van der Voort, Peter H J; de Metz, Jesse; Wester, Jos P J; van Stijn, Ilse; Feijen, Hilde Marieken; Balzereit, Anja; Rijkenberg, Saskia; Obster, Renate; Bosman, Rob J
Tele-intensive care (teleIC) can be used to increase the level of care in the intensive care unit (ICU) with the tele-intensivist being at a remote site. In this study we describe the implementation and outcomes, including patient and family satisfaction, of the first Dutch teleIC. In a retrospective analysis the patient characteristics are described with a focus on patient outcomes and patient and family satisfaction. The teleIC started on 6 December 2010 in an ICU with three beds. Data for all admitted patients were collected from 1 January 2011 through 31 December 2013 from available systems. Severity of disease (APACHE IV) and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were available over the complete calendar years 2012 and 2013. A prospective self-made survey of patient and family satisfaction was performed over a 14-month period after the implementation of teleIC. In 2012 and 2013, 556 patients were admitted. The number of operating room recovery patients in the ICU declined over time. One hundred and seven patients were transferred to a higher-level ICU (19%). The SMR for non-transferred patients was 0.73 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.54-0.98) and 0.66 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.40-1.02) for transferred patients. These numbers are in line with national data. Thirty-six percent of family and 38% of the patients responded to the survey and showed a positive response concerning communication within the tele IC setting. Implementation of teleIC in a Dutch situation was successful and showed favourable results in patient outcomes and the satisfaction of patients and family members. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dettling-Ihnenfeldt, Daniela S; de Graaff, Aafke E; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; van der Schaaf, Marike
The purpose of this study was to explore coping styles among intensive care unit (ICU) survivors and investigate the association between coping style and quality of life (QOL). In this cross-sectional multicenter study, 150 adult patients who were mechanically ventilated in an ICU for ≥2 days and discharged to their homes were invited to visit the post-ICU clinic 3 months after discharge. Before the post-ICU visit, the patients completed questionnaires regarding their QOL, coping style, and psychological distress. Coping style was assessed using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS-21; de Ridder & van Heck, 2004), which measures task-oriented coping, emotion-oriented coping, and avoidance coping styles. QOL was assessed using the Physical Component Score (PCS) and Mental Component Score (MCS) derived from the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36; Aaronson et al., 1998). Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were performed. One hundred four patients (mean age = 59 years; 71 men, 33 women) completed the questionnaires (response rate = 69%). The highest CISS-21 subscale mean was found in the Task-Oriented subscale (21.3), followed by the Avoidance Coping subscale (18.7) and the Emotion-Oriented subscale (15.2). Emotion-oriented coping style was independently associated with reduced mental health (i.e., SF-36 MCS), but not with physical functioning (i.e., SF-36 PCS). An emotion-oriented coping style is associated with worse mental health among Dutch ICU survivors. Additional research is needed in order to determine the precise role that coping style plays in the long-term recovery of ICU survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Poley, Marten J; van der Starre, Cynthia; van den Bos, Ada; van Dijk, Monique; Tibboel, Dick
Nowadays, the belief is widespread that a safety culture is crucial to achieving patient safety, yet there has been virtually no analysis of the safety culture in pediatric hospital settings so far. Our aim was to measure the safety climate in our unit, compare it with benchmarking data, and identify potential deficiencies. Prospective longitudinal survey study at two points in time. Pediatric surgical intensive care unit at a Dutch university hospital. All unit personnel. To measure the safety climate, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire was administered to physicians, nurses, nursing assistants, pharmacists, technicians, and ward clerks in both May 2006 and May 2007. This questionnaire assesses caregiver attitudes through use of the six following scales: teamwork climate, job satisfaction, perceptions of management, safety climate, working conditions, and stress recognition. Earlier research showed that the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire has good psychometric properties and produced benchmarking data that can be used to evaluate strengths and weaknesses in a given clinical unit against peers. The response rates for the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire were 85% (May 2006) and 74% (May 2007). There were mixed findings regarding the difference between physicians and nurses: on three scales (i.e., teamwork climate, safety climate, and stress recognition), physicians scored better than nurses at both points in time. On another two scales (i.e., perceptions of management and working conditions), nurses consistently had higher mean scale scores. Probably due to the small number of physicians, only some of these differences between physicians and nurses reached the level of statistical significance. Compared to benchmarking data, scores on perceptions of management were higher than expected (p < .01), whereas scores on stress recognition were low (p < .001). The scores on the other scales were somewhat above (job satisfaction), close to (teamwork climate, safety climate
van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schuurman, Beatrix Elink; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; van Dam, Nicolette A. M.; Dullaart, Eugenie; van Heerde, Marc; Verlaat, Carin W. M.; van Vught, Elise M.; Hazelzet, Jan A.
Purpose To explore parents' experiences during the admission of their children to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Method Qualitative method using in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was applied to capture parents’ experiences. Thirty-nine mothers and 25 fathers of 41 children admitted to seven of the eight PICUs in university medical centers in The Netherlands were interviewed. Results Parents were interviewed within 1 month after their child’s discharge from a PICU. Thematic analysis identified 1,514 quotations that were coded into 63 subthemes. The subthemes were categorized into six major themes: attitude of the professionals; coordination of care; emotional intensity; information management; environmental factors; parent participation. Most themes had an overarching relationship representing the array of experiences encountered by parents when their child was staying in a PICU. The theme of emotional intensity was in particular associated with all the other themes. Conclusions The findings provided a range of themes and subthemes describing the complexity of the parental experiences of a PICU admission. The subthemes present a systematic and thematic basis for the development of a quantitative instrument to measure parental experiences and satisfaction with care. The findings of this study have important clinical implications related to the deeper understanding of parental experiences and improving family-centered care. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-010-2074-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21063674
Klopotowska, Joanna E; Kuiper, Rob; van Kan, Hendrikus J; de Pont, Anne-Cornelie; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine; Vroom, Margreeth B; Smorenburg, Susanne M
Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an ICU team. As the Dutch Healthcare System is organized differently and the on-ward role of hospital pharmacists in Dutch ICU teams is not well established, we conducted an intervention study to investigate whether participation of a hospital pharmacist can also be an effective approach in reducing prescribing errors and related patient harm (preventable ADEs) in this specific setting. A prospective study compared a baseline period with an intervention period. During the intervention period, an ICU hospital pharmacist reviewed medication orders for patients admitted to the ICU, noted issues related to prescribing, formulated recommendations and discussed those during patient review meetings with the attending ICU physicians. Prescribing issues were scored as prescribing errors when consensus was reached between the ICU hospital pharmacist and ICU physicians. During the 8.5-month study period, medication orders for 1,173 patients were reviewed. The ICU hospital pharmacist made a total of 659 recommendations. During the intervention period, the rate of consensus between the ICU hospital pharmacist and ICU physicians was 74%. The incidence of prescribing errors during the intervention period was significantly lower than during the baseline period: 62.5 per 1,000 monitored patient-days versus 190.5 per 1,000 monitored patient-days, respectively (P < 0.001). Preventable ADEs (patient harm, National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention severity categories E and F) were reduced from 4.0 per 1,000 monitored patient-days during the baseline period to 1.0 per 1,000 monitored patient-days during the intervention period (P = 0.25). Per monitored patient-day, the
Duell, Daisy; Koolman, Xander; Portrait, France
Universal access and generous coverage are important goals of the Dutch long-term care (LTC) system. It is a legal requirement that everyone eligible for LTC should be able to receive it. Institutional care (IC) made up for 90% of Dutch LTC spending. To investigate whether access to IC is as equitable as the Dutch government aspires, we explored practice variation in entitlements to IC across Dutch regions. We used a unique dataset that included all individual applications for Dutch LTC in January 2010-December 2013 (N = 3,373,358). This dataset enabled an accurate identification of the need for care. We examined the local variation in the probability of being granted long-term IC and in the intensity of the care granted given that individuals have applied for LTC. We also investigated whether the variation observed was related to differences in the local availability of care facilities. Although our analyses indicated the presence of some practice variation, its magnitude was very small by national and international standards (up to 3%). Only a minor part of the practice variation could be accounted for by local supply differences in care facilities. Overall, we conclude that, unlike many other developed countries, the Dutch system ensured equitable access to long-term IC.
Macintire, D K
To provide optimal care, a veterinarian in a pediatric intensive care situation for a puppy or kitten should be familiar with normal and abnormal vital signs, nursing care and monitoring considerations, and probable diseases. This article is a brief discussion of the pediatric intensive care commonly required to treat puppies or kittens in emergency situations and for canine parvovirus type 2 enteritis.
William N., Jr. Cannon; Jack H. Barger; David P. Worley
Recent research has shown that prompt removal of diseased elms reduces the incidence of Dutch elm disease more than sanitation practice that allows diseased elms to remain standing into the dormant season. The key to prompt removal is repeated surveys to detect diseased elms as early as possible. Intensive sanitation can save more elms and cost less than the more...
Ropper, A H
Neurological intensive care has evolved from the principles of respiratory care established during the poliomyelitis epidemics into a broad field encompassing all of the acute and serious aspects of neurological disease. The economic and political complexities of modern intensive care play a major role in organizing a unit and building a program. Central themes of practice in modern neurological intensive care units include the clinical physiology of intracranial pressure, cerebral blood flow, and brain electrical activity; the systemic abnormalities and medical complications of nervous system diseases; postoperative care; and management of neuromuscular respiratory failure. Treatment of severe stroke and cerebral hemorrhage, brain death, ethical dilemmas of severe neurological illnesses, and the neurological features of critically ill medical patients are also becoming neurological intensive care pursuits. The "neuro-intensivist" is trained to defragment medical care by combining knowledge of neurological diseases with the techniques of intensive care. Future directions include the clinical implementation of brain resuscitation and brain-sparing therapies, sophisticated monitoring of electrophysiological and intracranial physiological indices, and further understanding of the dysfunction of other organs that follows brain and nerve failure.
... Common safety and health topics: Bloodborne Pathogens Working Space Slips/Trips/Falls Latex Allergy Equipment Hazards Workplace ... or Body Substance Isolation . Back to Top Working Space Potential Hazard Intensive care units (ICU's), particularly neonatal ...
The effect of the TIM program (Transfer ICU Medication reconciliation) on medication transfer errors in two Dutch intensive care units: design of a prospective 8-month observational study with a before and after period.
Bosma, Bertha Elizabeth; Meuwese, Edmé; Tan, Siok Swan; van Bommel, Jasper; Melief, Piet Herman Gerard Jan; Hunfeld, Nicole Geertruida Maria; van den Bemt, Patricia Maria Lucia Adriana
The transfer of patients to and from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is prone to medication errors. The aim of the present study is to determine whether the number of medication errors at ICU admission and discharge and the associated potential harm and costs are reduced by using the Transfer ICU and Medication reconciliation (TIM) program. This prospective 8-month observational study with a pre- and post-design will assess the effects of the TIM program compared with usual care in two Dutch hospitals. Patients will be included if they are using at least one drug before hospital admission and will stay in the ICU for at least 24 h. They are excluded if they are transferred to another hospital, admitted and discharged in the same weekend or unable to communicate in Dutch or English. In the TIM program, a clinical pharmacist reconciles patient's medication history within 24 h after ICU admission, resulting in a "best possible" medication history and presents it to the ICU doctor. At ICU discharge the clinical pharmacist reconciles the prescribed ICU medication and the medication history with the ICU doctor, resulting in an ICU discharge medication list with medication prescription recommendations for the general ward doctor. Primary outcome measures are the proportions of patients with one or more medication transfer errors 24 h after ICU admission and 24 h after ICU discharge. Secondary outcome measures are the proportion of patients with potential adverse drug events, the severity of potential adverse drug events and the associated costs. For the primary outcome relative risks and 95% confidence intervals will be calculated. Strengths of this study are the tailor-made design of the TIM program and two participating hospitals. This study also has some limitations: A potential selection bias since this program is not performed during the weekends, collecting of potential rather than actual adverse drug events and finally a relatively short study period. Nevertheless
Background Availability of a patient data management system (PDMS) has created the opportunity to develop trigger-based electronic surveillance systems (ESSs). The aim was to evaluate a semi-automated trigger-based ESS for the detection of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) in the intensive care. Methods Prospective comparison of surveillance was based on a semi-automated ESS with and without trigger. Components of the VAP/CLABSI definition served as triggers. These included the use of VAP/CLABSI-related antibiotics, the presence of mechanical ventilation or an intravenous central line, and the presence of specific clinical symptoms. Triggers were automatically fired by the PDMS. Chest X-rays and microbiology culture results were checked only on patient days with a positive trigger signal from the ESS. In traditional screening, no triggers were used; therefore, chest X-rays and culture results had to be screened for all patient days of all included patients. Patients with pneumonia at admission were excluded. Results A total of 553 patients were screened for VAP and CLABSI. The incidence of VAP was 3.3/1,000 ventilation days (13 VAP/3,927 mechanical ventilation days), and the incidence of CLABSI was 1.7/1,000 central line days (24 CLABSI/13.887 central line days). For VAP, the trigger-based screening had a sensitivity of 92.3%, a specificity of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 99.8% compared to traditional screening of all patients. For CLABSI, sensitivity was 91.3%, specificity 100%, and negative predictive value 99.6%. Conclusions Pre-selection of patients to be checked for signs and symptoms of VAP and CLABSI by a computer-generated automated trigger system was time saving but slightly less accurate than conventional surveillance. However, this after-the-fact surveillance was mainly designed as a quality indicator over time rather than for precise determination of infection rates. Therefore
Restau, Jame; Green, Pamela
Most patients who receive terminal care in the intensive care setting die after withdrawing or limiting of life-sustaining measures provided in the intensive care setting. The integration of palliative care into the intensive care unit (ICU) provides care, comfort, and planning for patients, families, and the medical staff to help decrease the emotional, spiritual, and psychological stress of a patient's death. Quality measures for palliative care in the ICU are discussed along with case studies to demonstrate how this integration is beneficial for a patient and family. Integrating palliative care into the ICU is also examined in regards to the complex adaptive system.
Vliet, M. V.; Kivits, T.; Broers, H. P.; Beeltje, H.; Griffioen, J.
Dutch groundwater is heavily affected by nutrient loads from agricultural origin. The use of antibiotics is also widespread in Dutch farming practice, 200.000 kg active substance over 1.839.000 ha of agricultural land. National measures were established to reduce the applications. Spreading of manure over farmlands is assumed to be the main pathway for the leaching of antibiotics to groundwater, but actual numbers are lacking. We studied the occurrence of veterinary antibiotics in groundwater in two areas with intensive livestock farming, sampling existing multi-level wells that were previously age dated using tritium-helium. Wells were selected based on the following criteria: the uppermost screen is situated just below the average groundwater level, which is not deeper than 3 meters, the well is in an agricultural field where rainwater infiltrates avoiding areas adjacent to ditches or streams, the groundwater quality is known for several years and the age of the extracted water is known to be young (<25 yrs.). Twenty-two antibiotics used in in intensive livestock farming were analyzed belonging to the following groups: tetracyclines, sulfonamides, diaminopyrimidines, β-lactams, macrolides, lincosamides, quinolones and in addition nitrofurans and chloramphenicol. The samples were analyzed for antibiotics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry preceded by solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB cartridge). Five out of 22 antibiotics were detected: sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin, chloramphenicol in concentration ranges of 0.2 to 18 ng/l. Sulfamethazine was most frequently found, and shows a continuous concentration-depth profile in 3 out of 4 multi-level wells. Sulfonamides were found in groundwater up to 20 m. depth and in water aged between 1 and 25 years old. The study shows that sulfonamides are omnipresent in groundwater up to 25 years old, which corresponds with the known history of the use of antibiotics in veterinary practice.
Paquette, Erin Talati; Kolaitis, Irini N
Caring for a child in a pediatric intensive care unit is emotionally and physically challenging and often leads to conflict. Skilled mediators may not always be available to aid in conflict resolution. Careproviders at all levels of training are responsible for managing difficult conversations with families and can often prevent escalation of conflict. Bioethics mediators have acknowledged the important contribution of mediation training in improving clinicians' skills in conflict management. Familiarizing careproviders with basic mediation techniques is an important step towards preventing escalation of conflict. While training in effective communication is crucial, a sense of fairness and justice that may only come with the introduction of a skilled, neutral third party is equally important. For intense conflict, we advocate for early recognition, comfort, and preparedness through training of clinicians in de-escalation and optimal communication, along with the use of more formally trained third-party mediators, as required.
Ehteshami, Asghar; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam; Kashefi, Parviz
Introduction: Today, intensive care needs to be increased with a prospect of an aging population and socioeconomic factors influencing health intervention, but there are some problems in the intensive care environments, it is essential to resolve. The intensive Care information system has the potential to solve many of ICU problems. The objective of the review was to establish the impact of intensive care information systems on the practitioners practice, patient outcomes and ICU performance. Methods: Scientific databases and electronic journal citations was searched to identify articles that discussed the impacts of intensive care information system on the practices, patient outcomes and ICU performance. A total of 22 articles discussing ICIS outcomes was included in this study from 609 articles initially obtained from the searches. Results: Pooling data across studies, we found that the median impact of ICIS on information management was 48.7%. The median impact of ICIS on user’ outcomes was 36.4%, impact on saving tips by 24%, clinical decision support by a mean of 22.7%, clinical outcomes improved by a mean of 18.6%, and researches improved by 18%. Conclusion: The functionalities of ICIS are growing day by day and new functionalities are available with every major release. Better adoption of ICIS by the intensive care environments emphasizes the opportunity of better intensive care services through patient oriented intensive care clinical information systems. There is an immense need for developing guidelines for standardizing ICIS to to maximize the power of ICISs and to integrate with HISs. This will enable intensivists to use the systems in a more meaningful way for better patient care. This study provides a better understanding and greater insight into the effectiveness of ICIS in improving patient care and reducing health care expenses. PMID:24167389
de Heer, G; Kluge, S
Communication plays a crucial role in the intensive care unit. Posttraumatic stress syndromes develop in a significant number of patients and their relatives after being in an intensive care unit. The syndromes may persist for several years. Regular open and empathic communication with patients and family members reduces the frequency and severity of the disease. Among the physicians and nurses in the intensive care unit, there is a high prevalence of burnout syndrome. The precipitating factors are mostly conflicts within the working staff, work overload and end-of-life situations. Working team communication reduces the rate of exhaustion syndromes. Rounds of discussions among the work groups are the basis for a healthy team structure. Inadequate communication, e.g., during emergencies or shift change, endangers the safety of patients and in the worst case, results in treatment mistakes. Measures for improved communication in the intensive care unit should always be implemented.
Within health care, market forces increasingly determine what services have economic value. For nursing to survive this economic onslaught, nurses must clarify their values and roles. While nurses working in intensive care develop useful technical skills and normally work within a constructive multi-disciplinary team framework, they have a potentially unique contribution to care, focusing on the patient as a whole person rather than intervening to solve a problem. The need for both physiological and psychological care creates a need for holistic values, best achieved through humanistic perspectives. Humanistic nursing places patients as people at the centre of nursing care, as illustrated by the limitations of reality orientation compared with the potentials of validation therapy. Intensive care nurses asserting and developing such patient-centred roles offer a valuable way forward for nursing to develop into the 21st century.
Purchasers will increasingly expect clinical services in the NHS internal market to provide objective measures of their benefits and cost effectiveness in order to maintain or develop current funding levels. There is limited scientific evidence to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of intensive care services in terms of mortality/morbidity. Intensive care is a high-cost service and studies of cost-effectiveness need to take account of case-mix variations, differences in admission and discharge policies, and other differences between units. Decisions over development or rationalisation of intensive care services should be based on proper outcome studies of well defined patient groups. The purchasing function itself requires development in order to support effective contracting.
Rourou, Amina; Singer, Elly; Bekkema, Nienke; De Haan, Dorian
In this paper we discuss a study of cultural perspectives on peer conflicts in multicultural child care centres. On the level of child behaviour we did not find differences between native Dutch. Moroccan-Dutch and Antillean-Dutch children with regard to occurrence, duration and actions to solve peer conflicts. On the level of mother' opinions…
Background Insight into the frequency and seriousness of potentially unsafe situations may be the first step towards improving patient safety. Most patient safety attention has been paid to patient safety in hospitals. However, in many countries, patients receive most of their healthcare in primary care settings. There is little concrete information about patient safety in primary care in the Netherlands. The overall aim of this study was to provide insight into the current patient safety issues in Dutch general practices, out-of-hours primary care centres, general dental practices, midwifery practices, and allied healthcare practices. The objectives of this study are: to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients; to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals; and to provide insight into patient safety management in primary care practices. Design and methods The study consists of three parts: a retrospective patient record study of 1,000 records per practice type was conducted to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients (objective one); a prospective component concerns an incident-reporting study in each of the participating practices, during two successive weeks, to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals (objective two); to provide insight into patient safety management in Dutch primary care practices (objective three), we surveyed organizational and cultural items relating to patient safety. We analysed the incidents found in the retrospective patient record study and the prospective incident-reporting study by type of incident, causes (Eindhoven Classification Model), actual harm (severity-of-outcome domain of the International Taxonomy of Medical Errors in Primary Care), and probability of severe harm or death. Discussion
A high amount of recently published articles and reviews have already focused on early mobilisation in intensive care medicine. However, in the clinical setting the problem of its practicability remains as each professional group in the mobility team has its own expectations concerning the interventions made by physiotherapy. Even though there are as yet no standard operation procedures (SOP), there do exist distinctive mobilisation concepts that are well implemented in certain intensive care units (http://www.fruehmobilisierung.de/Fruehmobilisierung/Algorithmen.html). Due to these facts and the urgent need for SOPs this article presents the physiotherapeutic concept for the treatment of patients in the intensive care unit which has been developed by the author: First the patients' respiratory and motor functions have to be established in order to classify the patients and allocate them to their appropriate group (one out of three) according to their capacities; additionally, the patients are analysed by checking their so-called "surrounding conditions". Following these criteria a therapy regime is developed and patients are treated accordingly. By constant monitoring and re-evaluation of the treatment in accordance with the functions of the patient a dynamic system evolves. "Keep it simple" is one of the key features of that physiotherapeutic concept. Thus, a manual for the classification and the physiotherapeutic treatment of an intensive care patient was developed. In this article it is demonstrated how this concept can be implemented in the daily routine of an intensive care unit. Physiotherapy in intensive care medicine has proven to play an important role in the patients' early rehabilitation if the therapeutic interventions are well adjusted to the needs of the patients. A team of nursing staff, physiotherapists and medical doctors from the core facility for medical intensive care and emergency medicine at the medical university of Innsbruck developed the
Lewandowski, Klaus; Lewandowski, Monika
Nearly 20% of all patients admitted to an intensive-care unit are obese. Their excess weight puts them at risk for several problems and complications during their intensive-care unit stay. Especially, pulmonary problems need particular attention, and comprehensive knowledge of the specific pathophysiologic changes of the respiratory system is important. Lung protective ventilation strategies, supplemented by lung-recruiting manoeuvres, may be feasible in critically ill obese patients with lung injury. Careful positioning of the obese is essential to optimise ventilation and facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation. Optimal hypocaloric nutrition with a high proportion of proteins is advised to control hyperglycaemia. Because mortality in obese patients is similar to or lower than in non-obese ones, it is conceivable that obesity has a protective effect in the critically ill.
Flohé, S; Lendemans, S; Schmitz, D; Waydhas, C
This manuscript gives a review about important studies addressing problems in intensive care medicine that have been published in journals focussing on critical care medicine and surgery in 2005. Only clinical studies are included in this review, mostly meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials and a few important or interesting observational studies. In addition to describing major results a critical appraisal of each study is undertaken, which, however, is neither comprehensive nor complete. It is merely intended to address some important aspects for the reader who should be stimulated to go deeper into one or the other topic or study. The publication of the new CPR-guidelines of the American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council as well as the newly developed SAPS III score to predict intensive care unit outcome are among the outstanding topics. Several randomized trials and meta-analyses deal with aspects of drug therapy of septic patients. Some important and relevant findings have been reported with respect to the efficiency of the open-lung concept, non-invasive ventilation, the use of heat and moisture exchanger filters compared to active humidifiers and of closed systems for endotracheal suctioning. The role of immuno-nutrition in adults and children as well as of early enteral nutrition can be defined more clearly. Whether corticosteroids should be used in the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury can be definitely answered now. There are some new insights reported into the management of patients infected or contaminated with MRSA in the intensive care unit. Last but not least an impressive study shows that not only the newest therapeutic developments but the stringent use of the already known treatment options may result in dramatic improvements of patient outcome.
Porter, D; Johnston, A McD; Henning, J
Patients who require critical care for internal medical conditions make up a small but significant proportion of those requiring evacuation to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine in Birmingham, UK. Infectious, autoimmune, neurologic, cardiac and respiratory conditions are all represented. Conditions which preclude military service and which one would not necessarily expect to see in a military hospital are still prevalent in civilian contractors and host nation personnel. With some 250,000 British military personnel based in the UK and overseas individual presentations of rare conditions occur regularly. This article discusses the ITU management of some key conditions. Whilst trauma makes up the majority of the workload in a field Intensive Care Unit, medical admissions happen not infrequently. This article describes some of the most common medical causes for admission and treatment is considered.
Nierhaus, A; de Heer, G; Kluge, S
Demographic change and increasing complexity are among the reasons for high-tech critical care playing a major and increasing role in today's hospitals. At the same time, intensive care is one of the most cost-intensive departments in the hospital. To guarantee high-quality care, close cooperation of specialised intensive care staff with specialists of all other medical areas is essential. A network of the intensive care units within the hospital may lead to synergistic effects concerning quality of care, simultaneously optimizing the use of human and technical resources. Notwithstanding any organisational concepts, development and maintenance of the highest possible quality of care should be of overriding importance.
Eijssen, Lars; Evelo, Chris; Kok, Ruben; Mons, Barend; Hooft, Rob
We describe the Data programme of the Dutch Techcentre for Life Sciences (DTL, www.dtls.nl). DTL is a new national organisation in scientific research that facilitates life scientists with technologies and technological expertise in an era where new projects often are data-intensive, multi-disciplinary, and multi-site. It is run as a lean not-for-profit organisation with research organisations (both academic and industrial) as paying members. The small staff of the organisation undertakes a variety of tasks that are necessary to perform or support modern academic research, but that are not easily undertaken in a purely academic setting. DTL Data takes care of such tasks related to data stewardship, facilitating exchange of knowledge and expertise, and brokering access to e-infrastructure. DTL also represents the Netherlands in ELIXIR, the European infrastructure for life science data. The organisation is still being fine-tuned and this will continue over time, as it is crucial for this kind of organisation to adapt to a constantly changing environment. However, already being underway for several years, our experiences can benefit researchers in other fields or other countries setting up similar initiatives.
Eijssen, Lars; Evelo, Chris; Kok, Ruben; Mons, Barend; Hooft, Rob
We describe the Data programme of the Dutch Techcentre for Life Sciences (DTL, www.dtls.nl). DTL is a new national organisation in scientific research that facilitates life scientists with technologies and technological expertise in an era where new projects often are data-intensive, multi-disciplinary, and multi-site. It is run as a lean not-for-profit organisation with research organisations (both academic and industrial) as paying members. The small staff of the organisation undertakes a variety of tasks that are necessary to perform or support modern academic research, but that are not easily undertaken in a purely academic setting. DTL Data takes care of such tasks related to data stewardship, facilitating exchange of knowledge and expertise, and brokering access to e-infrastructure. DTL also represents the Netherlands in ELIXIR, the European infrastructure for life science data. The organisation is still being fine-tuned and this will continue over time, as it is crucial for this kind of organisation to adapt to a constantly changing environment. However, already being underway for several years, our experiences can benefit researchers in other fields or other countries setting up similar initiatives. PMID:26913186
Freeman, Victoria A.; Walsh, Joan; Rudolf, Matthew; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell
Context: Although critical access hospitals (CAHs) have limitations on number of acute care beds and average length of stay, some of them provide intensive care unit (ICU) services. Purpose: To describe the facilities, equipment, and staffing used by CAHs for intensive care, the types of patients receiving ICU care, and the perceived impact of…
Freeman, Victoria A.; Walsh, Joan; Rudolf, Matthew; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell
Context: Although critical access hospitals (CAHs) have limitations on number of acute care beds and average length of stay, some of them provide intensive care unit (ICU) services. Purpose: To describe the facilities, equipment, and staffing used by CAHs for intensive care, the types of patients receiving ICU care, and the perceived impact of…
Madden, Kevin; Wolfe, Joanne; Collura, Christopher
The chronicity of illness that afflicts children in Pediatric Palliative Care and the medical technology that has improved their lifespan and quality of life make prognostication extremely difficult. The uncertainty of prognostication and the available medical technologies make both the neonatal intensive care unit and the pediatric intensive care unit locations where many children will receive Pediatric Palliative Care. Health care providers in the neonatal intensive care unit and pediatric intensive care unit should integrate fundamental Pediatric Palliative Care principles into their everyday practice.
Oerlemans, Anke J M; Wollersheim, Hub; van Sluisveld, Nelleke; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Dekkers, Wim J M; Zegers, Marieke
Internationally, there is no consensus on how to best deal with admission requests in cases of full ICU bed occupancy. Knowledge about the degree of dissension and insight into the reasons for this dissension is lacking. Information about the opinion of ICU physicians can be used to improve decision-making regarding allocation of ICU resources. The aim of this study was to: Assess which factors play a role in the decision-making process regarding the admission of ICU patients; Assess the adherence to a Dutch guideline pertaining to rationing of ICU resources; Investigate factors influencing the adherence to this guideline. In March 2013, an online questionnaire was sent to all ICU physician members (n = 761, in 90 hospitals) of the Dutch Society for Intensive Care. 166 physicians (21.8 %) working in 64 different Dutch hospitals (71.1 %) completed the questionnaire. Factors associated with a patient's physical condition and quality of life were generally considered most important in admission decisions. Scenario-based adherence to the Dutch guideline "Admission request in case of full ICU bed occupancy" was found to be low (adherence rate 50.0 %). There were two main reasons for this poor compliance: unfamiliarity with the guideline and disagreement with the fundamental approach underlying the guideline. Dutch ICU physicians disagree about how to deal with admission requests in cases of full ICU bed occupancy. The results of this study contribute to the discussion about the fundamental principles regarding admission of ICU patients in case of full bed occupancy.
Rattray, Janice E; Hull, Alastair M
This paper is a report of a literature review to identify (a) the prevalence of emotional and psychological problems after intensive care, (b) associated factors and (c) interventions that might improve this aspect of recovery. Being a patient in intensive care has been linked to both short- and long-term emotional and psychological consequences. The literature search was conducted during 2006. Relevant journals and databases were searched, i.e. Medline and CINAHL, between the years 1995 and 2006. The search terms were 'anxiety', 'depression', posttraumatic stress', 'posttraumatic stress disorder' and 'intensive care'. Fifteen papers were reviewed representing research studies of anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress, and seven that represented intensive care follow-up clinics and patient diaries. Being in intensive care can result in significant emotional and psychological problems for a number of patients. For the majority of patients, symptoms of distress will decrease over time but for a number these will endure for some years. Current evidence indicates that emotional problems after intensive care are related to both subjective and objective indicators of a patient's intensive care experience. Evidence suggests some benefit in an early rehabilitation programme, daily sedation withdrawal and the use of patient diaries. However, additional research is required to support such findings. Our understanding of the consequences of intensive care is improving. Psychological care for intensive care patients has lagged behind care for physical problems. We now need to focus on developing and evaluating appropriate interventions to improve psychological outcome in this patient group.
Nabitz, Udo; van Randeraad-van der Zee, Carlijn; Kok, Ineke; van Bon-Martens, Marja; Serverens, Peter
About 25 years ago, concept mapping was introduced in the Netherlands and applied in different fields. A collection of concept mapping projects conducted in the Netherlands was identified, in part in the archive of the Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction (Trimbos Institute). Some of the 90 identified projects are internationally published. The 90 concept mapping projects reflect the changes in mental health care and can be grouped into 5-year periods and into five typologies. The studies range from conceptualizing the problems of the homeless to the specification of quality indicators for treatment programs for patients with cystic fibrosis. The number of concept mapping projects has varied over time. Growth has been considerable in the last 5 years compared to the previous 5 years. Three case studies are described in detail with 12 characteristics and graphical representations. Concept mapping aligns well with the typical Dutch approach of the "Poldermodel." A broad introduction of concept mapping in European countries in cooperation with other countries, such as the United States and Canada, would strengthen the empirical basis for applying this approach in health care policy, quality, and clinical work.
Orellana-San Martín, C; Su, H; Bustamante-Durán, D; Velásquez-Pagoaga, L
Tetanus is medical disease with a high mortality rate, even in high tech centres and in Intensive Care Units (ICU). AIMS. To analyse the appearance and evolution of tetanus in the ICU at our hospital. This retrospective descriptive study, made up of 26 patients admitted to hospital with tetanus in the ICU at the Hospital Escuela during the period between January 1995 and December 2001, examined the clinico epidemiological of the disease and the clinical evolution of the patients. Of the cases reviewed (n= 26), 34.6% were females and 65.4% males. The main clinical manifestations were: trismus (88%), dysphagia (77%) and cervical rigidity (69%). The incubation period varies from 3 days to 4 weeks. Most cases resulted from cut wounds (54%), to a lesser extent from excoriations (15%), and one case was associated with gynaecological surgery. The entry sites of the injuries were mainly on the upper (42%) and lower limbs (34.6%). Three patients had been vaccinated and 17 had not. Six cases were not recorded. The chief complications that developed were: dysautonomia (73%) and pneumonia (42%). The mortality rate was 69%. In spite of having suitable equipment available with which to treat tetanus, mortality is high, mainly because of dysautonomias. Prevention is therefore the most effective way of controlling this disease
Biley, F C; Millar, B J; Wilson, A M
In order to obtain a contemporary view of the visiting hour regimes in intensive care units (ICUs) in the UK, a national telephone survey was performed. 122 geographically representative units were contacted, representing 42% of the total number of units in the UK. 107 units gave consent to participate in the study, of which 66 units allowed visiting at any time of the day. Many of these units however restricted the number or kind of visitors and only 19% could be regarded as having 'true' open visiting, that is, visiting at any time of the day for any age of child, any member of the family, or friends. Several of the topics arising from the study are discussed in more detail, for example the childhood risk of infection and/or psychological trauma and the needs of the family. Based on the available research evidence, a more liberated view of hospital visiting is necessary, with relaxation of what often amount to restricted visiting regimes. Several recommendations for further research are made.
Harris, C C; McNicholas, J J K
Our recent experience of paediatric critical care during UK military operations in Afghanistan is discussed alongside consideration of the background to the paediatric critical care service on deployment. We describe the intensive care unit's capabilities, details of recent paediatric critical care admissions during July to September 2008 and some of the ethical issues arising. Some desirable future developments will be suggested.
da Silva, Rafael Celestino; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção; Apostolidis, Thémistoklis; Brandão, Marcos Antônio Gomes
to propose a conceptual framework for clinical nursing care in intensive care. descriptive and qualitative field research, carried out with 21 nurses from an intensive care unit of a federal public hospital. We conducted semi-structured interviews and thematic and lexical content analysis, supported by Alceste software. the characteristics of clinical intensive care emerge from the specialized knowledge of the interaction, the work context, types of patients and nurses characteristic of the intensive care and care frameworks. the conceptual framework of the clinic's intensive care articulates elements characteristic of the dynamics of this scenario: objective elements regarding technology and attention to equipment and subjective elements related to human interaction, specific of nursing care, countering criticism based on dehumanization.
Hasse, Gwendolyn L
The purpose of this study was to discover unique aspects of caring for adult trauma intensive care unit patients with respect to implementing patient-centered care. The concept of patient-centered care has been discussed since 2000, but the actual implementation is currently becoming the focus of health care. The Institute of Medicine defined patient-centered care as "providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values, and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions" in the 2001 Crossing the Quality Chasm report. Discussion and documentation of patient centered-care of the intensive care trauma patient population are limited and yield no results for publication search. This article explores the concept of delivering patient-centered care specifically in a trauma adult intensive care unit.
Smeenk, Anke D J; ten Have, Henk A M J
The Dutch system of obstetric care is often recommended for midwife-attended births, the high number of home deliveries, and the low rate of intervention during pregnancy and labour. In this contribution, the question is addressed whether processes of medicalization can be demonstrated in the Dutch midwife practice. Medicalization of pregnancy and childbirth is often criticized because it creates dependency on the medical system and infringement of the autonomy of pregnant women. It is concluded that medicalization is present in the practice of Dutch independent midwives, however it is less clear and outspoken than in hospital policies.
van den Berg, Michael J; Kringos, Dionne S; Marks, Lisanne K; Klazinga, Niek S
In 2006, the first edition of a monitoring tool for the performance of the Dutch health care system was released: the Dutch Health Care Performance Report (DHCPR). The Netherlands was among the first countries in the world developing such a comprehensive tool for reporting performance on quality, access, and affordability of health care. The tool contains 125 performance indicators; the choice for specific indicators resulted from a dialogue between researchers and policy makers. In the 'policy cycle', the DHCPR can rationally be placed between evaluation (accountability) and agenda-setting (for strategic decision making). In this paper, we reflect on important lessons learned after seven years of health care system performance assessment. These lessons entail the importance of a good conceptual framework for health system performance assessment, the importance of repeated measurement, the strength of combining multiple perspectives (e.g., patient, professional, objective, subjective) on the same issue, the importance of a central role for the patients' perspective in performance assessment, how to deal with the absence of data in relevant domains, the value of international benchmarking and the continuous exchange between researchers and policy makers.
In 2006, the first edition of a monitoring tool for the performance of the Dutch health care system was released: the Dutch Health Care Performance Report (DHCPR). The Netherlands was among the first countries in the world developing such a comprehensive tool for reporting performance on quality, access, and affordability of health care. The tool contains 125 performance indicators; the choice for specific indicators resulted from a dialogue between researchers and policy makers. In the ‘policy cycle’, the DHCPR can rationally be placed between evaluation (accountability) and agenda-setting (for strategic decision making). In this paper, we reflect on important lessons learned after seven years of health care system performance assessment. These lessons entail the importance of a good conceptual framework for health system performance assessment, the importance of repeated measurement, the strength of combining multiple perspectives (e.g., patient, professional, objective, subjective) on the same issue, the importance of a central role for the patients’ perspective in performance assessment, how to deal with the absence of data in relevant domains, the value of international benchmarking and the continuous exchange between researchers and policy makers. PMID:24405849
Blanch, L; Annane, D; Antonelli, M; Chiche, J D; Cuñat, J; Girard, T D; Jiménez, E J; Quintel, M; Ugarte, S; Mancebo, J
Intensive care medical training, whether as a primary specialty or as secondary add-on training, should include key competences to ensure a uniform standard of care, and the number of intensive care physicians needs to increase to keep pace with the growing and anticipated need. The organisation of intensive care in multiple specialty or central units is heterogeneous and evolving, but appropriate early treatment and access to a trained intensivist should be assured at all times, and intensivists should play a pivotal role in ensuring communication and high-quality care across hospital departments. Structures now exist to support clinical research in intensive care medicine, which should become part of routine patient management. However, more translational research is urgently needed to identify areas that show clinical promise and to apply research principles to the real-life clinical setting. Likewise, electronic networks can be used to share expertise and support research. Individuals, physicians and policy makers need to allow for individual choices and priorities in the management of critically ill patients while remaining within the limits of economic reality. Professional scientific societies play a pivotal role in supporting the establishment of a defined minimum level of intensive health care and in ensuring standardised levels of training and patient care by promoting interaction between physicians and policy makers. The perception of intensive care medicine among the general public could be improved by concerted efforts to increase awareness of the services provided and of the successes achieved.
Brinkmann, A; Braun, J P; Riessen, R; Dubb, R; Kaltwasser, A; Bingold, T M
Intensive care medicine (ICM) is characterized by a high degree of complexity and requires intense communication and collaboration on interdisciplinary and multiprofessional levels. In order to achieve good quality of care in this environment and to prevent errors, a proactive quality and error management as well as a structured quality assurance system are essential. Since the early 1990s, German intensive care societies have developed concepts for quality management and assurance in ICM. In 2006, intensive care networks were founded in different states to support the implementation of evidence-based knowledge into clinical routine and to improve medical outcome, efficacy, and efficiency in ICM. Current instruments and concepts of quality assurance in German ICM include core intensive care data from the data registry DIVI REVERSI, quality indicators, peer review in intensive care, IQM peer review, and various certification processes. The first version of German ICM quality indicators was published in 2010 by an interdisciplinary and interprofessional expert commission. Key figures, indicators, and national benchmarks are intended to describe the quality of structures, processes, and outcomes in intensive care. Many of the quality assurance tools have proved to be useful in clinical practice, but nationwide implementation still can be improved.
Iglesias-Posadilla, D; Gómez-Marcos, V; Hernández-Tejedor, A
Technological advances have played a key role over the last century in the development of humankind. Critical Care Medicine is one of the greatest examples of this revolution. Smartphones with multiple sensors constitute another step forward, and have led to the development of apps for use by both professionals and patients. We discuss their main medical applications in the field of Critical Care Medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Civetta, J M
In the area of end-of-life bioethical issues, patients, families, and health care providers do not understand basic principles, often leading to anguish, guilt, and anger. Providers lack communication skills, concepts, and practical bedside information. Linking societal values of the sanctity of life and quality of life with medical goals of preservation of life and alleviation of suffering respectively provides an essential structure. Medical care focuses on cure when possible but when the patient is dying, the focus switches to caring for patients and their families. Clinicians need to learn how to balance the benefits and burdens of medications and treatments, control symptoms, and orchestrate withdrawal of treatment. Finally, all need to learn more about the dying process to benefit society, their own families, and themselves.
Simone, Shari; McComiskey, Carmel A; Andersen, Brooke
As demand for nurse practitioners in all types of intensive care units continues to increase, ensuring successful integration of these nurses into adult and pediatric general and specialty intensive care units poses several challenges. Adding nurse practitioners requires strategic planning to define critical aspects of the care delivery model before the practitioners are hired, develop a comprehensive program for integrating and training these nurses, and create a plan for implementing the program. Key strategies to ensure successful integration include defining and implementing the role of nurse practitioners, providing options for orientation, and supporting and training novice nurse practitioners. Understanding the importance of appropriate role utilization, the depth of knowledge and skill expected of nurse practitioners working in intensive care units, the need for a comprehensive training program, and a commitment to continued professional development beyond orientation are necessary to fully realize the contributions of these nurses in critical care. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Hasin, Tal; Eldor, Roy; Hammerman, Haim
Treatment in the intensive cardiac care unit (ICCU) enables rigorous control of vital parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, oxygen saturation, serum electrolyte levels, urine output and many others. The importance of controlling the metabolic status of the acute cardiac patient and specifically the level of serum glucose was recently put in focus but is still underscored. This review aims to explain the rationale for providing intensive control of serum glucose levels in the ICCU, especially using intensive insulin therapy and summarizes the available clinical evidence suggesting its effectiveness.
Tucker, J.; Tarnow-Mordi, W.; Gould, C.; Parry, G.; Marlow, N.
A census of activity and staff levels in 1996 was conducted in UK neonatal units and achieved a 100% response from 246 units. Among the 186 neonatal intensive care units, the median (interquartile range) number of total cots was 18(14−22); level 1 intensive care cots 4(2−6); total admissions 318(262−405); very low birthweight admissions 40(28−68); and the number ventilated or given CPAP by endotracheal tube 52(32−83). Forty six (25%) intensive care units lacked the recommended minimum of one consultant with prime responsibility for neonatal medicine. As a conservative estimate 79% of intensive care units had a lower nursing provision than that recommended in previously published guidelines. There was substantial variation in activity and staffing levels among units. PMID:10212089
van Leeuwen, Karen M; Bosmans, Judith E; Jansen, Aaltje Pd; Rand, Stacey E; Towers, Ann-Marie; Smith, Nick; Razik, Kamilla; Trukeschitz, Birgit; van Tulder, Maurits W; van der Horst, Henriette E; Ostelo, Raymond W
The Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit was developed to measure outcomes of social care in England. In this study, we translated the four level self-completion version (SCT-4) of the ASCOT for use in the Netherlands and performed a cross-cultural validation. The ASCOT SCT-4 was translated into Dutch following international guidelines, including two forward and back translations. The resulting version was pilot tested among frail older adults using think-aloud interviews. Furthermore, using a subsample of the Dutch ACT-study, we investigated test-retest reliability and construct validity and compared response distributions with data from a comparable English study. The pilot tests showed that translated items were in general understood as intended, that most items were reliable, and that the response distributions of the Dutch translation and associations with other measures were comparable to the original English version. Based on the results of the pilot tests, some small modifications and a revision of the Dignity items were proposed for the final translation, which were approved by the ASCOT development team. The complete original English version and the final Dutch translation can be obtained after registration on the ASCOT website ( http://www.pssru.ac.uk/ascot ). This study provides preliminary evidence that the Dutch translation of the ASCOT is valid, reliable and comparable to the original English version. We recommend further research to confirm the validity of the modified Dutch ASCOT translation.
Schuster, M; Ferner, M; Bodenstein, M; Laufenberg-Feldmann, R
Involvement of palliative care is so far not common practice for critically ill patients on surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in Germany. The objectives of palliative care concepts are improvement of patient quality of life by relief of disease-related symptoms using an interdisciplinary approach and support of patients and their relatives considering their current physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs. The need for palliative care can be identified via defined screening criteria. Integration of palliative care can either be realized using a consultative model which focusses on involvement of palliative care consultants or an integrative model which embeds palliative care principles into the routine daily practice by the ICU team. Early integration of palliative care in terms of advance care planning (ACP) can lead to an increase in goals of care discussions and quality of life as well as a decrease of mortality and length of stay on the ICU. Moreover, stress reactions of relatives and ICU staff can be reduced and higher satisfaction with therapy can be achieved. The core of goal of care discussions is professional and well-structured communication between patients, relatives and staff. Consideration of palliative care principles by model-based integration into ICU practice can improve complex intensive care courses of disease in a productive but dignified way without neglecting curative attempts.
Kipnis, Eric; Ramsingh, Davinder; Bhargava, Maneesh; Dincer, Erhan; Cannesson, Maxime; Broccard, Alain; Vallet, Benoit; Bendjelid, Karim; Thibault, Ronan
In critical care, the monitoring is essential to the daily care of ICU patients, as the optimization of patient's hemodynamic, ventilation, temperature, nutrition, and metabolism is the key to improve patients' survival. Indeed, the decisive endpoint is the supply of oxygen to tissues according to their metabolic needs in order to fuel mitochondrial respiration and, therefore, life. In this sense, both oxygenation and perfusion must be monitored in the implementation of any resuscitation strategy. The emerging concept has been the enhancement of macrocirculation through sequential optimization of heart function and then judging the adequacy of perfusion/oxygenation on specific parameters in a strategy which was aptly coined “goal directed therapy.” On the other hand, the maintenance of normal temperature is critical and should be regularly monitored. Regarding respiratory monitoring of ventilated ICU patients, it includes serial assessment of gas exchange, of respiratory system mechanics, and of patients' readiness for liberation from invasive positive pressure ventilation. Also, the monitoring of nutritional and metabolic care should allow controlling nutrients delivery, adequation between energy needs and delivery, and blood glucose. The present paper will describe the physiological basis, interpretation of, and clinical use of the major endpoints of perfusion/oxygenation adequacy and of temperature, respiratory, nutritional, and metabolic monitorings. PMID:22970356
Jansen, Wim J J; Vissers, Kris C P; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; van Montfort, Guus P W P; Rhebergen, Andre; Loer, Stephan A
In the Netherlands, the quality and availability of palliative care has improved markedly within the last decade. However, many open questions remain concerning the position of palliative care as an insurable product on the Dutch healthcare market. Therefore, we analysed the policies of all private Dutch healthcare insurance companies as well as the public insurance policy for extraordinary medical costs. We studied how and which parts of palliative care were reimbursed in 2007. We observed a huge variability in costs and reimbursement regulations reflecting a rapid turnover of products for palliative care due to various new developments on this specific field of medical care. We conclude that a better definition of the product 'palliative care' is necessary for patients, health care providers and insurance companies.
Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Lemstra, Evelien W; Verhey, Frans R J
The third revision of the Dutch College of General Practitioners' practice guideline 'Dementia' is a major improvement and stimulates the general practitioner by providing concrete advice on stepped care in dementia diagnostics and organizing care management in order to obtain improvement in the quality and realization of dementia care in the primary care setting. However, this practice guideline does not address more effective and efficient dementia care by collaboration between primary and secondary care as it discourages the prescription of cholinesterase inhibitors and recommends limiting further diagnostic procedures to patients in whom a treatable condition is likely. Although, this new practice guideline strengthens the central role of the general practitioner in Dutch dementia care, this role would be further reinforced if general practitioners were to adopt integrated diagnostics of dementia and relevant additional diseases burden as the starting point.
Ho, Jim Q; Nguyen, Christopher D; Lopes, Richard; Ezeji-Okoye, Stephen C; Kuschner, Ware G
Spiritual care is an important component of high-quality health care, especially for critically ill patients and their families. Despite evidence of benefits from spiritual care, physicians and other health-care providers commonly fail to assess and address their patients' spiritual care needs in the intensive care unit (ICU). In addition, it is common that spiritual care resources that can improve both patient outcomes and family member experiences are underutilized. In this review, we provide an overview of spiritual care and its role in the ICU. We review evidence demonstrating the benefits of, and persistent unmet needs for, spiritual care services, as well as the current state of spiritual care delivery in the ICU setting. Furthermore, we outline tools and strategies intensivists and other critical care medicine health-care professionals can employ to support the spiritual well-being of patients and families, with a special focus on chaplaincy services.
Lamping, Antonie J; Raab, Jörg; Kenis, Patrick
This study explores the system of intermediate organizations in Dutch health care as the crucial system to understand health care policy-making in the Netherlands. We argue that the Dutch health care system can be understood as a system consisting of distinct but inter-related policy domains. In this study, we analyze four such policy domains: Finances, quality of care, manpower planning and pharmaceuticals. With the help of network analytic techniques, we describe how this highly differentiated system of >200 intermediate organizations is structured and coordinated and what (policy) consequences can be observed with regard to its particular structure and coordination mechanisms. We further analyze the extent to which this system of intermediate organizations enables participation of stakeholders in policy-making using network visualization tools. The results indicate that coordination between the different policy domains within the health care sector takes place not as one would expect through governmental agencies, but through representative organizations such as the representative organizations of the (general) hospitals, the health care consumers and the employers' association. We further conclude that the system allows as well as denies a large number of potential participants access to the policy-making process. As a consequence, the representation of interests is not necessarily balanced, which in turn affects health care policy. We find that the interests of the Dutch health care consumers are well accommodated with the national umbrella organization NPCF in the lead. However, this is no safeguard for the overall community values of good health care since, for example, the interests of the public health sector are likely to be marginalized.
Barbosa, Vanessa Maziero
Medical and technological advances in neonatology have prompted the initiation and expansion of developmentally supportive services for newborns and have incorporated rehabilitation professionals into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) multidisciplinary team. Availability of therapists specialized in the care of neonates, the roles of…
Barbosa, Vanessa Maziero
Medical and technological advances in neonatology have prompted the initiation and expansion of developmentally supportive services for newborns and have incorporated rehabilitation professionals into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) multidisciplinary team. Availability of therapists specialized in the care of neonates, the roles of…
At St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center in Paterson, New Jersey, implementation of the Relationship-Based Care (RBC) model of care delivery and enculturation of the philosophy of care embodied in Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring (Watson, 2007) improved patient outcomes and supported quality nursing care across the continuum of care in our organization. The ability of staff nurses to create an atmosphere of professional inquiry that places patients and families at the center of practice supported implementation of RBC in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
Koper, Jan F; Bos, Arend F; Janvier, Annie; Verhagen, A A Eduard
This study investigated whether continuous improvements to neonatal care and the legalisation of newborn euthanasia in 2005 had changed end-of-life decisions by Dutch neonatologists. We carried out a retrospective study of foetuses and neonates of more than 22 weeks' gestation that died in the delivery room or in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary referral hospital in the Netherlands, comparing end-of-life decisions and mortality in 2001-2003 and 2008-2010, before and after euthanasia legislation was introduced. In 2008-2010, there were more deaths in the delivery room due to termination of pregnancy than in 2001-2003 (17% versus 29%, p = 0.031), and fewer infants received comfort medication (12% versus 20%, p = 0.078). The main mode of death in the NICU was the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. The number of days that infants lived increased significantly between 2001-2003 (11.5 days) and 2008-2010 (18.4 days, p < 0.006). Most infants received comfort medication, and neuromuscular blocking agents were administered incidentally. Terminations increased after changes in healthcare regulations. Modes of death in the NICU remained similar over 10 years. The increased duration of NICU treatment before dying suggests a more interventionist approach to treatment in 2008-2010. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Häggström, Marie; Bäckström, Britt
Background. Organizing and performing patient transfers in the continuum of care is part of the work of nurses and other staff of a multiprofessional healthcare team. An understanding of discharge practices is needed in order to ultimate patients' transfers from high technological intensive care units (ICU) to general wards. Aim. To describe, as experienced by intensive care and general ward staff, what strategies could be used when organizing patient's care before, during, and after transfer from intensive care. Method. Interviews of 15 participants were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. The results showed that the categories secure, encourage, and collaborate are strategies used in the three phases of the ICU transitional care process. The main category; a safe, interactive rehabilitation process, illustrated how all strategies were characterized by an intention to create and maintain safety during the process. A three-way interaction was described: between staff and patient/families, between team members and involved units, and between patient/family and environment. Discussion/Conclusions. The findings highlight that ICU transitional care implies critical care rehabilitation. Discharge procedures need to be safe and structured and involve collaboration, encouraging support, optimal timing, early mobilization, and a multidiscipline approach. PMID:24782924
Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Bos, Albert P.
The development of paediatric intensive care has contributed to the improved survival of critically ill children. Physical and psychological sequelae and consequences for quality of life (QoL) in survivors might be significant, as has been determined in adult intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Awareness of sequelae due to the original illness and its treatment may result in changes in treatment and support during and after the acute phase. To determine the current knowledge on physical and psychological sequelae and the quality of life in survivors of paediatric intensive care, we undertook a computerised comprehensive search of online databases for studies reporting sequelae in survivors of paediatric intensive care. Studies reporting sequelae in paediatric survivors of cardiothoracic surgery and trauma were excluded, as were studies reporting only mortality. All other studies reporting aspects of physical and psychological sequelae were analysed. Twenty-seven studies consisting of 3,444 survivors met the selection criteria. Distinct physical and psychological sequelae in patients have been determined and seemed to interfere with quality of life. Psychological sequelae in parents seem to be common. Small numbers, methodological limitations and quantitative and qualitative heterogeneity hamper the interpretation of data. We conclude that paediatric intensive care survivors and their parents have physical and psychological sequelae affecting quality of life. Further well-designed prospective studies evaluating sequelae of the original illness and its treatment are warranted. PMID:17823815
Hansen, Lissi; Rosenkranz, Susan J; Mularski, Richard A; Leo, Michael C
Family members' perspectives about satisfaction with care provided in the intensive care unit (ICU) have become an important part of quality assessment and improvement, but national and international differences may exist in care provided and family perspectives about satisfaction with care. The purpose of the research was to understand family members' perspectives regarding overall care of medical patients receiving intensive care. Family members of medical patients who remained 48 hours or more in two adult ICUS at two healthcare institutions in the U.S. Pacific Northwest took part by responding to the Family Satisfaction with Care in the Intensive Care Unit survey. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify major categories and subcategories in their complimentary (positive) or critical (negative) responses to open-ended questions. The number of comments in each category and subcategory was counted. Of 138 responding family members, 106 answered the open-ended questions. The 281 comments were more frequently complimentary (n = 126) than critical (n = 91). Three main categories (competent care, communication, and environment) and nine subcategories were identified. Comments about the subcategory of emotional/interrelational aspects of care occurred most frequently and were more positive than comments about practical aspects of care. Findings were similar to those reported from other countries. Emotional/interrelational aspects of care were integral to family member satisfaction with care provided. Findings suggest that improving communication and decision-making, supporting family members, and caring for family loved ones as a person are important care targets. Initiatives to improve ICU care should include assessments from families and opportunity for qualitative analysis to refine care targets and assess changes.
