thus, it can be used indoors and outdoors in a variety of configurations to suit the user's needs. PMID:22820464

  2. A Preliminary Analysis of Cometary Dust in the 1st Year of the NEOWISE Restarted Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Bauer, James M.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph R.; Nugent, Carolyn R.; Sonnett, Sarah; Cutri, Roc; Stevenson, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    As some of the most pristine objects in the Solar System, comets present an opportunity to understand the mechanics and chemistry of the planetary formation era. By studying a large number of comets in different dynamical classes, we can better understand the ensemble properties of the different classes, and begin to characterize the evolution that may have occurred since their formation.In late 2013, the WISE spacecraft was brought out of hibernation, and renamed NEOWISE with a renewed goal to detect and characterize small bodies using its 3.4 and 4.6-micron bands. Survey operations began in December 2013 [1], and the first year of data was publicly released in March 2015 [2]. During the course of the first year of the restarted mission, over 60 comets were serendipitously detected by NEOWISE at heliocentric distances between ~1-7.5 AU, including 3 newly discovered comets. The comets detected were split roughly evenly between short-period and long-period comets, and many displayed extended dust structures. Several of the comets were detected multiple times over the course of the year, and some were also seen during the prime WISE mission. This long baseline allows for an intriguing analysis of long-term cometary behavior.NEOWISE has sampled the behavior of these comet dynamical sub-types over the thermal infrared and near-infrared reflected-light regimes, where effects from different particle size ranges of dust may dominate the morphologies and observed fluxes. We present a preliminary analysis of the cometary dust seen in these data, including dynamical models to constrain the sizes and ages of the dust particles. We discuss how these results compare to those obtained for the comets seen in the 12 and 22-micron WISE prime mission data.Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science

  3. Solid sorbent air sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-04-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  4. Solid sorbent air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galen, T. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  5. Preliminary Testing of a Pressurized Space Suit and Candidate Fabrics Under Simulated Mars Dust Storm and Dust Devil Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; deLeon, Pablo G.; Lee, Pascal; McCue, Terry R.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Thrasher, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009 YAP Films (Toronto) received permission from all entities involved to create a documentary film illustrating what it might be like to be on the surface of Mars in a space suit during a dust storm or in a dust devil. The science consultants on this project utilized this opportunity to collect data which could be helpful to assess the durability of current space suit construction to the Martian environment. The NDX?1 prototype planetary space suit developed at the University of North Dakota was used in this study. The suit features a hard upper torso garment, and a soft lower torso and boots assembly. On top of that, a nylon-cotton outer layer is used to protect the suit from dust. Unmanned tests were carried out in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at the NASA Ames Research Center, with the suit pressurized to 10 kPa gauge. These tests blasted the space suit upper torso and helmet, and a collection of nine candidate outer layer fabrics, with wind-borne simulant for five different 10 minute tests under both terrestrial and Martian surface pressures. The infiltration of the dust through the outer fabric of the space suit was photographically documented. The nine fabric samples were analyzed under light and electron microscopes for abrasion damage. Manned tests were carried out at Showbiz Studios (Van Nuys, CA) with the pressure maintained at 20?2 kPa gauge. A large fan-created vortex lifted Martian dust simulant (Fullers Earth or JSC Mars?1) off of the floor, and one of the authors (Lee) wearing the NDX?1 space suit walked through it to judge both subjectively and objectively how the suit performed under these conditions. Both the procedures to scale the tests to Martian conditions and the results of the infiltration and abrasion studies will be discussed.

  6. Preliminary Testing of a Pressurized Space Suit and Candidate Fabrics Under Simulated Mars Dust Storm and Dust Devil Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; deLeon, Pablo G.; Lee, Pascal; McCue, Terry R.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Thrasher, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    In August 2009 YAP Films (Toronto) received permission from all entities involved to create a documentary film illustrating what it might be like to be on the surface of Mars in a space suit during a dust storm or in a dust devil. The science consultants on this project utilized this opportunity to collect data which could be helpful to assess the durability of current space suit construction to the Martian environment. The NDX-1 prototype planetary space suit developed at the University of North Dakota was used in this study. The suit features a hard upper torso garment, and a soft lower torso and boots assembly. On top of that, a nylon-cotton outer layer is used to protect the suit from dust. Unmanned tests were carried out in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel (MARSWIT) at the NASA Ames Research Center, with the suit pressurized to 10 kPa gauge. These tests blasted the space suit upper torso and helmet, and a collection of nine candidate outer layer fabrics, with wind-borne simulant for five different 10 min tests under both terrestrial and Martian surface pressures. The infiltration of the dust through the outer fabric of the space suit was photographically documented. The nine fabric samples were analyzed under light and electron microscopes for abrasion damage. Manned tests were carried out at Showbiz Studios (Van Nuys, California) with the pressure maintained at 20 2 kPa gauge. A large fan-created vortex lifted Martian dust simulant (Fullers Earth or JSC Mars-1) off of the floor, and one of the authors (Lee) wearing the NDX-1 space suit walked through it to judge both subjectively and objectively how the suit performed under these conditions. Both the procedures to scale the tests to Martian conditions and the results of the infiltration and abrasion studies will be discussed.

  7. Environmental Curiosity Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stehney, Virginia A.

    The Sampler is designed to stimulate teachers, parents, students, and groups to look at various types of open spaces and facilities as resources for environmental study. Written for use with children, but adaptable to older groups, the Sampler tries to engage the feelings as well as intellects of its users in the process of inquiry. It locates…

  8. The southern Kalahari as a dust source: preliminary results from the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kalahari encompasses one of the largest drylands in the Southern Hemisphere and it is a potentially large source of atmospheric dust in its relatively low-dust region. The severe iron depletion in the southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, the ocean basins that receive much of the Kalahari dust, ...

  9. A preliminary assessment of beryllium dust oxidation during a wet bypass accident in a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Brad J. Merrill; Richard L. Moore; J. Phillip Sharp

    2008-09-01

    A beryllium dust oxidation model has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the Fusion Safety Program (FSP) for the MELCOR safety computer code. The purpose of this model is to investigate hydrogen production from beryllium dust layers on hot surfaces inside a fusion reactor vacuum vessel (VV) during in-vessel loss-of-cooling accidents (LOCAs). This beryllium dust oxidation model accounts for the diffusion of steam into a beryllium dust layer, the oxidation of the dust particles inside this layer based on the beryllium-steam oxidation equations developed at the INL, and the effective thermal conductivity of this beryllium dust layer. This paper details this oxidation model and presents the results of the application of this model to a wet bypass accident scenario in the ITER device.

  10. Preliminary Results from Downhole Osmotic Samplers in a Gas Tracer Injection Experiment in the Upper Oceanic Crust on the Eastern Flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M. T.; Clark, J. F.; Neira, N. M.; Fisher, A. T.; Wheat, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    We present results from a gas tracer injection experiment in the ocean crust on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an area of hydrothermal circulation. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer was injected in Hole 1362B in 2010, during IODP Expedition 327. Fluid samples were subsequently collected from a borehole observatory (CORK) installed in this hole and similar CORKs in three additional holes (1026B, 1362A, and 1301A), located 300 to 500 m away. This array of holes is located on 3.5 My old seafloor, as an array oriented subparallel to the Endeavor Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Borehole fluid samples were collected in copper coils using osmotic pumps. In addition to pumps at seafloor wellheads, downhole sampling pumps were installed in the perforated casing in the upper ocean crust. These downhole samplers were intended to produce a high-resolution continuous record of tracer concentrations, including records from the first year after tracer injection in Holes 1362A and 1362B. In contrast, wellhead samplers were not installed on these CORKs holes until 2011, and wellhead records from all CORKs have a record gap of up to one year, because of a delayed expedition in 2012. The downhole samples were recovered with the submersible Alvin in August 2014. SF6 concentrations in downhole samples recovered in 2014 are generally consistent with data obtained from wellhead samples. Of particular interest are the results from Hole 1362B, where a seafloor valve was opened and closed during various recovery expeditions. High resolution tracer curves produced from the 1362B downhole samples confirm that these operations produced an SF6 breakthrough curve corresponding to a classic push-pull test used to evaluate contaminant field locations in terrestrial setting. Complete analyses of downhole samples from these CORKs are expected to produce high-resolution breakthrough curves that will allow more precise analysis and modeling of hydrothermal flow in the study area.

  11. The Gibbs Centroid Sampler.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William A; Newberg, Lee A; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann; Lawrence, Charles E

    2007-07-01

    The Gibbs Centroid Sampler is a software package designed for locating conserved elements in biopolymer sequences. The Gibbs Centroid Sampler reports a centroid alignment, i.e. an alignment that has the minimum total distance to the set of samples chosen from the a posteriori probability distribution of transcription factor binding-site alignments. In so doing, it garners information from the full ensemble of solutions, rather than only the single most probable point that is the target of many motif-finding algorithms, including its predecessor, the Gibbs Recursive Sampler. Centroid estimators have been shown to yield substantial improvements, in both sensitivity and positive predictive values, to the prediction of RNA secondary structure and motif finding. The Gibbs Centroid Sampler, along with interactive tutorials, an online user manual, and information on downloading the software, is available at: http://bayesweb.wadsworth.org/gibbs/gibbs.html.

  12. Variable percentage sampler

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jr., William H.

    1976-01-01

    A remotely operable sampler is provided for obtaining variable percentage samples of nuclear fuel particles and the like for analyses. The sampler has a rotating cup for a sample collection chamber designed so that the effective size of the sample inlet opening to the cup varies with rotational speed. Samples of a desired size are withdrawn from a flowing stream of particles without a deterrent to the flow of remaining particles.

  13. Preliminary analysis of graphite dust releasing behavior in accident for HTR

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, W.; Yang, X. Y.; Yu, S. Y.; Wang, J.

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of the graphite dust is important to the safety of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors. This study investigated the flow of graphite dust in helium mainstream. The analysis of the stresses acting on the graphite dust indicated that gas drag played the absolute leading role. Based on the understanding of the importance of gas drag, an experimental system is set up for the research of dust releasing behavior in accident. Air driven by centrifugal fan is used as the working fluid instead of helium because helium is expensive, easy to leak which make it difficult to seal. The graphite particles, with the size distribution same as in HTR, are added to the experiment loop. The graphite dust releasing behavior at the loss-of-coolant accident will be investigated by a sonic nozzle. (authors)

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Health Risks of Potentially Toxic Elements in Settled Dust over Beijing Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Dejun; Zhan, Changlin; Yang, Guanglin; Liu, Xingqi; Yang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    To examine levels, health risks, sources, and spatial distributions of potentially toxic elements in settled dust over Beijing urban area, 62 samples were collected mostly from residential building outdoor surfaces, and their <63 μm fractions were measured for 12 potentially toxic elements. The results show that V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Ba in dust are from predominantly natural sources, whereas Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb mostly originate from anthropogenic sources. Exposure to these elements in dust has significant non-cancer risks to children but insignificant to adults. Cancer risks of Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact are below the threshold of 10−6–10−4 but As via dust ingestion shows a tolerable risk. The non-cancer risks to children are contributed mainly (75%) by As, Pb, and Sb, and dominantly (92%) via dust ingestion, with relatively higher risks mainly occurring in the eastern and northeastern Beijing urban areas. Although Cd, Zn, and Cu in dust are heavily affected by anthropogenic sources, their health risks are insignificant. Source appointments suggest that coal burning emissions, the dominant source of As, are likely the largest contributors to the health risk, and traffic-related and industrial emissions are also important because they contribute most of the Pb and Sb in dust. PMID:27187427

  15. Silica Measurement with High Flow Rate Respirable Size Selective Samplers: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Kashon, Michael; Lee, Larry A.; Healy, Catherine B.; Coggins, Marie A.; Susi, Pam; O’Brien, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    High and low flow rate respirable size selective samplers including the CIP10-R (10 l min−1), FSP10 (11.2 l min−1), GK2.69 (4.4 l min−1), 10-mm nylon (1.7 l min−1), and Higgins-Dewell type (2.2 l min−1) were compared via side-by-side sampling in workplaces for respirable crystalline silica measurement. Sampling was conducted at eight different occupational sites in the USA and five different stonemasonry sites in Ireland. A total of 536 (268 pairs) personal samples and 55 area samples were collected. Gravimetric analysis was used to determine respirable dust mass and X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine quartz mass. Ratios of respirable dust mass concentration, quartz mass concentration, respirable dust mass, and quartz mass from high and low flow rate samplers were compared. In general, samplers did not show significant differences greater than 30% in respirable dust mass concentration and quartz mass concentration when outliers (ratio <0.3 or >3.0) were removed from the analysis. The frequency of samples above the limit of detection and limit of quantification of quartz was significantly higher for the CIP10-R and FSP10 samplers compared to low flow rate samplers, while the GK2.69 cyclone did not show significant difference from low flow rate samplers. High flow rate samplers collected significantly more respirable dust and quartz than low flow rate samplers as expected indicating that utilizing high flow rate samplers might improve precision in quartz measurement. Although the samplers did not show significant differences in respirable dust and quartz concentrations, other practical attributes might make them more or less suitable for personal sampling. PMID:26608952

  16. Silica Measurement with High Flow Rate Respirable Size Selective Samplers: A Field Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Kashon, Michael; Lee, Larry A; Healy, Catherine B; Coggins, Marie A; Susi, Pam; O'Brien, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    High and low flow rate respirable size selective samplers including the CIP10-R (10 l min(-1)), FSP10 (11.2 l min(-1)), GK2.69 (4.4 l min(-1)), 10-mm nylon (1.7 l min(-1)), and Higgins-Dewell type (2.2 l min(-1)) were compared via side-by-side sampling in workplaces for respirable crystalline silica measurement. Sampling was conducted at eight different occupational sites in the USA and five different stonemasonry sites in Ireland. A total of 536 (268 pairs) personal samples and 55 area samples were collected. Gravimetric analysis was used to determine respirable dust mass and X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine quartz mass. Ratios of respirable dust mass concentration, quartz mass concentration, respirable dust mass, and quartz mass from high and low flow rate samplers were compared. In general, samplers did not show significant differences greater than 30% in respirable dust mass concentration and quartz mass concentration when outliers (ratio <0.3 or >3.0) were removed from the analysis. The frequency of samples above the limit of detection and limit of quantification of quartz was significantly higher for the CIP10-R and FSP10 samplers compared to low flow rate samplers, while the GK2.69 cyclone did not show significant difference from low flow rate samplers. High flow rate samplers collected significantly more respirable dust and quartz than low flow rate samplers as expected indicating that utilizing high flow rate samplers might improve precision in quartz measurement. Although the samplers did not show significant differences in respirable dust and quartz concentrations, other practical attributes might make them more or less suitable for personal sampling.

  17. Test report -- Prototype core sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Linschooten, C.G.

    1995-01-17

    The purpose of this test is to determine the adequacy of the prototype sampler, provided to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by DOE-RL. The sampler was fabricated for DOE-RL by the Concord Company by request of DOE-RL. This prototype sampler was introduced as a technology that can be easily deployed (similar to the current auger system) and will reliably collect representative samples. The sampler is similar to the Universal Sampler i.e., smooth core barrel and piston with an O-ring seal, but lacks a rotary valve near the throat of the sampler. This makes the sampler inappropriate for liquid sampling, but reduces the outside diameter of the sampler considerably, which should improve sample recovery. Recovery testing was performed with the supplied sampler in three different consistencies of Kaolin sludge simulants.

  18. Evaluation of particulate air samplers for airborne aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Silas, J.C.; Harrison, M.A.; Carpenter, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Five air samplers (Millipore, all-glass impinger, centrifugal, Andersen, and absorbent cotton) were evaluated for their ability to collect airborne grain particles contaminated with aflatoxin B1. Corn dust containing 100 micrograms aflatoxin B1/g was aerosolized within a containment system. Each device sampled 100 I air, thus exchanging the air in the chamber two times. Aflatoxin B1 was extracted from all sampling matrices and was detected and quantitated with thin-layer chromatography and scanning fluorodensitometry. The highest efficiency was obtained with the Millipore sampler, while the efficiencies of the centrifugal and the cotton samplers were almost identical. Efficiency of an Andersen was less, with no toxin recovered from an all-glass impinger. Measurement of particle size was accomplished with the Andersen sampler.

  19. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  20. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  1. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  2. Preliminary results of dust emission data from Yellow Lake Playa, West Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the relationship between groundwater and dust emission rates at Yellow Lake, a saline “wet” playa in West Texas with a long history of wind erosion. Deflation of the playa surface has generated lunettes composed of silt-clay aggregates and gypsum. Saltation sensors indicate that most...

  3. Preliminary report on the results of the second phase of a round- robin endotoxin assay study using cotton dust.

    PubMed

    Chun, D T; Chew, V; Bartlett, K; Gordon, T; Jacobs, R R; Larsson, B M; Larsson, L; Lewis, D M; Liesivuori, J; Michel, O; Milton, D K; Rylander, R; Thorne, P S; White, E M; Brown, M E

    2000-01-01

    In an on-going endotoxin assay study, a two-part interlaboratory endotoxin assay study has been completed. The purpose of the study was to compare the variation in assay results between different laboratories, and, if the variation was high, to see if a common protocol would reduce the variation. In both parts of the study, membrane filters laden with the same approximate amount and type of cotton dust were sent for analysis to laboratories that "routinely" perform endotoxin analyses. First, each of these laboratories performed the analysis using the methodology common to its laboratory. In the second part of the study, membrane filters with cotton dust were again sent to the same laboratories where the analyses were performed as before but with a common extraction protocol. The preliminary results from the first phase of the study have been collected and showed that intra-laboratory variations were small, but large and significant interlaboratory variation was observed. The results were reported elsewhere. The preliminary results from the second part of the study consisting of the data currently collected are presented here. Again, intra-laboratory variations were small, but, also again, large and significant inter-laboratory variation was observed. However, in this part of the study, the range between the highest and lowest average results was narrower than in the first part of the study. Influence of the assay kit type was examined. The variation within assay kit type was small but significant differences in results were observed between assay kit types. The findings suggest that endotoxin concentration in samples can be ranked within laboratories, but not necessarily between laboratories. However, some of the variation between laboratories has been reduced by a common extraction protocol which suggests the possibility of further standardization that may lead to better comparability between laboratories.

  4. Cometary dust streams at Mars: Preliminary predictions from meteor streams at Earth and from periodic comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Treiman, Jay S.

    2000-10-01

    Spacecraft are at risk from impacts of interplanetary dust particles, and those particles are concentrated near the orbits of comets and of meteor streams, which are (for the most part) inferred to derive from comets. To explore potential dangers to Mars-orbiting spacecraft from cometary dust, we screened known comets and meteor showers for those with orbits that closely approach Mars' orbit. Of the 135 periodic Mars-crossing comets, the orbits of 50 approach within 0.1 AU of Mars and so are potential current sources of dust and meteor streams at Mars. Among these, 1P/Halley, 9P/Tempel 1, and 1991D1 P/Hermann seem the most promising targets for further study. Past orbits of all Mars-crossing comets might also yield meteor streams at Mars. Among known meteor streams, the daytime Arietids and Geminids could produce significant numbers of meteors at Mars but have not produced (so far) meteor storms that could present significant dangers to spacecraft.

  5. Preliminary Results from an Assimilation of Saharan Dust Using TOMS Radiances and the GOCART Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, C. J.; daSilva, Arlindo; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    At NASA Goddard we are developing a global aerosol data assimilation system that combines advances in remote sensing and modeling of atmospheric aerosols. The goal is to provide high resolution, 3-D aerosol distributions to the research community. Our first step is to develop a simple assimilation system for Saharan mineral aerosol. The Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation model (GOCART) provides accurate 3-D mineral aerosol size distributions. Surface mobilization, wet and dry deposition, convective and long-range transport are all driven by assimilated fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, GEOS-DAS. Our version of GOCART transports sizes from .08-10 microns and only simulates Saharan dust. We draw the assimilation to two observables in this study: the TOMS aerosol index (Al) which is directly related to the ratio of the 340 and 380 radiances and the 380 radiance alone. The forward model that simulates the observables requires the aerosol optical thickness, the single scattering albedo and the height of the aerosol layer from the GOCART fields. The forward model also requires a refractive index for the dust. We test three index values to see which best fits the TOMS observables. These are 1) for Saharan dust reported by Patterson, 2) for a mixture of Saharan dust and a highly reflective material (sea salt or sulfate) and 3) for pure illite. The assimilation works best assuming either pure illite or the dust mixture. Our assimilation cycle first determines values of the aerosol index (Al) and the radiance at 380 nm based on the GOCART aerosol fields. Differences between the observed and GOCART model calculated Al and 380 nm radiance are first analyzed horizontally using the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). A quasi-Newton iteration is then performed to produce analyzed 3D aerosol fields according to parameterized background and observation error covariances. We only assimilate observations into the the GOCART

  6. Pharmaceutical dust exposure at pharmacies using automatic dispensing machines: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Durgam, Srinivas; Mueller, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Automatic dispensing machines (ADMs) used in pharmacies concentrate and dispense large volumes of pharmaceuticals, including uncoated tablets that can shed dust. We evaluated 43 employees' exposures to pharmaceutical dust at three pharmacies where ADMs were used. We used an optical particle counter to identify tasks that generated pharmaceutical dust. We collected 72 inhalable dust air samples in or near the employees' breathing zones. In addition to gravimetric analysis, our contract laboratory used internal methods involving liquid chromatography to analyze these samples for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and/or lactose, an inactive filler in tablets. We had to choose samples for these additional analyses because many methods used different extraction solvents. We selected 57 samples for analysis of lactose. We used real-time particle monitoring results, observations, and information from employees on the dustiness of pharmaceuticals to select 28 samples (including 13 samples that were analyzed for lactose) for analysis of specific APIs. Pharmaceutical dust was generated during a variety of tasks like emptying and refilling of ADM canisters. Using compressed air to clean canisters and manual count machines produced the overall highest peak number concentrations (19,000-580,000 particles/L) of smallest particles (count median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2 μm). Employees who refilled, cleaned, or repaired ADM canisters, or hand filled prescriptions were exposed to higher median air concentrations of lactose (5.0-12 μg/m(3)) than employees who did other jobs (0.04-1.3 μg/m(3)), such as administrative/office work, labeling/packaging, and verifying prescriptions. We detected 10 APIs in air, including lisinopril, a drug prescribed for high blood pressure, levothyroxine, a drug prescribed for hypothyroidism, and methotrexate, a hazardous drug prescribed for cancer and other disorders. Three air concentrations of lisinopril (1.8-2.7 μg/m(3)) exceeded the lower

  7. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, Peter M.; Reger, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  8. High speed transient sampler

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-11-28

    A high speed sampler comprises a meandered sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a straight strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates along the transmission lines. The sampling gates comprise a four terminal diode bridge having a first strobe resistor connected from a first terminal of the bridge to the positive strobe line, a second strobe resistor coupled from the third terminal of the bridge to the negative strobe line, a tap connected to the second terminal of the bridge and to the sample transmission line, and a sample holding capacitor connected to the fourth terminal of the bridge. The resistance of the first and second strobe resistors is much higher than the signal transmission line impedance in the preferred system. This results in a sampling gate which applies a very small load on the sample transmission line and on the strobe generator. The sample holding capacitor is implemented using a smaller capacitor and a larger capacitor isolated from the smaller capacitor by resistance. The high speed sampler of the present invention is also characterized by other optimizations, including transmission line tap compensation, stepped impedance strobe line, a multi-layer physical layout, and unique strobe generator design. A plurality of banks of such samplers are controlled for concatenated or interleaved sample intervals to achieve long sample lengths or short sample spacing. 17 figs.

  9. High speed transient sampler

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A high speed sampler comprises a meandered sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a straight strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates along the transmission lines. The sampling gates comprise a four terminal diode bridge having a first strobe resistor connected from a first terminal of the bridge to the positive strobe line, a second strobe resistor coupled from the third terminal of the bridge to the negative strobe line, a tap connected to the second terminal of the bridge and to the sample transmission line, and a sample holding capacitor connected to the fourth terminal of the bridge. The resistance of the first and second strobe resistors is much higher than the signal transmission line impedance in the preferred system. This results in a sampling gate which applies a very small load on the sample transmission line and on the strobe generator. The sample holding capacitor is implemented using a smaller capacitor and a larger capacitor isolated from the smaller capacitor by resistance. The high speed sampler of the present invention is also characterized by other optimizations, including transmission line tap compensation, stepped impedance strobe line, a multi-layer physical layout, and unique strobe generator design. A plurality of banks of such samplers are controlled for concatenated or interleaved sample intervals to achieve long sample lengths or short sample spacing.

  10. Air sampler performance at Ford's farm range

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Johnston, J.W.

    1984-07-01

    An air-sampling system for a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator firing range was tested. The objectives of the test were: to determine the bias between the monitoring readings and DU concentrations; and to determine if the target bay real-time monitor (RTM) tracks the decaying dust concentration. The test procedure was to operate total and respirable airborne particle samplers adjacent to the target bay monitors. A series of air samples was also taken after the test firings adjacent to the target bay RTM. Exhaust particle samples were analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta and uranium content. The target bay RTM correlated well (0.977) with the sequential samples. Average concentration from the RTM did not correlate with either the long-term total or respirable sampler DU concentrations. The monitor used to confirm a low dust concentration when the door is open correlated well (0.810) with the RTM; the other bay monitor did not. In the ventilation discharge, the long-term average monitor readings did not correlate with DU concentrations, probably due to levels near lower detection limits. Smearable surface-contamination samples showed highest contamination on the equipment, gravel floor and exhaust intake. The location air-intake contamination increased over the first 3 rounds. Contamination was reduced by a low-pressure water spray washdown to about the same concentration as often the second round, then remained at about twice the level. 2 references, 18 figures, 16 tables. (MF)

  11. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination V: XRF analyses of interstellar dust candidates at ESRF ID13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenker, Frank E.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Vincze, Laszlo; Burghammer, Manfred; Schmitz, Sylvia; Schoonjans, Tom; Silversmit, Geert; Vekemans, Bart; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, SašA.; Bastien, Ron K.; Bassim, Nabil; Bechtel, Hans A.; Borg, Janet; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Burchell, Mark; Butterworth, Anna L.; Changela, Hitesh; Cloetens, Peter; Davis, Andrew M.; Doll, Ryan; Floss, Christine; Flynn, George; Fougeray, Patrick; Frank, David R.; Gainsforth, Zack; Grün, Eberhard; Heck, Philipp R.; Hillier, Jon K.; Hoppe, Peter; Hudson, Bruce; Huth, Joachim; Hvide, Brit; Kearsley, Anton; King, Ashley J.; Lai, Barry; Leitner, Jan; Lemelle, Laurence; Leroux, Hugues; Leonard, Ariel; Lettieri, Robert; Marchant, William; Nittler, Larry R.; Ogliore, Ryan; Ong, Wei Ja; Postberg, Frank; Price, Mark C.; Sandford, Scott A.; Tresseras, Juan-Angel Sans; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Solé, Vicente A.; Srama, Ralf; Stadermann, Frank; Stephan, Thomas; Sterken, Veerle J.; Stodolna, Julien; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sutton, Steven; Trieloff, Mario; Tsou, Peter; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Korff, Joshua; Wordsworth, Naomi; Zevin, Daniel; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-09-01

    Here, we report analyses by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy of the elemental composition of eight candidate impact features extracted from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). Six of the features were unambiguous tracks, and two were crater-like features. Five of the tracks are so-called "midnight" tracks—that is, they had trajectories consistent with an origin either in the interstellar dust stream or as secondaries from impacts on the Sample Return Capsule (SRC). In a companion paper reporting synchrotron X-ray diffraction analyses of ISPE candidates, we show that two of these particles contain natural crystalline materials: the terminal particle of track 30 contains olivine and spinel, and the terminal particle of track 34 contains olivine. Here, we show that the terminal particle of track 30, Orion, shows elemental abundances, normalized to Fe, that are close to CI values, and a complex, fine-grained structure. The terminal particle of track 34, Hylabrook, shows abundances that deviate strongly from CI, but shows little fine structure and is nearly homogenous. The terminal particles of other midnight tracks, 29 and 37, had heavy element abundances below detection threshold. A third, track 28, showed a composition inconsistent with an extraterrestrial origin, but also inconsistent with known spacecraft materials. A sixth track, with a trajectory consistent with secondary ejecta from an impact on one of the spacecraft solar panels, contains abundant Ce and Zn. This is consistent with the known composition of the glass covering the solar panel. Neither crater-like feature is likely to be associated with extraterrestrial materials. We also analyzed blank aerogel samples to characterize background and variability between aerogel tiles. We found significant differences in contamination levels and compositions, emphasizing the need for local background subtraction for accurate quantification.

  12. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination V: XRF Analyses of Interstellar Dust Candidates at ESRF ID13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenker, Frank E.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Flynn, George J.; Gainsforth, Zack; Allen, Carlton C.; Sanford, Scott; Zolensky, Michael E.; Bastien, Ron K.; Frank, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report analyses by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy of the elemental composition of eight candidate impact features extracted from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). Six of the features were unambiguous tracks, and two were crater-like features. Five of the tracks are so-called midnight tracks that is, they had trajectories consistent with an origin either in the interstellar dust stream or as secondaries from impacts on the Sample Return Capsule (SRC). In a companion paper reporting synchrotron X-ray diffraction analyses of ISPE candidates, we show that two of these particles contain natural crystalline materials: the terminal particle of track 30contains olivine and spinel, and the terminal particle of track 34 contains olivine. Here, we show that the terminal particle of track 30, Orion, shows elemental abundances, normalized to Fe, that are close to CI values, and a complex, fine-grained structure. The terminal particle of track 34, Hylabrook, shows abundances that deviate strongly from CI, but shows little fine structure and is nearly homogenous. The terminal particles of other midnight tracks, 29 and 37, had heavy element abundances below detection threshold. A third, track28, showed a composition inconsistent with an extraterrestrial origin, but also inconsistent with known spacecraft materials. A sixth track, with a trajectory consistent with secondary ejecta from an impact on one of the spacecraft solar panels, contains abundant Ce and Zn. This is consistent with the known composition of the glass covering the solar panel. Neither crater-like feature is likely to be associated with extraterrestrial materials. We also analyzed blank aerogel samples to characterize background and variability between aerogel tiles. We found significant differences in contamination levels and compositions, emphasizing the need for local background subtraction for accurate quantification.

  13. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  14. Polyport atmospheric gas sampler

    DOEpatents

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic

    1995-01-01

    An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

  15. Improved high volume air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Sampler permits size separations of particles by directing sampled air through cross-sectional area sufficiently large that air velocity is reduced to point where particles or larger size will settle out. Sampler conducts air downward and through slots around periphery of unit into relatively open interior of house.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Seals for Dust Mitigation of Mechanical Components for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Handschuh, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Component tests were conducted on spring-loaded Teflon seals to determine their performance in keeping lunar simulant out of mechanical component gearbox, motor, and bearing housings. Baseline tests were run in a dry-room without simulant for 10,000 cycles to determine wear effects of the seal against either anodized aluminum or stainless steel shafts. Repeat tests were conducted using lunar simulants JSC-1A and LHT-2M. Finally, tests were conducted with and without simulant in vacuum at ambient temperature. Preliminary results indicate minimal seal and shaft wear through 10,000 cycles, and more importantly, no simulant was observed to pass through the seal-shaft interface. Future endurance tests are planned at relevant NASA Lunar Surface System architecture shaft sizes and operating conditions.

  17. Laser pulse sampler

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The Laser Pulse Sampler (LPS) measures temporal pulse shape without the problems of a streak camera. Unlike the streak camera, the laser pulse directly illuminates a camera in the LPS, i.e., no additional equipment or energy conversions are required. The LPS has several advantages over streak cameras. The dynamic range of the LPS is limited only by the range of its camera, which for a cooled camera can be as high as 16 bits, i.e., 65,536. The LPS costs less because there are fewer components, and those components can be mass produced. The LPS is easier to calibrate and maintain because there is only one energy conversion, i.e., photons to electrons, in the camera.

  18. Parallel optical sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-20

    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  19. Multispectral Resource Sampler Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The utility of the multispectral resource sampler (MRS) was examined by users in the following disciplines: agriculture, atmospheric studies, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology/oceanography, land use, and rangelands/soils. Modifications to the sensor design were recommended and the desired types of products and number of scenes required per month were indicated. The history, design, capabilities, and limitations of the MRS are discussed as well as the multilinear spectral array technology which it uses. Designed for small area inventory, the MRS can provide increased temporal, spectral, and spatial resolution, facilitate polarization measurement and atmospheric correction, and test onboard data compression techniques. The advantages of using it along with the thematic mapper are considered.

  20. Waveform Sampler CAMAC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Freytag, D.R.; Haller, G.M.; Kang, H.; Wang, J.

    1985-09-01

    A Waveform Sampler Module (WSM) for the measurement of signal shapes coming from the multi-hit drift chambers of the SLAC SLC detector is described. The module uses a high speed, high resolution analog storage device (AMU) developed in collaboration between SLAC and Stanford University. The AMU devices together with high speed TTL clocking circuitry are packaged in a hybrid which is also suitable for mounting on the detector. The module is in CAMAC format and provides eight signal channels, each recording signal amplitude versus time in 512 cells at a sampling rate of up to 360 MHz. Data are digitized by a 12-bit ADC with a 1 ..mu..s conversion time and stored in an on-board memory accessible through CAMAC.

  1. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, Otto A.; Stencel, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  2. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  3. Laser pulse sampler

    DOEpatents

    Vann, C.

    1998-03-24

    The Laser Pulse Sampler (LPS) measures temporal pulse shape without the problems of a streak camera. Unlike the streak camera, the laser pulse directly illuminates a camera in the LPS, i.e., no additional equipment or energy conversions are required. The LPS has several advantages over streak cameras. The dynamic range of the LPS is limited only by the range of its camera, which for a cooled camera can be as high as 16 bits, i.e., 65,536. The LPS costs less because there are fewer components, and those components can be mass produced. The LPS is easier to calibrate and maintain because there is only one energy conversion, i.e., photons to electrons, in the camera. 5 figs.

  4. Characterization of Anthropogenic Magnetic Particles in Asian Dust Using Magnetic Measurements and Electron Microscope Observations in Seoul, Korea: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Park, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic measurements and electron microscopic observations have been performed for Asian dust samples in Seoul, Korea, and desert-sand and loess samples in source regions in China to identify pollution of Asian dust by anthropogenic particulates during transportation. Asian dust samples in Seoul have been collected during four Asian dust events occurred in March 19 and 23, April 9, 2002, and April 12, 2003. Desert-sand samples from Khorchin, Lanzhou and Tengel regions, and loess samples from Chifeng region were also collected for comparison during March 2-9, 2003. χLF, ARM and SIRM values (magnetic concentration parameters) of Asian dust in Seoul showed 2~288, 2~61 and 2 ~251 times, respectively, higher than those of desert-sand and loess in source regions. This result indicates that Asian dust originated from source regions in China experienced significant influx of magnetic particles during transportation to Seoul, Korea. These magnetic particles added in Asian dust can be recognized as ferrimagnetic minerals (e.g., magnetite and maghemite) based on IRM acquisition patterns and S-ratio values. During the electron microscopic observations for magnetic particles in Asian dust, iron-oxide spherules accompanied by carbon were frequently observed, implying that magnetic contaminants in Asian dust might be originated from fossil fuel combustions. Air- mass backward trajectories during four Asian dust events showed that the air-mass, transporting Asian dust, was originated from the central China and passed through the industrialized eastern China and western Korea on its way to Seoul. Therefore, it can be interpreted that Asian dust in Seoul was highly polluted by anthropogenic magnetic particles originated from industrialized regions in China and Korea. The present study reveals the pollution of Asian dust by anthropogenic particulates during transportation, and suggests that magnetic measurements associated with electron microscopic observations can be used as an

  5. Dust flux in peripheral East Antarctica: preliminary results from GV7 ice core and extension of the TALDICE dust record to the sub-micron range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmonte, Barbara; Giovanni, Baccolo; Fausto, Marasci; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Valter, Maggi

    2015-04-01

    Improved understanding of climate variability over the last two millennia - that is a critical time period for investigating natural and anthropogenic climate change - is one of the key priorities of the International Partnership in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS). The Italian contribution to this concerted international effort is represented by the project IPICS-2kyr-Italy supported by PNRA. In this context, a novel intermediate core (about 250 m deep) was drilled during the 2013/14 field season at the peripheral site of GV7 in East Antarctica (70°41'S, 158°52'E; elevation 1950 m), where snow accumulation is very high (about 3 times Talos Dome, 10 times EPICA Dome C). After the ice core processing campaign at EuroCold (UNIMIB) carried out in synergy between Italy and Korea teams, measurements of dust concentration and size distribution are now in progress. A novel Coulter Counter apparatus has been set up in order to extend dust size spectra down to 600 nm. Samples are analyzed immediately after melting and also 24h later under identical conditions, for a quantitative assessment of the contribution of water-soluble microparticles (salts). Seasonal variability and trends of insoluble dust, metastable salts and size distribution of these compounds is under study. The possibility to extended the size range of dust measurements has allowed refining estimates of dust flux at Talos Dome and an adjustment of published data.

  6. A Simple and Disposable Sampler for Inhalable Aerosol

    PubMed Central

    L’Orange, Christian; Anderson, Kimberly; Sleeth, Darrah; Anthony, T. Renée; Volckens, John

    2016-01-01

    The state-of-the-art for personal sampling for inhalable aerosol hazards is constrained by issues of sampler cost and complexity; these issues have limited the adoption and use of some samplers by practicing hygienists. Thus, despite the known health effects of inhalable aerosol hazards, personal exposures are routinely assessed for only a small fraction of the at-risk workforce. To address the limitations of current technologies for inhalable aerosol sampling, a disposable inhalable aerosol sampler was developed and evaluated in the laboratory. The new sampler is designed to be less expensive and simpler to use than existing technologies. The sampler incorporates a lightweight internal capsule fused to the sampling filter. This capsule-filter assembly allows for the inclusion of particles deposited on the internal walls and inlet, thus minimizing the need to wash or wipe the interior sampling cassette when conducting gravimetric analyses. Sampling efficiency and wall losses were tested in a low-velocity wind tunnel with particles ranging from 9.5 to 89.5 μm. The results were compared to the proposed low-velocity inhalability criterion as well as published data on the IOM sampler. Filter weight stability and time-to-equilibrium were evaluated as these factors affect the practicality of a design. Preliminary testing of the new sampler showed good agreement with both the IOM and the proposed low-velocity inhalability curve. The capsule and filter assemblies reached equilibrium within 25h of manufacturing when conditioned at elevated temperatures. After reaching equilibrium, the capsule-filter assemblies were stable within 0.01mg. PMID:26467335

  7. Application of the personal aeroallergen sampler to assess personal exposures to Japanese cedar and cypress pollens.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Matsuki, Hideaki; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2007-11-01

    We have recently developed the Personal Aeroallergen Sampler (PAAS), a passive sampler for aeroallergens. In the present study, the applicability of the PAAS for personal exposure assessments of cedar and cypress pollens was investigated by comparing with existing reference samplers. To investigate the usability of the PAAS as a personal sampler for the airborne pollens, it was compared with the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler, a traditionally used active personal sampler. Overall, the result showed a good correlation between the two methods, that is, R(2)=0.8082, suggesting the usability of the PAAS for the personal pollen samplings. The ratio of the pollen numbers collected by the PAAS to the IOM sampler was approximately 30%, which was consistent with our previous study investigating ambient dust particles. Meanwhile, the comparability of the PAAS to the Durham sampler, the most widely used stationary pollen trap, was also assured. Furthermore, we exemplified the seasonal peak of the personal pollen exposures was not necessarily reflected by the outdoor concentrations, indicating insufficiency of the stationary outdoor monitoring to represent the personal pollen exposures. The PAAS, a simple passive method, could be used in future field studies to elucidate the detailed mechanisms of allergic airway diseases such as cedar pollinosis.

  8. Trench Left By Sampler Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A shallow 12-inch-long trench was dug by Viking 2 s surface sampler scoop yesterday (September 12) on Mars. The trench is difficult to see in this photo because it is in the shadow of a rock (out of view to the right). The sampler scoop stopped operating sometime after soil was excavated from the trench and delivered to Viking 2 s biology instrument.

  9. High speed sampler and demultiplexer

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-12-26

    A high speed sampling demultiplexer based on a plurality of sampler banks, each bank comprising a sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates at respective positions along the sample transmission line for sampling the input signal in response to the strobe signal. Strobe control circuitry is coupled to the plurality of banks, and supplies a sequence of bank strobe signals to the strobe transmission lines in each of the plurality of banks, and includes circuits for controlling the timing of the bank strobe signals among the banks of samplers. Input circuitry is included for supplying the input signal to be sampled to the plurality of sample transmission lines in the respective banks. The strobe control circuitry can repetitively strobe the plurality of banks of samplers such that the banks of samplers are cycled to create a long sample length. Second tier demultiplexing circuitry is coupled to each of the samplers in the plurality of banks. The second tier demultiplexing circuitry senses the sample taken by the corresponding sampler each time the bank in which the sampler is found is strobed. A plurality of such samples can be stored by the second tier demultiplexing circuitry for later processing. Repetitive sampling with the high speed transient sampler induces an effect known as ``strobe kickout``. The sample transmission lines include structures which reduce strobe kickout to acceptable levels, generally 60 dB below the signal, by absorbing the kickout pulses before the next sampling repetition. 16 figs.

  10. High speed sampler and demultiplexer

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A high speed sampling demultiplexer based on a plurality of sampler banks, each bank comprising a sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates at respective positions along the sample transmission line for sampling the input signal in response to the strobe signal. Strobe control circuitry is coupled to the plurality of banks, and supplies a sequence of bank strobe signals to the strobe transmission lines in each of the plurality of banks, and includes circuits for controlling the timing of the bank strobe signals among the banks of samplers. Input circuitry is included for supplying the input signal to be sampled to the plurality of sample transmission lines in the respective banks. The strobe control circuitry can repetitively strobe the plurality of banks of samplers such that the banks of samplers are cycled to create a long sample length. Second tier demultiplexing circuitry is coupled to each of the samplers in the plurality of banks. The second tier demultiplexing circuitry senses the sample taken by the corresponding sampler each time the bank in which the sampler is found is strobed. A plurality of such samples can be stored by the second tier demultiplexing circuitry for later processing. Repetitive sampling with the high speed transient sampler induces an effect known as "strobe kickout". The sample transmission lines include structures which reduce strobe kickout to acceptable levels, generally 60 dB below the signal, by absorbing the kickout pulses before the next sampling repetition.

  11. Variable depth core sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    This invention relates to a sampling means, more particularly to a device to sample hard surfaces at varying depths. Often it is desirable to take samples of a hard surface wherein the samples are of the same diameter but of varying depths. Current practice requires that a full top-to-bottom sample of the material be taken, using a hole saw, and boring a hole from one end of the material to the other. The sample thus taken is removed from the hole saw and the middle of said sample is then subjected to further investigation. This paper describes a variable depth core sampler comprimising a circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapse to form a point and capture a sample, and a second saw member residing inside the first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of the first member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside the the first hole saw member.

  12. Wind tunnel study of twelve dust samples by large particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannak, B.; Corsmeier, U.; Kottmeier, Ch.; Al-azab, T.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the lack of data by large dust and sand particle, the fluid dynamics characteristics, hence the collection efficiencies of different twelve dust samplers have been experimentally investigated. Wind tunnel tests were carried out at wind velocities ranging from 1 up to 5.5 ms-1. As a large solid particle of 0.5 and 1 mm in diameter, Polystyrene pellets called STYRO Beads or polystyrene sphere were used instead of sand or dust. The results demonstrate that the collection efficiency is relatively acceptable only of eight tested sampler and lie between 60 and 80% depending on the wind velocity and particle size. These samplers are: the Cox Sand Catcher (CSC), the British Standard Directional Dust Gauge (BSD), the Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE), the Suspended Sediment Trap (SUSTRA), the Modified Wilson and Cooke (MWAC), the Wedge Dust Flux Gauge (WDFG), the Model Series Number 680 (SIERRA) and the Pollet Catcher (POLCA). Generally they can be slightly recommended as suitable dust samplers but with collecting error of 20 up to 40%. However the BSNE verify the best performance with a catching error of about 20% and can be with caution selected as a suitable dust sampler. Quite the contrary, the other four tested samplers which are the Marble Dust Collector (MDCO), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Inverted Frisbee Sampler (IFS) and the Inverted Frisbee Shaped Collecting Bowl (IFSCB) cannot be recommended due to their very low collection efficiency of 5 up to 40%. In total the efficiency of sampler may be below 0.5, depending on the frictional losses (caused by the sampler geometry) in the fluid and the particle's motion, and on the intensity of airflow acceleration near the sampler inlet. Therefore, the literature data of dust are defective and insufficient. To avoid false collecting data and hence inaccurate mass flux modeling, the geometry of the dust sampler should be considered and furthermore improved.

  13. Preliminary assessment of using tree-tissue analysis and passive-diffusion samplers to evaluate trichloroethene contamination of ground water at Site SS-34N, McChord Air Force Base, Washington, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Two low-cost innovative sampling procedures for characterizing trichloroethene (TCE) contamination in ground water were evaluated for use at McChord Air Force Base (AFB) by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force McChord Air Force Base Installation Restoration Program, in 2001. Previous attempts to characterize the source of ground-water contamination in the heterogeneous glacial outwash aquifer at McChord site SS-34N using soil-gas surveys, direct-push exploration, and more than a dozen ground-water monitoring wells have had limited success. The procedures assessed in this study involved analysis of tree-tissue samples to map underlying ground-water contamination and deploying passive-diffusion samplers to measure TCE concentrations in existing monitoring wells. These procedures have been used successfully at other U.S. Department of Defense sites and have resulted in cost avoidance and accelerated site characterization. Despite the presence of TCE in ground water at site SS-34N, TCE was not detected in any of the 20 trees sampled at the site during either early spring or late summer sampling. The reason the tree tissue procedure was not successful at the McChord AFB site SS-34N may have been due to an inability of tree roots to extract moisture from a water table 30 feet below the land surface, or that concentrations of TCE in ground water were not large enough to be detectable in the tree tissue at the sampling point. Passive-diffusion samplers were placed near the top, middle, and bottom of screened intervals in three monitoring wells and TCE was observed in all samplers. Concentrations of TCE from the passive-diffusion samplers were generally similar to concentrations found in samples collected in the same wells using conventional pumping methods. In contrast to conventional pumping methods, the collection of ground-water samples using the passive-diffusion samples did not generate waste purge water that would require hazardous

  14. Determining the spatial variability of personal sampler inlet locations

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, R.; Volkwein, J.; Mcwilliams, L.

    2007-09-15

    This article examines the spatial variability of dust concentrations within a coal miner's breathing zone and the impact of sampling location at the cap lamp, nose, and lapel. Tests were conducted in the National Institute for Safety and Health Pittsburgh Research Laboratory full-scale, continuous miner gallery using three prototype personal dust monitors (PDM). The dust masses detected by the PDMs were used to calculate the percentage difference of dust mass between the cap lamp and the nose and between the lapel and the nose. The calculated percentage differences of the masses ranged from plus 12% to minus 25%. Breathing zone tests were also conducted in four underground coal mines using the torso of a mannequin to simulate a miner. Coal mine dust was sampled with multi-cyclone sampling cans mounted directly in front of the mannequin near the cap lamp, nose, and lapel. These four coal mine tests found that the spatial variability of dust levels and imprecision of the current personal sampler is a greater influence than the sampler location within the breathing zone. However, a one-sample t-test of this data did find that the overall mean value of the cap lamp/nose ratio was not significantly different than 1 (p-value = 0.21). However; when applied to the overall mean value of the lapel/nose ratio there was a significant difference from 1 (p-value < 0.0001). This finding is important because the lapel has always been the sampling location for coal mine dust samples. But these results suggest that the cap location is slightly more indicative of what is breathed through the nose area.

