Science.gov

Sample records for dutch technique split

  1. The Split-Stem Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Roy A.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a procedure useful for investigating the effects of substances on plant growth and development. A bean seedling's stem is partially split, and each half is placed in a different nutrient solution. Suggestions for the instructional use of the technique are made. (AL)

  2. Splitting advancement genioplasty: a new genioplasty technique.

    PubMed

    Celik, M; Tuncer, S; Büyükçayir, I

    1999-08-01

    A new genioplasty technique has been described and performed on 16 patients since 1995. The technique has been developed to avoid some undesired results of the current osseous genioplasty techniques and to achieve a more natural appearance in advancement genioplasty. According to the authors' technique, a rectangular part of the outer table of the mentum is split away from the mandible, and is advanced and fixated to the mandible. This technique can be used for advancement cases but not for reduction genioplasty. This technique was performed on 16 patients with only minor complications, including one case of wound dehiscence, one hematoma, and one case of osteomyelitis, which was managed with systemic antibiotic therapy. Aesthetic results were found to be satisfactory according to an evaluation by the authors. When the results were evaluated using pre- and postoperative photos, lip position and projection of the mentum were found to be natural in shape appearance. During the late postoperative period, the new bone formation between the advanced segment and the mandible was demonstrated radiographically. Advantages of the technique include having more contact surfaces for bony healing, a natural position of the lower lip, more natural projection of the mentum, tridimensional movement of the mentum, and improvement in the soft tissue of the neck. The disadvantages of the technique are the potential risk of infection due to dead space from the advancement, manipulation problems during surgery, and possible mental nerve injury. Splitting advancement genioplasty was found to be a useful technique for advancement genioplasty. Splitting advancement genioplasty is a more physiological osteotomy technique than most of osseous genioplasty techniques. PMID:10454320

  3. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong

    2015-08-01

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  4. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong

    2015-08-15

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  5. Crater-and-split technique for phacoemulsification: modification of the crater-and-chop technique.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Bekir Sıtkı; Müftüoglu, Orkun; Gayretli, Deniz

    2012-09-01

    We describe a modification of the crater-and-chop technique for removing cataracts of all densities. Following creation of a central crater approximately 3.0 mm in diameter at the geometric center of the endonucleus, a nucleus splitter is inserted under the capsule and the phaco tip is inserted in the crater. Simultaneously, the splitter is moved from the nucleus periphery toward the phaco tip horizontally to split the nucleus and both the phaco tip and nucleus splitter are pushed aside as they come very close without vacuum at any point. The nucleus is rotated and splitting is repeated in the same manner until the nucleus is divided into pieces that are small enough to be emulsified easily. With this technique, the soft nucleus is split without vacuum and a very hard nucleus can be split through the posterior plate with minimal stress to zonular fibers.

  6. Horizontal Ridge Augmentation with Piezoelectric Hinge-Assisted Ridge Split Technique in the Atrophic Posterior Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Min-Sang; Lee, Ji-Hye; Lee, Sang-Woon; Cho, Lee-Ra; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Lee, You-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Onlay bone grafting, guided bone regeneration, and alveolar ridge split technique are considered reliable bone augmentation methods on the horizontally atrophic alveolar ridge. Among these techniques, alveolar ridge split procedures are technique-sensitive and difficult to perform in the posterior mandible. This case report describes successful implant placement with the use of piezoelectric hinge-assisted ridge split technique in an atrophic posterior mandible. PMID:27489822

  7. Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

  8. Investigation of Convection and Pressure Treatment with Splitting Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakur, Siddharth; Shyy, Wei; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of convective and pressure fluxes in the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations using splitting formulas for convective velocity and pressure is investigated. Two schemes - controlled variation scheme (CVS) and advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) - are explored for their accuracy in resolving sharp gradients in flows involving moving or reflecting shock waves as well as a one-dimensional combusting flow with a strong heat release source term. For two-dimensional compressible flow computations, these two schemes are implemented in one of the pressure-based algorithms, whose very basis is the separate treatment of convective and pressure fluxes. For the convective fluxes in the momentum equations as well as the estimation of mass fluxes in the pressure correction equation (which is derived from the momentum and continuity equations) of the present algorithm, both first- and second-order (with minmod limiter) flux estimations are employed. Some issues resulting from the conventional use in pressure-based methods of a staggered grid, for the location of velocity components and pressure, are also addressed. Using the second-order fluxes, both CVS and AUSM type schemes exhibit sharp resolution. Overall, the combination of upwinding and splitting for the convective and pressure fluxes separately exhibits robust performance for a variety of flows and is particularly amenable for adoption in pressure-based methods.