Cleveland, Lisa M
A systematic review of the literature was conducted to answer the following 2 questions: (a) What are the needs of parents who have infants in the neonatal intensive care unit? (b) What behaviors support parents with an infant in the neonatal intensive care unit? Using the search terms "parents or parenting" and the "neonatal intensive care unit," computer library databases including Medline and CINAHL were searched for qualitative and quantitative studies. Only research published in English between 1998 and 2008 was included in the review. Based on the inclusion criteria, 60 studies were selected. Study contents were analyzed with the 2 research questions in mind. Existing research was organized into 1 of 3 tables based on the question answered. Nineteen articles addressed the first question, 24 addressed the second, and 17 addressed both. Six needs were identified for parents who had an infant in the neonatal intensive care unit: (a) accurate information and inclusion in the infant's care, (b) vigilant watching-over and protecting the infant, (c) contact with the infant, (d) being positively perceived by the nursery staff, (e) individualized care, and (f) a therapeutic relationship with the nursing staff. Four nursing behaviors were identified to assist parents in meeting these needs: (a) emotional support, (b) parent empowerment, (c) a welcoming environment with supportive unit policies, and (d) parent education with an opportunity to practice new skills through guided participation.
Valenta, Jiří; Stach, Zdeněk; Michálek, Pavel
Snakebites by exotic venomous snakes can cause serious or even life-threatening envenoming. In Europe and North America most victims are breeders, with a few snakebites from wild native American rattlesnakes. The envenomed victims may present in organ and/or system failure with muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, circulatory instability, acute kidney injury, severe coagulation disorder, and local disability - compartment syndrome and necrosis. Best managed by close collaboration between clinical toxicology and intensive care, most severe envenomings are managed primarily by intensive care physicians. Due to the low incidence of severe envenoming, the clinical course and correct management of these cases are not intrinsically familiar to most physicians. This review article summarizes the clinical syndromes caused by severe envenoming and the therapeutic options available in the intensive care setting.
Kumaş, Gülşah; Oztunç, Gürsel; Nazan Alparslan, Z
This study was conducted to gain opinions about euthanasia from nurses who work in intensive care units. The research was planned as a descriptive study and conducted with 186 nurses who worked in intensive care units in a university hospital, a public hospital, and a private not-for-profit hospital in Adana, Turkey, and who agreed to complete a questionnaire. Euthanasia is not legal in Turkey. One third (33.9%) of the nurses supported the legalization of euthanasia, whereas 39.8% did not. In some specific circumstances, 44.1% of the nurses thought that euthanasia was being practiced in our country. The most significant finding was that these Turkish intensive care unit nurses did not overwhelmingly support the legalization of euthanasia. Those who did support it were inclined to agree with passive rather than active euthanasia (P = 0.011).
Haloburdo, Esther P.; Thompson, Mary Ann
In the opinions of 11 Dutch nursing students on a study tour of the United States, the U.S. emphasizes technical aspects of nursing and medical over nursing care, lacks team nursing and collegiality, and has a litigious environment. These negative images have implications for the use of U.S. nursing as a benchmark for global education and…
Koper, Ian; van der Heide, Agnes; Janssens, Rien; Swart, Siebe; Perez, Roberto; Rietjens, Judith
Palliative sedation is considered a normal medical practice by the Royal Dutch Medical Association. Therefore, consultation of an expert is not considered mandatory. The European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) framework for palliative sedation, however, is more stringent: it considers the use of palliative sedation without consulting an expert as injudicious and insists on input from a multi-professional palliative care team. This study investigates the considerations of Dutch physicians concerning consultation about palliative sedation with specialist palliative care services. Fifty-four physicians were interviewed on their most recent case of palliative sedation. Reasons to consult were a lack of expertise and the view that consultation was generally supportive. Reasons not to consult were sufficient expertise, the view that palliative sedation is a normal medical procedure, time pressure, fear of disagreement with the service and regarding consultation as having little added value. Arguments in favour of mandatory consultation were that many physicians lack expertise and that palliative sedation is an exceptional intervention. Arguments against mandatory consultation were practical obstacles that may preclude fulfilling such an obligation (i.e. lack of time), palliative sedation being a standard medical procedure, corroding a physician's responsibility and deterring physicians from applying palliative sedation. Consultation about palliative sedation with specialist palliative care services is regarded as supportive and helpful when physicians lack expertise. However, Dutch physicians have both practical and theoretical objections against mandatory consultation. Based on the findings in this study, there seems to be little support among Dutch physicians for the EAPC recommendations on obligatory consultation.
Hart, C; Spannagl, M
Coagulation disorders are frequently encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU) and are challenging due to a variety of potential etiologies. Critically ill patients with coagulation abnormalities may present with an increased risk of bleeding, show coagulation activation resulting in thromboembolism, or have no specific symptoms. Hemostatic abnormalities observed in ICU patients range from isolated thrombocytopenia or prolonged global clotting tests to complex and life-threatening coagulation defects. Successful management of coagulation disorders requires prompt and accurate identification of the underlying cause. This review describes the most frequently occurring diagnoses found in intensive care patients with thrombocytopenia and coagulation test abnormalities and summarizes appropriate diagnostic interventions and current approaches to differential diagnosis.
Evidence suggests that the share of Medicare managed care enrollees in a region affects the costs of treating traditional fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare beneficiaries; however, little is known about the mechanisms through which these 'spillover effects' operate. This paper examines the relationship between Medicare managed care penetration and treatment intensity for FFS enrollees hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of AMI. I find that increased Medicare managed care penetration is associated with a reduction in both the costs and the treatment intensity of FFS AMI patients. Specifically, as Medicare managed care penetration increases, FFS AMI patients are less likely to receive surgical reperfusion and mechanical ventilation and to experience an overall reduction in the number of inpatient procedures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jakobson, Daniel J; Shemesh, Iftach
Goal-oriented ultrasound examination is gaining a place in the intensive care unit. Some protocols have been proposed but the applicability of ultrasound as part of a routine has not been studied. To assess the influence of ultrasound performed by intensive care physicians. This retrospective descriptive clinical study was performed in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university-affiliated general hospital. Data were collected from patients undergoing ultrasound examinations performed by a critical care physician during the period 2010 to June 2011. A total of 299 ultrasound exams were performed in 113 mechanically ventilated patients (70 males, mean age 65 years). Exams included trans-cranial Doppler (n = 24), neck evaluation before tracheostomy (n = 15), chest exam (n = 83), focuse cardiac echocardiography (n = 60), abdominal exam (n = 41), and comprehensive screening at patient admission (n = 30). Ultrasound was used to guide invasive procedures for vascular catheter insertion (n = 42), pleural fluid drainage (n = 24), and peritoneal fluid drainage (n = 7). One pneumothorax was seen during central venous line insertion but no complications were observed after pleural or abdominal drainage. The ultrasound study provided good quality visualization in 86% (258 of 299 exams) and was a diagnostic tool that induced a change in treatment in 58% (132 of 226 exams). Bedside ultrasound examinations performed by critical care physicians provide an important adjunct to diagnostic and therapeutic performance, improving quality of care and patient safety.
Busetto, Loraine; Luijkx, Katrien; Huizing, Anna; Vrijhoef, Bert
Even though previous research has demonstrated improved outcomes of integrated care initiatives, it is not clear why and when integrated care works. This study aims to contribute to filling this knowledge gap by examining the implementation of integrated care for type 2 diabetes by two Dutch care groups. An embedded single case study was conducted including 26 interviews with management staff, care purchasers and health professionals. The Context + Mechanism = Outcome Model was used to study the relationship between context factors, mechanisms and outcomes. Dutch integrated care involves care groups, bundled payments, patient involvement, health professional cooperation and task substitution, evidence-based care protocols and a shared clinical information system. Community involvement is not (yet) part of Dutch integrated care. Barriers to the implementation of integrated care included insufficient integration between the patient databases, decreased earnings for some health professionals, patients' insufficient medical and policy-making expertise, resistance by general practitioner assistants due to perceived competition, too much care provided by practice nurses instead of general practitioners and the funding system incentivising the provision of care exactly as described in the care protocols. Facilitators included performance monitoring via the care chain information system, increased earnings for some health professionals, increased focus on self-management, innovators in primary and secondary care, diabetes nurses acting as integrators and financial incentives for guideline adherence. Economic and political context and health IT-related barriers were discussed as the most problematic areas of integrated care implementation. The implementation of integrated care led to improved communication and cooperation but also to insufficient and unnecessary care provision and deteriorated preconditions for person-centred care. Dutch integrated diabetes care is still a
do Nascimento, Keyla Cristiane; Gomes, Antônio Marcos Tosoli; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini
This qualitative study was performed based on the Social Representations Theory, using a structured approach. The objective was to analyze the social representations of intensive care for professionals who work in mobile intensive care units, given the determination of the central nucleus and the peripheral system. This study included the participation of 73 health care professionals from an Emergency Mobile Care Service. Data collection was performed through free association with the inducing term care for people in a life threatening situation, and analyzed using EVOC software. It is observed that a nucleus is structured in knowledge and responsibility, while contrasting elements present lexicons such as agility, care, stress, and humanization. The representational structure revealed by participants in this study refer particularly to the functionality of intensive care, distinguishing itself by the challenges and encouragements provided to anyone working in this area.
Dolinsky, A L
The author extends his Complaint Intensity Outcome Framework by including a customer-need component and applying the model to a sample of elderly health care consumers. The results indicate that immediate action should be taken to improve complaint mechanisms and performance related to the quality of physicians. Other attributes require less dramatic action, and some require none at all.
Merino, P; Martín, M C; Alonso, A; Gutiérrez, I; Alvarez, J; Becerril, F
To estimate the incidence of medication errors in Spanish intensive care units. Post hoc study of the SYREC trial. A longitudinal observational study carried out during 24 hours in patients admitted to the ICU. Spanish intensive care units. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit participating in the SYREC during the period of study. Risk, individual risk, and rate of medication errors. The final study sample consisted of 1017 patients from 79 intensive care units; 591 (58%) were affected by one or more incidents. Of these, 253 (43%) had at least one medication-related incident. The total number of incidents reported was 1424, of which 350 (25%) were medication errors. The risk of suffering at least one incident was 22% (IQR: 8-50%) while the individual risk was 21% (IQR: 8-42%). The medication error rate was 1.13 medication errors per 100 patient-days of stay. Most incidents occurred in the prescription (34%) and administration (28%) phases, 16% resulted in patient harm, and 82% were considered "totally avoidable". Medication errors are among the most frequent types of incidents in critically ill patients, and are more common in the prescription and administration stages. Although most such incidents have no clinical consequences, a significant percentage prove harmful for the patient, and a large proportion are avoidable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Pearson, Gale A; Reynolds, Fiona; Stickley, John
Prompted by high refused admission rates, we sought to model demand for our 20 bed paediatric intensive care unit. We analysed activity (admissions) and demand (admissions plus refused admissions). The recommended method for calculating the required number of intensive care beds assumes a Poisson distribution based upon the size of the local catchment population, the incidence of intensive care admission and the average length of stay. We compared it to the Monte Carlo method which would also include supra-regional referrals not otherwise accounted for but which, due to their complexity, tend to have a longer stay than average. For the new method we assigned data from randomly selected emergency admissions to the refused admissions. We then compared occupancy scenarios obtained by random sampling from the data with replacement. There was an increase in demand for intensive care over time. Therefore, in order to provide an up-to-date model, we restricted the final analysis to data from the two most recent years (2327 admissions and 324 refused admissions). The conventional method suggested 27 beds covers 95% of the year. The Monte Carlo method showed 95% compliance with 34 beds, with seasonal variation quantified as 30 beds needed in the summer and 38 in the winter. Both approaches suggest that the high refused admission rate is due to insufficient capacity. The Monte Carlo analysis is based upon the total workload (including supra-regional referrals) and predicts a greater bed requirement than the current recommended approach.
Moon, Jae Young; Kim, Ju-Ock
The intensive care unit (ICU) is the most common place to die. Also, ethical conflicts among stakeholders occur frequently in the ICU. Thus, ICU clinicians should be competent in all aspects for ethical decision-making. Major sources of conflicts are behavioral issues, such as verbal abuse or poor communication between physicians and nurses, and end-of-life care issues including a lack of respect for the patient's autonomy. The ethical conflicts are significantly associated with the job strain and burn-out syndrome of healthcare workers, and consequently, may threaten the quality of care. To improve the quality of care, handling ethical conflicts properly is emerging as a vital and more comprehensive area. The ICU physicians themselves need to be more sensitive to behavioral conflicts and enable shared decision making in end-of-life care. At the same time, the institutions and administrators should develop their processes to find and resolve common ethical problems in their ICUs.
Meert, Kathleen L; Clark, Jeff; Eggly, Susan
Patient-centered and family-centered care (PFCC) has been endorsed by many professional health care organizations. Although variably defined, PFCC is an approach to care that is respectful of and responsive to the preferences, needs, and values of individual patients and their families. Research regarding PFCC in the pediatric intensive care unit has focused on 4 areas including (1) family visitation; (2) family-centered rounding; (3) family presence during invasive procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and (4) family conferences. Although challenges to successful implementation exist, the growing body of evidence suggests that PFCC is beneficial to patients, families, and staff.
Koopmans, G T; Uiters, E; Devillé, W; Foets, M
Although the use of outpatient mental health care services by migrants in the Netherlands has increased in recent years, whether it aligns with the need for care is unclear. To investigate ethnic-related differences in utilization in outpatient mental health care, taking need into account, and to examine whether socio-economic or cultural barriers explain such differences. Data for the native population was taken from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (N = 7,772). An additional random sample was drawn (N = 1,305) from four migrant groups (Surinamese, Dutch Antilleans, Moroccans and Turks) living in the Netherlands. Participants were surveyed on mental health care utilization, indicators of need, educational level, proficiency in Dutch and acculturation. Use of outpatient mental health care was about 5% for the indigenous population. Among migrants, percentages of use ranged from 6.5% (Moroccans) to 9.0% (Turks). Corrected for need, however, all non-Dutch groups had a lower chance of service utilization than the native group. Acculturation predicted utilization but did not explain all ethnic-related differences; proficiency in Dutch and health beliefs were not explanatory factors. In non-Dutch-speaking migrant groups, utilization is about half the level of the native Dutch, suggesting that a substantial gap exists. Our study found that acculturation only partially explains the differences.
Seymour, J E
Recent empirical evidence of barriers to palliative care in acute hospital settings shows that dying patients may receive invasive medical treatments immediately before death, in spite of evidence of their poor prognosis being available to clinicians. The difficulties of ascertaining treatment preferences, predicting the trajectory of dying in critically ill people, and assessing the degree to which further interventions are futile are well documented. Further, enduring ethical complexities attending end of life care mean that the process of withdrawing or withholding medical care is associated with significant problems for clinical staff. Specific difficulties attend the legitimation of treatment withdrawal, the perceived differences between 'killing' and 'letting die' and the cultural constraints which attend the orchestration of 'natural' death in situations where human agency is often required before death can follow dying. This paper draws on ethnographic research to examine the way in which these problems are resolved during medical work within intensive care. Building on insights from the literature, an analysis of observational case study data is presented which suggests that the negotiation of natural death in intensive care hinges upon four strategies. These, which form a framework with which to interpret social interaction between physicians during end of life decision-making in intensive care, are as follows: firstly, the establishment of a 'technical' definition of dying--informed by results of investigations and monitoring equipment--over and above 'bodily' dying informed by clinical experience. Secondly, the alignment of the trajectories of technical and bodily dying to ensure that the events of non-treatment have no perceived causative link to death. Thirdly, the balancing of medical action with non-action, allowing a diffusion of responsibility for death to the patient's body; and lastly, the incorporation of patient's companions and nursing staff
Kelly, Fiona E; Fong, Kevin; Hirsch, Nicholas; Nolan, Jerry P
Intensive care is celebrating its 60th anniversary this year. The concept arose from the devastating Copenhagen polio epidemic of 1952, which resulted in hundreds of victims experiencing respiratory and bulbar failure. Over 300 patients required artificial ventilation for several weeks. This was provided by 1,000 medical and dental students who were employed to hand ventilate the lungs of these patients via tracheostomies. By 1953, Bjorn Ibsen, the anaesthetist who had suggested that positive pressure ventilation should be the treatment of choice during the epidemic, had set up the first intensive care unit (ICU) in Europe, gathering together physicians and physiologists to manage sick patients - many would consider him to be the 'father' of intensive care. Here, we discuss the events surrounding the 1952 polio epidemic, the subsequent development of ICUs throughout the UK, the changes that have occurred in intensive care over the past 10 years and what the future holds for the specialty. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.
Logani, Sachin; Green, Adam; Gasperino, James
The Affordable Care Act signed into law by President Obama, with its value-based purchasing program, is designed to link payment to quality processes and outcomes. Treatment of critically ill patients represents nearly 1% of the gross domestic product and 25% of a typical hospital budget. Data suggest that high-intensity staffing patterns in the intensive care unit (ICU) are associated with cost savings and improved outcomes. We evaluate the literature investigating the cost-effectiveness and clinical outcomes of high-intensity ICU physician staffing as recommended by The Leapfrog Group (a consortium of companies that purchase health care for their employees) and identify ways to overcome barriers to nationwide implementation of these standards. Hospitals that have implemented the Leapfrog initiative have demonstrated reductions in mortality and length of stay and increased cost savings. High-intensity staffing models appear to be an immediate cost-effective way for hospitals to meet the challenges of health care reform. PMID:22110908
Stayt, Louise Caroline; Seers, Kate; Tutton, Elizabeth
To investigate patients' experiences of technology in an adult intensive care unit. Technology is fundamental to support physical recovery from critical illness in Intensive Care Units. As well as physical corollaries, psychological disturbances are reported in critically ill patients at all stages of their illness and recovery. Nurses play a key role in the physical and psychological care of patients;, however, there is a suggestion in the literature that the presence of technology may dehumanise patient care and distract the nurse from attending to patients psychosocial needs. Little attention has been paid to patients' perceptions of receiving care in a technological environment. This study was informed by Heideggerian phenomenology. The research took place in 2009-2011 in a university hospital in England. Nineteen participants who had been patients in ICU were interviewed guided by an interview topic prompt list. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Van Manen's framework. Participants described technology and care as inseparable and presented their experiences as a unified encounter. The theme 'Getting on with it' described how participants endured technology by 'Being Good' and 'Being Invisible'. 'Getting over it' described why participants endured technology by 'Bowing to Authority' and viewing invasive technologies as a 'Necessary Evil'. Patients experienced technology and care as a series of paradoxical relationships: alienating yet reassuring, uncomfortable yet comforting, impersonal yet personal. By maintaining a close and supportive presence and providing personal comfort and care nurses may minimize the invasive and isolating potential of technology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kutlesic, Marija S; Kutlesic, Ranko M; Mostic-Ilic, Tatjana
Magnesium, one of the essential elements in the human body, has numerous favorable effects that offer a variety of possibilities for its use in obstetric anesthesia and intensive care. Administered as a single intravenous bolus dose or a bolus followed by continuous infusion during surgery, magnesium attenuates stress response to endotracheal intubation, and reduces intraoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic requirements, while at the same time preserving favorable hemodynamics. Applied as part of an intrathecal or epidural anesthetic mixture, magnesium prolongs the duration of anesthesia and diminishes total postoperative analgesic consumption with no adverse maternal or neonatal effects. In obstetric intensive care, magnesium represents a first-choice medication in the treatment and prevention of eclamptic seizures. If used in recommended doses with close monitoring, magnesium is a safe and effective medication.
Horn, J; Hermans, G
When critically ill, a severe weakness of the limbs and respiratory muscles often develops with a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), a condition vaguely termed intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). Many of these patients have serious nerve and muscle injury. This syndrome is most often seen in surviving critically ill patients with sepsis or extensive inflammatory response which results in increased duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. Patients with ICUAW often do not fully recover and the disability will seriously impact on their quality of life. In this chapter we discuss the current knowledge on the pathophysiology and risk factors of ICUAW. Tools to diagnose ICUAW, how to separate ICUAW from other disorders, and which possible treatment strategies can be employed are also described. ICUAW is finally receiving the attention it deserves and the expectation is that it can be better understood and prevented.
Kisvetrová, Helena; Školoudík, David; Joanovič, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Mikšová, Zdeňka
Providing high-quality end-of-life care is a challenging area in intensive care practice. The aim of the current study was to assess the practice of registered nurses (RNs) with respect to dying care and spiritual support interventions in intensive care units (ICUs) in the Czech Republic (CR) and find correlations between particular factors or conditions and the frequency of NIC interventions usage. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was designed. A questionnaire with Likert scales included the particular activities of dying care and spiritual support interventions and an evaluation of the factors influencing the implementation of the interventions in the ICU. The group of respondents consisted of 277 RNs working in 29 ICUs in four CR regions. The Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for statistical evaluation. The most and least frequently reported RN activities were "treat individuals with dignity and respect" and "facilitate discussion of funeral arrangements," respectively. The frequencies of the activities in the biological, social, psychological, and spiritual dimensions were negatively correlated with the frequency of providing care to dying patients. A larger number of activities were related to longer lengths of stay in the ICU, higher staffing, more positive opinions of the RNs regarding the importance of education in a palliative care setting, and attending a palliative care education course. The psychosocial and spiritual activities in the care of dying patients are used infrequently by RNs in CR ICUs. The factors limiting the implementation of palliative care interventions and strategies improving implementation warrant further study. Assessment of nursing activities implemented in the care of dying patients in the ICU may help identify issues specific to nursing practice. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Echteld, Michael A
Frailty appears to develop earlier and is more severe in people with intellectual disabilities compared to the general population. The high prevalence of frailty may lead to an increase in care intensity and associated health care costs. Therefore a longitudinal observational study was conducted to determine the effect of frailty on care intensity. The association between frailty and care intensity at baseline and follow-up (3 years later) was assessed. Furthermore, the ability of the frailty index to predict an increase in care intensity after 3 years was evaluated. This study was part of the Dutch 'Healthy aging and intellectual disabilities' (HA-ID) study. Frailty was measured at baseline with a frailty index that included 51 health-and age-related deficits. For all participants information on care intensity in seven steps was available, based on long term care indications under the Act on Exceptional Medical Expenses (AWBZ)--a law that finances specialized long-term care. 676 participants (50 years and over) with ID were included in the final analysis. In 26% of the participants, care intensity had increased during the follow-up period. Increased care during the follow-up was related to a high frailty index score at baseline, independent of gender, age, level of ID and the presence of Down syndrome (p = 0.003). After exclusion of ADL and IADL items, the frailty index remained significantly related with increasing care intensity during follow-up (p = 0.007). Our results underline that screening instruments for early detection of frailty and effective interventions are required to limit the burden of frailty for individuals and caregivers, but also to limit health care utilization.
Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Crossetti, Maria da Graça Oliveira
This qualitative research with a phenomenological approach searches to understand the meaning of care in the highly technical world of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), viewed from the nurses' perspective. It was developed in a University Hospital in Porto Alegre, RS, between 1998-2000, with seven nurses as participants. The instruments used to gather information were observation and semi-structured interviews. The analysis was based on the proposal of Martins and Bicudo, using the phenomenological modality or structure of the situated phenomenon, with two stages. The phenomenon emerged under the aspect of sixteen propositions revealing care in the ICU from the nurses' perspective.
Jones, C; O'Donnell, C
The total dependence that, from necessity, must be the lot of an intensive care patient can lead to a state of learned helplessness as they recover. In addition, the physical frailty of these patients further confounds their first attempts at independence. It is at this stage that patients need clear information about the road ahead and in a form that they can refer back to as needed when they are discharged to the general wards and then home. As many intensive care patients have little or no memory of the intensive care unit (ICU) afterwards and only gradually come to understand how ill they have been, the provision of an information booklet on discharge to the general wards seemed likely to be the most sensible approach. The booklet addresses topics such as transfer to the wards and possible problems patient might face during their convalescence. In addition common sense advice is offered to help patients regain their independence and control of their own health. The information is presented in a clear concise way and the booklet is liberally illustrated with cartoons. Relatives are encouraged to read the booklet as well and provisional results have shown it to be well received by both patients and relatives.
Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Pargger, Hans; Widmer, Andreas F
Healthcare-associated infections affect 1.4 million patients at any time worldwide, as estimated by the World Health Organization. In intensive care units, the burden of healthcare-associated infections is greatly increased, causing additional morbidity and mortality. Multidrug-resistant pathogens are commonly involved in such infections and render effective treatment challenging. Proper hand hygiene is the single most important, simplest, and least expensive means of preventing healthcare-associated infections. In addition, it is equally important to stop transmission of multidrug-resistant pathogens. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene in health care, alcohol-based handrub should be used as the preferred means for routine hand antisepsis. Alcohols have excellent in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a variety of fungi, and most viruses. Some pathogens, however, such as Clostridium difficile, Bacillus anthracis, and noroviruses, may require special hand hygiene measures. Failure to provide user friendliness of hand hygiene equipment and shortage of staff are predictors for noncompliance, especially in the intensive care unit setting. Therefore, practical approaches to promote hand hygiene in the intensive care unit include provision of a minimal number of handrub dispensers per bed, monitoring of compliance, and choice of the most attractive product. Lack of knowledge of guidelines for hand hygiene, lack of recognition of hand hygiene opportunities during patient care, and lack of awareness of the risk of cross-transmission of pathogens are barriers to good hand hygiene practices. Multidisciplinary programs to promote increased use of alcoholic handrub lead to an increased compliance of healthcare
Bonten, M J M
The Netherlands Health Care Inspectorate investigated the quality of medical microbiology laboratories in Dutch hospitals. By and large the laboratories fulfilled the requirements for appropriate care, although some processes were unsatisfactory and some were insufficiently formalised. In the Netherlands, laboratories for medical microbiology are integrated within hospitals and medical microbiologists are responsible for the diagnostic processes as well as for co-treatment of patients, infection prevention and research. This integrated model contrasts to the more industrialised model in many other countries, where such laboratories are physically distinct from hospitals with a strong focus on diagnostics. The Inspectorate also concludes that the current position of medical microbiology in Dutch hospitals is necessary for patient safety and that outsourcing of these facilities is considered unacceptable.
Developmental care is a framework that encompasses all care procedures as well as social and physical aspects in the newborn intensive care unit. Its goal is to support each individual infant to be as stable, well-organized, and competent as possible. The infant's physiologic and behavioral expression of current functioning is seen as the reliably available guide for caregivers to estimate the infant's current strengths, vulnerabilities, and thresholds to disorganization; to identify the infant's own strategies and efforts in collaborating toward best progress; and to implement care in a way that enhances the infant's stability and competence. The family is understood to be the infant's primary coregulator. It is the caregivers' responsibility to maximize opportunities to enhance each infant's and family's strengths and reduce apparent stressors. Studies of the effectiveness of developmental care also identify implications for staff education and challenges for nursery-wide implementation.
Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K.; Wachtel, Sherry; Mallampalli, Antara; Surani, Salim
Background: Professional burnout has been widely explored in health care. We conducted this study in our hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in United States to explore the burnout among nurses and respiratory therapists (RT). Materials and Methods: A survey consisting of two parts was used to assess burnout. Part 1 addressed the demographic information and work hours. Part 2 addressed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. Results: The analysis included 213 total subjects; Nurses 151 (71%) and RT 62 (29%). On the emotional exhaustion (EE) scale, 54% scored “Moderate” to “High” and 40% scored “Moderate” to “High” on the depersonalization (DP) scale. Notably 40.6% scored “Low” on personal accomplishment (PA) scale. Conclusion: High level of EE, DP and lower PAs were seen among two groups of health care providers in the ICUs. PMID:24701063
Stalpers, Dewi; Van Der Linden, Dimitri; Kaljouw, Marian J; Schuurmans, Marieke J
To examine nurse-perceived quality of care, controlling for overall job satisfaction among critical care nurses and to explore associations with work environment characteristics. Nurse-perceived quality of care and job satisfaction have been positively linked to quality outcomes for nurses and patients. Much evidence exists on factors contributing to job satisfaction. Understanding specific factors that affect nurse-perceived quality potentially enables for improvements of nursing care quality. A multicentre survey study was conducted in three Dutch intensive care units. The Dutch version of the Essentials of Magnetism II questionnaire was used; including the single-item indicators: (i) nurse-perceived quality of care; (ii) overall job satisfaction; and (iii) 58 statements on work environments. Data were collected between October 2013 - June 2014. The majority of 123 responding nurses (response rate 45%) were more than satisfied with quality of care (55%) and with their job (66%). No associations were found with nurse characteristics, besides differences in job satisfaction between the units. After controlling for job satisfaction, nurse-perceived quality was positively associated with the work environment characteristics: adequacy of staffing, patient-centeredness, competent peers and support for education. Patient-centeredness and autonomy were the most important predictors for overall job satisfaction. Factors that contribute to nurse-perceived quality of care in intensive care units, independent from the effects of overall job satisfaction, were identified. Hereby, offering opportunities to maximize high quality of care to critically ill patients. Research in a larger sample is needed to confirm our findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ritmala-Castren, Marita; Virtanen, Irina; Leivo, Sanna; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
This study aimed to describe the quality of sleep of non-intubated patients and the night-time nursing care activities in an intensive care unit. The study also aimed to evaluate the effect of nursing care activities on the quality of sleep. An overnight polysomnography was performed in 21 alert, non-intubated, non-sedated adult patients, and all nursing care activities that involved touching the patient were documented by the bedside nurse. The median (interquartile range) amount of sleep was 387 (170, 486) minutes. The portion of deep non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep varied from 0% to 42% and REM sleep from 0% to 65%. The frequency of arousals and awakenings varied from two to 73 per hour. The median amount of nursing care activities was 0.6/h. Every tenth activity presumably awakened the patient. Patients who had more care activities had more light N1 sleep, less light N2 sleep, and less deep sleep. Nursing care was often performed while patients were awake. However, only 31% of the intervals between nursing care activities were over 90 min. More attention should be paid to better clustering of care activities.
Lake, Eileen T; Staiger, Douglas; Edwards, Erika Miles; Smith, Jessica G; Rogowski, Jeannette A
To describe the variation across neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in missed nursing care in disproportionately black and non-black-serving hospitals. To analyze the nursing factors associated with missing nursing care. Survey of random samples of licensed nurses in four large U.S. states. This was a retrospective, secondary analysis of 1,037 staff nurses in 134 NICUs classified into three groups based on their percent of infants of black race. Measures included the average patient load, individual nurses' patient loads, professional nursing characteristics, nurse work environment, and nursing care missed on the last shift. Survey data from a Multi-State Nursing Care and Patient Safety Study were analyzed (39 percent response rate). The patient-to-nurse ratio was significantly higher in high-black hospitals. Nurses in high-black NICUs missed nearly 50 percent more nursing care than in low-black NICUs. Lower nurse staffing (an additional patient per nurse) significantly increased the odds of missed care, while better practice environments decreased the odds. Nurses in high-black NICUs face inadequate staffing. They are more likely to miss required nursing care. Improving staffing and workloads may improve the quality of care for the infants born in high-black hospitals. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
This study reports data gathered via extensive interviews with some of the leading authorities on the euthanasia policy that were conducted in the Netherlands. They were asked: It has been argued that the policy and practice of euthanasia in the Netherlands is the result of undeveloped palliative care. What do you think? I also mentioned the fact that there are only a few hospices in the Netherlands. The responses were different and contradictory. Many interviewees agreed with the statement. Almost all of those agreeing with it said that only during the late 1990s were people beginning to admit that there was a need to improve palliative care. Some interviewees insisted that doctors first need to explore other options for helping the patient prior to choosing the course of euthanasia. Other interviewees thought that palliative care is well developed in the Netherlands and that euthanasia has actually paved the way for calling more attention to palliative care.
Sicking, Lenneke; Brands, Ronald; Baas, Ineke; Roberts, Hilde; van Brakel, Wim H.; Lechner, Lilian; Kok, Gerjo; Bos, Arjan E. R.
Abstract Ensuring that people living with HIV (PLWH) feel accepted in health care settings is imperative. This mixed methods study explored the perspectives of PLWH and health professionals on their interactions. A total of 262 predominantly gay men of Dutch origin participated in a survey study of possible negative interactions with health professionals, and semi-structured interviews were subsequently conducted with 22 PLWH and 14 health professionals. Again, most PLWH were gay men of Dutch origin. All health professionals were Dutch. PLWH reported negative experiences with health professionals including awkward interactions, irrelevant questions, rude treatment, blame, pity, excessive or differential precautions, care refusal, unnecessary referrals, delayed treatment, poor support, and confidentiality breaches. They also reported positive experiences including equal treatment, being valued as a partner in one's health, social support provision, and confidentiality assurances. Health professionals reported having little experience with PLWH and only basic knowledge of HIV. They contended that PLWH are treated equally and that HIV is no longer stigmatized, but also reported fear of occupational infection, resulting in differential precautions. Additionally, they conveyed labeling PLWH's files to warn others, and curiosity regarding how patients acquired HIV. The findings suggest that there is a gap in perception between PLWH and health professionals regarding the extent to which negative interactions occur, and that these interactions should be improved. Implications for stigma reduction and care optimization are discussed. PMID:25459231
Sibbald, Robert; Downar, James; Hawryluck, Laura
Many caregivers in intensive care units (ICUs) feel that they sometimes provide inappropriate or excessive care, but little is known about their definition of "futile care" or how they attempt to limit its impact. We sought to explore how ICU staff define medically futile care, why they provide it and what strategies might promote a more effective use of ICU resources. Using semi-structured interviews, we surveyed 14 physician directors, 16 nurse managers and 14 respiratory therapists from 16 ICUs across Ontario. We analyzed the transcripts using a modified grounded-theory approach. From the interviews, we generated a working definition of medically futile care to mean the use of considerable resources without a reasonable hope that the patient would recover to a state of relative independence or be interactive with his or her environment. Respondents felt that futile care was provided because of family demands, a lack of timely or skilled communication, or a lack of consensus among the treating team. Respondents said they were able to resolve cases of futile care most effectively by improving communication and by allowing time for families to accept the reality of the situation. Respondents felt that further efforts to limit futile care should focus on educating the public and health care professionals about the role of the ICU and about alternatives such as palliative care; mandating early and skilled discussion of resuscitation status; establishing guidelines for admission to the ICU; and providing legal and ethical support for physicians who encounter difficulties. There was a broad consistency in responses among all disciplines. ICU physicians, nurses and respiratory therapists have similar and well-formed opinions about how to define and resolve medically futile care and where to focus future efforts to limit the impact of futile care in the ICU.
Coombs, Maureen; Mitchell, Marion; James, Stephen; Wetzig, Krista
End-of-life and bereavement care is an important consideration in intensive care. This study describes the type of bereavement care provided in intensive care units across Australia and New Zealand. Inductive qualitative content analysis was conducted on free-text responses to a web-based survey exploring unit-based bereavement practice distributed to nurse managers in 229 intensive care units in New Zealand and Australia. A total of 153 (67%) surveys were returned with 68 respondents making free-text responses. Respondents were mainly Australian (n = 54, 85·3%), from the public sector (n = 51, 75%) and holding Nurse Unit Managers/Charge Nurse roles (n = 39, 52·9%). From the 124 free-text responses, a total of 187 individual codes were identified focussing on bereavement care practices (n = 145, 77·5%), educational provision to support staff (n = 15, 8%) and organisational challenges (n = 27, 14·4%). Bereavement care practices described use of memory boxes, cultural specificity, annual memorial services and use of community support services. Educational provision identified local in-service programmes, and national bereavement courses for specialist bereavement nurse coordinators. Organisational challenges focussed on lack of funding, especially for provision of bereavement follow-up. This is the first Australasian-wide survey, and one of the few international studies, describing bereavement practices within intensive care, an important aspect of nursing practice. However, with funding for new bereavement services and education for staff lacking, there are continued challenges in developing bereavement care. Given knowledge about the impact of these areas of care on bereaved family members, this requires review. Nurses remain committed to supporting bereaved families during and following death in intensive care. With limited resource to support bereavement care, intensive care nurses undertake a range of bereavement care practices at time of death
Schandl, Anna; Falk, Ann-Charlotte; Frank, Catharina
Patient participation in healthcare is important for optimizing treatment outcomes and for ensuring satisfaction with care. The purpose of the study wasto explore critical care nurses' perceptions of patient participation for critically ill patients. Qualitative data were collected in four separate focus group interviews with 17 nurses from two hospitals. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Initially, the nurses stated that patient participation in the intensive care unit (ICU) was dependent on the patient's health condition and consciousness. However, during the interviews three descriptive categories emerged from their experience, that is: passive patient participation, one-way communication and nurse/patient interaction. In the ICU, the possibilities for patient participation in nursing care are not only dependent on the patient's health condition but also on the nurse's ability to include patients in various care actions despite physical and/or mental limitations. When the patient is not able to participate, nurses strive to achieve participation through relatives' knowledge and/or other external sources of information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strandås, Maria; Fredriksen, Sven-Tore D
Neonatal nurses report a great deal of ethical challenges in their everyday work. Seemingly trivial everyday choices nurses make are no more value-neutral than life-and-death choices. Everyday ethical challenges should also be recognized as ethical dilemmas in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to investigate which types of ethical challenges neonatal nurses experience in their day-to-day care for critically ill newborns. Data were collected through semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews. Phenomenological-hermeneutic analysis was applied to interpret the data. Six nurses from neonatal intensive care units at two Norwegian hospitals were interviewed on-site. The study is designed to comply with Ethical Guidelines for Nursing Research in the Nordic Countries and the Helsinki declaration. Findings suggest that nurses experience a diverse range of everyday ethical challenges related to challenging interactions with parents and colleagues, emotional strain, protecting the vulnerable infant, finding the balance between sensitivity and authority, ensuring continuity of treatment, and miscommunication and professional disagreement. A major finding in this study is how different agents involved in caring for the newborn experience their realities differently. When these realities collide, ethical challenges arise. Findings suggest that acting in the best interests of the child becomes more difficult in situations involving many agents with different perceptions of reality. The study presents new aspects which increases knowledge and understanding of the reality of nursing in a neonatal intensive care unit, while also demanding increased research in this field of care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gardaz, V; Doll, S; Ricou, B
In intensive care units, death occurs after a medical decision of treatment limitation in a great majority of patients. In this context, taking care of the patient and his relatives is ethically, practically and emotionally complex. End of life is a well known factor of conflict, burnout and stress among medical and nursing teams in the ICU. The recommendations described in the following article are expected to clarify the roles and practices of the professionals involved in end of life procedures in the ICU.
The role of music in intensive care medicine is still unclear. However, it is well known that music may not only improve quality of life but also effect changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Reactions to music are considered subjective, but studies suggest that cardio/cerebrovascular variables are influenced under different circumstances. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to "Va pensioero" from Verdi's "Nabucco" (70.4+3.3 cm/s) compared to "Libiam nei lieti calici" from Verdi's "La Traviata" (70.2+3.1 cm/s) (P<0,02) or Bach's Cantata No. 169 "Gott soll allein mein Herze haben" (70.9+2.9 cm/s) (P<0,02). There was no significant influence on cerebral flow in Beethoven's Ninth Symphony during rest (67.6+3.3 cm/s) or music (69.4+3.1 cm/s). It was reported that relaxing music plays an important role in intensive care medicine. Music significantly decreases the level of anxiety for patients in a preoperative setting (STAI-X-1 score 34) to a greater extent even than orally administered midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 36) (P<0.001). In addition, the score was better after surgery in the music group (STAI-X-1 score 30) compared to midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 34) (P<0.001). Higher effectiveness and absence of apparent adverse effects make relaxing, preoperative music a useful alternative to midazolam. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction suggesting that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open-heart surgery is important in clinical use. After 30 min of bed rest, there was a significant difference in cortisol levels between the music (484.4 mmol/l) and the non-music group (618.8 mmol/l) (P<0.02). Vocal and orchestral music produces significantly better correlations between cardiovascular and respiratory signals in contrast to uniform emphasis (P<0.05). The most benefit on health in intensive care medicine patients is visible in classical (Bach, Mozart or
The role of music in intensive care medicine is still unclear. However, it is well known that music may not only improve quality of life but also effect changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Reactions to music are considered subjective, but studies suggest that cardio/cerebrovascular variables are influenced under different circumstances. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to “Va pensioero” from Verdi's “Nabucco” (70.4+3.3 cm/s) compared to “Libiam nei lieti calici” from Verdi's “La Traviata” (70.2+3.1 cm/s) (P<0,02) or Bach's Cantata No. 169 “Gott soll allein mein Herze haben” (70.9+2.9 cm/s) (P<0,02). There was no significant influence on cerebral flow in Beethoven's Ninth Symphony during rest (67.6+3.3 cm/s) or music (69.4+3.1 cm/s). It was reported that relaxing music plays an important role in intensive care medicine. Music significantly decreases the level of anxiety for patients in a preoperative setting (STAI-X-1 score 34) to a greater extent even than orally administered midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 36) (P<0.001). In addition, the score was better after surgery in the music group (STAI-X-1 score 30) compared to midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 34) (P<0.001). Higher effectiveness and absence of apparent adverse effects make relaxing, preoperative music a useful alternative to midazolam. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction suggesting that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open-heart surgery is important in clinical use. After 30 min of bed rest, there was a significant difference in cortisol levels between the music (484.4 mmol/l) and the non-music group (618.8 mmol/l) (P<0.02). Vocal and orchestral music produces significantly better correlations between cardiovascular and respiratory signals in contrast to uniform emphasis (P<0.05). The most benefit on health in intensive care medicine patients is visible in
Ivy, D Dunbar
The prostacyclins-prostanoids were one of the first medications used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Three prostanoids have been developed to treat PAH: epoprostenol, treprostinil, and iloprost. In the acute setting, experience is growing, using the inhaled forms of these three medications. Inhalation may improve ventilation/perfusion matching, whereas in the intravenous form these medications may cause nonselective pulmonary vasodilation and may worsen ventilation/perfusion matching. Currently, there are no universal recommendations for dosing delivery of inhaled prostanoids to intubated patients in the intensive care unit setting.
Delirium is a serious complication that commonly occurs in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Delirium is frequently unrecognized or missed despite its high incidence and prevalence, and leads to poor clinical outcomes and an increased cost by increasing morbidity, mortality, and hospital and ICU length of stay. Although its pathophysiology is poorly understood, numerous risk factors for delirium have been suggested. To improve clinical outcomes, it is crucial to perform preventive measures against delirium, to detect delirium early using valid and reliable screening tools, and to treat the underlying causes or hazard symptoms of delirium in a timely manner. PMID:24101952
Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Xin-Ling
On one hand, advances in neonatal care and rescue technology allow for the healthy survival or prolonged survival time of critically ill newborns who, in the past, would have been non-viable. On the other hand, many of the surviving critically ill infants have serious long-term disabilities. If an infant eventually cannot survive or is likely to suffer severe disability after surviving, ethical issues in the treatment process are inevitable, and this problem arises not only in developed countries but is also becoming increasingly prominent in developing countries. In addition, ethical concerns cannot be avoided in medical research. This review article introduces basic ethical guidelines that should be followed in clinical practice, including respecting the autonomy of the parents, giving priority to the best interests of the infant, the principle of doing no harm, and consent and the right to be informed. Furthermore, the major ethical concerns in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China are briefly introduced.
Bowers, Len; Jeffery, Debra; Bilgin, Hulya; Jarrett, Manuela; Simpson, Alan; Jones, Julia
Psychiatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) have been part of most inpatient psychiatric services for some time, although information about their functioning and outcome has not previously been collated. To conduct a systematic literature review to assess the current state of knowledge about such services. A search of electronic databases was undertaken, followed by obtaining additional references from items obtained. Over 50 papers in English containing some empirical data were identified. Most studies were retrospective. Typical PICU patients are male, younger, single, unemployed, suffering from schizophrenia or mania, from a Black Caribbean or African background, legally detained, with a forensic history. The most common reason for admission is for aggression management, and most patients stay a week or less. Evidence of the efficacy of PICU care is very poor. Most research so far has been small scale, and more substantial work using better methodologies is clearly required.
Medical technology applied to acute and severely ill patients allowed for the emergence of a differentiated area of care and the development of intensive care units. The means available to replace or assist vital organs' functions determined this crucial advance of high technology medicine in the last forty years. However, actual application of these methods in this case, life-sustaining therapy is not free from the technological imperative influencing all our contemporary culture. This pervasive influence adversely affects the chances to permanently remember the ends of medicine, which are not to avoid death or to consider life as the supreme value irrespectively of the patients' preferences. Final decisions in irreversible situations, where only a life in vegetative condition is possible, are to be taken by doctors and family members.
Rochester, Carolyn L
Critical illness has many devastating sequelae, including profound neuromuscular weakness and psychological and cognitive disturbances that frequently result in long-term functional impairments. Early rehabilitation begun in the intensive care unit (ICU) is emerging as an important strategy both to prevent and to treat ICU-acquired weakness, in an effort to facilitate and improve long-term recovery. Rehabilitation may begin with range of motion and bed mobility exercise, then may progress when the patient is fully alert and able to participate actively to include sitting and posture-based exercise, bed to chair transfers, strength and endurance exercises, and ambulation. Electrical muscle stimulation and inspiratory muscle training are additional techniques that may be employed. Studies conducted to date suggest that such ICU-based rehabilitation is feasible, safe, and effective for carefully selected patients. Further research is needed to identify the optimal patient candidates and procedures and for providing rehabilitation in the ICU.
Arumugam, Suresh; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Strandvik, Gustav; Asim, Mohammad; Mekkodithal, Ahammed; Mudali, Insolvisagan; Al-Thani, Hassan
Delirium is characterized by impaired cognition with nonspecific manifestations. In critically ill patients, it may develop secondary to multiple precipitating or predisposing causes. Although it can be a transient and reversible syndrome, its occurrence in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients may be associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction. This condition is often under-recognized by treating physicians, leading to inappropriate management. For appropriate management of delirium, early identification and risk factor assessment are key factors. Multidisciplinary collaboration and standardized care can enhance the recognition of delirium. Interdisciplinary team working, together with updated guideline implementation, demonstrates proven success in minimizing delirium in the ICU. Moreover, should the use of physical restraint be necessary to prevent harm among mechanically ventilated patients, ethical clinical practice methodology must be employed. This traditional narrative review aims to address the presentation, risk factors, management, and ethical considerations in the management of delirium in ICU settings. PMID:28243012
Martín, M C; León, C; Cuñat, J; del Nogal, F
To identify the resources related to the care of critically ill patients in Spain, which are available in the units dependent of the Services of Intensive Care Medicine (ICM) or other services/specialties, analyzing their distribution according to characteristics of the hospitals and by autonomous communities. Prospective observational study. Spanish hospitals. Heads of the Services of ICM. Number of units and beds for critically ill patients and functional dependence. The total number of registries obtained with at least one Service of ICM was 237, with a total of 100,198 hospital beds. Level iii (43.5%) and level ii (35%) hospitals predominated. A total of 73% were public hospitals and 55.3% were non-university centers. The total number of beds for adult critically ill patients, was 4,738 (10.3/100,000 inhabitants). The services of ICM registered had available 258 intensive are units (ICUs), with 3,363 beds, mainly polyvalent ICUs (81%) and 43 intermediate care units. The number of patients attended in the Services of ICM in 2008 was 174,904, with a percentage of occupation of 79.5% A total of 228 units attending critically ill patients, which are dependent of other services with 2,233 beds, 772 for pediatric patients or neonates, were registered. When these last specialized units are excluded, there was a marked predominance of postsurgical units followed by coronary and cardiac units. Seventy one per cent of beds available in the Critical Care Units in Spain are characterized by attending severe adult patients, are dependent of the services of ICM, and most of them are polyvalent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Herbst, Alida; Drenth, Cornelia
This qualitative study involved action research to explore one woman’s narrative of awareness, emotions and thoughts during treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU). The overarching aim is to increase insight into the thoughts, feelings and bio-psychosocial needs of the patient receiving treatment in ICU. Data was collected by means of narrative discourse analysis. Literature on the psychosocial and spiritual implications of ICU treatment is limited, and often patients have no recall of their treatment in an ICU at all. Documenting the illness narrative of this individual case is valuable as the participant could recall a certain amount of awareness, thoughts and emotions. These experiences included delirium, anxiety, helplessness, frustration and uncertainty. Once sedation was decreased, the patient’s consciousness increased and she was confronted with thoughts and emotions that were unrealistic and frightening. It was found in this study that the opportunity to share a narrative on the emotions and awareness during treatment in an ICU had cathartic value and the participant suffered little symptoms of post traumatic stress syndrome, often associated with long term treatment in an ICU. Further research on this topic is necessary to improve ICU treatment, not only on a physical level, but with emphasis on the psychosocial and spiritual needs of the patient. PMID:22980374
Discussions of conscientious objection (CO) in healthcare often concentrate on objections to interventions that relate to reproduction, such as termination of pregnancy or contraception. Nevertheless, questions of conscience can arise in other areas of medicine. For example, the intensive care unit is a locus of ethically complex and contested decisions. Ethical debate about CO usually concentrates on the issue of whether physicians should be permitted to object to particular courses of treatment; whether CO should be accommodated. In this article, I focus on the question of how clinicians ought to act: should they provide or support a course of action that is contrary to their deeply held moral beliefs? I discuss two secular examples of potential CO in intensive care, and propose that clinicians should adopt a norm of conscientious non-objection (CNO). In the face of divergent values and practice, physicians should set aside their personal moral beliefs and not object to treatment that is legally and professionally accepted and provided by their peers. Although there may be reason to permit conscientious objections in healthcare, conscientious non-objection should be encouraged, taught, and supported.
Bacher, A; Zimpfer, M
Liver dysfunction is an independent predictor of mortality among intensive care patients. Avoidance or early restoration of normal liver function should therefore be targeted in all critically ill patients. The present work seeks to provide an overview of the "hottest topics" among liver-related problems in intensive care. The management of increased intracranial pressure in severe hepatic encephalopathy is still not sufficiently documented. The promising results with regard to intracranial pressure control by the molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS) in animal studies are only partially reproducible in patients. Intracranial pressure monitoring is inconsistently applied in various centers, mainly because of the lack of information about the risk benefit ratio. Further, we still do not know which coagulation management protocol reduces the risk of intracranial bleeding. Type I hepatorenal syndrome is a complication of liver failure that is strongly associated with bad outcomes. Only about the half of the patients will recover from dialysis-dependent hepatorenal syndrome after liver transplantation. The usefulness of combined liver and kidney transplantation has not been sufficiently clarified. Terlipressin together with fluid and albumin substitution appear to be the most promising therapeutic interventions. Extracorporeal liver support systems, such as single-pass albumin dialysis, MARS, and the dialysis- and plasmapheresis-based Prometheus, are still under investigation with regard to effectiveness of toxin elimination, appropriate indications, and number duration of treatments.
Millar, Ian L
In an emergency, life support can be provided during recompression or hyperbaric oxygen therapy using very basic equipment, provided the equipment is hyperbaric-compatible and the clinicians have appropriate experience. For hyperbaric critical care to be provided safely on a routine basis, however, a great deal of preparation and specific equipment is needed, and relatively few facilities have optimal capabilities at present. The type, size and location of the chamber are very influential factors. Although monoplace chamber critical care is possible, it involves special adaptations and inherent limitations that make it inappropriate for all but specifically experienced teams. A large, purpose-designed chamber co-located with an intensive care unit is ideal. Keeping the critically ill patient on their normal bed significantly improves quality of care where this is possible. The latest hyperbaric ventilators have resolved many of the issues normally associated with hyperbaric ventilation, but at significant cost. Multi-parameter monitoring is relatively simple with advanced portable monitors, or preferably installed units that are of the same type as used elsewhere in the hospital. Whilst end-tidal CO₂ readings are changed by pressure and require interpretation, most other parameters display normally. All normal infusions can be continued, with several examples of syringe drivers and infusion pumps shown to function essentially normally at pressure. Techniques exist for continuous suction drainage and most other aspects of standard critical care. At present, the most complex life support technologies such as haemofiltration, cardiac assist devices and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation remain incompatible with the hyperbaric environment.
Evans, Niall; Skowno, Justin; Hodgson, Eric
This review focuses on recent knowledge in areas of anaesthesia expertise which are indispensable to intensive care unit management, including airway management, vascular access, regional analgesia and the treatment of status asthmaticus and status epilepticus. Etomidate as the sole agent for intubation in the intensive care unit has a 90% success rate, while in a prehospital setting, the addition of succinylcholine to etomidate results in a 99% success rate. In determining successful intubation, capnography and laryngoscopic/fibreoptic visualization are superior to auscultation, while auscultation is as effective as the self-inflating bulb or transillumination with the lightwand. The dorsalis pedis artery is an effective alternative to radial artery cannulation, while arterial cannulation itself can result in major adverse effects if complications arise. Ultrasound guidance in the placement of central catheters results in an improved insertion success rate. Internal jugular and subclavian lines have similar risk of haemothorax or pneumothorax, while subclavian lines are associated with the lowest incidence of infection. Midazolam, thiopentone and propofol have all been found to be efficacious in terminating refractory status epilepticus, with thiopentone resulting in a lower incidence of breakthrough seizures or treatment failure but an increased incidence of hypotension. Inhalational anaesthesia using isoflurane or desflurane has also been found to be successful in refractory status epilepticus. In the management of status asthmaticus, limiting minute volume while tolerating hypercapnia and acidosis as well as the use of inhalational anesthesia have proven effective strategies in a number of refractory cases. The anaesthesiologist's unique knowledge and skills are ideally suited to the practical management of patients in a critical care setting as well as in the treatment of the critical phases of many illnesses.
de Back, Tim R; Bodewes, Adee J; Brewster, Lizzy M; Kunst, Anton E
Studies regularly show a higher incidence, prevalence and mortality of cardiovascular disease among immigrant groups from low-income countries. Despite residing in the Netherlands for over 60 years, the Moluccan-Dutch cardiovascular disease profile and health care use are still unknown. We aimed to compare (a) the clinical prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and (b) the use of health care services by cardiovascular disease patients of 5,532 Moluccan-Dutch to an age-sex matched control group of 55,320 native Dutch. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data of the Achmea health insurance company for the period of 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2010. We collected information on health care use, including diagnostic information. Linear and logistic regression models were used for comparison. Moluccans had a higher clinical prevalence of ischemic heart diseases (odds ratio 1.26; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.56), but tended to have a lower prevalence of cerebrovascular accidents (0.79; 0.56-1.11) and cardiac failure (0.67; 0.44-1.03). The clinical prevalence of cardiovascular diseases together tended to be lower among Moluccans (0.90; 0.80-1.00). Consultation of medical specialists did not differ. Angiotensin II inhibitors (1.42; 1.09-1.84), antiplatelet agents (1.27; 1.01-1.59) and statins (1.27; 1.00-1.60) were prescribed more frequently to Moluccans, as were cardiovascular agents in general (1.27; 0.94-1.71). The experience of Moluccans in the Netherlands suggests that, in the long run, cardiovascular risk and related health care use of ethnic minority groups may converge towards that of the majority population.
Rozeboom, Nathan; Parenteau, Kathy; Carratturo, Daniel
Each year between 10 000 and 12 000 spinal cord injuries occur in the United States. Once injured, many of these patients will receive a portion of their care in an intensive care unit (ICU), where their treatment will begin. Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, provides comprehensive care to approximately 60 to 70 cervical spinal cord injuries each year. Because of many factors such as hemodynamic instability, pulmonary complications, and risk of infection, patients with cervical spinal cord injuries can spend up to 2 or more weeks in the ICU before they transfer to a rehabilitation unit. To achieve optimal outcomes, it is imperative that members of the interdisciplinary team work together in a consistent, goal-oriented, collaborative manner. This team includes physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, physical and occupational therapists, speech pathologists, dieticians, and rehabilitation psychologists. An individual plan is developed for each patient and rehabilitation starts in the ICU as soon as the patient is medically stable. This article will highlight the management strategies used in the neuroscience ICU at Harborview Medical Center and will include a case study as an example of the typical experience for our patients with high cervical cord injury.