  15. Determining the spatial variability of personal sampler inlet locations.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Robert; Volkwein, Jon; McWilliams, Linda

    2007-09-01

    This article examines the spatial variability of dust concentrations within a coal miner's breathing zone and the impact of sampling location at the cap lamp, nose, and lapel. Tests were conducted in the National Institute for Safety and Health Pittsburgh Research Laboratory full-scale, continuous miner gallery using three prototype personal dust monitors (PDM). The dust masses detected by the PDMs were used to calculate the percentage difference of dust mass between the cap lamp and the nose and between the lapel and the nose. The calculated percentage differences of the masses ranged from plus 12% to minus 25%. Breathing zone tests were also conducted in four underground coal mines using the torso of a mannequin to simulate a miner. Coal mine dust was sampled with multi-cyclone sampling cans mounted directly in front of the mannequin near the cap lamp, nose, and lapel. These four coal mine tests found that the spatial variability of dust levels and imprecision of the current personal sampler is a greater influence than the sampler location within the breathing zone. However, a one-sample t-test of this data did find that the overall mean value of the cap lamp/nose ratio was not significantly different than 1 (p-value = 0.21). However, when applied to the overall mean value of the lapel/nose ratio there was a significant difference from 1 (p-value < .0001). This finding is important because the lapel has always been the sampling location for coal mine dust samples. But these results suggest that the cap location is slightly more indicative of what is breathed through the nose area.

  16. The suitability of the IOM foam sampler for bioaerosol sampling in Occupational Environments.

    PubMed

    Haatainen, Susanna; Laitinen, Juha; Linnainmaa, Markku; Reponen, Tiina; Kalliokoski, Pentti

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent samples were collected with Andersen and IOM foam samplers to determine whether if the IOM foam sampler can be applied to collect culturable microorganisms. Two different kinds of aerosols were studied: peat dust in a power plant and mist from coolant fluid aerosolized during grinding of blades and rollers in a paper mill. In the power plant, the concentrations of fungi were 2-3 times higher in the IOM samples than in the Andersen samples. However, more fungal genera were identified in the latter case. The methods yielded similar concentrations of bacteria and actinobacteria in the power plant. On the other hand, the performance of the IOM foam sampler was very poor in the paper mill, where stress-sensitive gram-negative bacteria dominated; low concentration of bacteria was detected in only one IOM sample even though the concentration of bacteria often exceeded even the upper detection limit in the Andersen impactor samples. It could be concluded that the IOM foam sampler performs quite well for collecting inhalable fungi and actinobacteria. However, the Andersen sampler provides better information on fungal genera and concentrations of gram-negative bacteria. Personal sampling with the IOM foam sampler provided an important benefit in the power plant, where the concentration ratio of personal to stationary samples was much higher for bacteria than for inhalable or respirable dust.

  17. Active Hydrazine Vapor Sampler (AHVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Mcbrearty, Charles F.; Curran, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    The Active Hydrazine Vapor Sampler (AHVS) was developed to detect vapors of hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) in air at parts-per-billion (ppb) concentration levels. The sampler consists of a commercial personal pump that draws ambient air through paper tape treated with vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). The paper tape is sandwiched in a thin cardboard housing inserted in one of the two specially designed holders to facilitate sampling. Contaminated air reacts with vanillin to develop a yellow color. The density of the color is proportional to the concentration of HZ or MMH. The AHVS can detect 10 ppb in less than 5 minutes. The sampler is easy to use, low cost, and intrinsically safe and contains no toxic material. It is most beneficial for use in locations with no laboratory capabilities for instrumentation calibration. This paper reviews the development, laboratory test, and field test of the device.

  18. Exposure to Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) via Dust Ingestion, but Not Diet, Correlates with Concentrations in Human Serum: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Roosens, Laurence; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Harrad, Stuart; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high-production-volume chemical used as flame retardant in polystyrene insulation and textiles. Because it is not chemically bound to the polymer, HBCD can migrate into the environment, contaminating indoor dust and foodstuff. Objectives We examined for the first time the relationship between combined exposure to three HBCD isomers (∑HBCDs) via ingestion of food (duplicate diets) and indoor dust and HBCD concentrations in serum for 16 Belgian adults (20–25 years of age). We also determined the chiral signatures of HBCDs to advance understanding of source-to-human enantioselective degradation and/or metabolism. Methods Concentrations and chiral signatures of α-, β-, and γ-HBCD in duplicate diets, dust, and serum were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results Dietary intakes of ∑HBCDs were 1.2–20 ng/day (average, 7.2 ng/day), whereas those estimated under average (20 mg dust/day) and high (50 mg dust/day) dust ingestion scenarios were 1.1–15 ng/day (average intake, 3.2 ng/day) and 2.8–38 ng/day (average intake, 8.0 ng/day), respectively. Concentrations of ∑HBCDs measured in blood serum were < 0.5 to 11 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (average, 2.9 ng/g lw). γ-HBCD dominated in food, whereas α-HBCD dominated in dust and was the sole isomer in serum. Although exposure via dust ingestion correlated significantly (p < 0.01) with concentrations in serum, no such correlation was evident with dietary exposure (p > 0.1). Although no enantioselective enrichment was detected in either dust or diet, substantial enrichment of (−)α-HBCD was observed in serum. Conclusions Serum concentrations of HBCDs were correlated with the exposure via dust, but not via dietary ingestion. The enrichment of the (−)α-HBCD enantiomer in humans appears to be due to in vivo enantioselective metabolism/excretion rather than ingestion of dust or diet. PMID:20049121

  19. A High Volume Stack Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boubel, Richard W.

    1971-01-01

    The stack sampler described in this paper has been developed to overcome the difficulties of particulate sampling with presently available equipment. Its use on emissions from hog fuel fired boilers, back-fired incinerators, wigwam burners, asphalt plants, and seed cleaning cyclones is reported. The results indicate that the sampler is rapid and reliable in its use. It is relatively simple and inexpensive to operate. For most sources it should be considered over the more complicated and expensive sampling trains being used and specified.

  20. Solid-Sorbent Air Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Portable unit takes eight 24-hour samples. Volatile organic compounds in air collected for analysis by portable, self-contained sampling apparatus. Sampled air drawn through sorbent material, commercial porous polymer of 2, 3-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide. High-boiling-point organic compounds adsorbed onto polymer, while low-boiling-point organics pass through and returned to atmosphere. Sampler includes eight sample tubes filled with polymeric sorbent. Organic compounds in atmosphere absorbed when air pumped through sorbent. Designed for checking air in spacecraft, sampler adaptable to other applications as leak detection, gas-mixture analysis, and ambient-air monitoring.

  1. Air sampling methodology for asphalt fume in asphalt production and asphalt roofing manufacturing facilities: total particulate sampler versus inhalable particulate sampler.

    PubMed

    Calzavara, Thomas S; Carter, Charles M; Axten, Charles

    2003-05-01

    In 2000, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) changed its 1971 threshold limit value (TLV) for 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure to asphalt from 5 mg/m(3) total particulate (generally < or =40 micrometer [microm] diameter) to 0.5 mg/m(3) inhalable particulate (< or =100 microm aerodynamic diameter) as benzene-soluble aerosol. To date, no inhalable particulate sampling method has been standardized and validated for asphalt fume. Furthermore, much of the historical data were collected using total particulate samplers, and the comparability of total versus inhalable size fractions of asphalt fume is not known. Therefore, the present study compared results from two types of asphalt fume samplers: 1) a traditional total particulate sampler with a 37-mm filter in a closed-face cassette with a 4-mm orifice (NIOSH 5042) versus (2) an inhalable particulate sampler designed by the IOM with a 15-mm orifice. A total of 75 simultaneous pairs of samples were collected, including personal and area samples from 19 roofing and asphalt production facilities operated by 7 different manufacturers. Each sample was analyzed for total mass collected and for benzene-soluble mass. Data from the two sampling methods (total versus inhalable) were comparable for asphalt fumes up to an aerosol concentration of 10 mg/m(3). However, we conclude that the traditional total particulate method is preferable, for this reason: The vast majority of asphalt fume particles are <12.5 microm in diameter. The traditional sampler is designed to collect primarily particles < or =40 microm, while the IOM sampler is optimized for collecting particles < or =100 microm. Thus, the traditional sampler is less likely than the IOM sampler to collect the larger-size fraction of airborne particles, most of which are non-asphalt dust.

  2. A modified siphon sampler for shallow water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2008-01-01

    A modified siphon sampler (or 'single-stage sampler') was developed to sample shallow water at closely spaced vertical intervals. The modified design uses horizontal rather than vertical sample bottles. Previous siphon samplers are limited to water about 20 centimeters (cm) or more in depth; the modified design can sample water 10 cm deep. Several mounting options were used to deploy the modified siphon sampler in shallow bedrock streams of Middle Tennessee, while minimizing alteration of the stream bed. Sampling characteristics and limitations of the modified design are similar to those of the original design. Testing showed that the modified sampler collects unbiased samples of suspended silt and clay. Similarity of the intake to the original siphon sampler suggests that the modified sampler would probably take downward-biased samples of suspended sand. Like other siphon samplers, it does not sample isokinetically, and the efficiency of sand sampling can be expected to change with flow velocity. The sampler needs to be located in the main flow of the stream, and is subject to damage from rapid flow and floating debris. Water traps were added to the air vents to detect the flow of water through the sampler, which can cause a strong upward bias in sampled suspended-sediment concentration. Water did flow through the sampler, in some cases even when the top of the air vent remained above water. Air vents need to be extended well above maximum water level to prevent flow through the sampler.

  3. Performance of High Flow Rate Personal Respirable Samplers When Challenged with Mineral Aerosols of Different Particle Size Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Peter; Thorpe, Andrew; Echt, Alan

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that the performance of respirable samplers may vary when exposed to dust aerosols with different particle sizes and wind speeds. This study investigated the performance of the GK 4.16 (RASCAL), GK 2.69, PPI 8, and FSP 10, high flow rate personal samplers when exposed to aerosols of mineral dust in a wind tunnel at two different wind speeds (1 and 2 m s−1) and orientations (towards and side-on to the source of emission). The mass median aerodynamic diameter of four aerosolized test dusts ranged from 8 to 25 µm with geometric standard deviations from 1.6 to 2 µm. The performance of each sampler type was compared with that of the SIMPEDS (Higgins–Dewell design) sampler. There was slight evidence to suggest that the performance of the FSP 10 is affected by the direction of the inlet relative to the air flow, although this was not significant when most respirable dust concentrations were compared, possibly due to the variability of paired dust concentration results. The GK 2.69, RASCAL, and PPI 8 samplers had similar performances, although the results when side-on to the emission source were generally slightly lower than the SIMPEDS. Despite slight differences between respirable dust concentrations the respirable crystalline silica values were not significantly different from the SIMPEDS. The GK family of cyclones obtained most precise results and more closely matched the SIMPEDS. A comparison with dust concentration results from previous calm air chamber studies (where wind speeds were < 0.4 m s−1) found that the relative performance between samplers was similar to those observed in this work indicating consistent performance relative to the SIMPEDS in both calm and moving air. PMID:26865560

  4. A Sampler of Ethnic Crafts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Susan K.; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides a sampler of the wide variety of expression practiced by cultural groups all over the world. The guide was developed to help fill the need for multicultural art resources that are respectful of both modern art education philosophy and of authentic, sensitive representation of other cultures. The types of materials…

  5. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination X: Impact Speeds and Directions of Interstellar Grains on the Stardust Dust Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterken, Veerle J.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Altobelli, Nicolas; Grun, Eberhard; Hillier, Jon K.; Postberg, Frank; Allen, Carlton; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of an interstellar dust model compatible with Ulysses and Galileo observations, we calculate and predict the trajectories of interstellar dust (ISD) in the solar system and the distribution of the impact speeds, directions, and flux of ISD particles on the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector during the two collection periods of the mission. We find that the expected impact velocities are generally low (less than 10 km per second) for particles with the ratio of the solar radiation pressure force to the solar gravitational force beta greater than 1, and that some of the particles will impact on the cometary side of the collector. If we assume astronomical silicates for particle material and a density of 2 grams per cubic centimeter, and use the Ulysses measurements and the ISD trajectory simulations, we conclude that the total number of (detectable) captured ISD particles may be on the order of 50. In companion papers in this volume, we report the discovery of three interstellar dust candidates in the Stardust aerogel tiles. The impact directions and speeds of these candidates are consistent with those calculated from our ISD propagation model, within the uncertainties of the model and of the observations.

  6. Potential dust production from wind-erodible soils on the Southern High Plains and Chihuahuan Desert: preliminary figures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blowing Dust is a common occurrence on the Southern High Plains of West Texas and Eastern New Mexico and the Chihuahuan Desert in southern New Mexico, Far West Texas, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico. We collected sixty two surface soil samples from locations identified on satellite imagery as produci...

  7. A remotely operated serial sampler for collecting gas-tight fluid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun; Ding, Kang; Tan, Chun-yang

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and preliminary test results for a gas-tight serial sampler intended to be deployed at seafloor for long-term operation to take time-series fluid samples from deep-sea environments such as cold seeps, water column and hydrothermal vents. The serial sampler is a modular system that is based on independent and identical sampling modules, which are designed to collect six 160 ml gas-tight fluid samples maintained at high pressure to a depth of 4000 meters. With two working modes, the sampler can be deployed either with seafloor cabled observatory for remote control or as a stand-alone device for autonomous operation. A prototype of the instrument has been constructed and tested on the MARS cabled observatory for two months. The laboratory and field tests proved the success of the design and construction of the serial sampler, and indicated the potential for future ocean sciences.

  8. Monitoring of urban particulate using an electret-based passive sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Thorpe, A.; Hemingway, M.A.; Brown, R.C.

    1999-11-01

    Site sampling trials have been carried out in the urban environment in order to assess the usefulness of a passive sampling device, originally developed for personal monitoring of airborne dust levels in industry. The sampling element is a small disc of elect material (polymer carrying a permanent electric charge) within a metal frame weighing approximately 15 g. The sampler is designed to capture particles by electrostatic attraction, in which case the capture rate depends on their electrical mobility but is independent of the rate at which air flows past the device. Passive samplers, along with miniaturized cascade impactors, have been exposed to urban particulate for periods of up to 28 days in locations with significant different levels of airborne pollution. The cascade impactor data enabled good estimates to be made of PM{sub 10} and PMN{sub 2.5} levels, and data from the passive sampler correlated with the total dust sampled by the impactor and with both the size fractions, that with the PM{sub 10} being better. Too few data have yet been obtained for its accuracy to be established, but it is unlikely that it will approach that of pumped samplers. It has been shown to be potentially useful for multiple, simultaneous site sampling and for monitoring personal environmental exposure situations in which dispensing with a power source is particularly useful. Being small, the sampler is easy to hide or camouflage, and because it is cheap, its loss or damage is not a serious matter.

  9. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination IX: High-speed interstellar dust analog capture in Stardust flight-spare aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postberg, F.; Hillier, J. K.; Armes, S. P.; Bugiel, S.; Butterworth, A.; Dupin, D.; Fielding, L. A.; Fujii, S.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grün, E.; Li, Y. W.; Srama, R.; Sterken, V.; Stodolna, J.; Trieloff, M.; Westphal, A.; Achilles, C.; Allen, C.; Ansari, A.; Bajt, S.; Bassim, N.; Bastien, R. K.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Changela, H.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A.; Doll, R.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G.; Frank, D.; Heck, P. R.; Hoppe, P.; Huss, G.; Huth, J.; Kearsley, A.; King, A. J.; Lai, B.; Leitner, J.; Lemelle, L.; Leonard, A.; Leroux, H.; Lettieri, R.; Marchant, W.; Nittler, L. R.; Ogliore, R.; Ong, W. J.; Price, M. C.; Sandford, S. A.; Tressaras, J.-A. Sans; Schmitz, S.; Schoonjans, T.; Schreiber, K.; Silversmit, G.; Simionovici, A.; Solé, V. A.; Stadermann, F.; Stephan, T.; Stroud, R. M.; Sutton, S.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Tyliczszak, T.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; Zevin, D.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-09-01

    The NASA Stardust mission used silica aerogel slabs to slowly decelerate and capture impinging cosmic dust particles for return to Earth. During this process, impact tracks are generated along the trajectory of the particle into the aerogel. It is believed that the morphology and dimensions of these tracks, together with the state of captured grains at track termini, may be linked to the size, velocity, and density of the impacting cosmic dust grain. Here, we present the results of laboratory hypervelocity impact experiments, during which cosmic dust analog particles (diameters of between 0.2 and 0.4 μm), composed of olivine, orthopyroxene, or an organic polymer, were accelerated onto Stardust flight-spare low-density (approximately 0.01 g cm-3) silica aerogel. The impact velocities (3-21 km s-1) were chosen to simulate the range of velocities expected during Stardust's interstellar dust (ISD) collection phases. Track lengths and widths, together with the success of particle capture, are analyzed as functions of impact velocity and particle composition, density, and size. Captured terminal particles from low-density organic projectiles become undetectable at lower velocities than those from similarly sized, denser mineral particles, which are still detectable (although substantially altered by the impact process) at 15 km s-1. The survival of these terminal particles, together with the track dimensions obtained during low impact speed capture of small grains in the laboratory, indicates that two of the three best Stardust candidate extraterrestrial grains were actually captured at speeds much lower than predicted. Track length and diameters are, in general, more sensitive to impact velocities than previously expected, which makes tracks of particles with diameters of 0.4 μm and below hard to identify at low capture speeds (<10 km s-1). Therefore, although captured intact, the majority of the interstellar dust grains returned to Earth by Stardust remain to be

  10. Practical aspects of sampling for organic dusts and microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Morey, P R

    1990-01-01

    Air sampling for organic dusts and microorganisms was carried out in silos when moldy silage was discarded through the discharge chute. Concentrations of respirable dust and airborne viable microorganisms exceeded 20 mg/m3 and 1 x 10(9)/m3, respectively, when dry silage was removed from silos. Much lower concentrations of dust and microorganisms were present when wet silage was discarded. Impinger and filter cassette samplers were equally effective in collecting the hardy spores present in silage dusts.

  11. Preliminary Tests of Gloss-Reduction and Coloring Agents for Camouflage of Polyvinyl Acetate Dust-Control Film

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    local Sherwin-Williams paint store. kaolin - white or pink clay of low plasticity, used as a paint extender. latex paint - commercial formulation of...chalk dust (marking chalk powder) with DCA-1295 concentrate to produce an emulsion that can be painted (brushed, rolled, or sprayed) on the cured, in...IHM »* ’** *WW)I»«BW ■ ■ - < ■ THE CONTENTS OF THIS REPORT ARE NOT TO BE USED FOR ADVERTISING, PUBLICATION, OR PROMOTIONAL PURPOSES

  12. Performance of personal inhalable aerosol samplers in very slowly moving air when facing the aerosol source.

    PubMed

    Witschger, O; Grinshpun, S A; Fauvel, S; Basso, G

    2004-06-01

    While personal aerosol samplers have been characterized primarily based on wind tunnel tests conducted at relatively high wind speeds, modern indoor occupational environments are usually represented by very slow moving air. Recent surveys suggest that elevated levels of occupational exposure to inhalable airborne particles are typically observed when the worker, operating in the vicinity of the dust source, faces the source. Thus, the first objective of this study was to design and test a new, low cost experimental protocol for measuring the sampling efficiency of personal inhalable aerosol samplers in the vicinity of the aerosol source when the samplers operate in very slowly moving air. In this system, an aerosol generator, which is located in the centre of a room-sized non-ventilated chamber, continuously rotates and omnidirectionally disperses test particles of a specific size. The test and reference samplers are equally distributed around the source at the same distance from the centre and operate in parallel (in most of our experiments, the total number of simultaneously operating samplers was 15). Radial aerosol transport is driven by turbulent diffusion and some natural convection. For each specific particle size and the sampler, the aerosol mass concentration is measured by weighing the collection filter. The second objective was to utilize the new protocol to evaluate three widely used aerosol samplers: the IOM Personal Inhalable Sampler, the Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler and the 25 mm Millipore filter holder (closed-face C25 cassette). The sampling efficiencies of each instrument were measured with six particle fractions, ranging from 6.9 to 76.9 micro m in their mass median aerodynamic diameter. The Button Sampler efficiency data demonstrated a good agreement with the standard inhalable convention and especially with the low air movement inhalabilty curve. The 25 mm filter holder was found to considerably under-sample the particles larger

  13. Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    low-flow sampling. 5. Carefully selecting a sampling order that reduces sampler impacts on subsequent sam- pling events. 5.1.2 Baseline...flow sampling.  Carefully selecting a sampling order that reduces sampler impacts on subsequent sam- pling events. 5.2.2 Baseline Characterization...ER D C/ CR R EL T R -1 1 -1 1 Project ER-063 Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler Cost and Performance: Final Report C ol d R eg

  14. The chemical composition of the dust-free Martian atmosphere - Preliminary results of a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, D.; Esposito, L. W.; Brasseur, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a two-dimensional model of the Martian atmosphere, in which chemical, radiative and dynamical processes are treated interactively. The model is developed for a carbon dioxide-hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen atmosphere and provides estimates of concentrations for 19 chemical species. The dynamical equations are expressed in the transformed Eulerian coordinates. The wave driving and eddy mixing coefficients resulting from gravity and Rossby wave absorption are computed consistently with the evolving distribution of the mean zonal wind. The net diabatic heating/cooling rate is derived from a detailed radiative scheme including the contributions of CO2, O3, H2O and O2, and is computed consistently with the calculated distribution of temperature and trace species quantities. The computed temperature field as well as the meridional and seasonal variations of ozone column abundance are in good agreement with the distributions observed by Mariner 9 and Viking spacecrafts and the results obtained by previous studies. The present version of the model does not include the effects of dust, clouds and polar hood and only the chemistry in a dust-free atmosphere is considered.

  15. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara; Daisey, Joan M.; Stevens, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  16. 7 CFR 29.20 - Sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampler. 29.20 Section 29.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.20 Sampler. Person employed, licensed, or authorized by the...

  17. A lightweight, high output soil sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, E. A.; Imus, R. E.; Stockwell, D. W.

    1971-01-01

    Sampler is useful on or under earth's surface or on sea bottom. Larger sample amount is obtained relative to sampler size and weight and limited particle size sample material is continuously delivered. Silicone rubber linear in transport tube nearly eliminates grinding or particulate processing during sampling, and reduces required torque.

  18. Performance evaluation of two personal bioaerosol samplers.

    PubMed

    Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Varfolomeev, Alexander N; Uspenskaya, Svetlana N; Cheng, Yung S; Su, Wei-Chung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the performance of two newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers for monitoring the level of environmental and occupational airborne microorganisms was evaluated. These new personal bioaerosol samplers were designed based on a swirling cyclone with recirculating liquid film. The performance evaluation included collection efficiency tests using inert aerosols, the bioaerosol survival test using viable airborne microorganism, and the evaluation of using non-aqueous collection liquid for long-period sampling. The test results showed that these two newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers are capable of doing high efficiency, aerosol sampling (the cutoff diameters are around 0.7 μm for both samplers), and have proven to provide acceptable survival for the collected bioaerosols. By using an appropriate non-aqueous collection liquid, these two personal bioaerosol samplers should be able to permit continuous, long-period bioaerosol sampling with considerable viability for the captured bioaerosols.

  19. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Der f 2, a Potent Allergen Derived from the House Dust Mite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophugoides sp.) are particularly ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis, and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are often caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unclear biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, has been recombinantly expressed and characterized. The Der f 2 protein has been crystallized in our laboratory and a native data set collected at a synchrotron source. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group I422 with unit cell parameters of a = 95.2 Angstroms, b = 95.2 Angstroms, and c = 103.3 Angstroms. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 Angstroms. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the available NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pterovssinus) failed to reveal a creditable solution.

  20. Dust in the Wind: Modern and Ancient Dust Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummer, P. J.; Pierce, J. L.; Benner, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The addition of wind-blown sediments to soils can alter soil grain-size distributions, chemistry, and hydrologic properties, which can substantially affect geomorphic and hydrologic processes. In the Snake River Plain of Idaho, dust deposition has a profound influence on soil development, soil fertility and other soil characteristics. A rigorous study of the movement and chemistry of dust in the Boise area has not been completed. This study will establish a sampling method for dust collection, define the elemental signature of Boise dust and analyze Quaternary loess deposits to determine if the composition of dust in the Boise area has changed. We constructed passive marble samplers to collect wind-blown sediments within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (DCEW) located in the Boise Front foothills about 16 km northeast of Boise, Idaho. Mass flux amounts and the mineralogical composition of dust samples will provide information about the influence of wind-blown sediments on the soils of Dry Creek Experimental Watershed. ICP-MS analysis of samples will define an elemental signature for Boise dust. Comparison of modern dust with ancient loess will improve the understanding of the role of climate change in dust transport. We analyzed hourly wind speed data collected over the past 10 years from three weather stations to investigate trends in the timing of peak wind events. Average annual wind speeds range from 1.29 to 4.91 mph with a total average of 2.82 mph. Analysis of wind speeds indicate that while the majority of the highest wind events occur in the winter, wind events that occur during the summer months may be responsible for transporting dust. Recent large dust storms may have originated from extensive burned rangelands, and/or large plowed agricultural land. Future work will investigate the percentages of organic vs. inorganic material in loess, in order to narrow down possible sources of dust in the Snake River Plain.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Der f 2, a potent allergen derived from the house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.) are ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are frequently caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unknown biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite D. farinae, has been recombinantly expressed, characterized and crystallized. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.2, c = 103.3 A. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 A at a synchrotron source. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pteronyssinus) failed, but preliminary searches using the crystalline Der p 2 atomic coordinates appear to be promising.

  2. Dust emissions from unpaved roads on the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duniway, M.; Flagg, C.; Belnap, J.

    2013-12-01

    On the Colorado Plateau, elevated levels of aeolian dust have become a major land management and policy concern due to its influence on climate, weather, terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, landscape development and fertility, melting of snow and ice, air quality, and human health. Most desert soil surfaces are stabilized by plants, rocks, and/or physical or biological soil crusts, but once disturbed, sediment production from these surfaces can increase dramatically. Road development and use is a common surface disturbing activity in the region. The extent and density of roads and road networks is rapidly increasing due to continued energy exploration, infrastructure development, and off-highway recreation activities. Though it is well known that unpaved roads produce dust, the relative contribution of dust from existing roads or the implications of future road development to regional dust loading is unknown. To address this need, we have initiated a multifaceted research effort to evaluating dust emissions from unpaved roads regionally. At 34 sites arranged across various road surfaces and soil textures in southeastern Utah, we are: 1) monitoring dust emissions, local wind conditions, and vehicle traffic and 2) evaluating fugitive dust potential using a portable wind tunnel and measuring road characteristics that affect dust production. We will then 3) develop a GIS-based model that integrates results from 1 & 2 to estimate potential dust contributions from current and future scenarios of regional road development. Passive, horizontal sediment traps were installed at three distances downwind from the road edge. One control trap was placed upwind of the samplers to account for local, non-road dust emissions. An electronic vehicle counter and anemometer were also installed at monitoring sites. Dust samples were collected every three months at fixed heights, 15 cm up to 100 cm above the soil surface, from March 2010 to the present. Threshold friction velocities (TFV

  3. Probabilistic Algorithm for Sampler Siting (PASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, David M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2007-05-29

    PASS (Probabilistic Approach to Sampler Siting) optimizes the placement of samplers in buildings. The program exhaustively checks every sampler-network that can be formed, evaluating against user-supplied simulations of the possible release scenarios. The program identifies the networks that maximize the probablity of detecting a release from among the suite of user-supllied scenarios. The user may specify how many networks to report, in order to provide a number of choices in cases where many networks have very similar behavior.

  4. Preliminary air pollution monitoring in San Miguel, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Fagundez, L A; Fernández, V L; Marino, T H; Martín, I; Persano, D A; Rivarola Y Benítez, M; Sadañiowski, I V; Codnia, J; Zalts, A

    2001-09-01

    Passive diffusion samplers were employed in San Miguel (Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area) for a preliminary air pollution monitoring. The highest loads were observed in downtown, compared with an urban background site. Total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) varied from 0.257 to 0.033 mg cm(-2) month(-1); dust was examined for particle nature and size distribution. A similar trend was observed for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and TSPM spatial distribution, suggesting that traffic is the major pollution source. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) values were low and rather homogeneous. Levels for the investigated pollutants are below EPA's guide line values. Geographic (flat area, near to Rio de La Plata) and climatologic factors (rainfalls and variable wind directions) contribute to disperse pollutants.

  5. Galaxy formation by dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi; Field, Goerge B.

    1989-01-01

    It has been known since the early 1940's that radiation can cause an instability in the interstellar medium. Absorbing dust particles in an isotropic radiation field shadow each other by a solid angle which is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two particles, leading to an inverse-square attractive force - mock gravity. The effect is largest in an optically thin medium. Recently Hogan and White (HW, hereafter) proposed that if the pre-galactic universe contained suitable sources of radiation and dust, instability in the dust distribution caused by mock gravity may have led to the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters. In their picture of a well-coupled dust-gas medium, HW show that mock gravity begins to dominate gravitational instability when the perturbation becomes optically thin, provided that the radiation field at the time is strong enough. The recent rocket observation of the microwave background at submillimeter wavelengths by Matsumoto et al. might be from pre-galactic stars, the consequence of the absorption of ultraviolet radiation by dust, and infrared reemission which is subsequently redshifted. HW's analysis omits radiative drag, incomplete collisional coupling of gas and dust, finite dust albedo, and finite matter pressure. These effects could be important. In a preliminary calculation including them, the authors have confirmed that mock gravitational instability is effective if there is a strong ultraviolet radiation at the time, but any galaxies that form would be substantially enriched in heavy elements because the contraction of the dust is more rapid than that of the gas. Moreover, since the dust moves with supersonic velocity through the gas soon after the perturbation becomes optically thin, the sputtering of dust particles by gas is significant, so the dust could disappear before the instability develops significantly. They conclude that the mock gravity by dust is not important in galaxy formations.

  6. A passive sampler for atmospheric ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.; Hisham, M.W.M. )

    1992-02-01

    A simple, cost-effective passive sampler has been developed for the determination of atmospheric ozone. This passive sampler is based on a colorant which fades upon reaction with ozone, whose concentration can be determined by reflectance measurement of the color change. Direct, on-site measurements are possible, and no chemical analyses are needed. Sampler design and validation studies have been carried out and included quantitative determination of color change vs exposure time (1-8 days), color change vs. ozone concentration (30-350 ppb), and response to changes in sampler configuration that modify the passive sampling rate. With indigo carmine as the colorant, the detection limits are 30 ppb. day and 120 ppb. day using a plastic grid and Teflon filter, respectively, as diffusion barriers. Interferences from nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and peroxyacetyl nitrate are 15, 4 and 16%, respectively, thus resulting in a negligible bias when measuring ozone in ambient air.

  7. Evaluation of a novel personal nanoparticle sampler.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Irshad, Hammad; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Hung, Shao-Ming; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2014-02-01

    This work investigated the performance in terms of collection efficiency and aspiration efficiency of a personal sampler capable of collecting ultrafine particles (nanoparticles) in the occupational environment. This sampler consists of a cyclone for respirable particle classification, micro-orifice impactor stages with an acceleration nozzle to achieve nanoparticle classification and a backup filter to collect nanoparticles. Collection efficiencies of the cyclone and impactor stages were determined using monodisperse polystyrene latex and silver particles, respectively. Calibration of the cyclone and impactor stages showed 50% cut-off diameters of 3.95 μm and 94.7 nm meeting the design requirements. Aspiration efficiencies of the sampler were tested in a wind tunnel with wind speeds of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m s(-1). The test samplers were mounted on a full size mannequin with three orientations toward the wind direction (0°, 90°, and 180°). Monodisperse oleic acid aerosols tagged with sodium fluorescein in the size range of 2 to 10 μm were used in the test. For particles smaller than 2 μm, the fluorescent polystyrene latex particles were generated by using nebulizers. For comparison of the aspiration efficiency, a NIOSH two-stage personal bioaerosol sampler was also tested. Results showed that the orientation-averaged aspiration efficiency for both samplers was close to the inhalable fraction curve. However, the direction of wind strongly affected the aspiration efficiency. The results also showed that the aspiration efficiency was not affected by the ratio of free-stream velocity to the velocity through the sampler orifice. Our evaluation showed that the current design of the personal sampler met the designed criteria for collecting nanoparticles ≤100 nm in occupational environments.

  8. A new passive sampler for collecting atmospheric tritiated water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bin; Chen, Bo; Zhuo, Weihai; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2017-04-01

    A new passive sampler was developed for collecting environmental tritiated water vapor. The construction of the sampler was improved according to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in which the influence on vapor collection by the turbulence inside the sampler was considered. Through changes in temperature from 5 °C to 35 °C and relative humidity from 45% to 90%, the new sampler revealed stable performance of the sampling rate. Compared with the previous samplers, the new sampler significantly lowered the effect of wind speed. Using the adsorption kinetic curve of the sampler provided in the co-comparison experiments, the quantitative relationship between the mass of adsorbed water and the cumulative absolute humidity exposure was established. Field applications in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant show that the data obtained by the new samplers is consistent with the active measurement. The sampler was preliminarily proven to be reliable and flexible for field investigation of HTO in the atmosphere.

  9. Statistical analysis of the DWPF prototypic sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Postles, R.L.; Reeve, C.P.; Jenkins, W.J.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    The DWPF process will be controlled using assay measurements on samples of feed slurry. These slurries are radioactive, and thus will be sampled remotely. A Hydraguard{trademark} pump-driven sampler system will be used as the remote sampling device. A prototype Hydraguard{trademark} sampler has been studied in a full-scale mock-up of a DWPF process vessel. Two issues were of dominant interest: (1) what accuracy and precision can be provided by such a pump-driven sampler in the face of the slurry rheology; and, if the Hydraguard{trademark} sample accurately represents the slurry in its local area, (2) is the slurry homogeneous enough throughout for it to represent the entire vessel? To determine Hydraguard{trademark} Accuracy, a Grab Sampler of simpler mechanism was used as reference. This (Low) Grab Sampler was located as near to the intake port of the Hydraguard{trademark} as could be arranged. To determine Homogeneity, a second (High) Grab Sampler was located above the first. The data necessary to these determinations comes from the measurement system, so its important variables also affect the results. Thus, the design of the test involved not just Sampling variables, but also some of the Measurement variables as well. However, the main concern was the Sampler and not the Measurement System, so the test design included only such measurement variables as could not be circumvented (Vials, Dissolution Method, and Aliquoting). The test was executed by, or under the direct oversight of, expert technologists. It thus did not explore the many important particulars of ``routine`` plant operations (such as Remote Sample Preparation or Laboratory Shift Operation).

  10. Statistical analysis of the DWPF prototypic sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Postles, R.L.; Reeve, C.P.; Jenkins, W.J.; Bickford, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    The DWPF process will be controlled using assay measurements on samples of feed slurry. These slurries are radioactive, and thus will be sampled remotely. A Hydraguard{trademark} pump-driven sampler system will be used as the remote sampling device. A prototype Hydraguard{trademark} sampler has been studied in a full-scale mock-up of a DWPF process vessel. Two issues were of dominant interest: (1) what accuracy and precision can be provided by such a pump-driven sampler in the face of the slurry rheology; and, if the Hydraguard{trademark} sample accurately represents the slurry in its local area, (2) is the slurry homogeneous enough throughout for it to represent the entire vessel To determine Hydraguard{trademark} Accuracy, a Grab Sampler of simpler mechanism was used as reference. This (Low) Grab Sampler was located as near to the intake port of the Hydraguard{trademark} as could be arranged. To determine Homogeneity, a second (High) Grab Sampler was located above the first. The data necessary to these determinations comes from the measurement system, so its important variables also affect the results. Thus, the design of the test involved not just Sampling variables, but also some of the Measurement variables as well. However, the main concern was the Sampler and not the Measurement System, so the test design included only such measurement variables as could not be circumvented (Vials, Dissolution Method, and Aliquoting). The test was executed by, or under the direct oversight of, expert technologists. It thus did not explore the many important particulars of routine'' plant operations (such as Remote Sample Preparation or Laboratory Shift Operation).

  11. A Gibbs Sampler for Learning DAGs

    PubMed Central

    Goudie, Robert J. B.; Mukherjee, Sach

    2017-01-01

    We propose a Gibbs sampler for structure learning in directed acyclic graph (DAG) models. The standard Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms used for learning DAGs are random-walk Metropolis-Hastings samplers. These samplers are guaranteed to converge asymptotically but often mix slowly when exploring the large graph spaces that arise in structure learning. In each step, the sampler we propose draws entire sets of parents for multiple nodes from the appropriate conditional distribution. This provides an efficient way to make large moves in graph space, permitting faster mixing whilst retaining asymptotic guarantees of convergence. The conditional distribution is related to variable selection with candidate parents playing the role of covariates or inputs. We empirically examine the performance of the sampler using several simulated and real data examples. The proposed method gives robust results in diverse settings, outperforming several existing Bayesian and frequentist methods. In addition, our empirical results shed some light on the relative merits of Bayesian and constraint-based methods for structure learning.

  12. Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic composition and trace element characteristics of coarse airborne particles collected with passive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoàng-Hòa, Thi Bich; Stille, Peter; Dietze, Volker; Guéguen, Florence; Perrone, Thierry; Gieré, Reto

    2015-09-01

    Passive samplers for collection of coarse airborne particulate matter have been installed in and around the coal-mining town of Cam Pha, Quang Ninh Province (Vietnam). Analysis of Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope ratios and of major and trace element distribution patterns in atmospheric particulates collected at three stations allowed for the identification of four important dust components: (1) coal dust from an open-pit mine and fly ash particles from a coal-fired power station, (2) diesel soot, (3) traffic dust from metal, tire and pavement abrasion, and (4) limestone-derived dust. Outside of the coal-mining area, traffic-derived dust defines the atmospheric baseline composition of the studied environment.

  13. Coalescent genealogy samplers: windows into population history.

    PubMed

    Kuhner, Mary K

    2009-02-01

    Coalescent genealogy samplers attempt to estimate past qualities of a population, such as its size, growth rate, patterns of gene flow or time of divergence from another population, based on samples of molecular data. Genealogy samplers are increasingly popular because of their potential to disentangle complex population histories. In the last decade they have been widely applied to systems ranging from humans to viruses. Findings include detection of unexpected reproductive inequality in fish, new estimates of historical whale abundance, exoneration of humans for the prehistoric decline of bison and inference of a selective sweep on the human Y chromosome. This review summarizes available genealogy-sampler software, including data requirements and limitations on the use of each program.

  14. Operability test report for 211BA flow proportional sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This operability report will verify that the 211-BA flow proportional sampler functions as intended by design. The sampler was installed by Project W-007H and is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent stream.

  15. 21 CFR 884.1550 - Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). 884... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1550 Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). (a) Identification. The amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray) is a collection of devices used to aspirate amniotic fluid from...

  16. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  17. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  18. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  19. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  20. A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A water column sampler was needed to study stratification of nutrients and bacteria in a swine manure lagoon. Conventional samplers yielded shallow samples near the bank or required a boat. These limitations prompted development of a new sampler to collect at multiple depths with minimal disturbanc...

  1. 21 CFR 884.1560 - Fetal blood sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal blood sampler. 884.1560 Section 884.1560... § 884.1560 Fetal blood sampler. (a) Identification. A fetal blood sampler is a device used to obtain fetal blood transcervically through an endoscope by puncturing the fetal skin with a short blade...

  2. 21 CFR 884.1550 - Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). 884... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1550 Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). (a) Identification. The amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray) is a collection of devices used to aspirate amniotic fluid from...

  3. 21 CFR 884.1550 - Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). 884... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1550 Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). (a) Identification. The amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray) is a collection of devices used to aspirate amniotic fluid from...

  4. 21 CFR 884.1550 - Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). 884... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1550 Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). (a) Identification. The amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray) is a collection of devices used to aspirate amniotic fluid from...

  5. 21 CFR 884.1550 - Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). 884... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1550 Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). (a) Identification. The amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray) is a collection of devices used to aspirate amniotic fluid from...

  6. Student Sampler: Facts in Brief on North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This information sampler was compiled to assist students in their study of North Carolina. Every year North Carolina students must complete a special project on their state. The sampler was designed to introduce students to the people, places, and events that have shaped North Carolina's history. Topics in the sampler include state symbols,…

  7. Evaluation of the particle infiltration efficiency of three passive samplers and the PS-1 active air sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Milos Z.; Prokop, Sebastian; Staebler, Ralf M.; Liggio, John; Harner, Tom

    2015-07-01

    The particle infiltration efficiencies (PIE) of three passive and one active air samplers were evaluated under field conditions. A wide-range particle spectrometer operating in the 250-4140 nm range was used to acquire highly temporally resolved particle-number and size distributions for the different samplers compared to ambient air. Overall, three of the four evaluated samplers were able to acquire a representative sample of ambient particles with PIEs of 91.5 ± 13.7% for the GAPS Network sampler, 103 ± 15.5% for the Lancaster University sampler, and 89.6 ± 13.4% for a conventional PS-1 high-volume active air sampler (Hi-Vol). Significantly (p = 0.05) lower PIE of 54 ± 8.0% was acquired for the passive sampler used under the MONET program. These findings inform the comparability and use of passive and active samplers for measuring particle-associated priority chemicals in air.

  8. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  9. A personal nanoparticle respiratory deposition (NRD) sampler.

    PubMed

    Cena, Lorenzo G; Anthony, T Renée; Peters, Thomas M

    2011-08-01

    A lightweight (60 g), personal nanoparticle respiratory deposition (NRD) sampler was developed to selectively collect particles smaller than 300 nm similar to their typical deposition in the respiratory tract. The sampler operates at 2.5 Lpm and consists of a respirable cyclone fitted with an impactor and a diffusion stage containing mesh screens. The cut-point diameter of the impactor was determined to be 300 nm with a sharpness σ = 1.53. The diffusion stage screens collect particles with an efficiency that matches the deposition efficiency of particles smaller than 300 nm in the respiratory tract. Impactor separation performance was unaffected by loading at typical workplace levels (p-value = 0.26). With chemical analysis of the diffusion media, the NRD sampler can be used to directly assess exposures to nanoparticles of a specific composition apart from other airborne particles. The pressure drop of the NRD sampler is sufficiently low to permit its operation with conventional, belt-mounted sampling pumps.

  10. South Philadelphia Passive Sampler and Sensor Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    From June 2013 to March 2015, a total of 41 two-week duration passive sampler deployments were conducted at 17 sites in South Philadelphia, with results for benzene discussed here. Complementary time-resolved measurements with lower cost prototype fenceline sensors and an open-pa...

  11. Retained Gas Sampler Calibration and Simulant Tests

    SciTech Connect

    CRAWFORD, B.A.

    2000-01-05

    This test plan provides a method for calibration of the retained gas sampler (RGS) for ammonia gas analysis. Simulant solutions of ammonium hydroxide at known concentrations will be diluted with isotopically labeled 0.04 M ammonium hydroxide solution. Sea sand solids will also be mixed with ammonium hydroxide solution and diluent to determine the accuracy of the system for ammonia gas analysis.

  12. USE OF PASSIVE SAMPLERS IN THE DEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) employs a number of passive diffusion-based samplers for the collection of select gaseous air pollutants. These pollutants include criteria gases such as ozone, carbonyls such as acrolein, and volatile organics such as 1-3, ...

  13. Quantum Gibbs Samplers: The Commuting Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastoryano, Michael J.; Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the problem of preparing quantum Gibbs states of lattice spin Hamiltonians with local and commuting terms on a quantum computer and in nature. Our central result is an equivalence between the behavior of correlations in the Gibbs state and the mixing time of the semigroup which drives the system to thermal equilibrium (the Gibbs sampler). We introduce a framework for analyzing the correlation and mixing properties of quantum Gibbs states and quantum Gibbs samplers, which is rooted in the theory of non-commutative {mathbb{L}_p} spaces. We consider two distinct classes of Gibbs samplers, one of them being the well-studied Davies generator modelling the dynamics of a system due to weak-coupling with a large Markovian environment. We show that their spectral gap is independent of system size if, and only if, a certain strong form of clustering of correlations holds in the Gibbs state. Therefore every Gibbs state of a commuting Hamiltonian that satisfies clustering of correlations in this strong sense can be prepared efficiently on a quantum computer. As concrete applications of our formalism, we show that for every one-dimensional lattice system, or for systems in lattices of any dimension at temperatures above a certain threshold, the Gibbs samplers of commuting Hamiltonians are always gapped, giving an efficient way of preparing the associated Gibbs states on a quantum computer.

  14. 7 CFR 29.20 - Sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sampler. 29.20 Section 29.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  15. 7 CFR 29.20 - Sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sampler. 29.20 Section 29.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS...

  16. Ohio Sampler: Outdoor and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballbach, Joann, Ed.

    This document provides practical suggestions and meaningful activities for implementing Ohio's model curriculum in science for instruction that emphasizes hands-on experience and diverse learning opportunities. It also includes a variety of nonscience activities that emphasize and utilize the outdoors. This Sampler lists activities by indoor or…

  17. South Philadelphia Passive Sampler and Sensor Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Starting in June 2013, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the City of Philadelphia Air Measurements Services began collaborative research on the use of passive samplers (PSs) and stand-alone air measurement (SAM) systems to improve information on the...