  9. Applicability of the Multiple-event Stacking Technique for Shear-wave Splitting Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, F.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    For several decades, shear wave splitting (SWS) parameters (fast polarization orientations and splitting times) have been widely measured to reveal the orientation and strength of mantle anisotropy. One of the most popularly used techniques for obtaining station averaged SWS parameters is the multiple-event stacking technique (MES). Results from previous studies suggest that the splitting times obtained using MES are frequently smaller than those derived from simple averaging of splitting times obtained using the event-specific technique of Silver and Chan (1991) (SC). To confirm such apparent discrepancies between the two popularly used methods and to explore the causes, we conduct numerical experiments using both synthetic and observed data. The results show that when the anisotropic structure can be represented by a horizontal single layer of anisotropy with constant or spatially varying splitting times, MES can accurately retrieve the splitting parameters. However, when the fast orientations or both splitting parameters vary azimuthally due to lateral heterogeneities or double-layer anisotropy, the station averaged fast orientations from MES and SC are mostly comparable, but the splitting times obtained using MES are underestimated. For laterally varying fast orientations in the vicinity of a station, the magnitude of the underestimation is dependent on the arriving azimuth of the events participated in the stacking; for two-layer models of anisotropy, the resulting splitting parameters using MES are biased towards those of the top layer, due to the dominance of events with a back azimuth parallel or orthogonal to the fast orientation of the lower layer. Obviously, MES can still be applied in areas with complex or spatially varying anisotropy to obtain reliable results by stacking events from narrow back-azimuthal windows, especially when limited amounts of high-quality data are present.

  10. Split Hopkinson pressure bar technique: Experiments, analyses and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama, Bazle Anwer

    A critical review of the Hopkinson bar experimental technique is performed to identify the validity and applicability of the classic one-dimensional theory. A finite element model of the Hopkinson bar experiment is developed in three-dimensions and is used in detailed numerical analyses. For a small diameter hard specimen, the bar-specimen interfaces are non-planar, which predicts higher specimen strain and, thus, lower initial modulus in the linear elastic phase of deformation. In such cases, the stress distribution in the specimen is not uni-axial and a chamfered specimen geometry is found to provide better uni-axial stress condition in the specimen. In addition, a new Hopkinson bar with transmission tube is found suitable for small strain measurement of small diameter specimens. A one-dimensional exact Hopkinson bar theory considering the stress wave propagation in an equal diameter specimen has been formulated which predicts physically meaningful results in all extreme cases as compared to classic theory. In light of the theoretical and numerical investigations, an experimental methodology for rate dependent modulus and strength is developed. Quasi-static and dynamic behavior of plain weave (15 x 15) S-2 glass/SC15 composites has been investigated. A new circular-rectangular prism specimen (C-RPS) geometry is found suitable for testing laminated composites in the in-plane directions. Rate sensitive strength, non-linear strain and elastic modulus parameters for plain-weave (15 x 15) S-2 glass/SC15 composites have been experimentally determined.

  11. Mode of Processing Using the Split-Span Technique in Dichotic Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallup, Howard F.; Bookman, Lisa

    Using the split-span technique in which auditory stimuli are presented in various combinations to the right and left ears, two studies were designed to examine the preferences of subjects as to their mode of recall, to assess the accuracy of such recall, and to look at possible sex differences in both the preferences and the accuracy. A total of…

  12. Ridge Expansion by Flapless Split Crest and Immediate Implant Placement: Evolution of the Technique.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Antonio; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Amato, Massimo; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Various treatment strategies and techniques have been proposed to perform alveolar bone augmentation; most common are guided bone regeneration, split crest, and autologous bone grafting. All of these techniques are reported to possess bone regenerative properties of osteoinduction and osteoconduction in relation to regenerated bone survival. Split crest resulted to be one of the most reliable bone augmentation techniques. In this study, we describe a new flapless-modified split crest technique on 4 patients to optimize the bone regeneration with bone augmentation implant insertion in 1 single stage. The rationale of this technique is to obtain a proper buccal cortex expansion preserving its vascular supply and avoiding periosteal elevation for better cortical bone preservation. The main advantages of this technique consist in a single surgical stage without donor sites, vascular periosteal preservation of vestibular cortical walls, preservation of alveolar bone height avoiding bone loss after implant kit drilling, and preservation of proper cortical thickness on both sides, thereby saving periosteal nourishment on the vestibular side. Indication for this technique could be extended to almost every implant insertion for alveolar height saving at drilling time for implant insertion, because of the alveolar crest shape. PMID:26845089