Hall, Jesse B
for control of pain that may accompany critical illness, it is now possible to block the peripheral actions of these medications with the μ-receptor antagonist methylnaltrexone. Other new drugs being introduced into the critical care unit such as dexmedetomidine may also provide a greater ability to achieve analgesia and anxiolysis without some of the adverse concomitant effects seen with more traditional drug regimens. The ultimate goal of this multipronged program to facilitate the maintenance of patients who are more interactive with their care providers, and the life support provided in the intensive care unit would be to speed the pace of recovery and to diminish the need for the protracted rehabilitation that often follows survival from critical illness.
Willemse, Suzan; Smeets, Wim; van Leeuwen, Evert; Janssen, Loes; Foudraine, Norbert
Since there are no scientific data available about the role of spiritual care (SC) in Dutch ICUs, the goal of this quantitative study was twofold: first, to map the role of SC as a part of daily adult ICU care in The Netherlands from the perspective of intensivists, ICU nurses, and spiritual caregivers and second, to identify similarities and differences among these three perspectives. This study is the quantitative part of a mixed methods approach. To conduct empirical quantitative cohort research, separate digital questionnaires were sent to three different participant groups in Dutch ICUs, namely intensivists, ICU nurses, and spiritual caregivers working in academic and general hospitals and one specialist oncology hospital. Overall, 487 participants of 85 hospitals (99 intensivists, 290 ICU nurses, and 98 spiritual caregivers) responded. The majority of all respondents (>70%) considered the positive effects of SC provision to patients and relatives: contribution to mental well-being, processing and channeling of emotions, and increased patient and family satisfaction. The three disciplines diverged in their perceptions of how SC is currently evolving in terms of information, assessment, and provision. Nationwide, SC is not implemented in daily ICU care. The majority of respondents, however, attached great importance to interdisciplinary collaboration. In their view SC contributes positively to the well-being of patients and relatives in the ICU. Further qualitative research into how patients and relatives experience SC in the ICU is required in order to implement and standardize SC as a scientifically based integral part of daily ICU care.
Chuang, Chien-Huai; Tseng, Pei-Chi; Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Kuan-Han; Chen, Yen-Yuan
Abstract Background: Burnout has been described as a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stress on the job that is often the result of a period of expending excessive effort at work while having too little recovery time. Healthcare workers who work in a stressful medical environment, especially in an intensive care unit (ICU), may be particularly susceptible to burnout. In healthcare workers, burnout may affect their well-being and the quality of professional care they provide and can, therefore, be detrimental to patient safety. The objectives of this study were: to determine the prevalence of burnout in the ICU setting; and to identify factors associated with burnout in ICU professionals. Methods: The original articles for observational studies were retrieved from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science in June 2016 using the following MeSH terms: “burnout” and “intensive care unit”. Articles that were published in English between January 1996 and June 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers evaluated the abstracts identified using our search criteria prior to full text review. To be included in the final analysis, studies were required to have employed an observational study design and examined the associations between any risk factors and burnout in the ICU setting. Results: Overall, 203 full text articles were identified in the electronic databases after the exclusion of duplicate articles. After the initial review, 25 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of burnout in ICU professionals in the included studies ranged from 6% to 47%. The following factors were reported to be associated with burnout: age, sex, marital status, personality traits, work experience in an ICU, work environment, workload and shift work, ethical issues, and end-of-life decision-making. Conclusions: The impact of the identified factors on burnout remains poorly understood. Nevertheless, this review presents important information
Epelbaum, Oleg; Chasan, Rachel
Candidemia presents several challenges to the intensive care unit (ICU) community. Recognition and treatment of this infection is frequently delayed, with dramatic clinical deterioration and death often preceding the detection of Candida in blood cultures. Identification of individual patients at the highest risk for developing candidemia remains an imperfect science; the role of antifungal therapy before culture diagnosis is yet to be fully defined in the ICU. The absence of well-established molecular techniques for early detection of candidemia hinders efforts to reduce the heavy clinical and economic impact of this infection. Echinocandins are the recommended antifungal drug class for the treatment of ICU candidemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Metabolic alkalosis is a commonly seen imbalance in the intensive care unit (ICU). Extreme metabolic alkalemia, however, is less common. A pH greater than 7.65 may carry a high risk of mortality (up to 80%). We discuss the entity of life threatening metabolic alkalemia by means of two illustrative cases - both with a pH greater than 7.65 on presentation. The cause, modalities of managing and complications of this condition is discussed from the point of view of both the traditional method of Henderson and Hasselbalch and the mathematical model based on physiochemical model described by Stewart. Special mention to the pitfalls in managing patients of metabolic alkalosis with concomitant renal compromise is made. PMID:20436691
Nouira, Kaouther; Trabelsi, Abdelwahed
We address in the present paper a medical monitoring system designed as a multi-agent based approach. Our system includes mainly numerous agents that act as correlated multi-agent sub-systems at the three layers of the whole monitoring infrastructure, to avoid non informative alarms and send effective alarms at time. The intelligence in the proposed monitoring system is provided by the use of time series technology. In fact, the capability of continuous learning of time series from the physiological variables allows the design of a system that monitors patients in real-time. Such system is a contrast to the classical threshold-based monitoring system actually present in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) which causes a huge number of irrelevant alarms.
Zaragoza, Rafael; Ramírez, Paula; López-Pueyo, María Jesús
Nosocomial infections (NI) still have a high incidence in intensive care units (ICUs), and are becoming one of the most important problems in these units. It is well known that these infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, and are associated with increases in the length of stay and excessive hospital costs. Based on the data from the ENVIN-UCI study, the rates and aetiology of the main nosocomial infections have been described, and include ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and both primary and catheter related bloodstream infections, as well as the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. A literature review on the impact of different nosocomial infections in critically ill patients is also presented. Infection control programs such as zero bacteraemia and pneumonia have been also analysed, and show a significant decrease in NI rates in ICUs.
Carbajal, R; Lenclen, R; Paupe, A; Blanc, P; Hoenn, E; Couderc, S
Jargon, the specialized vocabulary and idioms, is frequently used by people of the same work or profession. The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) makes no exception to this. As a matter of fact, NICU is one place where jargon is constantly developing in parallel with the evolution of techniques and treatments. The use of jargon within the NICU is very practical for those who work in these units. However, this jargon is frequently used by neonatologists in medical reports or other kinds of communication with unspecialized physicians. Even if part of the specialized vocabulary can be decoded by physicians not working in the NICU, they do not always know the exact place that these techniques or treatments have in the management of their patients. The aim of this article is to describe the most frequent jargon terms used in the French NICU and to give up-to-date information on the importance of the techniques or treatments that they describe.
Misanovic, Verica; Pokrajac, Danka; Zubcevic, Smail; Hadzimuratovic, Admir; Rahmanovic, Samra; Dizdar, Selma; Jonuzi, Asmir; Begic, Edin
Introduction: Plasmapheresis also known as a therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is extracorporeal procedure by which individual components of plasma that are harmful or blood cells can be removed from organism by using a blood separation technology. Aim: To present the results of the implementation of plasmapheresis in children in the Department of Pediatric Intensive Care of Pediatric Clinic, Clinical center of Sarajevo University, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Patients and methods: Research (period from December 2011 to June 2016) analyzed 66 plasmapheresis (11 patients–6 plasmapheresis per patient). Results: Out of 11 patients, 7 (63.6%) were girls and 4 (36.4%) were boys. The average age of patients was 11.6 ± 3.9 years (the youngest patient had 4 years and 7 months, while the oldest had 16 years and 10 months). Plasmapheresis were significantly more often done in the winter and summer. Underlying disease was in 54.5% of cases of neurological origin. The treatment was in form of receiving IVIG in 7 patients, or the application of mechanical ventilation in 6 patients. The most common complication was hypotension, which occurred in 45.5% of patients, followed by bleeding in 36.3%, hypercoagulability in 27.2% of patients and hematoma in 27.2% of patients. Lethal outcome occurred in 3 (27.2%) patients. Conclusion: Plasmapheresis represents an invasive method due to need for placement of centralized venous catheter that provides adequate blood flow during the procedure. Although complications can be serious, they are rare and are mainly related to the presence of central venous catheter, hemostasis disorders due to use of anticoagulant therapy, and hypotension of the cardiovascular system. It should be noted that for success of plasmapheresis in children multidisciplinary approach is necessary (children’s nephrologist, neuropediatrician, intensive care doctor) as well as well-trained team of doctors and nurses with the acquired knowledge and skills. PMID:27994290
Kopp, K H; Blanig, I; Rabenschlag, R; Vogel, W
A statistical analysis of the case material at the Intensive Care Unit, Freiburg, for the years 1975 and 1976 established that 40% and 39% respectively of patients with multiple injuries had also suffered a chest trauma and that the latter was the direct cause of respiratory insufficiency in 61% (1975) and 57% (1976) of patients in need of controlled respiration, i.e. respiratory insufficiency dominated the clinical and pathophysiological picture. The causes were: restricted respiratory movements due to pain, compression of the lungs or pathological changes in the injured lung, and they affected the normal gaseous exchange in a variety of ways. Alveolar hypoventilation with disturbance of ventilation-perfusion, increase in the functional shunt volume, rise in the functional dead space combined with reduced functional residual capacity and compliance result, if left uncorrected, in a drastic increase of resistance on the part of the pulmonary vessels and finally in, often fatal, hyoxaemia and hypercapnia. Regular estimations of the arterial blood gases in air and pure oxygen, of the arterio-alveolar difference in oxygen pressure, shunt volume, dead space and effective compliance of the chest wall and lungs are, therefore, essential. Treatment in an intensive care unit comprises the relief of any acute condition, such as tension pneumothorax, haemothorax, and general measures. Means to relieve pain in patients whose chest injuries are not sufficiently severe to require artificial ventilation are: intercostal blocking, acupuncture or peridural analgesia; efficient breathing exercises are important. The indications for artificial ventilation should be interpreted generously and the decision to perform it should be made at an early stage. The technique is determined by the type of pathological changes in the gaseous exchange and should aim at restoring normal conditions as far as possible.
Gamel, C; Hengeveld, M W; Davis, B; Van der Tweel, I
A descriptive-correlational design was used with a sample of Dutch cancer nurses (n = 104) to describe provision of sexual health care (SHC) and to explore influential factors. This report is limited to the second goal. The Theory of Reasoned Action provided the conceptual framework for investigation of five previously identified factors and one unexplored factor. Knowledge, comfort, attitude (towards sexuality) and subjective norm were significantly related with provision of SHC. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that knowledge and comfort were significant explanatory variables, accounting for 37% of the variance.
Padovani, Aline Rodrigues; Moraes, Danielle Pedroni; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de
To report the results of the full clinical swallowing assessment in acute-care population in a large Brazilian teaching hospital. A prospective, descriptive clinical study was conducted during three months in a 30-bed adult clinical emergency ICU from a large Brazilian teaching hospital. Thirty-five patients consecutively referred to the Speech-Language Pathology Service according to our standard clinical practice were included. A full clinical swallowing assessment was completed and includes a Preliminary Assessment Protocol (PAP), a Dysphagia Risk Evaluation Protocol (DREP) and an Oral Feeding Transition Protocol (OFTP). In this study, the prevalence of OD in the ICU setting was of 63%, most of which were classified as moderate and moderate-severe (39%). Patients submitted to orotracheal intubation were very frequently referred to swallowing assessment (74%). The results of the statistical analyses revealed clinical indicators that could correctly classify patients as either having or not having OD on clinical tests. These include cough strength, coordination between breathing and speaking, dysphonia severity, and laryngeal elevation. Twenty six patients (74%) completed all protocols. Of these total, 38% were able to eat a regular diet. The practice with standardized protocols adds an important option for the management of oropharyngeal dysphagia in intensive care unit.
Magnavita, V; Arslan, E; Benini, F
This study evaluates the exposure of newborn babies in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) to noise which can cause hearing lesions directly (acoustic trauma) as well as indirectly (hypoxia). Moreover, noise can have an aggravating effect when combined with other potentially harmful factors in the NICU, such as ototoxic medication or stress due to other external stimuli, such as excessively bright light, lack of a day/night rhythm or pain. Sound pressure levels were measured in the NICU and inside the cribs in various experimental conditions, classified under 3 different types of sound events: constant background noise, variations in background noise and impulsive events. The main sources of noise detected were crib noise generated by ventilation and temperature control systems, ambient noise in the room, noise caused by the staff in the NICU, noise generated by crib alarm systems and NICU apparatus and noise caused by activity on the crib cover or on its plexiglas top. Findings revealed that the influence of ambient noise is fairly irrelevant. Background noise and its variations concerned with activities in the department never exceeded the limits considered potentially harmful to adults (DRC), whereas the impulsive noise generated by staff on the cribs or on the plexiglas tops was considerable and potentially harmful. These findings demonstrate that it is feasible and relatively easy to control noise in the NICU and significantly reduce the impulsive noise component by training staff to be more careful and avoid any unnecessary jolting and rough handling on and near the cribs.
Bricolo, A; Faccioli, F; Grosslercher, J C; Pasut, M L; Pinna, G P; Turazzi, S
Spontaneous electrical activity (EEG) and event-related computer averaged brain electrical potentials (EPs) are becoming an integral part of CNS function monitoring in neurological intensive care patients. EEG monitoring using the compressed spectral array (CSA) computer analysis offers continuous information about cerebral electrical activity, permitting an accurate definition of the severity of brain injury, forecasting patient's course, and early detection of secondary intracranial changes. It offers more precise indications for treatment and prognosis. Combining EEG with multimodality EPs permits a finer diagnosis of the location and extent of CNS damage and contributes information, not otherwise obtainable, on the integrity of CNS pathways. Changes is electrophysiological patterns are often related to changes in other physiological parameters or events affecting the patient. Consequently, it appears advantageous to monitor simultaneously other CNS and body functions and record, process and display the data obtained in the patient care area. To make this comprehensive monitoring system reliable and useful, a wise application of advanced computer technology and a high degree of understanding of intracranial dynamics are required.
Sachdev, Anil; Sharma, Rachna; Gupta, Dhiren
Cerebrovascular complications are being frequently recognized in the pediatric intensive care unit in the recent few years. The epidemiology and risk factors for pediatric stroke are different from that of the adults. The incidence of ischemic stroke is almost slightly more than that of hemorrhagic stroke. The list of diagnostic causes is increasing with the availability of newer imaging modalities and laboratory tests. The diagnostic work up depends on the age of the child and the rapidity of presentation. Magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography and arteriography and venography are the mainstay of diagnosis and to differentiate between ischemic and hemorrhagic events. Very sophisticated molecular diagnostic tests are required in a very few patients. There are very few pediatric studies on the management of stroke. General supportive management is as important as the specific treatment. Most of the treatment guidelines and suggestions are extrapolated from the adult studies. Few guidelines are available for the use of anticoagulants and thrombolytic agents in pediatric patients. So, our objective was to review the available literature on the childhood stroke and to provide an insight into the subject for the pediatricians and critical care providers. PMID:21253346
Fabris, C; Coscia, A; Tonetto, P; Bertino, E; Quadrino, S
Counselling is a professional intervention based on skills to communicate and to build relationships. The project "Not alone", related to counselling at our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, is aimed to let counselling become a "shared culture" for all the care givers. The first essential aspect is to form the ability of counselling through periodic courses for all professionals of the department (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists). In our department a professional counsellor is present assisting the medical staff in direct counselling. The counsellor's intervention allows a better parent orientation in the situation. A more effective sharing of these rules also facilitates the communication among parents and medical staff. Periodic meetings are established among the medical staff, in which the professional counsellor discusses difficult situations in order to share possible communicative strategies. We wanted to have not only a common communicative style, but also common subjects, independent from the characteristics of each of us. Individuals are often faced with diverse situations. For every setting that we more frequently face in communication (for example the first interview with a parent of a very preterm infant) we have built an "algorithm" that follows a pattern: (1) information always given; (2) frequent questions from parents, (3) frequent difficulties in the communication. We also need to record important moments, for instance the "case history of the communication": in fact it would be desirable to have the case history, a sheet dedicated to important communications that are absolutely to be shared with other professionals.
Friese, Randall S.; Gehlbach, Brian K.; Schwab, Richard J.; Weinhouse, Gerald L.; Jones, Shirley F.
Sleep is an important physiologic process, and lack of sleep is associated with a host of adverse outcomes. Basic and clinical research has documented the important role circadian rhythm plays in biologic function. Critical illness is a time of extreme vulnerability for patients, and the important role sleep may play in recovery for intensive care unit (ICU) patients is just beginning to be explored. This concise clinical review focuses on the current state of research examining sleep in critical illness. We discuss sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities that occur in ICU patients and the challenges to measuring alterations in circadian rhythm in critical illness and review methods to measure sleep in the ICU, including polysomnography, actigraphy, and questionnaires. We discuss data on the impact of potentially modifiable disruptors to patient sleep, such as noise, light, and patient care activities, and report on potential methods to improve sleep in the setting of critical illness. Finally, we review the latest literature on sleep disturbances that persist or develop after critical illness. PMID:25594808
van Diepen, Sean; Sligl, Wendy I; Washam, Jeffrey B; Gilchrist, Ian C; Arora, Rakesh C; Katz, Jason N
Over the past half century, coronary care units have expanded from specialized ischemia arrhythmia monitoring units into intensive care units (ICUs) for acutely ill and medically complex patients with a primary cardiac diagnosis. Patients admitted to contemporary coronary intensive care units (CICUs) are at risk for common and preventable critical care complications, yet many CICUs have not adopted standard-of-care prevention protocols and practices from general ICUs. In this article, we (1) review evidence-based interventions and care bundles that reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, excess sedation during mechanical ventilation, central line infections, stress ulcers, malnutrition, delirium, and medication errors and (2) recommend pragmatic adaptations for common conditions in critically ill patients with cardiac disease, and (3) provide example order sets and practical CICU protocol implementation strategies.
Orzalesi, Marcello; Aite, Lucia
The psycho-relational problems in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) are complex and multifaceted and have only recently been properly addressed. Some specific factors make communication in NICU particularly problematic; the baby's clinical condition, the emotional and working conditions of the medical staff, the emotional state of the parents and the setting of the NICU and the interaction of multiple professional figures with the parents. The purpose of communication in NICUs is not only to inform parents of their child's clinical condition; the medical and nursing staff must also educate and guide parents so that they can actively participate in caring for their child and become true "partners" with the medical team in the decision-making process. Furthermore, the staff must also use their communication skills to understand and contain the anxieties and emotions of parents, supporting and comforting them through the most critical moments of their child's illness and possibly even bereavement. Given the number and complexity of the interpersonal exchanges that take place in the NICU, the risk of misunderstanding, misinterpretation and conflict is high. One could say that the interpersonal aspect is an area where the risk of iatrogenesis is elevated. It is recognized that poor staff-family interactions not only reflect negatively on the baby's care and are a source of distress and discontent for the parents, but are also a major cause of medico-legal litigation and increase the incidence of "burnout". Therefore, specific training of the staff in communication is essential if the optimal results, obtained through modern technology, are not to be invalidated.
Arutyunyan, Tsovinar; Odetola, Folafoluwa; Swieringa, Ryan; Niedner, Matthew
Parents of seriously ill children require attention to their spiritual needs, especially during end-of-life care. The objective of this study was to characterize parental attitudes regarding physician inquiry into their belief system. Materials and Main Results: A total of 162 surveys from parents of children hospitalized for >48 hours in pediatric intensive care unit in a tertiary academic medical center were analyzed. Forty-nine percent of all respondents and 62% of those who identified themselves as moderate to very spiritual or religious stated that their beliefs influenced the decisions they made about their child's medical care. Although 34% of all respondents would like their physician to ask about their spiritual or religious beliefs, 48% would desire such enquiry if their child was seriously ill. Those who identified themselves as moderate to very spiritual or religious were most likely to welcome the discussion ( P < .001). Two-thirds of the respondents would feel comforted to know that their child's physician prayed for their child. One-third of all respondents would feel very comfortable discussing their beliefs with a physician, whereas 62% would feel very comfortable having such discussions with a chaplain. The study findings suggest parental ambivalence when it comes to discussing their spiritual or religious beliefs with their child's physicians. Given that improved understanding of parental spiritual and religious beliefs may be important in the decision-making process, incorporation of the expertise of professional spiritual care providers may provide the optimal context for enhanced parent-physician collaboration in the care of the critically ill child.
Stylianides, Nikolas; Dikaiakos, Marios D; Gjermundrød, Harald; Panayi, George; Kyprianou, Theodoros
This paper introduces a novel, open-source middleware framework for communication with medical devices and an application using the middleware named intensive care window (ICW). The middleware enables communication with intensive care unit bedside-installed medical devices over standard and proprietary communication protocol stacks. The ICW application facilitates the acquisition of vital signs and physiological parameters exported from patient-attached medical devices and sensors. Moreover, ICW provides runtime and post-analysis procedures for data annotation, data visualization, data query, and analysis. The ICW application can be deployed as a stand-alone solution or in conjunction with existing clinical information systems providing a holistic solution to inpatient medical condition monitoring, early diagnosis, and prognosis.
Pérez-Navero, J L; Dorao Martínez-Romillo, P; López-Herce Cid, J; Ibarra de la Rosa, I; Pujol Jover, M; Hermana Tezanos, María T
To perform an epidemiologic study of artificial nutrition in critically-ill pediatric patients. A multicenter, prospective and descriptive study was conducted in 23 Spanish intensive care units (ICU) (18 pediatric ICUs and five pediatric/neonatal ICUs) over a 1-month period. Artificial nutrition (AN) was required by 165 critically-ill patients (21.4 %). Data on diagnosis, severity, treatment, type of nutrition administered and complications were analyzed. A total of 54.4 % of the participants were younger than 1 year, 19.4 % were aged between 1 and 5 years old, 15.7 % between 5 and 10 years old and 13.4 % were older than 10 years. ICU mean length stay was 11 days. One hundred six patients were administered enteral nutrition (EN): 67.9 % continuous nasogastric EN, 27.4 intermittent nasogastric EN, 16 % nasojejunal EN, 2.8 % gastrostomy EN. Eighty patients required parenteral nutrition (PN): 86.3 % central PN, 20 % peripheral PN. No significant differences were found between patients with EN and PN in mean energy intake, days receiving AN, diagnosis at admission to the ICU, disease severity (measured by PRISM III) or intensive support techniques. The EN group required greater inotropic support. Patients undergoing mechanical ventilation had equal mortality independent of the type of AN. The most common complications in EN were: 17.9 % emesis, 13.2 % abdominal distension, 11.3 % diarrhea, 4.7 % gastric residual volumes, and 6.6 % hypokalemia. In PN complications consisted of: 5 % catheter related infection, 1.3 % thrombophlebitis, 7.5 % hyponatremia, 3.8 % hypoglycemia, 6.3 % hypophosphatemia and 3.8 % hypertriglyceridemia. EN provides critically-ill children with adequate energy intake and is well tolerated. Therefore, if there are no contraindications, EN should be the system of choice in the critically-ill patient requiring AN.
Sungur, Murat; Güven, Muhammed
Introduction Organophosphate (OP) insecticides inhibit both cholinesterase and pseudo-cholinesterase activities. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase causes accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses, and overstimulation of neurotransmission occurs as a result of this accumulation. The mortality rate of OP poisoning is high. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is often life saving. Treatment of OP poisoning consists of intravenous atropine and oximes. The clinical course of OP poisoning may be quite severe and may need intensive care management. We report our experience with the intensive care management of serious OP insecticide poisonings. Methods A retrospective study was performed on the patients with OP poisoning followed at our medical intensive care unit. Forty-seven patients were included. Diagnosis was performed from the history taken either from the patient or from the patient's relatives about the agent involved in the exposure. Diagnosis could not be confirmed with serum and red blood cell anticholinesterase levels because these are not performed at our institution. Intravenous atropine and pralidoxime was administered as soon as possible. Pralidoxime could not be given to 16 patients: 2 patients did not receive pralidoxime because they were late admissions and 14 did not receive pralidoxime because the Ministry of Health office was out of stock. Other measures for the treatment were gastric lavage and administration of activated charcoal via nasogastric tube, and cleansing the patient's body with soap and water. The patients were intubated and mechanically ventilated if the patients had respiratory failure, a depressed level of consciousness, which causes an inability to protect the airway, and hemodynamic instability. Mechanical ventilation was performed as synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation + pressure support mode, either as volume or pressure control. Positive end expiratory pressure was titrated to keep SaO2 above 94% with 40
Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha
The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated
Gonçalves, C L; Mota, F V; Ferreira, G F; Mendes, J F; Pereira, E C; Freitas, C H; Vieira, J N; Villarreal, J P; Nascente, P S
The presence of airborne fungi in Intensive Care Unit (ICUs) is associated with increased nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of airborne fungi presented in an ICU from the University Hospital of Pelotas - RS, with the attempt to know the place's environmental microbiota. 40 Petri plates with Sabouraud Dextrose Agar were exposed to an environment of an ICU, where samples were collected in strategic places during morning and afternoon periods for ten days. Seven fungi genera were identified: Penicillium spp. (15.18%), genus with the higher frequency, followed by Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Paecelomyces spp., Curvularia spp., Alternaria spp., Zygomycetes and sterile mycelium. The most predominant fungi genus were Aspergillus spp. (13.92%) in the morning and Cladosporium spp. (13.92%) in the afternoon. Due to their involvement in different diseases, the identified fungi genera can be classified as potential pathogens of inpatients. These results reinforce the need of monitoring the environmental microorganisms with high frequency and efficiently in health institutions.
Gilligan, J E; Goon, P; Maughan, G; Griggs, W; Haslam, R; Scholten, A
A fixed-wing aircraft (Beechcraft KingAir B200 C) fitted as an airborne intensive care facility is described. It completed 2000 missions from 1987-1992 for distances up to 1300 km. Features include: 1. Space for carriage of two stretchers, medical cabin crew of up to five persons and equipment and two-pilot operation if necessary. A third stretcher may be carried in emergencies. 2. Two CARDIOCAP (TM) fixed monitors for ECG, invasive and noninvasive pressures pulse oximetry and end-tidal C02 plus SIEMENS 630(TM)/PROPAQ(TM) compact monitors for the ground transport phase of missions, or the total duration. 3. A medical oxygen reservoir of 4650 litres sufficient for two patients on IPPV with FiO2 = 1.0 for a four-hour trip. The medical suction system is powered from the engine or a vacuum pump. 4. Other medical equipment and drugs in portable packs, for ground transport and resuscitation needs and for replenishment by nursing staff at the parent hospitals. 5. Stretchers compatible with helicopter and road ambulance vehicles used. 6. A stretcher loading device energized from the aircraft, operating through a wide (cargo) door. 7. Provision of 24Ov AC (alternating current) and 28v DC (direct current) electrical energy. 8. Pressurization and climate control. 9. Satisfactory aviation performance for conditions encountered, with single-pilot operation.
Keller, E; Neher, M; Schuster, H P
A high mortality rate of the patients in the Surgical University Clinic Mainz in 2441 laparotomies from 1977 to 1979 with 92 relaparotomies in 66 patients (40% proving fatal) could be associated with the following factors: female sex, old age in males, malignant disease, esp. carcinoma of pancreas, colon and rectum, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, presence of concomitant affections, esp. three or more and particularly angiocardiopathy, liver diseases and after radiotherapy, long lasting primary operation, several operations in short intervals (about a week). Astonishingly we found a lower rate of mortality in cases of: Primary laparotomy in an emergency situation, postoperative complications within the first two days or after several weeks, multiple relaparotomies within intervals of at least two weeks. In cases of several severe postoperative complications, esp. renal insufficiency with dependence on dialysis and simultaneous respiratory insufficiency with dependence on artificial respiration a relaparotomy is indicated, if the intra-abdominal complication can be cured. In these cases the intensive care cannot cure the patient's conditions, but mechanical respiration and dialysis improve it. The existence of lethal trias of renal and respiratory insufficiency with a surely unremovable surgical problem forbids a relaparotomy.
Girard, Timothy D; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Ely, E Wesley
Delirium, an acute and fluctuating disturbance of consciousness and cognition, is a common manifestation of acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients, occurring in up to 80% of the sickest intensive care unit (ICU) populations. Critically ill patients are subject to numerous risk factors for delirium. Some of these, such as exposure to sedative and analgesic medications, may be modified to reduce risk. Although dysfunction of other organ systems continues to receive more clinical attention, delirium is now recognized to be a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in the ICU, and it is recommended that all ICU patients be monitored using a validated delirium assessment instrument. Patients with delirium have longer hospital stays and lower 6-month survival than do patients without delirium, and preliminary research suggests that delirium may be associated with cognitive impairment that persists months to years after discharge. Little evidence exists regarding the prevention and treatment of delirium in the ICU, but multicomponent interventions reduce the incidence of delirium in non-ICU studies. Strategies for the prevention and treatment of ICU delirium are the subjects of multiple ongoing investigations.
Bouza, Emilio; Muñoz, Patricia
The incidence of candidemia in the overall population ranges from 1.7 to 10 episodes per 100,000 inhabitants and Candida is one of the ten leading causes of bloodstream infections in developed countries. An estimated 33-55% of all episodes of candidemia occur in intensive care units (ICU) and are associated with mortality rates ranging from 5% to 71%. Candida fungemia may have an endogenous or an exogenous origin, and in recent years a growing proportion of episodes of candidemia have been caused by Candida species other than albicans. The most important independent conditions predisposing to candidemia in ICU patients include prior abdominal surgery, intravascular catheters, acute renal failure, parenteral nutrition, broad-spectrum antibiotics, a prolonged ICU stay, the use of corticosteroids and mucosal colonization with Candida. In recent years, several studies have shown that ICU patients with mucosal Candida colonization, particularly if multifocal, are at a higher risk for invasive candidiasis, and that colonization selects a population amenable to antifungal prophylaxis or empirical therapy. Candidemia in ICUs is associated with a considerable increase in hospital costs and length of hospital stay.
Singhi, Sunit; Deep, Akash
Candidemia and disseminated candidiasis are major causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units (ICU). The incidence of invasive candidasis is on a steady rise because of increasing use of multiple antibiotics and invasive procedures carried out in the ICUs. Worldwide there is a shifting trend from C. albicans towards non albicans species, with an associated increase in mortality and antifungal resistance. In the ICU a predisposed host in one who is on broad spectrum antibiotics, parenteral nutrition, and central venous catheters. There are no pathognomonic signs or symptoms. The clinical clues are: unexplained fever or signs of severe sepsis or septic shock while on antibiotics, multiple, non-tender, nodular erythematous cutaneous lesions. The spectrum of infection with candida species range from superficial candidiasis of the skin and mucosa to more serious life threatening infections. Treatment of candidiasis involves removal of the most likely source of infection and drug therapy to speed up the clearance of infection. Amphotericin B remains the initial drug of first choice in hemodynamically unstable critically ill children in the wake of increasing resistance to azoles. Evaluation of newer antifungal agents and precise role of prophylactic therapy in ICU patients is needed.
Musca, Steven; Desai, Shilpa; Roberts, Brigit; Paterson, Timothy; Anstey, Matthew
To test a simple clinical guideline to reduce unnecessary routine testing of coagulation status. A prospective, unblinded, observational study of coagulation testing frequency before and after introduction of a simple clinical guideline. We included 253 patients admitted to a tertiary intensive care unit: 100 patients consecutively enrolled before our intervention (May - July 2015) and 153 patients consecutively enrolled after our intervention (August - September 2015). We introduced a clinical guideline and educational program in the ICU from 18 August 2015. The number of coagulation tests performed per patient bed-day, and the associated pathology costs. Over the 3-month sample period, 999 coagulation profiles were performed for 253 patients: 720 (72%) in 100 patients before, and 279 (28%) in 153 patients after our intervention. The testing frequency fell from 1.12 to 0.41 per patient bed-day (P < 0.001). A total of 463 pre-intervention coagulation profiles (64%) were classified as unnecessary, and the cost of all coagulation tests fell by 60.5% per bedday after the intervention. A simple clinical guideline and educational package reduced unnecessary coagulation tests and costs in a tertiary referral ICU.
... parts of the hospital. Some of these more intensive therapies include ventilators (breathing machines) and certain medicines that ... that a child no longer needs such an intensive level of monitoring, therapy, and/or nursing care. But leaving the PICU ...
Magnée, Tessa; de Beurs, Derek P; Kok, Thomas Y; Verhaak, Peter F
A reform of Dutch mental health care aimed to substitute care from specialized care to general practice. Since 1 January 2014, Dutch general practitioners (GPs) are no longer allowed to refer patients without a psychiatric disorder to mental health care. Patients with non-complex psychological problems should be treated within general practice. To explore the feasibility of the Dutch mental health policy. We conducted an observational case study in a primary health care centre in 2014. The health care centre was a convenience sample; the participating GPs reorganized mental health care in line with the upcoming policy, and invited the researchers to monitor their referrals. We assessed how many patients with mental health problems (n = 408) were allocated to policy-concordant treatment. Additionally, 137 patients (33%) completed a follow up assessment on mental health problems 3 months after baseline. The majority of the patients were allocated to treatment in line with the policy. Almost half of the patients (42%) were treated in a setting that was exactly policy-concordant, while the other half (47%) was treated in a setting that was even less specialized than was allowed. In general, patients showed improvement after 3 months, regardless of (non) policy-concordant treatment. Attrition rate after 3 months was high, probably due to the practical study design. There is potential for substitution of mental health care. Since the studied health care centre was specialized in mental health care, further research should explore if similar results can be found in other general practices.
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Bivalirudin is a direct thrombin inhibitor used in the cardiac intensive care unit when heparin is contraindicated due to...UU Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Adaptive Control of Bivalirudin in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit The views, opinions and...Suite 5.300 Austin, TX 78712 -1532 ABSTRACT Adaptive Control of Bivalirudin in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Report Title Bivalirudin is a direct
Conner, J M; Nelson, E C
Health care systems today are complex, technically proficient, competitive, and market-driven. One outcome of this environment is the recent phenomenon in the health care field of "consumerism." Strong emphasis is placed on customer service, with organized efforts to understand, measure, and meet the needs of customers served. The purpose of this article is to describe the current understanding and measurement of parent needs and expectations with neonatal intensive care services from the time the expectant parents enter the health care system for the birth through the discharge process and follow-up care. Through literature review, 11 dimensions of care were identified as important to parents whose infants received neonatal intensive care: assurance, caring, communication, consistent information, education, environment, follow-up care, pain management, participation, proximity, and support. Five parent satisfaction questionnaires-the Parent Feedback Questionnaire, Neonatal Index of Parent Satisfaction, Inpatient Parent Satisfaction-Children's Hospital Minneapolis, Picker Institute-Inpatient Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Survey, and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit-Parent Satisfaction Form-are critically reviewed for their ability to measure parent satisfaction within the framework of the neonatal care delivery process. An immense gap was found in our understanding about what matters most and when to parents going through the neonatal intensive care experience. Additional research is required to develop comprehensive parent satisfaction surveys that measure parent perceptions of neonatal care within the framework of the care delivery process.
Maarse, J A M; Ruwaard, D; Spreeuwenberg, C
This article gives a brief sketch of quality management in Dutch health care. Our focus is upon the governance of guideline development and quality measurement. Governance is conceptualized as the structure and process of steering of quality management. The governance structure of guideline development in the Netherlands can be conceptualized as a network without central coordination. Much depends upon the self-initiative of stakeholders. A similar picture can be found in quality measurement. Special attention is given to the development of care standards for chronic disease. Care standards have a broader scope than guidelines and take an explicit patient perspective. They not only contain evidence-based and up-to-date guidelines for the care pathway but also contain standards for self-management. Furthermore, they comprise a set of indicators for measuring the quality of care of the entire pathway covered by the standard. The final part of the article discusses the mission, tasks and strategic challenges of the newly established National Health Care Institute (Zorginstituut Nederland), which is scheduled to be operative in 2013.
Ridley, S; Burchett, K; Gunning, K; Burns, A; Kong, A; Wright, M; Hunt, P; Ross, S
Reports and guidelines concerning intensive care practice have been issued recently. However, the introduction of such centrally issued recommendations may be difficult because of marked heterogeneity between intensive care units. This study examined the facilities (number of beds, consultant sessions, nursing establishment), annual workload (number and types of patients admitted) and outcome (intensive care unit mortality) in the (old) Anglia Region. There were significant differences in the distribution of patients' ages, severities of illness, diagnoses, durations of admission and outcomes. Such heterogeneity may make multicentre trials more difficult to conduct and create problems when uniform measures designed to improve intensive care services are being planned.
Martin, J; Braun, J-P
In areas requiring maximum safety like intensive care units or operating room departments, modern quality management and risk management are essential. Treatment of critically ill patients is associated with high risk and, therefore, demands risk management and quality management. External quality assessment in intensive care medicine has been developed based on a core data set and quality indicators. A peer review procedure has been established. In addition, regional networks of intensive care physicians result in improved local networking. In intensive care medicine, this innovative modular system of quality management and risk management is pursued more consequently than in any other specialty.
Sadek, Ahmed-Ramadan; Damian, Maxwell; Eynon, C Andy
The neurosciences intensive care unit provides specialized medical and nursing care to both the neurosurgical and neurological patient. This second of two articles describes the role it plays in the management of patients with neurological conditions.
Coyer, Fiona; Miles, Sandra; Gosley, Sandra; Fulbrook, Paul; Sketcher-Baker, Kirstine; Cook, Jane-Louise; Whitmore, Jacqueline
Hospital-acquired pressure injury is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and considered to be largely preventable. Pressure injury prevalence is regarded as a marker of health care quality. To compare the state-wide prevalence, severity and location of pressure injuries of intensive care unit patients compared to patients in non-intensive care wards. The study employed a secondary data analysis design to extract and analyse de-identified pressure injury data from all Queensland Health hospitals with level I-III intensive care facilities that participated in Queensland Bedside Audits between 2012-2014. The sample included all adult ICU and non-ICU patients that provided consent for the Queensland Bedside Audits, excluding those in mental health units. Excluding Stage I, overall hospital-acquired pressure injury prevalence from 2012 to 2014 was 11% for intensive care patients and 3% for non-intensive care patients. Intensive care patients were 3.8 times more likely (RR 2.7-5.4, 95% CI) than non-intensive care patients to develop a pressure injury whilst in hospital. The sacrum/coccyx was the most common site of hospital-acquired pressure injury in all patients (intensive care patients 22%; non-intensive care patients 35%) however, mucosal pressure injury proportion was significantly higher in intensive care patients (22%) than in non-intensive care patients (2%). Stage II HAPI prevalence was the most common stage reported, 53% for intensive care patients compared to 63% for non-intensive care patients. There are significant differences in hospital-acquired pressure injury prevalence by stage and location between intensive care and non-intensive care patients reflecting the possible impact of critical illness on the development of skin injury. This has implications for resource funding for pressure injury prevention and the imposition of government initiated financial penalties for hospital-acquired pressure injury. For future comparisons to be effective
Veerman, Jan Willem; De Meyer, Ronald
Emotional and behavioral problems assessed with the "Child Behavior Checklist" (CBCL) were analyzed from 2,739 Dutch children referred to Families First (FF) or Intensive Family Treatment (IFT) from 1999 to 2008, to examine time trends. From the year 2004 onward, six of the eight CBCL-syndrome scales yielded significant decreases from the…
Bousbia, Sabri; Papazian, Laurent; Saux, Pierre; Forel, Jean Marie; Auffray, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Claude; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard
Despite the considerable number of studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely identified. We comprehensively applied modern and traditional laboratory diagnostic techniques to identify microbiota in patients who were admitted to or developed pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs). During a three-year period, we tested the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, non-ventilator ICU pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia, and compared the results with those from patients without pneumonia (controls). Samples were tested by amplification of 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA genes followed by cloning and sequencing and by PCR to target specific pathogens. We also included culture, amoeba co-culture, detection of antibodies to selected agents and urinary antigen tests. Based on molecular testing, we identified a wide repertoire of 160 bacterial species of which 73 have not been previously reported in pneumonia. Moreover, we found 37 putative new bacterial phylotypes with a 16S rDNA gene divergence ≥ 98% from known phylotypes. We also identified 24 fungal species of which 6 have not been previously reported in pneumonia and 7 viruses. Patients can present up to 16 different microorganisms in a single BAL (mean ± SD; 3.77 ± 2.93). Some pathogens considered to be typical for ICU pneumonia such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus species can be detected as commonly in controls as in pneumonia patients which strikingly highlights the existence of a core pulmonary microbiota. Differences in the microbiota of different forms of pneumonia were documented.
Oldani, Massimo; Sandini, Marta; Nespoli, Luca; Coppola, Sara; Bernasconi, Davide Paolo; Gianotti, Luca
Abstract The role of glutamine (GLN) supplementation in critically ill patients is controversial. Our aim was to analyze its potential effect in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a systematic literature review through Medline, Embase, Pubmed, Scopus, Ovid, ISI Web of Science, and the Cochrane-Controlled Trials Register searching for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published from 1983 to 2014 and comparing GLN supplementation to no supplementation in patients admitted to ICU. A random-effect meta-analysis for each outcome (hospital and ICU mortality and rate of infections) of interest was carried out. The effect size was estimated by the risk ratio (RR). Thirty RCTs were analyzed with a total of 3696 patients, 1825 (49.4%) receiving GLN and 1859 (50.6%) no GLN (control groups). Hospital mortality rate was 27.6% in the GLN patients and 28.6% in controls with an RR of 0.93 (95% CI = 0.81–1.07; P = 0.325, I2 = 10.7%). ICU mortality was 18.0 % in the patients receiving GLN and 17.6% in controls with an RR of 1.01 (95% CI = 0.86–1.19; P = 0.932, I2 = 0%). The incidence of infections was 39.7% in GLN group versus 41.7% in controls. The effect of GLN was not significant (RR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.76–1.03; P = 0.108, I2 = 56.1%). These results do not allow to recommend GLN supplementation in a generic population of critically ills. Further RCTs are needed to explore the effect of GLN in more specific cohort of patients. PMID:26252319
Marx, G; Reinhart, K
A recent survey conducted by the Competence Network Sepsis (SepNet) revealed that severe sepsis and/or septic shock occurs in 75000 inhabitants (110 per 100,000) and sepsis occurs in 79000 inhabitants (116 per 100,000) in Germany annually. The prevalence of urosepsis in this survey was 7%. Early diagnosis of sepsis prior to the onset of clinical deterioration is of particular interest because this would increase the possibility of early and specific treatment, which in turn is the major determining factor of mortality in septic patients. Treatment of urosepsis consists of source control, early antimicrobial therapy as well as supportive and adjunctive therapy. For supportive therapy, adequate volume loading is the most important step in the treatment of patients with urosepsis in order to restore and maintain oxygen transport and tissue oxygenation. Therefore, supportive treatment should focus on adequate volume resuscitation and appropriate use of inotropes/vasopressors. The PROWESS study is the first investigation demonstrating the decrease in mortality in patients with sepsis following administration of activated protein C (APC). Thus, administration of APC to patients with two-organ failure or an APACHE II score > or =25 within the first 24 h after the first sepsis-induced organ failure is a part of adjunctive therapy. Additionally, current data support low-dose hydrocortisone therapy in patients with vasopressor-dependent severe septic shock. Time to initiation of therapy is crucial for surviving sepsis. Implementing new medical evidence in this context into daily clinical intensive care remains a major hurdle.
van der Goes, David N.; Nuwer, Marc R.; Nelson, Lonnie; Eccher, Matthew A.
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of intensive care unit continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring on inpatient mortality, hospital charges, and length of stay. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a dataset representing 20% of inpatient discharges in nonfederal US hospitals. Adult discharge records reporting mechanical ventilation and EEG (routine EEG or cEEG) were included. cEEG was compared with routine EEG alone in association with the primary outcome of in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes of total hospital charges and length of stay. Demographics, hospital characteristics, and medical comorbidity were used for multivariate adjustments of the primary and secondary outcomes. Results: A total of 40,945 patient discharges in the weighted sample met inclusion criteria, of which 5,949 had reported cEEG. Mechanically ventilated patients receiving cEEG were younger than routine EEG patients (56 vs 61 years; p < 0.001). There was no difference in the 2 groups in income or medical comorbidities. cEEG was significantly associated with lower in-hospital mortality in both univariate (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.45–0.64; p < 0.001) and multivariate (odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.51–0.76; p < 0.001) analyses. There was no significant difference in costs or length of stay for patients who received cEEG relative to those receiving only routine EEG. Sensitivity analysis showed that adjusting for diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) for any neurologic diagnoses, DRGs for neurologic procedures, and specific DRGs for epilepsy/convulsions did not substantially alter the association of cEEG with reduced inpatient mortality. Conclusions: cEEG is favorably associated with inpatient survival in mechanically ventilated patients, without adding significant charges to the hospital stay. PMID:24186910
Singer, Pierre; Berger, Mette M; Van den Berghe, Greet; Biolo, Gianni; Calder, Philip; Forbes, Alastair; Griffiths, Richard; Kreyman, Georg; Leverve, Xavier; Pichard, Claude; ESPEN
Nutritional support in the intensive care setting represents a challenge but it is fortunate that its delivery and monitoring can be followed closely. Enteral feeding guidelines have shown the evidence in favor of early delivery and the efficacy of use of the gastrointestinal tract. Parenteral nutrition (PN) represents an alternative or additional approach when other routes are not succeeding (not necessarily having failed completely) or when it is not possible or would be unsafe to use other routes. The main goal of PN is to deliver a nutrient mixture closely related to requirements safely and to avoid complications. This nutritional approach has been a subject of debate over the past decades. PN carries the considerable risk of overfeeding which can be as deleterious as underfeeding. Therefore the authors will present not only the evidence available regarding the indications for PN, its implementation, the energy required, its possible complementary use with enteral nutrition, but also the relative importance of the macro- and micronutrients in the formula proposed for the critically ill patient. Data on long-term survival (expressed as 6 month survival) will also be considered a relevant outcome measure. Since there is a wide range of interpretations regarding the content of PN and great diversity in its practice, our guidance will necessarily reflect these different views. The papers available are very heterogeneous in quality and methodology (amount of calories, nutrients, proportion of nutrients, patients, etc.) and the different meta-analyses have not always taken this into account. Use of exclusive PN or complementary PN can lead to confusion, calorie targets are rarely achieved, and different nutrients continue to be used in different proportions. The present guidelines are the result of the analysis of the available literature, and acknowledging these limitations, our recommendations are intentionally largely expressed as expert opinions.
Lubeek, Satish F K; van der Geer, Eric R; van Gelder, Marleen M H J; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Gerritsen, Marie-Jeanne P
To assess the provision and need of dermatologic care among Dutch nursing home patients and to obtain recommendations for improvement. Cross-sectional nationwide survey. All 173 nursing home organizations in the Netherlands. Physicians working in nursing homes. Web-based questionnaire concerning the burden of skin diseases in nursing home patients, diagnostic procedures and therapy, collaboration with dermatologists, physicians' level of education, and suggestions for improvement. A total of 126 (72.8%) nursing home organizations, with 1133 associated physicians participated in our study and received the questionnaire. A total of 347 physicians (30.6%) completed the questionnaire. Almost all respondents (99.4%) were recently confronted with skin diseases, mostly (pressure) ulcers, eczema, and fungal infections. Diagnostic and treatment options were limited because of a lack of availability and experience of the physicians. More live consultation of dermatologists was suggested as being important to improve dermatologic care. Other suggestions were better education, more usage of telemedicine applications, and better availability of diagnostic and/or treatment procedures like cryotherapy. Physicians in nursing homes are frequently confronted with skin diseases. Several changes in organization of care and education are expected to improve dermatologic care in nursing home patients. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hunziker, Sabina; McHugh, Wendy; Sarnoff-Lee, Barbara; Cannistraro, Sabrina; Ngo, Long; Marcantonio, Edward; Howell, Michael D.
Objective Dissatisfaction is an important threat to high-quality care. The aim of this study was to identify factors independently associated with dissatisfaction with critical care. Design Prospectively collected observational cohort study. Setting Nine intensive care units at a tertiary care university hospital in the United States. Participants Four hundred forty-nine family members of adult intensive care unit patients who completed the Family Satisfaction with Care in the Intensive Care Unit instrument. Intervention None. Measurements and Main Results Four family-and patient-related factors ascertainable at intensive care unit admission independently predicted low overall satisfaction: living in the same city as the hospital, disagreement within the family regarding care, having a cardiac comorbidity but being hospitalized in a noncardiac-care intensive care unit, and living in a different household than the patient. When three or more risk factors were present, 63% (95% confidence interval 48%–78%) of families were dissatisfied. Among factors ascertained at the end of the intensive care unit stay, dissatisfaction with six items was independently associated with overall dissatisfaction: 1) perceived competence of nurses (odds ratio for dissatisfaction = 5.9, 95% confidence interval 2.3–15.2); 2) concern and caring by intensive care unit staff (odds ratio 5.0, 95% confidence interval 1.9–12.6); 3) completeness of information (odds ratio 4.4, 95% confidence interval 2.4–8.1); 4) dissatisfaction with the decision-making process (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.6– 5.6); 5) atmosphere of the intensive care unit (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4–4.8); and 6) atmosphere of the waiting room (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.2–6.0). Conclusion Specific factors ascertainable at intensive care unit admission identify families at high risk of dissatisfaction with care. Other discrete aspects of the patient/family experience that
Croes, R R; Krabbe-Alkemade, Y J F M; Mikkers, M C
There is much debate about the effect of competition in healthcare and especially the effect of competition on the quality of healthcare, although empirical evidence on this subject is mixed. The Netherlands provides an interesting case in this debate. The Dutch system could be characterized as a system involving managed competition and mandatory healthcare insurance. Information about the quality of care provided by hospitals has been publicly available since 2008. In this paper, we evaluate the relationship between quality scores for three diagnosis groups and the market power indicators of hospitals. We estimate the impact of competition on quality in an environment of liberalized pricing. For this research, we used unique price and production data relating to three diagnosis groups (cataract, adenoid and tonsils, bladder tumor) produced by Dutch hospitals in the period 2008-2011. We also used the quality indicators relating to these diagnosis groups. We reveal a negative relationship between market share and quality score for two of the three diagnosis groups studied, meaning that hospitals in competitive markets have better quality scores than those in concentrated markets. We therefore conclude that more competition is associated with higher quality scores.
ten Cate, T J; Kooij, L R
On December 1, 2005 in the Netherlands, a new procedure was introduced to assess international medical graduates (IMGs) with a diploma acquired outside the European Economic Area (EEA). This procedure includes (a) general tests on the active and passive use of Dutch medical language, English reading proficiency, basic IT skills and knowledge of the Dutch health care system, and (b) a specific set of tests of medical competence, including knowledge of basic sciences, clinical knowledge and clinical skills. IMGs who wish to get their diploma acknowledged and be registered as a physician are required to complete this assessment. With the introduction of this procedure, the Netherlands have joined a minority of countries inside and outside Europe with setting high standards for intake procedures. It is advocated that all European countries should devise such procedures, as a European Directive (2005/36/EC) on the recognition of professional qualifications prohibits the assessment of medical graduates with a diploma that is recognised in another EEA country.
van Beeck, A H Elise; Zomer, Tizza P; van Beeck, Eduard F; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Voeten, Helene A C M; Erasmus, Vicki
Children attending day care centres are at increased risk of infectious diseases, in particular gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. Hand hygiene of both caregivers and children is an effective prevention measure. This study examined hand hygiene behaviour of children attending day care centres, and describes hygiene facilities at day care centres. Data were collected at 115 Dutch day care centres, among 2318 children cared for by 231 caregivers (August to October 2010). Children's hand hygiene behaviour was observed and data on hand hygiene facilities of the day care centres collected by direct unobtrusive observation. National guidelines indicate hand hygiene is required before eating, after toilet use and after playing outside. Among 1930 observed hand hygiene opportunities for children, overall adherence to hand hygiene guidelines was 31% (95% CI: 29-33%). Adherence after both toilet use and playing outside was 48%. Hands were less frequently washed before eating, where guideline adherence was 15%. In 38% of the playrooms there was no soap within reach of children and 17% had no towel facilities. In over 40% of the playrooms, appropriate hand hygiene facilities for children were lacking. Adequate hand washing facilities were available for children in only half of the participating day care centres in our study and children washed their hands in only 15-48% of the occasions defined by official guidelines. More attention is needed to hand hygiene of children attending day care centres in the prevention of infectious diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Clark, Lowell; Preissig, Catherine; Rigby, Mark R; Bowyer, Frank
This article reviews selected issues of endocrine concerns in the pediatric intensive care unit, exclusive of diabetic ketoacidosis. The sympathoadrenergic arm of the neuroendocrine stress response is described, followed by discussions of two topics of particular current concern: critical illness hyperglycemia and relative adrenal insufficiency. A selected set of common scenarios encountered in the daily practice of intensive care follows.
Le Moel, Carole; Mounier, Roman; Ardic-Pulas, Taline
Literature reports a high prevalence of wounds in the hospital environment. A study devoted to wounds encountered in post-surgical intensive care has been carried out in a university hospital. This work highlighted the diversity of acute wounds mainly observed in intensive care and the difficulties nurses have in managing them.
Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit. Insulin therapy has emerged in adult intensive care units, and several pediatric studies are currently being conducted. This review discusses hyperglycemia and the effects of insulin on metabolic a...
Rigg, J R; Jamrozik, K; Myles, P S
This review concerns the application of the methods of clinical epidemiology to problems in anaesthesia and intensive care. It explores the quality of evidence to guide clinical decision-making and health policy provided by experimental and various non-experimental research designs. Ten recent publications in anaesthesia and intensive care are analysed to provide relevant examples.
Demirkiran, O; Dikmen, Y; Utku, T; Urkmez, S
We aimed to determine the morbidity and mortality among obstetric patients admitted to the intensive care unit. In this study, we analyzed retrospectively all obstetric admissions to a multi-disciplinary intensive care unit over a five-year period. Obstetric patients were identified from 4733 consecutive intensive care unit admissions. Maternal age, gestation of newborns, mode of delivery, presence of coexisting medical problems, duration of stay, admission diagnosis, specific intensive care interventions (mechanical ventilation, continuous veno-venous hemofiltration, central venous catheterization, and arterial cannulation), outcome, maternal mortality, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score were recorded. Obstetric patients (n=125) represented 2.64% of all intensive care unit admissions and 0.89% of all deliveries during the five-year period. The overall mortality of those admitted to the intensive care unit was 10.4%. Maternal age and gestation of newborns were similar in survivors and non-survivors. There were significant differences in length of stay and APACHE II score between survivors and non-survivors P < 0.05. The commonest cause of intensive care unit admission was preeclampsia/eclampsia (73.6%) followed by post-partum hemorrhage (11.2%). Intensive care specialists should be familiar with these complications of pregnancy and should work closely with obstetricians.
de Souza, Sônia Regina Oliveira e Silva; da Silva, Cláudia Aparecida; de Mello, Ursula Magliano; Ferreira, Carolina Neris
Our aim is to describe the clients'perception related to to the admission in the Intensive Care. We have developed a descriptive study based on a qualitative approach in the intensive care in a university hospital in RJ, from May, 2003 to May, 2004. Thirty-two clients participated in this study just after hospital discharge. Data collection was possible through a questionaire. We consider that the clients showed some kind of satisfaction related to nursing intensive care, and the problem that really annoys them is the physical and ambiental stressors. The study shows questions that need a continuous discussion considering the stress, once it is a part of the activities and the atmosphere of intensive care and it also detaches the relavence of a work using indicatives of subjective quality in the intensive care.