  18. Comparison between light scattering and gravimetric samplers for PM10 mass concentration in poultry and pig houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambra-López, María; Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Aarnink, André J. A.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare co-located real-time light scattering devices and equivalent gravimetric samplers in poultry and pig houses for PM10 mass concentration, and to develop animal-specific calibration factors for light scattering samplers. These results will contribute to evaluate the comparability of different sampling instruments for PM10 concentrations. Paired DustTrak light scattering device (DustTrak aerosol monitor, TSI, U.S.) and PM10 gravimetric cyclone sampler were used for measuring PM10 mass concentrations during 24 h periods (from noon to noon) inside animal houses. Sampling was conducted in 32 animal houses in the Netherlands, including broilers, broiler breeders, layers in floor and in aviary system, turkeys, piglets, growing-finishing pigs in traditional and low emission housing with dry and liquid feed, and sows in individual and group housing. A total of 119 pairs of 24 h measurements (55 for poultry and 64 for pigs) were recorded and analyzed using linear regression analysis. Deviations between samplers were calculated and discussed. In poultry, cyclone sampler and DustTrak data fitted well to a linear regression, with a regression coefficient equal to 0.41, an intercept of 0.16 mg m-3 and a correlation coefficient of 0.91 (excluding turkeys). Results in turkeys showed a regression coefficient equal to 1.1 (P = 0.49), an intercept of 0.06 mg m-3 (P < 0.0001) and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. In pigs, we found a regression coefficient equal to 0.61, an intercept of 0.05 mg m-3 and a correlation coefficient of 0.84. Measured PM10 concentrations using DustTraks were clearly underestimated (approx. by a factor 2) in both poultry and pig housing systems compared with cyclone pre-separators. Absolute, relative, and random deviations increased with concentration. DustTrak light scattering devices should be self-calibrated to investigate PM10 mass concentrations accurately in animal houses. We recommend linear regression

  19. Hebes Chasma Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in Hebes Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.4, Longitude 286.6 East (73.4 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. A New Miniature Respirable Sampler for In-mask Sampling: Part 1— Particle Size Selection Performance

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Peter; Thorpe, Andrew; Mogridge, Rhiannon; Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The Health and Safety Laboratory has developed a miniature respirable sampler to gain a better understanding of the exposure of workers to hazardous substances when they are wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE) or helmets with visors in the workplace. The study was in two parts and the first part, described herein, was to develop the sampler and test its collection characteristics. Assessment of the impact of the sampler on RPE safety and its comparability with traditional laboratory-based approaches to measure protection factors was discussed in a second article. The miniature sampler (weight—5.4 g, length—13 mm) was designed to ft into the space available between the nose and chin of an individual inside a filtering facepiece type mask and has a radially omnidirectional inlet with a porous foam particle selector that allows the collection of the respirable fraction on a downstream filter. The sampling efficiency was compared with the respirable convention. A close match with the respirable convention was obtained at a flow rate of 1 l min−1 and the 50% penetration cut off value (d50) was 4.08 μm. After 3 hours sampling in high humidity (95%), the penetration curve had shifted towards smaller particle sizes (d50 = 3.81 μm) with 88% of the calculated bias values within 10%. The miniature sampler measured respirable dust and crystalline silica mass concentrations comparable with performance of the Safety In Mines Personal Dust Sampler (SIMPEDS), commonly used in Great Britain, at a flow rate of 0.8 l min−1. The d50 for the miniature sampler at 0.8 l min−1 (4.4 μm) is within 5% of the d50 of the SIMPEDS at its prescribed flow rate of 2.2 l min−1 (4.2 μm). These results indicated that the miniature sampler was a good candidate to proceed with tests with RPE described in the second part of this series of two papers. PMID:27630151

  1. Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Crater wall dust avalanches in southern Arabia Terra.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 10.3, Longitude 24.5 East (335.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  2. Cosmic dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, Donald E.; Sandford, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    Dust is a ubiquitous component of our galaxy and the solar system. The collection and analysis of extraterrestrial dust particles is important to exobiology because it provides information about the sources of biogenically significant elements and compounds that accumulated in distant regions of the solar nebula and that were later accreted on the planets. The topics discussed include the following: general properties of interplanetary dust; the carbonaceous component of interplanetary dust particles; and the presence of an interstellar component.

  3. Evaluation of passive diffusion bag samplers, dialysis samplers, and nylon-screen samplers in selected wells at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, March-April 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Joshi, Manish; Morrell, Jeff; Peterson, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    During March-April 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Tech, and EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, tested diffusion samplers at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. Samplers were deployed in three wells at the Main Base and two wells at Marianas Bonins (MARBO) Annex as potential ground-water monitoring alternatives. Prior to sampler deployment, the wells were tested using a borehole flowmeter to characterize vertical flow within each well. Three types of diffusion samplers were tested: passive diffusion bag (PDB) samplers, dialysis samplers, and nylon-screen samplers. The primary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tested in ground water at Andersen Air Force Base were trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene. In most comparisons, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene concentrations in PDB samples closely matched concentrations in pumped samples. Exceptions were in wells where the pumping or ambient flow produced vertical translocation of water in a chemically stratified aquifer. In these wells, PDB samplers probably would be a viable alternative sampling method if they were placed at appropriate depths. In the remaining three test wells, the trichloroethene or tetrachloroethene concentrations obtained with the diffusion samplers closely matched the result from pumped sampling. Chloride concentrations in nylon-screen samplers were compared with chloride concentrations in dialysis and pumped samples to test inorganic-solute diffusion into the samplers across a range of concentrations. The test showed that the results from nylon-screen samplers might have underestimated chloride concentrations at depths with elevated chloride concentrations. The reason for the discrepancy in this investigation is unknown, but may be related to nylon-screen-mesh size, which was smaller than that used in previous investigations.

  4. Deposition Rates and Characterization of Arabian Mineral Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthan Purakkal, J.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Engelbrecht, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne mineral dust directly and indirectly impacts on global climate, continental and marine biochemistry, human and animal health, agriculture, equipment, and visibility. Annual global dust emissions are poorly known with estimates differing by a factor of at least two. Local dust emission and deposition rates are even less quantified. Dust deposition rate is a key parameter, which helps to constrain the modeled dust budget of the atmosphere. However, dust deposition remains poorly known, due to the limited number of reliable measurements. Simulations and satellite observations suggest that coastal dusts contribute substantially to the total deposition flux into the Red Sea. Starting December 2014, deposition samplers, both the "frisbee" type, and passive samplers for individual particle scanning electron microscopy were deployed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), along the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. Sampling periods of one month were adopted. The deposition rates range from 3 g m-2 month-1 for fair weather conditions to 23 g m-2 month-1 for high dust events. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of deposited dust samples show mineralogical compositions different from any of the parent soils, the former consisting mainly of gypsum, calcite, and smaller amounts of albite, montmorillonite, chlorite, quartz and biotite. The deposited dust samples on the other hand contain more gypsum and less quartz than the previously collected soil samples. This presentation discusses the results from XRD, chemical analysis and SEM-based individual particle analysis of the soils and the deposited dust samples. The monthly dust accumulation rates and their seasonal and spatial variability are compared with the regional model predictions. Data from this study provide an observational basis for validating the regional dust mass balance along the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain.

  5. An automatic isokinetic sampler for particulate emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines. Final report Feb 75-Jun 78

    SciTech Connect

    Dehne, H.

    1980-01-01

    An automated isokinetic sampler for evaluating particulate emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines was designed, constructed and tested. The sampler is capable of collecting the particulate mass emitted by an aircraft gas turbine at the exit plane (non-afterburner operation) for gravimetric measurements and permits simultaneous on-line particle size distribution measurements to be performed. The particulate is collected on a fiber glass filter for gravimetric measurement. The size distribution is determined by conditioning the gas turbine exhaust gases and passing them through a mobility particulate size distribution analyzer. The sampler has two-axis traverse capability and a maximum sampling capability of 226 1/min (8 scfm). Test data are automatically recorded. Control of the sampler is by means of 12-bit microprocessor. Preliminary tests were performed at the Naval Air Rework Facility, Alameda, California, at various construction stages of the sampler to evaluate its performance and to measure the effects of fuel additives on particulate emissions on a TF41 gas turbine engine.

  6. Circumstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, E.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of dust in the general interstellar medium is inferred from the extinction, polarization, and scattering of starlight; the presence of dark nebulae; interstellar depletions; the observed infrared emission around certain stars and various types of interstellar clouds. Interstellar grains are subject to various destruction mechanisms that reduce their size or even completely destroy them. A continuous source of newly formed dust must therefore be present for dust to exist in the various phases of the interstellar medium (ISM). The working group has the following goals: (1) review the evidences for the formation of dust in the various sources; (2) examine the clues to the nature and composition of the dust; (3) review the status of grain formation theories; (4) examine any evidence for the processing of the dust prior to its injection into the interstellar medium; and (5) estimate the relative contribution of the various sources to the interstellar dust population.

  7. Three-Wheel Brush-Wheel Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duckworth, Geoffrey A.; Liu, Jun; Brown, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    A new sampler is similar to a common snow blower, but is robust and effective in sample collection. The brush wheels are arranged in a triangle shape, each driven by a brushless DC motor and planetary gearhead embedded in the wheel shaft. Its speed can be varied from 800 - 2,000 rpm, depending on the surface regolith resistance. The sample-collecting flow path, and internal features, are designed based on flow dynamics, and the sample-collecting rates have consistently exceeded the requirement under various conditions that span the range of expected surface properties. The brush-wheel sampler (BWS) is designed so that the flow channel is the main body of the apparatus, and links the brush-wheel assembly to the sample canister. The combination of the three brush wheels, the sample flow path, and the canister location make sample collection, storage, and transfer an easier task.

  8. Dual-Sampler Processor Digitizes CCD Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Circuit for processing output of charge-coupled device (CCD) imager provides increased time for analog-to-digital conversion, thereby reducing bandwidth required for video processing. Instead of one sampleand-hold circuit of conventional processor, improved processor includes two sample-and-hold circuits alternated with each other. Dual-sampler processor operates with lower bandwidth and with timing requirements less stringent than those of single-sample processor.

  9. Development of a passive sampler for gaseous mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustin, M. S.; Lyman, S. N.; Kilner, P.; Prestbo, E.

    2011-10-01

    Here we describe work toward development of the components of a cost effective passive sampling system for gaseous Hg that could be broadly deployed by nontechnical staff. The passive sampling system included an external shield to reduce turbulence and exposure to precipitation and dust, a diffusive housing that directly protects the collection surface during deployment and handling, and a collection surface. A protocol for cleaning and deploying the sampler and an analytical method were developed. Our final design consisted of a polycarbonate external shield enclosing a custom diffusive housing made from expanded PTFE tubing. Two collection surfaces were investigated, gold sputter-coated quartz plates and silver wires. Research showed the former would require extensive quality control for use, while the latter had interferences with other atmosphere constituents. Although the gold surface exhibited the best performance over space and time, gradual passivation would limit reuse. For both surfaces lack of contamination during shipping, deployment and storage indicated that the handling protocols developed worked well with nontechnical staff. We suggest that the basis for this passive sampling system is sound, but further exploration and development of a reliable collection surface is needed.

  10. A wind tunnel test of newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-07-01

    In this study the performance of two newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers was evaluated. The two test samplers are cyclone-based personal samplers that incorporate a recirculating liquid film. The performance evaluations focused on the physical efficiencies that a personal bioaerosol sampler could provide, including aspiration, collection, and capture efficiencies. The evaluation tests were carried out in a wind tunnel, and the test personal samplers were mounted on the chest of a full-size manikin placed in the test chamber of the wind tunnel. Monodisperse fluorescent aerosols ranging from 0.5 to 20 microm were used to challenge the samplers. Two wind speeds of 0.5 and 2.0 m/sec were employed as the test wind speeds in this study. The test results indicated that the aspiration efficiency of the two test samplers closely agreed with the ACGIH inhalable convention within the size range of the test aerosols. The aspiration efficiency was found to be independent of the sampling orientation. The collection efficiency acquired from these two samplers showed that the 50% cutoff diameters were both around 0.6 microm. However the wall loss of these two test samplers increased as the aerosol size increased, and the wall loss of PAS-4 was considerably higher than that of PAS-5, especially in the aerosol size larger than 5 microm, which resulted in PAS-4 having a relatively lower capture efficiency than PAS-5. Overall, the PAS-5 is considered a better personal bioaerosol sampler than the PAS-4.

  11. Formed Core Sampler Hydraulic Conductivity Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. H.; Reigel, M. M.

    2012-09-25

    A full-scale formed core sampler was designed and functionally tested for use in the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to compare properties of the formed core samples and core drilled samples taken from adjacent areas in the full-scale sampler. While several physical properties were evaluated, the primary property of interest was hydraulic conductivity. Differences in hydraulic conductivity between the samples from the formed core sampler and those representing the bulk material were noted with respect to the initial handling and storage of the samples. Due to testing conditions, the site port samples were exposed to uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions prior to testing whereas the formed core samples were kept in sealed containers with minimal exposure to an uncontrolled environment prior to testing. Based on the results of the testing, no significant differences in porosity or density were found between the formed core samples and those representing the bulk material in the test stand.

  12. Thin layer chromatography residue applicator sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nunes, Peter J.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Haas, Jeffrey S.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2007-07-24

    A thin layer chromatograph residue applicator sampler. The residue applicator sampler provides for rapid analysis of samples containing high explosives, chemical warfare, and other analyses of interest under field conditions. This satisfied the need for a field-deployable, small, hand-held, all-in-one device for efficient sampling, sample dissolution, and sample application to an analytical technique. The residue applicator sampler includes a sampling sponge that is resistant to most chemicals and is fastened via a plastic handle in a hermetically sealed tube containing a known amount of solvent. Upon use, the wetted sponge is removed from the sealed tube and used as a swiping device across an environmental sample. The sponge is then replaced in the hermetically sealed tube where the sample remains contained and dissolved in the solvent. A small pipette tip is removably contained in the hermetically sealed tube. The sponge is removed and placed into the pipette tip where a squeezing-out of the dissolved sample from the sponge into the pipette tip results in a droplet captured in a vial for later instrumental analysis, or applied directly to a thin layer chromatography plate for immediate analysis.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dust emitted from stoker - fired boilers.

    PubMed

    Kozielska, B; Konieczynski, J

    2007-08-01

    In the present paper, results of investigations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in granulometric fractions of dust, emitted from 9 hard coal fired mechanic stoker boilers, are presented. Exhaust gases were sampled with a Mark III dust sampler. Extracts derived from the dust fractions were analysed by using Gas Chromatography (GC). The 16 PAHs, total PAHs and equivalent benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) were determined. Results of measurements averaged over all examined boilers are presented as concentrations, contents and contributions of investigated hydrocarbons to particular standardised fractions of dust classified according to particle sizes. Distributions of PAHs and their profiles in the dust fractions were determined. The emission factors for B(a)P and Toxic Equivalent B(a)P (TE B(a)P) were determined and proved to be several times higher than for pulverised fuel fired boilers. In the emitted dust, 73% of the total PAHs most hazardous to human health are comprised in PM1.

  14. Longwall dust sources and controls: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Colinet, J.F.; Jayaraman, N.I.; Mcnider, T.E.; Marston, W.T.

    1993-12-31

    The Bureau of Mines (BOM) and Jim Walter Resources entered into an agreement to evaluate BOM dust control research at Jim Walter`s No.7 Mine. The initial step in this agreement called for the BOM to conduct dust source surveys on the two longwall sections at No.7 Mine to identify the relative contribution of the various dust sources and determine the effectiveness of the control parameters in use. Instantaneous and gravimetric dust samplers were used with mobile and fixed-point sampling strategies to isolate different dust sources and determine the relative contribution from each source. In addition, water flow measurements, air flow measurements, run-of-mine coal samples, cutting procedures, and time study information were collected to supplement analysis of the dust data. A description of these sampling procedures is presented and offers insight into methodologies which can be used to isolate dust sources. The dust source evaluation indicated that dust generation on these longwall faces was well controlled and that no individual source contributed a disproportionate amount of dust. The low levels of dust generation were attributed to the level at which the primary control parameters, airflow and water flow, were applied on these faces. A discussion of the control parameters and resulting dust levels is presented. In addition, proximate analysis of the run-of-mine samples shows that the moist fuel ratio of the coal at No.7 Mine indicates that the coal is inherently less dusty relative to other coals.

  15. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FLOOR DUST SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting a floor dust sample from carpet. Dust samples will be collected in the room that the child uses most at home and/or at day care using a High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS3). In addition, participants will also be asked to donate a ...

  16. Dust: a metric for use in residential and building exposure assessment and source characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Paul J; Freeman, Natalie C G; Millette, James R

    2002-01-01

    In this review, we examine house dust and residential soil and their use for identifying sources and the quantifying levels of toxicants for the estimation of exposure. We answer critical questions that focus on the selection of samples or sampling strategies for collection and discuss areas of uncertainty and gaps in knowledge. We discuss the evolution of dust sampling with a special emphasis on work conducted after the publication of the 1992 review by McArthur [Appl Occup Environ Hyg 7(9):599-606 (1992)]. The approaches to sampling dust examined include surface wipe sampling, vacuum sampling, and other sampling approaches, including attic sampling. The metrics of presentation of results for toxicants in dust surface loading (micrograms per square centimeter) or surface concentration (micrograms per gram) are discussed. We evaluate these metrics in terms of how the information can be used in source characterization and in exposure characterization. We discuss the types of companion information on source use and household or personal activity patterns required to assess the significance of the dust exposure. The status and needs for wipe samplers, surface samplers, and vacuum samplers are summarized with some discussion on the strengths and weaknesses of each type of sampler. We also discuss needs for research and development and the current status of standardization. Case studies are provided to illustrate the use of house dust and residential soil in source characterization, forensic analyses, or human exposure assessment. PMID:12361921

  17. A miniature flexible sampler for subsurface lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yun; Lu, Wei; Xiong, Pengwen; Song, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    Lunar subsurface sampling is one of the critical technologies in the advancement of space exploration, and a lunar sampler with low weight, small volume, and low power consumption would significantly reduce the cost of space exploration. Thus, this paper proposes a novel miniature lunar sampler which adopts a flexible tape spring as its sampling arm. Compared with existing rigid-arm samplers, the proposed sampler has the merits of very low weight, reduced volume, and little power consumption. The mechanical design is illustrated in detail, the corresponding flexible kinematics model is built by considering flexibility compensation, and the working space of the sampler is depicted. The performance, e.g. the maximum acceleration, the maximum load capacity, and the sampling depth of the flexible arm, is analyzed through experiments, and each limit is established. In addition, the sampling process is demonstrated with the lab-based experiments, and the feasibility of the sampler is verified.

  18. Evaluation of three portable samplers for monitoring airborne fungi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Airborne fungi were monitored at five sample sites with the Burkard portable, the RCS Plus, and the SAS Super 90 air samplers; the Andersen 2-stage impactor was used for comparison. All samplers were calibrated before being used simultaneously to collect 100-liter samples at each site. The Andersen and Burkard samplers retrieved equivalent volumes of airborne fungi; the SAS Super 90 and RCS Plus measurements did not differ from each other but were significantly lower than those obtained with the Andersen or Burkard samplers. Total fungal counts correlated linearly with Cladosporium and Penicillium counts. Alternaria species, although present at all sites, did not correlate with total count or with amounts of any other fungal genera. Sampler and location significantly influenced fungal counts, but no interactions between samplers and locations were found.

  19. Protoplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, D.´niel; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2014-02-01

    Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

  20. Comparison of water-quality samples collected by siphon samplers and automatic samplers in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Steur, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    In small streams, flow and water-quality concentrations often change quickly in response to meteorological events. Hydrologists, field technicians, or locally hired stream ob- servers involved in water-data collection are often unable to reach streams quickly enough to observe or measure these rapid changes. Therefore, in hydrologic studies designed to describe changes in water quality, a combination of manual and automated sampling methods have commonly been used manual methods when flow is relatively stable and automated methods when flow is rapidly changing. Auto- mated sampling, which makes use of equipment programmed to collect samples in response to changes in stage and flow of a stream, has been shown to be an effective method of sampling to describe the rapid changes in water quality (Graczyk and others, 1993). Because of the high cost of automated sampling, however, especially for studies examining a large number of sites, alternative methods have been considered for collecting samples during rapidly changing stream conditions. One such method employs the siphon sampler (fig. 1). also referred to as the "single-stage sampler." Siphon samplers are inexpensive to build (about $25- $50 per sampler), operate, and maintain, so they are cost effective to use at a large number of sites. Their ability to collect samples representing the average quality of water passing though the entire cross section of a stream, however, has not been fully demonstrated for many types of stream sites.

  1. Applicability of polar organic compound integrative samplers for monitoring pesticides in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Berho, Catherine; Togola, Anne; Coureau, Charlotte; Ghestem, Jean-Philippe; Amalric, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) for the monitoring of polar pesticides in groundwater were tested on two sites in order to evaluate their applicability by comparison with the spot-sampling approach. This preliminary study shows that, as in surface water, POCIS is a useful tool, especially for the screening of substances at low concentration levels that are not detected by laboratory analysis of spot samples. For quantitative results, a rough estimation is obtained. The challenge is now to define the required water-flow conditions for a relevant quantification of pesticides in groundwater and to establish more representative sampling rates for groundwater.

  2. Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Miller, W.O.; Unal, C.; Fujita, R.K.

    1995-01-13

    This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space.

  3. China Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... SpectroRadiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images of eastern China compare a somewhat hazy summer view from July 9, 2000 (left) with a ... arid and sparsely vegetated surfaces of Mongolia and western China pick up large quantities of yellow dust. Airborne dust clouds from the ...

  4. Andromeda's dust

    SciTech Connect

    Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G.; Krause, Oliver; Groves, Brent; Sandstrom, Karin; Klaas, Ulrich; Linz, Hendrik; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schmiedeke, Anika; Walter, Fabian; Braun, Robert; Leroy, Adam E-mail: ganiano@ias.u-psud.fr

    2014-01-10

    Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory imaging of M31 is used, with a physical dust model, to construct maps of dust surface density, dust-to-gas ratio, starlight heating intensity, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance, out to R ≈ 25 kpc. The global dust mass is M {sub d} = 5.4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, the global dust/H mass ratio is M {sub d}/M {sub H} = 0.0081, and the global PAH abundance is (q {sub PAH}) = 0.039. The dust surface density has an inner ring at R = 5.6 kpc, a maximum at R = 11.2 kpc, and an outer ring at R ≈ 15.1 kpc. The dust/gas ratio varies from M {sub d}/M {sub H} ≈ 0.026 at the center to ∼0.0027 at R ≈ 25 kpc. From the dust/gas ratio, we estimate the interstellar medium metallicity to vary by a factor ∼10, from Z/Z {sub ☉} ≈ 3 at R = 0 to ∼0.3 at R = 25 kpc. The dust heating rate parameter (U) peaks at the center, with (U) ≈ 35, declining to (U) ≈ 0.25 at R = 20 kpc. Within the central kiloparsec, the starlight heating intensity inferred from the dust modeling is close to what is estimated from the stars in the bulge. The PAH abundance reaches a peak q {sub PAH} ≈ 0.045 at R ≈ 11.2 kpc. When allowance is made for the different spectrum of the bulge stars, q {sub PAH} for the dust in the central kiloparsec is similar to the overall value of q {sub PAH} in the disk. The silicate-graphite-PAH dust model used here is generally able to reproduce the observed dust spectral energy distribution across M31, but overpredicts 500 μm emission at R ≈ 2-6 kpc, suggesting that at R = 2-6 kpc, the dust opacity varies more steeply with frequency (with β ≈ 2.3 between 200 and 600 μm) than in the model.

  5. High efficiency CIP 10-I personal inhalable aerosol sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görner, P.; Wrobel, R.; Simon, X.

    2009-02-01

    The CIP 10 personal aerosol sampler was first developed by Courbon for sampling the respirable fraction of mining dust. This respirable aerosol sampler was further improved by Fabries, then selectors for sampling thoracic and inhalable aerosols were designed. Kenny et al. evaluated the particle-size dependent sampling efficiency of the inhalable version in a large-scale wind tunnel using a life-size dummy. The authors found that the overall sampling efficiency decreases more rapidly than the CEN-ISO-ACGIH target efficiency curve. Görner and Witschger measured the aspiration efficiency of the CIP 10 omni-directional inlet. They found that the aspiration efficiency was high enough for inhalable aerosol sampling. This result led to the conclusion that the low sampling efficiency is due to some internal losses of the aspirated particles before they reach the final sampling stage, namely the CIP 10 rotating filter. Based on the assumption that the inhalable particles are selected at selector aspiration level, an experimental research project was conducted to improve particle transmission to the collection stage of the sampler. Two different inhalable selectors were designed by Görner and tested in a laboratory wind tunnel. The transmission efficiency of both models was measured by Roger following an experimental protocol described by Witschger. The T-shaped air flow circuit was finally adopted to draw the aspirated particles into the final collection stage of the CIP 10. Actually, in this selector, the almost horizontally aspirated particles should be conducted vertically to the rotating cup. In two previous prototypes, particles could be deposited in certain places by inertia (where the aerosol was forced to deviate drastically) or by sedimentation (where the aerosol decelerated). The aerodynamic behaviour of the adopted solution causes the particles to accelerate radially between two horizontal plates before they enter a vertical tube. This acceleration avoids the

  6. Tikhonravov Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located within a small crater inside Tikhonravov Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.6, Longitude 37.1 East (322.9 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Lycus Sulci Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches occur on the slopes of Lycus Sulci near Olympus Mons.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 28.1, Longitude 220.4 East (139.6 West). 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in a small canyon within a crater rim northeast of Naktong Vallis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 7.1, Longitude 34.7 East (325.3 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Crater Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    This region of dust avalanches is located in and around a crater to the west of yesterday's image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.7, Longitude 32.7 East (327.3 West). 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Improvement and characterization of an automatic aerosol sampler for remote (glacier) sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preunkert, Susanne; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Legrand, Michel

    An automatic prototype aerosol sampler has been specifically revised to gain reliable year round data sets of the chemical aerosol composition at high Alpine ice core drill sites. An unattended deployment of the new aerosol sampler at the Vallot Observatory (4361 m a.s.l., French Alps) showed that previous shortcoming such as sensitivity to lightning activities and strong passive sampling effects were successfully overcome. The latter effect was almost eliminated, leading to an improvement of the detection limits by up to a factor of 30. Detailed investigations of the blank variability and sampling characteristics revealed that the new sampler allows to quantify the aerosol species NH 4+, SO 42-, K +, oxalate as well as total Cl - and total NO 3-. In addition records of Na +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ can be provided though systematically underestimated. On the other hand unreliable results are derived for formate, acetate and SO 2. Considering a bi-weekly sampling interval, detection limits range from 0.2 to 2 ng m -3 STP (except for Na +: 16 ng m -3 STP). Such a detection limit is also accessible for Na + if PTFE filters are used. The aerosol data set gained at Vallot Observatory allowed preliminary estimates of mean firn/air ratios for NH 4+, SO 42- and total NO 3-. The air/firn relationship appeared to be consistent compared to other high elevation ice core drilling sites. With the improved detection limits at still minimized energy consumption, a year round deployment of the automatic aerosol sampler appears now to be feasible even at polar glacier sites.

  11. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Cody, G.; Ferroir, T.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grün, E.; Hoppe, P.; Kearsley, A.; Lemelle, L.; Leroux, H.; Lettieri, R.; Marchant, W.; Mendez, B.; Nittler, L. R.; Ogliore, R.; Postberg, F.; Sandford, S. A.; Schmitz, S.; Silversmit, G.; Simionovici, A.; Srama, R.; Stadermann, F. J.; Stephan, T.; Stroud, R. M.; Susini, J.; Sutton, S.; Trieloff, M.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Tyliczszak, T.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; Warren, J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2009-03-01

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE.

  12. Silicone Wristbands as Personal Passive Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Active-sampling approaches are commonly used for personal monitoring, but are limited by energy usage and data that may not represent an individual’s exposure or bioavailable concentrations. Current passive techniques often involve extensive preparation, or are developed for only a small number of targeted compounds. In this work, we present a novel application for measuring bioavailable exposure with silicone wristbands as personal passive samplers. Laboratory methodology affecting precleaning, infusion, and extraction were developed from commercially available silicone, and chromatographic background interference was reduced after solvent cleanup with good extraction efficiency (>96%). After finalizing laboratory methods, 49 compounds were sequestered during an ambient deployment which encompassed a diverse set of compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), consumer products, personal care products, pesticides, phthalates, and other industrial compounds ranging in log Kow from −0.07 (caffeine) to 9.49 (tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate). In two hot asphalt occupational settings, silicone personal samplers sequestered 25 PAHs during 8- and 40-h exposures, as well as 2 oxygenated-PAHs (benzofluorenone and fluorenone) suggesting temporal sensitivity over a single work day or week (p < 0.05, power =0.85). Additionally, the amount of PAH sequestered differed between worksites (p < 0.05, power = 0.99), suggesting spatial sensitivity using this novel application. PMID:24548134

  13. Development of syringe pump assisted headspace sampler.

    PubMed

    Go, Un Jeong; Eom, In-Yong

    2014-09-26

    This report describes a new platform for headspace sampling technique, i.e. a syringe pump assisted headspace sampler (SPHS). The stand type pump's syringe itself was used as a sealed sample vial and a needle trap device (NTD) was adopted as a miniaturized sorbent tube. The NTD was directly used to inject trapped VOCs into a gas chromatograph. The proposed sampler was designed to take a whole headspace volume instead of a portion of it so as to enhance easily the extraction efficiency. The performance of the SPHS-NTD system was evaluated and compared with the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a static headspace (HS) sampling technique. Calibration curves were obtained for aqueous TEX (toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene) solutions in the concentration range of ∼0.1-45 ng/mL. The calculated limit of detections (LOD, S/N=3) for TEX were 0.13 ng/mL or less. This SPHS-NTD was successfully applied to analyze aqueous TEX in river water samples and showed highly good recovery ranged from 97.2% to 105.8% for all tested VOCs.

  14. OVERVIEW OF AN INTEGRATIVE SAMPLER FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Anthropogenic pollution is recognized as a global problem contributing to degradation of ecosystem quality, to loss of numerous plant and animal species, and to adverse impacts on human health. There is an increasing realization that a holistic hazard assessment of complex environmental contaminant mixtures requires data on the concentrations of hydrophilic organic contaminants as well. An approach to provide a time-weighted average (TWA) assessment is critical in understanding organism exposure to the complex mixture of pollutants present in the environment. A recently developed device, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), is designed to integratively sample the more polar waterborne organic chemicals. Laboratory trials and field deployments have demonstrated that the POCIS is very effective for sequestering hydrophilic chemicals such as antibiotics, hormones, other pharmaceutically derived chemicals, polar pesticides, surfactants, etc. Environmentally derived sample extracts from the integrative samplers are readily amenable for assays utilizing bio-indicator tests. An overview of the POCIS and selected environmental applications will be presented. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and

  15. Silicone wristbands as personal passive samplers.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Steven G; Kincl, Laurel D; Anderson, Kim A

    2014-03-18

    Active-sampling approaches are commonly used for personal monitoring, but are limited by energy usage and data that may not represent an individual's exposure or bioavailable concentrations. Current passive techniques often involve extensive preparation, or are developed for only a small number of targeted compounds. In this work, we present a novel application for measuring bioavailable exposure with silicone wristbands as personal passive samplers. Laboratory methodology affecting precleaning, infusion, and extraction were developed from commercially available silicone, and chromatographic background interference was reduced after solvent cleanup with good extraction efficiency (>96%). After finalizing laboratory methods, 49 compounds were sequestered during an ambient deployment which encompassed a diverse set of compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), consumer products, personal care products, pesticides, phthalates, and other industrial compounds ranging in log K(ow) from -0.07 (caffeine) to 9.49 (tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate). In two hot asphalt occupational settings, silicone personal samplers sequestered 25 PAHs during 8- and 40-h exposures, as well as 2 oxygenated-PAHs (benzofluorenone and fluorenone) suggesting temporal sensitivity over a single work day or week (p < 0.05, power =0.85). Additionally, the amount of PAH sequestered differed between worksites (p < 0.05, power = 0.99), suggesting spatial sensitivity using this novel application.

  16. COMPARISON OF INTEGRATED SAMPLERS FOR MASS AND COMPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of EPA's Atlanta Supersites Project was to compare and evaluate a wide variety of samplers from time-integrated mass only monitors, to integrated and semi-continuous chemical speciation samplers, to single particle mass spectrometers. This paper will desc...

  17. Evaluation of a passive air sampler for measuring indoor formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Tae; Yim, Bongbeen; Jeong, Jaeho

    2007-04-01

    A passive air sampler, using 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole, was evaluated for the determination of formaldehyde in indoor environments. Chromatography paper cleaned using a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution was experimentally determined as being the optimum absorption filter for the collection of formaldehyde (0.05 microg cm(-2) formaldehyde). From a linear-regression analysis between the mass of formaldehyde time-collected on a passive air sampler and the formaldehyde concentration measured by an active sampler, the sampling rate of the passive air sampler was 1.52 L h(-1). The sampling rate, determined for the passive air sampler in relation to the temperature (19 - 28 degrees C) and the relative humidity (30 - 90%), were 1.56 +/- 0.04 and 1.58 +/- 0.07 L h(-1), respectively. The relationship between the sampling rate and the air velocity was a linear-regression within the observed range. In the case of exposed samplers, the stability of the collected formaldehyde decreased with increasing storage time (decrease of ca. 25% after 22 days); but with the unexposed samplers the stability of the blank remained relatively unchanged for 7 days (decrease of ca. 37% after 22 days). The detection limits for the passive air sampler with an exposure time of 1 day and 7 days were 10.4 and 1.48 microg m(-3), respectively.

  18. Discipline-Based Art Education: A Curriculum Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kay, Ed.; Day, Michael, Ed.

    This sampler was designed for art specialists and art museum educators with a basic understanding of teaching discipline-based art education content. The introduction offers a brief history of the Sampler and explains its intended purpose and use. Then 8 unit models with differing methodologies for relating art objectives to the four disciplines:…

  19. Exposure to inhalable flour dust in Canadian flour mills.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Eva A

    2003-12-01

    In 1999, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) proposed a Threshold Limit Value (TLV(R)) of 0.5 mg/m(3) for flour dust with a sensitization notation. The Labour Program of the Department of Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC), following notice of the intention to set a TLV, conducted a study of the levels of exposure to flour dust in flour mills across Canada to verify existing conditions, as well as to decide whether to adopt the proposed TLV or reference some other value. As part of the study, a relationship between flour dust concentrations obtained by using Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) samplers and closed-face 37-mm cassettes was examined and the literature on the health effects of exposure to flour dust was reviewed. A total of 104 millers, packers, sweepers, bakery mix operators, and others (mixed tasks) from 14 flour mills were sampled over an 8-hour work shift using IOM samplers. The results indicate that 101 employees (97.1%) were exposed to levels exceeding 0.5 mg/m(3), 66 employees (67.3%) to levels exceeding 5 mg/m(3), and 44 employees (42.3%) to levels exceeding 10 mg/m(3). For comparison purposes, flour dust measurements were also taken in a highly automated flour mill using state-of-the-art technology. The results suggest that even with the most up-to-date technology and proper cleaning operations in place, the flour milling industry may not be able to reduce the flour dust levels to below the TLV of 0.5 mg/m(3). According to the measurements of inhalable and total dust concentrations, the IOM sampler appears to be a more efficient collector of inhalable airborne particles up to 100 microm than the closed-face 37-mm cassette.

  20. Siting Samplers to Minimize Expected Time to Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Travis; Lorenzetti, David M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2012-05-02

    We present a probabilistic approach to designing an indoor sampler network for detecting an accidental or intentional chemical or biological release, and demonstrate it for a real building. In an earlier paper, Sohn and Lorenzetti(1) developed a proof of concept algorithm that assumed samplers could return measurements only slowly (on the order of hours). This led to optimal detect to treat architectures, which maximize the probability of detecting a release. This paper develops a more general approach, and applies it to samplers that can return measurements relatively quickly (in minutes). This leads to optimal detect to warn architectures, which minimize the expected time to detection. Using a model of a real, large, commercial building, we demonstrate the approach by optimizing networks against uncertain release locations, source terms, and sampler characteristics. Finally, we speculate on rules of thumb for general sampler placement.

  1. Byssinosis in a textile factory in Cameroon: a preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Takam, J; Nemery, B

    1988-01-01

    To assess the risk of byssinosis in a cotton textile factory in Cameroon a preliminary study was conducted on a random sample of 125 men from production areas and 68 men from non-production areas. Symptoms were assessed by a questionnaire, which also included questions regarding sleep; peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) was measured with a miniature peak flow meter at the end of a working day and total dust concentrations were assessed by static and personal sampling with Casella dust samplers giving values of 6.4 +/- 2.6 mg/m3 (m +/- SD) in production areas and 1.7 +/- 0.7 mg/m3 in control areas. Exposed subjects had significantly more symptoms (particularly in smokers) and lower PEF values than controls (408 +/- 961/min v 468 +/- 701/min, p less than 0.001). Twenty three exposed subjects (18%) reported chest tightness on returning to work after the weekly break (compared with one control, p less than 0.01). Subjects with byssinosis had lower PEF values than those without chest tightness (356 +/- 501/min v 426 +/- 951/min, p less than 0.01), more chronic bronchitis (52% v 6%, p less than 0.001), they were more often smokers (61% v 31%, p less than 0.05), and came generally, though not exclusively, from the opening carding spinning department with the highest concentrations of total dust (8 +/- 2 mg/m3) and an estimated prevalence of byssinosis of 28%. There were no significant differences in sleep related symptoms between the exposed and controls, though the 23 subjects with byssinosis tended to report more snoring (48%), early morning headache (48%), and sleep improvement over the working week (44%) than all the other subjects (28%, 24%, and 24% respectively, p less than 0.1). PMID:3219305

  2. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination IV: Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Analyses of Impact Features in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterworth, Anna L.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Frank, David R.; Allen, Carlton C.; Bechtel, Hans A.; Sandford, Scott A.; Tsou, Peter; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    We report the quantitative characterization by synchrotron soft X-ray spectroscopy of 31 potential impact features in the aerogel capture medium of the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector. Samples were analyzed in aerogel by acquiring high spatial resolution maps and high energy-resolution spectra of major rock-forming elements Mg, Al, Si, Fe, and others. We developed diagnostic screening tests to reject spacecraft secondary ejecta and terrestrial contaminants from further consideration as interstellar dust candidates. The results support an extraterrestrial origin for three interstellar candidates: I1043,1,30 (Orion) is a 3 pg particle with Mg-spinel, forsterite, and an iron-bearing phase. I1047,1,34 (Hylabrook) is a 4 pg particle comprising an olivine core surrounded by low-density, amorphous Mg-silicate and amorphous Fe, Cr, and Mn phases. I1003,1,40 (Sorok) has the track morphology of a high-speed impact, but contains no detectable residue that is convincingly distinguishable from the background aerogel. Twenty-two samples with an anthropogenic origin were rejected, including four secondary ejecta from impacts on the Stardust spacecraft aft solar panels, nine ejecta from secondary impacts on the Stardust Sample Return Capsule, and nine contaminants lacking evidence of an impact. Other samples in the collection included I1029,1,6, which contained surviving solar system impactor material. Four samples remained ambiguous: I1006,2,18, I1044,2,32, and I1092,2,38 were too dense for analysis, and we did not detect an intact projectile in I1044,3,33. We detected no radiation effects from the synchrotron soft X-ray analyses; however, we recorded the effects of synchrotron hard X-ray radiation on I1043,1,30 and I1047,1,34.

  3. Exozodiacal dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchner, Marc Jason

    Besides the sun, the most luminous feature of the solar system is a cloud of "zodiacal" dust released by asteroids and comets that pervades the region interior to the asteroid belt. Similar clouds of dust around other stars---exozodiacal clouds---may be the best tracers of the habitable zones of extra-solar planetary systems. This thesis discusses three searches for exozodiacal dust: (1) We observed six nearby main-sequence stars with the Keck telescope at 11.6 microns, correcting for atmosphere-induced wavefront aberrations and deconvolving the point spread function via classical speckle analysis. We compare our data to a simple model of the zodiacal dust in our own system based on COBE DIRBE observations and place upper limits on the density of exozodiacal dust in these systems. (2) We observed Sirius, Altair, and Procyon with the NICMOS Coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope to look for scattered light from exozodiacal dust and faint companions within 10 AU from these stars. (3) The planned nulling capability of the Keck Interferometer should allow it to probe the region <200 milliarcsecond from a bright star and to suppress on-axis starlight by factors of 10 -3 to reveal faint circumstellar material. We model the response of the Keck Interferometer to hypothetical exozodiacal clouds to derive detection limits that account for the effects of stellar leakage, photon noise, noise from null depth fluctuations, and the fact that the cloud's shape is not known a priori. We also discuss the interaction of dust with planets. We used the COBE DIRBE Sky and Zodi Atlas and the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas to search for dynamical signatures of three different planets in the solar system dust complex: (1) We searched the COBE DIRBE Sky and Zodi Atlas for a wake of dust trailing Mars. We compare the DIRBE images to a model Mars wake based on the empirical model of the Earth's wake as seen by the DIRBE. (2) We searched the COBE DIRRE Sky and Zodi Atlas for Tiojan dust near

  4. Field performance of the CATHIA-T sampler and two cyclones against the standard Cowled sampler for thoracic fiber concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Nelson, John; Hintz, Patrick J; Joy, Gerald; Andrew, Michael E; Harper, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The performance of two thoracic samplers, the GK2.69 cyclone and the CATHIA-T sampler, and the GK3.51 cyclone was investigated in the field against the standard cowled sampler (current NIOSH 7400 method) to determine the effect of thoracic sampling. The CATHIA-T sampler and the GK2.69 cyclone were operated at 7 and 1.6 l min(-1), respectively. The GK3.51 sampler is related to the GK2.69 cyclone, but designed to give a thoracic cut at a flow rate of 3.2 l min(-1). A total of 136 area samples were obtained from a tremolitic talc processing mill and 148 area samples were obtained within a quarry in which metamorphosed volcanic rocks were being crushed for construction stone. Sample slides were prepared using the dimethyl formamide/Euparal technique and relocatable cover slips. NIOSH 7400 'A' counting rules were used to examine fibers. Additionally, counters were asked to record the number of fibers where a fiber meets the 'A' rules and is wider than 3-mum physical diameter in order to estimate the proportion of extra-thoracic fibers. A few slides from each sampler type were randomly selected and fiber widths for those fibers satisfying the counting rules were measured to determine median width ratios of each thoracic sampler to the cowled sampler. Overall, the combined results of this study and the previous study by the same authors (Lee et al., 2008) showed lower fiber concentrations for the CATHIA-T sampler and higher concentrations for the GK2.69 cyclone and the GK3.51 cyclone compared to the standard cowled sampler. The proportion of extra-thoracic fibers (>3-mum physical diameter) on the filters collected with each type of thoracic samplers was comparable to the proportion of such fibers collected with the cowled sampler. The most consistent result over this study and our previous study is that both cyclones gave higher fiber concentrations than the CATHIA-T sampler. However, the estimated width ratios of each cyclone type to the cowled sampler were similar to or

  5. Calibration of nylon organic chemical integrative samplers and sentinel samplers for quantitative measurement of pulsed aquatic exposures.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B

    2016-06-03

    Environmental exposures often occur through short, pulsed events; therefore, the ability to accurately measure these toxicologically-relevant concentrations is important. Three different integrative passive sampler configurations were evaluated under different flow and pulsed exposure conditions for the measurement of current-use pesticides (n=19), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (n=10), and personal care products (n=5) spanning a broad range of hydrophobicities (log Kow 1.5-7.6). Two modified POCIS-style samplers were investigated using macroporous nylon mesh membranes (35μm pores) and two different sorbent materials (i.e. Oasis HLB and Dowex Optipore L-493). A recently developed design, the Sentinel Sampler (ABS Materials), utilizing Osorb media enclosed within stainless steel mesh (145μm pores), was also investigated. Relatively high sampling rates (Rs) were achieved for all sampler configurations during the short eight-day exposure (4300-27mL/d). Under flow conditions, median Rs were approximately 5-10 times higher for POCIS-style samplers and 27 times higher for Sentinel Samplers, as compared to static conditions. The ability of samplers to rapidly measure hydrophobic contaminants may be a trade off with increased flow dependence. Analyte accumulation was integrative under pulsed and continuous exposures for POCIS-style samplers with mean difference between treatments of 11% and 33%; however, accumulation into Sentinel Samplers was more variable. Collectively, results show that reducing membrane limitations allows for rapid, integrative accumulation of a broad range of analytes even under pulsed exposures. As such, these sampler designs may be suitable for monitoring environmental substances that have short aquatic half-lives.

  6. Comparison of surface-coal-mine respirable dust concentrations measured with MRE and personal gravimetric sampling equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, J.J.; Tomb, T.F.; Gadomski, R.R.; Custer, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    All coal mine respirable dust concentrations measured with approved personal respirable dust sampling instruments are converted to equivalent MRE sampler concentrations by multiplying by the factor 1.38. This conversion factor was determined from comparison measurements made in underground coal mine environments. This report describes the results of the Mine Safety and Health Administration's (MSHA) sampling of surface mining operations to determine if 1.38 is a valid factor for converting surface coal mine dust samples collected with approved personal samplers to equivalent MRE concentrations. Comparative measurements were obtained with the MRE and personal gravimetric dust samplers at a variety of surface mining operations and coal preparation plants. Regression analysis was used to derive a relationship between measurements obtained with the MRE and personal respirable dust samplers. The factor derived for surface measurements was within 9 percent of that derived for underground measurements. It was concluded that 1.38 is the most applicable factor to use for converting personal respirable dust measurements to equivalent MRE measurements.

  7. Gibbs Recursive Sampler: finding transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William; Rouchka, Eric C; Lawrence, Charles E

    2003-07-01

    The Gibbs Motif Sampler is a software package for locating common elements in collections of biopolymer sequences. In this paper we describe a new variation of the Gibbs Motif Sampler, the Gibbs Recursive Sampler, which has been developed specifically for locating multiple transcription factor binding sites for multiple transcription factors simultaneously in unaligned DNA sequences that may be heterogeneous in DNA composition. Here we describe the basic operation of the web-based version of this sampler. The sampler may be acces-sed at http://bayesweb.wadsworth.org/gibbs/gibbs.html and at http://www.bioinfo.rpi.edu/applications/bayesian/gibbs/gibbs.html. An online user guide is available at http://bayesweb.wadsworth.org/gibbs/bernoulli.html and at http://www.bioinfo.rpi.edu/applications/bayesian/gibbs/manual/bernoulli.html. Solaris, Solaris.x86 and Linux versions of the sampler are available as stand-alone programs for academic and not-for-profit users. Commercial licenses are also available. The Gibbs Recursive Sampler is distributed in accordance with the ISCB level 0 guidelines and a requirement for citation of use in scientific publications.

  8. Evaluation of portable air samplers for monitoring airborne culturable bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Bell-Robinson, D. M.; Groves, T. O.; Stetzenbach, L. D.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne culturable bacteria were monitored at five locations (three in an office/laboratory building and two in a private residence) in a series of experiments designed to compare the efficiency of four air samplers: the Andersen two-stage, Burkard portable, RCS Plus, and SAS Super 90 samplers. A total of 280 samples was collected. The four samplers were operated simultaneously, each sampling 100 L of air with collection on trypticase soy agar. The data were corrected by applying positive hole conversion factors for the Burkard portable, Andersen two-stage, and SAS Super 90 air samplers, and were expressed as log10 values prior to statistical analysis by analysis of variance. The Burkard portable air sampler retrieved the highest number of airborne culturable bacteria at four of the five sampling sites, followed by the SAS Super 90 and the Andersen two-stage impactor. The number of bacteria retrieved by the RCS Plus was significantly less than those retrieved by the other samplers. Among the predominant bacterial genera retrieved by all samplers were Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and Streptococcus.

  9. Unraveling the mystery of exozodiacal dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, Steve; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Thebault, Philippe; Absil, Olivier; Bonsor, Amy; Defrere, Denis; Kral, Quentin; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Lebreton, Jeremy; Coude du Foresto, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    Exozodiacal dust clouds are thought to be the extrasolar analogs of the Solar System's zodiacal dust. Studying these systems provides insights in the architecture of the innermost regions of planetary systems, including the habitable zone. Furthermore, the mere presence of the dust may result in major obstacles for direct imaging of earth-like planets. Our EXOZODI project aims to detect and study exozodiacal dust and to explain its origin. We are carrying out the first large, near-infrared interferometric survey in the northern (CHARA/FLUOR) and southern (VLTI/PIONIER) hemisphere. Preliminary results suggest a detection rate of up to 30% around A to K type stars and interesting trends with spectral type and age. In addition to the statistical analysis of our survey results, detailed modeling studies of single systems, modeling of possible dust creation mechanisms and the development of next-generation modeling tools dedicated to address the mystery of exozodiacal dust are main tasks of our project.