  13. Automatic measure of the split in the second cardiac sound by using the wavelet transform technique.

    PubMed

    Debbal, S M; Bereksi-Reguig, F

    2007-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the identification and automatic measure of the split in the second heart sound (S2) of the phonocardiogram signal (PCGs) for normal or pathological case. The second heart sound S2 consists of two acoustic components A2 and P2, the former is due to the closure of the aortic valve and the latter is due to the closure of the pulmonary valve. The aortic valve usually closes before the pulmonary valve, introducing a time delay known as "split". A automatic technique based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is developed in this paper to measure the split of the second cardiac sound (S2) for the normal and pathological cases of the PCG signals. To quantify the splitting, the two components in S2 (i.e. A2 and P2) are identified and, the delay between the two components can be estimated. It is shown that the wavelet transform can provide best information and features of the split of S2 and the major components (A2 and P2) and consequently aid in medical diagnosis.

  14. Geometrical splitting technique to improve the computational efficiency in Monte Carlo calculations for proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Méndez, José; Perl, Joseph; Faddegon, Bruce; Schümann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present the implementation and validation of a geometrical based variance reduction technique for the calculation of phase space data for proton therapy dose calculation. Methods: The treatment heads at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center were modeled with a new Monte Carlo tool (TOPAS based on Geant4). For variance reduction purposes, two particle-splitting planes were implemented. First, the particles were split upstream of the second scatterer or at the second ionization chamber. Then, particles reaching another plane immediately upstream of the field specific aperture were split again. In each case, particles were split by a factor of 8. At the second ionization chamber and at the latter plane, the cylindrical symmetry of the proton beam was exploited to position the split particles at randomly spaced locations rotated around the beam axis. Phase space data in IAEA format were recorded at the treatment head exit and the computational efficiency was calculated. Depth–dose curves and beam profiles were analyzed. Dose distributions were compared for a voxelized water phantom for different treatment fields for both the reference and optimized simulations. In addition, dose in two patients was simulated with and without particle splitting to compare the efficiency and accuracy of the technique. Results: A normalized computational efficiency gain of a factor of 10–20.3 was reached for phase space calculations for the different treatment head options simulated. Depth–dose curves and beam profiles were in reasonable agreement with the simulation done without splitting: within 1% for depth–dose with an average difference of (0.2 ± 0.4)%, 1 standard deviation, and a 0.3% statistical uncertainty of the simulations in the high dose region; 1.6% for planar fluence with an average difference of (0.4 ± 0.5)% and a statistical uncertainty of 0.3% in the high fluence region. The percentage differences between dose distributions in water for

  15. Geometrical splitting technique to improve the computational efficiency in Monte Carlo calculations for proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Mendez, Jose; Perl, Joseph; Faddegon, Bruce; Schuemann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To present the implementation and validation of a geometrical based variance reduction technique for the calculation of phase space data for proton therapy dose calculation. Methods: The treatment heads at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center were modeled with a new Monte Carlo tool (TOPAS based on Geant4). For variance reduction purposes, two particle-splitting planes were implemented. First, the particles were split upstream of the second scatterer or at the second ionization chamber. Then, particles reaching another plane immediately upstream of the field specific aperture were split again. In each case, particles were split by a factor of 8. At the second ionization chamber and at the latter plane, the cylindrical symmetry of the proton beam was exploited to position the split particles at randomly spaced locations rotated around the beam axis. Phase space data in IAEA format were recorded at the treatment head exit and the computational efficiency was calculated. Depth-dose curves and beam profiles were analyzed. Dose distributions were compared for a voxelized water phantom for different treatment fields for both the reference and optimized simulations. In addition, dose in two patients was simulated with and without particle splitting to compare the efficiency and accuracy of the technique. Results: A normalized computational efficiency gain of a factor of 10-20.3 was reached for phase space calculations for the different treatment head options simulated. Depth-dose curves and beam profiles were in reasonable agreement with the simulation done without splitting: within 1% for depth-dose with an average difference of (0.2 {+-} 0.4)%, 1 standard deviation, and a 0.3% statistical uncertainty of the simulations in the high dose region; 1.6% for planar fluence with an average difference of (0.4 {+-} 0.5)% and a statistical uncertainty of 0.3% in the high fluence region. The percentage differences between dose distributions in water for simulations