Moreira, Maiara Benevides; Mesquita, Maria Gefé da Rosa; Stipp, Marluci Andrade Conceição; Paes, Graciele Oroski
To analyze potential intravenous drug interactions, and their level of severity associated with the administration of these drugs based on the prescriptions of an intensive care unit. Quantitative study, with aretrospective exploratory design, and descriptive statistical analysis of the ICU prescriptions of a teaching hospital from March to June 2014. The sample consisted of 319 prescriptions and subsamples of 50 prescriptions. The mean number of drugs per patient was 9.3 records, and a higher probability of drug interaction inherent to polypharmacy was evidenced. The study identified severe drug interactions, such as concomitant administration of Tramadol with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs (e.g., Metoclopramide and Fluconazole), increasing the risk of seizures due to their epileptogenic actions, as well as the simultaneous use of Ranitidine-Fentanyl®, which can lead to respiratory depression. A previous mapping of prescriptions enables the characterization of the drug therapy, contributing to prevent potential drug interactions and their clinical consequences. Analisar as potenciais interações medicamentosas intravenosas e seu grau de severidade associadas à administração desses medicamentos a partir das prescrições do Centro de Terapia Intensiva. Estudo quantitativo, tipologia retrospectiva exploratória, com análise estatística descritiva das prescrições medicamentosas do Centro de Terapia Intensiva de um Hospital Universitário, no período de março-junho/2014. A amostra foi composta de 319 prescrições e subamostras de 50 prescrições. Constatou-se que a média de medicamentos por paciente foi de 9,3 registros, e evidenciou-se maior probabilidade para ocorrência de interação medicamentosa inerente à polifarmácia. O estudo identificou interações medicamentosas graves, como a administração concomitante de Tramadol com medicamentos inibidores seletivos da recaptação da serotonina, (exemplo: Metoclopramida e Fluconazol
Schultz, Ronni; Pouletsos, Cheryl; Combs, Adriann
This article outlines outside principles of emergency and disaster planning for neonatal intensive care units and includes resources available to organizations to support planning and education, and considerations for nurses developing hospital-specific neonatal intensive care unit disaster plans. Hospital disaster preparedness programs and unit-specific policies and procedures are essential in facilitating an effective response to major incidents or disasters, whether they are man-made or natural. All disasters place extraordinary stress on existing resources, systems, and personnel. If nurses in neonatal intensive care units work collaboratively to identify essential services in disasters, the result could be safer care for vulnerable patients.
Penrod, Joan D; Pronovost, Peter J; Livote, Elayne E; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Walker, Amy S; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Mercado, Alice F; Swoboda, Sandra M; Ilaoa, Debra; Thompson, David A; Nelson, Judith E
High-quality care for intensive care unit patients and families includes palliative care. To promote performance improvement, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's National Quality Measures Clearinghouse identified nine evidence-based processes of intensive care unit palliative care (Care and Communication Bundle) that are measured through review of medical record documentation. We conducted this study to examine how frequently the Care and Communication Bundle processes were performed in diverse intensive care units and to understand patient factors that are associated with such performance. Prospective, multisite, observational study of performance of key intensive care unit palliative care processes. A surgical intensive care unit and a medical intensive care unit in two different large academic health centers and a medical-surgical intensive care unit in a medium-sized community hospital. Consecutive adult patients with length of intensive care unit stay ≥5 days. None. Between November 2007 and December 2009, we measured performance by specified day after intensive care unit admission on nine care process measures: Identify medical decision-maker, advance directive and resuscitation preference, distribute family information leaflet, assess and manage pain, offer social work and spiritual support, and conduct interdisciplinary family meeting. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine predictors of performance of five care processes. We enrolled 518 (94.9%) patients and 336 (83.6%) family members. Performances on pain assessment and management measures were high. In contrast, interdisciplinary family meetings were documented for <20% of patients by intensive care unit day 5. Performance on other measures ranged from 8% to 43%, with substantial variation across and within sites. Chronic comorbidity burden and site were the most consistent predictors of care process performance. Across three intensive care units in this study, performance
Ouweneel, A P Else; Taris, Toon W; Van Zolingen, Simone J; Schreurs, Paul J G
Researchers have revealed that managers profit most from informal and on-the-job learning. Moreover, research has shown that task characteristics and social support affect informal learning. On the basis of these insights, the authors examined the effects of task characteristics (psychological job demands, job control) and social support from the supervisor and colleagues on informal on-the-job learning among 1588 managers in the Dutch home-care sector. A regression analysis revealed that high demands, high control, and high colleague and supervisor support were each associated with high levels of informal learning. The authors found no evidence for statistical interactions among the effects of these concepts. They concluded that to promote managers' informal workplace learning, employers should especially increase job control.
Welton, John M; Zone-Smith, Laurie; Fischer, Mary H
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has begun an ambitious recalibration of the inpatient prospective payment system, the first since its introduction in 1983. Unfortunately, inpatient nursing care has been overlooked in the new payment system and continues to be treated as a fixed cost and billed at a set per-diem "room and board" fee despite the known variability of nursing intensity across different care settings and diagnoses. This article outlines the historical influences regarding costing, billing, and reimbursement of inpatient nursing care and provides contemporary evidence about the variability of nursing intensity and costs at acute care hospitals in the United States. A remedy is proposed to overcome the existing limitations of the Inpatient Prospective Payment System by creating a new nursing cost center and nursing intensity adjustment by DRG for each routine-and intensive-care day of stay to allow independent costing, billing, and reimbursement of inpatient nursing care.
Nogueira, Lilia de Souza; Koike, Karina Mitie; Sardinha, Débora Souza; Padilha, Katia Grillo; de Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso
Objective This study sought to compare patients at public and private intensive care units according to the nursing workload and interventions provided. Methods This retrospective, comparative cohort study included 600 patients admitted to 4 intensive care units in São Paulo. The nursing workload and interventions were assessed using the Nursing Activities Score during the first and last 24 hours of the patient's stay at the intensive care unit. Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney test, and Student's t test were used to compare the patient groups. Results The average Nursing Activities Score upon admission to the intensive care unit was 61.9, with a score of 52.8 upon discharge. Significant differences were found among the patients at public and private intensive care units relative to the average Nursing Activities Score upon admission, as well as for 12 out of 23 nursing interventions performed during the first 24 hours of stay at the intensive care units. The patients at the public intensive care units exhibited a higher average score and overall more frequent nursing interventions, with the exception of those involved in the "care of drains", "mobilization and positioning", and "intravenous hyperalimentation". The groups also differed with regard to the evolution of the Nursing Activities Score among the total case series as well as the groups of survivors from the time of admission to discharge from the intensive care unit. Conclusion Patients admitted to public and private intensive care units exhibit differences in their nursing care demands, which may help managers with nursing manpower planning. PMID:24213086
Arena, Fabio; Scolletta, Sabino; Marchetti, Luca; Galano, Angelo; Maglioni, Enivarco; Giani, Tommaso; Corsi, Elisabetta; Lombardi, Silvia; Biagioli, Bonizella; Rossolini, Gian Maria
A preintervention-postintervention study was carried out over a 4-year period to assess the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention, based on clinical microbiologist ward rounds (clinical microbiology-intensive care partnership [CMICP]), at a cardiothoracic intensive care unit. Comparison of clinical data for 37 patients with diagnosis of bacteremia (18 from preintervention period, 19 from postintervention period) revealed that CMICP implementation resulted in (1) significant increase of appropriate empirical treatments (+34%, P = .029), compliance with guidelines (+28%, P = .019), and number of de-escalations (+42%, P = .032); and (2) decrease (average = 2.5 days) in time to optimization of antimicrobial therapy and levofloxacin (Δ 2009-2012 = -74 defined daily dose [DDD]/1,000 bed days) and teicoplanin (Δ 2009-2012 = -28 DDD/1,000 bed days) use. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Norrenberg, M; Vincent, J L
To determine the profile and role of the physiotherapist in European intensive care units (ICUs). Postal questionnaire. 460 ICUs in 17 western European countries. Heads of intensive care physiotherapy. One hundred and two completed questionnaires were analyzed, representing 22% of the questionnaires sent: 48% were from university hospitals, 45% of the hospitals had more than 700 beds, and 50% had more than 24 ICU beds. 38% of the hospitals had more than 30 physiotherapists working in the hospital, but 25% had no exclusive ICU physiotherapist. 34% had a physiotherapist available during the night, and 85% during the weekend. In almost 100% of ICUs the physiotherapist performed respiratory therapy, mobilization, and positioning. The physiotherapist played an active role in the adjustment of mechanical ventilation in 12% of the respondent's units, in weaning from mechanical ventilation in 22% of units, in extubation in 25%, and in the implementation of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) in 46%. Among the physiotherapists, there were equivalent numbers of university and non-university graduates. Differences in the role of the physiotherapist were apparent between countries. For example, 80% of respondents from the United Kingdom stated that physiotherapists were available during the night, while in Germany and Sweden physiotherapists were available at night in none of the respondent's units. Even though the response rate was limited, variations in the role and profile of the ICU physiotherapist are apparent across Europe. The involvement of physiotherapists in more specialized techniques is also a function of the number of physiotherapists working exclusively in an ICU.
Charron, Cyril; Cudennec, Tristan; Moulias, Sophie; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Teillet, Laurent
As is the case with all medical and surgical departments, the proportion of elderly patients in intensive care departments is gradually increasing.At Ambroise Pare hospital, in Boulogne-Billancourt, a natural collaboration has been set up between intensive care staff and geriatricians to adapt the care provided and to limit situations of unreasonable therapeutic obstinacy, notably thanks to a standardised gathering of information.
Hyder, Joseph A; Haring, R Sterling; Sturgeon, Daniel; Gazarian, Priscilla K; Jiang, Wei; Cooper, Zara; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Prigerson, Holly G; Weissman, Joel S
End-of-life (EOL) care intensity is known to vary by secular and geographic patterns. US physicians receive less aggressive EOL care than the general population, presumably the result of preferences shaped by work-place experience with EOL care. We investigated occupation as a source of variation in EOL care intensity. Across 4 states, we identified 660 599, nonhealth maintenance organization Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥66 years who died between 2004 and 2011. Linking death certificates, we identified beneficiaries with prespecified occupations: nurses, farmers, clergy, mortuary workers, homemakers, first-responders, veterinary workers, teachers, accountants, and the general population. End-of-life care intensity over the last 6 months of life was assessed using 5 validated measures: (1) Medicare expenditures, rates of (2) hospice, (3) surgery, (4) intensive care, and (5) in-hospital death. Occupation was a source of large variation in EOL care intensity across all measures, before and after adjustment for sex, education, age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index, race/ethnicity, and hospital referral region. For example, absolute and relative adjusted differences in expenditures were US$9991 and 42% of population mean expenditure ( P < .001 for both). Compared to the general population on the 5 EOL care intensity measures, teachers (5 of 5), homemakers (4 of 5), farmers (4 of 5), and clergy (3 of 5) demonstrated significantly less aggressive care. Mortuary workers had lower EOL care intensity (4 of 5) but small numbers limited statistical significance. Occupations with likely exposure to child development, death/bereavement, and naturalistic influences demonstrated lower EOL care intensity. These findings may inform patients and clinicians navigating choices around individual EOL care preferences.
van Dijk, Inge; Scholten Meilink Lenferink, Nick; Lucassen, Peter L B J; Mercer, Stewart W; van Weel, Chris; Olde Hartman, Tim C; Speckens, Anne E M
Empathy is an essential skill in doctor-patient communication with positive effects on compliance, patient satisfaction and symptom duration. There are no validated patient-rated empathy measures available in Dutch. To investigate the validity and reliability of a Dutch version of the Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) Measure, a widely used 10-item patient-rated questionnaire of physician empathy. After translation and back translation, the Dutch CARE Measure was distributed among patients from 19 general practitioners in 5 primary care centers. Tests of internal reliability and validity included Cronbach's alpha, item total correlations and factor analysis. Seven items of the QUality Of care Through the patient's Eyes (QUOTE) questionnaire assessing 'affective performance' of the physician were included in factor analysis and used to investigate convergent validity. Of the 800 distributed questionnaires, 655 (82%) were returned. Acceptability and face validity were supported by a low number of 'does not apply' responses (range 0.2%-11.9%). Internal reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha 0.974). Corrected item total correlations were at a minimum of 0.837. Factor analysis on the 10 items of the CARE Measure and 7 QUOTE items resulted in two factors (Eigenvalue > 1), the first containing the CARE Measure items and the second containing the QUOTE items. Convergent construct validity between the CARE Measure and QUOTE was confirmed with a modest positive correlation (r = 0.34, n = 654, P < 0.001). The findings support the preliminary validity and reliability of the Dutch CARE Measure. Future research is required to investigate divergent validity and discriminant ability between doctors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Saeed, Mohammed; Villarroel, Mauricio; Reisner, Andrew T.; Clifford, Gari; Lehman, Li-Wei; Moody, George; Heldt, Thomas; Kyaw, Tin H.; Moody, Benjamin; Mark, Roger G.
Objective We sought to develop an intensive care unit research database applying automated techniques to aggregate high-resolution diagnostic and therapeutic data from a large, diverse population of adult intensive care unit patients. This freely available database is intended to support epidemiologic research in critical care medicine and serve as a resource to evaluate new clinical decision support and monitoring algorithms. Design Data collection and retrospective analysis. Setting All adult intensive care units (medical intensive care unit, surgical intensive care unit, cardiac care unit, cardiac surgery recovery unit) at a tertiary care hospital. Patients Adult patients admitted to intensive care units between 2001 and 2007. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results The Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database consists of 25,328 intensive care unit stays. The investigators collected detailed information about intensive care unit patient stays, including laboratory data, therapeutic intervention profiles such as vasoactive medication drip rates and ventilator settings, nursing progress notes, discharge summaries, radiology reports, provider order entry data, International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes, and, for a subset of patients, high-resolution vital sign trends and waveforms. Data were automatically deidentified to comply with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act standards and integrated with relational database software to create electronic intensive care unit records for each patient stay. The data were made freely available in February 2010 through the Internet along with a detailed user’s guide and an assortment of data processing tools. The overall hospital mortality rate was 11.7%, which varied by critical care unit. The median intensive care unit length of stay was 2.2 days (interquartile range, 1.1–4.4 days). According to the primary International Classification of
Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo Je; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Baan, Caroline A; Rutten, Guy Ehm
More focus on patient-centeredness in care for patients with type 2 diabetes requests increasing attention to diabetes quality management processes on patient-centeredness by managers in primary care groups and outpatient clinics. Although patient-centered care is ultimately determined by the quality of interactions between patients and clinicians at the practice level, it should be facilitated at organizational level too. This nationwide study aimed to assess the state of diabetes quality management on patient-centeredness at organizational level and its possibilities to improve after a tailored intervention. This before-after study compares the quality management on patient-centeredness within Dutch diabetes care groups and outpatient clinics before and after a 1-year stepwise intervention. At baseline, managers of 51 diabetes primary care groups and 28 outpatient diabetes clinics completed a questionnaire about the organization's quality management program. Patient-centeredness (0%-100%) was operationalized in six subdomains: facilitating self-management support, individualized care plan support, patients' access to medical files, patient education policy, safeguarding patients' interests, and formal patient involvement. The intervention consisted of feedback and benchmark and if requested a telephone call and/or a consultancy visit. After 1 year, the managers completed the questionnaire again. The 1-year changes were examined by dependent (non) parametric tests. Care groups improved significantly on patient-centeredness (from 47.1% to 53.3%; P=0.002), and on its subdomains "access to medical files" (from 42.0% to 49.4%), and "safeguarding patients' interests" (from 58.1% to 66.2%). Outpatient clinics, which scored higher at baseline (66.7%) than care groups, did not improve on patient-centeredness (65.6%: P=0.54) or its subdomains. "Formal patient involvement" remained low in both care groups (23.2%) and outpatient clinics (33.9%). After a simple intervention
Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo JE; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Baan, Caroline A; Rutten, Guy EHM
Background More focus on patient-centeredness in care for patients with type 2 diabetes requests increasing attention to diabetes quality management processes on patient-centeredness by managers in primary care groups and outpatient clinics. Although patient-centered care is ultimately determined by the quality of interactions between patients and clinicians at the practice level, it should be facilitated at organizational level too. This nationwide study aimed to assess the state of diabetes quality management on patient-centeredness at organizational level and its possibilities to improve after a tailored intervention. Methods This before–after study compares the quality management on patient-centeredness within Dutch diabetes care groups and outpatient clinics before and after a 1-year stepwise intervention. At baseline, managers of 51 diabetes primary care groups and 28 outpatient diabetes clinics completed a questionnaire about the organization’s quality management program. Patient-centeredness (0%–100%) was operationalized in six subdomains: facilitating self-management support, individualized care plan support, patients’ access to medical files, patient education policy, safeguarding patients’ interests, and formal patient involvement. The intervention consisted of feedback and benchmark and if requested a telephone call and/or a consultancy visit. After 1 year, the managers completed the questionnaire again. The 1-year changes were examined by dependent (non) parametric tests. Results Care groups improved significantly on patient-centeredness (from 47.1% to 53.3%; P=0.002), and on its subdomains “access to medical files” (from 42.0% to 49.4%), and “safeguarding patients’ interests” (from 58.1% to 66.2%). Outpatient clinics, which scored higher at baseline (66.7%) than care groups, did not improve on patient-centeredness (65.6%: P=0.54) or its subdomains. “Formal patient involvement” remained low in both care groups (23.2%) and
Wlody, Ginger Schafer
This article describes organizational ethics issues involved in nursing management of an intensive care unit. The intensive care team and medical center management have the dual responsibility to create an ethical environment in which to provide optimum patient care. Addressing organizational ethics is key to creating that ethical environment in the intensive care unit. During the past 15-20 yrs, increasing costs in health care, competitive markets, the effect of high technology, and global business changes have set the stage for business and healthcare organizational conflicts that affect the ethical environment. Studies show that critical care nurses experience moral distress and are affected by the ethical climate of both the intensive care unit and the larger organization. Thus, nursing moral distress may result in problems related to recruitment and retention of staff. Other issues with organizational ethics ramifications that may occur in the intensive care unit include patient safety issues (including those related to disruptive behavior), intensive care unit leadership style, research ethics, allocation of resources, triage, and other economic issues. Current organizational ethics conflicts are discussed, a professional practice model is described, and multidisciplinary recommendations are put forth.
Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette
Background Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Objective To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. Results The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. Conclusions The Internet is the main source of health
Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Berben, Sivera A A; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette
Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. The Internet is the main source of health-related information for the Dutch population
Mundy, Cynthia A
Limited research has been conducted to assess family needs in neonatal intensive care units. Health care providers often make assumptions about what families need, but these assumptions are unfounded and can lead to inappropriate conclusions. When assessed appropriately, family needs can be incorporated into individualized plans of care, enhancing family-centered care. To assess the needs of parents in neonatal intensive care units, we asked the following 3 questions: What are the most and least important needs of families in a level III neonatal intensive care unit? Do parents' needs differ at admission and discharge? Do the needs of mothers and fathers differ? Parents were interviewed by using the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Family Needs Inventory. Participants rated statements as not important (1), slightly important (2), important (3), very important (4), or not applicable (5). Fifty-two (93%) of the 56 items were rated as important or very important, and parents rated assurance-type needs highest. Parents at admission rated support needs higher than parents at discharge rated those needs. Needs of mothers and fathers did not differ significantly. Identifying the needs of parents in neonatal intensive care units can enhance nursing communication and allow nurses to incorporate parents' needs into families' plans of care. The family needs inventory can help identify those needs and allows the integration of individualized nursing care to fulfill those needs, providing a positive family-centered experience in the unit for patients and their families.
Wilkes, Michael S; Marcin, James P; Ritter, Lois A; Pruitt, Sherilyn
Use of tele-intensive care involves organizational and teamwork factors across geographic locations. This situation adds to the complexity of collaboration in providing quality patient-centered care. To evaluate cross-agency teamwork of health care professionals caring for patients in tele-intensive care units in rural and urban regions. A national qualitative study was conducted in 3 US geographic regions with tele-intensive care programs. Discussions and interviews were held with key participants during site visits at 3 hub sites (specialist services location) and 8 rural spoke sites (patient location). The effects of communication and culture between the hub team and the spoke team on use of the services and effectiveness of care were evaluated. A total of 34 participants were interviewed. Specific organizational and teamwork factors significantly affect the functionality of a tele-intensive care unit. Key operational and cultural barriers that limit the benefits of the units include unrealistic expectations about operational capabilities, lack of trust, poorly defined leadership, and a lack of communication policies. Potential solutions include education on spoke facility resources, clearly defined expectations and role reversal education, team-building activities, and feedback mechanisms to share concerns, successes, and suggestions. Proper administration and attention to important cultural and teamwork factors are essential to making tele-intensive care units effective, practical, and sustainable. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Choté, Anushka; de Groot, Christianne; Redekop, Ken; Hoefman, Renske; Koopmans, Gerrit; Jaddoe, Vincent; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric; Trappenburg, Margo; Mackenbach, Johan; Foets, Marleen
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether differences existed in the adherence to the Dutch national guidelines regarding basic antenatal care by Dutch midwives for low-risk women of different ethnic groups. This was an observational study using data from electronic antenatal charts of 7 midwife practices (23 midwives), participating in the Generation R Study. The Generation R Study is a multiethnic, population-based, prospective, cohort study that is investigating the growth, development, and health of urban children from fetal life until young adulthood. The study is conducted in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The antenatal charts of 2093 low-risk pregnant women with an expected birthing date in 2002 through 2004 were used to determine the mean quality of antenatal care scores for 7 ethnic groups. These scores reflected the degree of adherence to the guidelines regarding 10 tests and examinations. Few differences between ethnic groups were found in adherence to the guidelines that addressed the obstetric-technical quality of antenatal care. This finding applied more to nulliparous than to multiparous women. Adherence to guidelines was not always better in the antenatal care provided to native Dutch multiparous women when compared to other ethnic groups. Midwives adhered well to the guidelines regarding most tests. For all women, irrespective of ethnic background, hemoglobin was not measured as often as recommended, and this was especially the case for Moroccan, Surinamese-Creole, and Dutch-Antillean multiparous women. The poorer adherence regarding screening for hemoglobin needs further investigation, as women with African or Mediterranean heritage are more at risk for hemoglobinopathies. However, in general, midwives adhered well to the clinical guidelines regarding most tests irrespective of the ethnic background of the pregnant women. When differences were present, these were not systematically less favorable for non-Dutch pregnant women. © 2012 by the
Rondas, Armand A L M; Schols, Jos M G A; Stobberingh, Ellen E; Halfens, Ruud J G
The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of (infected) chronic wounds in Dutch nursing homes and to explore which signs and symptoms are used to diagnose infected chronic wounds. Moreover, it was to determine which structural quality indicators related to chronic wound care at ward and institutional levels were fulfilled. In April 2012, as part of the annual National Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems of Maastricht University [Landelijke Prevalentiemeting Zorgproblemen (LPZ)], a multi-center cross-sectional point-prevalence measurement was carried out together with an assessment of relevant care quality indicators. The prevalence was 4·2%; 16 of 72 (22%) chronic wounds were considered to be infected. Increase of exudate (81·3%; n = 13), erythema (68·8%; n = 11), pain (56·3%; n = 9) and wound recalcitrance (56·3%; n = 9) were considered to be diagnostic signs and symptoms of a chronic wound infection. Although at institutional level most quality indicators were fulfilled, at ward level this was not the case. Despite the relatively low number of residents, we consider our population as representative for the nursing home population. It may be an advantage to appoint specific ward nurses and to provide them specifically with knowledge and skills concerning chronic wounds.
Krabbe-Alkemade, Y J F M; Groot, T L C M; Lindeboom, M
This paper evaluates the impact of market competition on health care volume and cost. At the start of 2005, the financing system of Dutch hospitals started to be gradually changed from a closed-end budgeting system to a non-regulated price competitive prospective reimbursement system. The gradual implementation of price competition is a 'natural experiment' that provides a unique opportunity to analyze the effects of market competition on hospital behavior. We have access to a unique database, which contains hospital discharge data of diagnosis treatment combinations (DBCs) of individual patients, including detailed care activities. Difference-in-difference estimates show that the implementation of market-based competition leads to relatively lower total costs, production volume and number of activities overall. Difference-in-difference estimates on treatment level show that the average costs for outpatient DBCs decreased due to a decrease in the number of activities per DBC. The introduction of market competition led to an increase of average costs of inpatient DBCs. Since both volume and number of activities have not changed significantly, we conclude that the cost increase is likely the result of more expensive activities. A possible explanation for our finding is that hospitals look for possible efficiency improvements in predominantly outpatient care products that are relatively straightforward, using easily analyzable technologies. The effects of competition on average cost and the relative shares of inpatient and outpatient treatments on specialty level are significant but contrary for cardiology and orthopedics, suggesting that specialties react differently to competitive incentives.
McGain, F; Story, D; Hendel, S
There is little known about recyclable intensive care unit waste. We tested the hypotheses that the intensive care unit produces a small proportion (< 10%) of hospital waste, that much waste (> 30%) is recyclable and that there is little (< 10%) cross-contamination of non-infectious with infectious waste. For seven consecutive days in an Australian 10-bedded intensive care unit, we prospectively sorted all waste. The total intensive care unit waste for the week was 540 kg, representing 5% of hospital waste. Of the 401 kg of intensive care unit general waste, recyclables were 230 kg (57%; 95% CI 53-61%), mainly plastics, cardboard and paper. There were 0.4 kg of infectious cross-contamination in the 401 kg of general waste. Intensive care unit waste was a small proportion of all hospital waste. However, there was minimal infectious waste cross-contamination and almost 60% of intensive care unit general waste could be recycled with appropriate safeguards, education and training.
Minton, Claire; Batten, Lesley
With consideration of an environmental concept, this paper explores evidence related to the negative impacts of the intensive care unit environment on patient outcomes and explores the potential counteracting benefits of 'nature-based' nursing interventions as a way to improve care outcomes. The impact of the environment in which a patient is nursed has long been recognised as one determinant in patient outcomes. Whilst the contemporary intensive care unit environment contains many features that support the provision of the intensive therapies the patient requires, it can also be detrimental, especially for long-stay patients. This narrative review considers theoretical and evidence-based literature that supports the adoption of nature-based nursing interventions in intensive care units. Research and theoretical literature from a diverse range of disciplines including nursing, medicine, psychology, architecture and environmental science were considered in relation to patient outcomes and intensive care nursing practice. There are many nature-based interventions that intensive care unit nurses can implement into their nursing practice to counteract environmental stressors. These interventions can also improve the environment for patients' families and nurses. Intensive care unit nurses must actively consider and manage the environment in which nursing occurs to facilitate the best patient outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Graf, Jürgen; Seiler, Olivier; Pump, Stefan; Günther, Marion; Albrecht, Roland
The need for inter-hospital transports over long distances aboard air ambulances or airlines has increased in recent years, both in the civil as well as the military sector. More often severely ill intensive care patients with multiple organ failure and appropriate supportive care (e.g. mechanical ventilation, catecholamines, dialysis, cardiac assist devices) are transported by air. Despite the fact that long-haul intensive care transports by air ambulance and airlines via Patient Transport Compartment (PTC) are considered established modes of transport they always provide a number of challenges. Both modes of transport have distinct logistical and medical advantages and disadvantages. These-as well as the principal risks of an air-bound long-haul intensive care transport -have to be included in the risk assessment and selection of means of transport. Very often long-haul intensive care transports are a combination of air ambulance and scheduled airlines utilizing the PTC.
Koterba, A M; Drummond, W H; Kosch, P
The basic concepts of diagnosis and treatment in the abnormal neonatal foal are presented. Methods of restraint, sedation, and general nursing care are discussed, as well as more specific techniques of respiratory and circulatory system support.
Vahedian-Azimi, Amir; Ebadi, Abbas; Saadat, Soheil; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
Background: Working in respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) is multidimensional that requires nurses with special attributes to involve with the accountability of the critically ill patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the appropriate nursing care strategy in the RICU in order to unify and coordinate the nursing care in special atmosphere of the RICU. Materials and Methods: This conventional content analysis study was conducted on 23 health care providers working in the RICU of Sina and Shariati hospitals affiliated to Tehran university of medical sciences and the RICU of Baqiyatallah university of medical sciences from August 2012 to the end of July 2013. In addition to in-depth semistructured interviews, uninterrupted observations, field notes, logs, patient’s reports and documents were used. Information saturation was determined as an interview termination criterion. Results: Intelligence care emerged as a main theme, has a broad spectrum of categories and subcategories with bridges and barriers, including equality of bridges and barriers (contingency care, forced oriented task); bridges are more than barriers (human-center care, innovative care, cultural care, participatory care, feedback of nursing services, therapeutic-professional communication, specialized and independent care, and independent nurse practice), and barriers are higher than bridges (personalized care, neglecting to provide proper care, ineffectiveness of supportive caring wards, futility care, nurse burnout, and nonethical-nonprofessional communications). Conclusions: Intelligence care is a comprehensive strategy that in addition to recognizing barriers and bridges of nursing care, with predisposing and precipitating forces it can convert barriers to bridges. PMID:26734480
Trubuhovich, R V
The origin of New Zealand's paediatric intensive care medicine lay in the formal establishment of Auckland Hospital's Central Respiratory Unit within the hospital's Infectious Diseases Unit (December 1958). It was initially established for the care of critically ill children, chiefly with airway and respiratory disorders or tetanus. Senior Specialist Anaesthetist Matthew Spence soon took charge, his first annual report (1960) briefly describing six children among 19 admissions and another six consulted on elsewhere. Rapid build-up of paediatric admissions-36 in 1963 becoming 104 in 1969-is detailed through Dr Spence's admirable annual reports for that period, which also provide the evidence of his organisational brilliance and personal commitment to development of the unit. Treatment for children, approximately a third of all admissions, soon included management of brain swelling from meningitis, intractable convulsions, traumatic brain injury, etc. Critically ill children were occasionally flown into Auckland; others were cared for regionally as further intensive care units developed throughout New Zealand. Successive additions to medical staffing gradually resulted in four full-time intensivists after Dr Spence's retirement in 1983. Dr James Judson computerised record-keeping from 1984 and developed a large database, containing details of children with numbers approaching 2000. At the end of 1991, the (now) Department of Critical Care Medicine completed its paediatric role over three decades, with care of children passing to a paediatric intensive care unit in the new Auckland paediatric hospital (soon to be called "Starship"). Regional intensive care units still make a substantial contribution to paediatric intensive care countrywide.
Bion, J F; Bennett, D
Developments in hospital medicine combined with social and demographic changes are likely to increase the need for intensive care services at a time when cost containment and cost-efficacy are the main items on the political agenda. This will exaggerate the supply-demand outcome mismatch unless the problem is approached in a constructive manner by clinicians, managers and politicians. More resources will be required for intensive care, but these must be better targeted and more efficiently employed. Opportunities for prevention should be explored, with intensive care being given a pro-active rather than a re-active role. Intensive care clinicians should understand that this expanded role cannot be achieved if they are willing only to accept responsibility for patient care after the patient has been admitted to the ICU. Clinicians and managers should develop methods for linking the various disciplines which contribute to emergency care, to form an acute care framework within the hospital. Research into the factors which determine risk of critical illness should be combined with enhanced medical and nursing training in intensive care, accompanied by an expansion in resources for intermediate and high dependency care in countries like the UK where there is clear evidence of rationing.
Roberts, Brigit; Chaboyer, Wendy
Dreams and unreal experiences occur commonly in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care unit. This study describes 31 patients' dreams and explores the relationship between patients' subjective recall 12-18 months after intensive care unit discharge and their observed behaviour during their intensive care unit stay. Semi-structured interviews revealed that 74% of longer-term ICU patients (> or = 3 days) reported dreaming, with the majority also describing frightening hallucinations. Only two patients reported long-term negative psychological sequelae, but the short-term consequence of hallucinations may also have an undiscovered impact on patients' recovery.
Nabitz, U; Klazinga, N; Walburg, J
One way to meet the challenges in creating a high performance organization in health care is the approach of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM). The Foundation is in the tradition of the American Malcolm Baldrige Award and was initiated by the European Commission and 14 European multi-national organizations in 1988. The essence of the approach is the EFQM Model, which can be used as a self-assessment instrument on all levels of a health care organization and as an auditing instrument for the Quality Award. In 1999 the EFQM Model was revised but its principles remained the same. In The Netherlands many health care organizations apply the EFQM Model. In addition to improvement projects, peer review of professional practices, accreditation and certification, the EFQM Approach is used mainly as a framework for quality management and as a conceptualization for organizational excellence. The Dutch National Institute for Quality, the Instituut Nederlandse Kwaliteit, delivers training and supports self-assessment and runs the Dutch quality award programme. Two specific guidelines for health care organizations, 'Positioning and Improving' and 'Self-Assessment', have been developed and are used frequently. To illustrate the EFQM approach in The Netherlands, the improvement project of the Jellinek Centre is described. The Jellinek Centre conducted internal and external assessments and received in 1996, as the first health care organization, the Dutch Quality Prize.
Wolfler, Andrea; Giannini, Alberto; Finistrella, Martina; Salvo, Ida; Calderini, Edoardo; Frasson, Giulia; Dall'Oglio, Immacolata; Di Furia, Michela; Iuzzolino, Rossella; Musicco, Massimo; Latour, Jos M
To translate and validate the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care questionnaire to measure parent satisfaction and experiences in Italian PICUs. Prospective, multicenter study. Four medical/surgical Italian PICUs in three tertiary hospitals. Families of children, 0-16 years old, admitted to the PICUs were invited to participate. Inclusion criteria were PICU length of stay greater than 24 hours and good comprehension of Italian language by parents/guardians. Exclusion criteria were readmission within 6 months and parents of a child who died in the PICU. Distribution, at PICU discharge, of the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care questionnaire with 65 items divided into five domains and a six-point rating scale: 1 " certainly no" to 6 "certainly yes." Back and forward translations of the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care questionnaire between Dutch (original version) and Italian languages were deployed. Cultural adaptation of the instrument was confirmed by a consultation with a representative parent group (n = 10). Totally, 150 of 190 parents (79%) participated in the study. On item level, 12 statements scored a mean below 5.0. The Cronbach's α, measured for internal consistency, on domain level was between 0.67 and 0.96. Congruent validity was measured by correlating the five domains with four gold standard satisfaction measures and showed adequate correlations (rs, 0.41-0.71; p < 0.05). No significant differences occurred in the nondifferential validity testing between three children's characteristics and the domains; excepting parents with a child for a surgical and planned admission were more satisfied on information and organization issues. The Italian version of the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care questionnaire has satisfactory reliability and validity estimates and seems to be appropriate for Italian PICU setting. It is an important instrument providing benchmark data to be used in the process of quality improvement
Tudehope, D I; Lee, W; Harris, F; Addison, C
In the present economic climate and with increasing expenditure on neonatal intensive care, there has been a demand for economic evaluation and justification of neonatal intensive care programmes. This study assesses the inhospital costs of neonatal intensive care. Fixed and variable costs were calculated for services and uses of an Intensive/Special Care Nursery for the year 1985 and corrected to 1987 Australian dollar equivalents. Establishing a new neonatal intensive care unit of 43 costs in an existing hospital with available floor space including operating costs for a year were estimated in Australian dollars for 1987 at $6,408,000. Daily costs per baby for each were $1282 ventilator, $481 intensive, $293 transitional and $287 recovery, respectively. The cost per survivor managed in the Intensive/Special Care Nursery in 1985 showed the expected inverse relationship to birthweight being $2400 for greater than 2500 g, $4050 for 2000-2500 g, $9200 for 1500-1999 g, $23,900 for 1000-1499 g and $63,450 for less than 1000 g. Further analysis for extremely low birthweight infants managed in 1986 and 1987 demonstrated costs per survivor of $128,400 for infants less than 800 g birthweight and $43,950 for those 800-999 g. This methodology might serve as a basis for further accounting and cost-evaluation exercises.
Schreiter, D; Saeger, H-D
The creation of a center for interdisciplinary operative intensive care through the fusion of several smaller intensive care units from various specialties is mainly driven by economic reasons. To specify some conditions for making such a fusion less expensive and to identify the impact of larger intensive care units on the quality of patients' treatment and on surgical training are the subjects of this study. Based on a review of the literature and on our own experience in this field, the influence of the size of the unit should be analysed not just regarding the economic aspects but also concerning the medical and surgical training issues. The economic advantages of scale of a larger unit are limited because of management problems when reaching a number of more than ten to twelve patients. This number probably leads to an optimal quality in medical care - especially if the patients are treated by specialists. The claim for a specific surgical training is thereby conceeded. The economical and medical advantages by connecting subunits to a larger operative intensive care unit will be achieved by economies of scale. For coordinating and running such a large unit an experienced intensive care doctor should be appointed. The concept of an interdisciplinary surgical ICU is obviously most practicable and reasonable if subunits with approximately twelve beds are concentrated in one centre for operative intensive care. This offers an advantage concerning the organisation and for the philosophy of treating special diseases by specialised medical teams. The size maintains the advantage of economies of scale as well the economies of scope and also promises effective logistics. For the management, an experienced intensive care specialist, either an anaesthesiologist or a surgeon should be assigned. All subject-specific advanced skills in intensive care have to be covered by an interdisciplinary continuing education. © Georg Thieme Verlag kg Stuttgart ˙ New York.
Richardson, Joanne; West, Michael A; Cuthbertson, Brian H
It has recently been argued that the future of intensive care medicine will rely on high quality management and teamwork. Therefore, this review takes an organizational psychology perspective to examine the most recent research on the relationship between teamwork, care processes, and patient outcomes in intensive care. Interdisciplinary communication within a team is crucial for the development of negotiated shared treatment goals and short-team patient outcomes. Interventions for maximizing team communication have received substantial interest in recent literature. Intensive care coordination is not a linear process, and intensive care teams often fail to discuss how to implement goals, trigger and align activities, or reflect on their performance. Despite a move toward interdisciplinary team working, clinical decision-making is still problematic and continues to be perceived as a top-down and authoritative process. The topic of team leadership in intensive care is underexplored and requires further research. Based on findings from the most recent research evidence in medicine and management, four principles are identified for improving the effectiveness of team working in intensive care: engender professional efficacy, create stable teams and leaders, develop trust and participative safety, and enable frequent team reflexivity.
Hariharan, Seetharaman; Dey, Prasanta Kumar
The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework for improving intensive care unit performance. The study introduces a quality management framework by combining cause and effect diagram and logical framework. An intensive care unit was identified for the study on the basis of its performance. The reasons for not achieving the desired performance were identified using a cause and effect diagram with the stakeholder involvement. A logical framework was developed using information from the cause and effect diagram and a detailed project plan was developed. The improvement projects were implemented and evaluated. Stakeholders identified various intensive care unit issues. Managerial performance, organizational processes and insufficient staff were considered major issues. A logical framework was developed to plan an improvement project to resolve issues raised by clinicians and patients. Improved infrastructure, state-of-the-art equipment, well maintained facilities, IT-based communication, motivated doctors, nurses and support staff, improved patient care and improved drug availability were considered the main project outputs for improving performance. The proposed framework is currently being used as a continuous quality improvement tool, providing a planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating framework for the quality improvement measures on a sustainable basis. The combined cause and effect diagram and logical framework analysis is a novel and effective approach to improving intensive care performance. Similar approaches could be adopted in any intensive care unit. The paper focuses on a uniform model that can be applied to most intensive care units.
Scurlock, Corey; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn
Critical care medicine is at a crossroads in which limited numbers of staff care for increasing numbers of patients as the population ages and use of ICUs increases. Also at this time health care spending must be curbed. The high-intensity intensivist staffing model has been linked to improved mortality, complications, and costs. Tele-ICU uses technology to implement this high-intensity staffing model in areas that are relatively underserved. When implemented correctly and in the right populations this technology has improved outcomes. Future studies regarding implementation, organization, staffing, and innovation are needed to determine the optimal use of this critical care professional enhanced technology.
Dilmen, Özlem Korkmaz; Akçıl, Eren Fatma; Tunalı, Yusuf
Head injury remains a serious public problem, especially in the young population. The understanding of the mechanism of secondary injury and the development of appropriate monitoring and critical care treatment strategies reduced the mortality of head injury. The pathophysiology, monitoring and treatment principles of head injury are summarised in this article. PMID:27366456
Celik, Gul Gunes; Eser, Ismet
Oral health problems are common complications that most intensive care unit patients experience. There are many factors that affect oral health negatively and nurses have important responsibilities in this regard. The aim of this study was assessment of the intensive care unit patients' oral health and risk factors. This study was planned as a descriptive study and conducted between December 2015 and June 2016, with 202 patients in 20 intensive care units of 6 hospitals in Turkey. Data were collected via Data Collection Form and Bedside Oral Exam guide. Oral health assessment of patients was made using a source of light and a tongue depressor. We observed a significant difference in score of the Bedside Oral Exam guide by age, consciousness, type of respiration and feeding, the frequency of oral health, the total number of drugs, and technique of oral care (P < 0.05). None of the intensive care units were using the oral assessment guide. The result of this study shows that there are various risk factors that adversely affect the oral health of intensive care unit patients. Nurses should undertake assessments on the basis of oral care protocols for patients at risk and carry out evidence-based individualized oral care applications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
da Silva, Rafael Celestino; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção; Apostolidis, Thémistoklis; Brandão, Marcos Antônio Gomes
Objective: to propose a conceptual framework for clinical nursing care in intensive care. Method: descriptive and qualitative field research, carried out with 21 nurses from an intensive care unit of a federal public hospital. We conducted semi-structured interviews and thematic and lexical content analysis, supported by Alceste software. Results: the characteristics of clinical intensive care emerge from the specialized knowledge of the interaction, the work context, types of patients and nurses characteristic of the intensive care and care frameworks. Conclusion: the conceptual framework of the clinic's intensive care articulates elements characteristic of the dynamics of this scenario: objective elements regarding technology and attention to equipment and subjective elements related to human interaction, specific of nursing care, countering criticism based on dehumanization. PMID:26487133
Edwards, Samuel T; Peterson, Kim; Chan, Brian; Anderson, Johanna; Helfand, Mark
Multicomponent, interdisciplinary intensive primary care programs target complex patients with the goal of preventing hospitalizations, but programs vary, and their effectiveness is not clear. In this study, we systematically reviewed the impact of intensive primary care programs on all-cause mortality, hospitalization, and emergency department use. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effects from inception to March 2017. Additional studies were identified from reference lists, hand searching, and consultation with content experts. We included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and observational studies of multicomponent, interdisciplinary intensive primary care programs targeting complex patients at high risk of hospitalization or death, with a comparison to usual primary care. Two investigators identified studies and abstracted data using a predefined protocol. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A total of 18 studies (379,745 participants) were included. Three major intensive primary care program types were identified: primary care replacement (home-based; three RCTs, one observational study, N = 367,681), primary care replacement (clinic-based; three RCTs, two observational studies, N = 9561), and primary care augmentation, in which an interdisciplinary team was added to existing primary care (five RCTs, three observational studies, N = 2503). Most studies showed no impact of intensive primary care on mortality or emergency department use, and the effectiveness in reducing hospitalizations varied. There were no adverse effects reported. Intensive primary care interventions demonstrated varying effectiveness in reducing hospitalizations, and there was limited evidence that these interventions were associated with changes in mortality. While interventions could be grouped into categories, there was still substantial overlap
Lochoff, R V; Cane, R D; Buchanan, N; Cox, H J
The stresses associated with nursing in an intensive care unit were assessed. A comparison was drawn between a group of Black and a group of White nurses. Proposals aimed at reducing the observed stress patterns are suggested.
Rosenberg, David I; Moss, M Michele
The practice of pediatric critical care medicine has matured dramatically during the past decade. These guidelines are presented to update the existing guidelines published in 1993. Pediatric critical care services are provided in level I and level II units. Within these guidelines, the scope of pediatric critical care services is discussed, including organizational and administrative structure, hospital facilities and services, personnel, drugs and equipment, quality monitoring, and training and continuing education.
Hawes, Warren E.
Newborn intensive care has come of age in California. Twenty-one newborn intensive care centers and 11 community level units are now approved by Crippled Children Services in California. In 1973 there were more than 6,863 patients admitted to the 20 centers surveyed, over half requiring transport from referring hospitals. This paper provides information on the distribution, admission and occupancy rates, length of stay, costs and admission diagnoses for these high risk infants. PMID:1154794
Mondardini, M C; Vasile, B; Amigoni, A; Baroncini, S; Conio, A; Mantovani, A; Corolli, E; Ferrero, F; Stoppa, F; Vigna, G; Lampugnani, E; L'Erario, M
Effective and adequate therapy to control pain and stress are essential in managing children in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) undergoing painful invasive procedures, this should be, but is not yet, one of our main aims. Aware that this difficult mission must be pursued in a systematic, multimodal and multitasking way, the Studying Group on Analgosedation in PICU from the Italian Society of Neonatal and Paediatric Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SARNePI) is providing its recommendations.
Danbury, C M; Waldmann, C S
Intensive Care Medicine epitomises the difficulties inherent in modern medicine. In this chapter we examine some key medicolegal and ethical areas that are evolving. The principles of autonomy and consent are well established, but developments in UK caselaw have shown that the courts may be moving away from their traditional deference of the medical profession. We examine some recent cases and discuss the impact that these cases may have on practice in Intensive Care.
Csoma, Zsanett Renáta; Doró, Péter; Tálosi, Gyula; Machay, Tamás; Szabó, Miklós
Skin physiology of neonates and preterm infants and evidence-based skin care are not well explored for health care providers. The aim of our present study was to investigate the skin care methods of the tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Units in Hungary. A standardized questionnaire was distributed among the 22 tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Units with questions regarding skin care methods, bathing, emollition, skin disinfection, umbilical cord care, treatment of diaper dermatitis, and use of adhesive tapes. The skin care methods of the centres were similar in several aspects, but there were significant differences between the applied skin care and disinfectant products. The results of this survey facilitate the establishment of a standardized skin care protocol for tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Units with the cooperation of dermatologists, neonatologists and pharmacists.
Truog, Robert D; Brock, Dan W; Cook, Deborah J; Danis, Marion; Luce, John M; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Levy, Mitchell M
Critical care services represent a large and growing proportion of health care expenditures. Limiting the magnitude of these costs while maintaining a just allocation of these services will require rationing. We define rationing as "the allocation of healthcare resources in the face of limited availability, which necessarily means that beneficial interventions are withheld from some individuals." Although some have maintained that rationing of health care is unethical, we argue that rationing is not only unavoidable but essential to ensuring the ethical distribution of medical goods and services. Intensivists have little to guide them in the rationing of critical care services. We have developed a taxonomy of the rationing choices faced by intensivists as a framework for ethical analysis. This taxonomy divides rationing decisions into three categories. First are those rationing decisions that may be justified by external constraints (such as not prescribing a potentially beneficial medication because it is not available on the hospital formulary). Second are those that may be justified by reference to clinical guidelines (as, for example, not prescribing a potentially beneficial medication because a valid guideline recommends treatment with a less expensive alternative). Third are those that are justified by individual clinical judgment (such as choosing which of two patients should be admitted into the last ICU bed, in the absence of any evidence-based guidance). Judgments made on the basis of clinical judgment deserve particular scrutiny, since they may mask unethical prejudices or bias. Although this taxonomy does not by itself determine which decisions are ethical, it does clarify the type of evidence that is appropriate to supporting the decision that is made. Additional work is needed to elucidate how both empirical evidence and ethical analysis can further inform the rationing decisions that arise in the taxonomy described here.
Asefzadeh, Saeed; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Nikpey, Ahmad; Atighechian, Golrokh
Background: Clinical risk management focuses on improving the quality and safety of health care services by identifying the circumstances and opportunities that put patients at risk of harm and acting to prevent or control those risks. The goal of this study is to identify and assess the failure modes in the ICU of Qazvin's Social Security Hospital (Razi Hospital) through Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Methods: This was a qualitative-quantitative research by Focus Discussion Group (FDG) performed in Qazvin Province, Iran during 2011. The study population included all individuals and owners who are familiar with the process in ICU. Sampling method was purposeful and the FDG group members were selected by the researcher. The research instrument was standard worksheet that has been used by several researchers. Data was analyzed by FMEA technique. Results: Forty eight clinical errors and failure modes identified, results showed that the highest risk probability number (RPN) was in respiratory care “Ventilator's alarm malfunction (no alarm)” with the score 288, and the lowest was in gastrointestinal “not washing the NG-Tube” with the score 8. Conclusions: Many of the identified errors can be prevented by group members. Clinical risk assessment and management is the key to delivery of effective health care. PMID:23930171
Dias, Douglas de Sá; Resende, Mariane Vanessa; Diniz, Gisele do Carmo Leite Machado
To evaluate and compare stressors identified by patients of a coronary intensive care unit with those perceived by patients of a general postoperative intensive care unit. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in the coronary intensive care and general postoperative intensive care units of a private hospital. In total, 60 patients participated in the study, 30 in each intensive care unit. The stressor scale was used in the intensive care units to identify the stressors. The mean score of each item of the scale was calculated followed by the total stress score. The differences between groups were considered significant when p < 0.05. The mean ages of patients were 55.63 ± 13.58 years in the coronary intensive care unit and 53.60 ± 17.47 years in the general postoperative intensive care unit. For patients in the coronary intensive care unit, the main stressors were "being in pain", "being unable to fulfill family roles" and "being bored". For patients in the general postoperative intensive care unit, the main stressors were "being in pain", "being unable to fulfill family roles" and "not being able to communicate". The mean total stress scores were 104.20 ± 30.95 in the coronary intensive care unit and 116.66 ± 23.72 (p = 0.085) in the general postoperative intensive care unit. When each stressor was compared separately, significant differences were noted only between three items. "Having nurses constantly doing things around your bed" was more stressful to the patients in the general postoperative intensive care unit than to those in the coronary intensive care unit (p = 0.013). Conversely, "hearing unfamiliar sounds and noises" and "hearing people talk about you" were the most stressful items for the patients in the coronary intensive care unit (p = 0.046 and 0.005, respectively). The perception of major stressors and the total stress score were similar between patients in the coronary intensive care and general postoperative intensive care
Dias, Douglas de Sá; Resende, Mariane Vanessa; Diniz, Gisele do Carmo Leite Machado
Objective To evaluate and compare stressors identified by patients of a coronary intensive care unit with those perceived by patients of a general postoperative intensive care unit. Methods This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in the coronary intensive care and general postoperative intensive care units of a private hospital. In total, 60 patients participated in the study, 30 in each intensive care unit. The stressor scale was used in the intensive care units to identify the stressors. The mean score of each item of the scale was calculated followed by the total stress score. The differences between groups were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results The mean ages of patients were 55.63 ± 13.58 years in the coronary intensive care unit and 53.60 ± 17.47 years in the general postoperative intensive care unit. For patients in the coronary intensive care unit, the main stressors were “being in pain”, “being unable to fulfill family roles” and “being bored”. For patients in the general postoperative intensive care unit, the main stressors were “being in pain”, “being unable to fulfill family roles” and “not being able to communicate”. The mean total stress scores were 104.20 ± 30.95 in the coronary intensive care unit and 116.66 ± 23.72 (p = 0.085) in the general postoperative intensive care unit. When each stressor was compared separately, significant differences were noted only between three items. “Having nurses constantly doing things around your bed” was more stressful to the patients in the general postoperative intensive care unit than to those in the coronary intensive care unit (p = 0.013). Conversely, “hearing unfamiliar sounds and noises” and “hearing people talk about you” were the most stressful items for the patients in the coronary intensive care unit (p = 0.046 and 0.005, respectively). Conclusion The perception of major stressors and the total stress score were similar between patients
Bayraktar, Ulas D; Nates, Joseph L
Although outcomes of intensive care for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have improved in the last two decades, the short-term mortality still remains above 50% among allogeneic HSCT patients. Better selection of HSCT patients for intensive care, and consequently reduction of non-beneficial care, may reduce financial costs and alleviate patient suffering. We reviewed the studies on intensive care outcomes of patients undergoing HSCT published since 2000. The risk factors for intensive care unit (ICU) admission identified in this report were primarily patient and transplant related: HSCT type (autologous vs allogeneic), conditioning intensity, HLA mismatch, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). At the same time, most of the factors associated with ICU outcomes reported were related to the patients' functional status upon development of critical illness and interventions in ICU. Among the many possible interventions, the initiation of mechanical ventilation was the most consistently reported factor affecting ICU survival. As a consequence, our current ability to assess the benefit or futility of intensive care is limited. Until better ICU or hospital mortality prediction models are available, based on the available evidence, we recommend practitioners to base their ICU admission decisions on: Patient pre-transplant comorbidities, underlying disease status, GVHD diagnosis/grade, and patients' functional status at the time of critical illness.
Cubitt, Jonathan J; Davies, Menna; Lye, George; Evans, Janine; Combellack, Tom; Dickson, William; Nguyen, Dai Q
Intensive care unit-acquired weakness is an evolving problem in the burn population. As patients are surviving injuries that previously would have been fatal, the focus of treatment is shifting from survival to long-term outcome. The rehabilitation of burn patients can be challenging; however, a certain subgroup of patients have worse outcomes than others. These patients may suffer from intensive care unit-acquired weakness, and their treatment, physiotherapy and expectations need to be adjusted accordingly. This study investigates the condition of intensive care unit-acquired weakness in our burn centre. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all the admissions to our burn centre between 2008 and 2012 and identified 22 patients who suffered from intensive care unit-acquired weakness. These patients were significantly younger with significantly larger burns than those without intensive care unit-acquired weakness. The known risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness are commonplace in the burn population. The recovery of these patients is significantly affected by their weakness.
Azoulay, Elie; Sprung, Charles L
Surrogate designation has the potential to represent the patient's wishes and promote successful family involvement in decision making when options exist as to the patient's medical management. In recent years, intensive care unit physicians and nurses have promoted family-centered care on the basis that adequate and effective communication with family members is the key to substitute decision making, thereby protecting patient autonomy. The two-step model for the family-physician relationship in the intensive care unit including early and effective provision of information to the family followed by family input into decision making is described as well as specific needs of the family members of dying patients. A research agenda is outlined for further investigating the family-physician relationship in the intensive care unit. This agenda includes a) improvement of communication skills for health care workers; b) research in the area of information and communication; c) interventions in non-intensive care unit areas to promote programs for teaching communication skills to all members of the medical profession; d) research on potential conflict between medical best interest and the ethics of autonomy; and e) publicity to enhance society's interest in advance care planning and surrogate designation amplified by debate in the media and other sounding boards. These studies should focus both on families and on intensive care unit workers. Assessments of postintervention outcomes in family members would provide insights into how well family-centered care matches family expectations and protects families from distress, not only during the intensive care unit stay but also during the ensuing weeks and months.
Denier, Yvonne; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; De Bal, Nele; Gastmans, Chris
The Belgian Act on Euthanasia came into force on 23 September 2002, making Belgium the second country--after the Netherlands--to decriminalize euthanasia under certain due-care conditions. Since then, Belgian nurses have been increasingly involved in euthanasia care. In this paper, we report a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with 18 nurses from Flanders (the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) who have had experience in caring for patients requesting euthanasia since May 2002 (the approval of the Act). We found that the care process for patients requesting euthanasia is a complex and dynamic process, consisting of several stages, starting from the period preceding the euthanasia request and ending with the aftercare stage. When asked after the way in which they experience their involvement in the euthanasia care process, all nurses described it as a grave and difficult process, not only on an organizational and practical level, but also on an emotional level. "Intense" is the dominant feeling experienced by nurses. This is compounded by the presence of other feelings such as great concern and responsibility on the one hand, being content in truly helping the patient to die serenely, and doing everything in one's power to contribute to this; but also feeling unreal and ambivalent on the other hand, because death is arranged. Nurses feel a discrepancy, because although it is a nice death, which happens in dignity and with respect, it is also an unnatural death. The clinical ethical implications of these findings are discussed.
Hales, Caz; de Vries, Kay; Coombs, Maureen
Critically ill morbidly obese patients pose considerable healthcare delivery and resource utilisation challenges in the intensive care setting. These are resultant from specific physiological responses to critical illness in this population and the nature of the interventional therapies used in the intensive care environment. An additional challenge arises for this population when considering the social stigma that is attached to being obese. Intensive care staff therefore not only attend to the physical and care needs of the critically ill morbidly obese patient but also navigate, both personally and professionally, the social terrain of stigma when providing care. To explore the culture and influences on doctors and nurses within the intensive care setting when caring for critically ill morbidly obese patients. A focused ethnographic approach was adopted to elicit the 'situated' experiences of caring for critically ill morbidly obese patients from the perspectives of intensive care staff. Participant observation of care practices and interviews with intensive care staff were undertaken over a four month period. Analysis was conducted using constant comparison technique to compare incidents applicable to each theme. An 18 bedded tertiary intensive care unit in New Zealand. Sixty-seven intensive care nurses and 13 intensive care doctors involved with the care and management of seven critically ill patients with a body mass index ≥40kg/m(2). Interactions between intensive care staff and morbidly obese patients were challenging due to the social stigma surrounding obesity. Social awkwardness and managing socially awkward moments were evident when caring for morbidly obese patients. Intensive care staff used strategies of face-work and mutual pretence to alleviate feelings of discomfort when engaged in aspects of care and caring. This was a strategy used to prevent embarrassment and distress for both the patients and staff. This study has brought new understandings
Claes, C; Van Hove, G; van Loon, J; Vandevelde, S; Schalock, R L
Despite various reliability studies on the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS), to date there has not been an evaluation of the reliability of client vs. staff judgments. Such determination is important, given the increasing consumer-driven approach to services. Additionally, there has not been an evaluation of the instrument's construct validity on a non-English speaking sample. This is important as the SIS is currently translated into 13 languages. Data were collected in two different samples, using the Dutch translation of the SIS and the Vineland-Z. There was a significant correlation between ratings of staff and consumers on the SIS; however, the relationship between the mean scores of consumer and staff responses indicated significant differences in staff and consumer scores. All correlations between the Vineland-Z domains and the SIS subscales were significant and negative, ranging from -0.37 to -0.89. Analyses of the inter-respondent reliability suggest that one needs to consider the source of information regarding needed supports carefully. The significant negative correlations between SIS and Vineland-Z reflect that the SIS is measuring a different construct (needed support) than the Vineland-Z (adaptive behaviour). The results of the two studies provide additional support for the etic (universal) properties of the SIS, as both hypotheses were confirmed. In conclusion, SIS users are provided with a wealth of information that can be used for multiple purposes.