  10. Nasal sodium cromoglycate (Lomusol) modulates the early phase reaction of mild to moderate persistent allergic rhinitis in patients mono-sensitized to house dust mite: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Margaux; Lefebvre, Philipe P; Delvenne, Philippe; El-Shazly, Amr E

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the clinical improvement of patients with mild to moderate persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) due to mono-sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) allergen, by sodium cromoglycate nasal spray (Lomusol 4%). Lomusol was used as a single agent treatment, and its anti-inflammatory effects, in the early phase reaction were evaluated. Herein we showed that Lomusol significantly improved the subjective nasal symptom scores especially nasal obstruction. This was associated with significant and specific reduction in neutrophils influx in nasal cytology but had no effect on other cell types. This selective anti-inflammatory effect on nasal cytology was associated with significant reduction in the levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) and histamine in nasal secretions but had no effect on PGD2, LTC4 or CysLt levels. Lomusol was also able to induce significant reduction in eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels in nasal secretions without altering the percentage of eosinophil influx in nasal cytology. Taken collectively, we showed the first evidence that nasal sodium cromoglycate possesses a selective inhibition on neutrophil recruitment into nasal cytology in the early phase reaction of AR patients mono-sensitized to HDM. This may be attributed to the ability of Lomusol to significantly reduce the amount of PAF recovered in nasal secretion. These results were associated with significant improvement in subjective symptom scores especially nasal obstruction that may in addition, be due to the ability of Lomusol to down-regulate eosinophil degranulation activity as well.

  11. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a major group 7 allergen, Der f 7, from the dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kang Wei; Kumar, Sundramurthy; Chew, Fook Tim; Mok, Yu Keung

    2011-12-01

    Der f 7 is a major group 7 allergen from the dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae that shows 86% sequence identity to the homologous allergen Der p 7 from D. pteronyssinus. Der f 7 was successfully overexpressed in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified to homogeneity using Ni-NTA affinity and size-exclusion column chromatography. SeMet-labelled Der f 7 was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using a reservoir solution consisting of 0.1 M bis-tris pH 7.4 and 28% polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether 2000 at 293 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.24 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic system, space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 50.19, b = 58.67, c = 123.81 Å. Based on the estimated Matthews coefficient (2.16 Å(3) Da(-1)), two molecules of Der f 7 could be present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal lattice.

  12. Efficiency tests of samplers for microbiological aerosols, a review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henningson, E.; Faengmark, I.

    1984-01-01

    To obtain comparable results from studies using a variety of samplers of microbiological aerosols with different collection performances for various particle sizes, methods reported in the literature were surveyed, evaluated, and tabulated for testing the efficiency of the samplers. It is concluded that these samplers were not thoroughly tested, using reliable methods. Tests were conducted in static air chambers and in various outdoor and work environments. Results are not reliable as it is difficult to achieve stable and reproducible conditions in these test systems. Testing in a wind tunnel is recommended.

  13. The Collector Head Of Viking Lander 1's Surface Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The collector head of Viking l's surface sampler is full of Martian soil destined for the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, the instrument which analyzes the surface material for the presence of organic molecules. The material was scooped out of the surface on August 3, but the sampler arm stopped operating while transporting it to the instrument. The Martian soil will be deposited into the instrument's processor today. The surface sampler is operating properly, but the cause of last week's problem is not yet known. This picture, taken Monday (August 9), was made for operational purposes, focusing on the collector head. Hence, the out-of-focus view of the Martian surface.

  14. Determinants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in house dust.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Todd; Metayer, Catherine; Gunier, Robert B; Ward, Mary H; Nishioka, Marcia G; Buffler, Patricia; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of human exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often desired for the epidemiological studies of cancer. One way to obtain information about indoor levels of PAHs is to measure these chemicals in house dust. In this study, we evaluated the predictive value of self-reported and geographic data for estimating measured levels of nine PAHs in house dust from 583 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS). Using multivariable linear regression models, we evaluated the effects on house-dust PAH concentrations from the following covariates: residential heating sources, smoking habits, house characteristics, and outdoor emission sources. House dust was collected from 2001 to 2007, using both high-volume surface samplers and household vacuum cleaners, and was analyzed for nine PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All nine PAHs were detected in more than 93% of dust samples, with median concentrations ranging from 14 to 94 ng/g dust. Statistically significant effects on PAH concentrations in house dust were found for gas heating, outdoor PAH concentrations, and residence age. Yet, the optimal regression model only explained 15% of the variation in PAH levels in house dust. As self-reported data and outdoor PAH sources were only marginally predictive of observed PAH levels, we recommend that PAH concentrations be measured directly in dust samples for use in epidemiological studies.

  15. 7 CFR 800.185 - Duties of official personnel and warehouse samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of official personnel and warehouse samplers... official personnel and warehouse samplers. (a) General. Official personnel and warehouse samplers shall... of § 800.161. (d) Scope of operations. Official personnel and warehouse samplers shall operate...

  16. Measurements of environmental 1,3-butadiene with pumped and diffusive samplers using the sorbent Carbopack X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas A.; Duckworth, Philippa; Henderson, Malcolm H.; Swann, Nigel R. W.; Granshaw, Simon T.; Lipscombe, Robert P.; Goody, Brian A.

    Studies with the sorbent Carbopack X in pumped and diffusive samplers, of the Perkin-Elmer-type, have been carried out using a controlled atmosphere test facility (CATFAC) to generate 1,3-butadiene, together with benzene, at environmental levels. The 7-day and 14-day 1,3-butadiene diffusive uptake rates for this sorbent have been determined to be respectively (1.24±0.16) ng ppm -1 min -1 ((0.55±0.07) cm 3 min -1)) and (1.02±0.12) ng ppm -1 min -1 ((0.45±0.05) cm 3 min -1)) under a wide range of concentrations at 20 °C, 50% relative humidity and a wind speed of 1 m s -1. Preliminary studies indicate that this sorbent may also be useful in radial diffusive samplers for short-term monitoring over a few hours. A pumped sampling method has been developed to measure both 1,3-butadiene and benzene simultaneously over a period of 14-days using two Perkin-Elmer-type devices coupled to an in-house developed controlled flow air sampler. The 1,3-butadiene safe sampling volume for Carbopack X has been measured yielding a value of ⩽82 litre g -1. Tests carried out with calibrated amounts of 1,3-butadiene (50 ng and 150 ng) on Carbopack X indicate that samplers should be stored in a refrigerator prior to thermal desorption in order to achieve a recovery of effectively 100%. Ambient ozone does not appear to react with 1,3-butadiene adsorbed in the samplers.

  17. A passive integrative sampler for mercury vapor in air and neutral mercury species in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, W.G.; Petty, J.D.; May, T.W.; Huckins, J.N.

    2000-01-01

    A passive integrative mercury sampler (PIMS) based on a sealed polymeric membrane was effective for the collection and preconcentration of Hg0. Because the Hg is both oxidized and stabilized in the PIMS, sampling intervals of weeks to months are possible. The effective air sampling rate for a 15 x 2.5 cm device was about 21-equivalents/day (0.002 m3/day) and the detection limit for 4-week sampling was about 2 ng/m3 for conventional ICP-MS determination without clean-room preparation. Sampling precision was ??? 5% RSD for laboratory exposures, and 5-10% RSD for field exposures. These results suggest that the PIMS could be useful for screening assessments of Hg contamination and exposure in the environment, the laboratory, and the workplace. The PIMS approach may be particularly useful for applications requiring unattended sampling for extended periods at remote locations. Preliminary results indicate that sampling for dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) and potentially other neutral mercury species from water is also feasible. Rigorous validation of the sampler performance is currently in progress. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd.A passive integrative mercury sampler (PIMS) based on a sealed polymeric membrane was effective for the collection and preconcentration of Hg0. Because the Hg is both oxidized and stabilized in the PIMS, sampling intervals of weeks to months are possible. The effective air sampling rate for a 15??2.5 cm device was about 21-equivalents/day (0.002 m3/day) and the detection limit for 4-week sampling was about 2 ng/m3 for conventional ICP-MS determination without clean-room preparation. Sampling precision was ???5% RSD for laboratory exposures, and 5-10% RSD for field exposures. These results suggest that the PIMS could be useful for screening assessments of Hg contamination and exposure in the environment, the laboratory, and the workplace. The PIMS approach may be particularly useful for applications requiring unattended sampling for extended

  18. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  19. A field comparison of the IOM inhalable aerosol sampler and a modified 37-mm cassette.

    PubMed

    Clinkenbeard, R E; England, E C; Johnson, D L; Esmen, N A; Hall, T A

    2002-09-01

    This research focused on comparing a modified 37-mm (Mod37) sampling cassette with an IOM inhalable dust sampler. Paired IOM and Mod37 breathing-zone air samples were collected for workers engaged in corrosion control maintenance operations on several types of aircraft at several U.S. Air Force bases in the United States. Sampled operations included hand and power sanding, blow-down and wipe-down to remove dust, and spray finishing. The cassettes' interior surfaces were swabbed and the swabs combined with the filters for chromium analysis by NIOSH Method 7300. This approach utilized total chromium as a sensitive surrogate indicator of total aspirated mass. The influences of work location, work type, sample duration, and sampler type on measured concentration were evaluated using analysis of variance techniques. Only work type (process) was found to be a statistically significant predictor of measured concentration. The relationship between IOM- and Mod37-measured values for paired samples was evaluated by work type using linear regression techniques. Linear regressions showed that the modified 37-mm cassette over-samples aerosol by 35 percent compared to the IOM when a wide range of aerosol concentrations and compositions for divergent work tasks in multiple field locations are sampled. Interpretation of these results in light of previous results involving filter-only Mod37 analyses suggests that while the Mod37 has a higher aspiration efficiency than the IOM, substantial Mod37 wall losses result in underestimation of exposure when only the 37-mm filter is analyzed rather than filters plus wall swabs.

  20. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O'Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  1. The MAGIC meteoric smoke particle sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Jonas; Giovane, Frank; Waldemarsson, Tomas; Gumbel, Jörg; Blum, Jürgen; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Marlin, Layne; Moser, John; Siskind, David E.; Jansson, Kjell; Saunders, Russell W.; Summers, Michael E.; Reissaus, Philipp; Stegman, Jacek; Plane, John M. C.; Horányi, Mihály

    2014-10-01

    Between a few tons to several hundred tons of meteoric material enters the Earth's atmosphere each day, and most of this material is ablated and vaporized in the 70-120 km altitude region. The subsequent chemical conversion, re-condensation and coagulation of this evaporated material are thought to form nanometre sized meteoric smoke particles (MSPs). These smoke particles are then subject to further coagulation, sedimentation and global transport by the mesospheric circulation. MSPs have been proposed as a key player in the formation and evolution of ice particle layers around the mesopause region, i.e. noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). MSPs have also been implicated in mesospheric heterogeneous chemistry to influence the mesospheric odd oxygen/odd hydrogen (Ox/HOx) chemistry, to play an important role in the mesospheric charge balance, and to be a significant component of stratospheric aerosol and enhance the depletion of O3. Despite their apparent importance, little is known about the properties of MSPs and none of the hypotheses can be verified without direct evidence of the existence, altitude and size distribution, shape and elemental composition. The aim of the MAGIC project (Mesospheric Aerosol - Genesis, Interaction and Composition) was to develop an instrument and analysis techniques to sample for the first time MSPs in the mesosphere and return them to the ground for detailed analysis in the laboratory. MAGIC meteoric smoke particle samplers have been flown on several sounding rocket payloads between 2005 and 2011. Several of these flights concerned non-summer mesosphere conditions when pure MSP populations can be expected. Other flights concerned high latitude summer conditions when MSPs are expected to be contained in ice particles in the upper mesosphere. In this paper we present the MAGIC project and describe the MAGIC MSP sampler, the measurement procedure and laboratory analysis. We also present the attempts to

  2. Validation of parachlorobenzotrifluoride, benzotrifluoride, and monochlorotoluene on diffusive samplers.

    PubMed

    Yost, C; Harper, M

    2000-01-01

    Three solvents (OXSOL 10, monochlorotoluene or mixed isomers of 1- chloro-2-methyl benzene and 1-chloro-4-methyl benzene; OXSOL 100, parachlorobenzotrifluoride or 1-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene; and OXSOL 2000, benzotrifluoride or trifluoromethyl benzene) produced by Occidental Chemical Corporation (Niagara Falls, NY) were considered as candidates for SKC, Inc.'s on-going diffusive sampler validation program. The 575-series diffusive sampler contains coconut-shell charcoal (575-001) or Anasorb 747 (575-002). Both samplers were used in this study. Desorption efficiency was tested at loadings equivalent to eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposures to 0.01-2 times the Occidental Chemical Corporation in-house limit values (respectively: 50 ppm, 25 ppm, and 100 ppm,. All results met the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria of > 75 percent, and, except for the lower loadings of parachlorobenzotrifluoride, the results were in the range of 90-110 percent. The calculated uptake rates were verified for different periods of exposure, up to eight hours, and found to be within 5 percent of the calculated for all three compounds on both samplers. A detailed comparison of the results from different time periods indicated no significant reverse diffusion effects for any combination of sampler and analyte. Samplers exposed to standard atmospheres of each compound were stored for three weeks at ambient temperatures and reanalyzed with results between 94 and 107 percent of expected. Based on full validation of samplers for the lower homologue (benzene), the bi-level theory of sample validation as endorsed by international validation protocols establishes this as a complete validation of the featured samplers for sampling vapors of these chemicals in air.

  3. Characteristics and Sampling Efficiencies of OMNI 3000 Aerosol Samplers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    they impact on walls and on the slit and not reaching the inside of the contactor, compared to PSL particles that bounce off surfaces. The Omni...SAMPLING EFFICIENCIES OF OMNI 3000 AEROSOL SAMPLERS Jana S. Kesavan RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE Deborah R. Schepers MITRETEK SYSTEMS, INC. Falls...2006 Final Feb 2006 - Mar 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Characteristics and Sampling Efficiencies of Omni 3000 Aerosol Samplers 5b

  4. Four Interstellar Dust Candidates from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Fougeray, P.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grun, E.; Heck, P. R.; Jillier, J. K.; Hoppe, P.; Howard, L.; Hudson, B.; Huss, G. R.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approx. 0.1 sq m in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 sq m/day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a consortium-based project to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described . A summary of analytical techniques is described.

  5. Influence of sampler configuration on the uptake kinetics of a passive air sampler.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Wong, Cindy; Lei, Ying D; Wania, Frank

    2012-01-03

    Passive air samplers (PAS) are simple and cost-effective tools to monitor semivolatile organic compounds in air. Chemical uptake occurs by molecular diffusion from ambient air to a passive sampling medium (PSM). Previous calibration studies indicate that even for the same type of PAS, passive air sampling rates (R, m(3)(air)/d) can be highly variable due to the influence of a number of factors. Earlier studies mainly focused on factors (e.g., wind speed and temperature) influencing R via the kinetic resistance posed by the air boundary layer surrounding the PSM because that layer was deemed to be the main factor determining the uptake kinetics. Whereas recent calibration studies suggest that the PAS configuration can influence R, so far few studies have specifically focused on this factor. In this study, with the objective to understand the effect of PAS configurations on R, we applied a gravimetrical approach to study the kinetics of water vapor uptake from indoor air by silica gel placed inside cylindrical PAS of various configurations. We also conducted an indoor calibration for polychlorinated biphenyls on the same type of PAS using XAD-resin as the PSM. R was found to be proportional to the interfacial transfer area of the PSM but not the amount of the PSM because chemicals mainly accumulated in the outer layer of the PSM during the deployment time of the PAS. The sampler housing and the PSM can introduce kinetic resistance to chemical uptake as indicated by changes in R caused by positioning the PSM at different distances from the opening of the sampler housing and by using PSM of different diameters. Information gained from this study is useful for optimizing the PAS design with the objective to reduce the material and shipping costs without sacrificing sampling efficiency.

  6. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  7. An Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Uptake into Polyethylene Samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynowych, D. J.; McDonough, C.; Lohmann, R.

    2013-12-01

    Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) are simple reliable tools that have been widely used in the detection of hydrophobic organic compounds. Thick (>200μm or greater) PEs have important applications to specific sampling scenarios including biological assays, deployment on ships and aircraft (towing) and long term sampling, however little is known about their uptake kinetics. This study aimed to develop an accurate understanding of the uptake kinetics of these thick PEs. PE passive samplers of equal surface area, but differing thicknesses were co-deployed in the surface water and air of lower Narragansett Bay in 2013 to characterize differences in their uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PE samplers of approximately 50, 800, and 1600μm thicknesses were analyzed for 38 parent and alkylated PAHs, with replicate sampler reproducibility mostly within 25%. A number of smaller PAHs (typically those with a molecular weight less than 180) analyzed over a 4 week deployment equilibrated, while the larger molecules remained in the linear or curve linear uptake stages. Results from a second, 24 week deployment of 800μm and 1600μm samplers in surface waters suggest that all 38 compounds studied remained in the linear uptake stage. The PE-weight normalized concentration ratio of 1600μm to 800μm sampler fell below 1 for all analytes, implying equilibrium had not been established.

  8. Understanding the rates of nonpolar organic chemical accumulation into passive samplers deployed in the environment: Guidance for passive sampler deployments.

    PubMed

    Apell, Jennifer N; Tcaciuc, A Patricia; Gschwend, Philip M

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric passive samplers have become a common method for estimating freely dissolved concentrations in environmental media. However, this approach has not yet been adopted by investigators conducting remedial investigations of contaminated environmental sites. Successful adoption of this sampling methodology relies on an understanding of how passive samplers accumulate chemical mass as well as developing guidance for the design and deployment of passive samplers. Herein, we outline the development of a simple mathematical relationship of the environmental, polymer, and chemical properties that control the uptake rate. This relationship, called a timescale, is then used to illustrate how each property controls the rate of equilibration in samplers deployed in the water or in the sediment. Guidance is also given on how to use the timescales to select an appropriate polymer, deployment time, and suite of performance reference compounds. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:486-492. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. A Gibbs sampler for multivariate linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantz, Adam B.

    2016-04-01

    Kelly described an efficient algorithm, using Gibbs sampling, for performing linear regression in the fairly general case where non-zero measurement errors exist for both the covariates and response variables, where these measurements may be correlated (for the same data point), where the response variable is affected by intrinsic scatter in addition to measurement error, and where the prior distribution of covariates is modelled by a flexible mixture of Gaussians rather than assumed to be uniform. Here, I extend the Kelly algorithm in two ways. First, the procedure is generalized to the case of multiple response variables. Secondly, I describe how to model the prior distribution of covariates using a Dirichlet process, which can be thought of as a Gaussian mixture where the number of mixture components is learned from the data. I present an example of multivariate regression using the extended algorithm, namely fitting scaling relations of the gas mass, temperature, and luminosity of dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters as a function of their mass and redshift. An implementation of the Gibbs sampler in the R language, called LRGS, is provided.

  10. Permeation absorption sampler with multiple detection

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon

    1990-01-01

    A system for detecting analytes in air or aqueous systems includes a permeation absorption preconcentrator sampler for the analytes and analyte detectors. The preconcentrator has an inner fluid-permeable container into which a charge of analyte-sorbing liquid is intermittently injected, and a fluid-impermeable outer container. The sample is passed through the outer container and around the inner container for trapping and preconcentrating the analyte in the sorbing liquid. The analyte can be detected photometrically by injecting with the sorbing material a reagent which reacts with the analyte to produce a characteristic color or fluorescence which is detected by illuminating the contents of the inner container with a light source and measuring the absorbed or emitted light, or by producing a characteristic chemiluminescence which can be detected by a suitable light sensor. The analyte can also be detected amperometrically. Multiple inner containers may be provided into which a plurality of sorbing liquids are respectively introduced for simultaneously detecting different analytes. Baffles may be provided in the outer container. A calibration technique is disclosed.

  11. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

  12. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-21

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board. 16 figs.

  13. Development of the releasable asbestos field sampler.

    PubMed

    Kominsky, John R; Thornburg, Jonathan W; Shaul, Glenn M; Barrett, William M; Hall, Fred D; Konz, James J

    2010-03-01

    The releasable asbestos field sampler (RAFS) was developed as an alternative to activity-based sampling (ABS; personal breathing zone sampling during a simulated activity). The RAFS utilizes a raking motion to provide the energy that releases particulate material from the soil and aerosolizes the asbestos fibers. A gentle airflow laterally transports the generated aerosol inside of a tunnel to one end where filter sampling cassettes or real-time instruments are used to measure asbestos and particulate release. The RAFS was tested in a series of laboratory experiments to validate its performance and then was deployed for field trials in asbestos-contaminated soil at multiple geographical locations. Laboratory data showed the RAFS generated repeatable and representative aerosol particulate concentrations. Field tests showed the RAFS aerosolized asbestos concentrations were statistically correlated with total particle concentrations. Field tests also showed the RAFS aerosolized asbestos concentrations were statistically correlated with asbestos concentrations measured by multiple ABS tests with different activities, different soil/environmental conditions, and at different geographical locations. RAFS provides a direct measurement of asbestos emission from soil in situ without consideration of meteorology and personal activity on the asbestos transport to the breathing zone.

  14. On the solar dust ring(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, T.

    Based on a mechanism to form the solar dust ring, it is proved that the observed peak in infrared F-corona cannot be explained by silicate type grains alone. Preliminary analysis on the recent infrared data of the F-corona by Maihara et al. (1984) has suggested that the ring particles have different physical properties compared with the dust grains, which produce the background F-corona.

  15. Deep-Sea Hydrothermal-Vent Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Venkateswaran, Kasthur; Matthews, Jaret B.

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus is being developed for sampling water for signs of microbial life in an ocean hydrothermal vent at a depth of as much as 6.5 km. Heretofore, evidence of microbial life in deep-sea hydrothermal vents has been elusive and difficult to validate. Because of the extreme conditions in these environments (high pressures and temperatures often in excess of 300 C), deep-sea hydrothermal- vent samplers must be robust. Because of the presumed low density of biomass of these environments, samplers must be capable of collecting water samples of significant volume. It is also essential to prevent contamination of samples by microbes entrained from surrounding waters. Prior to the development of the present apparatus, no sampling device was capable of satisfying these requirements. The apparatus (see figure) includes an intake equipped with a temperature probe, plus several other temperature probes located away from the intake. The readings from the temperature probes are utilized in conjunction with readings from flowmeters to determine the position of the intake relative to the hydrothermal plume and, thereby, to position the intake to sample directly from the plume. Because it is necessary to collect large samples of water in order to obtain sufficient microbial biomass but it is not practical to retain all the water from the samples, four filter arrays are used to concentrate the microbial biomass (which is assumed to consist of particles larger than 0.2 m) into smaller volumes. The apparatus can collect multiple samples per dive and is designed to process a total volume of 10 L of vent fluid, of which most passes through the filters, leaving a total possibly-microbe-containing sample volume of 200 mL remaining in filters. A rigid titanium nose at the intake is used for cooling the sample water before it enters a flexible inlet hose connected to a pump. As the water passes through the titanium nose, it must be cooled to a temperature that is above a mineral

  16. Calibration of the Ogawa passive ozone sampler for aircraft cabins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhangar, Seema; Singer, Brett C.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2013-02-01

    Elevated ozone levels in aircraft cabins would pose a health hazard to exposed passengers and crew. The Ogawa passive sampler is a potentially useful tool for measuring in-cabin ozone levels. Accurate interpretation of measured values requires knowing the effective collection rate of the sampler. To calibrate the passive sampler for the aircraft-cabin environment, ozone was measured simultaneously with an Ogawa sampler and an active ozone analyzer that served as a transfer standard, on 11 commercial passenger flights, during Feb-Apr 2007. An empirical pressure-independent effective collection rate that can be used to convert nitrate mass to ozone mixing ratio was determined to be 14.3 ± 0.9 atm cm3 min-1 (mean ± standard error). This value is similar to estimates from other applications where airflow rates are low, such as in personal monitoring and in chamber studies. This study represents the first field calibration of any passive sampler for the aircraft cabin environment.

  17. Clouds and Dust Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 2 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during mid-spring near the North Pole. The linear water-ice clouds are now regional in extent and often interact with neighboring cloud system, as seen in this image. The bottom of the image shows how the interaction can destroy the linear nature. While the surface is still visible through most of the clouds, there is evidence that dust is also starting to enter the atmosphere.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.4, Longitude 180 East (180 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with

  18. The cytotoxic effects of asbestos and other mineral dust in tissue culture cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, M.; Brown, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of 15 dusts have been tested in 2 cell lines. Experimental animal data are available for 11 of the 15 dusts. There is a correlation between the cytotoxic activities of the dusts and the ability to induce mesothelial tumours following intrapleural injection of the dusts. Some preliminary observations on the nature of interaction between the dusts, medium components and the cells are reported. It is suggested that the study of the interactions between cells and dusts in culture may lead to an understanding of the pathogenesis of these dusts in man and animals. Images Fig. 2 PMID:656318

  19. IDSAC-IUCAA digital sampler array controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Chordia, Pravin; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Joshi, Bhushan; Chillal, Kalpesh

    2016-07-01

    In order to run the large format detector arrays and mosaics that are required by most astronomical instruments, readout electronic controllers are required which can process multiple CCD outputs simultaneously at high speeds and low noise levels. These CCD controllers need to be modular and configurable, should be able to run multiple detector types to cater to a wide variety of requirements. IUCAA Digital Sampler Array Controller (IDSAC), is a generic CCD Controller based on a fully scalable architecture which is adequately flexible and powerful enough to control a wide variety of detectors used in ground based astronomy. The controller has a modular backplane architecture that consists of Single Board Controller Cards (SBCs) and can control up to 5 CCDs (mosaic or independent). Each Single Board Controller (SBC) has all the resources to a run Single large format CCD having up to four outputs. All SBCs are identical and are easily interchangeable without needing any reconfiguration. A four channel video processor on each SBC can process up to four output CCDs with or without dummy outputs at 0.5 Megapixels/Sec/Channel with 16 bit resolution. Each SBC has a USB 2.0 interface which can be connected to a host computer via optional USB to Fibre converters. The SBC uses a reconfigurable hardware (FPGA) as a Master Controller. IDSAC offers Digital Correlated Double Sampling (DCDS) to eliminate thermal kTC noise. CDS performed in Digital domain (DCDS) has several advantages over its analog counterpart, such as - less electronics, faster readout and easier post processing. It is also flexible with sampling rate and pixel throughput while maintaining the core circuit topology intact. Noise characterization of the IDSAC CDS signal chain has been performed by analytical modelling and practical measurements. Various types of noise such as white, pink, power supply, bias etc. has been considered while creating an analytical noise model tool to predict noise of a controller

  20. The neighborhood MCMC sampler for learning Bayesian networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyami, Salem A.; Azad, A. K. M.; Keith, Jonathan M.

    2016-07-01

    Getting stuck in local maxima is a problem that arises while learning Bayesian networks (BNs) structures. In this paper, we studied a recently proposed Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler, called the Neighbourhood sampler (NS), and examined how efficiently it can sample BNs when local maxima are present. We assume that a posterior distribution f(N,E|D) has been defined, where D represents data relevant to the inference, N and E are the sets of nodes and directed edges, respectively. We illustrate the new approach by sampling from such a distribution, and inferring BNs. The simulations conducted in this paper show that the new learning approach substantially avoids getting stuck in local modes of the distribution, and achieves a more rapid rate of convergence, compared to other common algorithms e.g. the MCMC Metropolis-Hastings sampler.

  1. Improved techniques for sampling complex pedigrees with the Gibbs sampler

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, K Joseph; Totir, Liviu R; Fernando, Rohan L

    2007-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have been widely used to overcome computational problems in linkage and segregation analyses. Many variants of this approach exist and are practiced; among the most popular is the Gibbs sampler. The Gibbs sampler is simple to implement but has (in its simplest form) mixing and reducibility problems; furthermore in order to initiate a Gibbs sampling chain we need a starting genotypic or allelic configuration which is consistent with the marker data in the pedigree and which has suitable weight in the joint distribution. We outline a procedure for finding such a configuration in pedigrees which have too many loci to allow for exact peeling. We also explain how this technique could be used to implement a blocking Gibbs sampler. PMID:17212946

  2. Thickness and material selection of polymeric passive samplers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water: Which more strongly affects sampler properties?

    PubMed

    Belles, Angel; Alary, Claire; Mamindy-Pajany, Yannick

    2016-07-01

    Three configurations of single-phase polymer passive samplers made of polyoxymethylene (POM), silicone rubber, and polyethylene (PE) were simultaneously calibrated in laboratory experiments by determining their partitioning coefficients and the POM diffusion coefficients and by validating a kinetic accumulation model. In addition, the performance of each device was evaluated under field conditions. With the support of the developed model, the device properties are discussed with regard to material selection and polymer thickness. The results show that a sampler's properties, such as its concentration-averaging period and ability to sample a large amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are widely affected by material selection. Sampler thickness also allows modulation of the properties of the device but with a much lower magnitude. Selection of the appropriate polymer and/or thickness allows samplers to be adapted either for quick equilibration or for the kinetic accumulation regime and promotes either membrane or water boundary layer control of the kinetic accumulation. In addition, membrane-controlled or equilibrated compounds are quantified with greater accuracy because they are not corrected by the performance reference compounds approach. However, the averaged concentrations cannot be assessed when compounds reach equilibrium in the sampler, whereas membrane-controlled devices remaining in the kinetic accumulation regime provide averaged concentrations without requiring performance reference compound correction; detection limits are then increased because of the higher mass transfer resistance of the membrane. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1708-1717. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Cosmic Dust Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J.; Watts, L.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Wentworth, S.; Dodson, A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1997-07-01

    Since May 1981, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used aircraft to collect cosmic dust (CD) particles from Earth's stratosphere. Specially designed dust collectors are prepared for flight and processed after flight in an ultraclean (Class-100) laboratory constructed for this purpose at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Particles are individually retrieved from the collectors, examined and cataloged, and then made available to the scientific community for research. Cosmic dust thereby joins lunar samples and meteorites as an additional source of extraterrestrial materials for scientific study. This catalog summarizes preliminary observations on 468 particles retrieved from collection surfaces L2021 and L2036. These surfaces were flat plate Large Area Collectors (with a 300 cm2 surface area each) which was coated with silicone oil (dimethyl siloxane) and then flown aboard a NASA ER-2 aircraft during a series of flights that were made during January and February of 1994 (L2021) and June 7 through July 5 of 1994 (L2036). Collector L2021 was flown across the entire southern margin of the US (California to Florida), and collector L2036 was flown from California to Wallops Island, VA and on to New England. These collectors were installed in a specially constructed wing pylon which ensured that the necessary level of cleanliness was maintained between periods of active sampling. During successive periods of high altitude (20 km) cruise, the collectors were exposed in the stratosphere by barometric controls and then retracted into sealed storage container-s prior to descent. In this manner, a total of 35.8 hours of stratospheric exposure was accumulated for collector L2021, and 26 hours for collector L2036.

  4. Laboratory Micrometeroid/Dust Ablation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E.; Horanyi, M.; Janches, D.; Munsat, T. L.; Plane, J. M. C.; Simolka, J.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Each day, somewhere between 5-270 tonnes of meteoric material ablates in Earth's upper atmosphere. Thisenormous range is significant because the Interplanetary Dust Particle (IDP) input has implications in ourunderstanding of meteor transport in the atmosphere, the formation of layers of metal atoms and ions,nucleation of noctilucent clouds, effects on stratospheric aerosols and O3 chemistry, and dust evolution inour solar system. As the dust ablates, it produces light, as well as a plasma trail of ionized atmosphericatoms and electrons. These meteor signatures are detected by photographic means, or by radar, but thereremain uncertainties in the luminous efficiency and ionization coefficient of meteors - two parameters thatare essential to evaluate densities, masses, height distributions and fluxes. Precise measurements of theseparameters would allow for not only an understanding of the layers of metal atoms and ions and meteoricsmoke particles in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but also would allow for the Earth's atmosphereto be used as a dust detector to detect and characterize the dust environment in our solar system. This work discusses the preliminary results of the new dust ablation facility at the 3 MV hypervelocity dust accelerator at the Institute for Modeling Plasma, Atmospheres and Cosmic Dust (IMPACT) at the University of Colorado, which aims to characterize the ionization coefficient and luminous efficiency of ablating micrometeroids.

  5. Evaluation of a pneumatic Martian soil sampler concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, John L.; Neathery, James K.; Stencel, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The pneumatic soil sampler concept was successfully demonstrated by penetrating a Martian simulant soil to a depth of 2 meters. Working gas pressure, composition, and pulsing were evaluated with the objective of minimizing gas usage. Also, the probe penetration force was investigated with the objective of minimizing probe weight. Gas and probe penetration force, while not yet optimized, are within the range which make the soil sampler concept feasible. While the tests described in this report did not answer all the questions and address all the variables associated with pneumatic soil sampling, valuable data experience and knowledge were gained which can be used to further develop the concept.

  6. Nonwoven Textile for Use in a Nanoparticle Respiratory Deposition Sampler.

    PubMed

    Vosburgh, Donna J H; Park, Jae Hong; Mines, Levi W D; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A; Anthony, T Renée; Peters, Thomas M

    2016-11-22

    The nanoparticle respiratory deposition (NRD) sampler is a personal sampler that combines a cyclone, impactor, and a nylon mesh diffusion stage to measure a worker's exposure to nanoparticles. The concentration of titanium in the nylon mesh of the diffusion stage complicates the application of the NRD sampler for assessing exposures to titanium dioxide nanoparticles. This study evaluated commercially available nonwoven textiles for use as an alternative media in the diffusion stage of the NRD sampler. Three textiles were selected as containing little titanium from an initial screening of 11 textiles by field portable x-ray fluorescence (FPXRF). Further evaluation on these three textiles was conducted to determine the concentration of titanium and other metals by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), the number of layers required to achieve desired collection characteristics for use as the diffusion stage in the NRD sampler (i.e., the nanoparticulate matter, NPM, criterion), and the pressure drop associated with that number of layers. Only three (two composed of cotton fibers, C1 and C2; and one of viscose bamboo and cotton fibers, BC) of 11 textiles screened had titanium concentrations below the limit of detection the XRF device (0.15 µg/cm(2)). Multiple metals, including small amounts of titanium, were found in each of the three nonwoven textiles using ICP-OES. The number of 25-mm-diameter layers required to achieve the collection efficiency by size required for the NRD sampler was three for C1 (R(2) = 0.95 with reference to the NPM criterion), two for C2 (R(2) = 0.79), and three for BC (R(2) = 0.87). All measured pressure drops were less than the theoretical and even the greatest pressure drop of 65.4 Pa indicated that a typical personal sampling pump could accommodate any of the three nonwoven textiles in the NRD sampler. The titanium concentration, collection efficiency, and measured pressure drops show there is a potential

  7. Selecting Performance Reference Compounds (PRCS) for Low Density Polyethylene Passive Samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of equilibrium passive samplers for performing aquatic environmental monitoring at contaminated sites is becoming more common. However, a current challenge in passive sampling is determining when equilibrium is achieved between the sampler, target contaminants, and environm...

  8. Determining Passive Sampler Partition Coefficients for Dissolved-phase Organic Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers are used for environmental and analytical purposes to measure dissolved nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) by absorption from a contaminated medium into a clean phase, usually in the form of a synthetic organic film. Recently developed passive sampler techniqu...

  9. Limitations of Reverse Polyethylene Samplers (RePES) for Evaluating Toxicity of Field Contaminated Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers are used to measure dissolved nonionic organic contaminants (NOCs) in environmental media. More recently, reverse polyethylene samplers (RePES) have been used with spiked sediments to recreate interstitial water exposure concentrations and observed toxicity. In...

  10. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Critcal Review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-seven studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulat...

  11. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives. This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Approach/Activities. Fifty-five studies were found where both passive sampler uptake...

  12. Evaluating the Relationship between Equilibrium Passive Sampler Uptake and Aquatic Organism Bioaccumulation..

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review evaluates passive sampler uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in water column and interstitial water exposures as a surrogate for organism bioaccumulation. Fifty-four studies were found where both passive sampler uptake and organism bioaccumulation wer...

  13. Passive Samplers for Investigations of Air Quality: Method Description, Implementation, and Comparison to Alternative Sampling Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Paper covers the basics of passive sampler design, compares passive samplers to conventional methods of air sampling, and discusses considerations when implementing a passive sampling program. The Paper also discusses field sampling and sample analysis considerations to ensu...

  14. Dust agglomeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

  15. Calibrated Passive Sampling--Multi-plot Field Measurements of NH3 Emissions with a Combination of Dynamic Tube Method and Passive Samplers.

    PubMed

    Pacholski, Andreas

    2016-03-21

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions (90% of total EU emissions) are responsible for about 45% airborne eutrophication, 31% soil acidification and 12% fine dust formation within the EU15. But NH3 emissions also mean a considerable loss of nutrients. Many studies on NH3 emission from organic and mineral fertilizer application have been performed in recent decades. Nevertheless, research related to NH3 emissions after application fertilizers is still limited in particular with respect to relationships to emissions, fertilizer type, site conditions and crop growth. Due to the variable response of crops to treatments, effects can only be validated in experimental designs including field replication for statistical testing. The dominating ammonia loss methods yielding quantitative emissions require large field areas, expensive equipment or current supply, which restricts their application in replicated field trials. This protocol describes a new methodology for the measurement of NH3 emissions on many plots linking a simple semi-quantitative measuring method used in all plots, with a quantitative method by simultaneous measurements using both methods on selected plots. As a semi-quantitative measurement method passive samplers are used. The second method is a dynamic chamber method (Dynamic Tube Method) to obtain a transfer quotient, which converts the semi-quantitative losses of the passive sampler to quantitative losses (kg nitrogen ha(-1)). The principle underlying this approach is that passive samplers placed in a homogeneous experimental field have the same NH3 absorption behavior under identical environmental conditions. Therefore, a transfer co-efficient obtained from single passive samplers can be used to scale the values of all passive samplers used in the same field trial. The method proved valid under a wide range of experimental conditions and is recommended to be used under conditions with bare soil or small canopies (<0.3 m). Results obtained from

  16. Evaluation of the Snap Sampler for Sampling Ground Water Monitoring Wells for Inorganic Analytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    within the well. The slits in the two discs were misaligned to limit water exchange. The discs are attached to the Snap Sampler trigger line with...ER D C/ CR R EL T R -0 8 -2 5 Evaluation of the Snap Sampler for Sampling Ground Water Monitoring Wells for Inorganic Analytes...Louise V. Parker, Nathan D. Mulherin, and Gordon E. Gooch December 2008 Well Screen Baffle Snap Sampler Trigger Line Pump Tubing Top Snap Sampler RGC

  17. Enhanced surface sampler and process for collection and release of analytes

    DOEpatents

    Addleman, Raymond S; Atkinson, David A; Bays, John T; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Cinson, Anthony D; Ewing, Robert G; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A

    2015-02-03

    An enhanced swipe sampler and method of making are described. The swipe sampler is made of a fabric containing selected glass, metal oxide, and/or oxide-coated glass or metal fibers. Fibers are modified with silane ligands that are directly attached to the surface of the fibers to functionalize the sampling surface of the fabric. The swipe sampler collects various target analytes including explosives and other threat agents on the surface of the sampler.

  18. Interstellar Dust: Contributed Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. (Editor); Allamandola, Louis J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A coherent picture of the dust composition and its physical characteristics in the various phases of the interstellar medium was the central theme. Topics addressed included: dust in diffuse interstellar medium; overidentified infrared emission features; dust in dense clouds; dust in galaxies; optical properties of dust grains; interstellar dust models; interstellar dust and the solar system; dust formation and destruction; UV, visible, and IR observations of interstellar extinction; and quantum-statistical calculations of IR emission from highly vibrationally excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules.

  19. 7 CFR 801.5 - Tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers. 801.5 Section 801.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... mechanical samplers. The maintenance tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers (primary, or primary...

  20. 7 CFR 801.5 - Tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers. 801.5 Section 801.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... mechanical samplers. The maintenance tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers (primary, or primary...

  1. 7 CFR 801.5 - Tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers. 801.5 Section 801.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... mechanical samplers. The maintenance tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers (primary, or primary...

  2. 7 CFR 801.5 - Tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers. 801.5 Section 801.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... mechanical samplers. The maintenance tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers (primary, or primary...

  3. 7 CFR 801.5 - Tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers. 801.5 Section 801.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION... mechanical samplers. The maintenance tolerance for diverter-type mechanical samplers (primary, or primary...

  4. Deflagration to detonation transition fueled by dust layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.-C.; Harbaugh, A. S.; Alexander, C. G.; Kauffman, C. W.; Sichel, M.

    1995-12-01

    The roles which dust layers play in severe dust explosions were investigated in a 70 m long and 30 cm inside diameter horizontal Flame Acceleration Tube (FAT) with one end closed and the other end open to the atmosphere. A variety of dusts such as corn dust, cornstarch, Mira Gel starch, wheat dust, and wood flour were layered on the bottom half of the FAT. To initiate the combustion process, a detonation tube filled with a stoichiometric H2/O2 mixture at room temperature and 1 atm pressure was used to ignite a short presuspended dust cloud with a dust concentration of 500 600 g/m3. Combustion waves generated by this dust cloud travel toward the open end of the FAT and are continuously fueled by the dust/air mixtures. Flame propagation processes in the FAT were closely monitored by a variety of measuring instruments at different locations. The study demonstrates that stable quasi-detonation were reached in some runs, but self-sustained Chapman-Jouguet detonations were not observed possibly due to the limitation of the tube length. Attempts were made to determine the structure of dust detonations fueled by a dust layer. Preliminary evidence indicates that for Mira Gel starch the leading shock is essentially a triple shock configuration which involves a Mach stem and for wheat and wood dusts there possibly exists a multi-headed spin structure.

  5. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-04-23

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 {micro}m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  6. South Philadelphia Passive Sampler and Sensor Study: Interim Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Starting in June 2013, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the City of Philadelphia Air Measurements Services began collaborative research on the use of passive samplers (PSs) and stand-alone air measurement (SAM) systems to improve information on the...

  7. Just Another Gibbs Sampler (JAGS): Flexible Software for MCMC Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaoli, Sarah; Clifton, James P.; Cobb, Patrice R.

    2016-01-01

    A review of the software Just Another Gibbs Sampler (JAGS) is provided. We cover aspects related to history and development and the elements a user needs to know to get started with the program, including (a) definition of the data, (b) definition of the model, (c) compilation of the model, and (d) initialization of the model. An example using a…

  8. Vacuum probe sampler removes micron-sized particles from surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitfield, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Vacuum probe sampler removes micron-sized particles from sensitive surfaces, without damage to the surface. The probe has a critical orifice to ensure an optimum airflow rate that disturbs the boundary layer of air and raises bacteria from the surface into the probe with the moving air stream.

  9. PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED WITH LOW FLOW PERSONAL SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory and the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) have conducted a particulate matter (PM) personal exposure study in Research Triangle Park, NC. Particulate carbon was sampled with pre-fired quartz filters using low flow PM2.5 samplers (2 L...

  10. Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers for monitoring phenanthrene in stormwater.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yueqin; Zhang, Tian C; Zeng, Jing; Stansbury, John; Moussavi, Massoum; Richter-Egger, Dana L; Klein, Mitchell R

    2016-04-01

    Pollution from highway stormwater runoff has been an increasing area of concern. Many structural Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been implemented for stormwater treatment and management. One challenge for these BMPs is to sample stormwater and monitor BMP performance. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers (PSs) for sampling phenanthrene (PHE) in highway stormwater runoff and BMPs. Tests were conducted using batch reactors, glass-tube columns, and laboratory-scale BMPs (bioretention cells). Results indicate that sorption for PHE by PUF is mainly linearly relative to time, and the high sorption capacity allows the PUF passive sampler to monitor stormwater events for months or years. The PUF passive samplers could be embedded in BMPs for monitoring influent and effluent PHE concentrations. Models developed to link the results of batch and column tests proved to be useful for determining removal or sorption parameters and performance of the PUF-PSs. The predicted removal efficiencies of BMPs were close to the real values obtained from the control columns with errors ranging between -8.46 and 1.52%. This research showed that it is possible to use PUF passive samplers for sampling stormwater and monitoring the performance of stormwater BMPs, which warrants the field-scale feasibility studies in the future.

  11. South Philadelphia Passive Sampler and Sensor Study - Interim Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Starting in the June 2013, the U.S. EPA and the City of Philadelphia Air Measurements Services (AMS) began a collaborative research project to investigate how sensor-based, stand-alone air measurements (SAMs) and passive samplers (PSs) can help improve information on air pollutan...

  12. Stress analysis of portable safety platform (Core Sampler Truck)

    SciTech Connect

    Ziada, H.H.

    1995-03-30

    This document provides the stress analysis and evaluation of the portable platform of the rotary mode core sampler truck No. 2 (RMCST {number_sign}2). The platform comprises railing, posts, deck, legs, and a portable ladder; it is restrained from lateral motion by means of two brackets added to the drill-head service platform.

  13. 40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... major maintenance to assure the stability of the pump slip rate. Analysis of mass injection data will... by EPA for both PDP (Positive Displacement Pump) and CFV (Critical Flow Venturi) are outlined below... establish the flow rate of the constant volume sampler pump. All the parameters related to the pump...

  14. 40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... major maintenance to assure the stability of the pump slip rate. Analysis of mass injection data will... by EPA for both PDP (Positive Displacement Pump) and CFV (Critical Flow Venturi) are outlined below... establish the flow rate of the constant volume sampler pump. All the parameters related to the pump...

  15. 40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... major maintenance to assure the stability of the pump slip rate. Analysis of mass injection data will... by EPA for both PDP (Positive Displacement Pump) and CFV (Critical Flow Venturi) are outlined below... establish the flow rate of the constant volume sampler pump. All the parameters related to the pump...

  16. 40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... major maintenance to assure the stability of the pump slip rate. Analysis of mass injection data will... by EPA for both PDP (Positive Displacement Pump) and CFV (Critical Flow Venturi) are outlined below... establish the flow rate of the constant volume sampler pump. All the parameters related to the pump...

  17. Grab Samplers for Benthic Macroinvertebrates in the Lower Mississippi River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    River 26. AftTRACT (Cfeo do reversn e o if neem mod Identiy by block nuibot) -- he use of any one single type and size of existing grab sampler for...was from the stern of a 40-ft* vessel. The vessel’s bow was tied to a tree on the shoreline. Although the range of water depths during sampling was

  18. Science. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of a series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching science. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting manner…

  19. Mathematics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Instructional Services.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document contains teaching activities which are intended to strengthen students' mathematics skills and concepts, while broadening their understanding of energy concepts. Each of the 24…

  20. Mathematics. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching mathematics. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting…

  1. Science. Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler, 6-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The revised Iowa Developed Energy Activity Sampler (IDEAS) was compiled using the original IDEAS program and the Energy Conservation Activity Packets (ECAPS). This document is one of the series of revised IDEAS booklets, and provides activities for teaching science. The activities are intended to present energy principles in an interesting manner…

  2. A Career Education Sampler: Teaching Ideas for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douma, Elaine, Comp.