  16. An explicit algorithm for a fluid approach to nonlinear optics propagation using splitting and rezoning techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattar, F. P.; Teichmann, J.; Bissonnette, L. R.; Maccormack, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a three-dimensional analysis of the nonlinear light matter interaction in a hydrodynamic context. It is reported that the resulting equations are a generalization of the Navier-Stokes equations subjected to an internal potential which depends solely upon the fluid density. In addition, three numerical approaches are presented to solve the governing equations using an extension of McCormack predict-corrector scheme. These are a uniform grid, a dynamic rezoned grid, and a splitting technique. It is concluded that the use of adaptive mapping and splitting techniques with McCormack two-level predictor-corrector scheme results in an efficient and reliable code whose storage requirements are modest compared with other second order methods of equal accuracy.

  17. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery. Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed. All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment. Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  18. Cranioplasty Using a Modified Split Calvarial Graft Technique in Cleidocranial Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young Taek; Cho, Jae Ik

    2015-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia is a well-documented rare autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterized by hypoplastic/aplastic clavicles, brachycephalic skull, patent sutures and fontanelles, midface hypoplasia, and abnormalities of dentition. Patients with cleidocranial dysplasia often complain about undesirable esthetic appearance of their forehead and skull. Notwithstanding many studies of molecular, genetics and skeletal abnormalities of this congenial disorder, there have been very few written reports of cranioplasty involving cleidocranial dysplasia. Thus, we report a rare case of successful cranioplasty using a modified split calvarial graft technique in patient with cleidocranial dysplasia. PMID:26279819

  19. A parallel imaging technique using mutual calibration for split-blade diffusion-weighted PROPELLER.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Pipe, James G; Aboussouan, Eric; Karis, John P; Huo, Donglai

    2011-03-01

    Split-blade diffusion-weighted periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (DW-PROPELLER) was proposed to address the issues associated with diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging such as geometric distortion and difficulty in high-resolution imaging. The major drawbacks with DW-PROPELLER are its high SAR (especially at 3T) and violation of the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill condition, which leads to a long scan time and narrow blade. Parallel imaging can reduce scan time and increase blade width; however, it is very challenging to apply standard k-space-based techniques such as GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) to split-blade DW-PROPELLER due to its narrow blade. In this work, a new calibration scheme is proposed for k-space-based parallel imaging method without the need of additional calibration data, which results in a wider, more stable blade. The in vivo results show that this technique is very promising.

  20. Piezoelectric surgery in mandibular split crest technique with immediate implant placement: a case report

    PubMed Central

    BELLEGGIA, F.; POZZI, A.; ROCCI, M.; BARLATTANI, A.; GARGARI, M.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Implant supported rehabilitation of thin edentulous ridges with horizontal atrophy necessitates a regenerative approach. Within the procedures for horizontal bone defects augmentation, ridge expansion techniques permit dislocation of the buccal bone plate in a labial direction and simultaneous implant insertion in single-stage surgery, abbreviating overall treatment time. The piezoelectric ridge expansion technique permits to obtain the expansion of very mineralized bone crests without excessive traumas or the risk of ridge fractures. The case reported shows an implant treatment for partial edentulous lower arch rehabilitation. A full-split thickness flap was raised. The mucoperiosteal reflection permitted to identify alveolar crest contour where osteotomies had to be performed. Split thickness dissection allowed periosteal blood supply to be mainteined on the buccal bone plate. After horizontal and vertical osteotomies were performed with OT7 piezoelectric microsaw (Piezo-surgery, Mectron), a single-bevel scalpel was used to move the buccal bone plate to the labial. Two Straumann TE 3.3/4.8 mm wide implants were inserted in the lower right premolar area, and 1 Straumann 4.8 mm Wide Neck implant was inserted to replace lower right first molar. The amount of bone expansion was equal to the cervical diameter of the placed implants (4.8 mm) and residual bone gap was packed with Bio-Oss granules (Geistlich). Healing was uneventful and 3 months later final restorations with implant-supported porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns were cemented. PMID:23285347