Marinelli, William A; Leatherman, James W
Neuromuscular disorders encountered in the ICU can be categorized as muscular diseases that lead to ICU admission and those that are acquired in the ICU. This article discusses three neuromuscular disorders can lead to ICU admission and have a putative immune-mediated pathogenesis: the Guillian-Barré syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and dermatomyositis/polymyositis. It also reviews critical care polyneuropathy and ICU acquired myopathy, two disorders that, alone or in combination, are responsible for nearly all cases of severe ICU acquired muscle weakness.
Waller, David A.; And Others
The intensive care pediatrician who prophesies to parents that their child's illness is irreversible may encounter denial and hostility. Four cases are reported in which parents rejected their child's hopeless prognosis, counterprophesied miraculous cures, resolved to obtain exorcism, criticized the care, or accused nurses of neglect. Journal…
Byrne, Eilish; Garber, June
This article presents the elements of the Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these interventions is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…
Byrne, Eilish; Garber, June
This article presents the elements of the Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these interventions is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…
In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…
In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…
Valentijn, Pim P.; Hitzert, Marit; Hermus, Marieke A.A.; Franx, Arie; de Vries, Raymond G.; Wiegers, Therese A.; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.
Introduction: Integrated care is considered to be a means to reduce costs, improve the quality of care and generate better patient outcomes. At present, little is known about integrated care in maternity care systems. We developed questionnaires to examine integrated care in two different settings, using the taxonomy of the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of these questionnaires. Methods: We used data collected between 2013 and 2015 from two studies: the Maternity Care Network Study (634 respondents) and the Dutch Birth Centre Study (56 respondents). We assessed the feasibility, discriminative validity, and reliability of the questionnaires. Results: Both questionnaires showed good feasibility (overall missing rate < 20%) and reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient > 0.70). Between-subgroups post-hoc comparisons showed statistically significant differences on integration profiles between regional networks (on all items, dimensions of integration and total integration score) and birth centres (on 50% of the items and dimensions of integration). Discussion: Both questionnaires are feasible and can discriminate between sites with different integration profiles in The Netherlands. They offer an opportunity to better understand integrated care as one step in understanding the complexity of the concept. PMID:28970747
Cho, Ok-Hee; Yoo, Yang-Sook; Yun, Sun-Hee; Hwang, Kyung-Hye
To develop and validate an eye care educational programme for intensive care unit nurses. Eye care guidelines and protocols have been developed for increasing eye care implementation in intensive care units. However, the guidelines lack consistency in assessment or intervention methodology. This was a one-sample pre/postprogramme evaluation study design for testing the effects of the eye care educational programme, developed for and applied to intensive care unit nurses, on their levels of knowledge and awareness. The eye care educational programme was developed based on literature review and survey of educational needs. Thirty intensive care unit nurses served as subjects for the study. The levels of eye care-related knowledge, awareness and practice were enhanced following the implementation of the educational programme. Moreover, satisfaction with the educational programme was high. It is necessary to intensify eye care education aimed at new nurses who are inexperienced in intensive care unit nursing and provide continuing education on the latest eye care methods and information to experienced nurses. The eye care educational programme developed in this study can be used as a strategy to periodically assess the eye status of patients and facilitate the appropriate eye care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Goodney, Philip P.; Holman, Kerianne; Henke, Peter K.; Travis, Lori L.; Dimick, Justin B.; Stukel, Therese A.; Fisher, Elliott. S.; Birkmeyer, John D.
Objective To examine the relationship between the intensity of vascular care and population-based rate of major lower extremity amputation (above-or below-knee) from vascular disease. Background Because patient-level differences do not fully explain the variation in amputation rate across the United States, we hypothesized that variation in intensity of vascular care may also affect regional rates of amputation. Methods Intensity of vascular care was defined as the proportion of Medicare patients who underwent any vascular procedure in the year prior to amputation, calculated at the regional level (2003–2006), using the 306 hospital referral regions in the Dartmouth Atlas of Healthcare. We examined relationship between intensity of vascular care and major amputation rate, at the regional level, between 2007–2009. Results Amputation rates varied widely by region, from 1 to 27 per 10,000 Medicare patients. Compared to regions in the lowest quintile of amputation rate, patients in the highest quintile were commonly African American (50% versus 13%) and diabetic (38% versus 31%). Intensity of vascular care also varied across regions: fewer than 35% of patients underwent revascularization in the lowest quintile of intensity, while nearly 60% of patients underwent revascularization in the highest quintile. Overall, there was an inverse correlation between intensity of vascular care and amputation rate ranging from R= −0.36 for outpatient diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, to R= −0.87 for inpatient surgical revascularizations. In analyses adjusting for patient characteristics and socioeconomic status, patients in high vascular care regions were significantly less likely to undergo amputation without an antecedent attempt at revascularization (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.34–0.37, p<0.001). Conclusions The intensity of vascular care provided to patients at risk for amputation varies, and regions with the most intensive vascular care have the lowest amputation rate
Julliand, Sébastien; Lodé, Noëlla
The paediatric mobile emergency and intensive care service care teams have expertise in taking care of children in life-threatening circumstances. At the Robert-Debré Hospital in Paris, the paediatric Smur is multi-skilled, specialising particularly in transporting neonates and infants with severe cardiac or respiratory difficulties. The pathologies handled are very varied and include both neonatal pathologies and trauma pathologies in older children.
After intensive care and before classic neurological rehabilitation is possible, patients in an altered state of consciousness are cared for at early stages in so-called coma awakening units. The care involves, on the one hand, the complex support of the patient's awakening from coma as a neurological and existential process, and on the other, support for their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Puddu, R; Cosentino, S; Pisano, M B; Deplano, M; Palmas, F
A microbiological survey was carried out in two medical Intensive Care Units from January to June 2000. The patients, staff (hands and upper respiratory tract) and environment were monitored. The results obtained in both Care Units give cause for concern. They showed particularly high cultural positivities in bronchoaspirates collected from artificially ventilated patients, a high percentage of positive environmental samples, and frequently contaminated hands in hospital staff, conditions which may facilitate microbial circulation in the medical Intensive Care Units. It would therefore seem necessary to promptly apply specific preventive measures for both the environment and patients.
McIntosh, Nathalie; Oppel, Eva; Mohr, David; Meterko, Mark
Improving patient care quality in intensive care units is increasingly important as intensive care unit services account for a growing proportion of hospital services. Organizational factors associated with quality of patient care in such units have been identified; however, most were examined in isolation, making it difficult to assess the relative importance of each. Furthermore, though most intensive care units now use a closed model, little research has been done in this specific context. To examine the relative importance of organizational factors associated with patient care quality in closed intensive care units. In a national exploratory, cross-sectional study focused on intensive care units at US Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals, unit directors were surveyed about nurse and physician staffing, work resources and training, patient care coordination, rounding, and perceptions of patient care quality. Administrative records yielded data on patient volume and facility teaching status. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and regression modeling were used for data analysis. Sixty-nine completed surveys from directors of closed intensive care units were returned. Regression model results showed that better patient care coordination (β = 0.43; P = .01) and having adequate work resources (β = 0.26; P = .02) were significantly associated with higher levels of patient care quality in such units (R(2) = 0.22). Augmenting work resources and/or focusing limited hospital resources on improving patient care coordination may be the most productive ways to improve patient care quality in closed intensive care units. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Lordani, Cláudia Regina Felicetti; Eckert, Raquel Goreti; Tozetto, Altevir Garcia; Lordani, Tarcísio Vitor Augusto; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino
Objective To assess the opinions and practices of intensive care professionals with regard to diarrhea in critically ill patients. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted among health care professionals working at three adult intensive care units. Participants responded individually to a self-administered questionnaire about their length of work experience in intensive care; the definition, characterization, and causes of diarrhea; types of records in the patient's medical record; and training received. Results A total of 78 professionals participated in this study, of whom 59.0% were nurse technicians, 25.7% were nurses, and 15.3% were physicians; 77.0% of them had worked in intensive care for over 1 year. Only 37.2% had received training on this topic. Half of the interviewees defined diarrhea as "liquid and/or pasty stools" regardless of frequency, while the other 50.0% defined diarrhea based on the increased number of daily bowel movements. The majority of them mentioned diet as the main cause of diarrhea, followed by "use of medications" (p<0.001). Distinct nutritional practices were observed among the analyzed professionals regarding episodes of diarrhea, such as discontinuing, maintaining, or reducing the volume of enteral nutrition; physicians reported that they do not routinely communicate the problem to other professionals (for example, to a nutritionist) and do not routinely record and quantify diarrhea events in patients' medical records. Conclusion Different opinions and practices were observed in intensive care professionals with regard to diarrhea. PMID:25295825
The increasing complexity of the intensive care patient combined with the recent advances in imaging technology has generated a new perspective on intensive care radiology. The purpose of this 2-part review article is to describe the contribution of radiology to the management of these critically ill patients. The first article will discuss the impact of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) on critical care management and utility of the portable chest radiograph in the detection and evaluation of pulmonary disease with correlation to computed tomography (CT). The second article describes in more detail the increasing role of CT in diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. In particular, the implementation of CT pulmonary angiography in the evaluation of pulmonary emboli and the introduction of the new multislice detector CT scanners that allow even the most dyspneic patient to be evaluated. Pleural complications in the intensive care unit and image-guided intervention will also be discussed.
Kleinpell, Ruth; Barden, Connie; Rincon, Teresa; McCarthy, Mary; Zapatochny Rufo, Rebecca J
Information on the impact of tele-intensive care on nursing and priority areas of nursing care is limited. To conduct a national benchmarking survey of nurses working in intensive care telemedicine facilities in the United States. In a 2-phased study, an online survey was used to assess nurses' perceptions of intensive care telemedicine, and a modified 2-round Delphi study was used to identify priority areas of nursing. In phase 1, most of the 1213 respondents agreed to strongly agreed that using tele-intensive care enables them to accomplish tasks more quickly (63%), improves collaboration (65.9%), improves job performance (63.6%) and communication (60.4%), is useful in nursing assessments (60%), and improves care by providing more time for patient care (45.6%). Benefits of tele-intensive care included ability to detect trends in vital signs, detect unstable physiological status, provide medical management, and enhance patient safety. Barriers included technical problems (audio and video), interruptions in care, perceptions of telemedicine as an interference, and attitudes of staff. In phase 2, 60 nurses ranked 15 priority areas of care, including critical thinking skills, intensive care experience, skillful communication, mutual respect, and management of emergency patient care. The findings can be used to further inform the development of competencies for tele-intensive care nursing, match the tele-intensive care nursing practice guidelines of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, and highlight concepts related to the association's standards for establishing and sustaining healthy work environments. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Dünser, M W; Towey, R M; Amito, J; Mer, M
We undertook an audit in a rural Ugandan hospital that describes the epidemiology and mortality of 5147 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The most frequent admission diagnoses were postoperative state (including following trauma) (2014/5147; 39.1%), medical conditions (709; 13.8%) and traumatic brain injury (629; 12.2%). Intensive care unit mortality was 27.8%, differing between age groups (p < 0.001). Intensive care unit mortality was highest for neonatal tetanus (29/37; 78.4%) and lowest for foreign body aspiration (4/204; 2.0%). Intensive care unit admission following surgery (333/1431; 23.3%), medical conditions (327/1431; 22.9%) and traumatic brain injury (233/1431; 16.3%) caused the highest number of deaths. Of all deaths in the hospital, (1431/11,357; 12.6%) occurred in the intensive care unit. Although the proportion of hospitalised patients admitted to the intensive care unit increased over time, from 0.7% in 2005/6 to 2.8% in 2013/4 (p < 0.001), overall hospital mortality decreased (2005/6, 4.8%; 2013/14, 4.0%; p < 0.001). The proportion of intensive care patients whose lungs were mechanically ventilated was 18.7% (961/5147). This subgroup of patients did not change over time (2006, 16%; 2015, 18.4%; p = 0.12), but their mortality decreased (2006, 59.5%; 2015, 44.3%; p < 0.001).
Beltman, Maaike; Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Leerdam, Frank J M; Wierenga-van der Hoeven, Catelijne J; Bulk-Bunschoten, Anneke M W; Kamphuis, Mascha
Continence problems can occur during childhood. This guideline is for the Dutch Youth Health Care (JGZ) and gives recommendations for the prevention, early detection and treatment of these problems. As a preventative measure advices for potty training should be started in children aged 18-24 months. If incontinence is present, it is important to take a history and carry out physical examination. In children over the age of 5 who are incontinent of urine the following are recommended: taking child out of bed, calendar with reward system, bedwetting alarm or voiding diary; children over the age of 8 can follow dry bed training. Faecal incontinence is often associated with constipation. Incontinent children with constipation are given advice about normal eating and exercise patterns. If this is not successful then laxatives are prescribed. The JGZ should refer further if there are indications of an underlying condition; if children over the age of 5 are wet during the day; if children are incontinent of faeces at night; if children are incontinent of faeces but not constipated; if children persistently wet the bed; if there is faecal incontinence despite counselling, and if medication needs to be prescribed.
Penrod, Joan D.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Livote, Elayne E.; Puntillo, Kathleen A.; Walker, Amy S.; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Mercado, Alice F.; Swoboda, Sandra M.; Ilaoa, Debra; Thompson, David A.; Nelson, Judith E.
Objectives High-quality care for intensive care unit patients and families includes palliative care. To promote performance improvement, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s National Quality Measures Clearinghouse identified nine evidence-based processes of intensive care unit palliative care (Care and Communication Bundle) that are measured through review of medical record documentation. We conducted this study to examine how frequently the Care and Communication Bundle processes were performed in diverse intensive care units and to understand patient factors that are associated with such performance. Design Prospective, multisite, observational study of performance of key intensive care unit palliative care processes. Settings A surgical intensive care unit and a medical intensive care unit in two different large academic health centers and a medical-surgical intensive care unit in a medium-sized community hospital. Patients Consecutive adult patients with length of intensive care unit stay ≥5 days. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Between November 2007 and December 2009, we measured performance by specified day after intensive care unit admission on nine care process measures: identify medical decision-maker, advance directive and resuscitation preference, distribute family information leaflet, assess and manage pain, offer social work and spiritual support, and conduct interdisciplinary family meeting. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine predictors of performance of five care processes. We enrolled 518 (94.9%) patients and 336 (83.6%) family members. Performances on pain assessment and management measures were high. In contrast, interdisciplinary family meetings were documented for <20% of patients by intensive care unit day 5. Performance on other measures ranged from 8% to 43%, with substantial variation across and within sites. Chronic comorbidity burden and site were the most consistent predictors of care
Li-Ying, Jason; Paunova, Minna; Egerod, Ingrid
This study investigates the influence of intensive care unit nurses' knowledge sharing behaviour on nurse innovation, given different conditions of care quality control. Health-care organisations face an increasing pressure to innovate while controlling care quality. We have little insight on how the control of care quality interacts with the knowledge sharing behaviour of intensive care nurses to affect their innovative behaviours. We developed a multi-source survey study of more than 200 intensive care nurses at 22 intensive care units of 17 Danish hospitals. Two versions of the questionnaire were used - one designed for nurse employees and the other for the managing nurse(s). An ordinary least squares regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Different aspects of knowledge sharing affect innovation differently, depending on the strength of the control of care quality within the unit. The increasing pressures to implement the control of care quality and innovate may be conflicting, unless handled properly. Process control at intensive care units should be loosened, when personal interaction between intensive care nurses is encouraged to stimulate nurse innovations. Alternatively, managers may develop a climate where helping others, especially with younger colleagues, offsets the negative effects of strong process control. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Teichert, Martina; Schoenmakers, Tim; Kylstra, Nico; Mosk, Berend; Bouvy, Marcel L; van de Vaart, Frans; De Smet, Peter A G M; Wensing, Michel
Background The quality of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in the Netherlands has been assessed annually since 2008. The initial set has been further developed with pharmacists and patient organizations, the healthcare inspectorate, the government and health insurance companies. The set over 2012 was the first set of quality indicators for community pharmacies which was validated and supported by all major stakeholders. The aims of this study were to describe the validated set of quality indicators for community pharmacies and to report their scores over 2012. In subanalyses the score development over 5 years was described for those indicators, that have been surveyed before and remained unchanged. Methods Community pharmacists in the Netherlands were invited in 2013 to provide information for the set of 2012. Quality indicators were mapped by categories relevant for pharmaceutical care and defined for structures, processes and dispensing outcomes. Scores for categorically-measured quality indicators were presented as the percentage of pharmacies reporting the presence of a quality aspect. For numerical quality indicators, the mean of all reported scores was expressed. In subanalyses for those indicators that had been questioned previously, scores were collected from earlier measurements for pharmacies providing their scores in 2012. Multilevel analysis was used to assess the consistency of scores within one pharmacy over time by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results For the set in 2012, 1739 Dutch community pharmacies (88 % of the total) provided information for 66 quality indicators in 10 categories. Indicator scores on the presence of quality structures showed relatively high quality levels. Scores for processes and dispensing outcomes were lower. Subanalyses showed that overall indicators scores improved within pharmacies, but this development differed between pharmacies. Conclusions A set of validated quality indicators provided
Huppelschoten, Aleida G; Verkerk, Eva W; Appleby, John; Groenewoud, Hans; Adang, Eddy M M; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Kremer, Jan A M
What are patients and insurers willing to pay for different aspects of fertility care, with a particular focus on patient-centredness? In fertility care, both patients and health insurers place a high value on patient-centred factors, also when taking into account the effectiveness of fertility care. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: The benefit patients derive from fertility treatment may arise from several aspects of their care, such as the effectiveness, safety or patient-centred factors. Patient-centredness is recognized as an important, multi-dimensional concept, including domains on the organizational level (e.g. information provision) and on the human level (e.g. patient involvement). We performed a discrete choice experiment (DCE) within 32 Dutch fertility clinics and five large health insurance companies in the Netherlands. A total of 996 infertile patients who underwent at least one treatment cycle for their fertility problem and 84 healthcare insurers participated in the study which was executed in the summer of 2012. All participating patients and health insurers completed a DCE about their preferences in fertility care regarding the effectiveness, patient-centredness of care and additional costs. Logistic regression analysis was subsequently used to determine what both patients and health insurers were willing to pay for a one-step increase in patient-centred care and 1% higher pregnancy rates. Five hundred and fifty patients (55.2%) and 45 healthcare insurers (53.6%) completed the DCE questionnaire. Patients were willing to pay a median amount of €463 for a relevant one-step increase in patient-centred care and €107 for 1% increase in pregnancy rates. Healthcare insurers' valuations were lower: €191 for more patient-centred care and €60 for 1% increase in pregnancy rates. The willingness-to-pay values depended on patients' age, patients' ethnicity, income, and treatment type and on health insurers' age. An important limitation of a DCE study is that
Serrano-Gemes, G; Rich-Ruiz, M
To measure the intensity of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in nurses of an intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary hospital, to check differences between the dimensions of the Intensity of Interprofessional Collaboration Questionnaire, and to identify the influence of personal variables. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 63 intensive care nurses selected by simple random sampling. Explanatory variables: age, sex, years of experience in nursing, years of experience in critical care, workday type and work shift type; variable of outcome: IPC. The IPC was measured by: Intensity of Interprofessional Collaboration Questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analysis (IPC and its dimensions with explanatory variables). 73.8% were women, with a mean age of 46.54 (±6.076) years. The average years experience in nursing and critical care was 23.03 (±6.24) and 14.25 (±8.532), respectively. 77% had a full time and 95.1% had a rotating shift. 62.3% obtained average IPC values. Statistically significant differences were found (P<.05) between IPC (overall score) and overall assessment with years of experience in critical care. This study shows average levels of IPC; the nurses with less experience in critical care obtained higher IPC and overall assessment scores. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kruer, Rachel M; Ensor, Christopher R
The most recent published evidence on the use of colloids versus crystalloids in critical care is reviewed, with a focus on population-dependent differences in safety and efficacy. Colloids offer a number of theoretical advantages over crystalloids for fluid resuscitation, but some colloids (e.g., hydroxyethyl starch solutions, dextrans) can have serious adverse effects, and albumin products entail higher costs. The results of the influential Saline Versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation (SAFE) trial and a subsequent SAFE subgroup analysis indicated that colloid therapy should not be used in patients with traumatic brain injury and other forms of trauma due to an increased mortality risk relative to crystalloid therapy. With regard to patients with severe sepsis, two meta-analyses published in 2011, which collectively evaluated 82 trials involving nearly 10,000 patients, indicated comparable outcomes with the use of either crystalloids or albumins. For patients requiring extracorporeal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during heart surgery, the available evidence supports the use of a colloid, particularly albumin, for CPB circuit priming and postoperative volume expansion. In select patients with burn injury, the published evidence supports the use of supplemental colloids if adequate urine output cannot be maintained with a crystalloid-only rescue strategy. The results of the SAFE trial and a subgroup analysis of SAFE data suggest that colloids should be avoided in patients with trauma and traumatic brain injury. There are minimal differences in outcome between crystalloids and hypo-oncotic or iso-oncotic albumin for fluid resuscitation in severe sepsis; in select populations, such as patients undergoing cardiac surgery, the use of iso-oncotic albumin may confer a survival advantage and should be considered a first-line alternative.
Wåhlin, Ingrid; Ek, Anna-Christina; Idvall, Ewa
The purpose of the study was to describe empowerment from the perspective of intensive care staff. What makes intensive care staff experience inner strength and power? Intensive care staff are repeatedly exposed to traumatic situations and demanding events, which could result in stress and burnout symptoms. A higher level of psychological empowerment at the workplace is associated with increased work satisfaction and mental health, fewer burnout symptoms and a decreased number of sick leave days. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 12 intensive care unit (ICU) staff (four registered nurses, four enrolled nurses and four physicians) in southern Sweden. Data were analysed using a phenomenological method. Intensive care staff were found to be empowered both by internal processes such as feelings of doing good, increased self-esteem/self-confidence and increased knowledge and skills, and by external processes such as nourishing meetings, well functioning teamwork and a good atmosphere. Findings show that not only personal knowledge and skills, but also a supporting atmosphere and a good teamwork, has to be focused and encouraged by supervisors in order to increase staff's experiences of empowerment. Staff also need a chance to feel that they do something good for patients, next of kin and other staff members. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Erdoğan, Zeynep; Atik, Derya
Intensive care units are care centers where, in order to provide the maximum benefit to individuals whose life is in danger, many lifesaving technological tools and devices are present, and morbidity and mortality rates are high. In the intensive care unit, when classic treatments fail or become unbearable because of side effects, complementary methods have been suggested to be the best alternative. Complementary health approaches are methods that are used both for the continuation and the improvement of the well-being of an individual and as additions to medical treatments that are based on a holistic approach. These applications are especially helpful in the treatment of the stresses, anxieties, and other symptoms of unstable patients in the intensive care unit who do not tolerate traditional treatment methods well, increasing their psychological and physiological well-being, helping them sleep and rest. In intensive care patients, in order to decrease the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation, antiemetic and medicine needs, mechanical ventilation duration, and the intensity of the disease as well as to cope with symptoms such as pain, anxiety, physiological parameters, dyspnea, and sleep problems, body-mind interventions such as massage, reflexology, acupressure, aromatherapy, music therapy, energy therapies (healing touch, therapeutic touch, the Yakson method), and prayer are used as complementary health approaches.
Nilsson, Krister; Ekström-Jodal, Barbro; Meretoja, Olli; Valentin, Niels; Wagner, Kari
The initiation and development of pediatric anesthesia and intensive care have much in common in the Scandinavian countries. The five countries had to initiate close relations and cooperation in all medical disciplines. The pediatric anesthesia subspecialty took its first steps after the Second World War. Relations for training and exchange of experiences between Scandinavian countries with centers in Europe and the USA were a prerequisite for development. Specialized pediatric practice was not a full-time position until during the 1950s, when the first pediatric anesthesia positions were created. Scandinavian anesthesia developed slowly. In contrast, Scandinavia pioneered both adult and certainly pediatric intensive care. The pioneers were heavily involved in the teaching and training of anesthetists and nurses. This was necessary to manage the rapidly increasing work. The polio epidemics during the 1950s initiated a combination of clinical development and technical innovations. Blood gas analyses technology and interpretation in combination with improved positive pressure ventilators were developed in Scandinavia contributing to general and pediatric anesthesia and intensive care practice. Scandinavian specialist training and accreditation includes both anesthesia and intensive care. Although pediatric anesthesia/intensive care is not a separate specialty, an 'informal accreditation' for a specialist position is obtained after training. The pleasure of working in a relatively small group of devoted colleagues and staff has persisted from the pioneering years. It is still one of the most inspiring and pleasant gifts for those working in this demanding specialty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Laurie, Gordon A; Venkatesh, Bala; Kruger, Peter S; Morgan, T John; Pascoe, Ranald L S
A number of recent therapeutic advances have resulted from basic science research. With the change in medical education and practice towards evidence-based medicine, we wished to determine the role of basic science research in Australian intensive care practice. We believe this is the first survey of Australian intensivists and trainees to assess the influence of basic science research on their clinical duties. We discuss the importance and influence of basic science in intensive care practice and the development of postgraduate appreciation of basic science, highlight the impact of some of the changes in medical education on basic science undergraduate teaching, and discuss the clinical applicability and current participation in basic science research. A questionnaire was mailed in November 2006 to all registered Fellows and trainees of the Joint Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine who were resident in Australia. 267 of 801 surveys were returned (33% response rate): 74% of respondents believed basic science is an important or very important influence on clinical decision-making, which is consistent with previous studies, and 8% believed it is crucial. The most familiar areas of basic science research are those with established clinical applications, such as drug metabolism, regional perfusion and the complement cascade. Most current intensive care practitioners were taught basic science as undergraduates. Involvement in basic science research increases during intensive care training, from 10% before a medical degree to over 30% at the end of training, with over a quarter of practicing intensivists having a basic science degree. Despite this increase in interest during training, only 9% of journal club attendees reported that they discuss basic science articles. Critical care practitioners consider basic science research to be relevant and important to their practice. There is interest in clinically applicable basic science research, but few people regularly review
Noome, Marijke; Beneken Genaamd Kolmer, Deirdre M; van Leeuwen, Evert; Dijkstra, Boukje M; Vloet, Lilian C M
The aim of this study was to explore how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses describe their role during End-of-Life Care (EOLC) in the ICU, related to the interaction between patient, family and professionals (care triad). Three electronic databases, PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE, and reference lists of included studies were searched for studies in English, Dutch or German between January 2002 and August 2015. Studies were included if they presented data about EOLC in the adult ICU, and the role of ICU nurses around EOLC. Quantitative and qualitative studies and opinion articles were extracted. Inductive content analysis was carried out to analyse and categorise the data. Twenty studies were included. Four categories emerged: care for the ICU patient, care for the family, environmental aspects of EOLC and organisational aspects of EOLC. Regarding the care triad, a gap exists between theoretical models and the actual care provided by ICU nurses during EOLC. The relational aspect of care, like aimed with care triad, is absent. The literature clearly indicates that the role of ICU nurses concerns care for the patient, family and environment. It described which care should be given, but it remains unclear how care should be given (attitude). Therefore, it is difficult for ICU nurses to provide this care. Further, it seems that care provided to family mainly consists of giving advice on how to care for the patient; care for family members themselves was only mentioned in a few studies. Therefore, it seems that family does not always receive adequate care yet, which may be helpful in preventing problems like depression, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder. It can be concluded that it is important for ICU nurses to be aware of the existing relationships; however, comparing the literature, care triad does not appear to be reached. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Patients with major burns require specialist care in burn centres, taking into account the complex systemic response to a burn injury, avoidance of complications, specialist wound care and supportive multidisciplinary management. Occasionally, these patients may be managed in other settings, such as emergency departments or general intensive care units and ward areas, for example after an explosion or major disaster. Therefore, general nurses require an understanding of patients' complex needs, and should be aware of the latest developments in burn care and up-to-date evidence to ensure best practice.
Reddy, Anita J; Pappas, Rita; Suri, Sanjeev; Whinney, Christopher; Yerian, Lisa; Guzman, Jorge A
Intensive care unit (ICU) resources are scarce, yet demand is increasing at a rapid rate. Optimizing throughput efficiency while balancing patient safety and quality of care is of utmost importance during times of high ICU utilization. Continuous improvement methodology was used to develop a multidisciplinary workflow to improve throughput in the ICU while maintaining a high quality of care and minimizing adverse outcomes. The research team was able to decrease ICU occupancy and therefore ICU length of stay by implementing this process without increasing mortality or readmissions to the ICU. By improving throughput efficiency, more patients were able to be provided with care in the ICU. © The Author(s) 2014.
Marics, Gábor; Koncz, Levente; Körner, Anna; Mikos, Borbála; Tóth-Heyn, Péter
Critical care associated with stress hyperglycaemia has gained a new view in the last decade since the demonstration of the beneficial effects of strong glycaemic control on the mortality in intensive care units. Strong glycaemic control may, however, induce hypoglycaemia, resulting in increased mortality, too. Pediatric population has an increased risk of hypoglycaemia because of the developing central nervous system. In this view there is a strong need for close monitoring of glucose levels in intensive care units. The subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring developed for diabetes care is an alternative for this purpose instead of regular blood glucose measurements. It is important to know the limitations of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring in intensive care. Decreased tissue perfusion may disturb the results of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring, because the measurement occurs in interstitial fluid. The routine use of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring in intensive care units is not recommended yet until sufficient data on the reliability of the system are available. The Medtronic subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring system is evaluated in the review partly based on the authors own results.
van Suijlekom-Smit, L W; Bruijnzeels, M A; van der Wouden, J C; van der Velden, J; Visser, H K; Dokter, H J
BACKGROUND: Insight into referral patterns provides general practitioners (GPs) and specialists with a frame of reference for their own work and enables assessment of the need for secondary care. Only approximate information is available. AIM: To determine how often, to which specialties and for what conditions children in different age groups are referred, as well as how often a condition is referred given the incidence in general practice. METHOD: From data of the Dutch National Survey of Morbidity and Interventions in General Practice, 63,753 new referrals (acute and non-acute) were analysed for children (0-14 years) from 103 participating practices (161 GPs) who registered. Practices were divided into four groups. Each group of practices participated for three consecutive months covering a whole year altogether. We calculated referral rates per 1000 children per year and referability rates per 100 episodes, which quantifies the a priori chance of a condition being referred for specialist care. RESULTS: The referral rate varied by age from 231 for children under 1 year old to 119 for those aged 10-14 years (mean 159). The specialties mainly involved were ENT, paediatrics, surgery, ophthalmology, dermatology and orthopaedics. Referrals in the first year of life were most frequently to paediatricians (123); among older children the referral rate to paediatricians decreased (mean 36). Referrals to ENT specialists were seen particularly in the age groups 1-4 (71) and 5-9 (53). For surgery, the referral rate increased by age from 19 to 34. Differences between boys and girls were small, except for surgery. The highest referral rates were for problems in the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) chapters: respiratory (28); musculoskeletal (25); ear (24) and eye (21). Referability rates were, in general, low for conditions referred to paediatrics and dermatology and high for surgery and ophthalmology. The variation in problems presented to each specialty
Tubbs-Cooley, Heather L; Pickler, Rita H; Younger, Janet B; Mark, Barbara A
The aims of this study are to describe: (1) the frequency of nurse-reported missed care in neonatal intensive care units; and (2) nurses' reports of factors contributing to missed care on their last shift worked. Missed nursing care, or necessary care that is not delivered, is increasingly cited as a contributor to adverse patient outcomes. Previous studies highlight the frequency of missed nursing care in adult settings; the occurrence of missed nursing care in neonatal intensive care units is unknown. A descriptive analysis of neonatal nurses' self-reports of missed care using data collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey. A random sample of certified neonatal intensive care nurses in seven states was invited to participate in the survey in April 2012. Data were collected from nurses who provide direct patient care in a neonatal intensive care unit (n = 230). Descriptive statistics constituted the primary analytic approach. Nurses reported missing a range of patient care activities on their last shift worked. Nurses most frequently missed rounds, oral care for ventilated infants, educating and involving parents in care and oral feedings. Hand hygiene, safety and physical assessment and medication administration were missed least often. The most common reasons for missed care included frequent interruptions, urgent patient situations and an unexpected rise in patient volume and/or acuity on the unit. We find that basic nursing care in the neonatal intensive care unit is missed and that system factors may contribute to missed care in this setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
van den Brink, Yolande
Aside from being a world harbor, Rotterdam is known for its large numbers of migrant groups. The Turkish community comprises one of the largest groups of migrants. This article reflects on the findings of an ethnonursing research, Transcultural Care for the Elderly at Home, which explored diversity and universality in care values and meanings relevant to care of the elderly at home between Turkish lay caregivers and Dutch professional nurses in the community. It compares the caring values and patterns of these two groups of caregivers within the cultural context of Turkish families in Rotterdam. Based on the comparative findings of the research, recommendations for implementing culturally congruent nursing care for Turkish elders at home are presented.
Scholte, Johannes B J; van Mook, Walther N K A; Linssen, Catharina F M; van Dessel, Helke A; Bergmans, Dennis C J J; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Roekaerts, Paul M H J
To explore the extent of surveillance culture (SC) implementation underlying motives for obtaining SC and decision making based on the results. A questionnaire was distributed to Heads of Department (HODs) and microbiologists within all intensive care departments in the Netherlands. Response was provided by 75 (79%) of 95 HODs and 38 (64%) of 59 laboratories allied to an intensive care unit (ICU). Surveillance cultures were routinely obtained according to 55 (73%) of 75 HODs and 33 (87%) of 38 microbiologists. Surveillance cultures were obtained in more than 80% of higher-level ICUs and in 58% of lower-level ICUs (P < .05). Surveillance cultures were obtained twice weekly (88%) and sampled from trachea (87%), pharynx (74%), and rectum (68%). Thirty (58%) of 52 HODs obtained SC to optimize individual patient treatment. On suspicion of infection from an unknown source, microorganisms identified by SC were targeted according to 87%. One third of HODs targeted microorganisms identified by SC in the case of an infection not at the location where the SC was obtained. This was significantly more often than microbiologists in case of no infection (P = .02) or infection of unknown origin (P < .05). Surveillance culture implementation is common in Dutch ICUs to optimize individual patients' treatment. Consensus is lacking on how to deal with SC results when the focus of infection is not at the sampled site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Desarmenien, Marine; Blanchard-Courtois, Anne Laure; Ricou, Bara
Advances in intensive care medicine have created a new disease called the chronic critical illness. While a significant proportion of severely ill patients who twenty years ago would have died survive the acute phase, they remain heavily dependent on intensive care for a prolonged period of time. These patients, who can be called "Patient Long Séjour" in French (PLS) or Prolonged Length of Stay patients in English, develop specific health issues that are still poorly recognised. They require special care, which differs from treatments that are given during the acute phase of their illness. A multidisciplinary team dedicated to ensuring their management and follow-up acquired a wide range of knowledge and expertise about these PLSs. Many new monitoring tools and diverse human approaches were implemented to ensure that care was targeted to these patients' needs. This multimodal care management aims to optimise the patients' and their families' quality of life during and following intensive care, whilst maintaining the motivation of the healthcare team of the unit. The purpose of this article is to present new management techniques to hospital and ambulatory caregivers, physicians and nurses, who may be taking care of such patients.
Karthik Nagesh, N; Razak, Abdul
Globally, newborn health is now considered as high-level national priority. The current neonatal and infant mortality rate in India is 29 per 1000 live births and 42 per 1000 live births, respectively. The last decade has seen a tremendous growth of neonatal intensive care in India. The proliferation of neonatal intensive care units, as also the infusion of newer technologies with availability of well-trained medical and nursing manpower, has led to good survival and intact outcomes. There is good care available for neonates whose parents can afford the high-end healthcare, but unfortunately, there is a deep divide and the poor rural population is still underserved with lack of even basic newborn care in few areas! There is increasing disparity where the 'well to do' and the 'increasingly affordable middle class' is able to get the most advanced care for their sick neonates. The underserved urban poor and those in rural areas still contribute to the overall high neonatal morbidity and mortality in India. The recent government initiative, the India Newborn Action Plan, is the step in the right direction to bridge this gap. A strong public-private partnership and prioritisation is needed to achieve this goal. This review highlights the current situation of neonatal intensive care in India with a suggested plan for the way forward to achieve better neonatal care.
Deshpande, Girish; Rao, Shripada; Patole, Sanjay
Survival of extremely preterm and critically ill neonates has improved significantly over the last few decades following advances in neonatal intensive care. These include antenatal glucocorticoids, surfactant, continuous positive airway pressure support, advanced gentle modes of ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide. Probiotic supplementation is a recent significant milestone in the history of neonatal intensive care. Very few, if any, interventions match the ability of probiotics to significantly reduce the risk of death and definite necrotising enterocolitis while facilitating enteral feeds in high-risk preterm neonates. Probiotics also have a potential to benefit neonates with surgical conditions with significant gastrointestinal morbidity. Current evidence for the benefits of probiotic supplementation for neonates in an intensive care unit is reviewed. The mechanisms for the benefits of probiotics in this population are discussed, and guidelines for clinicians are provided in the context of the regulatory framework in Australia. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Silahli, Musa; Gökdemir, Mahmut; Duman, Enes; Gökmen, Zeynel
We present a catheter related severe hypernatremia in a 2-month-old baby who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care. Imbalance of plasma sodium is commonly seen in pediatric intensive care patients. The water and sodium balance is a complex process. Especially, brain and kidneys are the most important organs that affect the water and sodium balance. Other mechanisms of the cellular structure include osmoreceptors, Na-K ATPase systems, and vasopressin. Hypernatremia is usually an iatrogenic condition in hospitalized patients due to mismanagement of water electrolyte imbalance. Central venous catheterization is frequently used in pediatric intensive care patients. Complications of central venous catheter placement still continue despite the usage of ultrasound guidance. Malposition of central venous catheter in the brain veins should be kept in mind as a rare cause of iatrogenic hypernatremia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huffling, Katie; Schenk, Elizabeth
In acute care practice sites, the intensive care unit (ICU) is one of the most resource-intense environments. Replete with energy-intensive equipment, significant waste production, and multiple toxic chemicals, ICUs contribute to environmental harm and may inadvertently have a negative impact on the health of patients, staff, and visitors. This article evaluates the ICU on four areas of environmental sustainability: energy, waste, toxic chemicals, and healing environment and provides concrete actions ICU nurses can take to decrease environmental health risks in the ICU. Case studies of nurses making changes within their hospital practice are also highlighted, as well as resources for nurses starting to make changes at their health care institutions.
It is vital that children's nursing students are fit for practice when they qualify and are able to meet various essential skills as defined by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). To gain the knowledge and skills required, students need placements in areas where high dependency and potentially intensive care are delivered. Efforts to maximise the number of students experiencing intensive care as a placement have led to the development of the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) rotation, increasing placements on the PICU from 5 to 40 per cent of the student cohort per year. The lecturer practitioner organises the rotation, providing credible links between university and practice areas, while supporting students and staff in offering a high-quality placement experience. Students say the rotation offers a positive insight into PICU nursing, helping them develop knowledge and skills in a technical area and creating an interest in this specialty.
Kwiecień, Katarzyna; Wujtewicz, Maria; Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska, Wioletta
Intensive care units and well-qualified medical staff are indispensable for the proper functioning of every hospital facility. Due to demographic changes and technological progress having extended the average life expectancy, the number of patients hospitalized in intensive care units increases every year [9,10]. Global shortages of nursing staff (including changes in their age structure) have triggered a debate on the working environment and workload the nursing staff are exposed to while performing their duties. This paper provides a critical review of selected methods for the measurement of the workload of intensive care nurses and points out their practical uses. The paper reviews Polish and foreign literature on workload and the measurement tools used to evaluate workload indicators.
The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n = 2305 workers). The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency) to a general practitioner (GP), a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance) was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP). For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency), high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency) and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist). Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP), full time work (GP frequency) and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist). We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the
On the 40 year anniversary of the foundation of the first Neurological intensive therapy unit (ICU) in Zagreb, Croatia and in the region, the author recalls circumstances which stipulated its realization. The process lasted several years, from the proposal in 1968, starting working in provisional conditions in 1971--acquiring experience, and normal functioning in the newly adapted rooms in 1974. Paying tribute to personalities who supported and participated in the advances of this process, the author informs that at the First Congress of Intensive Care (London, 1974) his report on Zagreb Neurological intensive therapy unit was the only one in neurology. The basic principles of therapy are nowadays the standard in the neurological departments, enabling better recovery from stroke, neurological ailment with high mortality. Positive development brought to the realization of the concept of comprehensive care for cerebrovascular patients, including prevention, early intensive therapy and neurological restoration measures after stroke.
LeBlanc, Allana; Bourbonnais, Frances Fothergill; Harrison, Denise; Tousignant, Kelly
The purpose of this research was to seek to understand the lived experience of intensive care nurses caring for patients with delirium. The objectives of this inquiry were: 1) To examine intensive care nurses' experiences of caring for adult patients with delirium; 2) To identify factors that facilitate or hinder intensive care nurses caring for these patients. This study utilised an interpretive phenomenological approach as described by van Manen. Individual conversational interviews were conducted with eight intensive care nurses working in a tertiary level, university-affiliated hospital in Canada. The essence of the experience of nurses caring for patients with delirium in intensive care was revealed to be finding a way to help them come through it. Six main themes emerged: It's Exhausting; Making a Picture of the Patient's Mental Status; Keeping Patients Safe: It's aReally Big Job; Everyone Is Unique; Riding It Out With Families and Taking Every Experience With You. The findings contribute to an understanding of how intensive care nurses help patients and their families through this complex and distressing experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kett, Daniel H; Azoulay, Elie; Echeverria, Pablo M; Vincent, Jean-Louis
To provide a global, up-to-date picture of the prevalence, treatment, and outcomes of Candida bloodstream infections in intensive care unit patients and compare Candida with bacterial bloodstream infection. A retrospective analysis of the Extended Prevalence of Infection in the ICU Study (EPIC II). Demographic, physiological, infection-related and therapeutic data were collected. Patients were grouped as having Candida, Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and combined Candida/bacterial bloodstream infection. Outcome data were assessed at intensive care unit and hospital discharge. EPIC II included 1265 intensive care units in 76 countries. Patients in participating intensive care units on study day. None. Of the 14,414 patients in EPIC II, 99 patients had Candida bloodstream infections for a prevalence of 6.9 per 1000 patients. Sixty-one patients had candidemia alone and 38 patients had combined bloodstream infections. Candida albicans (n = 70) was the predominant species. Primary therapy included monotherapy with fluconazole (n = 39), caspofungin (n = 16), and a polyene-based product (n = 12). Combination therapy was infrequently used (n = 10). Compared with patients with Gram-positive (n = 420) and Gram-negative (n = 264) bloodstream infections, patients with candidemia were more likely to have solid tumors (p < .05) and appeared to have been in an intensive care unit longer (14 days [range, 5-25 days], 8 days [range, 3-20 days], and 10 days [range, 2-23 days], respectively), but this difference was not statistically significant. Severity of illness and organ dysfunction scores were similar between groups. Patients with Candida bloodstream infections, compared with patients with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bloodstream infections, had the greatest crude intensive care unit mortality rates (42.6%, 25.3%, and 29.1%, respectively) and longer intensive care unit lengths of stay (median [interquartile range]) (33 days [18-44], 20 days [9-43], and 21 days [8
de Paula, Ilusca Cardoso; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes; Falcão, Luiz Fernando dos Reis; Mazza, Bruno Franco; Barros, Melca Maria Oliveira; Freitas, Flavio Geraldo Rezende; Machado, Flávia Ribeiro
anemia is a common clinical finding in intensive care units. The red blood cell transfusion is the main form of treatment, despite the associated risks. Thus, we proposed to evaluate the profile of transfusional patients in different intensive care units. prospective analysis of patients admitted in the intensive care units of a tertiary university hospital with an indication for transfusion of packed red blood cells. Demographic profile and transfusional profile were collected, a univariate analysis was done, and the results were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. 408 transfusions were analyzed in 71 patients. The mean hemoglobin concentration on admission was 9.7 ± 2.3g/dL and the pre-transfusional concentration was 6.9 ± 1.1g/dL. The main indications for transfusion were hemoglobin concentration (49%) and active bleeding (32%). The median number of units transfused per episode was 2 (1-2) and the median storage time was 14 (7-21) days. The number of patients transfused with hemoglobin levels greater than 7 g/dL and the number of bags transfused per episode were significantly different among intensive care units. Patients who received three or more transfusions had longer mechanical ventilation time and intensive care unit stay and higher mortality after 60 days. There was an association of mortality with disease severity but not with transfusional characteristics. the practice of blood products transfusion was partially in agreement with the guidelines recommended, although there are differences in behavior between the different profiles of intensive care units. Transfused patients evolved with unfavorable outcomes. Despite the scarcity of blood in blood banks, the mean storage time of the bags was high. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Lin, Frances Fengzhi; Foster, Michelle; Chaboyer, Wendy; Marshall, Andrea
As new hospitals are built to replace old and ageing facilities, intensive care units are being constructed with single patient rooms rather than open plan environments. While single rooms may limit hospital infections and promote patient privacy, their effect on patient safety and work processes in the intensive care unit requires greater understanding. Strategies to manage changes to a different physical environment are also unknown. This study aimed to identify challenges and issues as perceived by staff related to relocating to a geographically and structurally new intensive care unit. This exploratory ethnographic study, underpinned by Donabedian's structure, process and outcome framework, was conducted in an Australian tertiary hospital intensive care unit. A total of 55 participants including nurses, doctors, allied health professionals, and support staff participated in the study. We conducted 12 semi-structured focus group and eight individual interviews, and reviewed the hospital's documents specific to the relocation. After sorting the data deductively into structure, process and outcome domains, the data were then analysed inductively to identify themes. Three themes emerged: understanding of the relocation plan, preparing for the uncertainties and vulnerabilities of a new work environment, and acknowledging the need for change and engaging in the relocation process. A systematic change management strategy, dedicated change leadership and expertise, and an effective communication strategy are important factors to be considered in managing ICU relocation. Uncertainty and staff anxiety related to the relocation must be considered and supports put in place for a smooth transition. Work processes and model of care that are suited to the new single room environment should be developed, and patient safety issues in the single room setting should be considered and monitored. Future studies on managing multidisciplinary work processes during intensive care unit
Fan, Emily P; Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C; Maas, Matthew B
We sought to characterize ambient light exposure in the intensive care unit (ICU) environment to identify patterns of light exposure relevant to circadian regulation. A light monitor was affixed to subjects' bed at eye level in a modern intensive care unit and continuously recorded illuminescence for at least 24h per subject. Blood was sampled hourly and measured for plasma melatonin. Subjects underwent hourly vital sign and bedside neurologic assessments. Care protocols and the ICU environment were not modified for the study. A total of 67,324 30-second epochs of light data were collected from 17 subjects. Light intensity peaked in the late morning, median 64.1 (interquartile range 19.7-138.7) lux. The 75th percentile of light intensity exceeded 100lx only between 9AM and noon, and never exceeded 150lx. There was no correlation between melatonin amplitude and daytime, nighttime or total light exposure (Spearman's correlation coefficients all <0.2 and p>0.5). Patients' environmental light exposure in the intensive care unit is consistently low and follows a diurnal pattern. No effect of nighttime light exposure was observed on melatonin secretion. Inadequate daytime light exposure in the ICU may contribute to abnormal circadian rhythms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wright, I M; Orr, H; Porter, C
The level of contamination of stethoscopes used in a neonatal intensive care unit was studied, along with the practices used for cleaning these items. A policy of alcohol cleaning was introduced and the effect of this change on the level of bacterial growth was observed after a six-week period. It was found that 71% of stethoscopes had a significant bacterial growth and that this was reduced to 30% after the cleaning procedure change (P < 0.05). Stethoscopes and other equipment are a potential source of nosocomial infection on the neonatal intensive care unit.
It has been recommended that nursing staff who are new to paediatric intensive care should be offered an orientation programme There is no guidance currently available to influence the content or duration of such a programme on a national level A multi-centre research study was carried out to identify the existing provision of orientation programmes and how beneficial these are perceived to be Supernumerary status and effective mentoring are seen as essential to the success of these programmes Many new starters perceive that they receive inadequate preparation on stress management and psychosocial issues National communication between paediatric intensive care educators will help to improve and develop orientation programme provision.
Plantinga, Nienke L; Wittekamp, Bastiaan H J; van Duijn, Pleun J; Bonten, Marc J M
Antibiotic resistance is a global and increasing problem that is not counterbalanced by the development of new therapeutic agents. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance is especially high in intensive care units with frequently reported outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms. In addition to classical infection prevention protocols and surveillance programs, counterintuitive interventions, such as selective decontamination with antibiotics and antibiotic rotation have been applied and investigated to control the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review provides an overview of selective oropharyngeal and digestive tract decontamination, decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic rotation as strategies to modulate antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit.
Lester, Barry M; Tronick, Edward Z; Brazelton, T Berry
The procedures for the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale includes a brief background, description of the examination, key concepts, a summary of the procedures, and order of administration of the items described in "packages," information about the testing kit, scoring issues, and summary scores. This is followed by presentation of the 115 items that are scored. Each item is described, including (where appropriate) specific procedures for how to manipulate or handle the infant. Rating scales with scoring criteria are provided for each item. With training and certification, users of the manual will be able to reliably administer and score the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale.
Michel, A.; Zörb, L.; Dudeck, J.
The paper describes the design and implementation of a software architecture for a low cost bedside workstation for intensive care units. The development is fully integrated into the information infrastructure of the existing hospital information system (HIS) at the University Hospital of Giessen. It provides cost efficient and reliable access for data entry and review from the HIS database from within patient rooms, even in very space limited environments. The architecture further supports automatical data input from medical devices. First results from three different intensive care units are reported. PMID:8947771
Rodríguez, Roberto G; Pattini, Andrea E
Achieving adequate lighting in neonatal intensive care units is a major challenge: in addition to the usual considerations of visual performance, cost, energy and aesthetics, there appear different biological needs of patients, health care providers and family members. Communicational aspects of light, its role as a facilitator of the visual function of doctors and nurses, and its effects on the newborn infant physiology and development were addressed in order to review the effects of light (natural and artificial) within neonatal care with a focus on development. The role of light in regulating the newborn infant circadian cycle in particular and the therapeutic use of light in general were also reviewed. For each aspect, practical recommendations were specified for a proper well-lit environment in neonatal intensive care units.
Intensive care medicine and palliative care medicine were considered for a long time to be contrasting concepts in therapy. While intensive care medicine is directed towards prolonging life and tries to stabilize disordered body functions, palliative care medicine is focused upon the relief of disturbances to help patients in the face of death. Today both views have become congruent. Palliative aspects are equally important in curative therapy. In the course of illness or in respect of the patient's will, the aim of therapy may change from curative to palliative. Two examples are presented to illustrate the ethical challenges in this process. They follow from the medical indication, attention to the patient's will, different opinions in the team, truth at the bedside and from what must be done in the process of withdrawing therapy.
da Silva, Rafael Celestino; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção
The objective of this study was to identify the social representations that nurses have about technology applied to intensive care, and relate them to their ways of acting while caring for patients. This qualitative study was performed using social representations as the theoretical-methodological framework. Interviews were performed with 24 nurses, in addition to systematic analysis and thematic content analysis. The results were organized into three categories about the lack of technological knowledge, approach strategies, mastering that knowledge and using it. The knowledge necessary to handle the technology, and the time of experience using that technology guide the nurses' social representations implying on their care attitudes. In conclusion, the staffing policy for an intensive care setting should consider the nurses' experiences and specialized education.
Allan, Catherine K
Prevalence of congenital heart disease in the adult population has increased out of proportion to that of the pediatric population as survival has improved, and adult congenital heart disease patients make up a growing percentage of pediatric and adult cardiac intensive care unit admissions. These patients often develop complex multiorgan system disease as a result of long-standing altered cardiac physiology, and many require reoperation during adulthood. Practitioners who care for these patients in the cardiac intensive care unit must have a strong working knowledge of the pathophysiology of complex congenital heart disease, and a full team of specialists must be available to assist in the care of these patients. This chapter will review some of the common multiorgan system effects of long-standing congenital heart disease (eg, renal and hepatic dysfunction, coagulation abnormalities, arrhythmias) as well as some of the unique cardiopulmonary physiology of this patient population.
Maestri, Eleine; do Nascimento, Eliane Regina Pereira; Bertoncello, Kátia Cilene Godinho; de Jesus Martins, Josiane
This qualitative study was performed at the adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a public hospital in Southern Brazil with the objective to evaluate the implemented welcoming strategies. Participants included 13 patients and 23 relatives. Data collection was performed from July to October 2008, utilizing semi-structured interviews. All interviews were recorded. Data analysis was performed using the Collective Subject Discourse. The collected information yielded two discourses: the family recognized the welcoming strategies and the patients found the ICU team to be considerate. By including the family as a client of nursing care, relatives felt safe and confident. Results show that by committing to the responsibility of making changes in heath care practices, nurses experience a novel outlook towards ICU care, focused on human beings and associating the welcoming to the health care model that promotes the objectivity of care.
Moerer, Onnen; Plock, Enno; Mgbor, Uchenna; Schmid, Alexandra; Schneider, Heinz; Wischnewsky, Manfred Bernd; Burchardi, Hilmar
Introduction Intensive care unit (ICU) costs account for up to 20% of a hospital's costs. We aimed to analyse the individual patient-related cost of intensive care at various hospital levels and for different groups of disease. Methods Data from 51 ICUs all over Germany (15 primary care hospitals and 14 general care hospitals, 10 maximal care hospitals and 12 focused care hospitals) were collected in an observational, cross-sectional, one-day point prevalence study by two external study physicians (January–October 2003). All ICU patients (length of stay > 24 hours) treated on the study day were included. The reason for admission, severity of illness, surgical/diagnostic procedures, resource consumption, ICU/hospital length of stay, outcome and ICU staffing structure were documented. Results Altogether 453 patients were included. ICU (hospital) mortality was 12.1% (15.7%). The reason for admission and the severity of illness differed between the hospital levels of care, with a higher amount of unscheduled surgical procedures and patients needing mechanical ventilation in maximal care hospital and focused care hospital facilities. The mean total costs per day were €791 ± 305 (primary care hospitals, €685 ± 234; general care hospitals, €672 ± 199; focused care hospitals, €816 ± 363; maximal care hospitals, €923 ± 306), with the highest cost in septic patients (€1,090 ± 422). Differences were associated with staffing, the amount of prescribed drugs/blood products and diagnostic procedures. Conclusion The reason for admission, the severity of illness and the occurrence of severe sepsis are directly related to the level of ICU cost. A high fraction of costs result from staffing (up to 62%). Specialized and maximum care hospitals treat a higher proportion of the more severely ill and most expensive patients. PMID:17594475
Erstad, Brian L; Jordan, Ché J; Thomas, Michael C
Compilations of key articles and guidelines in a particular clinical practice area are useful not only to clinicians who practice in that area, but to all clinicians. We compiled pertinent articles and guidelines pertaining to drug therapy in the intensive care unit setting from the perspective of an actively practicing critical care pharmacist. This document also may serve to stimulate other experienced clinicians to undertake a similar endeavor in their practice areas.