    This sampler is the product of the Career/Vocational Development Student Profile Project conducted in New Jersey in 1979-80. The purpose of the project was to field test the Career/Vocational Development K-14 Goal Matrix (see note) to see whether the goals, objectives, and indicators are realistic and appropriate for the age/grade levels they…

  3. Fluidic Sampler. Tanks Focus Area. OST Reference No. 2007

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Problem Definition; Millions of gallons of radioactive and hazardous wastes are stored in underground tanks across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. To manage this waste, tank operators need safe, cost-effective methods for mixing tank material, transferring tank waste between tanks, and collecting samples. Samples must be collected at different depths within storage tanks containing various kinds of waste including salt, sludge, and supernatant. With current or baseline methods, a grab sampler or a core sampler is inserted into the tank, waste is maneuvered into the sample chamber, and the sample is withdrawn from the tank. The mixing pumps in the tank, which are required to keep the contents homogeneous, must be shut down before and during sampling to prevent airborne releases. These methods are expensive, require substantial hands-on labor, increase the risk of worker exposure to radiation, and often produce nonrepresentative and unreproducible samples. How It Works: The Fluidic Sampler manufactured by AEA Technology Engineering Services, Inc., enables tank sampling to be done remotely with the mixing pumps in operation. Remote operation minimizes the risk of exposure to personnel and the possibility of spills, reducing associated costs. Sampling while the tank contents are being agitated yields consistently homogeneous, representative samples and facilitates more efficient feed preparation and evaluation of the tank contents. The above-tank portion of the Fluidic Sampler and the replacement plug and pipework that insert through the tank top are shown.

  4. 30 CFR 74.4 - Specifications of sampler unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... centimeters) of water measured at the inlet of the pump; and (ii) for not less than 10 hours at a flow rate of....4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 74.4 Specifications of sampler unit. (a) Pump unit: (1) Dimensions. The overall dimensions of...

  5. 30 CFR 74.4 - Specifications of sampler unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... centimeters) of water measured at the inlet of the pump; and (ii) for not less than 10 hours at a flow rate of....4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 74.4 Specifications of sampler unit. (a) Pump unit: (1) Dimensions. The overall dimensions of...

  6. 40 CFR 86.519-90 - Constant volume sampler calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... major maintenance to assure the stability of the pump slip rate. Analysis of mass injection data will... by EPA for both PDP (Positive Displacement Pump) and CFV (Critical Flow Venturi) are outlined below... establish the flow rate of the constant volume sampler pump. All the parameters related to the pump...

  7. FIELD EVALUATION OF A HIGH-VOLUME DICHOTOMOUS SAMPLER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents the field evaluation of a high-volume dichotomous sampler that collects coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter. The key feature of this device is the utilization of a round-nozzle virtual impactor with a 50% cutpoint at 2.5 5m to split PM10 into...

  8. Student Sampler: Facts in Brief on North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This student sampler has been compiled to assist North Carolina students (4th and 8th grade) in their study of North Carolina. It is designed to introduce them to the people, places and events that have shaped North Carolina history. Topics include state symbols, descriptions of the state flag, and seal, the lyrics to the state song, and the…

  9. 7 CFR 61.30 - Examination of sampler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Examination of sampler. 61.30 Section 61.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER...

  10. 'Nuisance Dust' - a Case for Recalibration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datson, Hugh; Marker, Brian

    2013-04-01

    time). 'Custom and practice' acceptance criteria for dust samples obtained by mass or soiling techniques have been developed and are widely applied even though they were not necessarily calibrated thoroughly and have not been reviewed recently. Furthermore, as sampling techniques have evolved, criteria developed for one method have been adapted for another. Criteria and limit values have sometimes been based on an insufficient knowledge of sampler characteristics. Ideally, limit values should be calibrated for the locality to take differences in dust density and visibility into account. Work is needed on the definition of criteria and limit values, and sampling practices for coarse dust fractions, followed by discussion of good practices for securing effective monitoring that is proportionate and fit for purpose. With social changes and the evolution of environmental controls since the 1960s, the public perception of 'nuisance dust' has changed and needs to be addressed by reviewing existing thresholds in relation to the range of monitoring devices currently in use.

  11. Evaluation of IOM personal sampler at different flow rates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2010-02-01

    The Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) personal sampler is usually operated at a flow rate of 2.0 L/min, the rate at which it was designed and calibrated, for sampling the inhalable mass fraction of airborne particles in occupational environments. In an environment of low aerosol concentrations only small amounts of material are collected, and that may not be sufficient for analysis. Recently, a new sampling pump with a flow rate up to 15 L/min became available for personal samplers, with the potential of operating at higher flow rates. The flow rate of a Leland Legacy sampling pump, which operates at high flow rates, was evaluated and calibrated, and its maximum flow was found to be 10.6 L/min. IOM samplers were placed on a mannequin, and sampling was conducted in a large aerosol wind tunnel at wind speeds of 0.56 and 2.22 m/s. Monodisperse aerosols of oleic acid tagged with sodium fluorescein in the size range of 2 to 100 microm were used in the test. The IOM samplers were operated at flow rates of 2.0 and 10.6 L/min. Results showed that the IOM samplers mounted in the front of the mannequin had a higher sampling efficiency than those mounted at the side and back, regardless of the wind speed and flow rate. For the wind speed of 0.56 m/s, the direction-averaged (the average value of all orientations facing the wind direction) sampling efficiency of the samplers operated at 2.0 L/min was slightly higher than that of 10.6 L/min. For the wind speed of 2.22 m/s, the sampling efficiencies at both flow rates were similar for particles < 60 microm. The results also show that the IOM's sampling efficiency at these two different flow rates follows the inhalable mass curve for particles in the size range of 2 to 20 microm. The test results indicate that the IOM sampler can be used at higher flow rates.

  12. Unraveling the Mystery of Exozodiacal Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, S.; Augereau, J.-C.; Thébault, P.; Absil, O.; Bonsor, A.; Defrère, D.; Kral, Q.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Lebreton, J.; Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2014-01-01

    Exozodiacal dust clouds are thought to be the extrasolar analogs of the Solar System's zodiacal dust. Studying these systems provides insights in the architecture of the innermost regions of planetary systems, including the Habitable Zone. Furthermore, the mere presence of the dust may result in major obstacles for direct imaging of earth-like planets. Our EXOZODI project aims to detect and study exozodiacal dust and to explain its origin. We are carrying out the first large, near-infrared interferometric survey in the northern (CHARA/FLUOR) and southern (VLTI/PIONIER) hemispheres. Preliminary results suggest a detection rate of up to 30% around A to K type stars and interesting trends with spectral type and age. We focus here on presenting the observational work carried out by our team.

  13. A passive ozone sampler based on a reaction with iodide.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Y

    1994-02-01

    A new passive sampler for ozone and its simple analytical system have been developed. Because it is small and sensitive, the sampler can be used for determining personal exposures to ozone and oxidants and for multilocation measurements. The sampler consists of an electrode, a spacer, and several layers of membrane filters and Teflon meshes. The electrode is a carbon paper disk coated with nylon-6 polymer and potassium iodide. The membrane filters are used to remove interferences. A sampling rate of ozone is controlled by the spacer and Teflon meshes. Iodine is liberated by an oxidation reaction of potassium iodide with ozone. The iodine is stabilized by forming a charge transfer complex with nylon-6 and is accumulated in the nylon-6 layer. The amount of iodine, which is proportional to the level of ozone exposure, is quantified by constant current coulometry. The discharge time of a galvanic battery is measured using the electrode as a positive electrode and a zinc plate as a counter electrode. A time-weighted average concentration of ozone is derived from the discharge time after exposing the electrode to ozone. The effects of various environmental conditions on the sampler's performance were investigated. The results indicated that the sampler showed a linear response to ozone exposure up to 1,450 parts per billion for every hour of use (ppb.hour). The minimum detectable exposure was about 400 ppb.hour. The effects of surface wind velocity, temperature, and humidity were small. However, a relative humidity below 20% resulted in an underestimation of the ozone concentration. Because the electrode requires no pretreatment and the analytical method is very simple, this method is suitable for large-scale studies of personal exposures to ozone and oxidants using multilocation measurements.

  14. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, NASA has tasked its toxicology laboratory to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal/intrapharyngeal instillation. This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies are in progress to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated (ground) lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The results from the instillation studies will be useful for choosing exposure concentrations for the animal inhalation study. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The experiment with the simulate will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of instillation and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

  15. Dust impact signals on the wind spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    We analyze waveforms recorded by the Time Domain Sampler of the WAVES experiment on Wind which are similar to impulsive waveforms observed by the S/WAVES experiment on STEREO. These have been interpreted as dust impacts by Meyer-Vernet et al. and M. L. Kaiser and K. Goetz and extensively analyzed by Zaslavsky et al. The mechanism for coupling the emission to the antennas to produce an electrical signal is still not well understood, however. One suggested mechanism for coupling of the impact to the antenna is that the spacecraft body changes potential with respect to the surrounding plasma but the antennas do not (the body mechanism). Another class of mechanisms, with several forms, is that the charge of the emitted cloud interacts with the antennas. The Wind data show that both are operating. The time domain shapes of the dust pulses are highly variable but we have little understanding of what provides these shapes. One feature of the STEREO data has been interpreted as impacts from high velocity nanoparticles entrained by the solar wind. We have not found evidence for fast nanodust in the Wind data. An appreciable fraction of the impacts observed on Wind is consistent with interstellar dust. The impact rates do not follow a Poisson distribution, expected for random independent events, and this is interpreted as bunching. We have not succeeded in relating this bunching to known meteor showers, and they do not repeat from 1 year to the next. The data suggest bunching by fields in the heliosphere.

  16. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  17. Modelling ice nucleation due to dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickovic, Slobodan; Petkovic, Slavko; Pejanovic, Goran; Madonna, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Formation of cold clouds is enhanced if ice nuclei (IN) are available. Cold clouds contribute at global scale with 60% in average in precipitation and their presence significantly affects the atmospheric radiation properties. It is expected that better description of the IN process should substantially improve cloud parameterization in climate and numerical weather prediction models. Observations show that mineral dust particles are the dominant residuals found in cloud ice. In this study we employ the regional dust DREAM model based on high horizontal and vertical grid resolution to parameterize IN caused by mineral dust. DREAM has been already deployed in a study related to IN process (Klein et al, 2010), also in model experiments using several IN parameterization schemes in support of the IN field experiment CALIMA over Canaries. The model has been also extended by adding the major dust mineral fractions as tracers in order to facilitate staying a role of dust mineralogy in ice nucleation. This study will present parameterization of IN using the simulated dust concentration, water moisture and temperature. Preliminary results of simulated IN will be shown, as well as IN validation against lidar aerosol profiles and ice cloud water profiles observed by cloud radar in the Potenza EARLINET site. This study is an initial step in improving a cloud physics parameterization using IN as an input variable in an integrated dust-atmospheric modelling system.

  18. Evaluation of the commercial bacterial air samplers by the new bacterial aerosol generator.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, M; Miyamae, T

    1981-03-01

    Of late microbiological air samplers of various types have been developed in monitoring the critical areas in the hospitals and pharmaceutical plants. It has not been clarified, however, that a commercial air sampler is the most suitable for such a purpose. The present studies were conducted to investigate the bacterial collection efficiency of these air samplers. The new experimental apparatus basically consists of a bacterial aerosol generator and an isokinetic sampling steel air duct. Serratia marcescens was used as the test bacteria, and then the bacterial collection efficiency of the three kinds of commercial air samplers (Andersen air sampler, Pin-hole air sampler and M/G air sampler) was examined. It was found that in these experiments these three air samplers had a high bacterial collection efficiency. All except 0.3 to 2.0% of the small bacterial particles (1 to 5 micrometer) were trapped by these tested air samplers. Furthermore, in these three air samplers it was also confirmed that for collecting the hospital airborne bacteria the bacterial collection efficiency was more than 99.9%. The authors' findings showed that these three air samplers were designed according to Ranz and Wong's theoretical and experimental results.

  19. An assessment of the variability in performance of wet atmospheric deposition samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, R.C.; Robertson, J.K.; Obal, John

    1987-01-01

    The variability in performance of two brands of wet/dry atmospheric deposition samplers were compared for 1 year at a sincle site. A total of nine samplers were used. Samples were collected weekly and analyzed for pH, specific conductance, common chemical constituents, and sample volume. Additionally, data on the duration of each sampler opening were recorded using a microdatalogger. These data disprove the common perception that samplers remain open throughout a precipitation event. The sensitivity of sampler sensors within the range tested did not have a defineable impact on sample collection. The nonnormal distribution within the data set necessitated application of the nonparametric Friedman Test to assess comparability of sample chemical composition and volume between and within sampler brands. Statistically significant differences existed for most comparisons, however the test did not permit quantification of their magnitudes. Differences in analyte concentrations between samplers were small. (USGS)

  20. Considerations for sampling inorganic constituents in ground water using diffusion samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Petkewich, M.D.; Campbell, T.R.; ,

    2002-01-01

    Data indicate that nylon-screen and dialysis diffusion samplers are capable of obtaining concentrations of inorganic solutes in ground water from wells that closely correspond to concentrations obtained by low-flow sampling. Conservative solutes, such as chloride, can be sampled by filling the diffusion samplers with oxygenated water. The samplers should be filled with anaerobic water for sampling redoxsensitive solutes. Oxidation of iron within the samplers, either by using aerobic fill water or by in-well oxygenation events, can lead to erroneous iron concentrations. Lithologic and chemical heterogeneity and sampler placement depth can lead to differences between concentrations from diffusion samples and low-flow samples because of mixing during pumping. A disadvantage of regenerated cellulose dialysis samplers is that they can begin to biodegrade within the two weeks of deployment. Nylon-screen samplers buried beneath streambed sediment along the unnamed tributary in a discharge zone of arseniccontaminated ground water were useful in locating the specific discharge zone.

  1. Simultaneous quantitation of parabens, triclosan, and methyl triclosan in indoor house dust using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinghua; Kubwabo, Cariton; Rasmussen, Pat; Jones-Otazo, Heather

    2010-10-06

    An integrated analytical method for the simultaneous determination of five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-), triclosan, and methyl triclosan in indoor house dust was developed based on gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique (GC/MS). Analytes were extracted from dust samples by sonication. After sample cleanup by solid-phase extraction (SPE), the extracts were derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) and then analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. For quantitation, isotope-labelled internal standards were used for each corresponding target analyte. Only 0.05 g of dust sample was needed for the analysis. Method detection limits ranged from 6.5 to 10 ng/g, and absolute recoveries from 74% to 92%. The developed method demonstrated good repeatability and reproducibility, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 16% for all the analytes. The analytes were determined in dust samples collected using two vacuum sampling methods from 63 Canadian homes: a sample of fresh or "active" dust (FD) collected using a Pullman-Holt vacuum sampler, and a composite sample taken from the household vacuum cleaner (HD). Methyl paraben, propyl paraben, and triclosan were detected in all HD and FD samples. HD samples yielded median values for methyl paraben, propyl paraben, and triclosan of 1080, 463, and 378 ng/g, respectively, which were comparable to the FD sample medians of 1120, 618 and 571 ng/g. Ethyl paraben was detected at frequencies of 89% in FD and 73% in HD samples, with median values of 52 and 25 ng/g, respectively. Butyl paraben was detected at frequencies of 44% in FD and 75% in HD samples, with median values of <10 and 59 ng/g, respectively. Benzyl paraben and methyl triclosan were not detected in any of the samples collected by either method. Samples collected according to the fresh dust protocol agreed with the

  2. A Novel Dust Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, E.; Srama, R.; Krüger, H.; Kempf, S.; Harris, D.; Conlon, T.; Auer, S.

    2001-11-01

    Dust particles in space, like photons, are born at remote sites in space and time. From knowledge of the dust particles' birthplace and the particles' bulk properties, we can learn about the remote environment out of which the particles were formed. This approach is carried out by means of a dust telescope on a dust observatory in space. A dust telescope is a combination of a dust trajectory sensor together with a chemical composition analyzer for dust particles. A novel dust telescope is described. It consists of a highly sensitive dust trajectory sensor, and a large area chemical dust analyzer. It can provide valuable information about the particles' birthplace which may not be accessible by other techniques. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of the electric signals that are induced when a charged grain flies through an appropriately configured electrode systems. After the successful identification of a few charged micron-sized dust grains in space by the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer, this dust telescope has a ten fold increased sensitivity of charge detection (10-16 Coulombs) and will be able to obtain trajectories for sub-micron sized dust grains. State-of-the art dust chemical analyzers have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass numbers above 100. However, since their impact areas are small they can analyze statistically meaningful numbers of grains only in the dust-rich environments of comets or ringed planets. Therefore, this dust telescope includes a large area (0.1 m2) chemical dust analyzer of mass resolution > 100 that will allow us to obtain statistically significant measurements of interplanetary and interstellar dust grains in space.

  3. Dust emissions of organic soils observed in the field and laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobeck, T. M.; Baddock, M. C.; Guo, Z.; Van Pelt, R.; Acosta-Martinez, V.; Tatarko, J.

    2011-12-01

    According to the U.S. Soil Taxonomy, Histosols (also known as organic soils) are soils that are dominated by organic matter (>20% organic matter) in half or more of the upper 80 cm. These soils, when intensively cropped, are subject to wind erosion resulting in loss in crop productivity and degradation of soil, air, and water quality. Estimating wind erosion on Histosols has been determined by USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service as a critical need for the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) model. WEPS has been developed to simulate wind erosion on agricultural land in the US, including soils with organic soil material surfaces. However, additional field measurements are needed to calibrate and validate estimates of wind erosion of organic soils using WEPS. In this study, we used a field portable wind tunnel to generate suspended sediment (dust) from agricultural surfaces for soils with a range of organic contents. The soils were tilled and rolled to provide a consolidated, friable surface. Dust emissions and saltation were measured using an isokinetic vertical slot sampler aspirated by a regulated suction source. Suspended dust was collected on filters of the dust slot sampler and sampled at a frequency of once every six seconds in the suction duct using a GRIMM optical particle size analyzer. In addition, bulk samples of airborne dust were collected using a sampler specifically designed to collect larger dust samples. The larger dust samples were analyzed for physical, chemical, and microbiological properties. In addition, bulk samples of the soils were tested in a laboratory wind tunnel similar to the field wind tunnel and a laboratory dust generator to compare field and laboratory results. For the field wind tunnel study, there were no differences between the highest and lowest organic content soils in terms of their steady state emission rate under an added abrader flux, but the soil with the mid-range of organic matter had less emission by one third

  4. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler.

    PubMed

    Sleeth, Darrah K; Balthaser, Susan A; Collingwood, Scott; Larson, Rodney R

    2016-03-07

    Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat) is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling). However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138), including conventions for extrathoracic (ET) deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET₁) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET₂). For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm-44.3 µm) were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s) wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device.

  5. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler

    PubMed Central

    Sleeth, Darrah K.; Balthaser, Susan A.; Collingwood, Scott; Larson, Rodney R.

    2016-01-01

    Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat) is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling). However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138), including conventions for extrathoracic (ET) deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET1) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET2). For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm–44.3 µm) were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s) wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device. PMID:26959046

  6. Dust particle dynamics in atmospheric dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izvekova, Yulia; Popel, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Dust particle dynamics is modeled in the Dust Devils (DDs). DD is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 100 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall) in Earth's atmosphere. We develop methods for the description of dust particle charging in DDs, discuss the ionization processes in DDs, and model charged dust particle motion. Our conclusions are consistent with the fact that DD can lift a big amount of dust from the surface of a planet into its atmosphere. On the basis of the model we perform calculations and show that DDs are important mechanism for dust uplift in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Influence of DD electric field on dynamics of dust particles is investigated. It is shown that influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is significant near the ground. At some altitude (more then a quarter of the height of DD) influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is negligible. For the calculation of the dynamics of dust electric field can be approximated by effective dipole located at a half of the height of DD. This work was supported by the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  7. Characteristics of Twenty-Nine Aerosol Samplers Tested at U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (2000-2006)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Particles 7 3. Summary of Samplers that use Impingement or Impaction in Liquid to Collect Particles 7 4. Summary of Samplers that use Impaction on a...wetted surfaces. Impaction is the mechanism used in air samplers to remove unneeded large particles from the air. Particle deposition by interception...These sampler characteristics are given in Appendixes 6-7 and Table 2. c. Samplers that use impingement and/or impaction onto a wetted surface: SKC

  8. Pebble Bed Reactor Dust Production Model

    SciTech Connect

    Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Joshua J. Cogliati

    2008-09-01

    The operation of pebble bed reactors, including fuel circulation, can generate graphite dust, which in turn could be a concern for internal components; and to the near field in the remote event of a break in the coolant circuits. The design of the reactor system must, therefore, take the dust into account and the operation must include contingencies for dust removal and for mitigation of potential releases. Such planning requires a proper assessment of the dust inventory. This paper presents a predictive model of dust generation in an operating pebble bed with recirculating fuel. In this preliminary work the production model is based on the use of the assumption of proportionality between the dust production and the normal force and distance traveled. The model developed in this work uses the slip distances and the inter-pebble forces computed by the authors’ PEBBLES. The code, based on the discrete element method, simulates the relevant static and kinetic friction interactions between the pebbles as well as the recirculation of the pebbles through the reactor vessel. The interaction between pebbles and walls of the reactor vat is treated using the same approach. The amount of dust produced is proportional to the wear coefficient for adhesive wear (taken from literature) and to the slip volume, the product of the contact area and the slip distance. The paper will compare the predicted volume with the measured production rates. The simulation tallies the dust production based on the location of creation. Two peak production zones from intra pebble forces are predicted within the bed. The first zone is located near the pebble inlet chute due to the speed of the dropping pebbles. The second peak zone occurs lower in the reactor with increased pebble contact force due to the weight of supported pebbles. This paper presents the first use of a Discrete Element Method simulation of pebble bed dust production.

  9. SPARCLE: Electrostatic Tool for Lunar Dust Control

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Minetto, F.; Cheung, C. Y.; Keller, J. F.; Moore, M.; Calle, C. I.

    2009-03-16

    Successful exploration of most planetary surfaces, with their impact-generated dusty regoliths, will depend on the capabilities to keep surfaces free of the dust which could compromise performance and to collect dust for characterization. Solving the dust problem is essential before we return to the Moon. During the Apollo missions, the discovery was made that regolith fines, or dust, behaved like abrasive velcro, coating surfaces, clogging mechanisms, and making movement progressively more difficult as it was mechanically stirred up during surface operations, and abrading surfaces, including spacesuits, when attempts were made to remove it manually. In addition, some of the astronauts experienced breathing difficulties when exposed to dust that got into the crew compartment. The successful strategy will deal with dust dynamics resulting from interaction between mechanical and electrostatic forces. Here we will describe the surface properties of dust particles, the basis for their behavior, and an electrostatically-based approach and methodology for addressing this issue confirmed by our preliminary results. Our device concept utilizes a focused electron beam to control the electrostatic potential of the surface. A plate of the opposite potential is then used to induce dust migration in the presence of an electrical field. Our goal is a compact device of <5 kg mass and using <5 watts of power to be operational in <5 years with heritage from ionic sweepers for active spacecraft potential control (e.g., on POLAR). Rovers could be fitted with devices that could harness the removal of dust for sampling as part of the extended exploration process on Mercury, Mars, asteroids or outer solar system satellites, as well as the Moon.

  10. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Taylor, Larry

    2008-01-01

    NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. NASA established the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, LADTAG has recommended investigating its toxicity in the lungs of laboratory animals. After receiving this recommendation, NASA directed the JSC Toxicology Laboratory to determine the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in exposed rodents. The rodent pulmonary toxicity studies proposed here are the same as those proposed by the LADTAG. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal instillation (ITI). This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. We succeeded in completing an ITI study on JSC-1 lunar dust simulant in mice (Lam et al., Inhalation Toxicology 14:901-916, 2002, and Inhalation Toxicology 14: 917-928, 2002), and have conducted a pilot ITI study to examine the acute toxicity of an Apollo lunar (highland) dust sample. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies have been planned to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The ITI results will also be

  11. Evaluation of the INEL passive cryogenic whole air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    McManus, G.J.; Hohorst, F.A.; Bird, S.K.; Motes, B.G.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of a portable, passive cryogenic sampler designed for the collection of whole air samples without loss or concentration of any atmospheric constituents. The design criteria included: (a) sample volume capacity greater than 100 liters STP; (b) no concentration or loss of atmospheric constituents; (c) no vertical dimension greater than 50 cm or horizontal dimension greater than 15 cm; (d) operation without electrical power; (e)sampling lifetime greater than two hours; (f) total gross weight less than 20 kg; (g) resistance to undetected tampering. The sampler described in this report has been found to meet or exceed the design criteria once safety-related add-ons (rotameter, pressure relief valves, and base-plate) are either removed or redesigned for a smaller profile.

  12. Development of a high-volume air sampler for nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hata, M; Thongyen, T; Bao, L; Hoshino, A; Otani, Y; Ikeda, T; Furuuchi, M

    2013-02-01

    As a tool to evaluate the characteristics of aerosol nano-particles, a high-volume air sampler for the collection of nano-particles was developed based on the inertial filter technology. Instead of the webbed fiber geometry of the existing inertial filter, wire mesh screens alternately layered using spacing sheets with circular holes aligned to provide multi-circular nozzles were newly devised and the separation performance of the filter was investigated experimentally. The separation performance was evaluated for a single-nozzle inertial filter at different filtration velocities. A webbed stainless steel fiber mat attached on the inlet surface of the developed inertial filter was discussed as a pre-separator suppressing the bouncing of particles on meshes. The separation performance of a triple-nozzle inertial filter was also discussed to investigate the influence of scale-up on the separation performance of a multi-nozzle inertial filter. The influence of particle loading on the pressure drop and separation performance was discussed. A supplemental inlet for the nano-particle collection applied to an existing portable high-volume air sampler was devised and the consistency with other types of existing samplers was discussed based on the sampling of ambient particles. The layered-mesh inertial filter with a webbed stainless steel fiber mat as a pre-separator showed good performance in the separation of particles with a d p50 ranging from 150 to 190 nm keeping the influence of loaded particles small. The developed layered-mesh inertial filter was successfully applied to the collection of particles at a d p50∼ 190 nm that was consistent with the results from existing samplers.

  13. Integrated Seawater Sampler and Data Acquisition System Prototype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    sampling systems, such as CTD profilers interfaced to rosette samplers supporting Niskin or Go-Flo bottles , satisfy the sampling requirements of most ocean...CTD readings. The basic design of the Niskin bottle causes water leakage problems when water samples are collected on the downcast. To alleviate this...problems associated with the rubber diaphragms outweighed the gain, and unfortunately the downcast sampling with Niskin bottles was dropped. In a report on

  14. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  15. Dynamic exposure of organisms and passive samplers to hydrophobic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bayen, Stéphane; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Buffle, Jacques; Hermens, Joop L M

    2009-04-01

    An insight into the dynamic aspects of the accumulation process is essential for understanding bioaccumulation as well as effect studies of hydrophobic organic chemicals. This review presents an overview of kinetic studies with organisms (fish, bivalve, crustacean, insect, worm, algae, and protozoan) as well as passive samplers (solid and liquid phase microextraction, semipermeable membrane device, polymer sheet, solid-phase extraction, Chemcatcher, etc.) for the uptake of neutral nonpolar chemicals from the aqueous phase. Information about uptake rates, elimination rates, and 95% equilibration times was collected and analyzed with diffusion based models. The present literature review suggests that the surface to volume ratio appears to be a critical parameter for the uptake rate of the more hydrophobic chemicals both for samplers and organisms. In addition, as a very first approximation, the combination of the first-order kinetic model with the assumption that diffusion through the aqueous boundary layers is rate limiting, gives a reasonable description of the experimental kinetic data. In this way, the presented model might be used to estimate uptake and elimination rate constants of chemicals by organisms or passive samplers.

  16. Hydrothermal Vent Sampler: Does Life Exist in High Temperature Environments?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivadeneyra, Cesar R.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to search for the existence of biomass under extreme temperature and pressure conditions to determine the upper bounds of environments on which life can exist. Vents are, simply put, underwater volcano openings located at the bottom of the sea. The conditions at these locations are considerably extreme with pressures of up to 10,000 psi, and enormous temperature gradients. The temperature of the water near these vents is around 400 C, while that of the surrounding water is about 3 C. The extremity of these conditions makes it hard to estimate the existence of life in those environments. I n order to find whether such existence happens, we need to search for biomass inside these vents. The vent sampler is a device that has the purpose of safely and accurately collecting this biomass for examination. This sampler is constituted of a Series of filters of the order of 100-0.2 microns in size. Since this is a 3-year project, it has not concluded yet; however, during the time I contributed to this project, I worked with the mechanical design of this sampler device including the selection, assembly, and testing of the various subsystems and the design and construction of the electronics enclosure.

  17. A sampler for coring sediments in rivers and estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prych, Edmund A.; Hubbell, D.W.

    1966-01-01

    A portable sampler developed to core submerged unconsolidated sediments collects cores that are 180 cm long and 4.75cm in diameter. The sampler is used from a 12-m boat in water depths up to 20 m and in flow velocities up to 1.5m per second to sample river and estuarine deposits ranging from silty clay to medium sand. Even in sand that cannot be penetrated with conventional corers, the sampler achieves easy penetration through the combined application of vibration, suction, and axial force. A piston in the core barrel creates suction, and the suspension system is arranged so that tension on the support cable produces both a downward force on the core barrel and a lateral support against overturning. Samples are usually retained because of slight compaction in the driving head; as a precaution, however, the bottom of the core barrel is covered by a plate that closes after the barrel is withdrawn from the bed. Tests show that sample-retainers placed within the driving head restrict penetration and limit core lengths. Stratification within cores is disrupted little as a result of the sampling process.

  18. Filter and electrostatic samplers for semivolatile aerosols: physical artifacts.

    PubMed

    Volckens, John; Leith, David

    2002-11-01

    Adsorptive and evaporative artifacts often bias measurements of semivolatile aerosols. Adsorption occurs when the sampling method disrupts the gas-particle partitioning equilibrium. Evaporation occurs because concentrations of semivolatiles are rarely constant over time. Filtration is subject to both adsorptive and evaporative artifacts. By comparison, electrostatic precipitation reduces these artifacts by minimizing the surface area of collected particles without substantially disrupting the gas-particle equilibrium. The extent of these artifacts was determined for filter samplers and electrostatic precipitator samplers for semivolatile alkane aerosols in the laboratory. Adsorption of gas-phase semivolatiles was lower in electrostatic precipitators by factors of 5-100 compared to the filter method. Particle evaporation from the electrostatic sampler was 2.3 times lower than that from TFE-coated glass-fiber filters. Use of a backup filter to correct for compound-specific adsorption artifacts can introduce positive or negative errors to the measured particle-phase concentration due to competition among the adsorbates for available adsorption sites. Adsorption of evaporated particles from the front filter onto the backup filter increased the measured evaporative artifact by a factor of 1.5-2.

  19. Numerical determination of personal aerosol sampler aspiration efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lo Savio, Simone; Paradisi, Paolo; Tampieri, Francesco; Belosi, Franco; Morigi, Maria Pia; Agostini, Sergio

    2003-04-01

    In this work the determination of the aspiration efficiency of personal aerosol samplers, commonly used in occupational exposure assessment, is investigated by means of CFD techniques. Specifically, it will be described a code to calculate the particle trajectories in a given flow field. At the present state the code considers only the effects of the mean flow field on the particle motion, whereas the turbulent diffusion effects are neglected. Comparisons with experimental measurements are also given in the framework of a research contract, supported by the European Community, with several experimental contributions from the participants. The main objective of the European research is to develop a new approach to experimentation with airborne particle flows, working on a reduced scale. This methodology has the advantage of allowing real-time aerosol determination and use of small wind tunnels, with a better experimental control. In this article we describe how the methodology has been verified using computational fluid dynamics. Experimental and numerical aspiration efficiencies have been compared and the influence of gravity and turbulence intensity in full and reduced scale has been investigated. The numerical techniques described here are in agreement with previous similar research and allow at least qualitative predictions of aspiration efficiency for real samplers, taking care of orientation from the incoming air flow. The major discrepancies among predicted and experimental results may be a consequence of bounce effects, which are very difficult to eliminate also by greasing the sampler surface.

  20. Modeling uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants into polyethylene passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jay M; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Luthy, Richard G

    2015-02-17

    Single-phase passive samplers are gaining acceptance as a method to measure hydrophobic organic contaminant (HOC) concentration in water. Although the relationship between the HOC concentration in water and passive sampler is linear at equilibrium, mass transfer models are needed for nonequilibrium conditions. We report measurements of organochlorine pesticide diffusion and partition coefficients with respect to polyethylene (PE), and present a Fickian approach to modeling HOC uptake by PE in aqueous systems. The model is an analytic solution to Fick's second law applied through an aqueous diffusive boundary layer and a polyethylene layer. Comparisons of the model with existing methods indicate agreement at appropriate boundary conditions. Laboratory release experiments on the organochlorine pesticides DDT, DDE, DDD, and chlordane in well-mixed slurries support the model's applicability to aqueous systems. In general, the advantage of the model is its application in the cases of well-agitated systems, low values of polyethylene-water partioning coefficients, thick polyethylene relative to the boundary layer thickness, and/or short exposure times. Another significant advantage is the ability to estimate, or at least bound, the needed exposure time to reach a desired CPE without empirical model inputs. A further finding of this work is that polyethylene diffusivity does not vary by transport direction through the sampler thickness.

  1. Asynchronous signal-dependent non-uniform sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can-Cimino, Azime; Chaparro, Luis F.; Sejdić, Ervin

    2014-05-01

    Analog sparse signals resulting from biomedical and sensing network applications are typically non-stationary with frequency-varying spectra. By ignoring that the maximum frequency of their spectra is changing, uniform sampling of sparse signals collects unnecessary samples in quiescent segments of the signal. A more appropriate sampling approach would be signal-dependent. Moreover, in many of these applications power consumption and analog processing are issues of great importance that need to be considered. In this paper we present a signal dependent non-uniform sampler that uses a Modified Asynchronous Sigma Delta Modulator which consumes low-power and can be processed using analog procedures. Using Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions (PSWF) interpolation of the original signal is performed, thus giving an asynchronous analog to digital and digital to analog conversion. Stable solutions are obtained by using modulated PSWFs functions. The advantage of the adapted asynchronous sampler is that range of frequencies of the sparse signal is taken into account avoiding aliasing. Moreover, it requires saving only the zero-crossing times of the non-uniform samples, or their differences, and the reconstruction can be done using their quantized values and a PSWF-based interpolation. The range of frequencies analyzed can be changed and the sampler can be implemented as a bank of filters for unknown range of frequencies. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated with an electroencephalogram (EEG) signal.

  2. Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic personal aerosol sampler.

    PubMed

    Volckens, J; Quinn, C; Leith, D; Mehaffy, J; Henry, C S; Miller-Lionberg, D

    2017-03-01

    Assessing personal exposure to air pollution has long proven challenging due to technological limitations posed by the samplers themselves. Historically, wearable aerosol monitors have proven to be expensive, noisy, and burdensome. The objective of this work was to develop a new type of wearable monitor, an ultrasonic personal aerosol sampler (UPAS), to overcome many of the technological limitations in personal exposure assessment. The UPAS is a time-integrated monitor that features a novel micropump that is virtually silent during operation. A suite of onboard environmental sensors integrated with this pump measure and record mass airflow (0.5-3.0 L/min, accurate within 5%), temperature, pressure, relative humidity, light intensity, and acceleration. Rapid development of the UPAS was made possible through recent advances in low-cost electronics, open-source programming platforms, and additive manufacturing for rapid prototyping. Interchangeable cyclone inlets provided a close match to the EPA PM2.5 mass criterion (within 5%) for device flows at either 1.0 or 2.0 L/min. Battery life varied from 23 to 45 hours depending on sample flow rate and selected filter media. Laboratory tests of the UPAS prototype demonstrate excellent agreement with equivalent federal reference method samplers for gravimetric analysis of PM2.5 across a broad range of concentrations.

  3. A Comparison of "Total Dust" and Inhalable Personal Sampling for Beryllium Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Colleen M.

    2012-05-09

    In 2009, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) reduced the Beryllium (Be) 8-hr Time Weighted Average Threshold Limit Value (TLV-TWA) from 2.0 μg/m3 to 0.05 μg/m3 with an inhalable 'I' designation in accordance with ACGIH's particle size-selective criterion for inhalable mass. Currently, per the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is following the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 2.0 μg/m3 as an 8-hr TWA, which is also the 2005 ACGIH TLV-TWA, and an Action Level (AL) of 0.2 μg/m3 and sampling is performed using the 37mm (total dust) sampling method. Since DOE is considering adopting the newer 2009 TLV guidelines, the goal of this study was to determine if the current method of sampling using the 37mm (total dust) sampler would produce results that are comparable to what would be measured using the IOM (inhalable) sampler specific to the application of high energy explosive work at LLNL's remote experimental test facility at Site 300. Side-by-side personal sampling using the two samplers was performed over an approximately two-week period during chamber re-entry and cleanup procedures following detonation of an explosive assembly containing Beryllium (Be). The average ratio of personal sampling results for the IOM (inhalable) vs. 37-mm (total dust) sampler was 1.1:1 with a P-value of 0.62, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference in the performance of the two samplers. Therefore, for the type of activity monitored during this study, the 37-mm sampling cassette would be considered a suitable alternative to the IOM sampler for collecting inhalable particulate matter, which is important given the many practical and economic advantages that it presents. However, similar comparison studies would be necessary for this conclusion to be applied to other types of

  4. Silica dust exposure: Effect of filter size to compliance determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Suhaily; Latif, Mohd Talib; Khan, Md Firoz; Leman, Abdul Mutalib; Goh, Eric; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring of respirable dust was performed using a set of integrated sampling system consisting of sampling pump attached with filter media and separating device such as cyclone or special cassette. Based on selected method, filter sizes are either 25 mm or 37 mm poly vinyl chloride (PVC) filter. The aim of this study was to compare performance of two types of filter during personal respirable dust sampling for silica dust under field condition. The comparison strategy focused on the final compliance judgment based on both dataset. Eight hour parallel sampling of personal respirable dust exposure was performed among 30 crusher operators at six quarries. Each crusher operator was attached with parallel set of integrated sampling train containing either 25 mm or 37 mm PVC filter. Each set consisted of standard flow SKC sampler, attached with SKC GS3 cyclone and 2 pieces cassette loaded with 5.0 µm of PVC filter. Samples were analyzed by gravimetric technique. Personal respirable dust exposure between the two types of filters indicated significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) with moderate relationship (r2 = 0.6431). Personal exposure based on 25 mm PVC filter indicated 0.1% non-compliance to overall data while 37 mm PVC filter indicated similar findings at 0.4 %. Both data showed similar arithmetic mean(AM) and geometric mean(GM). In overall we concluded that personal respirable dust exposure either based on 25mm or 37mm PVC filter will give similar compliance determination. Both filters are reliable to be used in respirable dust monitoring for silica dust related exposure.

  5. Polymer-water partition coefficients in polymeric passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Asgarpour Khansary, Milad; Shirazian, Saeed; Asadollahzadeh, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Passive samplers are of the most applied methods and tools for measuring concentration of hydrophobic organic compounds in water (c 1(W) ) in which the polymer-water partition coefficients (D) are of fundamental importance for reliability of measurements. Due to the cost and time associated with the experimental researches, development of a predictive method for estimation and evaluation of performance of polymeric passive samplers for various hydrophobic organic compounds is highly needed and valuable. For this purpose, in this work, following the fundamental chemical thermodynamic equations governing the concerned local equilibrium, successful attempts were made to establish a theoretical model of polymer-water partition coefficients. Flory-Huggins model based on the Hansen solubility parameters was used for calculation of activity coefficients. The method was examined for reliability of calculations using collected data of three polymeric passive samplers and ten compounds. A regression model of form ln(D) = 0.707ln(c 1(p) ) - 2.7391 with an R (2)  = 0.9744 was obtained to relate the polymer-water partition coefficients (D) and concentration of hydrophobic organic compounds in passive sampler (c 1(p) ). It was also found that polymer-water partition coefficients are related to the concentration of hydrophobic organic compounds in water (c 1(W) ) as ln(D) = 2.412ln(c 1(p) ) - 9.348. Based on the results, the tie lines of concentration for hydrophobic organic compounds in passive sampler (c 1(p) ) and concentration of hydrophobic organic compounds in water (c 1(W) ) are in the form of ln(c 1(W) ) = 0.293ln(c 1(p) ) + 2.734. The composition of water sample and the interaction parameters of dissolved compound-water and dissolved compound-polymer, temperature, etc. actively influence the values of partition coefficient. The discrepancy observed over experimental data can be simply justified based on the local condition of sampling sites which alter

  6. Impact and monitoring of dust storms in Taklimakan desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G. G.; Li, X.; Zheng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The Taklimakan is China's largest, driest, and warmest desert in total area of 338000km^2 with perimeter of 436 km, it is also known as one of the world's largest shifting-sand deserts. Fully 85 percent of the total area consists of mobile, crescent-shaped sand dunes and are virtually devoid of vegetation. The abundant sand provides material for frequent intense dust storms. The Taklimakan desert fills the expansive Tarim Basin between the Kunlun Mountains and the Tibet Plateau to the south and the Tian Shan Mountains to the north. The Tarim River flows across the basin from west-to-east. In these places, the oases created by fresh surface water support agriculture. Studies outside Xinjiang indicated that 80% dust source of storms was from farmland. Dust storms in the Tarim Basin occur for 20 to 59 days, mainly in spring every year. However, little effort was taken to investigate soil wind erosion and dust emission around the desert. Quantitative understanding of individual dust events in the arid Taklimakan desert, for example, the dust emission rates and the long-range transport, are still incomplete. Therefore, the dust events were observed through routine satellite sensors, lidar instruments, airborne samplers, and surface-based aerosol monitors. Soil wind erosion and suspended particulates emission of four major dust storms from the desert and the typical oasis farmlands at the north rim of the desert were measured using creep sampler, BSNE and TSP at eight heights in 2012. In addition, Aqua satellite AOD data, the NAAPS Global Aeosol model, the CALIPSO satellite products, EPA's AirNow AQI of PM2.5 and HYSPLIT Back Trajectory model were applied to analyze dust transport across the Pacific. Four significant dust storms were observed at the north rim of Taklimakan desert in the spring, 2012. During those events, predominant wind direction ranged from 296 to 334°, wind speed over 7 m/s at 2 m lasted for 471-1074 min, gust wind speed ranged from 11-18m/s. It was

  7. Summary report on the design of the retained gas sampler system (retained gas sampler, extruder and extractor)

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, D.W.; Bolden, R.C.; Bridges, A.E.; Cannon, N.S.; Chastain, S.A.; Hey, B.E.; Knight, R.C.; Linschooten, C.G.; Pitner, A.L.; Webb, B.J.

    1994-09-29

    This document summarizes work performs in Fiscal Year 1994 to develop the three main components of Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS). These primary components are the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), the Retained Gas Extruder (RGE), and the Retained Gas Extractor (RGEx). The RGS is based on the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Universal Sampler design, and includes modifications to reduce gas leakage. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. Significant progress has been made in developing the RGSS. The RGSS is being developed by WHC to extract a representative waste sample from a Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks and to measure both the amount and composition of free and {open_quotes}bound{close_quotes} gases. Sudden releases of flammable gas mixtures are a safety concern for normal waste storage operations and eventual waste retrieval. Flow visualization testing was used to identify important fluid dynamic issues related to the sampling process. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. The safety analysis for the RGSS is being performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is more than sixty percent (60%) complete.

  8. Dust Plume off Mauritania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A thick plume of dust blew off the coast of Mauritania in western Africa on October 2, 2007. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite observed the dust plume as it headed toward the southwest over the Atlantic Ocean. In this image, the dust varies in color from nearly white to medium tan. The dust plume is easier to see over the dark background of the ocean, but the plume stretches across the land surface to the east, as well. The dust plume's structure is clearest along the coastline, where relatively clear air pockets separate distinct puffs of dust. West of that, individual pillows of dust push together to form a more homogeneous plume. Near its southwest tip, the plume takes on yet another shape, with stripes of pale dust fanning out toward the northwest. Occasional tiny white clouds dot the sky overhead, but skies are otherwise clear.

  9. Niamey Dust Observations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    Niamey aerosol are composed of two main components: dust due to the proximity of the Sahara Desert, and soot from local and regional biomass burning. The purpose of this data product is to identify when the local conditions are dominated by the dust component so that the properties of the dust events can be further studied.

  10. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     ... (MISR) captured these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the ... available at JPL March 10, 2004 - Dust and sand sweep the northeast region. project:  MISR ...

  11. Dust in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Armosky, Brad J.

    2004-01-01

    Space is seeming less and less like empty space as new discoveries and reexaminations fill in the gaps. And, ingenuity and technology, like the Spitzer Space Telescope, is allowing examination of the far reaches of the Milky Way and beyond. Even dust is getting its due, but not the dust everyone is familiar with. People seldom consider the dust in…

  12. Middle East Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... only some of the dust over eastern Syria and southeastern Turkey can be discerned. The dust is much more obvious in the center panel, ... 18, 2002 - A large dust plume extends across Syria and Turkey. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  13. Evaluation of the Snap Sampler for Sampling Ground Water Monitoring Wells for VOCs and Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    ER D C/ CR R EL T R -0 7 -1 4 Evaluation of the Snap Sampler for Sampling Ground Water Monitoring Wells for VOCs and Explosives Louise...release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CRREL TR-07-14 August 2007 Evaluation of the Snap Sampler for Sampling Ground Water Monitoring...determine the ability of the Snap Sampler to recover representative concentrations of VOC and explosives in ground water . For the laboratory studies

  14. Demonstration/Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    sampling 5. Carefully selecting a sampling order that reduces sampler impacts on subsequent sampling events. 6.1.2 Baseline Characterization Prior to...sampling • Carefully selecting a sampling order that reduces sampler impacts on subsequent sampling events. 27 6.2.2 Baseline...Validation of the Snap Sampler Passive Ground Water Sampling Device June 2011 i COST & PERFORMANCE REPORT Project: ER-200630 TABLE OF CONTENTS

  15. The Dust at Altitude Recovery Technology (DART) System was Developed to Recover Plant, Human, and Animal Pathogens in Asian and African Dust Storms over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Tench, B.; Nehr, A.; Emmons, T.; Valbuena, F.; Palaia, J.; Sugars, C.