  1. Comparison of spread spectrum and pulse signal excitation for split spectrum techniques composite imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svilainis, L.; Kitov, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Vergara, L.; Dumbrava, V.; Chaziachmetovas, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasonic imaging of composites was investigated. Glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastic produced by resin transfer molding and prepreg forming were analyzed. In some of the samples air bubbles were trapped during RTM (resin transfer molding) process and interlayer gaps were present in prepreg technology samples. One of the most expected techniques to apply in such case is the Split Spectrum processing. On the other hand such signals require specific processing to reliably reconstruct the temporal position of the defect reflection. Correlation processing can be used for signal compression or Wiener filtering can be applied for spectral content equalisation. Pulse signals are simple to generate, but lack the possibility to alter the signal's spectrum shape. Spread spectrum signals offer a powerful tool for signal energy over frequency band increase and resolution enhancement. CW (continuous wave) burst has high energy but lacks the bandwidth needed for SSP (spread spectrum processing). The aim of the investigation was to compare the performance of the above signals in case of composite imaging, when various Split Spectrum Processing techniques are used with preceding Wiener processing for spectral content compensation. Resulting composite signals and images obtained are presented. Structural noise removal performance was evaluated as Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC).

  2. An iterative implicit DDADI algorithm for solving the Navier-Stokes equation. [upwind split flux technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, S. C.; Liu, N. S.; Kim, H. D.

    1992-01-01

    An algorithm utilizing a first order upwind split flux technique and the diagonally dominant treatment is proposed to be the temporal operator for solving the Navier-Stokes equations. Given the limit of a five point stencil, the right hand side flux derivatives are formulated by several commonly used central and upwind schemes. Their performances are studied through a test case of free vortex convection in a uniform stream. From these results, a superior treatment for evaluating the flux term is proposed and compared with the rest. The application of the proposed algorithm to the full Navier-Stokes equations is demonstrated through a calculation of flow over a backward facing step. Results are compared against the calculation done by using the fourth order central differencing scheme with artificial damping.

  3. Our technique of midsagittal splitting laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy and its short-term results

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Singh, Sunita; Chauhan, Shishu Pal Singh; Gopal, Nitya Nand

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to discuss the technique of midsagittal splitting laminoplasty and to compare its short-term follow-up results with laminectomy in cases of compressive cervical spinal cord myelopathy. Materials and Methods: Exclusion criteria were as follows: Intramedullary compressive lesions, kyphotic cervical spine, previous spinal surgeries, and defective anterior vertebral column. Twenty patients (10 each of laminoplasty and laminectomy groups) were prospectively studied from 2005 to 2008. After clinico-radiological assessment, laminoplasty or laminectomy was performed in patients aged <50 years and >50 years, respectively. The laminoplasty was performed by splitting the excised lamina in midline up to the tip of spinous process. Follow-up was done by neurosurgical cervical spine scoring, Nurick's grading, and the final outcome was determined by Odom's criteria. Results: The mean operative time and blood loss in laminoplasty and laminectomy was 100 ± 0.87 (range 90-140 min), 80 ± 0.67 (range 75-100 min) P = 0.04; and 65 ± 0.07 (range 60-90 ml) and 68 ± 0.61 (range 65-80 ml) P = 0.09, respectively. There were no intraoperative accidents, and no postoperative neurological deterioration/recurrence of symptoms. One patient who underwent laminectomy alone developed progressive kyphosis of the spine, whereas one having rheumatoid arthritis and long symptom duration didn’t improve. 85% (17/20 patients) had sustained excellent to fair outcome (improvement by at least one Nurick's grade). Conclusions: The technique used by us was simple, effective, and inexpensive. There was no minimal postoperative morbidity, although long-term results are awaited. PMID:27366246

  4. Vasculobiliary complications following adult right lobe split liver transplantation from the perspective of reconstruction techniques.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk Mourad, Moustafa; Liossis, Christos; Kumar, Senthil; Gunson, Bridget K; Mergental, Hynek; Isaac, John; Bramhall, Simon R; Muiesan, Paolo; Mirza, Darius F; Thamara P R Perera, M