Bader, Mary Kay
Managing the critical neuroscience patient population challenges practitioners because of both the devastating injury involved and the complexity of care required. Emerging technology provides the neuroscience intensive care unit team with better information on the intricate physiology and dynamics inside the cranium. In particular, the team is better able to detect changes in pressure, oxygen, and blood flow. With improved data in hand, the team can intervene to optimize intracranial dynamics, possibly reducing disability and death among such patients.
Cascade, P N; Kazerooni, E A
Timely performance and accurate interpretation of portable chest radiographs in the ICU setting are fundamental components of quality care. Teamwork between intensive care clinicians and radiologists is necessary to assure that the appropriate studies, of high technical quality, are obtained. By working together to integrate available clinical information with systematic comprehensive analysis of images, accurate diagnoses can be made, optimal treatment instituted, and successful outcomes optimized.
Rennick, Janet E; Dougherty, Geoffrey; Chambers, Christine; Stremler, Robyn; Childerhose, Janet E; Stack, Dale M; Harrison, Denise; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Dryden-Palmer, Karen; Zhang, Xun; Hutchison, Jamie
Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) hospitalization places children at increased risk of persistent psychological and behavioral difficulties following discharge. Despite tremendous advances in medical technology and treatment regimes, approximately 25% of children demonstrate negative psychological and behavioral outcomes within the first year post-discharge. It is imperative that a broader array of risk factors and outcome indicators be explored in examining long-term psychological morbidity to identify areas for future health promotion and clinical intervention. This study aims to examine psychological and behavioral responses in children aged 3 to 12 years over a three year period following PICU hospitalization, and compare them to children who have undergone ear, nose and/or throat (ENT) day surgery. This mixed-methods prospective cohort study will enrol 220 children aged 3 to 12 years during PICU hospitalization (study group, n = 110) and ENT day surgery hospitalization (comparison group, n = 110). Participants will be recruited from 3 Canadian pediatric hospitals, and followed for 3 years with data collection points at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years post-discharge. Psychological and behavioral characteristics of the child, and parent anxiety and parenting stress, will be assessed prior to hospital discharge, and again at each of the 5 subsequent time points, using standardized measures. Psychological and behavioral response scores for both groups will be compared at each follow-up time point. Multivariate regression analysis will be used to adjust for demographic and clinical variables at baseline. To explore baseline factors predictive of poor psychological and behavioral scores at 3 years among PICU patients, correlation analysis and multivariate linear regression will be used. A subgroup of 40 parents of study group children will be interviewed at years 1 and 3 post-discharge to explore their perceptions of the impact of PICU
Escher, Monica; Nendaz, Mathieu; Ricou, Bara
Palliative care patients have limited prospects of survival and the benefit of intensive care is uncertain. To make a decision there are considerations other than survival probabilities. Patients should receive appropriate care and be spared suffering. End of life in the intensive care unit has an impact on families, who may develop psychological problems or complicated grief. End of life care can be a source of conflicts and cause burnout in health providers. Finally, intensive care is an expensive resource, which must be fairly allocated. In these complex situations, patient preferences help make a decision. However, they have often not been discussed with the physicians. General practitioners have a role to play by promoting advance care planning with their patients.
Backhaus, Ramona; Rossum, Erik van; Verbeek, Hilde; Halfens, Ruud J G; Tan, Frans E S; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Hamers, Jan P H
A lack of relationship between direct care staffing levels and quality of care, as found in prior studies, underscores the importance of considering the quality of the work environment instead of only considering staff ratios. Only a few studies, however, have combined direct care staffing with work environment characteristics when assessing the relationship with quality of care in nursing homes. To examine the relationship between direct care staffing levels, work environment characteristics and perceived quality of care in Dutch nursing homes. Cross-sectional, observational study in cooperation with the Dutch Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems. Twenty-four somatic and 31 psychogeriatric wards from 21 nursing homes in the Netherlands. Forty-one ward managers and 274 staff members (registered nurses or certified nurse assistants) from the 55 participating wards. Ward rosters were discussed with managers to obtain an insight into direct care staffing levels (i.e, total direct care staff hours per resident per day). Participating staff members completed a questionnaire on work environment characteristics (i.e., ward culture, team climate, communication and coordination, role model availability, and multidisciplinary collaboration) and they rated the quality of care in their ward. Data were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses (random intercept). Separate analyses were conducted for somatic and psychogeriatric wards. In general, staff members were satisfied with the quality of care in their wards. Staff members from psychogeriatric wards scored higher on the statement 'In the event that a family member had to be admitted to a nursing home now, I would recommend this ward'. A better team climate was related to better perceived quality of care in both ward types (p≤0.020). In somatic wards, there was a positive association between multidisciplinary collaboration and agreement by staff of ward recommendation for a family member (p=0.028). In
Piedrafita-Susín, A B; Yoldi-Arzoz, E; Sánchez-Fernández, M; Zuazua-Ros, E; Vázquez-Calatayud, M
Adequate provision of palliative care by nursing in intensive care units is essential to facilitate a "good death" to critically ill patients. To determine the perceptions, experiences and knowledge of intensive care nurses in caring for terminal patients. A literature review was conducted on the bases of Pubmed, Cinahl and PsicINFO data using as search terms: cuidados paliativos, UCI, percepciones, experiencias, conocimientos y enfermería and their alternatives in English (palliative care, ICU, perceptions, experiences, knowledge and nursing), and combined with AND and OR Boolean. Also, 3 journals in intensive care were reviewed. Twenty seven articles for review were selected, most of them qualitative studies (n=16). After analysis of the literature it has been identified that even though nurses perceive the need to respect the dignity of the patient, to provide care aimed to comfort and to encourage the inclusion of the family in patient care, there is a lack of knowledge of the end of life care in intensive care units' nurses. This review reveals that to achieve quality care at the end of life, is necessary to encourage the training of nurses in palliative care and foster their emotional support, to conduct an effective multidisciplinary work and the inclusion of nurses in decision making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.
Gupta, A; Gupta, A; Singh, T K; Saxsena, A
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in Intensive Care Unit. One major factor causing VAP is the aspiration of oral colonization because of poor oral care practices. We feel the role of simple measure like oral care is neglected, despite the ample evidence of it being instrumental in preventing VAP.
Integrating palliative care in the surgical and trauma intensive care unit: a report from the Improving Palliative Care in the Intensive Care Unit (IPAL-ICU) Project Advisory Board and the Center to Advance Palliative Care.
Mosenthal, Anne C; Weissman, David E; Curtis, J Randall; Hays, Ross M; Lustbader, Dana R; Mulkerin, Colleen; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Ray, Daniel E; Bassett, Rick; Boss, Renee D; Brasel, Karen J; Campbell, Margaret; Nelson, Judith E
Although successful models for palliative care delivery and quality improvement in the intensive care unit have been described, their applicability in surgical intensive care unit settings has not been fully addressed. We undertook to define specific challenges, strategies, and solutions for integration of palliative care in the surgical intensive care unit. We searched the MEDLINE database from inception to May 2011 for all English language articles using the term "surgical palliative care" or the terms "surgical critical care," "surgical ICU," "surgeon," "trauma" or "transplant," and "palliative care" or "end-of- life care" and hand-searched our personal files for additional articles. Based on review of these articles and the experiences of our interdisciplinary expert Advisory Board, we prepared this report. We critically reviewed the existing literature on delivery of palliative care in the surgical intensive care unit setting focusing on challenges, strategies, models, and interventions to promote effective integration of palliative care for patients receiving surgical critical care and their families. Characteristics of patients with surgical disease and practices, attitudes, and interactions of different disciplines on the surgical critical care team present distinctive issues for intensive care unit palliative care integration and improvement. Physicians, nurses, and other team members in surgery, critical care and palliative care (if available) should be engaged collaboratively to identify challenges and develop strategies. "Consultative," "integrative," and combined models can be used to improve intensive care unit palliative care, although optimal use of trigger criteria for palliative care consultation has not yet been demonstrated. Important components of an improvement effort include attention to efficient work systems and practical tools and to attitudinal factors and "culture" in the unit and institution. Approaches that emphasize delivery of
Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Büscher, Andreas
OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of the Adult Intensive Care Unit environment of care, experienced by professionals working in this unit, managers, patients, families and professional support services, as well as build a theoretical model about the Adult Intensive Care Unit environment of care. METHOD: Grounded Theory, both for the collection and for data analysis. Based on theoretical sampling, we carried out 39 in-depth interviews semi-structured from three different Adult Intensive Care Units. RESULTS: built up the so-called substantive theory "Sustaining life in the complex environment of care in the Intensive Care Unit". It was bounded by eight categories: "caring and continuously monitoring the patient" and "using appropriate and differentiated technology" (causal conditions); "Providing a suitable environment" and "having relatives with concern" (context); "Mediating facilities and difficulties" (intervenienting conditions); "Organizing the environment and managing the dynamics of the unit" (strategy) and "finding it difficult to accept and deal with death" (consequences). CONCLUSION: confirmed the thesis that "the care environment in the Intensive Care Unit is a living environment, dynamic and complex that sustains the life of her hospitalized patients". PMID:26155009
Wind, Jentina; van Mook, Walther N K A; Dhanani, Sonny; van Heurn, Ernest W L
Determination of death is an essential part of donation after circulatory death (DCD). We studied the current practices of determination of death after circulatory arrest by intensive care physicians in the Netherlands, the availability of guidelines, and the occurrence of the phenomenon of autoresuscitation. The Determination of Cardiac Death Practices in Intensive Care Survey was sent to all intensive care physicians. Fifty-five percent of 568 Dutch intensive care physicians responded. Most respondents learned death determination from clinical practice. The most commonly used tests for death determination were flat arterial line tracing, flat electrocardiogram (standard 3-lead electrocardiogram), and fixed and dilated pupils. Rarely used tests were absence pulse by echo Doppler, absent blood pressure by noninvasive monitoring, and unresponsiveness to painful stimulus. No diagnostic test or procedure was uniformly performed, but 80% of respondents perceived a need for standardization of death determination. Autoresuscitation was witnessed by 37%, after withdrawal of treatment or after unsuccessful resuscitation. Extensive variability in the practice of determining death after circulatory arrest exists, and a need for guidelines and standardization, especially if organ donation follows death, is reported. Autoresuscitation is reported; this observation requires attention in further prospective observational studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Changing market demand, aging population, severity of illnesses, hospital acquired infection, clinical staff shortage, technological innovations, and environmental concerns-all are shaping the critical care practice in the United States today. However, how these will shape intensive care unit (ICU) design in the coming decade is anybody's guess. In a graduate architecture studio of a research university, students were asked to envision the ICU of the future while responding to the changing needs of the critical care practice through innovative technological means. This article reports the ICU design solutions proposed by these students.
Byrne, Eilish; Garber, June
This article presents the elements of the Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these interventions is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert therapists, with supporting evidence cited. Physical therapy intervention in the NICU is infant-driven and focuses on providing family-centered care. In this context, interventions to facilitate a calm behavioral state and motor organization in the infant, address positioning and handling of the infant, and provide movement therapy are presented.
Gilliland, Jill; Donnellan, Amy; Justice, Lindsey; Moake, Lindy; Mauney, Jennifer; Steadman, Page; Drajpuch, David; Tucker, Dawn; Storey, Jean; Roth, Stephen J; Koch, Josh; Checchia, Paul; Cooper, David S; Staveski, Sandra L
The addition of advanced practice providers (APPs; nurse practitioners and physician assistants) to a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) team is a health care innovation that addresses medical provider shortages while allowing PCICUs to deliver high-quality, cost-effective patient care. APPs, through their consistent clinical presence, effective communication, and facilitation of interdisciplinary collaboration, provide a sustainable solution for the highly specialized needs of PCICU patients. In addition, APPs provide leadership, patient and staff education, facilitate implementation of evidence-based practice and quality improvement initiatives, and the performance of clinical research in the PCICU. This article reviews mechanisms for developing, implementing, and sustaining advance practice services in PCICUs.
Beneken genaamd Kolmer, D M; Tellings, A; Garretsen, H F L; Bongers, I M B
Communalization of health care refers to the increasing responsibility of citizens to look after their ill or handicapped fellow members of society and to provide care to them. Governments in Western Europe more and more develop health care policies directed at communalization of health care. The article discusses the care responsibilities of individuals based on the views of the philosophers Buber, Levinas, and Ricoeur and on the views of the family therapist Nagy. The care responsibilities of states are discussed in terms of the views of the political philosophers Rawls and Daniels and these are linked to right liberal, left liberal, and Christian-democrat views on care responsibilities of states. Thereupon, four criteria for a proper communalization of health care are proposed and different forms of health care policies with respect to communalization of care are assessed. In the last section, we look closely at several measures in the just reformed Dutch health care system and discuss how far these measures meet our criteria for a proper communalization. We focus in this section on the effects of these measures on family care because more and more family care plays an important role in good functioning of the health care system.
Kouijzer, M E J; Loman, F; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M
Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) occur frequently in children and adolescents. Treatment of MUS in children and adolescents takes place mainly in mental health care (MHC) institutions, as does the treatment of adults with MUS. However, there is hardly any literature about the prevalence of MUS in children and adolescents in MHC. To study the prevalence of MUS in children and adolescents in Dutch MHC. Comparisons were drawn between children and adolescents with MUS and those without MUS who had been referred to a Dutch MHC institution. Children and adolescents with MUS had more anxiety and depression and more introvert personality characteristics than children and adolescents without MUS. However, the quality of life of children and adolescents with MUS was similar to that of children and adolescents without MUS. One in five children and adolescents in Dutch MHC had MUS. These children and adolescents had introverted personality characteristics and showed anxious and depressed behavior, withdrawn-depressed behavior, and thought problems. The quality of life of children and adolescents with MUS and those without MUS was below average.
Stuebe, Alison; Barnett, Josephine; Labbok, Miriam H.; Fletcher, Jason; Bernstein, Peter S.
Objectives. We determined the effectiveness of primary care–based, and pre- and postnatal interventions to increase breastfeeding. Methods. We conducted 2 trials at obstetrics and gynecology practices in the Bronx, New York, from 2008 to 2011. The Provider Approaches to Improved Rates of Infant Nutrition & Growth Study (PAIRINGS) had 2 arms: usual care versus pre- and postnatal visits with a lactation consultant (LC) and electronically prompted guidance from prenatal care providers (EP). The Best Infant Nutrition for Good Outcomes (BINGO) study had 4 arms: usual care, LC alone, EP alone, or LC+EP. Results. In BINGO at 3 months, high intensity was greater for the LC+EP (odds ratio [OR] = 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 6.84) and LC (OR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.14, 9.09) groups versus usual care, but not for the EP group alone. In PAIRINGS at 3 months, intervention rates exceeded usual care (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.21, 6.76); the number needed to treat to prevent 1 dyad from nonexclusive breastfeeding at 3 months was 10.3 (95% CI = 5.6, 50.7). Conclusions. LCs integrated into routine care alone and combined with EP guidance from prenatal care providers increased breastfeeding intensity at 3 months postpartum. PMID:24354834
Gillies, Michael A; Sander, Michael; Shaw, Andrew; Wijeysundera, Duminda N; Myburgh, John; Aldecoa, Cesar; Jammer, Ib; Lobo, Suzana M; Pritchard, Naomi; Grocott, Michael P W; Schultz, Marcus J; Pearse, Rupert M
Surgical treatments are offered to more patients than ever before, and increasingly to older patients with chronic disease. High-risk patients frequently require critical care either in the immediate postoperative period or after developing complications. The purpose of this review was to identify and prioritise themes for future research in perioperative intensive care medicine. We undertook a priority setting process (PSP). A panel was convened, drawn from experts representing a wide geographical area, plus a patient representative. The panel was asked to suggest and prioritise key uncertainties and future research questions in the field of perioperative intensive care through a modified Delphi process. Clinical trial registries were searched for on-going research. A proposed "Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome" (PICO) structure for each question was provided. Ten key uncertainties and future areas of research were identified as priorities and ranked. Appropriate intravenous fluid and blood component therapy, use of critical care resources, prevention of delirium and respiratory management featured prominently. Admissions following surgery contribute a substantial proportion of critical care workload. Studies aimed at improving care in this group could have a large impact on patient-centred outcomes and optimum use of healthcare resources. In particular, the optimum use of critical care resources in this group is an area that requires urgent research.
Gonçalves, Giulliano Peixoto; Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Barbosa, Luciano Timbó; Duarte, José Lira
A randomized clinical trial is a prospective study that compares the effect and value of interventions in human beings, of one or more groups vs. a control group. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of published randomized clinical trials in Intensive care in Brazil. All randomized clinical trials in intensive care found by manual search in Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva from January 2001 to March 2008 were assessed to evaluate their description by the quality scale. Descriptive statistics and a 95 % confidence interval were used for the primary outcome. Our primary outcome was the randomized clinical trial quality. Our search found 185 original articles, of which 14 were randomized clinical trials. Only one original article (7.1%) showed good quality. There was no statistical significance between the collected data and the data shown in the hypothesis of this search. It can be concluded that in the sample of assessed articles 7% of the randomized clinical trials in intensive care published in a single intensive care journal in Brazil, present good methodological quality.
Faria, Rita da Silva Baptista; Moreno, Rui Paulo
Delirium occurs in up to 80% of patients admitted to intensive care units. Although under-diagnosed, delirium is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality in critical patients. Here, we review the main risk factors, clinical manifestations and preventative and therapeutic approaches (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) for this illness. PMID:23917979
Baird, R. N.; Noble, J.; Lean, D. Mc
The work in the resuscitation room is initial intensive care. This must be always available independent of inpatient resources. This demands investment in adequate equipment and staffing. Much of the work is medical rather than surgical and appropriate for physicians to treat. Our experience might help others to plan for the future. PMID:5077474
Varton, Deborah M.
A description is provided of a course, "Nursing in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit," offered for senior-level baccalaureate degree nursing students. The first section provides information on the place of the course within the curriculum, the allotment of class time, and target student populations. The next section looks at course content in…
Sionis, Alessandro; Ruiz-Nodar, Juan Miguel; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Marín, Francisco; Abu-Assi, Emad; Díaz-Castro, Oscar; Nuñez-Gil, Ivan J; Lidón, Rosa-Maria
This article summarizes the main developments reported in 2014 on ischemic heart disease, together with the most important innovations in intensive cardiac care. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Avendaño-Reyes, J M; Jaramillo-Ramírez, H
The critically ill patient can develop gastric erosions and, on occasion, stress ulcers with severe gastrointestinal bleeding that can be fatal. The purpose of this review was to provide current information on the pathophysiology, risk factors, and prophylaxis of digestive tract bleeding from stress ulcers in the intensive care unit. We identified articles through a PubMed search, covering the years 1970 to 2013. The most relevant articles were selected using the search phrases "stress ulcer", "stress ulcer bleeding prophylaxis", and "stress-related mucosal bleeding" in combination with "intensive care unit". The incidence of clinically significant bleeding has decreased dramatically since 1980. The most important risk factors are respiratory failure and coagulopathy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are used in stress ulcer bleeding prophylaxis. Both drugs have been shown to be superior to placebo in reducing the risk for gastrointestinal bleeding and PPIs are at least as effective as H2RAs. Early enteral feeding has been shown to reduce the risk for stress ulcer bleeding, albeit in retrospective studies. Admittance to the intensive care unit in itself does not justify prophylaxis. PPIs are at least as effective as H2RAs. We should individualize the treatment of each patient in the intensive care unit, determining risk and evaluating the need to begin prophylaxis. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Fischer, Matthias; Donath, Christian; Radke, Joachim; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch; Soukup, Jens
The study was performed to investigate the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and pH-value in patients in intensive care. Forty intensive-care patients (22 men, 18 women) were included in the study. TEWL and pH-values were measured at admission, and after 24, 96 and 168 h. The areas of measurement were the forehead, the volar forearm, paraumbilical and the ventral thigh. The measurements were made under standardized environmental conditions according to the recommendations of the EMCO Group. Elevated values were found on the forehead compared with the other skin areas examined. There was no significant change in mean TEWL-values in any patient in the course of the study. There was also no significant influence of TEWL at the time of admission on the prognosis. The course analysis of the mean pH-values, however, showed that patients who developed a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis during the further course had a higher pH-value over the entire study period. TEWL and the pH of the skin surface could be measured at bedside in the intensive-care unit and delivered reproducible results. These parameters appear, however, to be relevant only for subgroups of patients under intensive care.
Thomas, Zachariah; Bandali, Farooq; McCowen, Karen; Malhotra, Atul
The neuroendocrine response to critical illness is key to the maintenance of homeostasis. Many of the drugs administered routinely in the intensive care unit significantly impact the neuroendocrine system. These agents can disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, cause thyroid abnormalities, and result in dysglycemia. Herein, we review major drug-induced endocrine disorders and highlight some of the controversies that remain in this area. We also discuss some of the more rare drug-induced syndromes that have been described in the intensive care unit. Drugs that may result in an intensive care unit admission secondary to an endocrine-related adverse event are also included. Unfortunately, very few studies have systematically addressed drug-induced endocrine disorders in the critically ill. Timely identification and appropriate management of drug-induced endocrine adverse events may potentially improve outcomes in the critically ill. However, more research is needed to fully understand the impact of medications on endocrine function in the intensive care unit.
Gökmen, Necati; Erdem, Sabri; Toker, Kadir Atilla; Öçmen, Elvan; Gökmen, Başak Ilgım; Özkurt, Ahmet
Objective In this study, we conducted a numerical analysis of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in a hospital’s intensive care unit that is one of the most crucial one in terms of hazardous areas among all service units. This is a new study for measuring exposure to EMFs in an intensive care unit as well as other healthcare services in Turkey. Methods We measured the EMFs in the intensive care unit with a SRM-3006 (selective radiation metre), which was used for measurement of the absolute and the limit values of high frequency EMFs. The measurement points were chosen to represent the highest levels of exposure to which a person might be subjected. We obtained a dataset that included 5929 observations, with 96 extreme values, through measuring the magnetic field in terms of V/m. Results The measurements show the frequency varies from 47 MHz to 2.5 GHz as 17 frequency ranges at the measurement point as well. According to these findings, the referenced maximum safety limit was not exceeded. However, it was also found that mobile telecommunication was the most critical cause of magnetic fields. Conclusion Further studies need to be performed with different frequency antennas to assess the EMFs in intensive care units. PMID:27909603
Tison-Chambellan, Camille; Daussac, Élisabeth; Barnet, Lucile; Sirven, Sabine; Bambou, Dominique
A paediatric mobile emergency and intensive care service team comprises several professionals with complementary skills. The cohesion of a team, as well as the listening and communication skills of each of its members, allow it to respond in the best possible way to emergency situations. Feedback sessions on practice and simulation exercises enhance teamwork.
Caring is perceived as human behaviour that includes cognitive, affective, psychomotor and administrative skills within which professional caring may be expressed. It is a vital resource within the highly technological area of the intensive care unit (ICU). The terms care and caring are predominantly used to describe the inherent work and value of nursing. Nursing is a nurturing profession and caring is the essential component of its holistic practice, especially with the critically ill patient. The concept of caring in the ICU is central to the social relationship between the nurse, the patient and his/her relatives. Although caring is not unique to nursing, there is substantive, existing and developing knowledge related to caring in nursing. The concept of caring has been extensively explored in the literature. However, there is still little clarity in the understanding, description, relevance or function of caring in nursing.
Hegger, Ingrid; Marks, Lisanne K; Janssen, Susan W J; Schuit, Albertine J; van Oers, Hans A M
The Dutch Health Care Performance Report, issued by the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, aims to monitor health care performance in The Netherlands. Both the National Institute and the Ministry of Health wish to increase the contribution of the Report to health care policy-making. Our aim was to identify ways to achieve that. We used contribution mapping as a theoretical framework that recognizes alignment of research as crucial to managing contributions to policy-making. To investigate which areas need alignment efforts by researchers and/or policy-makers, we interviewed National Institute researchers and policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and assessed the process for developing the 2010 Report. We identified six areas where alignment is specifically relevant for enhancing the contributions of future versions of the Dutch Health Care Performance Report: well-balanced information for different ministerial directorates; backstage work; double role actors; reports of other knowledge institutes; data collection/generation and presentation forms. The contribution of health care performance reporting to policy-making is complex and requires continuous alignment efforts between researchers and policy-makers. These efforts should form an inseparable part of health care performance reporting and although this demands considerable resources, it is worth considering since it may pay back in better contributions to policy-making. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kutash, Mary; Northrop, Linda
This paper is a report of a study to explore family members' perspectives and experiences of waiting rooms in adult intensive care units. Waiting to visit family members who are hospitalized in intensive care units can be very stressful. Although flexible and or open visiting is practised in many hospitals, family members may spend a great deal of time in the waiting room. A qualitative design using semi-structured interviews was used and the data were collected in 2004. A convenience sample of six visitors was recruited from waiting rooms of three different adult intensive care units. Data collection and analysis were concurrent. Six categories emerged from the data that included structural and subjective aspects of waiting: 'close proximity' referred to the importance of a close physical distance to their family member; 'caring staff' captured the comfort family members felt when staff showed caring behaviours towards relative; 'need for a comfortable environment' represented the impact of the design of the waiting room on family members well-being; 'emotional support' referred to the waiting room as a place where comfort was found by sharing with others; 'rollercoaster of emotions' captured the range of emotions experienced by family members; 'information' referred to the importance of receiving information about their relative. Future research should focus on the impact of the interior design of waiting rooms on the comfort and welfare of family members and on identifying needs of family members across different cultures.
Mattsson, Janet; Forsner, Maria; Castrén, Maaret; Arman, Maria
Children in the pediatric intensive care unit are indisputably in a vulnerable position, dependent on nurses to acknowledge their needs. It is assumed that children should be approached from a holistic perspective in the caring situation to meet their caring needs. The aim of the study was to unfold the meaning of nursing care through nurses' concerns when caring for children in the pediatric intensive care unit. To investigate the qualitative aspects of practice embedded in the caring situation, the interpretive phenomenological approach was adopted for the study. The findings revealed three patterns: medically oriented nursing--here, the nurses attend to just the medical needs, and nursing care is at its minimum, leaving the children's needs unmet; parent-oriented nursing care--here, the nursing care emphasizes the parents' needs in the situation, and the children are viewed as a part of the parent and not as an individual child with specific caring needs; and smooth operating nursing care orientation--here, the nursing care is focused on the child as a whole human being, adding value to the nursing care. The conclusion drawn suggests that nursing care does not always respond to the needs of the child, jeopardizing the well-being of the child and leaving them at risk for experiencing pain and suffering. The concerns present in nursing care has been shown to be the divider of the meaning of nursing care and need to become elucidated in order to improve the cultural influence of what can be seen as good nursing care within the pediatric intensive care unit.
Barbieri, Clayton; Carson, Shannon S; Amaral, André Carlos
With the development of new technologies and drugs, health care is becoming increasisngly complex and expensive. Governments and health care providers around the world devote a large proportion of their budgets to maintaining quality of care. During 2007, Critical Care published several papers that highlight important aspects of critical care management, which can be subdivided into structure, processes and outcomes, including costs. Great emphasis was given to quality of life after intensive care unit stay, especially the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder. Significant attention was also given to staffing level, optimization of intensive care unit capacity, and drug cost-effectiveness, particularly that of recombinant human activated protein C. Managing costs and providing high-quality care simultaneously are emerging challenges that we must understand and meet. PMID:18983704
Wheeler, Derek S.; Jeffries, Howard E.; Zimmerman, Jerry J.; Wong, Hector R.; Carcillo, Joseph A.
The survival rate for children with congenital heart disease (CHD) has increased significantly coincident with improved techniques in cardiothoracic surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass, and myocardial protection, and post-operative care. Cardiopulmonary bypass, likely in combination with ischemia-reperfusion injury, hypothermia, and surgical trauma, elicits a complex, systemic inflammatory response that is characterized by activation of the complement cascade, release of endotoxin, activation of leukocytes and the vascular endothelium, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This complex inflammatory state causes a transient immunosuppressed state, which may increase the risk of hospital-acquired infection in these children. Postoperative sepsis occurs in nearly 3% of children undergoing cardiac surgery and significantly increases length of stay in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit as well as the risk for mortality. Herein, we review the epidemiology, pathobiology, and management of sepsis in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. PMID:22337571
Medical progress and demographic changes will lead to increasing budgetary constraints in the health care system in the coming years. With respect to economic, medical, and ethical aspects, intensive care medicine has a particular role within the health system. Nonetheless, financial restriction will be inevitable in the near future. A literature review was performed. In an era of economic decline accompanied by widespread recognition that healthcare costs are on a consistent upward spiral, rationalization and rationing are unavoidable. Priorization models will play a pivotal role in allocation of resources. Individual ethics (respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence) as well as justice are essential in daily practice. Economic thinking and acting as well as being ethically responsible are not mutually exclusive. On the contrary, acting in an ethically responsible manner will be of considerable significance given the pressure of increasing costs in intensive care medicine.
Alvarez Abril, A.; Terrón, A.; Boschi, C.; Gómez, M.
This work is about the problem of noise in neonatal incubators and in the environment in the neonatal intensive care units. Its main objective is to analyse the impact of noise in hospitals of Mendoza and La Rioja. Methodology: The measures were taken in different moments in front of higher or lower severity level in the working environment. It is shown that noise produces severe damages and changes in the behaviour and the psychological status of the new born babies. Results: The noise recorded inside the incubators and the neonatal intensive care units together have many components but the noise of motors, opening and closing of access gates have been considered the most important ones. Values above 60 db and and up to 120 db in some cases were recorded, so the need to train the health staff in order to manage the new born babies, the equipment and the instruments associated with them very carefully is revealed.
Advanced nursing roles are one way of encouraging experienced nurses to stay in clinical practice so they can provide expert care, develop practice and be role models for junior staff. A search for literature about advanced nurse practice in paediatric intensive care units in the UK identified just four articles, including one survey, but no reports of empirical research. There is some consensus on the nature and educational requirements for advanced practice but delays in agreeing a regulatory framework and failure to recognise the potential contribution of advanced roles mean that development is hindered. Although several UK units have developed or are developing the role, more insight and better evidence is needed on how nursing can be advanced in paediatric intensive care settings.
Cullen Gill, Emma
Pressure ulcers are a definite problem in our health care system and are growing in numbers. Unfortunately, it is usually the most weak and vulnerable of our culture that faces these complications, causing the patient and their families discomfort, anguish, and economic hardship due to their expensive treatment. Data collected by the tissue viability department showed high incidence of hospital acquire pressure ulcers in the intensive care unit in March 2013. An action plan was initiated and implemented by the tissue viability team, senior nursing management, pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) team and respiratory therapists (RT's) within the ICU. Our objective was to reduce hospital acquired pressure ulcers in the intensive care unit using the plan, do, check, act quality improvement process. PMID:26734370
Whittington, A M; Whitlow, G; Hewson, D; Thomas, C; Brett, S J
We assessed how often bedside stethoscopes in our intensive care unit were cleaned and whether they became colonised with potentially pathogenic bacteria. On two separate days the 12 nurses attending the bedspaces were questioned about frequency of stethoscope cleaning on the unit and the bedside stethoscopes were swabbed before and after cleaning to identify colonising organisms. Twenty-two health care providers entering the unit were asked the same questions and had their personal stethoscopes swabbed. All 32 non-medical staff cleaned their stethoscopes at least every day; however only three out of the 12 medical staff cleaned this often. Out of 24 intensive care unit bedside stethoscopes tested, two diaphragms and five earpieces were colonised with pathogenic bacteria. MRSA cultured from one earpiece persisted after cleaning. Three out of the 22 personal stethoscope diaphragms and five earpieces were colonised with pathogens. After cleaning, two diaphragms and two earpieces were still colonised, demonstrating the importance of regular cleaning.
Selim, Bernardo J; Ramar, Kannan; Surani, Salim
The steady growing prevalence of critically ill obese patients is posing diagnostic and management challenges across medical and surgical intensive care units. The impact of obesity in the critically ill patients may vary by type of critical illness, obesity severity (obesity distribution) and obesity-associated co-morbidities. Based on pathophysiological changes associated with obesity, predominately in pulmonary reserve and cardiac function, critically ill obese patients may be at higher risk for acute cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal complications in comparison to non-obese patients. Obesity also represents a dilemma in the management of other critical care areas such as invasive mechanical ventilation, mechanical ventilation liberation, hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacokinetics dose adjustments. However, despite higher morbidity associated with obesity in the intensive care unit (ICU), a paradoxical lower ICU mortality ("obesity paradox") is demonstrated in comparison to non-obese ICU patients. This review article will focus on the unique pathophysiology, challenges in management, and outcomes associated with obesity in the ICU.
Maitre, Nathalie L
Neonatologists and paediatric providers of developmental care have documented poor neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants who have received neonatal intensive care due to prematurity, perinatal neurological insults such as asphyxia or congenital anomalies such as congenital heart disease. In parallel, developmental specialists have researched treatment options in these high-risk children. The goal of this review is connect the main categories of poor outcomes (sensory and motor function, cognition, communication, behaviour) studied by neonatal intensive care follow-up specialists to the research focused on improving these outcomes. We summarise challenges in designing diagnostic and interventional approaches in infants <2 years of age and review the evidence for existing therapies and future treatments aimed at improving functionality. PMID:25710178
Santos, Luciano Marques; Pereira, Monick Piton; dos Santos, Leandro Feliciano Nery; de Santana, Rosana Castelo Branco
This study aimed to analyze the process of pain identification in premature by the professional staff of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a public hospital in the interior of Bahia, Brazil. This is a quantitative descriptive exploratory study that was made through a form applied to twenty-four health professional of a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The data were analyzed in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results showed 100% of professionals believed that newborns feel pain, 83.3% knew the pain as the fifth vital sign to be evaluated; 54,8% did not know the pain assessment scales; 70.8% did not use scales and highlighted behavioral and physiological signs of the newborn as signs suggestive of pain. Thus, it is important that professionals understand the pain as a complex phenomenon that demands early intervention, ensuring the excellence of care.
Volpato, Solange Emanuelle; Ferreira, Jovino Dos Santos; Ferreira, Vera Lúcia Paes Cavalcanti; Ferreira, David Cavalcanti
The anemia is a common problem upon admission of the patients in the intensive care unit being the red blood cell transfusion a frequent therapeutic. The causes of anemia in critical patients who under go red blood cell transfusion are several: acute loss of blood after trauma, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, surgery amongst others. Currently, few studies are available regarding the use of blood components in patients at intensive care unit. Although blood transfusions are frequent in intensive care unit, the optimized criteria for handling are not clearly defined, with no available guidelines. To analyze the clinical indications of the use of the red blood cell in the intensive care unit. The clinical history of the patients admitted in the intensive care unit were analyzed, revisiting which had have red blood cell transfusion in the period between January 1st 2005 and December 31 2005. The study was accepted by the Research Ethics Committee - Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa (CEP) - of the University of South of Santa Catarina (UNISUL). The transfusion rate was 19,33, and the majority of the patients were of the male gender. Their age prevalence was of 60 years old or older. The mortality rate among patients who under went red blood cell transfusion died was of 38,22%. The transfusions criterias were low serum hemoglobin (78%) and the hemoglobin pre - transfusion was 8,11 g/dL. Politrauma and sepsis/sepsis chock were the pre diagnosis criteria. A low hemoglobin level is the main clinical criteria with average hemoglobin pre - transfusion was 8,11 g/dL.
Sezgin, D; Esin, M N
Intensive care unit nurses have more ergonomic risks than nurses working in other units in hospital. Although musculoskeletal disorders are common among intensive care nurses, studies on the prevalence of symptoms, as well as associated factors, are scarce. This is a cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and associated factors in intensive care nurses. The study population comprised 1515 nurses working in the intensive care units of public, private and university hospitals in Turkey. The study sample included 323 nurses selected by stratified random sampling. Data were obtained by a tailored data collection form, a workplace observation form and a Rapid Upper Limb Assessment tool to delineate ergonomic risks. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 21.0 software was used in the statistical analysis. The highest prevalence for the musculoskeletal symptoms of the nurses was in the legs, lower back and back. Most of the nurses had encountered musculoskeletal pain or discomfort related to the previous month. The risky body movements that were frequently performed by the nurses during a shift were 'turning the patient' and 'bending down'. The final Rapid Upper Limb Assessment score for the patient turning movement was found to be higher than for the bending down movement. Musculoskeletal symptoms, which may occur in any region of the body, are mainly associated with organizational factors, such as type of hospital, type of shift work and frequency of changes in work schedule, rather than with personal factors. Nursing administrators should determine the ergonomic risks of intensive care unit nurses by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment tool. Health policy makers should develop occupational health teams, and 'ergonomic risk prevention programs' should be implemented throughout the units. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.
Campino, Ainara; Arranz, Casilda; Unceta, Maria; Rueda, Miguel; Sordo, Beatriz; Pascual, Pilar; Lopez-de-Heredia, Ion; Santesteban, Elena
This study assessed the rate of errors in intravenous medicine preparation at the bedside in neonatal intensive care units vs the preparation error rate in a hospital pharmacy service. We conducted a prospective observational study between June and September 2013. Ten Spanish neonatal intensive care units and one hospital pharmacy service participated in the study. Two types of preparation errors were considered: calculation errors and accuracy errors. A total of 522 samples were collected: 238 of vancomycin, 139 of gentamicin, 39 of phenobarbital and 88 of caffeine citrate preparations. Of these, 444 samples were collected by nurses in neonatal intensive care units, and 60 were provided by the hospital pharmacy service. Overall, 18 samples were excluded from the analysis. We detected calculation errors in 6/444 (1.35%) and accuracy errors in 243/444 (54.7%) samples from the neonatal intensive care units. In contrast, in samples from the hospital pharmacy service, no calculation errors were detected, but there were accuracy errors in 23/60 (38.3%) samples. While calculation errors can be eliminated using protocols based on standard drug concentrations, accuracy error rates depend on several variables that affect both neonatal intensive care units and hospital pharmacy services. Medication use is associated with a risk of errors and adverse events. Medication errors are more frequent and have more severe consequences in paediatric patients. Lack of knowledge of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in relation to physiological immaturity makes neonates more vulnerable to medication errors. Calculation errors are avoided using concentration standard preparation protocols. Accuracy in the preparation process depends mainly on the degree to which commercial drug preparations meet current legal requirements and the syringes and preparation techniques used.
van Gulik, Thomas M; Nimura, Yuji
An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of Nagasaki, called Decima. Western culture and science reached the Japanese exclusively through the Dutch on Decima. Health care on Decima was provided by Dutch barber-surgeons, who introduced Western surgical practice in Japan. Official interpreters were the only Japanese allowed on Decima. It was from among these interpreters that the first Japanese surgeons arose who, having mastered the Dutch language, translated several Dutch anatomic and surgical texts. Genpaku Sugita translated a Dutch anatomy textbook into Japanese, which was completed in 1774. This book, entitled Kaitai Shinsho [New Book on Anatomy], was the first Western scientific monograph to be translated entirely into Japanese. Several Dutch surgical schools were founded through which Dutch surgery, known in Japan as "surgery of the red-haired" was propagated. According to the custom of the surgical guilds in Holland, certificates were granted to Japanese apprentices who had completed their training in Dutch surgery. About 60 Dutch surgeons had served on Decima up to 1850, providing the basis for surgery to develop in Japan. Among them, Philipp Franz von Siebold was an exceptional scholar who also had a great impact in making Japanese culture known to the Western world.
Knight, Emily; Stuckey, Melanie I; Petrella, Robert J
Physical activity guidelines recommend engaging in moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity to elicit health benefits. Similarly, these higher intensity ranges for activity are typically targeted in healthy living interventions (ie, exercise prescription). Comparatively less attention has been focused on changing lower intensity physical activity (ie, sedentary activity) behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of prescribing changes to physical activity of various intensities (ie, sedentary through exercise) through the primary care setting. Sixty older adults (aged 55-75 years; mean age 63 = 5 years) volunteered to participate, and were randomly assigned to 4 groups: 3 receiving an activity prescription intervention targeting a specific intensity of physical activity (exercise, sedentary, or both), and 1 control group. During the 12-week intervention period participants followed personalized activity programs at home. Basic clinical measures (anthropometrics, blood pressure, aerobic fitness) and blood panel for assessing cardiometabolic risk (glucose, lipid profile) were conducted at baseline (week 0) and follow-up (week 12) in a primary care office. There were no differences between groups at baseline (P > 0.05). The intervention changed clinical (F₅,₅₀ = 20.458, P = 0.000, ηP² = 0.672) and blood panel measures (F₅,₅₀ = 4.576, P = 0.002, ηP² = 0.314) of cardiometabolic health. Post hoc analyses indicted no differences between groups (P > 0.05). Physical activity prescription of various intensities through the primary care setting improved cardiometabolic health status. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sedentary behavior prescription (alone, or combined with exercise) in primary care. The findings support the ongoing practice of fitness assessment and physical activity prescription for chronic disease management and prevention.
Petty, Thomas L.; Bigelow, D. Boyd; Nett, Louise M.
An organized approach for the management of acute respiratory failure in an intensive general care unit utilizes a team of consultants including a general physician, a surgeon, respiratory care nurses, physical therapists and a blood gas technician. Because this team provides consultation and technical assistance in respiratory care and provides the equipment as well as the monitoring of care, this approach is suitable for any hospital interested in the management of acute respiratory emergencies. PMID:6083241
Schoot, Tineke; Proot, Ireen; ter Meulen, Ruud; de Witte, Luc
In the Netherlands confusion is signalled about the introduction of new care concepts like demand-oriented care. The aim of this article is to explore the phenomenon 'interaction aimed at care tailored to the client demand' as seen by expert clients: patients and their family caregivers. Focus interviews were held with expert patients and expert family caregivers of the 'Dutch Council of the Chronically ill and the Disabled'. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyse the results. Recognition by the professional of client values underlying their demand (uniqueness, comprehensiveness, continuity of life, fairness and autonomy) and underlying the care-relationship (equality, partnership and interdependence) emerged as central element within the interaction. Feelings of recognition with the client seem to reinforce autonomy, self-esteem and participation. Recognition was optimally felt in a dialogue. Four professional competencies could be identified related to recognition: attentiveness (ongoing actions to know and understand the patient); responsiveness (active, committed and responsible care guided by respect of patient identity); being a critical partner in care (giving and grounding professional opinion and discuss boundaries); being a developer of client competencies (facilitating and developing client participation within care). The findings offer possibilities to operationalize care concepts aimed at tailored care. Further research aimed at refining and testing the hypothesis developed is recommended.
Watson, J'ai; Kinstler, Angela; Vidonish, William P; Wagner, Michael; Lin, Li; Davis, Kermit G; Kotowski, Susan E; Daraiseh, Nancy M
Excessive exposure to noise places nurses at risk for safety events, near-misses, decreased job performance, and fatigue. Noise is particularly a concern in pediatric intensive care units, where highly skilled providers and vulnerable patients require a quiet environment to promote healing. To measure noise levels and noise duration on specialty pediatric intensive care units to explore sources of noise and its effects on the health of registered nurses. In a cross-sectional pilot study, levels and sources of noise in 3 different specialty pediatric intensive care units were assessed. Fifteen nurses were observed for 4-hour sessions during a 24-hour period. Sound pressure levels (noise) and heart rate were measured continuously, and stress ratings were recorded. Descriptive statistics were calculated for noise (level, source, location, and activity), heart rate, and stress. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to analyze the relationship between heart rate and noise. Mean noise level was 71.9 (SD, 9.2) dBA. Mean heart rate was 85.2/min (SD, 15.8/min) and was significantly associated with noise, unit, within-unit location, nurse sources, and noise activities. The most frequent sources of noise were patients' rooms, care activities, and staff communications. Noise levels in pediatric intensive care units exceed recommended thresholds and require immediate attention through effective interventions. Although noise was not associated with stress, a significant correlation with increased heart rate indicates that noise may be associated with adverse health outcomes. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Welie, Sander P K; Dute, Joseph; Nys, Herman; van Wijmen, Frans C B
In any jurisdiction that takes patient autonomy and patient rights seriously, patient competence is a pivotal concept. Competence, which should be distinguished from criminal responsibility and legal capacity, can be defined as the ability to exercise rights, more in particular the ability to exercise one's right to give or refuse informed consent. It depends upon a patient's competence whether or not this patient has the final say in a health care decision and whether or not the patient can legitimately be subjected to compulsory interventions in that context. These possibly far reaching consequences explain why competence is the topic of a growing amount of legal regulation and why policy attempts are made at operationalising the concept in workable criteria. Although agreed upon criteria for competence do not exist, there is consensus about some preconditions of competence assessment. Two kinds of models of substitute decision-making for incompetent patients are available, i.e. best interests models and representational models. The Dutch Contract of medical treatment Act is treated as an example of the latter. It is shown that in the Dutch model, health care professionals are not at the mercy of patient representatives. On the contrary, health care professionals are supposed to judge their patients' subjective interests and may eventually overrule the representatives. A public debate ought to take place about the basis for this authority.
Suttle, Markita L; Jenkins, Tammara L; Tamburro, Robert F
Most childhood deaths in the United States occur in hospitals. Pediatric intensive care clinicians must anticipate and effectively treat dying children's pain and suffering and support the psychosocial and spiritual needs of families. These actions may help family members adjust to their loss, particularly bereaved parents who often experience reduced mental and physical health. Candid and compassionate communication is paramount to successful end-of-life (EOL) care as is creating an environment that fosters meaningful family interaction. EOL care in the pediatric intensive care unit is associated with challenging ethical issues, of which clinicians must maintain a sound and working understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, K Jane; Forbes, Michael L; Lukasiewicz, Gloria J; Williams, Trisha; Sheets, Anna; Fischer, Kay; Niedner, Matthew F
Health care professionals experience workplace stress, which may lead to impaired physical and mental health, job turnover, and burnout. Resilience allows people to handle stress positively. Little research is aimed at finding interventions to improve resilience in health care professionals. To describe the availability, use, and helpfulness of resilience-promoting resources and identify an intervention to implement across multiple pediatric intensive care units. A descriptive study collecting data on availability, utilization, and impact of resilience resources from leadership teams and individual staff members in pediatric intensive care units, along with resilience scores and teamwork climate scores. Leadership teams from 20 pediatric intensive care units completed the leadership survey. Individual surveys were completed by 1066 staff members (51% response rate). The 2 most used and impactful resources were 1-on-1 discussions with colleagues and informal social interactions with colleagues out of the hospital. Other resources (taking a break from stressful patients, being relieved of duty after your patient's death, palliative care support for staff, structured social activities out of hospital, and Schwartz Center rounds) were highly impactful but underused. Utilization and impact of resources differed significantly between professions, between those with higher versus lower resilience, and between individuals in units with low versus high teamwork climate. Institutions could facilitate access to peer discussions and social interactions to promote resilience. Highly impactful resources with low utilization could be targets for improved access. Differences in utilization and impact between groups suggest that varied interventions would be necessary to reach all individuals. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
Kundury, Kanakavalli Kiranmai; Mamatha, H. K.; Rao, Divya
Introduction: Intensive care services of a hospital are found to consume major chunk of hospital resources as well draining the savings of patients. Implementing proper control measures facilitates effective functioning of critical care services. Aim: Identify various costs involved in operating Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) and Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU); also find out the running cost of the same. Methodology: Retrospective data was collected for 12 months period and prospectively through informal interactions with staff. Results: Construction and estate costs of the respective ICU's were found to be high, followed by laboratory charges. Running cost of RICU was found to be more than SICU. Conclusion: Costing of intensive care service is essential for controlled operations and to provide efficient patient care. PMID:28250603
Van der Veer, Tjeerd; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.
Purpose There is a growing awareness of the potent ways in which the wellbeing of physicians impacts the health of their patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the health behaviors, care needs and attitudes towards self-prescription of Dutch medical students, and any differences between junior preclinical and senior clinically active students. Methods All students (n = 2695) of a major Dutch medical school were invited for an online survey. Physical activity, eating habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, Body Mass Index, substance use and amount of sleep per night were inquired, as well as their need for different forms of care and their attitude towards self-prescription. Results Data of 902 students were used. Physical activity levels (90% sufficient) and smoking prevalence (94% non-smokers) were satisfying. Healthy eating habits (51% insufficient) and alcohol consumption (46% excessive) were worrying. Body Mass Indexes were acceptable (20% unhealthy). We found no significant differences in health behaviors between preclinical and clinically active students. Care needs were significantly lower among clinically active students. (p<0.05) Student acceptance of self-prescription was significantly higher among clinically active students. (p<0.001) Conclusions Unhealthy behaviors are prevalent among medical students, but are no more prevalent during the clinical study phase. The need for specific forms of care appears lower with study progression. This could be worrying as the acceptance of self-care and self-prescription is higher among senior clinical students. Medical faculties need to address students' unhealthy behaviors and meet their care needs for the benefit of both the future physicians as well as their patients. PMID:22132202
Oates, R K; Oates, P
The views of 34 neonatologists (a 78% response rate) and 192 neonatal intensive care nurses (a 66% response rate) were obtained on work, stress, and relationships in neonatal intensive care units. The survey was conducted by post and included Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). A comparison of the responses of neonatologists and nurses to 21 identical statements showed significant differences in 12. Most neonatologists felt that they involved nurses in critical patient care decisions, provided adequate pain relief for their patients, gave nurses adequate information on patients' progress after discharge, and were aware of little doctor-nurse conflict. However, the nurses' responses differed significantly in these areas, suggesting that the neonatologists may have a more rosy view of life in the neonatal intensive care unit than their nurse colleagues. Twenty seven per cent of neonatologists and 32% of nurses had GHQ scores indicating psychological dysfunction. The neonatologists who had dysfunctional scores differed from their colleagues in only one area surveyed--a higher proportion experienced conflict between the demands of their work and their personal lives.
Oates, R. K.; Oates, P.
The views of 34 neonatologists (a 78% response rate) and 192 neonatal intensive care nurses (a 66% response rate) were obtained on work, stress, and relationships in neonatal intensive care units. The survey was conducted by post and included Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). A comparison of the responses of neonatologists and nurses to 21 identical statements showed significant differences in 12. Most neonatologists felt that they involved nurses in critical patient care decisions, provided adequate pain relief for their patients, gave nurses adequate information on patients' progress after discharge, and were aware of little doctor-nurse conflict. However, the nurses' responses differed significantly in these areas, suggesting that the neonatologists may have a more rosy view of life in the neonatal intensive care unit than their nurse colleagues. Twenty seven per cent of neonatologists and 32% of nurses had GHQ scores indicating psychological dysfunction. The neonatologists who had dysfunctional scores differed from their colleagues in only one area surveyed--a higher proportion experienced conflict between the demands of their work and their personal lives. PMID:7712267
Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Suominen, Tarja; Mäkelä, Merja; McDaniel, Charlotte; Puukka, Pauli
The purpose of this study was to describe ethical problems that are influenced by organizational factors in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). The goal was to help nurses and administrators to analyse intensive care work, and to improve nurses' work motivation. Through these means the ultimate goal is to improve the quality of patient care. Data were collected in 35 hospital ICUs by means of the Ethics Environmental Questionnaire (EEQ). This gained access to the population of 1047 Finnish intensive care nurses. The response rate was 77% (n = 814). Data analysis was carried out using SAS-6 statistical software. The results provided scores for the 20 EEQ items. Reliability according to Cronbach's alpha was 0.87. The results revealed that organizational factors in Finnish ICUs have both positive and negative dimensions. Positively, nurses have the opportunity to discuss ethical problems in their work units, whereas, negatively, respondents noted that there is much concern about earning money. Nurses' work in Finnish hospital ICUs is ethically challenging; it is similar to that found in other countries and thereby supports international application of these findings.
Bienvenu, O Joseph; Neufeld, Karin J; Needham, Dale M
To review the diagnosis and management of four selected psychiatric emergencies in the intensive care unit: agitated delirium, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonin syndrome, and psychiatric medication overdose. Review of relevant medical literature. Standardized screening for delirium should be routine. Agitated delirium should be managed with an antipsychotic and, possibly, dexmedetomidine in treatment-refractory cases. Delirium management should also include ensuring a calming environment and adequate pain control, minimizing benzodiazepines and anticholinergics, normalizing the sleep-wake cycle, providing sensory aids as required, and providing early physical and occupational therapy. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome should be treated by discontinuing dopamine blockers, providing supportive therapy, and possibly administering medications (benzodiazepines, dopamine agonists, and/or dantrolene) or electroconvulsive therapy, if indicated. Serotonin syndrome should be treated by discontinuing all serotonergic agents, providing supportive therapy, controlling agitation with benzodiazepines, and possibly administering serotonin2A antagonists. It is often unnecessary to restart psychiatric medications upon which a patient has overdosed in the intensive care unit, though withdrawal syndromes should be prevented, and communication with outpatient prescribers is vital. Understanding the diagnosis and appropriate management of these four psychiatric emergencies is important to provide safe and effective care in the intensive care unit.
Vahedian Azimi, Amir; Ebadi, Abbas; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Saadat, Soheil
Background: Prolonged hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) can impose long-term psychological effects on patients. One of the most significant psychological effects from prolonged hospitalization is delirium. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prolonged hospitalization of patients and subsequent delirium in the intensive care unit. Patients and Methods: This conventional content analysis study was conducted in the General Intensive Care Unit of the Shariati Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, from the beginning of 2013 to 2014. All prolonged hospitalized patients and their families were eligible participants. From the 34 eligible patients and 63 family members, the final numbers of actual patients and family members were 9 and 16, respectively. Several semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with patients and their families in a private room and data were gathered. Results: Two main themes from two different perspectives emerged, 'patients' perspectives' (experiences during ICU hospitalization) and 'family members' perspectives' (supportive-communicational experiences). The main results of this study focused on delirium, Patients' findings were described as pleasant and unpleasant, factual and delusional experiences. Conclusions: Family members are valuable components in the therapeutic process of delirium. Effective use of family members in the delirium caring process can be considered to be one of the key non-medical nursing components in the therapeutic process. PMID:26290854
Atashzadeh Shorideh, Foroozan; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Yaghmaei, Farideh
Researchers have identified the phenomena of moral distress through many studies in Western countries. This research reports the first study of moral distress in Iran. Because of the differences in cultural values and nursing education, nurses working in intensive care units may experience moral distress differently than reported in previous studies. This research used a qualitative method involving semistructured and in-depth interviews of a purposive sample of 31 (28 clinical nurses and 3 nurse educators) individuals to identify the types of moral distress among clinical nurses and nurse educators working in 12 cities in Iran. A content analysis of the data produced four themes to describe the nurses' moral distress. The four themes were as follows: (a) institutional barriers and constraints; (b) communication problems; (c) futile actions, malpractice, and medical/care errors; (d) inappropriate responsibilities, resources, and competencies. The results demonstrate that moral distress for intensive care unit nurses is different and that the nursing leaders must reduce moral distress among nursing in intensive care.
Kandeel, Nahed Attia; Attia, Amal Kadry
Physical restraints are commonly used in intensive care units to reduce the risk of injury and ensure patient safety. However, there is still controversy regarding the practice of physical restraints in such units. The purpose of this study was to investigate the practices of physical restraints among critical care nurses in El-Mansoura City, Egypt. The study involved a convenience sample of 275 critically ill adult patients, and 153 nurses. Data were collected from 11 intensive care units using a "physical restraint observation form" and a "structured questionnaire." The results revealed that physical restraint was commonly used to ensure patient safety. Assessment of physical restraint was mainly restricted to peripheral circulation. The most commonly reported physically restrained site complications included: redness, bruising, swelling, and edema. The results illustrated a lack of documentation on physical restraint and a lack of education of patients and their families about the rationale of physical restraint usage. The study shed light on the need for standard guidelines and policies for physical restraint practices in Egyptian intensive care units.
Machado, Angela; Rocha, Gustavo; Silva, Ana Isabel; Alegrete, Nuno; Guimarães, Hercília
Fractures during the neonatal period are rare. Some fractures, especially long bones, may occur during birth. Moreover, neonates hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit have an increased risk of fractures for several reasons. To evaluate the incidence and characterize fractures in newborns admitted in a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. A retrospective analysis of the newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with a diagnosis at discharge of one or more bone fractures from January 1996 to June 2013. Eighty neonates had one or more fractures. In 76 (95%) infants the fractures were attributed to birth injury. The most common fracture was the clavicle fracture in 60 (79%) neonates, followed by skull fracture in 6 (8%). In two (2.5%) neonates, extremely low birth weight infants, fractures were interpreted as resulting from osteopenia of prematurity. Both had multiple fractures, and one of them with several ribs. A change in obstetric practices allied to improvement premature neonateâÄôs care contributed to the decreased incidence of fractures in neonatal period. But in premature infants the diagnosis may be underestimated, given the high risk of fracture that these infants present.