    2014-12-01

    Dust emanates year-round from Africa and Asia and impacts air quality in North America. Asian dust plumes deliver up to 64 million tonnes of dust over the NW of the USA, and African dust storms deliver over 50 million tonnes of dust over Florida each year. Several recent studies have demonstrated that human and plant pathogens from Asian [1] African [2] aerosols can be transported to N. America in naturally occurring dust storms. What is unknown is whether these 'presumptive pathogens' impact human, plant, or animal health in the USA. In order to initiate a long-term monitoring program of pathogens in Asian and African dust plumes, we have developed a dust collection system called DART (Dust at Altitude Recovery Technology) (figure). The DART dust sampler can be mounted on a F104 Starfighter jet (figure) and a T6 Texan propeller driven airplane (not shown), and was test flown over FL in Dec. 2013 on the F104 and on the T6 in the summer of 2014. The DART system utilizes a high-volume pump to pass air through 6 separate filtration units where both aerosols and microbial cells are captured. The filtration systems exhibit flow rates from 25-142 L/min depending on the pore size and brand of filters used. Flow rates are directly correlated to increased air speed, and are inversely correlated to increased altitude. Filtration units can be turned on and off individually as required for specific science flight objectives. The DART dust sampler has performed nominally up to 7600 m, 0.92 Mach, and 3.5 +G's. During initial test flights in Dec. 2013, 5 of 8 genera of fungi recovered from the lower atmosphere over FL contained plant pathogens including species in the genera: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Curvularia, and Fusarium. Numbers of recovered fungi, but not bacteria, increased significantly when 5 or 10 µm filters were used in the DART system compared to filter pore sizes ≤ 1.2 µm. Future sampling programs for both Asian and African dust events will be

  16. Intercomparison of high-volume PM10 samplers at a site with high-particulate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Purdue, L.J.; Rodes, C.E.; Rehme, K.A.; Holland, D.M.; Bond, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially available high-volume PM10 samplers were intercompared at a site in Phoenix characterized by high concentrations of coarse particles. Over a 21-day period, Sierra Andersen 321A (SA 321A) samplers gave PM10 measurements 58% higher than the Wedding IP10 (WED) samplers and 16% higher than a SA 321A sampler that had an oil coating on the internal impaction surfaces of the inlet. WED samplers that were subjected to a simple brush-cleaning procedure after each sampling period gave PM10 results 16% higher than the WED samplers not subjected to cleaning. The oiled SA 321A sampler gave PM10 values 15% higher than the cleaned WED samplers. The results demonstrate that the SA 321A overestimates PM10 when sampling in an environment with high coarse-particle concentrations. The over collection results from pass-through of large particles, and can be minimized by oiling the internal impaction surfaces of the inlet. The WED sampler underestimates PM10 after several days of sampling in such an environment.

  17. Field calibration of polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers for PCBs and OC pesticides.

    PubMed

    Chaemfa, Chakra; Barber, Jonathan L; Gocht, Tilman; Harner, Tom; Holoubek, Ivan; Klanova, Jana; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-12-01

    Different passive air sampler (PAS) strategies have been developed for sampling in remote areas and for cost-effective simultaneous spatial mapping of POPs (persistent organic pollutants) over differing geographical scales. The polyurethane foam (PUF) disk-based PAS is probably the most widely used. In a PUF-based PAS, the PUF disk is generally mounted inside two stainless steel bowls to buffer the air flow to the disk and to shield it from precipitation and light. The field study described in this manuscript was conducted to: compare performance of 3 different designs of sampler; to further calibrate the sampler against the conventional active sampler; to derive more information on field-based uptake rates and equilibrium times of the samplers. Samplers were also deployed at different locations across the field site, and at different heights up a meteorological tower, to investigate the possible influence of sampler location. Samplers deployed <5m above ground, and not directly sheltered from the wind gave similar uptake rates. Small differences in dimensions between the 3 designs of passive sampler chamber had no discernable effect on accumulation rates, allowing comparison with previously published data.

  18. Efficacy of a vacuum benthos sampler for collecting demersal fish eggs from gravel substratum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruetz, C. R.; Jennings, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    We used two densities of eggs (low=900 eggs/m2; high=5100 eggs/m2) in laboratory experiments to estimate the recovery efficiency of the Brown benthos sampler for collecting fish eggs from gravel substrate and to determine if differences (e.g., 5-fold) in egg density in the substratum could be detected with the sampler. The mean egg recovery efficiency of the sampler in the low and high density treatments was 30% (SE=8.7) and 35% (SE=3.8), respectively. The difference between the treatment means was not significant. Therefore, data from the two treatments were pooled and used to estimate the recovery efficiency of the sampler (32.7%, SE=4.4). However, we were able to detect a 5?? difference in the number of eggs collected with the sampler between the two treatments. Our estimate of the recovery efficiency of the sampler for collecting fish eggs was less than those reported for the sampler's efficiency for collecting benthic macroinvertebrates. The low recovery efficiency of the sampler for collecting fish eggs does not lessen the utility of the device. Rather, ecologists planning to use the sampler must estimate the recovery efficiency of target fauna, especially if density estimates are to be calculated, because recovery efficiency probably is less than 100%. ?? Munksgaard, 1997.

  19. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring

  20. The effects of transported Asian dust on the composition and concentration of ambient fungi in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, H. Jasmine; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rao, Carol Y.; Lee, Chung-Te; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Wu, Yi-Hua

    2012-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of transported Asian dust and other environmental parameters on the levels and compositions of ambient fungi in the atmosphere of northern Taiwan. We monitored Asian dust events in Taipei County, Taiwan from January 2003 to June 2004. We used duplicate Burkard portable air samplers to collect ambient fungi before, during, and after dust events. Six transported Asian dust events were monitored during the study period. Elevated concentrations of Aspergillus ( A. niger, specifically), Coelomycetes, Rhinocladiella, Sporothrix and Verticillium were noted ( p < 0.05) during Asian dust periods. Botryosporium and Trichothecium were only recovered during dust event days. Multiple regression analysis showed that fungal levels were positively associated with temperature, wind speed, rainfall, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates with aerodynamic diameters ≤10 μm (PM10), and negatively correlated with relative humidity and ozone. Our results demonstrated that Asian dust events affected ambient fungal concentrations and compositions in northern Taiwan. Ambient fungi also had complex dynamics with air pollutants and meteorological factors. Future studies should explore the health impacts of ambient fungi during Asian dust events, adjusting for the synergistic/antagonistic effects of weather and air pollutants.

  1. Dust in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpova, O. L.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2017-02-01

    The conditions for the destruction of dust in hot gas in galaxy clusters are investigated. It is argued that extinction measurements can be subject to selection effects, hindering their use in obtaining trustworthy estimates of dust masses in clusters. It is shown, in particular, that the ratio of the dust mass to the extinction M d / S d increases as dust grains are disrupted, due to the rapid destruction of small grains. Over long times, this ratio can asymptotically reach values a factor of three higher than the mean value in the interstellar medium in the Galaxy. This lowers dust-mass estimates based on measurements of extinction in galaxy clusters. The characteristic lifetime of dust in hot cluster gas is determined by its possible thermal isolation by the denser medium of gas fragments within which the dust is ejected from galaxies, and can reach 100-300 million years, depending on the kinematics and morphology of the fragments. As a result, the mass fraction of dust in hot cluster gas can reach 1-3% of the Galactic value. Over its lifetime, dust can also be manifest through its far-infrared emission. The emission characteristics of the dust change as it is disrupted, and the ratio of the fluxes at 350 and 850 μm can increase appreciably. This can potentially serve as an indicator of the state of the dust and ambient gas.

  2. Description and Analytical Results for Deposited Dust Samples from a Two-Year Monitoring Program Near Deer Trail, Colorado, USA, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith C.; Honke, Jeff; Lamothe, Paul; Fisher, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Biosolids reclaimed from municipal wastewater have been applied since 1993 on nonirrigated farmland and rangeland east of Deer Trail, Colo., by Metro Wastewater Reclamation District of Denver. The U.S. Geological Survey has monitored ground water at this site since 1993, and began monitoring the biosolids, soils, and stream sediments in 1999. To investigate the possible effects of airborne dust blowing from the application fields, passive dust samplers were deployed in 2006 and 2007. These samplers measured the quantity and composition of dust being deposited downwind of a farmed field where biosolids had been applied, compared to a farmed field upwind of the application area. The dust-deposition rates and dust compositions measured at the two study sites are consistent with rates and compositions measured elsewhere in Utah, Nevada, and California using the same methods and equipment. Higher deposition rates were measured at the biosolids site compared to the control site during 2006. Higher deposition rates at both sites appear to be associated with episodes of cultivation and harvest during dry periods. No consistent differences in elements likely to be associated with biosolids disposal were detected between the sites. However, the contents of copper, lead, and zinc in the dust samples are generally much higher than average values of these elements in crustal rocks and sediments. Such values for dust samples are consistent with measurements on modern dust samples from southern Nevada and California and probably reflect inputs from regional urban and manufacturing activities.

  3. Interstellar Dust - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2012-01-01

    The study of the formation and the destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic materials. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar physics and chemistry and in the formation of organic materials, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of carbonaceous dust. Laboratory experiments that are performed under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments to provide information on the nature, the size and the structure of interstellar dust particles, the growth and the destruction processes of interstellar dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. A review of the properties of dust and of the laboratory experiments that are conducted to study the formation processes of dust grains from molecular precursors will be given.

  4. Light Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 October 2004 Many Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images exhibit wild patterns of dark streaks thought to have formed by the passage of many dust devils. The dust devils disrupt the dust coating the martian surface, leaving behind a streak. However, not all dust devils make streaks, and not all dust devil streaks are dark. Some are light---it simply depends upon which is darker, the substrate or the dust that the spinning vortex disrupts. The example of light-toned dust devil streaks shown here is located in southern Schiaparelli Basin near 5.3oS, 343.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left.

  5. Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Barry H; Ritter, Paul D

    2010-02-16

    A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

  6. Application of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive air samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, Jimmie D.; Huckins, James N.; Zajicek, James L.

    1993-01-01

    The semipermeable membrane device (SPMD), consisting of a neutral lipid (triolein) enclosed in polyethylene layflat tubing, is demonstrated to be a highly efficient passive air sampler. These devices readily sequester lipophilic organic contaminants from the vapor phase. Specifically, the SPMDs are shown to concentrate polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues from a laboratory atmosphere in a linear manner through 28 days. Under the conditions of this study, a three device composite (1.4 g triolein) extracted PCB residues from ≈ 7 m3 of air per day.

  7. Status of the Stardust ISPE and the Origin of Four Interstellar Dust Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Ansari, A.; Bajt, S.; Bastien, R. S.; Bassim, N.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F. E.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Changela, H.; Cloetens, P.; Davis, A. M.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G.; Fougeray, P.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Gruen, E.; Sandford, S. A.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Some bulk properties of interstellar dust are known through infrared and X-ray observations of the interstellar medium. However, the properties of individual interstellar dust particles are largely unconstrained, so it is not known whether individual interstellar dust particles can be definitively distinguished from interplanetary dust particles in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) based only on chemical, mineralogical or isotopic analyses. It was therefore understood from the beginning of the Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) that identification of interstellar dust candidates would rest on three criteria - broad consistency with known extraterrestrial materials, inconsistency with an origin as secondary ejecta from impacts on the spacecraft, and consistency, in a statistical sense, of observed dynamical properties - that is, trajectory and capture speed - with an origin in the interstellar dust stream. Here we quantitatively test four interstellar dust candidates, reported previously [1], against these criteria.

  8. Future Dust Detection Experiments on Japanese Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nogami, K.; Iglseder, H.; Fujiwara, A.; Yano, H.; Mukai, T.; Ishimoto, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Shibata, H.

    1996-09-01

    Direct measurements of dust particle in space have unveiled characteristics of interplanetary and interstellar dust particles. In addition to the approved PLANET-B MDC (Mars Dust Counter) in 1998, two dust detectors with mass spectrometry are proposed for Japanese future space missions: lunar and asteroid missions. A lunar orbiter mission is planned by NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan) and ISAS (The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science). The mission, which has also a relay satellite and a test lander, will be launched in 2003 by H-II vehicle. The orbiter is three-axis stabilized satellite that has both lunar and anti-lunar direction platforms. We propose two dust analyzers involving mass spectrometry using impact ionization: one on the lunar side will measure dust flux from the moon and the other on the anti-lunar side will measure interplanetary and interstellar particles. Each dust analyzer which has an axisymmetric ion mirror is 4.3kg in weight and 240x275x357 mm(3) in shape with 38000mm(2) aperture area. We aim at chemical analysis (with mass resolution m/dm >= 300) of dust particles as small as 1 micron. MUSES-C is an asteroid sample return mission which is managed by ISAS. It will be launched in late 2001 by M-V, will arrive at asteroid Nereus in 2004 and return back to the Earth with surface samples in 2006. In addition to the sampler, several scientific instruments are proposed to be on board MUSES-C. We propose an impact ionization dust detector with a simple ion mirror for mass spectrometry. The detector is 1.0kg in weight and 180x125x275 mm(3) in shape. The main purpose is to measure time and spatial variations of interplanetary and interstellar dust particles and to investigate if dust particles are enhanced at Nereus orbit. To detect relatively low velocity particles around Nereus, we also propose to have a piezo film detector on the satellite surface.

  9. Performance of the Button Personal Inhalable Sampler for the measurement of outdoor aeroallergens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Atin; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Zhong, Wei; Levin, Linda; Kelley, Anna L.; St. Clair, Harry G.; LeMasters, Grace

    No personal aerosol sampler has been evaluated for monitoring aeroallergens in outdoor field conditions and compared to conventional stationary aerobiological samplers. Recently developed Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler has demonstrated high sampling efficiency for non-biological particles and low sensitivity to the wind direction and velocity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Button Sampler for the measurement of outdoor pollen grains and fungal spores side-by-side with the widely used Rotorod Sampler. The sampling was performed for 8 months (spring, summer and fall) at a monitoring station on the roof of a two-storied office building located in the center of the city of Cincinnati. Two identical Button Samplers, one oriented towards the most prevalent wind and the other towards the opposite wind and a Rotorod Sampler were placed side-by-side. The total fungal spore concentration ranged from 129 to 12,980 spores m -3 (number per cubic meter of air) and the total pollen concentration from 4 to 4536 pollen m -3. The fungal spore concentrations obtained with the two Button Samplers correlated well ( r=0.95; p<0.0001). The pollen data also showed positive correlation. These findings strongly support the results of earlier studies conducted with non-biological aerosol particles, which demonstrated a low wind dependence of the performance of the Button Sampler compared to other samplers. The Button Sampler's inlet efficiency was found to be more dependent on wind direction when sampling larger sized Pinaceae pollen grains (aerodynamic diameter ≈65 μm). Compared to Rotorod, both Button Samplers measured significantly higher total fungal spore concentrations. For total pollen count, the Button Sampler facing the prevalent wind showed concentrations levels comparable to that of the Rotorod, but the Button Sampler oriented opposite to the prevalent wind demonstrated lower concentration levels. Overall, it was concluded that the Button Sampler is

  10. Pilot survey of methamphetamine in sewers using a Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler.

    PubMed

    Boles, Tammy H; Wells, Martha J M

    2014-02-15

    A pilot study for the qualitative detection of methamphetamine at sites within a sewage collection system adjacent to locations suspected to harbor illegal drug activities was investigated and preliminary findings are reported. Sewage samples were collected over a time interval of four weeks using a Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) deployed directly into the sewer line. The POCIS sorbent was extracted and analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Methamphetamine was found in sewage from one of three sampling sites at a concentration greater than the HPLC-MS/MS method detection limit (MDL) of 3 ng/mL. The goal of this research was to establish proof-of-concept of the feasibility for sampling and analysis using POCIS devices in the sewage collection system. The data encourage further testing and research. The ability to pinpoint the presence of methamphetamine in the sewer may in the future be used as a forensic tool in law enforcement.

  11. Equilibration times, compound selectivity, and stability of diffusion samplers for collection of ground-water VOC concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Campbell, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    Vapor-filled polyethylene diffusion samplers (typically used to locate discharge zones of volatile organic compound contaminated ground water beneath streams and lakes) and water-filled polyethylene diffusion bag samplers (typically used to obtain volatile organic compound concentrations in ground-water at wells) were tested to determine compound selectivity, equilibration times, and sample stability. The aqueous concentrations of several volatile organic compounds obtained from within water-filled diffusion samplers closely matched concentrations in ambient water outside the samplers. An exception was methyl-tert-butyl ether, which was detectable, but not reliably quantifiable using the diffusion samplers. The samplers equilibrated to a variety of volatile organic compounds within 24 h for vapor-filled passive diffusion vial samplers and within 48 h for water-filled passive diffusion bag samplers. Under field conditions, however, a longer equilibration time may be required to account for environmental disturbances caused by sampler deployment. An equilibrium period for both vapor- and water-filled diffusion samplers of approximately 2 weeks probably is adequate for most investigations in sandy formations. Longer times may be required for diffusion-sampler equilibration in poorly permeable sediment. The vapor-filled samplers should be capped and water from the diffusion bag samplers should be transferred to sampling vials immediately upon recovery to avoid volatilization losses of the gasses. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Gaussian-based filters for detecting Martian dust devils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, F.; Mlsna, P.A.; Geissler, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to automatically detect dust devils in the Martian atmosphere from orbital imagery is becoming important both for scientific studies of the planet and for the planning of future robotic and manned missions. This paper describes our approach for the unsupervised detection of dust devils and the preliminary results achieved to date. The algorithm centers upon the use of a filter constructed from Gaussian profiles to match dust devil characteristics over a range of scale and orientation. The classification step is designed to reduce false positive errors caused by static surface features such as craters. A brief discussion of planned future work is included. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  13. A Comparison of Gravimetric and Photometric Aerosol Samplers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-24

    crushing, pulverizing, blasting, drilling, and grinding. Dusts are also produced in dry material preparations and packaging processes. Dusts can create...and ice crystals. They participate in various chemical cycles, and absorb or scatter solar radiation to influence the Earth’s radiation budget (NASA...surrounding and within the sampling area are critical issues when assessing the sampling characteristics of the device. It is imperative that aerosol

  14. Constantly stirred sorbent and continuous flow integrative sampler: new integrative samplers for the time weighted average water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Julio; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Capilla, Elisabeth; Tortajada, Rafael; Sanjuán, Lorena; Fuentes, Alicia; Valor, Ignacio

    2009-07-31

    Two innovative integrative samplers have been developed enabling high sampling rates unaffected by turbulences (thus avoiding the use of performance reference compounds) and with negligible lag time values. The first, called the constantly stirred sorbent (CSS) consists of a rotator head that holds the sorbent. The rotation speed given to the head generates a constant turbulence around the sorbent making it independent of the external hydrodynamics. The second, called the continuous flow integrative sampler (CFIS) consists of a small peristaltic pump which produces a constant flow through a glass cell. The sorbent is located inside this cell. Although different sorbents can be used, poly(dimethylsiloxane) PDMS under the commercial twister format (typically used for stir bar sorptive extraction) was evaluated for the sampling of six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and three organochlorine pesticides. These new devices have many analogies with passive samplers but cannot truly be defined as such since they need a small energy supply of around 0.5 W supplied by a battery. Sampling rates from 181 x 10(-3) to 791 x 10(-3) L/day were obtained with CSS and 18 x 10(-3) to 53 x 10(-3) with CFIS. Limits of detection for these devices are in the range from 0.3 to 544 pg/L with a precision below 20%. An in field evaluation for both devices was carried out for a 5 days sampling period in the outlet of a waste water treatment plant with comparable results to those obtained with a classical sampling method.

  15. The Lunar Dust Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  16. Combustible dusts: a serious industrial hazard.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Giby

    2007-04-11

    After investigating three fatal explosions in manufacturing plants, the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) has concluded: The explosive hazard of combustible dust is not well known, and helping industry to understand this hazard is a priority. Prompted by these three incidents in North Carolina, Kentucky and Indiana and the need to increase the hazard awareness, CSB is conducting a study to examine the nature and scope of dust explosion risks in industry and to identify initiatives that may be necessary to more effectively prevent combustible dust fires and explosions. Such initiatives may include regulatory action, voluntary consensus standards, or other measures that could be taken by industry, labor, government, and other parties. A critical task of the dust study is analyzing past incidents to determine the severity of the problem within industry. The analysis is focusing on the number of incidents, injuries and fatalities, industrial sectors affected, and regulatory oversight. This paper presents the preliminary findings from CSBs analysis of combustible dust incidents over the past 25 years. This paper has not been approved by the Board and is published for general informational purposes only. Every effort has been made to accurately present the contents of any Board-approved report mentioned in this paper. Any material in the paper that did not originate in a Board-approved report is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not represent an official finding, conclusion, or position of the Board.

  17. Analysis of "Midnight" Tracks in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector: Possible Discovery of a Contemporary Interstellar Dust Grain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajit, S.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Cody, G.; Ferrior, T.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grun, E.; Hoppe, P.; Hudson, B.; Kearsley, A.; Lai, B.

    2010-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2) day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques.

  18. A preliminary model of the coma of 2060 Chiron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Konno, I.; Stern, S. Alan; Huebner, Walter F.

    1992-01-01

    We have included gravity in our fluid dynamic model with chemical kinetics of dusty comet comae and applied it with two dust sizes to 2060 Chiron. A progress report on the model and preliminary results concerning gas/dust dynamics and chemistry is given.

  19. Research highlights: natural passive samplers--plants as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Vivian S

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade, interest in boosting the collection of data on environmental pollutants while reducing costs has spurred intensive research into passive samplers, instruments that monitor the environment through the free flow of chemical species. These devices, although relatively inexpensive compared to active sampling technologies, are often tailored for collection of specific contaminants or monitoring of a single phase, typically water or air. Plants as versatile, natural passive samplers have gained increased attention in recent years due to their ability to absorb a diverse range of chemicals from the air, water, and soil. Trees, lichens, and other flora have evolved exquisite biological features to facilitate uptake of nutrients and water from the ground and conduct gas exchange on an extraordinary scale, making them excellent monitors of their surroundings. Sampling established plant specimens in a region also provides both historical and spatial data on environmental contaminants at relatively low cost in a non-invasive manner. This Highlight presents several recent publications that demonstrate how plant biomonitoring can be used to map the distribution of a variety of pollutants and identify their sources.

  20. Hayabusa2 Sampler: Collection of Asteroidal Surface Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Hirotaka; Okazaki, Ryuji; Tachibana, Shogo; Sakamoto, Kanako; Takano, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Chisato; Yano, Hajime; Miura, Yayoi; Abe, Masanao; Hasegawa, Sunao; Noguchi, Takaaki

    2017-02-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the asteroid exploration probe "Hayabusa2" in December 3rd, 2014, following the 1st Hayabusa mission. With technological and scientific improvements from the Hayabusa probe, we plan to visit the C-type asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3), and to sample surface materials of the C-type asteroid that is likely to be different from the S-type asteroid Itokawa and contain more pristine materials, including organic matter and/or hydrated minerals, than S-type asteroids. We developed the Hayabusa2 sampler to collect a minimum of 100 mg of surface samples including several mm-sized particles at three surface locations without any severe terrestrial contamination. The basic configuration of the sampler design is mainly as same as the 1st Hayabusa (Yano et al. in Science, 312(5778):1350-1353, 2006), with several minor but important modifications based on lessons learned from the Hayabusa to fulfill the scientific requirements and to raise the scientific value of the returned samples. In this paper, we will report the details of the sampling system of Hayabusa2 with results of performance tests during the development and the current status of the sampling system.

  1. Gradient-based MCMC samplers for dynamic causal modelling

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Biswa; Friston, Karl J.; Penny, Will D.

    2016-01-01

    In this technical note, we derive two MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo) samplers for dynamic causal models (DCMs). Specifically, we use (a) Hamiltonian MCMC (HMC-E) where sampling is simulated using Hamilton’s equation of motion and (b) Langevin Monte Carlo algorithm (LMC-R and LMC-E) that simulates the Langevin diffusion of samples using gradients either on a Euclidean (E) or on a Riemannian (R) manifold. While LMC-R requires minimal tuning, the implementation of HMC-E is heavily dependent on its tuning parameters. These parameters are therefore optimised by learning a Gaussian process model of the time-normalised sample correlation matrix. This allows one to formulate an objective function that balances tuning parameter exploration and exploitation, furnishing an intervention-free inference scheme. Using neural mass models (NMMs)—a class of biophysically motivated DCMs—we find that HMC-E is statistically more efficient than LMC-R (with a Riemannian metric); yet both gradient-based samplers are far superior to the random walk Metropolis algorithm, which proves inadequate to steer away from dynamical instability. PMID:26213349

  2. Emission factors from road dust resuspension in a Mediterranean freeway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Karanasiou, A.; Moreno, T.; Alastuey, A.; Orza, J. A. G.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Boldo, E.; Linares, C.; Querol, X.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter emissions from paved roads are currently one of the main challenges for a sustainable transport in Europe. Emissions are scarcely estimated due to the lack of knowledge about the resuspension process severely hampering a reliable simulation of PM and heavy metals concentrations in large cities and evaluation of population exposure. In this study the Emission Factors from road dust resuspension on a Mediterranean freeway were estimated per single vehicle category and PM component (OC, EC, mineral dust and metals) by means of the deployment of vertical profiles of passive samplers and terminal concentration estimate. The estimated PM10 emission factors varied from 12 to 47 mg VKT-1 (VKT: Vehicle Kilometer Traveled) with an average value of 22.7 ± 14.2 mg VKT-1. Emission Factors for heavy and light duty vehicles, passenger cars and motorbikes were estimated, based on average fleet composition and EPA ratios, in 187-733 mg VKT-1, 33-131 VKT-1, 9.4-36.9 VKT-1 and 0.8-3.3 VKT-1, respectively. These range of values are lower than previous estimates in Mediterranean urban roads, probably due to the lower dust reservoir on freeways. PM emitted material was dominated by mineral dust (9-10 mg VKT-1), but also OC and EC were found to be major components and approximately 14-25% and 2-9% of average PM exhaust emissions from diesel passenger cars on highways respectively.

  3. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY, ART'S MANUFACTURING, SPLIT CORE SAMPLER FOR SUBMERGED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The Split Core Sampler for Submerged Sediments (Split Core Sampler) designed and fabricated by Arts Manufacturing & Supply, Inc., was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in April and May 1999 at ...

  4. Assessment of increased sampling pump flow rates in a disposable, inhalable aerosol sampler.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Justin; Sleeth, Darrah K; Handy, Rod G; Pahler, Leon F; Anthony, T Renee; Volckens, John

    2017-03-01

    A newly designed, low-cost, disposable inhalable aerosol sampler was developed to assess workers personal exposure to inhalable particles. This sampler was originally designed to operate at 10 L/min to increase sample mass and, therefore, improve analytical detection limits for filter-based methods. Computational fluid dynamics modeling revealed that sampler performance (relative to aerosol inhalability criteria) would not differ substantially at sampler flows of 2 and 10 L/min. With this in mind, the newly designed inhalable aerosol sampler was tested in a wind tunnel, simultaneously, at flows of 2 and 10 L/min flow. A mannequin was equipped with 6 sampler/pump assemblies (three pumps operated at 2 L/min and three pumps at 10 L/min) inside a wind tunnel, operated at 0.2 m/s, which has been shown to be a typical indoor workplace wind speed. In separate tests, four different particle sizes were injected to determine if the sampler's performance with the new 10 L/min flow rate significantly differed to that at 2 L/min. A comparison between inhalable mass concentrations using a Wilcoxon signed rank test found no significant difference in the concentration of particles sampled at 10 and 2 L/min for all particle sizes tested. Our results suggest that this new aerosol sampler is a versatile tool that can improve exposure assessment capabilities for the practicing industrial hygienist by improving the limit of detection and allowing for shorting sampling times.

  5. An Application of Passive Samplers to Understand Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Dry Deposition Spatial Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two modified passive samplers were evaluated at multiple field locations. The sampling rate (SR) of the modified polyurethane foam (PUF)-disk passive sampler for total gaseous mercury (TGM) using gold-coated quartz fiber filters (GcQFF) and gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) using io...

  6. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sampler's average flow rate, CV, and sample volume measurements. (iii) Accuracy of the sampler's reported... this test, an alternative certified flow measurement device may be used as long as appropriate volumetric flow rate corrections are made based on measurements of actual ambient temperature and...

  7. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sampler's average flow rate, CV, and sample volume measurements. (iii) Accuracy of the sampler's reported... this test, an alternative certified flow measurement device may be used as long as appropriate volumetric flow rate corrections are made based on measurements of actual ambient temperature and...

  8. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sampler's average flow rate, CV, and sample volume measurements. (iii) Accuracy of the sampler's reported... this test, an alternative certified flow measurement device may be used as long as appropriate volumetric flow rate corrections are made based on measurements of actual ambient temperature and...

  9. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air flow splitting components that may be used in a Class I candidate equivalent method sampler such... candidate samplers in which the aerosol flow path (the flow path through which sample air passes upstream of... through which sample air is flowing during performance of this test. (3) A no-flow filter is a...

  10. 40 CFR 53.54 - Test for proper sampler operation following power interruptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sampler's average flow rate, CV, and sample volume measurements. (iii) Accuracy of the sampler's reported... this test, an alternative certified flow measurement device may be used as long as appropriate volumetric flow rate corrections are made based on measurements of actual ambient temperature and...

  11. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air flow splitting components that may be used in a Class I candidate equivalent method sampler such... candidate samplers in which the aerosol flow path (the flow path through which sample air passes upstream of... through which sample air is flowing during performance of this test. (3) A no-flow filter is a...

  12. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air flow splitting components that may be used in a Class I candidate equivalent method sampler such... candidate samplers in which the aerosol flow path (the flow path through which sample air passes upstream of... through which sample air is flowing during performance of this test. (3) A no-flow filter is a...

  13. Guidelines for Using Passive Samplers to Monitor Organic Contaminants at Superfund Sediment Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers are monitoring tools that can provide faster, cheaper, and scientifically-sound information about the water column and interstitial water concentrations of contaminants of concern (COC) at Superfund sites. Often, the use of passive samplers is more effective tha...

  14. Evaluation of eight bioaerosol samplers challenged with aerosols of free bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P A; Todd, W F; Davis, G N; Scarpino, P V

    1992-10-01

    The need to quantify airborne microorganisms in the commercial microbiology industry (biotechnology) and during evaluations of indoor air quality, infectious disease outbreaks, and agriculture health investigations has shown there is a major technological void in bioaerosol sampling techniques to measure and identify viable and nonviable aerosols. As commercialization of microbiology increases and diversifies, it is increasingly necessary to assess occupational exposure to bioaerosols. Meaningful exposure estimates, by using area or environmental samplers, can only be ensured by the generation of data that are both precise and accurate. The Andersen six-stage viable (microbial) particle sizing sampler (6-STG) and the Ace Glass all-glass impinger-30 (AGI-30) have been suggested as the samplers of choice for the collection of viable microorganisms by the International Aerobiology Symposium and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Some researchers consider these samplers inconvenient for evaluating industrial bioprocesses and indoor or outdoor environments. Alternative samplers for the collection of bioaerosols are available; however, limited information has been reported on their collection efficiencies. A study of the relative sampling efficiencies of eight bioaerosol samplers has been completed. Eight samplers were individually challenged with a bioaerosol, created with a Collison nebulizer, of either Bacillus subtilis or Escherichia coli. The samplers were evaluated under controlled conditions in a horizontal bioaerosol chamber. During each experimental run, simultaneous samples were collected with a reference AGI-30 to verify the concentration of microorganisms in the chamber from run to run and day to day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Reducing float coal dust

    PubMed Central

    Patts, J.R.; Colinet, J.F.; Janisko, S.J.; Barone, T.L.; Patts, L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Controlling float coal dust in underground coal mines before dispersal into the general airstream can reduce the risk of mine explosions while potentially achieving a more effective and efficient use of rock dust. A prototype flooded-bed scrubber was evaluated for float coal dust control in the return of a continuous miner section. The scrubber was installed inline between the face ventilation tubing and an exhausting auxiliary fan. Airborne and deposited dust mass measurements were collected over three days at set distances from the fan exhaust to assess changes in float coal dust levels in the return due to operation of the scrubber. Mass-based measurements were collected on a per-cut basis and normalized on the basis of per ton mined by the continuous miner. The results show that average float coal dust levels measured under baseline conditions were reduced by more than 90 percent when operating the scrubber. PMID:28018004

  16. DUST FORMATION IN MACRONOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Hajime; Ioka, Kunihito; Nozawa, Takaya E-mail: kunihito.ioka@kek.jp

    2014-07-01

    We examine dust formation in macronovae (as known as kilonovae), which are the bright ejecta of neutron star binary mergers and one of the leading sites of r-process nucleosynthesis. In light of information about the first macronova candidate associated with GRB 130603B, we find that dust grains of r-process elements have difficulty forming because of the low number density of the r-process atoms, while carbon or elements lighter than iron can condense into dust if they are abundant. Dust grains absorb emission from ejecta with an opacity even greater than that of the r-process elements, and re-emit photons at infrared wavelengths. Such dust emission can potentially account for macronovae without r-process nucleosynthesis as an alternative model. This dust scenario predicts a spectrum with fewer features than the r-process model and day-scale optical-to-ultraviolet emission.

  17. Dust devils on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P. G.; Gierasch, P.

    1985-01-01

    Large columns of dust have been discovered rising above plains on Mars. The storms are probably analogous to terrestrial dust devils, but their size indicates that they are more similar to tornadoes in intensity. They occur at locations where the soil has been strongly warmed by the Sun, and there the surface is smooth and fine grained. These are the same conditions that favor dust devils on Earth. Warm gas from the lowest atmospheric layer converges and rises in a thin column, with intense swirl developing at the edge of the column. In one area a mosaic of Viking images shows 97 vortices in a three day period. This represents a density of vortices of about one in each 900 square kilometers. Thus, these dust devils may be important in moving dust or starting over dust storms.

  18. Interstellar Dust: Physical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dust is formed in stellar environments, and destroyed by sputtering, shattering and vaporization in shock waves due to cloud-cloud collisions and supernova blast waves. Dust is also destroyed during star formation. We review the dust formation and destruction balance. The calculated destruction time-scale is less than or equal to one billion years and the star dust injection time-scale is approx. 2.5 billion years. Hence, the fractions of elemental carbon and silicon locked up in stardust are less than 0.3 and less than 0.15, respectively. An efficient ISM dust formation route is therefore implied. In particular, in dense clouds dust grows; through the processes of coagulation and the accretion of gas phase molecules e.g. H20, CO, CH4. These icy materials may then be photoprocessed to refractory materials in more diffuse regions. The resulting carbonaceous grain mantle may actually be the glue that holds the coagulated grains together.

  19. Dust Formation and Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Dmitry

    Recent infrared and sub-millimeter observations have opened up a new window in dust evolution studies. High angular resolution of Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes from near to far-infrared wavelengths allows observing dust emission in galactic and extragalactic star-forming complexes, covering a broad range of metallicities, radiation field properties, etc. A wide-scale picture of dust evolution starts to arise from these observations. In my contribution I will try to cover major recent advances in studies of dust formation and destruction, including such topics as a diverse role of supernovae in dust evolution, possibility of dust formation and/or growth in molecular clouds, and VSG and PAH evolution in HII regions and complexes.

  20. Assembly, operation and disassembly manual for the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS)

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Campbell, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Assembly, operation and disassembly of the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS) are described in detail. Step by step instructions of assembly, general operation and disassembly are provided to allow an operator completely unfamiliar with the sampler to successfully apply the BLVWS to his research sampling needs. The sampler permits concentration of both particulate and dissolved radionuclides from large volumes of ocean and fresh water. The water sample passes through a filtration section for particle removal then through sorption or ion exchange beds where species of interest are removed. The sampler components which contact the water being sampled are constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC). The sampler has been successfully applied to many sampling needs over the past fifteen years. 9 references, 8 figures.

  1. Dust Devil Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, S.; Jemmett-Smith, B.; Fenton, L.; Lorenz, R.; Takemi, T.; Ito, J.; Tyler, D.

    2016-11-01

    The essential dynamical characteristic of convective vortices, including dust devils, is a highly localized vorticity tube that extends into the vertical. This chapter is concerned with both the generation of vorticity and the subsequent focusing of that vorticity into a tight vortex, and with the environmental conditions that are conducive to the formation of convective vortices in general and dust devils in particular. A review of observations, theory, and modeling of dust devil formation is provided.

  2. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

    PubMed

    Negri, Ilaria; Mavris, Christian; Di Prisco, Gennaro; Caprio, Emilio; Pellecchia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

  3. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Caprio, Emilio; Pellecchia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry -, postmining -, and soil –derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants. PMID:26147982

  4. Operational Dust Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jones, Luke; Lu, Sarah; Menut, Laurent; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Mulcahy, Jane; Nickovic, Slobodan; Garcia-Pando, Carlos P.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Terradellas, Enric; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Xiao-Ye; Zhou, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  5. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  6. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK 18 AND TANK 19 WALL SAMPLER PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Thaxton, D.; Minichan, R.; France, T.; Steeper, T.; Corbett, J.; Martin, B.; Vetsch, B.

    2009-12-19

    A sampling tool was required to evaluate residual activity ({mu}Curies per square foot) on the inner wall surfaces of underground nuclear waste storage tanks. The tool was required to collect a small sample from the 3/8 inch thick tank walls. This paper documents the design, testing, and deployment of the remotely operated sampling device. The sampler provides material from a known surface area to estimate the overall surface contamination in the tank prior to closure. The sampler consisted of a sampler and mast assembly mast assembly, control system, and the sampler, or end effector, which is defined as the operating component of a robotic arm. The mast assembly consisted of a vertical 30 feet long, 3 inch by 3 inch, vertical steel mast and a cantilevered arm hinged at the bottom of the mast and lowered by cable to align the attached sampler to the wall. The sampler and mast assembly were raised and lowered through an opening in the tank tops, called a riser. The sampler is constructed of a mounting plate, a drill, springs to provide a drive force to the drill, a removable sampler head to collect the sample, a vacuum pump to draw the sample from the drill to a filter, and controls to operate the system. Once the sampler was positioned near the wall, electromagnets attached it to the wall, and the control system was operated to turn on the drill and vacuum to remove and collect a sample from the wall. Samples were collected on filters in removable sampler heads, which were readily transported for further laboratory testing.

  7. Surveyor 3 Preliminary Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Surveyor III soft-landed on the Moon at 00:04 GMT on April 20, 1967. Data obtained have significantly increased our knowledge of the Moon. The Surveyor III spacecraft was similar to Surveyor I; the only major change in scientific instrumentation was the addition of a soil mechanics surface sampler. Surveyor III results at this preliminary evaluation of data give valuable information about the relation between the surface skin of under-dense material responsible for the photometric properties and the deeper layers of material whose properties resemble those of ordinary terrestrial soils. In addition, they provide new insight into the relation between the general lunar surface as seen by Surveyor I and the interior of a large subdued crater. The new results have also contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of downhill transport. Many critical questions cannot, however, be answered until final reduction of experimental data.

  8. Stardust interstellar preliminary examination (ISPE).

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, A.J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Flynn, G.L.; Sutton, S.

    2009-03-23

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE. In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were {approx}0.1 m{sup 2} in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m{sup 2}-day during two periods before the cometary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described in Westphal et al. The ISPE consists of six interdependent projects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microscopy and a massively distributed, calibrated search; (2) Candidate extraction and photodocumentation; (3) Characterization of candidates through synchrotron-based Fourier-Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning X-Ray Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM); (4) Search for and analysis of craters in foils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotron-based Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM); (5) Modeling of interstellar dust transport in the solar system; and (6) Laboratory simulations of hypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media.

  9. Whither Cometary Dust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper I will discuss recent findings that have important implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of primitive solar system dust, including: - Nesvorny et al. (2010), following up on their dynamical analyses of the zodiacal dust bands as sourced by the breakup of the Karin (5Mya) and Veritas (8Mya) asteroid families, argue that over 90% of the interplanetary dust cloud at 1 AU comes from JFC comets with near-circularized, low inclination orbits. This implies that the noted IPD collections of anhydrous and hydrous dust particles are likely to be from Oort cloud and JFC comets, respectively, not from asteroids and comets as thought in the past. Hydrous dust particles from comets like 85P/Wild2 and 9P/Tempel 1 would be consistent with results from the STARDUST and Deep Impact experiments. - Estimates of the dust particle size distributions (PSDs) in the comae of 85P/Wild2 (Green et al. 2004, 2007) and 73P/SW-3 (Sitko et al. 2010, Vaubaillon & Reach 2010) and in the trails of comets (Reach et al. 2007) have broken power law structure, with a plateau enhancement of particles of 1 mm - 1 cm in size. This size is also the size of most chondritic inclusions, and the predicted size range of the "aggregational barrier", where collisions between dust particles become destructive. - Studies of the albedo and polarization properties of cometary dust (Kolokolova et al. 2007) suggest there are 2 major groupings, one with low scattering capability and one with high. While these families could possibly have been explained by systematics in the PSDs of the emitted dust, independent work by Lisse et al. (2008) on the mineralogy of a number of highly dusty comets has shown evidence for one family of comets with highly crystalline dust and another with highly amorphous dust.

  10. A pilot study of the measurement and control of deep dust, surface dust, and lead in 10 old carpets using the 3-spot test while vacuuming.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J W; Glass, G; Mickelson, L

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study measured and examined the relationship between surface dust, deep dust, lead (Pb), and the 3-spot test during vacuuming of carpets. The 3-spot test measures the total time in seconds for the indicator light on a Hoover vacuum with dirt detector (HVDD) to turn from red to green on three spots 3 feet apart at least 4 feet from an entrance door. Ten older carpets were sampled in the Seattle area by using the following: (1) a 3-spot test to estimate the deep dust; (2) measuring the surface dust in g/m(2) with the High-Volume Small Simplified Surface Sampler; (3) vacuuming with an HVDD to extract a portion of the deep dust in g/m(2); and (4) repeating this cycle of a 3-spot test, surface dust sample, and deep dust sample until the clean-carpet criteria was reached. Dust particles <150 mum were analyzed for Pb. The surface dust, deep dust, and dust collection rate (g/min) decreased rapidly at first and then much more slowly as vacuuming continued. The initial 3-spot test ranged from 12 to 110 seconds (median 40). The starting surface dust loading was 0.7 to 21.1 g/m(2) (median 2.9 g/m(2)), and it decreased by 84% to 99% when the deep dust was removed. Total dust-the sum of the surface dust and deep dust-ranged from 8.3 to 465 g/m(2) (median 63.2 g/m(2)). It took from 2.3 to 92 min/m(2) (median of 7.5 min/m(2)) to remove the total dust. The starting dust collection rate of 3.8 to 37 g/min decreased to final rates of 0.5 to 4.3 g/min. The 3-spot test (seconds) correlated with total dust (g/m(2)) (r = 0.63, p = 0.037) and cleaning time (min/m(2)) (r = 0.50, p = 0.12) when the data were log transformed. This study supports the utility of the 3-spot test. It tends to provide families and professional carpet cleaners with a quick and low-cost estimate of the deep dust present and the time required to clean carpets as well as indicating when the carpet is clean. Deep dust tends to accumulate in older carpets and becomes surface and airborne dust after activity

  11. Field tests of nylon-screen diffusion samplers and pushpoint samplers for detection of metals in sediment pore water, Ashland and Clinton, Massachusetts, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Vroblesky, Don A.; Campo, Kimberly W.; Massey, Andrew J.; Scheible, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Efficient and economical screening methods are needed to detect and to determine the approximate concentrations of potentially toxic trace-element metals in shallow groundwater- discharge areas (pore water) where the metals may pose threats to aquatic organisms; such areas are likely to be near hazardous-waste sites. Pushpoint and nylon-screen diffusion samplers are two complementary options for use in such environments. The pushpoint sampler, a simple well point, is easy to insert manually and to use. Only 1 day is required to collect samples. The nylon-screen diffusion sampler is well suited for use in sediments that do not allow a pump to draw water into a pushpoint sampler. In this study, both types of devices were used in sediments suitable for the use of the pushpoint sampler. Sampling with the nylon-screen diffusion sampler requires at least two site visits: one to deploy the samplers in the sediment, and a second to retrieve the samplers and collect the samples after a predetermined equilibration period. Extensive laboratory quality-control studies, field testing, and laboratory analysis of samples collected at the Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Superfund site along the Sudbury River in Ashland, Massachusetts, and at a Superfund site-assessment location on Rigby Brook in Clinton, Massachusetts, indicate that these two devices yield comparable results for most metals and should be effective tools for pore-water studies. The nylon-screen diffusion samplers equilibrated within 1-2 days in homogeneous, controlled conditions in the laboratory. Nylon-screen diffusion samplers that were not purged of dissolved oxygen prior to deployment yielded results similar to those that were purged. Further testing of the nylon-screen diffusion samplers in homogeneous media would help to resolve any ambiguities about the data variability from the field studies. Comparison of data from replicate samples taken in both study areas shows that even samples taken from sites within a

  12. Copper emissions from a high volume air sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. B.; Toma, J.

    1975-01-01

    High volume air samplers (hi vols) are described which utilize a brush-type electric motor to power the fans used for pulling air through the filter. Anomalously high copper values were attributed to removal of copper from the commutator into the air stream due to arcing of the brushes and recirculation through the filter. Duplicate hi vols were set up under three operating conditions: (1) unmodified; (2) gasketed to prevent internal recirculation; and (3) gasketed and provided with a pipe to transport the motor exhaust some 20 feet away. The results of 5 days' operation demonstrate that hi vols can suddenly start emitting increased amounts of copper with no discernible operational indication, and that recirculation and capture on the filter can take place. Copper levels found with hi vols whose exhaust was discharged at a distance downwind were among the lowest found, and apparently provides a satisfactory solution to copper contamination.

  13. A simple pore water hydrogen diffusion syringe sampler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is an important intermediate product and electron donor in microbial metabolism. Concentrations of dissolved H 2 are often diagnostic of the predominant terminal electron-accepting processes in ground water systems or aquatic sediments. H2 concentrations are routinely measured in ground water monitoring wells but are rarely measured in saturated aquatic sediments due to a lack of simple and practical sampling methods. This report describes the design and development (including laboratory and field testing) of a simple, syringe-based H 2 sampler in (1) saturated, riparian sediments, (2) surface water bed sediments, and (3) packed intervals of a fractured bedrock borehole that are inaccessible by standard pumped methods. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  14. DNAPL characterization using the Ribbon NAPL sampler: Methods and results

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B.D.

    2000-04-25

    The Ribbon NAPL Sampler (RNS) is a direct sampling device that provides detailed depth discrete mapping of Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) in a borehole. This characterization method provides a yes or no answer to the presence of NAPLs and is used to complement and enhance other characterization techniques. Several cone penetrometer deployment methods are in use and methods for other drilling techniques are under development. The RNS has been deployed in the vadose and saturated zones at four different sites. Three of the sites contain DNAPLs from cleaning and degreasing operations and the fourth site contains creosote from a wood preserving plant. A brief description of the process history and geology is provided for each site. Where available, lithology and contaminant concentration information is provided and discussed in context with the RNS results.

  15. Two-Stage Variable Sample-Rate Conversion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tkacenko, Andre

    2009-01-01

    A two-stage variable sample-rate conversion (SRC) system has been pro posed as part of a digital signal-processing system in a digital com munication radio receiver that utilizes a variety of data rates. The proposed system would be used as an interface between (1) an analog- todigital converter used in the front end of the receiver to sample an intermediatefrequency signal at a fixed input rate and (2) digita lly implemented tracking loops in subsequent stages that operate at v arious sample rates that are generally lower than the input sample r ate. This Two-Stage System would be capable of converting from an input sample rate to a desired lower output sample rate that could be var iable and not necessarily a rational fraction of the input rate.