    2015-01-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT) compensates for the organ shortage and provides an alternative solution for recipients disadvantaged by a smaller body size. Variations in the hepatic arterial anatomy and reconstructive techniques may lead to more technical complications, and we sought to analyze the incidence and risk factors of vasculobiliary complications with respect to reconstructive techniques. We identified 171 adult right lobe SLT procedures and 1412 whole liver transplantation (WLT) procedures between January 2000 and June 2012 and compared the results of these 2 groups. In the SLT group, arterial reconstruction techniques were classified into 4 subgroups (I-IV), and biliary reconstruction was classified into 2 groups [duct-to-duct (DD) anastomosis and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RH)]. Specific surgical complications were analyzed against reconstruction techniques. The overall incidence of vascular and biliary complications in the SLT group was greater than that in the WLT group (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001, respectively). There was no difference in hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), but we saw a tendency toward early HAT in the presence of multiple hepatic arteries supplying the right lobe graft (group IV; 20%) in comparison with the other arterial reconstruction groups (P = 0.052). No difference was noticed in the overall incidence of biliary complications in either DD or RH recipients across 4 arterial reconstruction groups. When the arterial reconstruction involved a right hepatic artery (groups II and III) combined with a DD biliary anastomosis, there was a significant preponderance of biliary complications (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively). There was no survival difference between SLT and WLT grafts. In conclusion, the complications of SLT are directly related to arterial and biliary reconstruction techniques, and this classification helps to identify high-risk reconstructive techniques. PMID:25302412

  5. Classroom Modified Split-Root Technique and Its Application in a Plant Habitat Selection Experiment at the College Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Shannon S.; Winter, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The split-root technique produces a plant with two equal root masses. Traditionally, the two root masses of the single plant are cultivated in adjacent pots with or without roots from competitors for the purpose of elucidating habitat preferences. We have tailored this technology for the classroom, adjusting protocols to match resources and time…

  6. Improved ITOS attitude control system with Hall generator brushless motor and earth-splitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, W. M.

    1971-01-01

    The ITOS with an improved attitude control system is described. A Hall generator brushless dc torque motor will replace the brush dc torque motor on ITOS-I and ITOS-A (NOAA-1). The four attitude horizon sensors will be replaced with two CO2 sensors for better horizon definition. An earth horizon splitting technique will be used to keep the earth facing side of the satellite toward earth even if the desired circular orbit is not achieved. The external appearance of the pitch control subsystem differs from TIROS-M (ITOS-1) and ITOS-A (NOAA-1) in that two instead of one pitch control electronics (PCE) boxes are used. Two instead of four horizon sensors will be used and one instead of two mirrors will be used for sensor scanning. The brushless motor will eliminate the requirement for brushes, strain gages and the telemetry for the brush wear. A single rotating flywheel, supported by a single bearing provides the gyroscopic stability and the required momentum interchange to keep one side of the satellite facing the earth. Magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field eliminates the requirement for expendable propellants which would limit satellite life in orbit.

  7. Split-Bolus Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography Technique for Characterization of Focal Liver Lesions in Oncologic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Scialpi, Michele; Pierotti, Luisa; Gravante, Sabrina; Rebonato, Alberto; Piscioli, Irene; D’Andrea, Alfredo; Schiavone, Raffaele; Palumbo, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background In oncologic patients, the liver is the most common target for metastases. An accurate detection and characterization of focal liver lesions in patients with known primary extrahepatic malignancy are essential to define management and prognosis. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of the split-bolus multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) protocol in the characterization of focal liver lesions in oncologic patients. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the follow-up split-bolus 64-detector row CT protocol in 36 oncologic patients to characterize focal liver lesions. The split-bolus MDCT protocol by intravenous injection of two boluses of contrast medium combines the hepatic arterial phase (HAP) and hepatic enhancement during the portal venous phase (PVP) in a single-pass. Results The split-bolus MDCT protocol detected 208 lesions and characterized 186 (89.4%) of them: typical hemangiomas (n = 9), atypical hemangiomas (n = 3), cysts (n = 78), hypovascular (n = 93) and hypervascular (n = 3) metastases. Twenty two (10.6%) hypodense lesions were categorized as indeterminate (≤5 mm). The mean radiation dose was 24.5±6.5 millisieverts (mSv). Conclusion The designed split-bolus MDCT technique can be proposed alternatively to triphasic MDCT and in a single-pass to PVP in the initial staging and in the follow-up respectively in oncologic patients.

  8. A New Non-linear Technique for Measurement of Splitting Functions of Normal Modes of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachhai, S.; Masters, G.; Tkalcic, H.