Fernández, Daniel; Rodríguez, Magdalena; Rodríguez, Dolores; Gómez, Dolores; Estrella, Pilar; Liz, Mercedes
The aim of the study was to describe and analyze the nursing interventions NIC developed in the clinical practice by specialized nurses in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Descriptive study in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of University Complex Hospital of León. The study population included all the neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from 1 march to 30 november of 2011. Database was created with the statistical program Epi Info where NIC interventions were collected between the selected by the panel of experts. We collected a sum of 283 records of 44 neonates admitted with an average weight of 1705.5 gr and 14.3 days of age. Nurses have performed a total of 8861 NIC interventions. The highest percentage of interventions (47,1%) belong to the complex physiological domain, followed by the basic physiological (17,7%). We found 40,1%; 30,6% and 29,1% interventions in the early, late and night shifts. The highest percentage of interventions belong to the complex physiological domain although we can conclude that in the nursing clinical practice the solution of problems not only depend of interventions in that area but other areas such as family key intervention in the neonatal care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Weiss, K J; Kowalkowski, M A; Treviño, R; Cabrera-Meza, G; Thomas, E J; Kaplan, H C; Profit, J
At the time of the research, Dr Weiss was a clinical fellow in neonatal-perinatal medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital. Dr Profit was on faculty at Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology. He held a secondary appointment in the Department of Medicine, Section of Health Services Research and conducted his research at the VA Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence where he collaborated with Dr Kowalkowski.: Improving the quality of neonatal intensive care is an important health policy priority in Mexico. A formal assessment of barriers and priorities for quality improvement has not been undertaken. To provide guidance to providers and policy makers with regard to addressing opportunities for better care delivery in Mexican neonatal intensive care units. To conduct a needs assessment regarding improvement of quality of neonatal intensive care delivery in Mexico. Spanish-language survey administered to a volunteer sample of Mexican neonatal care providers attending a large paediatric conference in Mexico in June 2011. Survey domains included institutional context of quality improvement, barriers, priorities, safety culture, and respondents' characteristics. Results were analysed using descriptive analyses of frequencies, proportions and percentage positive response (PPR) rates. Of 91 respondents, the majority identified neonatology as their primary specialty (n = 48, 65%) and were physicians (n = 55, 73%). Generally, providers expressed a desire to improve quality of care (PPR 69%) but reported notable deterrents. Respondents (n, %) identified family inability to pay (38, 48%), overcrowded work areas (38, 44%), insufficient financial reimbursement (25, 36%), lack of availability of nurses (26, 30%), ancillary staff (25, 29%), and subspecialists (22, 25%) as the principal barriers. Respiratory care (27, 39%)--reduction of mechanical ventilation and
Reich, Michel; Rohn, Regis; Lefevre, Daniele
Intensive Care Unit (ICU) delirium is a common complication after major surgery and related among other potential medical precipitants to either pre-existing cognitive impairment or the intensity and length of anesthesiology or the type of surgery. Nevertheless, in some rare situations, an organic etiology is not always found, which can be frustrating for the medical team. Some clinicians working in an intensive care unit have a reluctance to seek another hypothesis in the psychological field. To illustrate this, we report the case of a 59-year-old woman who developed a massive delirium during her intensive care unit stay after being operated on for a left retroperitoneal sarcoma. Interestingly, she had had no previous cognitive disorders and a somatic explanation for her psychiatric disorder could not been found. Just before the surgery, she was grieving the recent loss of a colleague of the same age, and also a close friend, and therefore had a death anxiety. With this case report, we would like to point out the importance of psychological factors that might precipitate delirium in a predominately somatic environment such as an intensive care unit. ICU delirium can sometimes be considered as a "psychosomatic" problem with either a stress response syndrome after surgery or a defense mechanism against death anxiety. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of such psychological factors even if they always must first rule out potential somatic causes for delirium and encourage thorough investigation and treatment of these medical causes. A collaboration with the psycho-oncologist is recommended to better manage this "psychosomatic" problem.
Happ, Mary Beth; Garrett, Kathryn; Thomas, Dana DiVirgilio; Tate, Judith; George, Elisabeth; Houze, Martin; Radtke, Jill; Sereika, Susan
Background The inability to speak during critical illness is a source of distress for patients, yet nurse-patient communication in the intensive care unit has not been systematically studied or measured. Objectives To describe communication interactions, methods, and assistive techniques between nurses and nonspeaking critically ill patients in the intensive care unit. Methods Descriptive observational study of the nonintervention/usual care cohort from a larger clinical trial of nurse-patient communication in a medical and a cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit. Videorecorded interactions between 10 randomly selected nurses (5 per unit) and a convenience sample of 30 critically ill adults (15 per unit) who were awake, responsive, and unable to speak because of respiratory tract intubation were rated for frequency, success, quality, communication methods, and assistive communication techniques. Patients self-rated ease of communication. Results Nurses initiated most (86.2%) of the communication exchanges. Mean rate of completed communication exchange was 2.62 exchanges per minute. The most common positive nurse act was making eye contact with the patient. Although communication exchanges were generally (>70%) successful, more than one-third (37.7%) of communications about pain were unsuccessful. Patients rated 40% of the communication sessions with nurses as somewhat difficult to extremely difficult. Assistive communication strategies were uncommon, with little to no use of assistive communication materials (eg, writing supplies, alphabet or word boards). Conclusions Study results highlight specific areas for improvement in communication between nurses and nonspeaking patients in the intensive care unit, particularly in communication about pain and in the use of assistive communication strategies and communication materials. PMID:21362711
Martinez, Elizabeth A; Donelan, Karen; Henneman, Justin P; Berenholtz, Sean M; Miralles, Paola D; Krug, Allison E; Iezzoni, Lisa I; Charnin, Jonathan E; Pronovost, Peter J
Despite important progress in measuring the safety of health care delivery in a variety of health care settings, a comprehensive set of metrics for benchmarking is still lacking, especially for patient outcomes. Even in high-risk settings where similar procedures are performed daily, such as hospital intensive care units (ICUs), these measures largely do not exist. Yet we cannot compare safety or quality across institutions or regions, nor can we track whether safety is improving over time. To a large extent, ICU outcome measures deemed valid, important, and preventable by clinicians are unavailable, and abstracting clinical data from the medical record is excessively burdensome. Even if a set of outcomes garnered consensus, ensuring adequate risk adjustment to facilitate fair comparisons across institutions presents another challenge. This study reports on a consensus process to build 5 outcome measures for broad use to evaluate the quality of ICU care and inform quality improvement efforts.
Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; González-Herrera, María O; Herrera-Gómez, Angel
Outcomes of critically ill cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) had improved; it could be associated with medical advances in critical care, introduction of new anticancer treatments, and better supportive care. Recent reports have described ICU mortality for critically ill cancer patients ranged from 15.9% to 32%. During the period 2007 to 2011, a total of 1418 critically ill cancer patients were admitted to our ICU with a mortality rate lower (17.5%) than that reported by other centers. The ICUs around the world should consider the improvement in the prognosis of critically ill cancer patients who require critical care and they should not be denied ICU admission only on the basis of a patient having cancer.
Toevs, Christine C
The purpose of palliative medicine is to prevent and relieve suffering and to help patients and their families set informed goals of care and treatment. Palliative medicine can be provided along with life-prolonging treatment or as the main focus of treatment. Increasingly, palliative medicine has a role in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) and trauma. Data show involving palliative medicine in the SICU results in decreased length of stay, improved communication with families and patients, and earlier setting of goals of care, without increasing mortality. The use of triggers for palliative medicine consultation improves patient-centered care in the SICU. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza
This qualitative investigation was supported by Foucault's analysis with emphasis on the notion of governability, and had the following objectives: to analyze the relationship between techno-biomedicine and bioethics as discourses of the contemporaneousness implied in the production of nurses' subjectivity within the context of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU); and approach the responsibility implied in health care as one of the unfolding strategies of technology of speech of bioethics and biotechnology, creating certain forms of the nurse understanding and intervening in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). From the perspective of the multiple ways that can emerge when analyzing a critical reading of analyzed texts and interviews with nurses, responsibility in health care was unfolded into categories that expressed the responsibility in front of new languages and of nursing as a guardian of certain attributes in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).
Evans, A S; Hosseinian, L; Mechanick, J I
Hyperglycemia is common in critical illness and leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Controversy exists whether tight glycemic control via intensive insulin therapy can safely and effectively improve outcomes. In this review article, we will sort through the pertinent evidence base to identify salient, yet emergent, paradigms to guide management. To this end, we will discuss underlying biologic mechanisms relevant to hyperglycemia and insulinization in critical illness, summarize results of major randomized controlled clinical trials for glycemic control in the intensive care unit (ICU), and fill in the gaps with necessary information. We will conclude with specific messages, not only reflecting our own clinical experiences, but amenable to implementation in different ICU settings.
Stone, Patricia W; Larson, Elaine L; Mooney-Kane, Cathy; Smolowitz, Janice; Lin, Susan X; Dick, Andrew W
The purposes of this study were to a) estimate the incidence of intensive care units nurses' intention to leave due to working conditions; and b) identify factors predicting this phenomenon. Cross-sectional design. Hospitals and critical care units. Registered nurses (RNs) employed in adult intensive care units. Organizational climate, nurse demographics, intention to leave, and reason for intending to leave were collected using a self-report survey. Nurses were categorized into two groups: a) those intending to leave due to working conditions; and b) others (e.g., those not leaving or retirees). The measure of organizational climate had seven subscales: professional practice, staffing/resource adequacy, nurse management, nursing process, nurse/physician collaboration, nurse competence, and positive scheduling climate. Setting characteristics came from American Hospital Association data and a survey of chief nursing officers. A total of 2,323 RNs from 66 hospitals and 110 critical care units were surveyed across the nation. On average, the RN was 39.5 yrs old (SD = 9.40), had 15.6 yrs (SD = 9.20) experience in health care, and had worked in his or her current position for 8.0 yrs (SD = 7.50). Seventeen percent (n = 391) of the respondents indicated intending to leave their position in the coming year. Of those, 52% (n = 202) reported that the reason was due to working conditions. Organizational climate factors that had an independent effect on intensive care unit nurse intention to leave due to working conditions were professional practice, nurse competence, and tenure (p < .05). Improving professional practice in the work environment and clinical competence of the nurses as well as supporting new hires may reduce turnover and help ensure a stable and qualified workforce.
Stone, Patricia W; Larson, Elaine L; Mooney-Kane, Cathy; Smolowitz, Janice; Lin, Susan X; Dick, Andrew W
The purposes of this study were to a) estimate the incidence of intensive care units nurses' intention to leave due to working conditions; and b) identify factors predicting this phenomenon. Cross-sectional design. Hospitals and critical care units. Registered nurses (RNs) employed in adult intensive care units. Organizational climate, nurse demographics, intention to leave, and reason for intending to leave were collected using a self-report survey. Nurses were categorized into two groups: a) those intending to leave due to working conditions; and b) others (e.g., those not leaving or retirees). The measure of organizational climate had seven subscales: professional practice, staffing/resource adequacy, nurse management, nursing process, nurse/physician collaboration, nurse competence, and positive scheduling climate. Setting characteristics came from American Hospital Association data and a survey of chief nursing officers. A total of 2,323 RNs from 66 hospitals and 110 critical care units were surveyed across the nation. On average, the RN was 39.5 yrs old (SD = 9.40), had 15.6 yrs (SD = 9.20) experience in health care, and had worked in his or her current position for 8.0 yrs (SD = 7.50). Seventeen percent (n = 391) of the respondents indicated intending to leave their position in the coming year. Of those, 52% (n = 202) reported that the reason was due to working conditions. Organizational climate factors that had an independent effect on intensive care unit nurse intention to leave due to working conditions were professional practice, nurse competence, and tenure (p < .05). Improving professional practice in the work environment and clinical competence of the nurses as well as supporting new hires may reduce turnover and help ensure a stable and qualified workforce.
Escudero, D; Martín, L; Viña, L; Quindós, B; Espina, M J; Forcelledo, L; López-Amor, L; García-Arias, B; del Busto, C; de Cima, S; Fernández-Rey, E
To determine the design and comfort in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs), by analysing visiting hours, information, and family participation in patient care. Descriptive, multicentre study. Spanish ICUs. A questionnaire e-mailed to members of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Critical and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC), subscribers of the Electronic Journal Intensive Care Medicine, and disseminated through the blog Proyecto HU-CI. A total of 135 questionnaires from 131 hospitals were analysed. Visiting hours: 3.8% open 24h, 9.8% open daytime, and 67.7% have 2 visits a day. Information: given only by the doctor in 75.2% of the cases, doctor and nurse together in 4.5%, with a frequency of once a day in 79.7%. During weekends, information is given in 95.5% of the cases. Information given over the phone 74.4%. Family participation in patient care: hygiene 11%, feeding 80.5%, physiotherapy 17%. Personal objects allowed: mobile phone 41%, computer 55%, sound system 77%, and television 30%. Architecture and comfort: all individual cubicles 60.2%, natural light 54.9%, television 7.5%, ambient music 12%, clock in the cubicle 15.8%, environmental noise meter 3.8%, and a waiting room near the ICU 68.4%. Visiting policy is restrictive, with a closed ICU being the predominating culture. On average, technological communication devices are not allowed. Family participation in patient care is low. The ICU design does not guarantee privacy or provide a desirable level of comfort. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Peters, Mark J; Argent, Andrew; Festa, Marino; Leteurtre, Stéphane; Piva, Jefferson; Thompson, Ann; Willson, Douglas; Tissières, Pierre; Tucci, Marisa; Lacroix, Jacques
Intensive Care Medicine set us the task of outlining a global clinical research agenda for paediatric intensive care (PIC). In line with the clinical focus of this journal, we have limited this to research that may directly influence patient care. Clinician researchers from PIC research networks of varying degrees of formality from around the world were invited to answer two main questions: (1) What have been the major recent advances in paediatric critical care research? (2) What are the top 10 studies for the next 10 years? (1) Inclusive databases are well established in many countries. These registries allow detailed observational studies and feasibility testing of clinical trial protocols. Recent trials are larger and more valuable, and (2) most common interventions in PIC are not evidenced-based. Clinical studies for the next 10 years should address this deficit, including: ventilation techniques and interfaces; fluid, transfusion and feeding strategies; optimal targets for vital signs; multiple organ failure definitions, mechanisms and treatments; trauma, prevention and treatment; improving safety; comfort of the patient and their family; appropriate care in the face of medical complexity; defining post-PICU outcomes; and improving knowledge generation and adoption, with novel trial design and implementation strategies. The group specifically highlighted the need for research in resource-limited environments wherein mortality remains often tenfold higher than in well-resourced settings. Paediatric intensive care research has never been healthier, but many gaps in knowledge remain. We need to close these urgently. The impact of new knowledge will be greatest in resource-limited environments.
Smith, Judith M; Van Aman, M Nancy; Schneiderhahn, Mary Elizabeth; Edelman, Robin; Ercole, Patrick M
Delirium is an acute brain dysfunction associated with poor outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Critical care nurses play an important role in the prevention, detection, and management of delirium, but they must be able to accurately assess for it. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) instrument is a reliable and valid method to assess for delirium, but research reveals most nurses need practice to use it proficiently. A pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the success of a multimodal educational strategy (i.e., online learning module coupled with standardized patient simulation experience) on critical care nurses' knowledge and confidence to assess and manage delirium using the CAM-ICU. Participants (N = 34) showed a significant increase (p < .001) in confidence in their ability to assess and manage delirium following the multimodal education. No statistical change in knowledge of delirium existed following the education. A multimodal educational strategy, which included simulation, significantly added confidence in critical care nurses' performance using the CAM-ICU. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(5):239-244. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Nguyen, Yên-Lan; Angus, Derek C; Boumendil, Ariane; Guidet, Bertrand
The aging of the population has increased the demand for healthcare resources. The number of patients aged 80 years and older admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) increased during the past decade, as has the intensity of care for such patients. Yet, many physicians remain reluctant to admit the oldest, arguing a "squandering" of societal resources, that ICU care could be deleterious, or that ICU care may not actually be what the patient or family wants in this instance. Other ICU physicians are strong advocates for admission of a selected elderly population. These discrepant opinions may partly be explained by the current lack of validated criteria to select accurately the patients (of any age) who will benefit most from ICU hospitalization. This review describes the epidemiology of the elderly aged 80 years and older admitted in the ICU, their long-term outcomes, and to discuss some of the solutions to cope with the burden of an aging population receiving acute care hospitalization.
Garcia, Paulo Carlos; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro
The objective of this quantitative, correlational and descriptive study was to analyze the time the nursing staff spends to assist patients in Adult Intensive Care Units, as well as to verify its correlation with quality care indicators. The average length of time spent on care and the quality care indicators were identified by consulting management instruments the nursing head of the Unit employs. The average hours of nursing care delivered to patients remained stable, but lower than official Brazilian agencies' indications. The correlation between time of nursing care and the incidence of accidental extubation indicator indicated that it decreases with increasing nursing care delivered by nurses. The results of this investigation showed the influence of nursing care time, provided by nurses, in the outcome of care delivery.
Watson, Sam R; Scales, Damon C
Collaborative networks of intensive care units can help promote a quality-improvement agenda across an entire system or region. Proposed advantages include targeting a greater number of patients, sharing of resources, and common measurement systems for audit and feedback or benchmarking. This review focuses on elements that are essential for the success and sustainability of these collaborative networks, using as examples networks in Michigan and Ontario. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which collaborative networks lead to improved care delivery and to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness in comparison with other approaches to system-level quality improvement.
Albeit the considerable progress that has been made both in our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure (ARF) and in its treatment (continuous renal replacement therapies), the morbidity of this complex syndrome remains unacceptably high. The current review focuses on recent developments concerning the definition of ARF, new strategies for the prevention and pharmacological treatment of specific causes of ARF, dialysis treatment in the intensive care setting and provides an update on critical care issues relevant to the clinical nephrologist. PMID:21897760
Monares Zepeda, Enrique; Galindo Martín, Carlos Alfredo
Implementing a nutrition support protocol in critical care is a complex and dynamic process that involves the use of evidence, education programs and constant monitoring. To facilitate this task we developed a mnemonic tool called the Nutritional FAST HUG (F: feeding, A: analgesia, S: stools, T: trace elements, H: head of bed, U: ulcers, G: glucose control) with a process also internally developed (both modified from the mnemonic proposed by Jean Louis Vincent) called MIAR (M: measure, I: interpret, A: act, R: reanalysis) showing an easy form to perform medical rounds at the intensive care unit using a systematic process.
Adams-Chapman, Ira; Stoll, Barbara J
Nosocomial infections are responsible for significant morbidity and late mortality among neonatal intensive care unit patients. The number of neonatal patients at risk for acquiring nosocomial infections is increasing because of the improved survival of very low birthweight infants and their need for invasive monitoring and supportive care. Effective strategies to prevent nosocomial infection must include continuous monitoring and surveillance of infection rates and distribution of pathogens; strategic nursery design and staffing; emphasis on handwashing compliance; minimizing central venous catheter use and contamination, and prudent use of antimicrobial agents. Educational programs and feedback to nursery personnel improve compliance with infection control programs.
Donchin, Yoel; Seagull, F Jacob
Intensive care units (ICUs) were developed for patients with special needs and include an array of technology to support medical care. However, basic lessons in ergonomics, human factors, and human performance fail to propagate in this complex medical environment. Complicated, error-prone devices are commonly used. There are too many patient data for one person to process effectively. Lighting, ambient noise, and scheduling all result in provider and patient stress. These difficult working conditions make errors more probable and are risk factors for provider burnout and negative outcomes for patients. Auditory alarms on ICU equipment, ICU syndrome, and needle sticks are discussed as examples of such problems.
Stoeckeler, Joel S.; Ellis, Lynda B.M.
A laptop computer system has been developed for the acquisition, calculation, and reporting of pediatric health care maintenance parameters used to assess fluid and caloric metabolic balance in ward and intensive care environments. A pilot study with inexperienced users of the system demonstrated shorter calculation and report generation times at all but the least complex test cases. More importantly, the system significantly reduces the proportion of errors made at all levels of complexity (p < 0.001). This system has proved to be a valuable bedside companion.
Panahi, Yunes; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba; Najafi, Atabak; Ghaini, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Rajaee, Seyyed Mahdi; Sahebkar, Amirhossein
Magnesium (Mg) has been developed as a drug with various clinical uses. Mg is a key cation in physiological processes, and the homeostasis of this cation is crucial for the normal function of body organs. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is a mineral pharmaceutical preparation of magnesium that is used as a neuroprotective agent. One rationale for the frequent use of MgSO4 in critical care is the high incidence of hypomagnesaemia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Correction of hypomagnesaemia along with the neuroprotective properties of MgSO4 has generated a wide application for MgSO4 in ICU. PMID:28694751
Sutton, Robert M; Morgan, Ryan W; Kilbaugh, Todd J; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Berg, Robert A
Approximately 5000 to 10,000 children suffer an in-hospital cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) each year in the United States. Importantly, 2% to 6% of all children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) receive CPR, as do 4% to 6% of children admitted to pediatric cardiac ICUs. Survival from pediatric ICU cardiac arrest has improved substantially during the past 20 years presumably due to improved training methods, CPR quality, and post-resuscitation care. Extracorporeal life support CPR remains an important treatment option for both cardiac and noncardiac ICU patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Busato, André; Matter, Pius; Künzi, Beat
Background Questions about the existence of supplier-induced demand emerge repeatedly in discussions about governing Swiss health care. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the interrelationship between structural factors of supply and the volume of services that are provided by primary care physicians in Switzerland. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional investigation, based on the complete claims data from all Swiss health care insurers for the year 2004, which covered information from 6087 primary care physicians and 4.7 million patients. Utilization-based health service areas were constructed and used as spatial units to analyze effects of density of supply. Hierarchical linear models were applied to analyze the data. Results The data showed that, within a service area, a higher density of primary care physicians was associated with higher mortality rates and specialist density but not with treatment intensity in primary care. Higher specialist density was weakly associated with higher mortality rates and with higher treatment intensity density of primary care physicians. Annual physician-level data indicate a disproportionate increase of supplied services irrespective of the size of the number of patients treated during the same year and, even in high volume practices, no rationing but a paradoxical inducement of consultations occurred. The results provide empirical evidence that higher densities of primary care physicians, specialists and the availability of out-patient hospital clinics in a given area are associated with higher volume of supplied services per patient in primary care practices. Analyses stratified by language regions showed differences that emphasize the effect of the cantonal based (fragmented) governance of Swiss health care. Conclusion The study shows high volumes in Swiss primary care and provides evidence that the volume of supply is not driven by medical needs alone. Effects related to the competition for patients
Introduction Competence of nurses is a complex combination of knowledge, function, skills, attitudes, and values. Delivering care for patients in the Intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU) requires nurses’ competences. This study aimed to explain nurses’ competence in the ICCU. Methods This was a qualitative study in which purposive sampling with maximum variation was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 23 participants during 2012–2013. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by using the content-analysis method. Results The main categories were “clinical competence,” comprising subcategories of ‘routine care,’ ‘emergency care,’ ‘care according to patients’ needs,’ ‘care of non-coronary patients’, as well as “professional competence,” comprising ‘personal development,’ ‘teamwork,’ ‘professional ethics,’ and ‘efficacy of nursing education.’ Conclusion The finding of this study revealed dimensions of nursing competence in ICCU. Benefiting from competence leads to improved quality of patient care and satisfaction of patients and nurses and helps elevate nursing profession, improve nursing education, and clinical nursing. PMID:27382450
Twohig, Bridget; Manasia, Anthony; Bassily-Marcus, Adel; Oropello, John; Gayton, Matthew; Gaffney, Christine; Kohli-Seth, Roopa
The experience of critical care is stressful for both patients and their families. This is especially true when patients are not able to make their own care decisions. This article details the creation of a Family Experience Survey in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) to capture and improve overall experience. Kolcaba's "Enhanced Comfort Theory" provided the theoretical basis for question formation, specifically in regards to the four aspects of comfort: "physical," "psycho-spiritual," "sociocultural" and "environmental." Survey results were analyzed in real-time to identify and implement interventions needed for issues raised. Overall, there was a high level of satisfaction reported especially with quality of care provided to patients, communication and availability of nurses and doctors, explanations from staff, inclusion in decision making, the needs of patients being met, quality of care provided to patients and cleanliness of the unit. It was noted that 'N/A' was indicated for cultural needs and spiritual needs, a chaplain now rounds on all patients daily to ensure these services are more consistently offered. In addition, protocols for doctor communication with families, palliative care consults, daily bleach cleaning of high touch areas in patient rooms and nurse-led progressive mobility have been implemented. Enhanced comfort theory enabled the opportunity to identify and provide a more 'broad' approach to care for patients and families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, Sarah; Dale, Jeremy
The majority of children and young people who die in the United Kingdom have pre-existing life-limiting illness. Currently, most such deaths occur in hospital, most frequently within the intensive care environment. To explore the experiences of senior medical and nursing staff regarding the challenges associated with Advance Care Planning in relation to children and young people with life-limiting illnesses in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit environment and opportunities for improvement. Qualitative one-to-one, semi-structured interviews were conducted with Paediatric Intensive Care Unit consultants and senior nurses, to gain rich, contextual data. Thematic content analysis was carried out. UK tertiary referral centre Paediatric Intensive Care Unit. Eight Paediatric Intensive Care Unit consultants and six senior nurses participated. Four main themes emerged: recognition of an illness as 'life-limiting'; Advance Care Planning as a multi-disciplinary, structured process; the value of Advance Care Planning and adverse consequences of inadequate Advance Care Planning. Potential benefits of Advance Care Planning include providing the opportunity to make decisions regarding end-of-life care in a timely fashion and in partnership with patients, where possible, and their families. Barriers to the process include the recognition of the life-limiting nature of an illness and gaining consensus of medical opinion. Organisational improvements towards earlier recognition of life-limiting illness and subsequent Advance Care Planning were recommended, including education and training, as well as the need for wider societal debate. Advance Care Planning for children and young people with life-limiting conditions has the potential to improve care for patients and their families, providing the opportunity to make decisions based on clear information at an appropriate time, and avoid potentially harmful intensive clinical interventions at the end of life. © The Author(s) 2015.
Eilander, Minke; de Wit, Maartje; Rotteveel, Joost; Maas-van Schaaijk, Nienke; Roeleveld-Versteegh, Angelique; Snoek, Frank
Monitoring quality of life (QoL) improves well-being and care satisfaction of adolescents with type 1 diabetes. We set out to evaluate the implementation of the program DAWN (Diabetes Attitudes Wishes and Needs) MIND-Youth (Monitoring Individual Needs in Young People With Diabetes) (DM-Y), in which Dutch adolescents' QoL is assessed with the MIND Youth Questionnaire (MY-Q) and its outcomes are discussed. Successful implementation of DM-Y warrants close study of experienced barriers and facilitators as experienced by diabetes care teams as well as adolescents and parents. The study was conducted in 11 self-selected Dutch pediatric diabetes clinics. A mixed methods approach was used. Ten diabetes teams (26 members) were interviewed; 36 team members, 29 adolescents, and 66 parents completed an online survey. Two of 10 teams successfully implemented DM-Y. Whereas 92% of teams valued DM-Y as a useful addition to routine care, most clinics were not able to continue because of logistical problems (lack of time and manpower). Still, all teams had the ambition to make DM-Y integral part of routine care in the nearby future. Seventy-nine percentage of the parents and 41% of the adolescents appreciated the usage of MY-Q, same percentage of adolescents neutral. DM-Y is highly appreciated by teams, as well as adolescents and parents, but for most clinics it is difficult to implement. More effort should be paid to resolve logistic problems in order to facilitate dissemination of DM-Y in care nationwide. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Koksvik, Gitte Hanssen
The topic of this article is personhood in the case of verbally inexpressive, typically unconscious patients or patients with a low level of lucidity. My aim is to show how personhood is done and undone in a close-knit network of personnel, patients, disease, technology, and treatment, borrowing the concept of enactment as developed by Annemarie Mol. The empirical data are based on grounded ethnographic fieldwork conducted in three separate intensive care units in three European countries: Spain, Norway, and France in the spring of 2014. Four weeks were spent at each site. The method used was participant observations and semi-structured interviews with 24 intensive care unit staff members (9 doctors, 12 nurses, and 3 nurses' aides). © The Author(s) 2015.
Burrows, R C; Hodgson, R E
Medical decision-making is based on the doctrine of informed consent which is, in turn, based on autonomy, which represents one of four pillars of medical ethics, the others being beneficence, non-malfeasance and social justice. Decision-making in intensive care with respect to the withdrawal of treatment, in particular ventilator therapy, is often extremely difficult for patients or their relatives and they would rather not make any decision other than to insist on the maintenance of therapy in spite of sound, reasonable medical advice that such therapy is of no value to the patient. Aside from issues of a dignified death, this is likely to be to the detriment of other patients who might be refused admission to intensive care and thus is counter to the dictates of social justice. Under these circumstances, there would appear to be a need to give authority to the reasonable medical decision to discontinue resuscitation.
Notz, K; Dubb, R; Kaltwasser, A; Hermes, C; Pfeffer, S
Treatment success in hospitals, particularly in intensive care units, is directly tied to quality of structure, process, and outcomes. Technological and medical advancements lead to ever more complex treatment situations with highly specialized tasks in intensive care nursing. Quality criteria that can be used to describe and correctly measure those highly complex multiprofessional situations have only been recently developed and put into practice.In this article, it will be shown how quality in multiprofessional teams can be definded and assessed in daily clinical practice. Core aspects are the choice of a nursing theory, quality assurance measures, and quality management. One possible option of quality assurance is the use of standard operating procedures (SOPs). Quality can ultimately only be achieved if professional groups think beyond their boundaries, minimize errors, and establish and live out instructions and SOPs.
Bequette, B Wayne
Intensive care unit (ICU) blood glucose control algorithms were reviewed and analyzed in the context of linear systems theory and classical feedback control algorithms. Closed-loop performance was illustrated by applying the algorithms in simulation studies using an in silico model of an ICU patient. Steady-state and dynamic input-output analysis was used to provide insight about controller design and potential closed-loop performance. The proportional-integral-derivative, columnar insulin dosing (CID, Glucommander-like), and glucose regulation for intensive care patients (GRIP) algorithms were shown to have similar features and performance. The CID strategy is a time-varying proportional-only controller (no integral action), whereas the GRIP algorithm is a nonlinear controller with integral action. A minor modification to the GRIP algorithm was suggested to improve the closed-loop performance. Recommendations were made to guide control theorists on important ICU control topics worthy of further study.
Kanji, Salmaan; Chant, Clarence
Hypersensitivity reactions are defined as immunologically based adverse reactions to chemicals or medicinal agents. These reactions are common in the intensive care unit and can present as a simple, mildly symptomatic rash or as life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Hypersensitivity reactions have traditionally been classified as types I to IV reactions based on the underlying immune mechanisms, although the clinical relevance of the classification is unclear, and new subtypes to this system have been recently proposed. Given the immunologic and often unpredictable nature of these reactions, avoidance or prevention is not a feasible option. Therefore, management has primarily consisted of withdrawal of potential offending agents, supportive therapy, symptomatic management, and, in some specific examples, targeted pharmacotherapy. This article outlines the background and types of hypersensitivity reactions and provides descriptions and management strategies when applicable to common types of hypersensitivity reactions encountered in the intensive care unit.
Villani, A; Vacca, P; Onofri, A; Cori, M
A rare case of disseminated mucormycosis occurred in a 3-year-old boy suffering from a 4th degree neuroblastoma, treated with chemiotherapy and broad-spectrum antibiotics is reported. The child was admitted in the pediatric intensive care unit after surgical debridement of a wide part of the bowel showing necrosis and vessel thrombosis. After the histological diagnosis of mucormycosis in the gastrointestinal tract and the echographic detection of multiple mycotic localizations in the liver and kidneys, a treatment with high-dose amphotericin B was carried out. At the same time, the occurrence of anaerobiosis and/or acidosis as well as hyperglycemia was avoided in order to prevent the hyphae growth. This therapeutic strategy has been successful in preventing the infection spread, so that after 10 months from the discharge from the intensive care unit the child is in good health and the liver and kidney lesions are unchanged.
Donoso Fuentes, Alejandro; Córdova L, Pablo; Hevia J, Pilar; Arriagada S, Daniela
Given that childhood obesity is an epidemic, the frequency of critically-ill patients who are overweight or obese seen at intensive care units has increased rapidly. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that secretes a number of protein hormones, including leptin, which stands out because it regulates adipose tissue mass. The presence of arterial hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease and chronic kidney disease may become apparent and complicate the course of obese pediatric patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Obesity management is complex and should involve patients, their families and the medical community. It should be coordinated with comprehensive government health policies and implemented in conjunction with a change in cultural context.
"Death as the limit of the natural legal capacity is such a simple natural event that, just as for birth, it is not necessary to exactly determine its elements" declared the legal academic Friedrich Karl von Savigny 150 years ago. However, a stable legal order necessitates clear and if possible simple, catchy objective reference. The clinical concept of death at the point of irreversible cessation of circulation and breathing, in view of the possibilities of modern intensive medical care and the obvious redundant terms "brain death" and "cardiac-circulation death", belongs to the past. Nowadays death is seen in the final cessation of all functions of the complete brain. Death as a legal term must, however, be "functionally" established with respect to the various aims and objectives of the Law. In this article the normative consequences of this distinction for intensive care medicine will be clarified.
Murdoch, Linda J; Cameron, Victoria L
There is overwhelming evidence that medication errors present a risk to patients. This risk is highest in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting and even greater when medications are administered via an infusion pump. Standard pumps will not alert for, or prevent, drug calculation, drug unit, button push, or multiple of ten errors when medication delivery data is inputted. However, the literature suggests that smart pumps programmed with hard (unchangeable) limits can significantly reduce drug errors at the point of administration. Staff at St George's Hospital paediatric ICU wanted to implement an infusion pump system that would be immediately effective in reducing medication errors at the point of administration. This article presents an overview of the relevant literature together with clinical examples from the authors' ICU, which demonstrates their experiences with smart pumps. It is the authors' firm belief that smart infusion technology sets a new minimum safety standard for intensive care.
Kollef, Marin H
Antibiotics are one of the most common therapies administered in the intensive care unit setting. In addition to treating infections, antibiotic use contributes to the emergence of resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, avoiding unnecessary antibiotic use and optimizing the administration of antimicrobial agents will help to improve patient outcomes while minimizing further pressures for resistance. This review will present several strategies aimed at achieving optimal use of antimicrobial agents. It is important to note that each intensive care unit should have a program in place which monitors antibiotic utilization and its effectiveness. Only in this way can the impact of interventions aimed at improving antibiotic use (e.g. antibiotic rotation, de-escalation therapy) be evaluated at the local level. PMID:11511331
Lako, Christiaan J; Rosenau, Pauline
In the Netherlands, current policy opinion emphasizes demand-driven health care. Central to this model is the view, advocated by some Dutch health policy makers, that patients should be encouraged to be aware of and make use of health quality and health outcomes information in making personal health care provider choices. The success of the new health care system in the Netherlands is premised on this being the case. After a literature review and description of the new Dutch health care system, the adequacy of this demand-driven health policy is tested. The data from a July 2005, self-administered questionnaire survey of 409 patients (response rate of 94%) as to how they choose a hospital are presented. Results indicate that most patients did not choose by actively employing available quality and outcome information. They were, rather, referred by their general practitioner. Hospital choice is highly related to the importance a patient attaches to his or her physician's opinion about a hospital. Some patients indicated that their hospital choice was affected by the reputation of the hospital, by the distance they lived from the hospital, etc. but physician's advice was, by far, the most important factor. Policy consequences are important; the assumptions underlying the demand-driven model of patient health provider choice are inadequate to explain the pattern of observed responses. An alternative, more adequate model is required, one that takes into account the patient's confidence in physician referral and advice.
Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Puntillo, Kathleen; Gropper, Michael; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Kitto, Simon; Reeves, Scott
The sustained clinical and policy interest in the United States and worldwide in quality and safety activities initiated by the release of To Err Is Human has resulted in some high-profile successes and much disappointment. Despite the energy and good intentions poured into developing new protocols and redesigning technical systems, successes have been few and far between, leading some to argue that more attention should be given to the context of care. To examine the insights provided by qualitative studies of interprofessional care delivery in intensive care. A total of 532 article abstracts were reviewed. Of these, 24 met the inclusion criteria. Articles focused on the nurse-physician relationship, patient safety, patients' families and end-of-life care, and learning and cognition. The findings indicated the complexities and nuances of interprofessional life in intensive care and also that much needs to be learned about team processes. The fundamental insight that interprofessional interactions in intensive care do not happen in a historical, social, and technological vacuum must be brought to bear on future research in intensive care if patient safety and quality of care are to be improved.
Galván, María Eugenia; Vassallo, Juan C; Rodríguez, Susana P; Otero, Paula; Montonati, María Mercedes; Cardigni, Gustavo; Buamscha, Daniel G; Rufach, Daniel; Santos, Silvia; Moreno, Rodolfo P; Sarli, Mariam
There is currently a deficiency of physicians in pediatric intensive care units (PICU). The cause of this deficit is multifactorial, although the burnout phenomenon has been described as relevant. To analyze the situation of human resource in the pediatric intensive care units in Argentina and measure the level of burnout. An observational cross-sectional study through surveys administered electronically; the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used. Physicians that work at public o private pediatric intensive care units in Argentina during at least 24 hours per week were invited to participate. A total of 162 surveys were completed (response rate 60%). We observed a high risk of burnout in emotional exhaustion in 40 therapists (25%), in fulfillment in 9 (6%), and depersonalization in 31 (19%). In combination, 66 professionals (41%) had a high risk of burnout to some extent; there were independent protective factors of this risk as to be certified in the specialty (ORA 0.38, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.75) and work in public sector PICU (ORA 0.31, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.65), while working more than 36 hours/week on duty increased the risk (ORA 1.94, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.85). Additionally, 31% said that they did not plan to continue working in intensive care, and 86% did not think to continue with on call duties in the following years. Over 60% of respondents reported that changes in professional practice (salary, staff positions, early retirement, fewer loads on call) could prolong the expectation of continuing activities in PICU. A significant percentage of doctors working in the PICU of Argentina have a high risk of burnout syndrome and a low expectation of continuing in the field.
de Jesus, Fábio Santos; Paim, Daniel de Macedo; Brito, Juliana de Oliveira; Barros, Idiel de Araujo; Nogueira, Thiago Barbosa; Martinez, Bruno Prata; Pires, Thiago Queiroz
Objective To evaluate the variation in mobility during hospitalization in an intensive care unit and its association with hospital mortality. Methods This prospective study was conducted in an intensive care unit. The inclusion criteria included patients admitted with an independence score of ≥ 4 for both bed-chair transfer and locomotion, with the score based on the Functional Independence Measure. Patients with cardiac arrest and/or those who died during hospitalization were excluded. To measure the loss of mobility, the value obtained at discharge was calculated and subtracted from the value obtained on admission, which was then divided by the admission score and recorded as a percentage. Results The comparison of these two variables indicated that the loss of mobility during hospitalization was 14.3% (p < 0.001). Loss of mobility was greater in patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours in the intensive care unit (p < 0.02) and in patients who used vasopressor drugs (p = 0.041). However, the comparison between subjects aged 60 years or older and those younger than 60 years indicated no significant differences in the loss of mobility (p = 0.332), reason for hospitalization (p = 0.265), SAPS 3 score (p = 0.224), use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.117), or hospital mortality (p = 0.063). Conclusion There was loss of mobility during hospitalization in the intensive care unit. This loss was greater in patients who were hospitalized for more than 48 hours and in those who used vasopressors; however, the causal and prognostic factors associated with this decline need to be elucidated. PMID:27410406
Wallen, Karen; Chaboyer, Wendy; Thalib, Lukman; Creedy, Debra K
Admission to intensive care is often a sudden and unexpected event precipitated by a life-threatening condition, 2 determinants thought to influence the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. To identify the frequency of acute symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and to describe factors predictive of these symptoms in patients 1 month after discharge from intensive care. In this prospective cohort study, all patients meeting the inclusion criteria during the study period were invited to participate. Participants completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and demographic and clinical data were accessed from an intensive care unit database. During a 9-month period, 114 of 137 patients who met the inclusion criteria consented to participate in the study, and 100 (88%) completed it. The mean total score on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised was 17.8 (SD, 13.4; possible range, 0-88). A total of 13 participants (13%) scored higher than the cutoff score for clinical posttraumatic stress disorder. Neither sex nor length of stay was predictive of acute symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In multivariate analysis, the only independent predictor of symptoms was age. Patients younger than 65 years were 5.6 times (95% confidence interval, 1.17-26.89) more likely than those 65 years and older to report symptoms. The rate of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder 1 month after discharge from intensive care was relatively low. Consistent with findings of previous research, being younger than 65 years was the only independent predictor of symptoms.
Peñuelas, Oscar; Muriel, Alfonso; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Fan, Eddy; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Rios, Fernando; Nin, Nicolás; Thille, Arnaud W; González, Marco; Villagomez, Asisclo J; Davies, Andrew R; Du, Bin; Maggiore, Salvatore M; Matamis, Dimitrios; Abroug, Fekri; Moreno, Rui P; Kuiper, Michael A; Anzueto, Antonio; Ferguson, Niall D; Esteban, Andrés
Intensive care unit-acquired paresis (ICUAP) is associated with poor outcomes. Our objective was to evaluate predictors for ICUAP and the short-term outcomes associated with this condition. A secondary analysis of a prospective study including 4157 mechanically ventilated adults in 494 intensive care units from 39 countries. After sedative interruption, patients were screened for ICUAP daily, which was defined as the presence of symmetric and flaccid quadriparesis associated with decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes. A multinomial logistic regression was used to create a predictive model for ICUAP. Propensity score matching was used to estimate the relationship between ICUAP and short-term outcomes (ie, weaning failure and intensive care unit [ICU] mortality). Overall, 114 (3%) patients had ICUAP. Variables associated with ICUAP were duration of mechanical ventilation (relative risk ratio [RRR] per day, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.12), steroid therapy (RRR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8), insulin therapy (RRR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.7), sepsis (RRR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2 to 2.9), acute renal failure (RRR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-3.3), and hematological failure (RRR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9). Coefficients were used to generate a weighted scoring system to predict ICUAP. ICUAP was significantly associated with both weaning failure (paired rate difference of 22.1%; 95% CI 9.8-31.6%) and ICU mortality (paired rate difference 10.5%; 95% CI 0.1-24.0%). Intensive care unit-acquired paresis is relatively uncommon but is significantly associated with weaning failure and ICU mortality. We constructed a weighted scoring system, with good discrimination, to predict ICUAP in mechanically ventilated patients at the time of awakening. © The Author(s) 2016.
Pulak, Lisa M; Jensen, Louise
Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are susceptible to sleep deprivation. Disrupted sleep is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the critically ill patients. The etiology of sleep disruption is multifactorial. The article reviews the literature on sleep in the ICU, the effects of sleep deprivation, and strategies to promote sleep in the ICU. Until the impact of disrupted sleep is better explained, it is appropriate to provide critically ill patients with consolidated, restorative sleep. © The Author(s) 2014.
The approach to achieving and maintaining nutritional support in pediatric intensive care unit patients continues to evolve with newer techniques such as transpyloric feeding. We reviewed our transpylorically fed patients over a 4-year period and found that we achieved adequate nutritional support in 96% of them. We did find an increase in necrotizing enterocolitis in cyanotic patients and recommend that these patients be fed with caution when transpyloric feeding is used.
Bach, Harold H; Wang, Norby; Eberhardt, Joshua M
Although anorectal disorders such as abscess, fissure, and hemorrhoids are typically outpatient problems, they also occur in the critically ill patient population, where their presentation and management are more difficult. This article will provide a brief review of anorectal anatomy, explain the proper anorectal examination, and discuss the current understanding and treatment concepts with regard to the most common anorectal disorders that the intensive care unit clinician is likely to face.
Michels, G; Breitkreutz, R; Pfister, R
Lung ultrasound has traditionally been limited to evaluation of pleural effusion and as guidance for thoracocentesis. However, in recent years, thoracic ultrasound became an increasingly valuable diagnostic tool in emergency and intensive care medicine. The relative easy use of bedside examination made chest ultrasonography diagnostic valuable additional tool to be used in any clinical acute context. Various pulmonary diseases like pleural effusion, pulmonary-venous congestion und edema, pneumonia and pneumothorax can be detected very fast under emergency conditions.
Derlon, V; Audibert, G; Barbaud, A; Mertes, P M
Drug reaction with eosinophilia ans systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe medication-induced adverse reaction, which can threaten patient's life. Clinical symptoms and organ failures present wide variability. Furthermore, the latency period is long, so that diagnosis could be a real challenge in the intensive care unit. We report the case of a woman developing a DRESS after neurosurgery complicated by a nosocomial infection.
Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel; Zárate-Coronado, Olivia; Gaxiola-González, Fabiola; Neyoy-Sombra, Venigna
The World Health Organization has established a maximum noise level of 40 decibels (dB) for an intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to compare the noise level in 2 different intensive care units at a tertiary care center. In an cross-sectional design, the maximum noise level was analyzed within the intensive coronary care unit and intensive care unit with a digital meter. A measurement in 4 different points of each room with 5minute intervals for a period of 60minutes were performed at 7:30, 14:30 and 20:30. Average of the observations were compared with descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U. An analysis with Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to average noise. The noise observed in the intensive care unit had an average of 64.77±3.33dB (P=.08); something analogous happened in the coronary intensive care room with an average of 60.20±1.58dB (P=.129). 25% or more of the measurements exceeded up to 20 points the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Noise levels in intensive care wards that were studied exceed the maximum recommended level for a hospital. It is necessary to design and implement actions for greater participation of health personnel in the reduction of ambient noise. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Swetz, Keith M; Mansel, J Keith
Medical advances over the past 50 years have helped countless patients with advanced cardiac disease or who are critically ill in the intensive care unit (ICU), but have added to the ethical complexity of the care provided by clinicians, particularly at the end of life. Palliative care has the primary aim of improving symptom burden, quality of life, and the congruence of the medical plan with a patient's goals of care. This article explores ethical issues encountered in the cardiac ICU, discusses key analyses of these issues, and addresses how palliative care might assist medical teams in approaching these challenges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Graf, J; Pump, S; Maas, W; Stüben, U
Safety is of extraordinary value in commercial aviation. Therefore, sophisticated and complex systems have been developed to ensure safe operation. Within this system, the pilots are of specific concern: they form the human-machine interface and have a special responsibility in controlling and monitoring all aircraft systems. In order to prepare pilots for their challenging task, specific selection of suitable candidates is crucial. In addition, for every commercial pilot regulatory requirements demand a certain number of simulator training sessions and check flights to be completed at prespecified intervals. In contrast, career choice for intensive care medicine most likely depends on personal reasons rather than eligibility or aptitude. In intensive care medicine, auditing, licensing, or mandatory training are largely nonexistent. Although knowledge of risk management and safety culture in aviation can be transferred to the intensive care unit, the diversity of corporate culture and tradition of leadership and training will represent a barrier for the direct transfer of standards or procedures. To accomplish this challenging task, the analysis of appropriate fields of action with regard to structural requirements and the process of change are essential.
Hervé, C; Gaillard, M; Petit, J L; Geni, S; Huguenard, P
From January 1979 to December 1984, 1,272 calls, concerning injured children, aged 11 days to 15 years, justified the intervention of a Mobile Medical Emergency and Intensive Care Service, in the department of "Val-de-Marne" near Paris. Three hundred and twenty-two were very serious trauma children (25%); 45 were in cardiac arrest, and 41 died on the scene of the accident despite the intensive cares delivered by the anesthetists or pediatricians. Two hundred and eighty-one children were hospitalized in an intensive multiple trauma pediatric unit (97 cases) or in a neurosurgical pediatric unit (184 cases). The mode of accident was traffic accident (252), fall (48), fire arms (4), knife wounds (7), hanging or strangulation (9), others (2). They concerned 119 females and 203 males. 126 were multiple trauma children (40%). 37% of these accidents happened between May and July, and 40% occurred between 3 to 6 p.m. The 322 children immediately received medical care but 26% died during their hospitalization (17% in the first 24 hours). Thus mortality rate is 35% (114 cases).
It is clear that current government policy places increasing emphasis on the need for flexible team working. This requires a shared understanding of roles and working practices. However, review of the current literature reveals that such a collaborative working environment has not as yet, been fully achieved. Role definitions and power bases based on traditional and historical boundaries continue to exist. This ethnographic study explores decision making between doctors and nurses in the intensive care environment in order to examine contemporary clinical roles in this clinical specialty. Three intensive care units were selected as field sites and data was collected through participant observation, ethnographic interviews and documentation. A key issue arising in this study is that whilst the nursing role in intensive care has changed, this has had little impact on how clinical decisions are made. Both medical and nursing staff identify conflict during patient management discussions. However, it is predominantly nurses who seek to redress this conflict area through developing specific behaviours for this clinical forum. Using this approach to resolve such team issues has grave implications if the government vision of interdisciplinary team working is to be realised.
Saintrain, Suzanne Vieira; de Oliveira, Juliana Gomes Ramalho; Saintrain, Maria Vieira de Lima; Bruno, Zenilda Vieira; Borges, Juliana Lima Nogueira; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; da Silva Jr, Geraldo Bezerra
Objective To identify factors associated with maternal death in patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a maternal intensive care unit. All medical records of patients admitted from January 2012 to December 2014 were reviewed. Pregnant and puerperal women were included; those with diagnoses of hydatidiform mole, ectopic pregnancy, or anembryonic pregnancy were excluded, as were patients admitted for non-obstetrical reasons. Death and hospital discharge were the outcomes subjected to comparative analysis. Results A total of 373 patients aged 13 to 45 years were included. The causes for admission to the intensive care unit were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, followed by heart disease, respiratory failure, and sepsis; complications included acute kidney injury (24.1%), hypotension (15.5%), bleeding (10.2%), and sepsis (6.7%). A total of 28 patients died (7.5%). Causes of death were hemorrhagic shock, multiple organ failure, respiratory failure, and sepsis. The independent risk factors associated with death were acute kidney injury (odds ratio [OR] = 6.77), hypotension (OR = 15.08), and respiratory failure (OR = 3.65). Conclusion The frequency of deaths was low. Acute kidney injury, hypotension, and respiratory insufficiency were independent risk factors for maternal death. PMID:28099637
Living in a multicultural society is characterized by different attitudes caused by a variety of religions and cultures. In intensive care medicine such a variety of cultural aspects with respect to pain, shame, bodiliness, dying and death is of importance in this scenario. To assess the importance of cultural and religious attitudes in the face of foreignness in intensive care medicine and nursing. Notification of misunderstandings and misinterpretations in communication and actions. An analysis of the scientific literature was carried out and typical intercultural conflict burden situations regarding the management of brain death, organ donation and end of life decisions are depicted. Specific attitudes are found in various religions or cultures regarding the change of a therapeutic target, the value of the patient's living will and the organization of rituals for dying. Intercultural conflicts are mostly due to misunderstandings, assessment differences, discrimination and differences in values. Intercultural competence is crucial in intensive care medicine and includes knowledge of social and cultural influences of different attitudes on health and illness, the abstraction from own attitudes and the acceptance of other or foreign attitudes.
Hajdú, Edit; Benko, Ria; Matuz, Mária; Peto, Zoltán; Hegedus, Agnes; Soós, Gyöngyvér; Bogár, Lajos; Nagy, Erzsébet
For the effective treatment of patients with infectious diseases in intensive care units, reliable microbiological diagnoses and correct evaluations of results by expert infectious disease specialists/microbiologists are indispensable. A 97-question survey was conducted about the antibiotic policy, the available background of the microbiological diagnoses and the consultation possibilities in infectious diseases/microbiology at intensive care units in Hungary. Sixty-two percent (60/96) of questionnaires were returned. Of these units, 55% had a microbiological laboratory in-house. Microbiological reports usually serve as basis for the choice of antibiotic treatment. It is an undesirable practice that during working days and during week-ends the proportions of positive microbiological reports sent back to the wards within the optimal time are only 50% and <20%, respectively. Helpful opinion of an expert infectious disease specialist or microbiologist was available in >90% of the cases during working hours, while out of working hours the help of an infectious disease specialist and a microbiologist specialist was available in 70% and 55% of the cases, respectively. Almost half of the units requested the help of an infectious disease specialist whereas only one-third of them turned to a microbiologist. Accordingly, the background for microbiological laboratory diagnoses available for intensive care units is far from optimal in Hungary and is not adequately stipulated in their working conditions.
Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo; Lima, Natalia Pontes; Cardim, Gregorio Marques; Park, Marcelo; Denehy, Linda
To characterize the provision of early mobilization therapy in critically ill patients in a Brazilian medical intensive care unit (ICU) and to investigate the relationship between physical activity level and clinical outcomes. Intensive care unit and physiotherapy data were collected retrospectively from 275 consecutive patients. Here we report on the subset of patients (n = 120) who were mechanically ventilated during their ICU stay (age, 49 ± 18 years; Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3, 45 ). Median (interquartile range) time of mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay were 3 (4) and 8 (10) days, respectively. Intensive care unit and 1-year mortality were 31% and 50%, respectively. During the ICU stay, these patients all received respiratory physiotherapy and 90% (n = 108) received mobilization therapy. When intubated and ventilated, mobilization therapy was performed in 76% (n = 92) of the patients with no adverse events. The most common activity was in-bed exercises (55%), and the number of out-of-bed activities (sitting out of bed, standing, or walking) was small (29%) and more prevalent in patients with tracheostomy than with an endotracheal tube (27% × 2%, respectively). In our Brazilian ICU, mobilization therapy in critically ill patients was safe and feasible; however, similar to other countries, in-bed exercises were the most prevalent activity. During mechanical ventilation, only a small percentage of activities involved standing or mobilizing away from the bed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Veenith, Tonny; Ganeshamoorthy, Sangeetha; Standley, Thomas; Carter, Joseph; Young, Peter
Background and methods Tracheostomy is a common procedure in intensive care patient management. The aim of this study was to capture the practice of tracheostomy in Intensive Care Units in the United Kingdom. A postal survey was sent to the lead clinicians of 228 general intensive care units (ICUs) throughout the United Kingdom excluding specialist units. We aimed to identify the current practice of tracheostomy, including timing of insertion, equipment used and post-operative care and follow-up. Results A response rate of 86.84% was achieved. Percutaneous tracheostomy continues to be favoured over surgical tracheostomy with less than 8% of ICUs opting for surgical tracheostomies > 50% of the time. 89% of units required only 2 operators to perform the technique and single stage dilatation is the technique of choice in 83% of units. The Ciaglia technique, which was strongly favoured less than a decade ago, is currently practiced in less than 5% of ICUs. Bronchoscopic guidance is an important adjunct to the technique of percutaneous tracheostomy with 80% of units using it routinely. Follow-up care of patients remains poor with 59% of ICUs not having routine follow-up once the patient has left the unit. Conclusion The practice of percutaneous tracheostomy remains the preferred technique within the UK. There seems to be a growing preference for single stage dilatational techniques. Timing of tracheostomy remains variable despite evidence to suggest benefit from an earlier procedure. Follow-up of tracheostomised patients after discharge from ICU is still low, which may mean significant morbidity from the procedure is being missed. PMID:18950520
Rensen, Ans; van Mol, Margo M; Menheere, Ilse; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Verhoogt, Ellen; Maris, Bea; Manders, Willeke; Vloet, Lilian; Verharen, Lisbeth
The quality standards of the Dutch Society of Intensive Care require monitoring of the satisfaction of patient's relatives with respect to care. Currently, no suitable instrument is available in the Netherlands to measure this. This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire-based Consumer Quality Index 'Relatives in Intensive Care Unit' (CQI 'R-ICU'). The CQI 'R-ICU' measures the perceived quality of care from the perspective of patients' relatives, and identifies aspects of care that need improvement. The CQI 'R-ICU' was developed using a mixed method design. Items were based on quality of care aspects from earlier studies and from focus group interviews with patients' relatives. The time period for the data collection of the psychometric evaluation was from October 2011 until July 2012. Relatives of adult intensive care patients in one university hospital and five general hospitals in the Netherlands were approached to participate. Psychometric evaluation included item analysis, inter-item analysis, and factor analysis. Twelve aspects were noted as being indicators of quality of care, and were subsequently selected for the questionnaire's vocabulary. The response rate of patients' relatives was 81% (n = 455). Quality of care was represented by two clusters, each showing a high reliability: 'Communication' (α = .80) and 'Participation' (α = .84). Relatives ranked the following aspects for quality of care as most important: no conflicting information, information from doctors and nurses is comprehensive, and health professionals take patients' relatives seriously. The least important care aspects were: need for contact with peers, nuisance, and contact with a spiritual counsellor. Aspects that needed the most urgent improvement (highest quality improvement scores) were: information about how relatives can contribute to the care of the patient, information about the use of meal-facilities in the hospital, and
Meier, Paula P; Engstrom, Janet L; Rossman, Beverly
In 2005, the Level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Rush University Medical Center initiated a demonstration project employing breastfeeding peer counselors, former parents of NICU infants, as direct lactation care providers who worked collaboratively with the NICU nurses. This article describes the conceptualization, implementation, and evaluation of this program and provides templates for other NICUs that wish to incorporate breastfeeding peer counselors with the goal of providing quality, evidence-based lactation care.