  16. Operating manual for Ford's Farm Range air samplers

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Halverson, M.A.

    1980-10-01

    An air-sampling program was designed for a target enclosure at the Ford's Farm Range, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, where the Army test-fires tungsten and depleted-uranium armor penetrators. The primary potential particle inhalation hazard is depleted uranium. The sampling program includes workplace and filtered exhaust air sampling. Conventional isokinetic stack sampling was employed for the filtered exhaust air. Because of the need for rapid monitor response to concentration increases and decreases, conventional radioactive particle monitors were not used. Instead, real-time aerosol monitors employing a light-scattering technique were used for monitors requiring a fast response. For other monitoring functions, piezoelectric and beta-attenuation respirable-particle sampling techniques were used. The application of these technologies to the monitoring of airborne radioactive contaminants is addressed. Sampler installation and operation are detailed.

  17. Dust and Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... dust, the most common non-spherical aerosol type, from pollution and forest fire particles. Determining aerosol characteristics is a ... aerosol is quite thick, and in some places, the dust over water is too optically thick for MISR to retrieve the aerosol amount. For the ...

  18. Combustible dust tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  19. Space dust in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-02-01

    Next time you take a stroll in Paris, Oslo or Berlin, you might be breathing in big particles of cosmic dust after a study led by earth scientist Matthew Genge from Imperial College London found tiny specks of space dust on the rooftops of the three European capitals.

  20. Dust resuspension without saltation

    PubMed Central

    Loosmore, Gwen A.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Wind resuspension (or entrainment) provides a source of dust and contaminants for the atmosphere. Conventional wind erosion models parameterize dust resuspension flux with a threshold velocity or with a horizontal abrasion flux; in the absence of abrasion the models assume dust flux is transient only. Our experiments with an uncrusted, fine material at relative humidities exceeding 40% show a long-term steady dust flux in the absence of abrasion, which fits the approximate form: Fd = 3.6(u*)3, where Fd is the dust flux (in μg/m2 s), and u* is the friction velocity (in m/s). These fluxes are generally too small to be significant sources of dust in most models of dust emission. However, they provide a potential route to transport contaminants into the atmosphere. In addition, dust release is substantial during the initial transient phase. Comparison with field data suggests that the particle friction Reynolds number may prove a better parameter than u* for correlating fluxes and understanding the potential for abrasion. PMID:20336175

  1. Dust in supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, H.

    In this Review, I will discuss our changing view on supernovae as interstellar dust sources. In particular I will focus on infrared and submillimetre studies of the historical supernova remnants Cassiopeia A, the Crab Nebula, SN 1987A, Tycho and Kepler. In the last decade (and particularly in recent years), SCUBA, Herschel and ALMA have now demonstrated that core-collapse supernovae are prolific dust factories, with evidence of 0.1 - 0.7 M⊙ of dust formed in the ejecta, though there is little evidence (as yet) for significant dust production in Type Ia supernova ejecta. There is no longer any question that dust (and molecule) formation is efficient after some supernova events, though it is not clear how much of this will survive over longer timescales. Current and future instruments will allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of dust within corecollapse ejecta, and whether this component contributes a significant amount to the dust content of the Universe or if supernovae ultimately provide a net loss once dust destruction by shocks is taken into account.

  2. Supernova Dust Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Haley; Consortium, MESS; LCOGT

    2013-01-01

    The origin of interstellar dust in galaxies is poorly understood, particularly the relative contribution from supernovae. We present infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Galactic remnants Tycho, Kepler and the Crab Nebula, taken as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program (MESS). Although we detect small amounts of dust surrounding Tycho and Kepler (the remnants of Type Ia supernovae), we show this is due to swept-up interstellar and circumstellar material respectively. The lack of dust grains in the ejecta suggests that Type Ia remnants do not produce substantial quantities of iron-rich dust grains and has important consequences for the ‘missing’ iron mass observed in ejecta. After carefully subtracting the synchrotron and line emission from the Crab, the remaining far-infrared continuum originates from 0.1-0.2 solar masses of dust. These observations suggest that the Crab Nebula has condensed most of the relevant refractory elements into dust and that these grains appear well set to survive their journey into the interstellar medium. In summary, our Herschel observations show that significantly less dust forms in the ejecta of Type Ia supernovae than in the remnants of core-collapse explosions, placing stringent constraints on the environments in which dust and molecules can form.

  3. Talc dust pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Berner, A; Gylseth, B; Levy, F

    1981-01-01

    Various types of mineral dust can induce interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, but there is no definite correlation between lung X-ray findings, tissue lesions and the type of dust. In this paper, we report on the post mortem verification of talcosis by lung tissue analysis, using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis and x-ray diffractometry.

  4. Albatrosses as Ocean Samplers of Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, S. A.; Kappes, M.; Tremblay, Y.; Costa, D. P.; Weber, R.; Weimerskirch, H.

    2006-12-01

    Albatrosses are unique ocean voyagers because they range so widely and travel at speeds exceeding 90 km per hour. Because they can integrate vast areas of open-ocean, albatrosses are ideal ocean samplers. Between 2003 and 2005 breeding seasons, 21 Laysan and 15 black-footed albatrosses (body mass 2.5 to 3.5 kg) were equipped with 6 g leg-mounted geolocation archival data loggers at Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, Northwest Hawaiian Islands. The tags sampled environmental temperatures every 480 or 540 s and provided a single location per day for the duration of deployment. Whenever an albatross landed on the sea surface to feed or rest, the tag sampled sea surface temperature (SST). After nearly one year of deployment, 31 albatrosses were recaptured and 29 tags provided complete records. A total of 377,455 SST readings were obtained over 7,360 bird-days at sea. Given the location errors in the geolocation methodology (200 km) and the lack of temporal resolution (1 location per day), the SST measurements can only be used to characterize broad-scale correlates between albatross distribution and the ocean environment. However, in February 2006, we deployed 45 g GPS data loggers on 10 breeding albatrosses for 2-4 day deployments. The GPS loggers were attached to feathers on the albatrosses backs, they sampled every 10 s, and were accurate to within 10 m. One albatross was also equipped with the same leg-mounted archival tag that sampled SST every 8 s. This albatross collected 6,289 SST measurements with complementary GPS quality locations in 3 days at sea. These results highlight the efficacy of albatrosses as ocean samplers. Given that Laysan and black- footed albatrosses range throughout the North Pacific Ocean, it is conceivable that these seabirds could someday become sentinels of changing oceanic conditions. Moreover, these technologies provide exciting new information about the oceanic habitats of North Pacific albatrosses.

  5. Design Optimization of a Portable Thermophoretic Precipitator Nanoparticle Sampler

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Art; Marinos, Alek; Wendel, Chris; King, Grant; Bugarski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are developing methods for characterizing diesel particulate matter in mines. Introduction of novel engine and exhaust after treatment technologies in underground mines is changing the nature of diesel emissions, and metrics alternative to the traditional mass-based measurements are being investigated with respect to their ability to capture changes in the properties of diesel aerosols. The emphasis is given to metrics based on measurement of number and surface area concentrations, but analysis of collected particles using electron microscopy (EM) is also employed for detailed particle characterization. To collect samples for EM analysis at remote workplaces, including mining and manufacturing facilities, NIOSH is developing portable particle samplers capable of collecting airborne nano-scale particles. This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of a prototype thermophoretic precipitator (TP) particle sampler optimized for collection of particles in the size range of 1–300 nm. The device comprises heated and cooled metal plates separated by a 0.8 mm channel through which aerosol is drawn by a pump. It weighs about 2 kg, has a total footprint of 27 × 22 cm, and the collection plate size is approximately 4 × 8 cm. Low power consumption and enhanced portability were achieved by using moderate flow rates (50–150 cm3/min) and temperature gradients (10–50 K/mm with ΔT between 8 K and 40 K). The collection efficiency of the prototype, measured with a condensation particle counter using laboratory-generated polydisperse submicrometer NaCl aerosols, ranged from 14–99%, depending on temperature gradient and flow rate. Analysis of transmission electron microscopy images of samples collected with the TP confirmed that the size distributions of collected particles determined using EM are in good agreement with those determined using a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer. PMID

  6. Dust evolution from comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The studies of the evolution of cometary debris are reviewed. The subject is divided into three major sections: (1) the developments in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus, which is the source of the dust; (2) the formation of the dust tail; and (3) the blending of the debris with the dust component of interplanetary matter. The importance of the physical theory of comets is emphasized for the understanding of the early phase of the evolution of cometary dust. A physico-dynamical model designed to analyze the particle-emission mechanism from the distribution of light in the dust tails is described and the results are presented. Increased attention is paid to large particles because of their importance for the evolution of the zodiacal cloud. Finally, implications are discussed for the future in situ investigations of comets.

  7. Dust escape from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandes, Alberto

    2004-08-01

    The Dust ballerina skirt is a set of well defined streams composed of nanometric sized dust particles that escape from the Jovian system and may be accelerated up to >=200 km/s. The source of this dust is Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active body in the Solar system. The escape of dust grains from Jupiter requires first the escape of these grains from Io. This work is basically devoted to explain this escape given that the driving of dust particles to great heights and later injection into the ionosphere of Io may give the particles an equilibrium potential that allow the magnetic field to accelerate them away from Io. The grain sizes obtained through this study match very well to the values required for the particles to escape from the Jovian system.

  8. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  9. Field intercomparison of precipitation samplers for assessing wet deposition of organic contaminants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenreich, S.J.; Franz, T.P.; Swanson, M.B.

    1990-03-01

    A field intercomparison of four wet-only precipitation samplers were performed to assess their ability to efficiently collect rain and selected organic contaminants. Samplers are evaluated and compared on the basis of their ability to efficiently collect rainfall, exhibit mechanical reliability, demonstrate adequate operational characteristics and provide precise measures of wet-only inputs. The most significant difference between the four samplers was their mechanical reliability in the field. The samplers performed equally well in assessing organic concentrations in rain. The sampler intercomparison was conducted in part to select the preferred characteristics of a rain sampler that must be deployed in the field unattended for up to two weeks. The MIC sampler, properly maintained, is suitable for such a purpose. Of the two modes of compound isolation tested, the resin adsorbent (XAD-2) exhibited modestly higher concentrations that the solvent MIC but had the disadvantage of ease of sample handling and lower blanks. Both could be operated with proper maintance to provide precise data. The stainless steel and Teflon coated funnel surfaces provided comparable data.

  10. Inverse Problem Optimization Method to Design Passive Samplers for Volatile Organic Compounds: Principle and Application.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianping; Du, Zhengjian; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Xinxiao; Xu, Qiujian; Zhang, Yinping

    2016-12-20

    Passive sampling is an alternative to active sampling for measuring concentrations of gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, the uncertainty or relative error of the measurements have not been minimized due to the limitations of existing design methods. In this paper, we have developed a novel method, the inverse problem optimization method, to address the problems associated with designing accurate passive samplers. The principle is to determine the most appropriate physical properties of the materials, and the optimal geometry of a passive sampler, by minimizing the relative sampling error based on the mass transfer model of VOCs for a passive sampler. As an example application, we used our proposed method to optimize radial passive samplers for the sampling of benzene and formaldehyde in a normal indoor environment. A new passive sampler, which we have called the Tsinghua Passive Diffusive Sampler (THPDS), for indoor benzene measurement was developed according to the optimized results. Silica zeolite was selected as the sorbent for the THPDS. The measured overall uncertainty of THPDS (22% for benzene) is lower than that of most commercially available passive samplers but is quite a bit larger than the modeled uncertainty (4.8% for benzene, the optimized result), suggesting that further research is required.

  11. Time-weighted average water sampling in Lake Ontario with solid-phase microextraction passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Gangfeng; Zhao, Wennan; Bragg, Leslie; Qin, Zhipei; Alaee, Mehran; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2007-06-01

    In this study, three types of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) passive samplers, including a fiber-retracted device, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-rod and a PDMS-membrane, were evaluated to determine the time weighted average (TWA) concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hamilton Harbor (the western tip of Lake Ontario, ON, Canada). Field trials demonstrated that these types of SPME samplers are suitable for the long-term monitoring of organic pollutants in water. These samplers possess all of the advantages of SPME: they are solvent-free, sampling, extraction and concentration are combined into one step, and they can be directly injected into a gas chromatograph (GC) for analysis without further treatment. These samplers also address the additional needs of a passive sampling technique: they are economical, easy to deploy, and the TWA concentrations of target analytes can be obtained with one sampler. Moreover, the mass uptake of these samplers is independent of the face velocity, or the effect can be calibrated, which is desirable for long-term field sampling, especially when the convection conditions of the sampling environment are difficult to measure and calibrate. Among the three types of SPME samplers that were tested, the PDMS-membrane possesses the highest surface-to-volume ratio, which results in the highest sensitivity and mass uptake and the lowest detection level.

  12. Conditional Sampling of Ammonia at Livestock Operations Using Robotically Controlled Diffusive Samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.; Williams, C.; Stratton, J. J.; Borch, T.

    2011-12-01

    Diffusive/passive samplers can be used to measure the spatial variations in ammonia and other trace gases near livestock operations, but results are often confounded by changing weather conditions during extended deployment periods (e.g., 1 to 2 weeks). A new type of conditional sampler was developed that only exposes the passive samplers when a user-defined set of wind and weather conditions are met. The samplers were housed in air-tight tubes that could be opened and closed with a motorized actuator controlled by datalogger. Samplers were deployed on portable tripods and linked via a wireless network. Multiple tripods, equipped with Radiello diffusive NH3 samplers, were deployed near cattle feedlots and dairies and programmed to only expose the passive samplers when the upwind source area represented a specific zone of the operation. A base-station with an anemometer, wind vane, thermometer, and humidity sensor controlled sampling at all tripods. This new methodology allows improved detection of spatial variation in emissions near livestock operations and provides more accurate measurements of downwind gradients. Data could be used in inverse models to approximate site specific emissions factors for ammonia.

  13. Influence of meteorological factors on the atmospheric mercury measurement by a novel passive sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haoli; Lin, Huiming; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Chunyan; Wang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Qianggong; Shen, Yating; Wang, Xuejun

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, an incentive for developing simple and cost-effective samplers that are capable of monitoring over an extended period and require nonattendance at remote locations was obvious. Compared to traditional active sampling approaches, passive samplers require no electric power and are more flexible in field deployment, thus they are more appropriate for screening applications and long-term sampling. However, the performance of passive samplers may be influenced by meteorological factors, therefore inducing bias for the result of passive sampling. In this study, the effects of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed on the performance of a novel passive sampler for gaseous mercury were investigated. The meteorological factors were well controlled in an exposure chamber. The passive samplers were tested in different conditions: temperature ranging from -10 to 35 °C, relative humidity ranging from 25 to 90%, wind speed ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 m s-1. The results showed that temperature and relative humidity had no significant influence on the performance of the passive sampler. However, wind speed was found to have significant impact on the sampling rate of the passive sampler. Wind correction should be considered when making comparisons among samplings with different average wind speeds. In the field application in Beijing and Tibet site, the passively measured data were well correlated with the active measurements.

  14. The southern Kalahari as a dust source: Results from the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okin, G. S.; Webb, N.; Bhattachan, A.; Dintwe, K.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Kalahari encompasses one of the largest drylands in the Southern Hemisphere and it is a potentially large source of atmospheric dust in its relatively low-dust region. The severe iron depletion in the southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, the ocean basins that receive much of the Kalahari dust, suggests that even incremental increases in dust export to these basins could have significant impact on ocean productivity. The Kalahari also provides an excellent 'natural laboratory', due to its consistent Kalahari Sands existing along a strong precipitation gradient (from ~850 mm in southern Zambia to ~150 mm in southwestern Botswana) with a range of different land uses and land use intensities. A large-scale field campaign to evaluate the potential of the southern Kalahari to produce atmospheric dust was established in August, 2013. The goal of the experiment is to evaluate the potential of climate change and land-use to contribute to dust production. The experiment includes measurement of horizontal flux, vegetation structure, and meteorological variables. Novel estimates were made of dust production efficiency (vertical flux produced per unit of horizontal flux) through the coordinated use of active aerosol samplers and passive horizontal sediment traps. In addition, a new stereophotographic method for the estimation of wind-relevant vegetation parameters has been developed for this project. Our field data and modeling results indicate that land use and climate can have a significant impact on the potential for dust emission from the region, but new field estimates of dust emission efficiency and chemistry suggest that the absolute magnitude of dust emitted from the region might, at present, be lower than previously thought.

  15. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  16. The Mars Dust Cycle: Investigating the Effects of Radiatively Active Water Ice Clouds on Surface Stresses and Dust Lifting Potential with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahre, Melinda A.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is a critically important component of Mars' current climate system. Dust is present in the atmosphere of Mars year-round but the dust loading varies with season in a generally repeatable manner. Dust has a significant influence on the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation. The dust cycle is the most difficult of the three climate cycles (CO2, water, and dust) to model realistically with general circulation models. Until recently, numerical modeling investigations of the dust cycle have typically not included the effects of couplings to the water cycle through cloud formation. In the Martian atmosphere, dust particles likely provide the seed nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation of water ice clouds. As ice coats atmospheric dust grains, the newly formed cloud particles exhibit different physical and radiative characteristics. Thus, the coupling between the dust and water cycles likely affects the distributions of dust, water vapor and water ice, and thus atmospheric heating and cooling and the resulting circulations. We use the NASA Ames Mars GCM to investigate the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on surface stress and the potential for dust lifting. The model includes a state-of-the-art water ice cloud microphysics package and a radiative transfer scheme that accounts for the radiative effects of CO2 gas, dust, and water ice clouds. We focus on simulations that are radiatively forced by a prescribed dust map, and we compare simulations that do and do not include radiatively active clouds. Preliminary results suggest that the magnitude and spatial patterns of surface stress (and thus dust lifting potential) are substantial influenced by the radiative effects of water ice clouds.

  17. Combined scanning electron microscopy and image analysis to investigate airborne submicron particles: a comparison between personal samplers.

    PubMed

    Zamengo, L; Barbiero, N; Gregio, M; Orrù, G

    2009-07-01

    The main objectives of this study were: (i) to compare commonly used personal samplers and verify their collection efficiency with regards to submicron particles; (ii) to investigate how the submicron particles deposit onto the filter surface in order to assess the homogeneity of the deposition; (iii) to estimate the biases which could affect results when number concentration values have to be determined by particle counting. A method based on image analysis (IA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is developed and adopted to investigate a large numbers of particles. Four different personal samplers were tested: the IOM sampler, the Button sampler and the German GSP for the inhalable aerosol fraction; the PEM sampler for the thoracic aerosol fraction. In order to investigate how particles distribute on the filters surface, the area of each filter was virtually divided into circular concentric areas or deposition zones (DZ). Results from different DZ of the same filter were compared. Uniformity of deposition was mostly observed for three of the four tested samplers. A significant radial distribution was observed only for the GSP sampler. The major homogeneity was found for the Button sampler. In order to estimate the relative collection efficiency between samplers, particles number concentrations determined by particle counting were compared. The GSP sampler provided the greatest concentrations but also the greatest variability. The PEM sampler provided the lowest concentrations. The homogeneity of particle deposition on the filter surface mostly affected results when counting is performed on localized areas of the filter.

  18. Synchrotron FTIR Examination of Interplanetary Dust Particles: An Effort to Determine the Compounds and Minerals in Interstellar and Circumstellar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.

    2002-01-01

    Some interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), collected by NASA from the Earth's stratosphere, are the most primitive extraterrestrial material available for laboratory analysis. Many exhibit isotopic anomalies in H, N, and O, suggesting they contain preserved interstellar matter. We report the preliminary results of a comparison of the infrared absorption spectra of subunits of the IDPs with astronomical spectra of interstellar grains.

  19. Engineering Task Plan for Preparing the Type 4 In Situ Vapor Samplers (ISVS) for Use

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-06

    The DOE has identified a need to sample vapor space and exhaust ducts of several waste tanks The In-Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) Type IV vapor sampling cart has been identified as the appropriate monitoring tool. The ISVS carts have been out of service for a number of years. This ETP outlines the work to be performed to ready the type IV gas sampler for operation Characterization Engineering will evaluate the Type IV gas sampler carts to determine their state of readiness and will proceed to update procedures and equipment documentation to make the sampler operationally acceptable.

  20. 30 CFR 74.4 - Specifications of sampler unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... components of the pump unit shall be of sufficiently durable construction to endure the wear of use in a coal... operation during use and protected to keep dust from entering the mechanisms. (6) Flow rate adjustment... is not required. (7) Battery. The power supply for the pump shall be a suitable battery located...

  1. 30 CFR 74.4 - Specifications of sampler unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... components of the pump unit shall be of sufficiently durable construction to endure the wear of use in a coal... operation during use and protected to keep dust from entering the mechanisms. (6) Flow rate adjustment... is not required. (7) Battery. The power supply for the pump shall be a suitable battery located...

  2. 30 CFR 74.4 - Specifications of sampler unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... components of the pump unit shall be of sufficiently durable construction to endure the wear of use in a coal... operation during use and protected to keep dust from entering the mechanisms. (6) Flow rate adjustment... is not required. (7) Battery. The power supply for the pump shall be a suitable battery located...

  3. Temporal variations of cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes in the atmosphere using passive samplers and high-volume air samplers.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Harner, Tom; Shoeib, Mahiba

    2014-08-19

    Cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs and lVMSs, respectively) were measured in ambient air over a period of over one year in Toronto, Canada. Air samples were collected using passive air samplers (PAS) consisting of sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disks in parallel with high volume active air samplers (HV-AAS). The average difference between the SIP-PAS derived concentrations in air for the individual VMSs and those measured using HV-AAS was within a factor of 2. The air concentrations (HV-AAS) ranged 22-351 ng m(-3) and 1.3-15 ng m(-3) for ΣcVMSs (D3, D4, D5, D6) and ΣlVMSs (L3, L4, L5), respectively, with decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) as the dominant compound (∼75% of the ΣVMSs). Air masses arriving from north to northwest (i.e., less populated areas) were significantly less contaminated with VMSs compared to air arriving from the south that are impacted by major urban and industrial areas in Canada and the U.S. (p < 0.05). In addition, air concentrations of ΣcVMSs were lower during major snowfall events (on average, 73 ng m(-3)) in comparison to the other sampling periods (121 ng m(-3)). Ambient temperature had a small influence on the seasonal trend of VMS concentrations in air, except for dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), which was positively correlated with the ambient temperature (p < 0.001).

  4. Airborne influenza virus detection with four aerosol samplers using molecular and infectivity assays: considerations for a new infectious virus aerosol sampler

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, P.; McDevitt, J. J.; Houseman, E. A.; Milton, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    As a first step in conducting studies of airborne influenza transmission, we compared the collection performance of an SKC Biosampler, a compact cascade impactor (CCI), Teflon filters, and gelatin filters by collecting aerosolized influenza virus in a one-pass aerosol chamber. Influenza virus infectivity was determined using a fluorescent focus assay and influenza virus nucleic acid (originating from viable and non-viable viruses) was measured using quantitative PCR. The results showed that the SKC Biosampler recovered and preserved influenza virus infectivity much better than the other samplers – the CCI, Teflon, and gelatin filters recovered only 7–22% of infectious viruses compared with the Biosampler. Total virus collection was not significantly different among the SKC Biosampler, the gelatin, and Teflon filters, but was significantly lower in the CCI. Results from this study show that a new sampler is needed for virus aerosol sampling, as commercially available samplers do not efficiently collect and conserve virus infectivity. Applications for a new sampler include studies of airborne disease transmission and bioterrorism monitoring. Design parameters for a new sampler include high collection efficiency for fine particles and liquid sampling media to preserve infectivity. PMID:19689447

  5. Dust Devil Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W.; Miura, H.

    2008-11-01

    A dust devil is a rotating updraft, with coherent structures ranging from small (H/D ˜ 5m/1m) to large (H/D ˜ 1000 m/10 m). Common in west Texas and Arizona, dust devils are formed unstable stratification of the air by solar heating over a sandy floor. Unstable gravity waves grow exponentially in the low density, hot air, rising into the upper layer of stably stratified atmosphere creating the large, 3D vortex. Dust devils are common on Mars. On Earth radio noise and electrical fields greater than 100kV/m are inferred [Kok J. F., N. O. Renno (2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19S10]. Dust devils pick up small dirt and dust particles. The whirling charged dust particles (30 -50 microns) create a magnetic field that fluctuates between 3 and 30 times each second. The electric fields created assist the vortices in lifting materials off the ground and into the atmosphere. We use the theory and simulation tools of fusion plasma physics to describe dust devils. The Grad-Shafranov equation governs the vorticity dynamics and gives a solution for steady axisymmetric flows. The high core velocity is limited by the vortex model with viscous dissipation. The Reynolds number is not large, so these structures are well represented with super computers, in contrast to collisionless plasmas. 1mm Research supported by NIFS, Japan and the NSF through ATM-0638480 at UT Austin.

  6. An Evaluation of Sharp Cut Cyclones for Sampling Diesel Particulate Matter Aerosol in the Presence of Respirable Dust

    PubMed Central

    Cauda, Emanuele; Sheehan, Maura; Gussman, Robert; Kenny, Lee; Volkwein, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Two prototype cyclones were the subjects of a comparative research campaign with a diesel particulate matter sampler (DPMS) that consists of a respirable cyclone combined with a downstream impactor. The DPMS is currently used in mining environments to separate dust from the diesel particulate matter and to avoid interferences in the analysis of integrated samples and direct-reading monitoring in occupational environments. The sampling characteristics of all three devices were compared using ammonium fluorescein, diesel, and coal dust aerosols. With solid spherical test aerosols at low particle loadings, the aerodynamic size-selection characteristics of all three devices were found to be similar, with 50% penetration efficiencies (d50) close to the design value of 0.8 µm, as required by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration for monitoring occupational exposure to diesel particulate matter in US mining operations. The prototype cyclones were shown to have ‘sharp cut’ size-selection characteristics that equaled or exceeded the sharpness of the DPMS. The penetration of diesel aerosols was optimal for all three samplers, while the results of the tests with coal dust induced the exclusion of one of the prototypes from subsequent testing. The sampling characteristics of the remaining prototype sharp cut cyclone (SCC) and the DPMS were tested with different loading of coal dust. While the characteristics of the SCC remained constant, the deposited respirable coal dust particles altered the size-selection performance of the currently used sampler. This study demonstrates that the SCC performed better overall than the DPMS. PMID:25060240

  7. Aeolian dust emissions in Southern Africa: field measurements of dynamics and drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggs, Giles; Thomas, David; Washington, Richard; King, James; Eckardt, Frank; Bryant, Robert; Nield, Joanna; Dansie, Andrew; Baddock, Matthew; Haustein, Karsten; Engelstaedter, Sebastian; von Holdt, Johannah; Hipondoka, Martin; Seely, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Airborne dust derived from the world's deserts is a critical component of Earth System behaviour, affecting atmospheric, oceanic, biological, and terrestrial processes as well as human health and activities. However, very few data have been collected on the factors that control dust emission from major source areas, or on the characteristics of the dust that is emitted. Such a paucity of data limits the ability of climate models to properly account for the radiative and dynamical impacts triggered by atmospheric dust. This paper presents field data from the DO4 Models (Dust Observations for Models) project that aims to understand the drivers of variability in dust emission processes from major source areas in southern Africa. Data are presented from three field campaigns undertaken between 2011 and 2015. We analysed remote sensing data to identify the key geomorphological units in southern Africa which are responsible for emission of atmospheric dust. These are the Makgadikgadi pans complex in northern Botswana, the ephemeral river valleys of western Namibia, and Etosha Pan in northern Namibia. Etosha Pan is widely recognised as perhaps the most significant source of atmospheric dust in the southern hemisphere. We deployed an array of field equipment within each source region to measure the variability in and dynamics of aeolian erosivity, as well as dust concentration and flux characteristics. This equipment included up to 11 meteorological stations measuring wind shear stress and other standard climatic parameters, Cimel sun photometers, a LiDAR, sediment transport detectors, high-frequency dust concentration monitors, and dust flux samplers. Further data were gathered at each site on the dynamics of surface characteristics and erodibility parameters that impact upon erosion thresholds. These data were augmented by use of a Pi-Swerl portable wind tunnel. Our data represent the first collected at source for these key dust emission areas and highlight the

  8. Maps of the MY 25 Planet-encircling Dust Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, J.; Cantor, B. A.; Wilson, R. J.; Haberle, R. M.; Bridger, A. F. C.; Barnes, J.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Kahre, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We have created 42 daily maps of the MY 25 planet-encircling dust storm (Ls=165-188) in order to better delimit the areal extent of storms observed by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). These maps allow us to better compare storm evolution with eddies observed in Fast Fourier Synoptic Mapping (FFSM) of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) temperatures. FFSM analysis of TES 3.7 hPa thermal data shows the presence of eastward traveling waves from 40 - 60° S with a period of about three sols. These maps use a new dust characterization scheme that categorizes dust storms and dust entrained in gravity waves by degree of (visual) structure. Preliminary analysis of these data indicate concurrent eastward migration of both storms and eddies. We hypothesize that these waves are transient baroclinic eddies that contributed to the initiation of precursor storms near Hellas.

  9. Respiratory Symptoms due to Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde and MDF Dust in a MDF Furniture Factory in Eastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Yingratanasuk, Tanongsak; Ekburanawat, Wiwat

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate factors associated with respiratory symptoms in workers in a medium-density fiberboard (MDF) furniture factory in Eastern Thailand. Data were collected from 439 employees exposed to formaldehyde and MDF dust using questionnaire and personal sampler (Institute of Occupational Medicine; IOM). The average concentration of formaldehyde from MDF dust was 2.62 ppm (SD 367), whereas the average concentration of MDF dust itself was 7.67 mg/m(3) (SD 3.63). Atopic allergic history was a factor associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms among the workers exposed to formaldehyde and were associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms among those exposed to MDF dust. Exposure to MDF dust at high level (>5 mg/m(3)) was associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms. Excluding allergic workers from the study population produced the same kind of results in the analysis as in all workers. The symptoms were associated with the high concentrations of formaldehyde and MDF dust in this factory. If the concentration of MDF dust was >5 mg/m(3), the risk of irritation and allergic symptoms in the respiratory system increased. The respiratory health of the employees with atopic allergic history exposed to formaldehyde and MDF dust should be monitored closely.

  10. Respiratory Symptoms due to Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde and MDF Dust in a MDF Furniture Factory in Eastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Yingratanasuk, Tanongsak; Ekburanawat, Wiwat

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate factors associated with respiratory symptoms in workers in a medium-density fiberboard (MDF) furniture factory in Eastern Thailand. Data were collected from 439 employees exposed to formaldehyde and MDF dust using questionnaire and personal sampler (Institute of Occupational Medicine; IOM). The average concentration of formaldehyde from MDF dust was 2.62 ppm (SD 367), whereas the average concentration of MDF dust itself was 7.67 mg/m3 (SD 3.63). Atopic allergic history was a factor associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms among the workers exposed to formaldehyde and were associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms among those exposed to MDF dust. Exposure to MDF dust at high level (>5 mg/m3) was associated with respiratory irritation symptoms and allergic symptoms. Excluding allergic workers from the study population produced the same kind of results in the analysis as in all workers. The symptoms were associated with the high concentrations of formaldehyde and MDF dust in this factory. If the concentration of MDF dust was >5 mg/m3, the risk of irritation and allergic symptoms in the respiratory system increased. The respiratory health of the employees with atopic allergic history exposed to formaldehyde and MDF dust should be monitored closely. PMID:28119784

  11. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTINGS). I. OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan; Barmby, Pauline; Bonanos, Alceste Z.; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Lagadec, Eric; Lennon, Daniel; Marengo, Massimo; Sloan, G. C.; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Zijlstra, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (–2.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.0). Here, we describe DUSTiNGS (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer): a 3.6 and 4.5 μm post-cryogen Spitzer Space Telescope imaging survey of 50 dwarf galaxies within 1.5 Mpc that is designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. The survey includes 37 dwarf spheroidal, 8 dwarf irregular, and 5 transition-type galaxies. This near-complete sample allows for the building of statistics on these rare phases of stellar evolution over the full metallicity range. The photometry is >75% complete at the tip of the red giant branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in eight of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = –1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  12. Dust storms: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Dust storms have a number of impacts upon the environment including radiative forcing, and biogeochemical cycling. They transport material over many thousands of kilometres. They also have a range of impacts on humans, not least on human health. In recent years the identification of source areas for dust storms has been an important area or research, with the Sahara (especially Bodélé) and western China being recognised as the strongest sources globally. Another major development has been the recognition of the degree to which dust storm activity has varied at a range of time scales, millennial, century, decadal, annual and seasonal.

  13. Spirit Feels Dust Gust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1149 (March 28, 2007) of its mission, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit caught a wind gust with its navigation camera. A series of navigation camera images were strung together to create this movie. The front of the gust is observable because it was strong enough to lift up dust. From assessing the trajectory of this gust, the atmospheric science team concludes that it is possible that it passed over the rover. There was, however, no noticeable increase in power associated with this gust. In the past, dust devils and gusts have wiped the solar panels of dust, making it easier for the solar panels to absorb sunlight.

  14. Concentration and composition variations of metals in the outdoor PM10 of elementary schools during river dust episodes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chung-Yih; Yang, Hao-Jan; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lai, Dian-Jheng; Shen, Ying-Hsuan; Liu, Pang-Min

    2014-11-01

    Aeolian river dust can seriously affect the air quality in central Taiwan. The main purpose of this study was to assess the concentration variations of PM10 and metals at different elementary schools during river dust episodes. River dust samples were taken from eight sites in the main bare soil areas of the Choshui River. PM10 aerosols from four elementary schools in Yulin County were collected by means of high-volume samplers. Fifteen elements (Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Ti, Ni, V, Cr, As, Pb, Cu, Co, and Cd) in the river dust and PM10 were analyzed in this study. The coefficients of divergence (CDs) were obtained by comparing the metal compositions in PM10 aerosols at the four schools on the sampling days with the mean metal contents in the river soil samples as reference. The CD values showed that metal compositions in the aerosols at high-exposure sites during river dust episodes were similar to those compositions in the river dust. The concentrations of PM10 at the high-exposure schools during river dust episodes were much higher than those during non-river-dust episodes. This study also indicated that at the high-exposure sites, both the PM10 and metal concentrations were higher than at the low-exposure and control sites, not only during the river dust episodes, but also after the river dust episodes. The concentrations of toxic metals (Ni, Cr, As, and Cd) at the high-exposure sites were about 11.3 times higher during the river dust episodes (189 ng/m(3)) than during non-river-dust episodes (16.7 ng/m(3)) and about 8.9 times higher during the same periods at the control site (21.3 ng/m(3)).

  15. Dust Transport, Deposition and Radiative Effects Observed from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Koren, I.; Remer, L. A.; Tanre, D.; Ginoux, P.; Fan, S.

    2003-01-01

    Carlson (1977) used satellite (AVHRR) observation of dust episodes 3 estimate that 90 tg of dust are emitted from Africa (0-30 N) to the Atlantic Ocean between June and August. MODIS systematic measurements of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and the fraction of the AOT (f) due to the fine mode (see Remer et al abstract), are used to derive the column concentration, flux and deposition of African dust over the Atlantic Ocean. The main data set is for 2001 but the results are consistent with MODIS measurements from 2002. The analysis first determines the properties of maritime baseline aerosol (AOT=0.06, f=0.5); followed by linear scaling of the dust AOT and the anthropogenic AOT, based on MODIS measured values of the fraction "f" being 0.9 for anthropogenic aerosol and 0.5 for dust. NCEP winds are used in the analysis and are evaluated against observed dust movements between the Terra and Aqua passes (see Koren et al. abstract). Monthly values of dust transport and deposition are calculated. Preliminary results show that 280 tg of dust are emitted annually from Africa to the Atlantic Ocean between 20s and 30N, with 40 tg returning to Africa and Europe between 30N and 50N. 85 tg reach the Americas, with 130-150 tg are deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. The results are compared with dust transport models that indicate 110-230 tg of dust being deposited in the Ocean. It is interesting to note that the early estimates of Carlson (1977) and Carlson & Prosper0 (1972) are very close to our estimate from MODIS of 100 tg for the same latitude range and monthly period.

  16. Persistent Organic Pollutants in Dust From Older Homes: Learning From Lead

    PubMed Central

    Metayer, Catherine; Ward, Mary H.; Colt, Joanne S.; Gunier, Robert B.; Deziel, Nicole C.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to (1) evaluate the relation between home age and concentrations of multiple chemical contaminants in settled dust and (2) discuss the feasibility of using lead hazard controls to reduce children’s exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Methods. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, from 2001 to 2007, we used a high-volume small surface sampler and household vacuum cleaners to collect dust samples from 583 homes and analyzed the samples for 94 chemicals with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We evaluated relations between chemical concentrations in dust and home age with Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Results. Dust concentrations of lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine insecticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were correlated with home age (ρ > 0.2; P < .001), whereas concentrations of pyrethroid insecticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were not. Conclusions. Dust in older homes contains higher levels of multiple, persistent chemicals than does dust in newer homes. Further development of strategies to reduce chemical exposures for children living in older homes is warranted. PMID:24832145

  17. [Concentrations and health risks of toxic metals in surface dust in kindergartens of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Duan, Heng-Yi; Wu, Ya-Tao; Wang, Jue; Liu, Zhao-Rong

    2014-08-01

    Dust intake is an important source of children's metal exposure. To explore the contamination level and health risk of toxic metals in kindergartens, surface dust samples were collected with self-made sampler in representative kindergartens in urban Beijing and concentrations of Pb, Hg, Cd, As were analyzed. It was found that Cd, Hg, Pb accumulated in indoor dust in different degrees with a significant seasonal variation. The geometric means of Pb, Cd, Hg, As concentrations were 63.12 microg x g(-1), 1.67 microg x g(-1), 0.06 microg x g(-1), 0.22 microg x g(-1) in summer and 117.40 microg x g(-1), 4.52 microg x g(-1), 0.95 microg x g(-1), 0.88 microg x g(-1) in winter, respectively. Geo-accumulation indexes calculated for each metal showed a severe contamination of Pb and Cd in indoor surface dusts. The results of exposure and health risk assessment of target substances displayed that the oral intake of dust metals was much higher than that of dermal pathways for children. However, no obvious carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were found for all metals. The Pb, against other species, had the highest non-carcinogenic risk to children, Hazard Index of which was 0.12. Therefore, the health risk of Ph in indoor dust should raise the concern.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of dust-control effectiveness of pen surface treatments for cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Razote, Edna B; Auvermann, Brent W

    2011-01-01

    Emission of particulate matter (PM) is one of the major air quality concerns for large beef cattle feedlots. Effective treatments on the uncompacted soil and manure mixture of the pen surface may help in reducing PM emission from feedlots. A laboratory apparatus was developed for measuring dust-emission potential of cattle feedlot surfaces as affected by pen surface treatments. The apparatus was equipped with a simulated pen surface, four mock cattle hooves, and samplers for PM with equivalent aerodynamic diam. ≤ 10 μm (PM(10)). The simulated pen surface had a layer of dry, loose feedlot manure with a compacted soil layer underneath. Mock hooves were moved horizontally on the manure layer to simulate horizontal action of cattle hooves on the pen surface. High-volume PM samplers were used to collect emitted dust. Effects of hoof speed, depth of penetration, and surface treatments with independent candidate materials (i.e., sawdust, wheat straw, hay, rubber mulch, and surface water application) on PM(10) emission potential of the manure layer were investigated. Our laboratory study showed PM(10) emission potential increased with increasing depth of penetration and hoof speed. Of the surface treatments evaluated, application of water (6.4 mm) and hay (723 g m(-2)) exhibited the greatest percentage reduction in PM(10) emission potential (69 and 77%, respectively) compared with the untreated manure layer. This study indicated application of hay or other mulch materials on the pen surface might be good alternative methods to control dust emission from cattle feedlots.

  19. Development of a personal bioaerosol sampler based on a conical cyclone with recirculating liquid film.

    PubMed

    Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Sigaev, Genneday I; Varfolomeev, Alexander N; Zvyagina, Ekaterina V; Brasel, Trevor; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the development of a novel, high-performance personal aerosol sampler intended to monitor occupational air pollution, specifically, microbial constituents. This prototype sampler has a horizontally positioned conical cyclone with recirculating liquid film and an ejection supply of adsorptive liquid into the inlet nozzle. Airborne pollutants were collected in the adsorptive liquid, thus improving the survivability of microbiological aerosol samples. Experimental modules of different dimensions were first evaluated. Based on the test results, a prototype sampler was fabricated and tested. Evaluation of the collection efficiency of the prototype unit indicated a higher than 90% collection efficiency for particles > 1.0 microm. The 50% cutoff diameter was between 0.70-0.75 microm. For assessment of the sampling process effect on the collected microorganisms, Bacillus thuringiensis was tested at a concentration of about 1.0 x 10(6) cells per cm(3). The viability in the prototype sampler decreased to 78% after 60 min of operation.

  20. On the efficiency and correction of vertically oriented blunt bioaerosol samplers in moving air.

    PubMed

    Michel, Dominik; Rotach, Mathias W; Gehrig, Regula; Vogt, Roland

    2012-11-01

    The aspiration efficiency of vertical and wind-oriented Air-O-Cell samplers was investigated in a field study using the pollen of hazel, sweet chestnut and birch. Collected pollen numbers were compared to measurements of a Hirst-type Burkard spore trap. The discrepancy between pollen counts is substantial in the case of vertical orientation. The results indicate a strong influence of wind velocity and inlet orientation relative to the freestream on the aspiration efficiency. Various studies reported on inertial effects on aerosol motion as function of wind velocity. The measurements were compared to a physically based model for the limited case of vertical blunt samplers. Additionally, a simple linear model based on pollen counts and wind velocity was developed. Both correction models notably reduce the error of vertically oriented samplers, whereas only the physically based model can be used on independent datasets. The study also addressed the precision error of the instruments used, which was substantial for both sampler types.

  1. Selecting Performance Reference Compounds (PRCS)for Polyethylene Passive Samplers Deployed at Contaminated Sediment Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of equilibrium passive samplers for performing aquatic environmental monitoring at contaminated sediment sites, including Superfund sites, is becoming more common. However, a current challenge in passive sampling is determining when equilibrium is achieved between the sampl...

  2. Evaluating Cost when Selecting Performance Reference Compounds for the Environmental Deployment of Polyethylene Passive Samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge in environmental passive sampling is determining when equilibrium is achieved between the sampler, target contaminants, and environmental phases. A common approach is the use of performance reference compounds (PRCs) to indicate degree of equilibrium. One logistical...

  3. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... may request any vessel issued a Federal limited access American lobster permit to carry a NMFS... issued a Federal limited access American lobster permit, if requested by the sea sampler/observer...

  4. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... may request any vessel issued a Federal limited access American lobster permit to carry a NMFS... issued a Federal limited access American lobster permit, if requested by the sea sampler/observer...

  5. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... may request any vessel issued a Federal limited access American lobster permit to carry a NMFS... issued a Federal limited access American lobster permit, if requested by the sea sampler/observer...

  6. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... may request any vessel issued a Federal limited access American lobster permit to carry a NMFS... issued a Federal limited access American lobster permit, if requested by the sea sampler/observer...

  7. 50 CFR 697.12 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... may request any vessel issued a Federal limited access American lobster permit to carry a NMFS... issued a Federal limited access American lobster permit, if requested by the sea sampler/observer...

  8. On the efficiency and correction of vertically oriented blunt bioaerosol samplers in moving air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Dominik; Rotach, Mathias W.; Gehrig, Regula; Vogt, Roland

    2012-11-01

    The aspiration efficiency of vertical and wind-oriented Air-O-Cell samplers was investigated in a field study using the pollen of hazel, sweet chestnut and birch. Collected pollen numbers were compared to measurements of a Hirst-type Burkard spore trap. The discrepancy between pollen counts is substantial in the case of vertical orientation. The results indicate a strong influence of wind velocity and inlet orientation relative to the freestream on the aspiration efficiency. Various studies reported on inertial effects on aerosol motion as function of wind velocity. The measurements were compared to a physically based model for the limited case of vertical blunt samplers. Additionally, a simple linear model based on pollen counts and wind velocity was developed. Both correction models notably reduce the error of vertically oriented samplers, whereas only the physically based model can be used on independent datasets. The study also addressed the precision error of the instruments used, which was substantial for both sampler types.

  9. Measuring freely dissolved water concentrations of PCBs using LDPE passive samplers and performance reference compounds (PRCs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-Density polyethylene (LDPE) sheets are often used as passive samplers for aquatic environmental monitoring to measure the dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). These concentrations are then used to evaluate the potential for ecological and human...

  10. Evaluating PCB Bioavailability Using Passive Samplers and Mussles at a Contaminated Sediment Site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers, including semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), solid phase microextraction (SPME) and polyethylene devices (PEDs), provide innovative tools for measuring hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) originating from contaminated waters and sediments. Because the...

  11. Improved large-volume sampler for the collection of bacterial cells from aerosol.

    PubMed

    White, L A; Hadley, D J; Davids, D E; Naylor, R

    1975-03-01

    A modified large-volume sampler was demonstrated to be an efficient device for the collection of mono-disperse aerosols of rhodamine B and poly-disperse aerosols of bacterial cells. Absolute efficiency for collection of rhodamine B varied from 100% with 5-mum particles to about 70% with 0.5-mum particles. The sampler concentrated the particles from 950 liters of air into a flow of between 1 and 2 ml of collecting fluid per min. Spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger were collected at an efficiency of about 82% compared to the collection in the standard AGI-30 sampler. In the most desirable collecting fluids tested, aerosolized cells of Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Aerobacter aerogenes were collected at comparative efficiencies of approximately 90, 80, and 90%, respectively. The modified sampler has practical application in the study of aerosol transmission of respiratory pathogens.

  12. A source of PCB contamination in modified high-volume air samplers

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, I.; O'Dell, J.M.; Arnold, K.; Hites, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    Modified Anderson High Volume (Hi-Vol) air samplers are widely used for the collection of semi-volatile organic compounds (such as PCBs) from air. The foam gasket near the main air flow path in these samplers can become contaminated with PCBs if the sampler or the gasket is stored at a location with high indoor air PCB levels. Once the gasket is contaminated, it releases PCBs back into the air stream during sampling, and as a result, incorrectly high air PCB concentrations are measured. This paper presents data demonstrating this contamination problem using measurements from two Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network sites: one at Sleeping Bear Dunes on Lake Michigan and the other at Point Petre on Lake Ontario. The authors recommend that these gaskets be replaced by Teflon tape and that the storage history of each sampler be carefully tracked.

  13. Estimation of Measurement Uncertainties for the DGT Passive Sampler Used for Determination of Copper in Water

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Sebastien; Morrison, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion-based passive samplers are increasingly used for water quality monitoring. While the overall method robustness and reproducibility for passive samplers in water are widely reported, there has been a lack of a detailed description of uncertainty sources. In this paper an uncertainty budget for the determination of fully labile Cu in water using a DGT passive sampler is presented. Uncertainty from the estimation of effective cross-sectional diffusion area and the instrumental determination of accumulated mass of analyte are the most significant sources of uncertainty, while uncertainties from contamination and the estimation of diffusion coefficient are negligible. The results presented highlight issues with passive samplers which are important to address if overall method uncertainty is to be reduced and effective strategies to reduce overall method uncertainty are presented. PMID:25258629

  14. 7 CFR 52.34 - How samples are drawn by inspectors or licensed samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... samplers. 52.34 Section 52.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED...