    2014-12-01

    Normal modes are the vibrating patterns of the Earth in response to the large earthquakes. Normal mode spectra are split due to Earth's rotation, ellipticity, and heterogeneity. The normal mode splitting is visualized through splitting functions, which represent the local radial average of Earth's structure seen by a mode of vibration. The analysis of the splitting of normal modes can provide unique information about the lateral variation of the Earth's elastic properties that cannot be directly imaged in body wave tomographic images. The non-linear iterative spectral fitting of the observed complex spectra and autoregressive linear inversion have been widely utilized to compute the Earth's 3-D structure. However, the non-linear inversion requires a model of the earthquake source and the retrieved 3-D structure is sensitive to the initial constraints. In contrast, the autoregressive linear inversion does not require the source model. However, this method requires many events to achieve full convergence. In addition, significant disagreement exists between different studies because of the non-uniqueness of the problem and limitations of different methods. We thus apply the neighbourhood algorithm (NA) to measure splitting functions. The NA is an efficient model space search technique and works in two steps: In the first step, the algorithm finds all the models compatible with given data while the posterior probability density of the model parameters are obtained in the second step. The NA can address the problem of non-uniqueness by taking advantage of random sampling of the full model space. The parameter trade-offs are conveniently visualized using joint marginal distributions. In addition, structure coefficients uncertainties can be extracted from the posterior probability distribution. After demonstrating the feasibility of NA with synthetic examples, we compute the splitting functions for the mode 13S2 (sensitive to the inner core) from several large

  9. An interdisciplinary management of severely resorbed maxillary anterior ridge complicated by traumatic bite using a ridge splitting technique

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Narender Dev; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Chaudhari, Prabhat Kumar; Rathi, Shraddha

    2015-01-01

    Injury to the teeth and alveolar ridge of the maxillary anterior region due to trauma can cause severe alveolar ridge deficiency. Ridge augmentation is a valuable periodontal plastic surgical method for the correction of ridge defects for esthetic purpose. Although ridge augmentation can help to restore the ridge volume, the grafting procedures can significantly increase the patient morbidity, treatment time, and the cost. Among the ridge augmentation techniques, the ridge split procedure demonstrates many benefits such as no need for donor site, the rare risk of damage to underlying anatomical structures, less pain, and swelling. This case report presents a vertical split technique for increasing the bone volume. There was a remarkable healing and significant increase in bone volume. We have followed the case for 6 months. PMID:25810602

  10. High Strain Rate Response Testing with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwiessler, R.; Kenkmann, T.; Poelchau, M. H.; Nau, S.; Hess, S.

    2016-08-01

    We present a newly developed split Hopkinson pressure bar which is used to quantify the rate dependent uniaxial stress-strain response of rocks in the high strain rate regime as well as results of our first study on a sandstone and Carrara marble.

  11. Dosimetric comparison of split field and fixed jaw techniques for large IMRT target volumes in the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shiv P; Das, Indra J; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2011-01-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within ± 1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 ± 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 ± 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

  12. Dosimetric Comparison of Split Field and Fixed Jaw Techniques for Large IMRT Target Volumes in the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2011-04-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within {+-}1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 {+-} 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 {+-} 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

  13. Split-graft technique in neonatal heart transplant for aortic atresia.

    PubMed

    Gil-Jaurena, Juan-Miguel; González-López, María-Teresa; Pita-Fernández, Ana; Pérez-Caballero, Ramón

    2016-10-01

    We describe a neonate with aortic atresia and hypoplastic aorta, listed for heart transplant after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation resuscitation and ductal stenting. The donor aorta was detached from the graft, after an isolated arch reconstruction prior to the transplant itself in a routine fashion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of neonatal arch reconstruction before transplantation performed with grafts from the same donor in a split-way strategy.

  14. Split-graft technique in neonatal heart transplant for aortic atresia.

    PubMed

    Gil-Jaurena, Juan-Miguel; González-López, María-Teresa; Pita-Fernández, Ana; Pérez-Caballero, Ramón

    2016-10-01

    We describe a neonate with aortic atresia and hypoplastic aorta, listed for heart transplant after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation resuscitation and ductal stenting. The donor aorta was detached from the graft, after an isolated arch reconstruction prior to the transplant itself in a routine fashion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of neonatal arch reconstruction before transplantation performed with grafts from the same donor in a split-way strategy. PMID:27354464

  15. Algebraic processing technique for extracting frequency-dependent shear-wave splitting parameters in an anisotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kai-Feng; Zeng, Xin-Wu