Mazutti, Sandra Regina Gonzaga; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins
Objective To estimate the incidence of limitations to Advanced Life Support in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit with integrated palliative care. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients in the palliative care program of the intensive care unit of Hospital Paulistano over 18 years of age from May 1, 2011, to January 31, 2014. The limitations to Advanced Life Support that were analyzed included do-not-resuscitate orders, mechanical ventilation, dialysis and vasoactive drugs. Central tendency measures were calculated for quantitative variables. The chi-squared test was used to compare the characteristics of patients with or without limits to Advanced Life Support, and the Wilcoxon test was used to compare length of stay after Advanced Life Support. Confidence intervals reflecting p ≤ 0.05 were considered for statistical significance. Results A total of 3,487 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 342 were included in the palliative care program. It was observed that after entering the palliative care program, it took a median of 2 (1 - 4) days for death to occur in the intensive care unit and 4 (2 - 11) days for hospital death to occur. Many of the limitations to Advanced Life Support (42.7%) took place on the first day of hospitalization. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (96.8%) and ventilatory support (73.6%) were the most adopted limitations. Conclusion The contribution of palliative care integrated into the intensive care unit was important for the practice of orthothanasia, i.e., the non-extension of the life of a critically ill patient by artificial means. PMID:27626949
Yam, B M; Rossiter, J C; Cheung, K Y
Ten registered nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit in Hong Kong were interviewed to explore their experiences of caring for infants whose disease is not responsive to curative treatment, their perceptions of palliative care, and factors influencing their care. Eight categories emerged from the content analysis of the interviews: disbelieving; feeling ambivalent and helpless; protecting emotional self; providing optimal physical care to the infant; providing emotional support to the family; expressing empathy; lack of knowledge and counselling skills; and conflicting values in care. The subtle cultural upbringing and socialization in nurse training and workplace environment also contributed to their moral distress. Hospital and nurse administrators should consider different ways of facilitating palliative care in their acute care settings. For example, by culture-specific death education, peer support groups, bereavement teams, modification of departmental policies, and a supportive work environment. Future research could include the identification of family needs and coping as well as ethical decision-making among nurses.
Helder, Onno K; Verweij, Jos C M; van Staa, AnneLoes
To explore parents' and nurses' experiences with the transition of infants from the neonatal intensive care unit to a special care nursery. Qualitative explorative study in two phases. Level IIID neonatal intensive care unit in a university hospital and special care nurseries (level II) in five community hospitals in the Netherlands. Twenty-one pairs of parents and 18 critical care nurses. Semistructured interviews were used. Thematic analysis and comparison of themes across participants were performed. Trust was a central theme for parents. Three subthemes, related to the chronological stages of transition, were identified: gaining trust; betrayal of trust; and rebuilding confidence. Trust was associated with five other themes: professional attitude; information management; coordination of transfer; different environments; and parent participation. Although nurses at an early stage repeatedly mentioned a possible transition to community hospitals, the actual announcement took many parents by surprise. Parents felt excluded during the actual transfer and most questioned its necessity. In the special care nursery, parents found it difficult to adjust to new routines and to gain trust in new caregivers, but eventually their worries dissolved. In contrast to neonatal intensive care unit nurses, special care nursery nurses quite understood the impact of transition on parents. Both parents and nurses considered present transitional arrangements to be inadequate. Nurses should provide more effective discharge planning and transitional care. A positive labeling of the transition as a first step to home discharge for the newborn seems appropriate. Parents need to be better-informed and should be involved in the planning process.
Duarte, Sabrina da Costa Machado; Queiroz, Ana Beatriz Azevedo; Büscher, Andreas; Stipp, Marluci Andrade Conceição
Objectives: to identify the errors in daily intensive nursing care and analyze them according to the theory of human error. Method: quantitative, descriptive and exploratory study, undertaken at the Intensive Care Center of a hospital in the Brazilian Sentinel Hospital Network. The participants were 36 professionals from the nursing team. The data were collected through semistructured interviews, observation and lexical analysis in the software ALCESTE(r). Results: human error in nursing care can be related to the approach of the system, through active faults and latent conditions. The active faults are represented by the errors in medication administration and not raising the bedside rails. The latent conditions can be related to the communication difficulties in the multiprofessional team, lack of standards and institutional routines and absence of material resources. Conclusion: the errors identified interfere in nursing care and the clients' recovery and can cause damage. Nevertheless, they are treated as common events inherent in daily practice. The need to acknowledge these events is emphasized, stimulating the safety culture at the institution. PMID:26625998
Tahirkheli, Noor N; Cherry, Amanda S; Tackett, Alayna P; McCaffree, Mary Anne; Gillaspy, Stephen R
As the most common complication of childbirth affecting 10%–15% of women, postpartum depression (PPD) goes vastly undetected and untreated, inflicting long-term consequences on both mother and child. Studies consistently show that mothers of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience PPD at higher rates with more elevated symptomatology than mothers of healthy infants. Although there has been increased awareness regarding the overall prevalence of PPD and recognition of the need for health care providers to address this health issue, there has not been adequate attention to PPD in the context of the NICU. This review will focus on an overview of PPD and psychological morbidities, the prevalence of PPD in mothers of infants admitted to NICU, associated risk factors, potential PPD screening measures, promising intervention programs, the role of NICU health care providers in addressing PPD in the NICU, and suggested future research directions. PMID:25473317
Communication in the intensive care unit (ICU) is challenging because of complexity, high patient acuity, uncertainty, and ethical issues. Unfortunately, conflict is common, as several studies and reviews confirm. Three types of communication challenges are found in this setting: those within the ICU team, those between the ICU team and the patient or family, and those within the patient's family. Although specific evidence-based interventions are available for each type of communication challenge, all hinge on clinicians being culturally competent, respectful, and good communicators/listeners. Critical care advanced practice nurses promote a positive team environment, increase patient satisfaction, and model good communication for other clinicians. All advanced practice nurses, however, also need to be adept at having difficult conversations, handling conflict, and providing basic palliative care, including emotional support.
Martins, Júlia Trevisan; Robazzi, Maria Lúicia do Carmo Cruz; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Garanhani, Mara Lúcia; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Lourenço
This study had the aim of understanding the meaning of being a nurse in a management position in Intensive Care Units as well as the feelings coming from this function. Eight nurses from the University Hospital of Parand, Brazil, were interviewed. This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study in which the dejourian theoretical framework was used. The data were gathered from January to March of 2007 through semi-structured interviews, which were then transcribed categorized and subcategorized. The data were analyzed by the analysis of content approach. It was observed that managing means: to provide the patient with care, to manage the nursing assistance as well as the health team. The feelings of pleasure are related to: taking care of the patient, developing team work, the results of the work and the external acknowledgement.
Gay, Elizabeth B.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Bassett, Rick D.; Nelson, Judith E.
The intensive care unit (ICU) family meeting is an important forum for discussion about the patient’s condition, prognosis, and care preferences; for listening to the family’s concerns; and for decision making about appropriate goals of treatment. For patients, families, clinicians, and health care systems, the benefits of early and effective communication through these meetings have been clearly established. Yet, evidence suggests that family meetings still fail to occur in a timely way for most patients in ICUs. In this article, we address the “quality gap” between knowledge and practice with respect to regular implementation of family meetings. We first examine factors that may serve as barriers to family meetings. We then share practical strategies that may be helpful in overcoming some of these barriers. Finally, we describe performance improvement initiatives by ICUs in different parts of the country that have achieved striking successes in making family meetings happen. PMID:19327312
Frey, Bernhard; Argent, Andrew
Neonatal and paediatric intensive care has improved the prognosis for seriously sick infants and children. This has happened because of a pragmatic approach focused on stabilisation of vital functions and immense technological advances in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, the belief that more medical care must inevitably lead to improved health is increasingly being questioned. This issue is especially relevant in developing countries where the introduction of highly specialised paediatric intensive care may not lead to an overall fall in child mortality. Even in developed countries, the complexity and availability of therapeutics and invasive procedures may put seriously ill children at additional risk. In both developing and industrialised countries the use of safe and simple procedures for appropriate periods, particular attention to drug prescription patterns and selection of appropriate aims and modes of therapy, including non-invasive methods, may minimise the risks of paediatric intensive care.
Mattsson, Janet Yvonne; Arman, Maria; Castren, Maaret; Forsner, Maria
When children are critically ill, parents still strive to be present and participate in the care of their child. Pediatric intensive care differs from other realms of pediatric care as the nature of care is technically advanced and rather obstructing than encouraging parental involvement or closeness, either physically or emotionally, with the critically ill child. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of caring in the pediatric intensive care unit from the perspective of parents. The design of this study followed Benner's interpretive phenomenological method. Eleven parents of seven children participated in observations and interviews. The following aspects of caring were illustrated in the themes arising from the findings: being a bridge to the child on the edge, building a sheltered atmosphere, meeting the child's needs, and adapting the environment for family life. The overall impression is that the phenomenon of caring is experienced exclusively when it is directed toward the exposed child. The conclusion drawn is that caring is present when providing expert physical care combined with fulfilling emotional needs and supporting continuing daily parental care for the child in an inviting environment.
Grobben, L M; van Ligtenberg, C L
In the Netherlands audiological care is given at different stages. An attempt is made to screen the hearing of all Dutch babies between the ages of 8 and 12 months. At the age of 4 or over, general audiological care is given by the school medical service; referral is first to a family doctor, who may refer to an otolaryngologist. Curative medical care (examination and therapy) is the province of the family doctor and the otolaryngologist. Otolaryngologists and pediatricians can refer patients to one of 19 Audiological Centers distributed around the country, where a number of workers in different disciplines cooperate for habilitation and rehabilitation. These may include an otolaryngologist in charge, a psychologist, a speech and hearing therapist, an audiologist (usually a physicist or university-trained engineer), social worker, technician, ortho-pedagogue, audiology assistant, and teacher. There are at the moment 25 schools for the hard of hearing and 5 institutes for the deaf. These are often found in conjunction with Audiological Centers, the latter providing paramedical assistance to the pupils by agreement. Finally, the Dutch Organization for Preventive Medicine works to prevent hearing loss in noisy industries.
Jochems, Anouk; Schouwenburg, Maartje G; Leeneman, Brenda; Franken, Margreet G; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M; Haanen, John B A G; Gelderblom, Hans; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A; Aarts, Maureen J B; van den Berkmortel, Franchette W P J; Blokx, Willeke A M; Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C; Groenewegen, Gerard; de Groot, Jan Willem B; Hospers, Geke A P; Kapiteijn, Ellen; Koornstra, Rutger H; Kruit, Wim H; Louwman, Marieke W; Piersma, Djura; van Rijn, Rozemarijn S; Ten Tije, Albert J; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; Wouters, Michel W J M; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J M
In recent years, the treatment of metastatic melanoma has changed dramatically due to the development of immune checkpoint and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors. A population-based registry, the Dutch Melanoma Treatment Registry (DMTR), was set up in July 2013 to assure the safety and quality of melanoma care in the Netherlands. This article describes the design and objectives of the DMTR and presents some results of the first 2 years of registration. The DMTR documents detailed information on all Dutch patients with unresectable stage IIIc or IV melanoma. This includes tumour and patient characteristics, treatment patterns, clinical outcomes, quality of life, healthcare utilisation, informal care and productivity losses. These data are used for clinical auditing, increasing the transparency of melanoma care, providing insights into real-world cost-effectiveness and creating a platform for research. Within 1 year, all melanoma centres were participating in the DMTR. The quality performance indicators demonstrated that the BRAF inhibitors and ipilimumab have been safely introduced in the Netherlands with toxicity rates that were consistent with the phase III trials conducted. The median overall survival of patients treated with systemic therapy was 10.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.1-11.1) in the first registration year and 12.7 months (95% CI 11.6-13.7) in the second year. The DMTR is the first comprehensive multipurpose nationwide registry and its collaboration with all stakeholders involved in melanoma care reflects an integrative view of cancer management. In future, the DMTR will provide insights into challenging questions regarding the definition of possible subsets of patients who benefit most from the new drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sassmannshausen, Ricarda; Deurenberg, Ruud H.; Köck, Robin; Hendrix, Ron; Jurke, Annette; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.
Preventing the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in healthcare facilities is a major infection control target. However, only a few studies have assessed the potential role of healthcare workers (HCWs) for MRSA dissemination. To investigate the MRSA prevalence and the risk factors for MRSA colonization among HCWs, nasopharyngeal swabs were taken between June 2010 and January 2011 from 726 employees from nine acute care hospitals with different care levels within the German part of a Dutch-German border region (EUREGIO). The isolated MRSA strains were investigated using spa typing. The overall MRSA prevalence among HCWs in a non-outbreak situation was 4.6% (33 of 726), and was higher in nurses (5.6%, 29 of 514) than in physicians (1.2%, 1 of 83). Possible risk factors associated with MRSA colonization were a known history of MRSA carriage and the presence of acne. Intensive contact with patients may facilitate MRSA transmission between patients and HCWs. Furthermore, an accumulation of risk factors was accompanied by an increased MRSA prevalence in HCW. PMID:27597843
Zuliani, Larissa Lenotti; Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; de Castro, Liliana Cristina; Soler, Zaida Aurora Sperli Geraldes
Cost management of hospital material resources is a trendy research topic, especially in specialized health units. Nurses are pointed out as the main managers for costs and consumption of hospital materials resources. This study aimed to characterize Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive Care Units of a teaching hospital and investigate costs and consumption of material resources used to treat patients admitted to these units. This is a descriptive exploratory study with retrospective data and quantitative approach. Data were obtained from a Hospital Information System and analyzed according to the ABC classification. The average expenditures were similar in both the neonatal and cardiac units, and lower in Pediatric Intensive and Semi-Intensive care units. There was a significant variation in the monthly consumption of materials. Higher cost materials had a greater impact on the budget of the studied units. The data revealed the importance of using a systematic method for the analysis of materials consumption and expenditure in pediatric units. They subsidize administrative and economic actions.
Sommers, Juultje; Engelbert, Raoul HH; Dettling-Ihnenfeldt, Daniela; Gosselink, Rik; Spronk, Peter E; Nollet, Frans; van der Schaaf, Marike
Objective: To develop evidence-based recommendations for effective and safe diagnostic assessment and intervention strategies for the physiotherapy treatment of patients in intensive care units. Methods: We used the EBRO method, as recommended by the ‘Dutch Evidence Based Guideline Development Platform’ to develop an ‘evidence statement for physiotherapy in the intensive care unit’. This method consists of the identification of clinically relevant questions, followed by a systematic literature search, and summary of the evidence with final recommendations being moderated by feedback from experts. Results: Three relevant clinical domains were identified by experts: criteria to initiate treatment; measures to assess patients; evidence for effectiveness of treatments. In a systematic literature search, 129 relevant studies were identified and assessed for methodological quality and classified according to the level of evidence. The final evidence statement consisted of recommendations on eight absolute and four relative contra-indications to mobilization; a core set of nine specific instruments to assess impairments and activity restrictions; and six passive and four active effective interventions, with advice on (a) physiological measures to observe during treatment (with stopping criteria) and (b) what to record after the treatment. Conclusions: These recommendations form a protocol for treating people in an intensive care unit, based on best available evidence in mid-2014. PMID:25681407
Sommers, Juultje; Engelbert, Raoul H H; Dettling-Ihnenfeldt, Daniela; Gosselink, Rik; Spronk, Peter E; Nollet, Frans; van der Schaaf, Marike
To develop evidence-based recommendations for effective and safe diagnostic assessment and intervention strategies for the physiotherapy treatment of patients in intensive care units. We used the EBRO method, as recommended by the 'Dutch Evidence Based Guideline Development Platform' to develop an 'evidence statement for physiotherapy in the intensive care unit'. This method consists of the identification of clinically relevant questions, followed by a systematic literature search, and summary of the evidence with final recommendations being moderated by feedback from experts. Three relevant clinical domains were identified by experts: criteria to initiate treatment; measures to assess patients; evidence for effectiveness of treatments. In a systematic literature search, 129 relevant studies were identified and assessed for methodological quality and classified according to the level of evidence. The final evidence statement consisted of recommendations on eight absolute and four relative contra-indications to mobilization; a core set of nine specific instruments to assess impairments and activity restrictions; and six passive and four active effective interventions, with advice on (a) physiological measures to observe during treatment (with stopping criteria) and (b) what to record after the treatment. These recommendations form a protocol for treating people in an intensive care unit, based on best available evidence in mid-2014. © The Author(s) 2015.
Tubbs-Cooley, Heather L; Pickler, Rita H; Mara, Constance A; Othman, Mohammad; Kovacs, Allison; Mark, Barbara A
Missed nursing care is an emerging measure of front-line nursing care effectiveness in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Given Magnet® hospitals' reputations for nursing care quality, missed care comparisons with non-Magnet® hospitals may yield insights about how Magnet® designation influences patient outcomes. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the relationship between hospital Magnet® designation and 1) the occurrence of nurse-reported missed care and 2) reasons for missed nursing care between NICU nurses employed in Magnet® and non-Magnet® hospitals. A random sample of certified neonatal intensive care unit nurses was invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey in 2012; data were analyzed from nurses who provided direct patient care (n=230). Logistic regression was used to model relationships between Magnet® designation and reports of the occurrence of and reasons for missed care while controlling for nurse and shift characteristics. There was no relationship between Magnet® designation and missed care occurrence for 34 of 35 types of care. Nurses in Magnet® hospitals were significantly less likely to report tensions and communication breakdowns with other staff, lack of familiarity with policies/procedures, and lack of back-up support from team members as reasons for missed care. Missed nursing care in NICUs occurs regardless of hospital Magnet® recognition. However, nurses' reasons for missed care systematically differ in Magnet® and non-Magnet® hospitals and these differences merit further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cuzco Cabellos, C; Guasch Pomés, N
Assess whether the use of the nursing care plans improves outcomes of nursing care to patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The study was conducted in a University Hospital of Barcelona in Spain, using a pre- and post-study design. A total of 61 patient records were analysed in the pre-intervention group. A care plan was applied to 55 patients in the post-intervention group. Specific quality indicators in a medical intensive care unit to assess the clinical practice of nursing were used. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the degree of association between quality indicators in the two groups. A total of 116 records of 121 patients were evaluated: 61 pre-intervention and 55 post-intervention. Fisher test: The filling of nursing records, p=.0003. Checking cardiorespiratory arrest equipment, p <.001. Central vascular catheter related bacteraemia (B-CVC) p=.622. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) p=.1000. Elevation of the head of the bed more than 30° p=.049, and the pain management in non-sedated patients p=.082. The implementation of nursing care plans in patients admitted to the intensive care area may contribute to improvement in the outcomes of nursing care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.
Albaqawi, Hamdan M.; Butcon, Vincent R.; Molina, Roger R.
Objectives: To examine awareness of holistic patient care by staff nurses in the intensive care units of hospitals in the city of Hail, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A quantitative correlational study design was used to investigate relationships between intensive care nurse’s awareness of holistic practices and nurses’ latest performance review. Intensive care staff nurses (n=99) from 4 public sector hospitals in Hail were surveyed on their awareness of variables across 5 holistic domains: physiological, sociocultural, psychological, developmental, and spiritual. Data were collected between October and December 2015 using written survey, and performance evaluations obtained from the hospital administrations. Results were statistically analyzed and compared (numerical, percentage, Pearson’s correlation, Chronbach’s alpha). Results: The ICU staff nurses in Hail City were aware of the secular aspects of holistic care, and the majority had very good performance evaluations. There were no demographic trends regarding holistic awareness and nurse performance. Further, awareness of holistic care was not associated with nurse performance. Conclusion: A caring-enhancement workshop and a mentoring program for non-Saudi nurses may increase holistic care awareness and enhance its practice in the ICUs. PMID:28762435
Goss, Linda K; Coty, Mary-Beth; Myers, John A
Oral care is recognized as an essential component of care for critically ill patients and nursing documentation provides evidence of this process. This study examined the practice and frequency of oral care among mechanically ventilated and nonventilated patients. A retrospective record review was conducted of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) between July 1, 2007 and December 31, 2007. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses to determine the variables related to patients receiving oral care. Frequency of oral care documentation was found to be performed, on average, every 3.17 to 3.51 hr with a range of 1 to 8 hr suggesting inconsistencies in nursing practice. This study found that although oral care is a Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendation for the prevention of hospital-associated infections like ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), indication of documentation of the specifics are lacking in the patients' medical record.
Gillett, G R
There are widely acknowledged ethical issues in enrolling unconscious patients in research trials, particularly in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. An analysis of those issues shows that, by and large, patients are better served in units where research is actively taking place for several reasons: i) they do not fall prey to therapeutic prejudices without clear evidential support, ii) they get a chance of accessing new and potentially beneficial treatments, iii) a climate of careful monitoring of patients and their clinical progress is necessary for good clinical research and affects the care of all patients and iv) even those not in the treatment arm of a trial of a new intervention must receive best current standard care (according to international evidence-based treatment guidelines). Given that we have discovered a number of 'best practice' regimens of care that do not optimise outcomes in ICU settings, it is of great benefit to all patients (including those participating in research) that we are constantly updating and evaluating what we do. Therefore, the practice of ICU-based clinical research on patients, many of whom cannot give prospective informed consent, ticks all the ethical boxes and ought to be encouraged in our health system. It is very important that the evaluation of protocols for ICU research should not overlook obvious (albeit probabilistic) benefits to patients and the acceptability of responsible clinicians entering patients into well-designed trials, even though the ICU setting does not and cannot conform to typical informed consent procedures and requirements.
Broer, J; Koetsier, H; Mulder, C L
Since the introduction of the new Dutch law on compulsory mental health care, the Bopz, there has been a marked increase in the number of compulsory admissions in mental health care in the Netherlands. When the new law underwent its third evaluation in 2002, it was decided that the law no longer reflected current views on the admission policy in mental health care. The draft on a new law on compulsory admissions to mental health care has already been published. One of the goals of the new law is to reduce the number of compulsory hospital admissions and to ensure that patients with mental health problems receive compulsory community care and outpatient care. To describe and analyse the use of compulsory admissions and community treatment orders (CTOs), and to make recommendations. We analyse the number of CTOs and court-ordered admissions in the Netherlands between 2003 and 2013 on the basis of figures supplied by the Council for the Judiciary. In the period 2003-2013 the number of compulsory emergency admissions increased from 43 to 47 per 100,000 inhabitants. During the same period the number of court-ordered admissions rose from 44 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2003 to 89 per 100,000 in 2013. (These figures include CTOs.) We were unable to perform more detailed studies because of the lack of records giving, for instance, the characteristics of patients who have undergone compulsory admission. Emergency compulsory admissions, CTOs and court-ordered admissions to mental health care continued to rise in the period 2003-2013. There is an urgent need for more detailed registration of the type an duration of compulsory admissions to psychiatric care and for more research into the type of treatment that can prevent the use of coercion to mental health care.
Koulouras, Vasilios; Konstanti, Zoe; Lepida, Dimitra; Papathanakos, Georgios; Gouva, Mary
To investigate the levels of internal and external shame among family members of critically ill patients. This prospective study was conducted in 2012/2013 on family members of Intensive Care Unit patients using the Others As Shamer Scale and the Experiential Shame Scale questionnaires. Greek university hospital. Two hundred and twenty-three family members mean-aged (41.5±11.9) were studied, corresponding to 147 ICU patients. Out of these 223, 81 (36.3%) were men and 142 (63.7%) were women, while 79 (35.4%) lived with the patient. Family members who lived with the patient experienced higher internal and external shame compared to those who did not live with the patient (p=0.046 and p=0.028 respectively). Elementary and Junior High School graduates scored significantly higher than the other grades graduates in total Others As Shamer Scale, inferiority and emptiness scale (p<0.001). Intensive Care Unit patients' family members are prone to shame feelings, especially when being of low educational level. Health professionals have to take into consideration the possible implications for the patients and their care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Slama, Michel; Cholley, Bernard; Janvier, Gérard; Vignon, Philippe
Over recent decades, echocardiography has become a pivotal diagnostic tool for the assessment of patients with hemodynamic compromise in general intensive care units (ICUs). In addition to its imaging capability, echocardiography provides a detailed cardiovascular assessment, based on the combination of real-time two-dimensional evaluation of cardiac structure and function and hemodynamic information provided by Doppler measurement of blood flow velocity. However, despite its ease of use, portability and accuracy, the diffusion of echocardiography among ICUs has been limited by various factors. We discuss here the main reasons for the slow acceptance by the critical care community of echocardiography as a first-line diagnostic tool for the evaluation of hemodynamically unstable patients. One of these reasons is probably the absence, in most countries, of a training program in echocardiography specifically dedicated to intensivists. We report recent French experience in the organization of specific echocardiographic certification aimed at intensivists and anesthesiologists. We strongly believe that a broader use of echocardiography would be beneficial in terms of diagnostic capability and patient management. Therefore, we would like to involve colleagues from other countries and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine in defining the objectives of echocardiography training for intensivists and in organizing postgraduate courses and training programs aimed at developing the use of echocardiography in ICUs. This would allow the current "evolution" in mentalities to become a true "revolution" in our daily practice.
Danis, Marion; Iapichino, Gaetano; Artigas, Antonio; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Moreno, Rui; Lippert, Anne; Curtis, J. Randall; Meale, Paula; Cohen, Simon L.; Levy, Mitchell M.; Truog, Robert D.
Rationale Intensive care unit (ICU) resources are limited in many hospitals. Patients with little likelihood of surviving are often admitted to ICUs. Others who might benefit from ICU are not admitted. Objective To provide an updated consensus statement on the principles and recommendations for the triage of patients for ICU beds. Design The previous Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) consensus statement was used to develop drafts of general and specific principles and recommendations. Investigators and consultants were sent the statements and responded with their agreement or disagreement. Setting The Eldicus project (triage decision making for the elderly in European intensive care units). Participants Eldicus investigators, consultants, and experts consisting of intensivists, users of ICU services, ethicists, administrators, and public policy officials. Interventions Consensus development was used to grade the statements and recommendations. Measurements and main results Consensus was defined as 80 % agreement or more. Consensus was obtained for 54 (87 %) of 62 statements including all (19) general principles, 31 (86 %) of the specific principles, and 10 (71 %) of the recommendations. Inconsistencies in responses were noted for ICU admission and discharge. Despite agreement for guidelines applying to individual patients and an objective triage score, there was no agreement for a survival cutoff for triage, not even for a chance of survival of 0.1 %. Conclusions Consensus was reached for most general and specific ICU triage principles and recommendations. Further debate and discussion should help resolve the remaining discrepancies. PMID:23925544
Coustasse, Alberto; Deslich, Stacie; Bailey, Deanna; Hairston, Alesia; Paul, David
Objectives: A tele-intensive care unit (tele-ICU) uses telemedicine in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting, applying technology to provide care to critically ill patients by off-site clinical resources. The purpose of this review was to examine the implementation, adoption, and utilization of tele-ICU systems by hospitals to determine their efficiency and efficacy as identified by cost savings and patient outcomes. Methods: This literature review examined a large number of studies of implementation of tele-ICU systems in hospitals. Results: The evidence supporting cost savings was mixed. Implementation of a tele-ICU system was associated with cost savings, shorter lengths of stay, and decreased mortality. However, two studies suggested increased hospital cost after implementation of tele-ICUs is initially expensive but eventually results in cost savings and better clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Intensivists working these systems are able to more effectively treat ICU patients, providing better clinical outcomes for patients at lower costs compared with hospitals without a tele-ICU. PMID:25662529
Huang, Yu-Chen; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Ko, Wen-Je
To better understand events related to going home to die (GHTD) from the intensive care unit (ICU), with the hope that this information might improve the palliative care of ICU patients. This retrospective observational study was performed at a tertiary medical center-the National Taiwan University Hospital. All surgical ICU mortality cases between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2007 were included in this study. The rate of GHTD from the ICU declined annually, but has reached a plateau of around 25% in recent years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found independently significant factors associated with GHTD, including older age (OR: 1.013; P = 0.001), married status (OR: 2.128; P < 0.001), lower educational level (OR: 1.799; P = 0.001), and lack of DNR consent (OR: 1.499; P = 0.006). When treatment intensity was compared on the date of death, GHTD patients in general received more treatments and diagnostic procedures than those who died in the ICU. Univariate analysis showed that GHTD patients received significantly more advanced antibiotics, more chest radiography, greater use of sedatives, greater use of analgesics, and more transfusions, but less FiO(2) and mechanical circulatory support than patients who died in the ICU. CO NCLUSION: GHTD from the ICU is a special phenomenon in the Chinese cultural area, representing a cultural tradition rather than a form of palliative care.
Coustasse, Alberto; Deslich, Stacie; Bailey, Deanna; Hairston, Alesia; Paul, David
A tele-intensive care unit (tele-ICU) uses telemedicine in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting, applying technology to provide care to critically ill patients by off-site clinical resources. The purpose of this review was to examine the implementation, adoption, and utilization of tele-ICU systems by hospitals to determine their efficiency and efficacy as identified by cost savings and patient outcomes. This literature review examined a large number of studies of implementation of tele-ICU systems in hospitals. The evidence supporting cost savings was mixed. Implementation of a tele-ICU system was associated with cost savings, shorter lengths of stay, and decreased mortality. However, two studies suggested increased hospital cost after implementation of tele-ICUs is initially expensive but eventually results in cost savings and better clinical outcomes. Intensivists working these systems are able to more effectively treat ICU patients, providing better clinical outcomes for patients at lower costs compared with hospitals without a tele-ICU.
Gajewski, Michal; Weinhouse, Gerald
As patients recover from their critical illness, the focus of intensive care unit (ICU) care becomes rehabilitation. Fatigue, excessive daytime somnolence (EDS), and depression can delay their recovery and potentially worsen outcomes. Psychostimulants, particularly modafinil (Provigil), have been shown to alleviate some of these symptoms in various patient populations, and as clinical trials are underway exploring this novel use of the drug, we present a case series of 3 patients in our institution's Thoracic Surgery Intensive Care Unit. Our 3 patients were chosen as a result of their fatigue, EDS, and/or depression, which prolonged their ICU stay and precluded them from participating in physical therapy, an integral component of the rehabilitative process. The patients were given 200 mg of modafinil each morning to increase patient wakefulness, encourage their participation, and enable a more restful sleep during the night. Although the drug was undoubtedly not the sole reason why our patients became more active, the temporal relationship between starting the drug and our patients' clinical improvement makes it likely that it contributed. Based on our observations with these patients, the known effects of modafinil, its safety profile, and the published experiences of others, we believe that modafinil has potential benefits when utilized in some critically ill patients and that the consequences of delayed patient recovery and a prolonged ICU stay may outweigh the risks of potential modafinil side effects.
Sinclair, Craig; Smith, Jessica; Toussaint, Yann; Auret, Kirsten
Western cultural practices and values have largely shaped advance care planning (ACP) policies across the world. Low uptake of ACP among ethnic minority groups in Western countries has been interpreted with reference to cultural differences. This paper adopts a life-history approach to explore attitudes towards ACP among older, first-generation Dutch-Australian and Italian-Australian migrants. Thirty people participated in extended ethnographic interviews (N = 17) and group discussions (N = 13) during 2012. Transcripts were thematically analyzed and interpreted using a Foucauldian perspective on knowledge and power. Migration experiences, ongoing contact with the native country and participation in migrant community support networks influenced attitudes towards ACP. Dutch participants framed ACP discussions with reference to euthanasia, and adopted a more individualist approach to medical decision-making. Italian participants often spoke of familial roles and emphasized a family-based decision making style. The importance of migrant identity has been neglected in previous discussions of cultural factors influencing ACP uptake among ethnic minority groups. The unique migration experience should be considered alongside culturally appropriate approaches to decision-making, in order to ensure equitable access to ACP among migrant groups.
Hartog, Christiane S; Schwarzkopf, Daniel; Riedemann, Niels C; Pfeifer, Ruediger; Guenther, Albrecht; Egerland, Kati; Sprung, Charles L; Hoyer, Heike; Gensichen, Jochen; Reinhart, Konrad
Communication is a hallmark of end-of-life care in the intensive care unit. It may influence the impact of end-of-life care on patients' relatives. We aimed to assess end-of-life care and communication from the perspective of intensive care unit staff and relate it to relatives' psychological symptoms. Prospective observational study based on consecutive patients with severe sepsis receiving end-of-life care; trial registration NCT01247792. Four interdisciplinary intensive care units of a German University hospital. Responsible health personnel (attendings, residents and nurses) were questioned on the day of the first end-of-life decision (to withdraw or withhold life-supporting therapies) and after patients had died or were discharged. Relatives were interviewed by phone after 90 days. Overall, 145 patients, 610 caregiver responses (92% response) and 84 relative interviews (70% response) were analysed. Most (86%) end-of-life decisions were initiated by attendings and only 2% by nurses; 41% of nurses did not know enough about end-of-life decisions to communicate with relatives. Discomfort with end-of-life decisions was low. Relatives reported high satisfaction with decision-making and care, 87% thought their degree of involvement had been just right. However, 51%, 48% or 33% of relatives had symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety or depression, respectively. Predictors for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder were patient age and relatives' gender. Relatives' satisfaction with medical care and communication predicted less anxiety (p = 0.025). Communication should be improved within the intensive care unit caregiver team to strengthen the involvement of nurses in end-of-life care. Improved communication between caregivers and the family might lessen relatives' long-term anxiety. © The Author(s) 2015.
Salehi, Shayesteh; Kanani, Tahereh; Abedi, Heidarali
Background: Care of brain dead donors is complex, critical, and sensitive and has a direct and positive impact on the end result of organ and tissue transplantation process. This study describes the nurses’ experiences of care of brain dead donors in intensive care units (ICU). Materials and Methods: This research was performed by phenomenological method that is a qualitative approach. Purposive sampling was used to gather the data. The researcher reached to data saturation by deep interviews conducted with eight participants from ICU nurses in Isfahan hospitals who cooperated in care of brain dead donors. Data analysis was performed according to Colaizzi analysis method. Results: Interviews were analyzed and the results of analysis led to “Excruciating tasks” as the main theme formed by psychological effects of facing the situation, heavy and stressful care, defect of scientific knowledge, conflict between feeling and duty, outcome of attitude change in behavior, emotional responses to perceived psychological afflictions, doubt to medical diagnosis, spiritual perceptions, and biological responses when faced with the situation. Conclusion: Caring of brain dead organ donors is difficult and stressful for intensive care nurses and can be a threat for nurses’ health and quality of nursing care. So, providing suitable physical, mental, and working conditions is necessary to make suitable background to maintain and increase nurses’ health and quality of care and effective cooperation of this group of health professionals in organ procurement process. PMID:24554946
Maher, Kevin O; Chang, Anthony C; Shin, Andrew; Hunt, Juliette; Wong, Hector R
The word innovation is derived from the Latin noun innovatus, meaning renewal or change. Although companies such as Google and Apple are nearly synonymous with innovation, virtually all sectors in our current lives are imbued with yearn for innovation. This has led to organizational focus on innovative strategies as well as recruitment of chief innovation officers and teams in a myriad of organizations. At times, however, the word innovation seems like an overused cliché, as there are now more than 5,000 books in print with the word "innovation" in the title. More recently, innovation has garnered significant attention in health care. The future of health care is expected to innovate on a large scale in order to deliver sustained value for an overall transformative care. To date, there are no published reports on the state of the art in innovation in pediatric health care and in particular, pediatric cardiac intensive care. This report will address the issue of innovation in pediatric medicine with relevance to cardiac intensive care and delineate possible future directions and strategies in pediatric cardiac intensive care.
Whiting, Dean; Cole, Elaine
Increased rates of mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) following injury have been associated with a lack of trauma specific training. Despite this, training relevant to nurses is limited. Currently, little consideration has been given to understanding the potential training needs of ICU nurses in caring for critically injured patients. The aim of this study was to construct a consensus syllabus of trauma care for registered nurses working in an intensive care setting. A two round modified Delphi was conducted. Twenty-eight intensive care professionals participated in the study in 2014 in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed using content and descriptive statistics. Round-1 generated 343 subjects. Following analysis these were categorised into 75 subjects and returned to the panel for rating. An 82% (23/28) response rate to round-2 identified high consensus (equal to or greater than 80%) in 55 subjects, which reflected the most severely injured patients needs. There is a requirement for specific training to prepare the ICU nurse for caring for the critically injured patient. This survey presents a potential core syllabus in trauma care and should be considered by educators to develop a meaningful programme of trauma education for ICU nurses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salzmann-Erikson, Martin; Salzmann-Krikson, Martin; Lützén, Kim; Ivarsson, Ann-Britt; Eriksson, Henrik
Internationally, research on psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs) commonly reports results from demographic studies such as criteria for admission, need for involuntary treatment, and the occurrence of violent behaviour. A few international studies describe the caring aspect of the PICUs based specifically on caregivers' experiences. The concept of PICU in Sweden is not clearly defined. The aim of this study is to describe the core characteristics of a PICU in Sweden and to describe the care activities provided for patients admitted to the PICUs. Critical incident technique was used as the research method. Eighteen caregivers at a PICU participated in the study by completing a semistructured questionnaire. In-depth interviews with three nurses and two assistant nurses also constitute the data. An analysis of the content identified four categories that characterize the core of PICU: the dramatic admission, protests and refusal of treatment, escalating behaviours, and temporarily coercive measure. Care activities for PICUs were also analysed and identified as controlling - establishing boundaries, protecting - warding off, supporting - giving intensive assistance, and structuring the environment. Finally, the discussion put focus on determining the intensive aspect of psychiatric care which has not been done in a Swedish perspective before. PICUs were interpreted as a level of care as it is composed by limited structures and closeness in care.
Sewchand, W.; Drzymala, R.E.; Amin, P.P.; Salcman, M.; Salazar, O.M.
A bedside lead cubicle was designed to minimize the radiation exposure of intensive care unit staff during routine interstitial brain irradiation by removable, high intensity iridium-192. The cubicle shields the patient without restricting intensive care routines. The design specifications were confirmed by exposure measurements around the shield with an implanted anthropomorphic phantom simulating the patient situation. The cubicle reduces the exposure rate around an implant patient by as much as 90%, with the exposure level not exceeding 0.1 mR/hour/mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir. Evaluation of data accumulated for the past 3 years has shown that the exposure levels of individual attending nurses are 0.12 to 0.36 mR/mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir per 12-hour shift. The corresponding range for entire nursing teams varies between 0.18 and 0.26. A radiation control index (exposure per mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir per nurse-hour) is thus defined for individual nurses and nursing teams; this index is a significant guide to the planning of nurse rotations for brain implant patients with various /sup 192/Ir loads. The bedside shield reduces exposure from /sup 192/Ir implants by a factor of about 20, as expected, and the exposure from the lower energy radioisotope iodine-125 is barely detectable.
Conly, J M; Klass, L; Larson, L; Kennedy, J; Low, D E; Harding, G K
Pseudomonas cepacia has become a prominent epidemic nosocomial pathogen over the past 15 years. Between December 1982 and September 1983 it was isolated from 29 patients in two intensive care units (ICUs) at one hospital. Twelve infections--five bacteremias, four pneumonias and three urinary tract infections--occurred. Most of the isolates (25/29) were from the respiratory tract, and most (23/29) had the same antibiogram as the only environmental isolate, which was cultured from a contaminated ventilator thermometer, a previously unrecognized source of nosocomial infection. The ventilator thermometers were calibrated in a bath whose water had not been changed for months and contained P. cepacia. Despite elimination of this reservoir, P. cepacia was eradicated from the ICUs only after intensive infection control efforts were instituted. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3455834
Ramírez-Puerta, M R; Fernández-Fernández, R; Frías-Pareja, J C; Yuste-Ossorio, M E; Narbona-Galdó, S; Peñas-Maldonado, L
To analyze the readability of informed consent documents (IC) used in an intensive care department and in the Andalusian Healthcare System (AHS). A descriptive study was carried out. The Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary Hospital, and the AHS. A review and analysis was made of the existing 14 IC models in the Intensive Care Unit and of another 14 IC models offered by the AHS, using the following readability scores: Flesch, Sentence complexity, LEGIN, Fernández-Huerta, Szigriszt and INFLESZ. Twenty-four IC (85.7%) failed to satisfy some of the indexes, while three (10.7%) did not satisfy any of them. Four documents (14.3%) satisfied all the indexes analyzed, and therefore are easy to understand. Flesch score: satisfied by one of the ICU IC (7.1%) and by three of the AHS documents (21.4%). Sentence complexity score: satisfied by 11 of the ICU IC (78.6%) and by 13 of the AHS documents (92.8%). Fernández-Huerta score: satisfied by four of the ICU IC (28.6%) and by 13 of the AHS documents (92.8%). Szigriszt score: satisfied by two of the ICU IC (14.3%) and by 11 of the AHS documents (64.3%). INFLESZ score: satisfied by two of the ICU IC (14.3%) and by 10 of the AHS documents (71.4%). The documents analyzed are generally difficult to read and understand by most people, and do not satisfy the basic purpose for which they were drafted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Darvas, Katalin; Futó, Judit; Okrös, Ilona; Gondos, Tibor; Csomós, Akos; Kupcsulik, Péter
Acute pancreatitis is a dynamic, often progressive disease; 14-20% require intensive care in its severe form due to multiorgan dysfunction and/or failure. This review was created using systematic literature review of articles published on this subject in the last 5 years. The outcome of severe acute pancreatitis is determined by the inflammatory response and multiorgan dysfunction - the prognostic scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, Glasgow Prognostic Index, Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment, Multi Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Scale, Ranson Scale) can be used to determine outcome. Clinical signs (age, coexisting diseases, confusion, obesity) and biochemistry values (serum amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, creatinine, urea, calcium) have important prognostic roles as well. Early organ failure increases the risk of late abdominal complications and mortality. Intensive care can provide appropriate multi-function patient monitoring which helps in early recognition of complications and appropriate target-controlled treatment. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis aims at reducing systemic inflammatory response and multiorgan dysfunction and, on the other side, at increasing the anti-inflammatory response. Oral starvation for 24-48 hours is effective in reducing the exocrine activity of the pancreas; the efficacy of protease inhibitors is questionable. Early intravascular volume resuscitation and stable haemodynamics improve microcirculation. Early oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation provide adequate oxygenation. Electrolyte and acid-base control can be as important as tight glucose control. Adequate pain relief can be achieved by thoracic epidural catheterization. Early enteral nutrition with immunonutrition should be used. There is evidence that affecting the coagulation cascade by activated protein C can play a role in reducing the inflammatory response. The complex therapy of acute pancreatitis includes appropriate
Avila-Alvarez, A; Carbajal, R; Courtois, E; Pertega-Diaz, S; Muñiz-Garcia, J; Anand, K J S
Pain management and sedation is a priority in neonatal intensive care units. A study was designed with the aim of determining current clinical practice as regards sedation and analgesia in neonatal intensive care units in Spain, as well as to identify factors associated with the use of sedative and analgesic drugs. A multicenter, observational, longitudinal and prospective study. Thirty neonatal units participated and included 468 neonates. Of these, 198 (42,3%) received sedatives or analgesics. A total of 19 different drugs were used during the study period, and the most used was fentanyl. Only fentanyl, midazolam, morphine and paracetamol were used in at least 20% of the neonates who received sedatives and/or analgesics. In infusions, 14 different drug prescriptions were used, with the most frequent being fentanyl and the combination of fentanyl and midazolam. The variables associated with receiving sedation and/or analgesia were, to have required invasive ventilation (P<.001; OR=23.79), a CRIB score >3 (P=.023; OR=2.26), the existence of pain evaluation guides in the unit (P<.001; OR=3.82), and a pain leader (P=.034; OR=2.35). Almost half of the neonates admitted to intensive care units receive sedatives or analgesics. There is significant variation between Spanish neonatal units as regards sedation and analgesia prescribing. Our results provide evidence on the "state of the art", and could serve as the basis of preparing clinical practice guidelines at a national level. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Agarwal, Banwari; Walecka, Agnieszka; Shaw, Steve; Davenport, Andrew
Hypophosphatemia is well recognized in the intensive care setting, associated with refeeding and continuous forms of renal replacement therapy (CCRT). However, it is unclear as to when and how to administer intravenous phosphate supplementation in the general intensive care setting. There have been recent concerns regarding phosphate administration and development of acute kidney injury. We therefore audited our practice of parenteral phosphate administration. We prospectively audited parenteral phosphate administration (20 mmol) in 58 adult patients in a general intensive care unit in a University tertiary referral center. Fifty-eight patients were audited; mean age 57.2 ± 2.0 years, 70.7% male. The median duration of the infusion was 310 min (228-417), and 50% of the patients were on CRRT. 63.8% of patients were hypophosphatemic (<0.87 mmol/L) prior to the phosphate infusion, and serum phosphate increased from 0.79 ± 0.02 to 1.07 ± 0.03 mmol/L, P < 0.001. Two patients became hyperphosphatemic (>1.45 mmol/L). There was no correlation between the change in serum phosphate and the pre-infusion phosphate. Although there were no significant changes in serum urea, creatinine or other electrolytes, arterial ionized calcium fell from 1.15 ± 0.01 to 1.13 ± 0.01 mmol/L, P < 0.01. Although infusion of 20 mmol phosphate did not appear to adversely affect renal function and corrected hypophosphatemia in 67.7% of cases, we found that around 33% of patients who were given parenteral phosphate were not hypophosphatemic, and that the fall in ionized calcium raises the possibility of the formation of calcium-phosphate complexes and potential for soft tissue calcium deposition.
Dellenmark-Blom, Michaela; Wigert, Helena
A descriptive study of parents' experiences with neonatal home care following initial care in the neonatal intensive care unit. As survival rates improve among premature and critically ill infants with an increased risk of morbidity, parents' responsibilities for neonatal care grow in scope and degree under the banner of family-centred care. Concurrent with medical advances, new questions arise about the role of parents and the experience of being provided neonatal care at home. An interview study with a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Parents from a Swedish neonatal (n = 22) home care setting were extensively interviewed within one year of discharge. Data were collected during 2011-2012. The main theme of the findings is that parents experience neonatal home care as an inner emotional journey, from having a child to being a parent. This finding derives from three themes: the parents' experience of leaving the hospital milieu in favour of establishing independent parenthood, maturing as a parent and processing experiences during the period of neonatal intensive care. This study suggests that neonatal home care is experienced as a care structure adjusted to incorporate parents' needs following discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal home care appears to bridge the gap between hospital and home, supporting the family's adaptation to life in the home setting. Parents become empowered to be primary caregivers, having nurse consultants serving the needs of the whole family. Neonatal home care may therefore be understood as the implementation of family-centred care during the transition from NICU to home. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
D'Anastasi, M; Japp, A S; Huge, V; Schwarz, F; Reiser, M F; Johnson, T R C
This article reports the case of a patient who developed a sudden impairment of gas exchange, renal function and a distended abdomen 13 days after admission to the intensive care unit. The combination of a sudden platelet drop, the timing of heparin administration and evidence of thromboembolic events by computed tomography (CT) led to the suspected diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) type II which was confirmed by laboratory testing. HIT is a life-threatening complication of heparin anticoagulation and CT is an important diagnostic instrument for detecting the location and extent of thromboembolic manifestations, thereby enabling the initiation of therapy to prevent further complications.
Uglitskikh, A K; Kon', I Ia; Ostreĭkov, I F; Shilina, N M; Smirnov, V F
The paper deals with the nutritional status of infants in intensive care units (ICU). It shows nutritional trends in 269 children aged 1 month to 15 years, treated in the ICU of a Tushino children's city hospital, Moscow, for brain injury, abdominal surgical diseases, and severe pneumonia. The paper evaluates the physical development of children in the ICU, shows the trends in weight-height, somatometric, laboratory parameters, and balance study data. The values of protein losses and nitrogen balance in children in the postaggression period and their relationship to age and feeding mode (enteral, parenteral-enteral) are shown.
Weinreich, Mark; Herman, Jennifer; Dickason, Stephanie; Mayo, Helen
This paper is a synthesis of the available literature on occupational therapy interventions performed in the adult intensive care unit (ICU). The databases of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and CINAHL databases were systematically searched from inception through August 2016 for studies of adults who received occupational therapy interventions in the ICU. Of 1,938 citations reviewed, 10 studies met inclusion criteria. Only one study explicitly discussed occupational therapy interventions performed and only one study specifically tested the efficacy of occupational therapy. Future research is needed to clarify the specific interventions and role of occupational therapy in the ICU and the efficacy of these interventions.
Lemmen, S; Lewalter, K
Fever is common in patients in intensive care units. Sources of fever can be infectious or non-infectious. The most common sources of infectious fever include ventilator-associated pneumonia, intravascular catheter-related infections, infection with Clostridium difficile or sinusitis. Typical examples of non-infectious fever include thromboembolic events, myocardial infarction, autoimmune disease, withdrawal symptoms or a drug-fever. Every new onset of fever prompts diagnostic decisions, treatment with antipyretics should be discussed critically. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Sadchikov, D V; Marshalov, D V
The study covered 235 obstetric patients having varying blood loss (1.8 to 55.7%) at labor. Their constitutional, history, clinical, functional, and biochemical data were studied, which allowed the authors to develop a strategic and tactic line of prediction of the development of massive blood loss at labor. The algorithm of preventive intensive care, developed on the basis of predictive criteria, was found to significantly improve the results of treatment and to reduce the frequency and severity of obstetric hemorrhagic complications.
Sarlangue, J; Cojan, M; Vincon, G; Albin, H; Demarquez, J L
We tried to adapt the dose of netilmicin in an intensive care unit on 41 newborns, under 8 days of age. Individual pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after the first intramuscular dose administration and the initial dose (3 mg/kg/twice a day) was modified in 17 cases. Methodologic problems but mainly great variations in physiology and pathology explain the difficulties in predicting the serum concentration (peak and valley) on the 7th day. A decrease in the daily dose for the preterm infant, compared to the one used in full-term infant, and a drug concentration monitoring are advised.
Pereira, E A C; Madder, H; Millo, J; Kearns, C F
The authors describe a novel 4-month clinical placement in neurosciences intensive care medicine (NICM) undertaken in the first specialty registrar (ST1) year of neurosurgical training as part of a clinical neurosciences themed training year. Neurosurgery is unique among British surgical specialties in having pioneered themed early years in run-through training to replace basic surgical training in general surgical specialties as part of Modernising Medical Careers. After describing events leading to the new neurosurgical training, the knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired in NICM are highlighted alongside discussion of logistic aspects and future directions from an inaugural experience.
Revelly, J P; Eggimann, P; Oddo, M; Eckert, P; Liaudet, L; Berger, M M; Schaller, M D; Wasserfallen, J B; Chioléro, R
The merging of two intensive care units is a time of profound change, and constitutes a risk of mishaps. We report some aspects of such a project in our institution. The evaluation of various indicators reflecting the activity, patient's hospital pathways, mortality, as well as the use of specific techniques, has shown that no particular problem was observed during the first 9 months. Improvements in performance or productivity have not been demonstrated so far. The follow-up will permit to demonstrate long-term benefits. We believe that these observations may be of interest for other departmental or hospital reorganisations.
Iosifidis, Elias; Stabouli, Stella; Tsolaki, Anastasia; Sigounas, Vaios; Panagiotidou, Emilia-Barbara; Sdougka, Maria; Roilides, Emmanuel
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's criteria were applied by independent investigators for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) diagnosis in critically ill children and compared with tracheal aspirate cultures (TACs). In addition, correlation between antibiotic use, VAP incidence, and epidemiology of TACs was investigated. A modest agreement (κ = 0.41) was found on radiologic findings between 2 investigators. VAP incidence was 7.7 episodes per 1,000 ventilator days, but positive TACs were the most significant factor for driving high antimicrobial usage in the pediatric intensive care unit.
Nutrition is an essential component of patient management in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Poor nutrition status accompanies many childhood chronic illnesses. A thorough assessment of the critically ill child is required to inform the plan for nutrition support. Accurate and clinically relevant nutritional assessment, including growth measurements, provides important guidance. Indirect calorimetry provides the most accurate measurement of resting energy expenditure, but is too often unavailable in the PICU. To prevent inappropriate caloric intake, reassessment of the child's nutrition status is imperative. Enteral nutrition is the recommended route of intake. Human milk is preferred for infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stalpers, Dewi; De Vos, Maartje L G; Van Der Linden, Dimitri; Kaljouw, Marian J; Schuurmans, Marieke J
To identify nurses' barriers and facilitators to monitoring of nurse-sensitive outcomes in intensive care units (ICUs), and to explore influential nurse characteristics and work environment factors. A cross-sectional survey in three Dutch ICUs between October 2013 - June 2014. A questionnaire with questions regarding facilitators and three types of barriers: knowledge, attitude and behaviour. The Dutch Essentials of Magnetism II was used to examine work environments. All 126 responding nurses identified pressure ulcers and patient satisfaction as outcomes that are nurse-sensitive and nurses' full responsibility. Lack of time (behaviour) was perceived as the most prominent barrier, followed by unfamiliarity with mandatory indicators (knowledge), and unreliability of indicators as benchmark data (attitude). Education and clear policies were relevant facilitators. Of nurse characteristics, only regularity of shifts was related to perceived attitude related barriers. The work environment factor "clinical autonomy" was potentially associated with behaviour related barriers.
Gandra, Sumanth; Ellison, Richard T
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There has been an increasing effort to prevent HAIs, and infection control practices are paramount in avoiding these complications. In the last several years, numerous developments have been seen in the infection prevention strategies in various health care settings. This article reviews the modern trends in infection control practices to prevent HAIs in ICUs with a focus on methods for monitoring hand hygiene, updates in isolation precautions, new methods for environmental cleaning, antimicrobial bathing, prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia, central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and Clostridium difficile infection.
Moss, Jacqueline; Berner, Eta; Bothe, Olaf; Rymarchuk, Irina
Medication administration errors have been shown to be frequent and serious. Error is particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as critical care. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of intravenous medication administration in five intensive care units. These data were used within the context of a larger study to design information system decision support in these settings. Nurses were observed during the course of their work and their intravenous medication administration process, order source, references used, calculation method, number of medications prepared simultaneously, and any interruptions occurring during the preparation and delivery phases of the administration event were recorded. In addition, chart reviews of medication administration records were completed and nurses were asked to complete an anonymous drop-box questionnaire regarding their experiences with medication administration error. The results of this study are discussed in terms of potential informatics solutions for reducing medication administration error.
Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Wolfe, Thomas; Pandya, Dhruvil J; Szeder, Viktor; Lopez-Vicente, Marta; Zaidat, Osama O
Neurologists are frequently called to evaluate patients in the intensive care units who are not waking up. This often poses a diagnostic and prognostic dilemma. The initial evaluation starts with abstracting the prehospital and in-hospital history, followed by bedside clinical and neurologic examination to establish a differential diagnosis. The subsequent work-up is based on clinical suspicion where reversible life-threatening causes should be immediately identified. After confirming the diagnosis and implementation of the appropriate medical manageme