  15. Dust Mite Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pollen allergy may be noticeable because the allergy is seasonal. For example, you may have more difficulty managing your asthma for a short time during the summer. Dust mite allergy, on the other hand, is due to something ...

  16. 1983 Transatlantic Dust Event

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization (prepared in 2001) shows dust being blown westward over the Atlantic from northern Africa in early 1983, from aerosol measurements taken by Nimbus 7's TOMS instrument. Saharan du...

  17. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  18. Dust evolution from comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of the evolution of cometary debris are reviewed. The subject is divided into three major sections: (1) the developments in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus, which is the source of the dust; (2) the formation of the dust tail; and (3) the blending of the debris with the dust component of interplanetary matter. The importance of the physical theory of comets is emphasized for the understanding of the early phase of evolution. A physico-dynamical model designed to analyze the particle-emission mechanism from the distribution of light in the dust tail is described and the results are presented. Increased attention is paid to large particles because of their importance for the evolution of the zodiacal cloud. Finally, implications are discussed for the future in situ investigations of comets.

  19. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however, the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  20. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lnnar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however. the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  1. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  2. Filtration of dust in a circulating granular bed filter with conical louver plates (CGBF-CLPs).

    PubMed

    Bai, Jing-Cheng; Wu, Shu-Yii; Lee, An-Sheng; Chu, Chen-Yeon

    2007-04-02

    A novel circulating granular bed filter with conical louver plates (CGBF-CLPs) was designed to remove dust particulates from the flue gas stream of a coal power plant. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the performance of the CGBF-CLPs. Dust collection efficiency and pressure drop data were analyzed to determine better operating conditions. The effect of solid mass flow rate, collector particle size and dust/collector particles separator types on the dust collection efficiency and pressure drop in the CGBF-CLPs were investigated in this study. The solid mass flow rate (B) varied from 15.59+/-0.44 to 20.36+/-0.68 g s(-1) and the initial average collector particle sizes were 1500 and 795 microm, respectively. Two types of separators, a cyclone and an inertial one, for separating the dust and collector particles were used in the CGBF-CLPs system. An Air Personal Sampler (SKC PCXR8) was used to determine the inlet and outlet dust concentrations. A differential pressure transmitter and data acquisition system were used to measure the pressure drop. Experimental results showed that the highest dust collection efficiency was 99.59% when the solid mass flow rate was 17.08+/-0.48 g s(-1) and the initial average collector particle size was 795 microm with the cyclone type separator. The results showed that the attrition fines of the original collector particles returning to the granular bed filter (GBF) reduced bed voidage. This phenomenon significantly increased the dust collection efficiency in the CGBF-CLPs. As a consequence, a bigger bed voidage creates a lower dust collection efficiency in the GBF.

  3. Design and validation of a high-flow personal sampler for PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Adams, H S; Kenny, L C; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J; Colvile, R N; Gussman, R A

    2001-01-01

    A high-flow personal sampler (HFPS) for airborne particulate matter has been developed and fully characterised, and validation tests have been carried out. The sampler is a low-cost gravimetric instrument designed to collect particulate matter with a 50% cut point at 2.5 microm aerodynamic equivalent diameter (PM2.5), where size selection is achieved by the use of porous polyurethane foam. Development of a porous foam selector was chosen over a cyclone or impactor due to the lightweight, low-cost, and compact design that could be achieved. The sampler flow rate of 16 1/min is achieved using a portable, flow-controlled pump; this flow rate is far higher than that of conventional personal samplers and the HFPS can therefore be used for personal sampling in the ambient environment over short sampling periods of much less than 24 h. The HFPS is currently being used in a study of particle exposure of urban transport users (cyclists, car drivers, bus and Underground rail passengers) where personal sampling over short time periods representing typical commuter journey times is required. The HFPS was fully characterised in chamber studies with a TSI aerodynamic particle sizer (APS). The sampler was then validated against a co-located U.S. EPA Federal Reference PM2.5 Well Impactor Ninety Six (WINS) and a KTL cyclone, and parallel testing was performed. Initial testing showed some penetration of particles through the porous foam structure; applying an oil coating to the foam eliminated this problem. Chamber testing was carried out on a number of different selector prototypes, with the final design giving a 50% penetration diameter (i.e., d50) of 2.4 microm at 16 1/min. The new sampler exhibited good agreement in three sets of co-located tests with established samplers, and parallel testing showed excellent agreement between paired HFPS samplers.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of a newly designed passive particle sampler.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, H; Tavakoli, B; Ahmadi, G; Dhaniyala, S; Harner, T; Holsen, T M

    2016-07-01

    In this work a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to predict the deposition of particles on a newly designed passive dry deposition (Pas-DD) sampler. The sampler uses a parallel plate design and a conventional polyurethane foam (PUF) disk as the deposition surface. The deposition of particles with sizes between 0.5 and 10 μm was investigated for two different geometries of the Pas-DD sampler for different wind speeds and various angles of attack. To evaluate the mean flow field, the k-ɛ turbulence model was used and turbulent fluctuating velocities were generated using the discrete random walk (DRW) model. The CFD software ANSYS-FLUENT was used for performing the numerical simulations. It was found that the deposition velocity increased with particle size or wind speed. The modeled deposition velocities were in general agreement with the experimental measurements and they increased when flow entered the sampler with a non-zero angle of attack. The particle-size dependent deposition velocity was also dependent on the geometry of the leading edge of the sampler; deposition velocities were more dependent on particle size and wind speeds for the sampler without the bend in the leading edge of the deposition plate, compared to a flat plate design. Foam roughness was also found to have a small impact on particle deposition.

  5. Use of Passive Diffusion Samplers for Monitoring Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Brayton, Michael J.; Ives, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Passive diffusion samplers have been tested at a number of sites where volatile organic compounds (VOC's) are the principal contaminants in ground water. Test results generally show good agreement between concentrations of VOC's in samples collected with diffusion samplers and concentrations in samples collected by purging the water from a well. Diffusion samplers offer several advantages over conventional and low-flow ground-water sampling procedures: * Elimination of the need to purge a well before collecting a sample and to dispose of contaminated water. * Elimination of cross-contamination of samples associated with sampling with non-dedicated pumps or sample delivery tubes. * Reduction in sampling time by as much as 80 percent of that required for 'purge type' sampling methods. * An increase in the frequency and spatial coverage of monitoring at a site because of the associated savings in time and money. The successful use of diffusion samplers depends on the following three primary factors: (1) understanding site conditions and contaminants of interest (defining sample objectives), (2) validating of results of diffusion samplers against more widely acknowledged sampling methods, and (3) applying diffusion samplers in the field.

  6. Performance characterization of the MiniVol PM{sub 2.5} sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.S.; Patel, P.D.; Turner, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    Measurements were conducted to assess the MiniVol PM{sub 2.5} sampler performance for various particle preseparator configurations including flat and cup impaction stages. Laboratory measurements were conducted to determine the impactor collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Impactor cut points--the aerodynamic particle diameter exhibiting 50% collection efficiency--were 2.5 mm ({approximately} 10%) for the flat stage and 3.0 mm for the cup stage. Collection efficiency curves for cascade (tandem) impactor configurations (PM{sub 10} followed by PM{sub 2.5}) generally agreed with the single stage results. In all cases the collection efficiency curves exhibited the classical sigmoidal shape, albeit less steep than required for PM{sub 2.5} Federal Reference Method (FRM) samplers. Field data were collected at urban sites in St. Louis using MiniVol samplers collocated with a PM{sub 2.5} FRM sampler to quantify the MiniVol sampler precision and accuracy. Collocated sampler precision was 6% and 10% for MiniVol cascade impactors with flat PM{sub 2.5} stages and cup PM{sub 2.5} stages, respectively (N = 31). Both of these MiniVol configurations were deemed statistically equivalent to the FRM when the reported ambient mass concentrations were corrected for field blank values (N = 15).

  7. Performance study of personal inhalable aerosol samplers at ultra-low wind speeds.

    PubMed

    Sleeth, Darrah K; Vincent, James H

    2012-03-01

    The assessment of personal inhalable aerosol samplers in a controlled laboratory setting has not previously been carried out at the ultra-low wind speed conditions that represent most modern workplaces. There is currently some concern about whether the existing inhalable aerosol convention is appropriate at these low wind speeds and an alternative has been suggested. It was therefore important to assess the performance of the most common personal samplers used to collect the inhalable aerosol fraction, especially those that were designed to match the original curve. The experimental set-up involved use of a hybrid ultra-low speed wind tunnel/calm air chamber and a rotating, heating breathing mannequin to measure the inhalable fraction of aerosol exposure. The samplers that were tested included the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), Button, and GSP inhalable samplers as well as the closed-face cassette sampler that has been (and still is) widely used by occupational hygienists in many countries. The results showed that, down to ∼0.2 m s(-1), the samplers matched the current inhalability criterion relatively well but were significantly greater than this at the lowest wind speed tested. Overall, there was a significant effect of wind speed on sampling efficiency, with lower wind speeds clearly associated with an increase in sampling efficiency.

  8. Numerical evaluation of lateral diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films samplers.

    PubMed

    Santner, Jakob; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Schnepf, Andrea; Wenzel, Walter W

    2015-05-19

    Using numerical simulation of diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) samplers, we show that the effect of lateral diffusion inside the sampler on the solute flux into the sampler is a nonlinear function of the diffusion layer thickness and the physical sampling window size. In contrast, earlier work concluded that this effect was constant irrespective of parameters of the sampler geometry. The flux increase caused by lateral diffusion inside the sampler was determined to be ∼8.8% for standard samplers, which is considerably lower than the previous estimate of ∼20%. Lateral diffusion is also propagated to the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), where it leads to a slightly stronger decrease in the mass uptake than suggested by the common 1D diffusion model that is applied for evaluating DGT results. We introduce a simple correction procedure for lateral diffusion and demonstrate how the effect of lateral diffusion on diffusion in the DBL can be accounted for. These corrections often result in better estimates of the DBL thickness (δ) and the DGT-measured concentration than earlier approaches and will contribute to more accurate concentration measurements in solute monitoring in waters.

  9. Numerical Evaluation of Lateral Diffusion Inside Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Samplers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using numerical simulation of diffusion inside diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) samplers, we show that the effect of lateral diffusion inside the sampler on the solute flux into the sampler is a nonlinear function of the diffusion layer thickness and the physical sampling window size. In contrast, earlier work concluded that this effect was constant irrespective of parameters of the sampler geometry. The flux increase caused by lateral diffusion inside the sampler was determined to be ∼8.8% for standard samplers, which is considerably lower than the previous estimate of ∼20%. Lateral diffusion is also propagated to the diffusive boundary layer (DBL), where it leads to a slightly stronger decrease in the mass uptake than suggested by the common 1D diffusion model that is applied for evaluating DGT results. We introduce a simple correction procedure for lateral diffusion and demonstrate how the effect of lateral diffusion on diffusion in the DBL can be accounted for. These corrections often result in better estimates of the DBL thickness (δ) and the DGT-measured concentration than earlier approaches and will contribute to more accurate concentration measurements in solute monitoring in waters. PMID:25877251

  10. A field evaluation of a SO 2 passive sampler in tropical industrial and urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Lícia P. S.; Campos, Vânia P.; Silva, Adriana M. C.; Tavares, Tania M.

    Passive samplers have been widely used for over 30 years in the measurement of personal exposure to vapours and gases in the workplace. These samplers have just recently been applied in the monitoring of ambient air, which presents concentrations that are normally much smaller than those found in occupational environments. The locally constructed passive sampler was based on gas molecular diffusion through static air layer. The design used minimizes particle interference and turbulent diffusion. After exposure, the SO 2 trapped in impregnated filters with Na 2CO 3 was extracted by means of an ultrasonic bath, for 15 min, using 1.0×10 -2 mol L -1 H 2O 2. It was determined as SO 4-2 by ion chromatography. The performance of the passive sampler was evaluated at different exposure periods, being applied in industrial and urban areas. Method precision as relative standard deviation for three simultaneously applied passive samplers was within 10%. Passive sampling, when compared to active monitoring methods under real conditions, used in urban and industrial areas, showed an overall accuracy of 15%. A statistical comparison with an active method was performed to demonstrate the validity of the passive method. Sampler capacity varied between 98 and 421 μg SO 2 m -3 for exposure periods of one month and one week, respectively, which allows its use in highly polluted areas.

  11. Comments on Dust Reverberation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B.

    2015-09-01

    Dust reverberation is an important technique for studying the inner structure of AGNs and probing the properties of astrophysical dust, and even has some potential as a cosmological probe. We will discuss two recent results that pose a serious limitation to understanding dust reverberation at the present time. First, recent high-cadence monitoring of the UV and optical continuum in two AGNs, NGC 2617 and NGC 5548, have yielded unambiguous lags between variations of the UV continuum and corresponding variations of the continuum at longer wavelengths. In the absence of UV data, this leads to a systematic underestimate of the innermost radius where dust is found. This similarly leads to an underestimate of the size of the broad emission-line region, although it does not affect the AGN black hole mass scale, which calibrates out this effect. Second, broad-band monitoring of continuum variations in the optical through near-IR show that the innermost dust is not necessarily at the 'instantaneous sublimation radius.' The innermost dust can be considerably cooler than expected at the sublimation radius and thus can heat up without sublimating when the central continuum source becomes more luminous (see the poster by Pott).

  12. The Galileo Dust Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, Eberhard; Fechtig, Hugo; Hanner, Martha S.; Kissel, Jochen; Lindblad, Bertil-Anders; Linkert, Dietmar; Maas, Dieter; Morfill, Gregor E.; Zook, Herbert A.

    1992-01-01

    The Galileo Dust Detector is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10 exp -19 and 10 exp -9 kg in interplanetary space and in the Jovian system, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of the distances to the sun, to Jupiter and to its satellites, and to study its interaction with the Galilean satellites and the Jovian magnetosphere. The investigation is performed with an instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles. It is a multicoincidence detector with a mass sensitivity 1 000 000 times higher than that of previous in situ experiments which measured dust in the outer solar system. The instrument weighs 4.2 kg, consumes 2.4 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 24 bits/s in nominal spacecraft tracking mode. On December 29, 1989 the instrument was switched-on. After the instrument had been configured to flight conditions cruise science data collection started immediately. In the period to May 18, 1990 at least 168 dust impacts have been recorded. For 81 of these dust grains masses and impact speeds have been determined. First flux values are given.

  13. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. |

    1996-10-01

    Control of nuisance or process dusts generated within a plant is a vital concern with today`s growing emphasis on indoor air quality. In the past, many companies simply moved these contaminants away from workers and discharged them into the atmosphere. More stringent pollution control requirements now make this course of action unacceptable. Also, in some cases there is a need to recover high-value dusts, such as chemicals or precious metals. As a result, proper design and selection of a dust collection system are more critical than ever. There are two types of fabric filter dust collection systems commonly used today: baghouses and cartridges. Baghouses were the first collection systems with fabric media (in the form of long tubes, or bags) for removal of contaminants. The versatility of the baghouse--coupled with constant technological refinements--have made it a long-standing favorite among specifiers of pollution control equipment. In fact, baghouses account for more than 80% of all fabric filter dust collection systems in use today. Cartridge dust collectors use rigidly pleated filter elements instead of bags, making it possible to accommodate a large amount of filter surface area in a comparatively small package. Cartridge collectors also offer high efficiency and low pressure drop.

  14. Newton to Einstein — dust to dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Michael; Uhlemann, Cora; Haugg, Thomas E-mail: cora.uhlemann@physik.lmu.de

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves.

  15. Operations of the Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer - ARSA

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Abel, Keith H.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Panisko, Mark E.; Reeder, Paul L.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Thompson, Robert C.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warner, Ray A.

    1999-09-01

    The Automated Radioxenon Sampler/ Analyzer (ARSA), designed and built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), for the Department of Energy, has exceeded measurement requirements for noble gas measurement systems established by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Two units, one at PNNL and a second, sent to DME Corp. of Florida, were built and extensively tested. Both systems have successfully demonstrated stable xenon yields greater than 1.5 cm3 for an eight-hour collection period, corresponding to minimum detectable concentrations for 133Xe on the order of 0.1 mBq/m3 three times per day. High stable xenon yields are critical in obtaining these low minimum detectable concentrations. A history of testing and results that led to the high xenon yields of the ARSA system is presented. A compilation of field tests, laboratory tests and baseline tests that led to cost reduction, power savings and size reduction of the ARSA are also discussed. Lastly, the type of data generated from the ARSA of interest to data center personnel are discussed.

  16. Radiation dependence of inverter propagation delay from timing sampler measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.; Lin, Y.-S.

    1989-01-01

    A timing sampler consisting of 14 four-stage inverter-pair chains with different load capacitances was fabricated in 1.6-micron n-well CMOS and irradiated with cobalt-60 at 10 rad(Si)/s. For this CMOS process the measured results indicate that the rising delay increases by about 2.2 ns/Mrad(Si) and the falling delay increase is very small, i.e., less than 300 ps/Mrad(Si). The amount of radiation-induced delay depends on the size of the load capacitance. The maximum value observed for this effect was 5.65 ns/pF-Mrad(Si). Using a sensitivity analysis, the sensitivity of the rising delay to radiation can be explained by a simple timing model and the radiation sensitivity of dc MOSFET parameters. This same approach could not explain the insensitivity of the falling delay to radiation. This may be due to a failure of the timing model and/or trapping effects.

  17. Progress Toward an Enceladus Amino Acid Sampler Astrobiology Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, J. P.; Willis, P. A.; Blacksberg, J.

    2012-12-01

    The development of a new astrobiolgoy instrument for exploring the trace chemical composition of the Enceladus jets and plume, and the e-ring of Saturn is presented. The Enceladus amino acid sampler (EAAS) allows for detection of amino acids using optical Raman spectroscopy integrated with a sample pre-concentration system. The pre-concentration process facilitates the delivery of a sample to a mass spectrometer for detection of specific amino acids. The initial EAAS design utilizes lab-on-a-breadboard components where a sample inlet, sample outlet, reagents, controllers, pumps, valves and pre-concentration column for the EAAS prototype are all assembled on a 5" x 7" breadboard. The pre-concentration process is controlled using automation scripts and software. An optical window allows a Raman spectrometer to directly monitor the pre-concentration of amino acids in a filter/column loaded with of a strong cation exchange resin. Initial samples to demonstrate EAAS simulate the conditions of Don Juan Pond, one of the coldest and saltiest bodies of liquid water on Earth, located in the Wright Valley of Antarctica. This EAAS development is an important step toward a new type of astrobiology science instrument that is capable of operating on a spacecraft in flight or in orbit.

  18. Using structural equation modeling to construct calibration equations relating PM2.5 mass concentration samplers to the federal reference method sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilonick, Richard A.; Connell, Daniel P.; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Rager, Judith R.; Xue, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to remove systematic bias among fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentration measurements made by different types of samplers used in the Pittsburgh Aerosol Research and Inhalation Epidemiology Study (PARIES). PARIES is a retrospective epidemiology study that aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the associations between air quality and human health effects in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, region from 1999 to 2008. Calibration was needed in order to minimize the amount of systematic error in PM2.5 exposure estimation as a result of including data from 97 different PM2.5 samplers at 47 monitoring sites. Ordinary regression often has been used for calibrating air quality measurements from pairs of measurement devices; however, this is only appropriate when one of the two devices (the "independent" variable) is free from random error, which is rarely the case. A group of methods known as "errors-in-variables" (e.g., Deming regression, reduced major axis regression) has been developed to handle calibration between two devices when both are subject to random error, but these methods require information on the relative sizes of the random errors for each device, which typically cannot be obtained from the observed data. When data from more than two devices (or repeats of the same device) are available, the additional information is not used to inform the calibration. A more general approach that often has been overlooked is the use of a measurement error structural equation model (SEM) that allows the simultaneous comparison of three or more devices (or repeats). The theoretical underpinnings of all of these approaches to calibration are described, and the pros and cons of each are discussed. In particular, it is shown that both ordinary regression (when used for calibration) and Deming regression are particular examples of SEMs but with substantial deficiencies. To illustrate the use of SEMs, the 7865 daily average PM2.5 mass

  19. The Gillings Sampler – An Electrostatic Air Sampler as an Alternative Method for Aerosol In Vitro Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Jose; Lichtveld, Kim; Ebersviller, Seth; Carson, Johnny L.; Walters, Glenn W.; Jaspers, Ilona; Jeffries, Harvey E.; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Vizuete, William

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying the toxicity and health risk of exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures found in ambient air, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving towards setting standards for these types of mixtures. Additionally, the Health Effects Institute's strategic plan aims to develop and apply next-generation multi-pollutant approaches to understanding the health effects of air pollutants. There's increasing concern that conventional in vitro exposure methods are not adequate to meet EPA's strategic plan to demonstrate a direct link between air pollution and health effects. To meet the demand for new in vitro technology that better represents direct air-to-cell inhalation exposures, a new system that exposes cells at the air-liquid interface was developed. This new system, named the Gillings Sampler, is a modified two-stage electrostatic precipitator that provides a viable environment for cultured cells. Polystyrene latex spheres were used to determine deposition efficiencies (38-45%), while microscopy and imaging techniques were used to confirm uniform particle deposition. Negative control A549 cell exposures indicated the sampler can be operated for up to 4 hours without inducing any significant toxic effects on cells, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). A novel positive aerosol control exposure method, consisting of a p-tolualdehyde (TOLALD) impregnated mineral oil aerosol (MOA), was developed to test this system. Exposures to the toxic MOA at a 1 ng/cm2 dose of TOLALD yielded a reproducible 1.4 and 2 fold increase in LDH and IL-8 mRNA levels over controls. This new system is intended to be used as an alternative research tool for aerosol in vitro exposure studies. While further testing and optimization is still required to produce a “commercially ready” system, it serves as a stepping-stone in the development of cost-effective in vitro technology that can be made accessible to researchers

  20. Interstellar and Cometary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, John S.

    1997-01-01

    'Interstellar dust' forms a continuum of materials with differing properties which I divide into three classes on the basis of observations: (a) diffuse dust, in the low-density interstellar medium; (b) outer-cloud dust, observed in stars close enough to the outer edges of molecular clouds to be observed in the optical and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum, and (c) inner-cloud dust, deep within the cores of molecular clouds, and observed only in the infrared by means of absorption bands of C-H, C=O, 0-H, C(triple bond)N, etc. There is a surprising regularity of the extinction laws between diffuse- and outer-cloud dust. The entire mean extinction law from infrared through the observable ultraviolet spectrum can be characterized by a single parameter. There are real deviations from this mean law, larger than observational uncertainties, but they are much smaller than differences of the mean laws in diffuse- and outer-cloud dust. This fact shows that there are processes which operate over the entire distribution of grain sizes, and which change size distributions extremely efficiently. There is no evidence for mantles on grains in local diffuse and outer-cloud dust. The only published spectra of the star VI Cyg 12, the best candidate for showing mantles, does not show the 3.4 micro-m band which appreciable mantles would produce. Grains are larger in outer-cloud dust than diffuse dust because of coagulation, not accretion of extensive mantles. Core-mantle grains favored by J. M. Greenberg and collaborators, and composite grains of Mathis and Whiffen (1989), are discussed more extensively (naturally, I prefer the latter). The composite grains are fluffy and consist of silicates, amorphous carbon, and some graphite in the same grain. Grains deep within molecular clouds but before any processing within the solar system are presumably formed from the accretion of icy mantles on and within the coagulated outer-cloud grains. They should contain a mineral

  1. An operation manual for a time-series, storm-activated suspended sediment sampler deployed in the coastal ocean: function, maintenance, and testing procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rendigs, Richard R.; Bothner, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    This manual describes the operation and testing procedures for two models of a multi-port suspended sediment sampler that are moored in the coastal ocean and that collect samples on a programmable time schedule that can be interrupted to collect during a storm. The ability to sense and collect samples before, during, and after the height of a storm is a unique feature of these instruments because it provides samples during conditions when it is difficult or impossible to sample from a surface ship. The sensors used to trigger storm sampling are a transmissometer or a pressure sensor. The purpose of such samples is to assess composition and concentration of sediment resuspended from the seafloor during storms and subsequently transported within the coastal system. Both light transmission and the standard deviation of pressure from surface waves correlate with the passage of major storms. The instruments successfully identified the onset of storms and collected samples before, during, and after the storm maximum as programmed. The accuracy of determining suspended matter concentrations collected by the sediment sampler has not been fully evaluated. Preliminary laboratory tests using a suspension of muddy sediment collected in a near-bottom sediment trap yielded excellent results. However in laboratory tests with different sediment types, the suspended matter concentrations determined with these samplers became less accurate with increasing average grain size. Future calibration work is necessary and should be conducted in a facility that ideally has a water depth of at least 30 feet to prevent cavitation of the pump that draws sea water through the filters. The test facility should also have the capability for adding suspended matter of known composition and concentration to a fixed volume of seawater that is well mixed.

  2. Understanding mineral dusts from the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, J. P.; McDonald, E.; Gillies, J. A.; Jayanty, J.; Casuccio, G.; Gertler, A.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the program was to provide scientifically founded information on the chemical and physical properties of airborne mineral dust collected during a period of approximately one year, largely in 2006, at Djibouti, Afghanistan (Bagram, Khowst), Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Iraq (Balad, Baghdad, Tallil, Tikrit, Taji, Al Asad), and Kuwait (Northern, Central, Coastal, and Southern regions). To fully understand mineral dusts, their chemical and physical properties as well as mineralogical interrelationships were accurately established. Three collocated low volume particulate samplers, one each for the total suspended (TSP), less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), and less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) particulate matter were deployed at each of the 15 sites, operating on a "1 in 6 day" sampling schedule. A total of 3,136 filter samples were collected on a 1-in-6 day schedule, along with one-time bulk soil samples, at each of the 15 sites. Sample media included Teflon® membrane and quartz fiber filters for chemical analysis (71 species), and Nuclepore® filters for individual particle analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The provisional study of the data revealed three broad air pollution sources: geological dust, smoke from burn pits, and until now unidentified lead-zinc smelters and battery-processing facilities. SEM results and secondary electron imagery show that quartz and other silicate minerals and, to a lesser extent, dolomite and calcite particles are coated by a thin Si-Al-Mg layer, probably the clay minerals palygorskite and/or montmorillonite/illite. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was performed on aerosol samples collected at six military sites in Iraq (Balad, Baghdad, Tallil, Tikrit, Taji, and Al Asad). PMF results reflect chemical differences amongst sources impacting at individual sites, further complicated by the regional geomorphology and meteorology. Sampling sites are seldom impacted by one source at

  3. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  4. Background dust emission following grassland fire: a snapshot across the particle-size spectrum highlights how high-resolution measurements enhance detection

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Martin, Luis M; Field, Jason P; Villegas, Juan C; Brehsears, David D; Law, Darin J; Urgeghe, Anna M

    2009-01-01

    Dust emission rates vary temporally and with particle size. Many studies of dust emission focus on a particular temporal scale and the portion of the particle-size spectrum associated with a single instrument; fewer studies have assessed dust emission across the particle-size spectrum and associated temporal scales using multiple instruments. Particularly lacking are measurements following disturbances such as fire that are high-resolution and focused on finer particles - those with direct implications for human health and potential for long-distance biogeochemical transport - during less windy but more commonly occurring background conditions. We measured dust emissions in unburned and burned semiarid grassland using four different instruments spanning different combinations of temporal resolution and particle-size spectrum: Big Springs Number Eight (BSNE) and Sensit instruments for larger saltating particles, DustTrak instruments for smaller suspended particles, and Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) samplers for measuring the entire range of particle sizes. Unburned and burned sites differed in vegetation cover and aerodynamic roughness, yet surprisingly differences in dust emission rates were only detectable for saltation using BSNE and for smaller aerosols using DustTrak. Our results, surprising in the lack of consistently detected differences, indicate that high-resolution DustTrak measurements offered the greatest promise for detecting differences in background emission rates and that BSNE samplers, which integrate across height, were effective for longer intervals. More generally, our results suggest that interplay between particle size, temporal resolution, and integration across time and height can be complex and may need to be considered more explicitly for effective sampling for background dust emissions.

  5. Transport of Australian Continental Dust to Australia's Great Barrier Reef Region: First Results From Sampling, Remote Sensing, Synoptic and Trajectory Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapper, N.; O'Loingsigh, T.; de Deckker, P.; Cohen, D.

    2009-04-01

    As part of a large multi-disciplinary project funded by the Australian Research Council and in collaboration with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, we established in mid-2008 three PM 2.5 samplers in eastern Australia to determine possible transport of continental dust from the major dust source region of the Lake Eyre Basin (LEB). These samplers were located at Fowlers Gap, New South Wales [NSW] (31.09S, 141.70E), Mount Stromlo, NSW (35.30S, 149.00E) and Heron Island, Queensland (23.44S, 151.83E). The latter location is of particular significance because of its proximity to the World Heritage Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and to the tropical rainforest of coastal North Queensland. In previous studies, dust and associated organic material of African origin has been associated with rainforest fertilisation in Amazonia and coral bleaching in the Carribean. In this presentation three case studies of continental dust transport to Heron Island that occurred in the first four months of sampling are examined. In each case transport of soil material from the LEB region and/or western NSW is confirmed by the nature of material sampled, by remote sensing of the dust, by forward and backward air parcel trajectory analysis and by synoptic analysis. In each case the dust arrived over Heron Island 3-7 days after passing over the southern samplers, generally having followed an anti-clockwise curved path to approach Heron Island from the southeast. The potential significance of this finding for the GBR is briefly discussed.

  6. Determining inert content in coal dust/rock dust mixture

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Ward, Jr., Jack A.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the inert content of a coal dust and rock dust mixture uses a transparent window pressed against the mixture. An infrared light beam is directed through the window such that a portion of the infrared light beam is reflected from the mixture. The concentration of the reflected light is detected and a signal indicative of the reflected light is generated. A normalized value for the generated signal is determined according to the relationship .phi.=(log i.sub.c `log i.sub.co) / (log i.sub.c100 -log i.sub.co) where i.sub.co =measured signal at 0% rock dust i.sub.c100 =measured signal at 100% rock dust i.sub.c =measured signal of the mixture. This normalized value is then correlated to a predetermined relationship of .phi. to rock dust percentage to determine the rock dust content of the mixture. The rock dust content is displayed where the percentage is between 30 and 100%, and an indication of out-of-range is displayed where the rock dust percent is less than 30%. Preferably, the rock dust percentage (RD%) is calculated from the predetermined relationship RD%=100+30 log .phi.. where the dust mixture initially includes moisture, the dust mixture is dried before measuring by use of 8 to 12 mesh molecular-sieves which are shaken with the dust mixture and subsequently screened from the dust mixture.

  7. Sahara Dust Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Dust Particles Click on the image for Quicktime movie from 7/15-7/24

    A continent-sized cloud of hot air and dust originating from the Sahara Desert crossed the Atlantic Ocean and headed towards Florida and the Caribbean. A Saharan Air Layer, or SAL, forms when dry air and dust rise from Africa's west coast and ride the trade winds above the Atlantic Ocean.

    These dust clouds are not uncommon, especially during the months of July and August. They start when weather patterns called tropical waves pick up dust from the desert in North Africa, carry it a couple of miles into the atmosphere and drift westward.

    In a sequence of images created by data acquired by the Earth-orbiting Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ranging from July 15 through July 24, we see the distribution of the cloud in the atmosphere as it swirls off of Africa and heads across the ocean to the west. Using the unique silicate spectral signatures of dust in the thermal infrared, AIRS can detect the presence of dust in the atmosphere day or night. This detection works best if there are no clouds present on top of the dust; when clouds are present, they can interfere with the signal, making it much harder to detect dust as in the case of July 24, 2005.

    In the Quicktime movie, the scale at the bottom of the images shows +1 for dust definitely detected, and ranges down to -1 for no dust detected. The plots are averaged over a number of AIRS observations falling within grid boxes, and so it is possible to obtain fractional numbers. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Total Water Vapor in the Atmosphere Around the Dust Cloud Click on the image for Quicktime movie

    The dust cloud is contained within a dry adiabatic layer which originates over the Sahara Desert. This Saharan Air Layer (SAL) advances Westward over the Atlantic Ocean, overriding the cool, moist air nearer the surface. This burst of very dry air is visible in the

  8. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  9. Dust Growth by RF Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Churton, B.; Samarian, A. A.; Coueedel, L.

    2008-09-07

    The effect of the dust particle growth by RF sputtering on glow discharge has been investigated. It has been found that the growth of dust particles modifies the electrical characteristics of the discharge. In particularly, the absolute value of the self-bias voltage decreases during the particle growth due to the electron losses on the dust particles. To find the correlation between the dust growth and the self bias evolution, dust particles have been collected at different times. The dust particle growth rate is found to be linear.

  10. Interstellar dust at our doorstep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, V. J.

    2013-12-01

    Interstellar dust has long been researched by astronomical methods to learn about its size distribution, grain properties and composition. However, interstellar dust grains also move through the solar system. They were detected for the first time in-situ with the Ulysses dust detector in 1993. In addition, in 2006, the Stardust mission returned three interstellar dust grain candidates back to Earth after a collection period of 195 days. In this talk we elaborate on how the current in-situ ISD measurement methods are a valuable addition to the knowledge about interstellar dust inferred from classical astronomy. We also discuss the role of interstellar dust dynamics and simulations herein.

  11. Oblique dust density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piel, Alexander; Arp, Oliver; Menzel, Kristoffer; Klindworth, Markus

    2007-11-01

    We report on experimental observations of dust density waves in a complex (dusty) plasma under microgravity. The plasma is produced in a radio-frequency parallel-plate discharge (argon, p=15Pa, U=65Vpp). Different sizes of dust particles were used (3.4 μm and 6.4μm diameter). The low-frequency (f 11Hz) dust density waves are naturally unstable modes, which are driven by the ion flow in the plasma. Surprisingly, the wave propagation direction is aligned with the ion flow direction in the bulk plasma but becomes oblique at the boundary of the dust cloud with an inclination of 60^o with respect to the plasma boundary. The experimental results are compared with a kinetic model in the electrostatic approximation [1] and a fluid model [2]. Moreover, the role of dust surface waves is discussed. [1] M. Rosenberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996) [2] A. Piel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205009 (2006)

  12. Conveyor dust control

    SciTech Connect

    Goldbeck, L.

    1999-11-01

    In the past, three different approaches have been used to control dust arising at conveyor load zones. They are: Dust Containment consists of those mechanical systems employed to keep material inside the transfer point with the main material body. Dust Suppression systems increase the mass of suspended dust particles, allowing them to fall from the air stream. Dust Collection is the mechanical capture and return of airborne material after it becomes airborne from the main material body. Previously, these three approaches have always been seen as separate entities. They were offered by separate organizations competing in the marketplace. The three technologies vied for their individual piece of the rock, at the expense of the other technologies (and often at the expense of overall success). There have been considerable amounts of I`m better selling, as well as finger pointing at the other systems when problems arose. Each system claimed its own technology was the best, providing the most effective, most cost-efficient, most maintenance-free solution to fugitive material.

  13. Field evaluation of a tailor-made new passive sampler for the determination of NO2 levels in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Ozlem; Dogeroglu, Tuncay

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the field evaluation of a tailor-made new glass passive sampler developed for the determination of NO(2), based on the collection on triethanolemine (TEA)-coated fibre filter paper. The sampler has been derived from a Palmes design. The overall uncertainty of the sampler was determined by using Griess-Saltzman ASTM D 1607 standard test method as a reference method. The agreement between the results of the passive sampler and the reference method was +/-7.90% with the correlation coefficient of 0.90. Method precision in terms of coefficient of variance (CV) for three simultaneously applied passive samplers was 8.80%. The uptake rate of NO(2) was found to be 2.49 ml/min in a very good agreement with the value calculated from theory (2.63 ml/min). Sampler detection limit was 1.99 microg/m(3) for an exposure period of 1 week and the sampler can be stored safely for a period of up to 6 weeks before exposure. A comparison of the sampler performance was conducted against a commercially available diffusion tube (Gradko diffusion tube). The results from the applied statistical paired t test indicated that there was no significant difference between the performances of two passive samplers (R (2) > 0.90). Also, another statistical comparison was carried out between the dark and transparent glass passive samplers. The results from the dark-colour sampler were higher than that from the transparent sampler (approximately 25%) during the summer season because of the possible photodegradation of NO(2)-TEA complex.

  14. Arduino-based control system for measuring ammonia in air using conditionally-deployed diffusive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.; Williams, C.; Shonkwiler, K. B.

    2012-12-01

    Arduino microcontrollers, wireless modules, and other low-cost hardware were used to develop a new type of air sampler for monitoring ammonia at strong areal sources like dairies, cattle feedlots, and waste treatment facilities. Ammonia was sampled at multiple locations on the periphery of an operation using Radiello diffusive passive samplers (Cod. RAD168- and RAD1201-Sigma-Aldrich). However, the samplers were not continuously exposed to the air. Instead, each sampling station included two diffusive samplers housed in specialized tubes that sealed the cartridges from the atmosphere. If a user-defined set of wind and weather conditions were met, the Radiellos were deployed into the air using a micro linear actuator. Each station was solar-powered and controlled by Arduinos that were linked to a central weather station using Xbee wireless modules (Digi International Inc.). The Arduinos also measured the total time of exposure using hall-effect sensors to verify the position of the cartridge (i.e., deployed or retracted). The decision to expose or retract the samplers was made every five minutes based on wind direction, wind speed, and time of day. Typically, the diffusive samplers were replaced with fresh cartridges every two weeks and the used samplers were analyzed in the laboratory using ion chromatography. Initial studies were conducted at a commercial dairy in northern Colorado. Ammonia emissions along the Front Range of Colorado can be transported into the mountains where atmospheric deposition of nitrogen can impact alpine ecosystems. Therefore, low-cost air quality monitoring equipment is needed that can be widely deployed in the region. Initial work at the dairy showed that ammonia concentrations ranged between 600 to 1200 ppb during the summer; the highest concentrations were downwind of a large anaerobic lagoon. Time-averaged ammonia concentrations were also used to approximate emissions using inverse dispersion models. This methodology provides a

  15. Reconciling PM10 analyses by different sampling methods for Iron King Mine tailings dust.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Félix, Omar I; Gonzales, Patricia; Sáez, Avelino Eduardo; Ela, Wendell P

    2016-03-01

    The overall project objective at the Iron King Mine Superfund site is to determine the level and potential risk associated with heavy metal exposure of the proximate population emanating from the site's tailings pile. To provide sufficient size-fractioned dust for multi-discipline research studies, a dust generator was built and is now being used to generate size-fractioned dust samples for toxicity investigations using in vitro cell culture and animal exposure experiments as well as studies on geochemical characterization and bioassay solubilization with simulated lung and gastric fluid extractants. The objective of this study is to provide a robust method for source identification by comparing the tailing sample produced by dust generator and that collected by MOUDI sampler. As and Pb concentrations of the PM10 fraction in the MOUDI sample were much lower than in tailing samples produced by the dust generator, indicating a dilution of Iron King tailing dust by dust from other sources. For source apportionment purposes, single element concentration method was used based on the assumption that the PM10 fraction comes from a background source plus the Iron King tailing source. The method's conclusion that nearly all arsenic and lead in the PM10 dust fraction originated from the tailings substantiates our previous Pb and Sr isotope study conclusion. As and Pb showed a similar mass fraction from Iron King for all sites suggesting that As and Pb have the same major emission source. Further validation of this simple source apportionment method is needed based on other elements and sites.

  16. Application of neutral electrolyzed water spray for reducing dust levels in a layer breeding house.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weichao; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yang, Zhanyong

    2012-11-01

    Reducing airborne dust is an essential process for improving hen housing environment. Dust reduction effects of neutral electrolyzed water (pH 8.2) spray were investigated in a commercial tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house during production in northern China. A multipoint sampler was used to measure airborne dust concentration to study the dust reduction effects and distribution in the house. Compared with the control treatment (without spray), airborne dust level was reduced 34% in the 3 hr after spraying 216 mL m(-2) neutral electrolyzed water in the breeding house. The dust concentration was significantly higher during the periods of feed distribution (1.13 +/- 0.13 mg m(-3)) and artificial insemination (0.72 +/- 0.13 mg m(-3)) compared with after spray (0.47 +/- 0.09 mg m(-3)) and during lights-off period (0.29 +/- 0.08 mg m(-3)) in the three consecutive testing days (P <0.05). The experimental cage area was divided into four zones along the length of the house, with zone 1 nearest to the evaporative cooling pad and zone 4 nearest to the fans. The air temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, and dust concentration were measured at the sampling points of the four zones in 3 consecutive days and mortality of the birds for the duration of a month were investigated. The results showed that the air temperature, airflow rate, dust concentration, and number of dead birds increase from zone 1 to zone 4 in the tunnel-ventilated layer breeding house.

  17. A survey of size-fractionated dust levels in the U.S. wood processing industry.

    PubMed

    Kalliny, Medhat I; Brisolara, Joseph A; Glindmeyer, Henry; Rando, Roy

    2008-08-01

    A survey of size-fractionated dust exposure was carried out in 10 wood processing plants across the United States as part of a 5-year longitudinal respiratory health study. The facilities included a sawmill, plywood assembly plants, secondary wood milling operations, and factories producing finished wood products such as wood furniture and cabinets. Size-fractionated dust exposures were determined using the RespiCon Personal Particle Sampler. There were 2430 valid sets of respirable, thoracic, and inhalable dust samples collected. Overall, geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) exposure levels were found to be 1.44 (2.67), 0.35 (2.65), and 0.18 (2.54) mg/m, for the inhalable, thoracic, and respirable fractions, respectively. Averaged across all samples, the respirable fraction accounted for 16.7% of the inhalable dust mass, whereas the corresponding figure for thoracic fraction as a percentage of the inhalable fraction was 28.7%. Exposures in the furniture manufacturing plants were significantly higher than those in sawmill and plywood assembly plants, wood milling plants, and cabinet manufacturing plants, whereas the sawmill and plywood assembly plants exhibited significantly lower dust levels than the other industry segments. Among work activities, cleaning with compressed air and sanding processes produced the highest size-fractionated dust exposures, whereas forklift drivers demonstrated the lowest respirable and inhalable dust fractions and shipping processes produced the lowest thoracic dust fraction. Other common work activities such as sawing, milling, and clamping exhibited intermediate exposure levels, but there were significant differences in relative ranking of these across the various industry segments. Processing of hardwood and mixed woods generally were associated with higher exposures than were softwood and plywood, although these results were confounded with industry segment also.

  18. Ammonia concentration modeling based on retained gas sampler data

    SciTech Connect

    Terrones, G.; Palmer, B.J.; Cuta, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    The vertical ammonia concentration distributions determined by the retained gas sampler (RGS) apparatus were modeled for double-shell tanks (DSTs) AW-101, AN-103, AN-104, and AN-105 and single-shell tanks (SSTs) A-101, S-106, and U-103. One the vertical transport of ammonia in the tanks were used for the modeling. Transport in the non-convective settled solids and floating solids layers is assumed to occur primarily via some type of diffusion process, while transport in the convective liquid layers is incorporated into the model via mass transfer coefficients based on empirical correlations. Mass transfer between the top of the waste and the tank headspace and the effects of ventilation of the headspace are also included in the models. The resulting models contain a large number of parameters, but many of them can be determined from known properties of the waste configuration or can be estimated within reasonable bounds from data on the waste samples themselves. The models are used to extract effective diffusion coefficients for transport in the nonconvective layers based on the measured values of ammonia from the RGS apparatus. The modeling indicates that the higher concentrations of ammonia seen in bubbles trapped inside the waste relative to the ammonia concentrations in the tank headspace can be explained by a combination of slow transport of ammonia via diffusion in the nonconvective layers and ventilation of the tank headspace by either passive or active means. Slow transport by diffusion causes a higher concentration of ammonia to build up deep within the waste until the concentration gradients between the interior and top of the waste are sufficient to allow ammonia to escape at the same rate at which it is being generated in the waste.

  19. Multilevel Samplers to Assess Microbial Community Response to Biostimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, B. R.; McKinley, J. P.; Peacock, A. D.; Park, M.; Ogles, D.; Istok, J. D.; Resch, C. T.; White, D. C.

    2006-05-01

    Passive multilevel samplers (MLS) containing a solid matrix for microbial colonization were used in conjunction with a push-pull biostimulation experiment designed to promote biological U(VI) and Tc(VII) reduction. MLS were deployed at 24 elevations in the injection well and two down gradient wells to investigate the spatial variability in microbial community composition and growth prior to and following biostimulation. The microbial community was characterized by real-time PCR (Q-PCR) quantification of eubacteria, NO3- reducing bacteria (nirS and nirK), δ-proteobacteria, Geobacter sp., and methanogens (mcrA). Pretest cell densities were low overall but varied substantially with significantly greater eubacterial populations detected at circumneutral pH (T-test, α=0.05) suggesting carbon substrate and low pH limitation of microbial activity. Although pretest cell densities were low, denitrifying bacteria were dominant members of the microbial community. Biostimulation with an ethanol amended groundwater resulted in concurrent NO3- and Tc(VII) reduction followed by U(VI) reduction. Q-PCR analysis of MLS revealed significant (1-2 orders of magnitude, T-test, α=0.05) increases in cell densities of eubacteria, denitrifiers, δ- proteobacteria, Geobacter sp., and methanogens in response to biostimulation. Traditionally characterization of sediment samples has been used to investigate the microbial community response to biostimulation, however, collection of sediment samples is expensive and not conducive to deep aquifers or temporal studies. The results presented demonstrate that push-pull tests with passive MLS provide an inexpensive approach to determine the effect of biostimulation on contaminant concentrations, geochemical conditions, and the microbial community composition and function.

  20. Facility fence-line monitoring using passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Eben D; Miller, Michael C; Chung, Kuenja C; Parsons, Nicholas L; Shine, Brenda C

    2011-08-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) executed a year-long field study at a refinery in Corpus Christi, TX, to evaluate the use of passive diffusive sampling technology for assessing time-averaged benzene concentrations at the facility fence line. The purpose of the study was to investigate the implementation viability and performance of this type of monitoring in a real-world setting as part of EPA's fence-line measurement research program. The study utilized 14-day, time-integrated Carbopack X samplers deployed at 18 locations on the fence line and at two nearby air monitoring sites equipped with automated gas chromatographs. The average fence-line benzene concentration during the study was 1075 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) with a standard deviation of 1935 pptv. For a 6-month period during which wind direction was uniform, the mean concentration value for a group of downwind sites exceeded the mean value of a similar upwind group by 1710 pptv. Mean value differences for these groups were not statistically significant for the remaining 6-month time period when wind directions were mixed. The passive sampling approach exhibited acceptable performance with a data completeness value of 97.1% (n = 579). Benzene concentration comparisons with automated gas chromatographs yielded an r2 value of 0.86 and a slope of 0.90 (n = 50). A linear regression of duplicate pairs yielded an r2 of 0.97, unity slope, and zero intercept (n = 56). In addition to descriptions of technique performance and general results, time-series analyses are described, providing insight into the utility of 2-week sampling for source apportionment under differing meteorological conditions. The limitations of the approach and recommendations for future measurement method development work are also discussed.