    2011-06-01

    Based on the dual source cumulative rotation technique in the time-domain proposed by Zeng and MacBeth (1993), a new algebraic processing technique for extracting shear-wave splitting parameters from multi-component VSP data in frequency-dependent medium has been developed. By using this dual source cumulative rotation technique in the frequency-domain (DCTF), anisotropic parameters, including polarization direction of the shear-waves and timedelay between the fast and slow shear-waves, can be estimated for each frequency component in the frequency domain. It avoids the possible error which comes from using a narrow-band filter in the current commonly used method. By using synthetic seismograms, the feasibility and validity of the technique was tested and a comparison with the currently used method was also given. The results demonstrate that the shear-wave splitting parameters frequency dependence can be extracted directly from four-component seismic data using the DCTF. In the presence of larger scale fractures, substantial frequency dependence would be found in the seismic frequency range, which implies that dispersion would occur at seismic frequencies. Our study shows that shear-wave anisotropy decreases as frequency increases.

  16. Mobile terminal equipment design utilising split-loop phase-lock techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenington, P. B.; Mcgeehan, J. P.; Edwards, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The design and resultant performance of the terminal equipment in a mobile satellite system is vitally important in respect to the overall cost/performance compromise of the whole system. Improvements in system performance which also result in a reduction of the equipment cost are rare. However, this paper details a significant advance in terminal design, utilizing a novel form of 'split-loop' phase locked receiver/downconverter system to enable an accurate, stable and wide coverage terminal to be realized at a reduced cost. The system has the capability of automatically locking onto any carrier within a complete transponder, and can cope with severe amplitude modulation and fading effects.

  17. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery.Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed.All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment.Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar.

  18. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery.Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed.All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment.Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  19. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M.; Monty, Chelsea N.

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms. PMID:26824529

  20. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M; Monty, Chelsea N

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms.

  1. Splitting split supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, K.; Chiang, C.-W.

    2005-05-01

    In split supersymmetry, the supersymmetric scalar particles are all very heavy, at least at the order of 10{sup 9} GeV, but the gauginos, Higgsinos, and one of the neutral Higgs bosons remain below a TeV. Here we further split the split supersymmetry by taking the Higgsino mass parameter {mu} to be very large. In this case, the {mu} problem is avoided and we keep the wino as a dark matter candidate. A crude gauge-coupling unification is still preserved. Dark matter signals and collider phenomenology are discussed in this {mu}-split SUSY scenario. The most interesting dark matter signal is the annihilation into monochromatic photons. In colliders, chargino-pair and the associated chargino-neutralino production cross sections have a certain ratio due to gauge couplings.

  2. Employing split-band technique and Fabry Perot etalon filter to improve directly modulated fiber optical CATV system performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Patra, Ardhendu Sekhar; Wu, Hsiao-Wen; Tzeng, Shah-Jye; Ho, Wen-Jeng; Yee, Hoshin

    2008-07-01

    We proposed and demonstrated a directly modulated NTSC 77-channel fiber optical CATV transport system using split-band technique at the transmitting site and Fabry-Perot (FP) etalon filter at the receiving site to improve system performance. Good performance of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), and composite triple beat (CTB) were obtained in our proposed systems over a 100-km standard single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission. Employing a FP etalon filter in fiber optical CATV transport systems is useful in real network, as it is simple, passive, and potentially low cost. This proposed system reveals an outstanding one with simpler and more economic advantages than that of externally modulated transport system.

  3. Management of First Branchial Cleft Anomalies via a Cartilage-Splitting Technique.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Richard; Conrad, David; Field, Erin; O'Reilly, Robert

    2015-06-01

    First branchial cleft anomalies are uncommon lesions that often present as periauricular infections. They have high recurrence rates, due in part to scarring secondary to prior infections and their management. These lesions have a close relationship with the facial nerve, and most authors recommend its identification and dissection because of this relationship. Nonetheless, facial nerve palsy has been reported in up to 15% of cases. We describe a novel technique for the management of first branchial cleft anomalies. Such lesions that presented in an infra- or postauricular location were approached via an incision through the cartilage of the pinna, between the tragus and antitragus. This technique affords direct access to the lesion without the need for facial nerve dissection. Six patients were treated. Five had prior surgery, including 3 with previous attempts at excision. There were no complications. The median follow-up was 35 months. One patient developed a recurrence.

  4. [Split posterior tibial tendon transfer as a selected technique of treatment of spastic equino-varus deformity in children].

    PubMed

    Lipczyk, Zbigniew; Golański, Grzegorz; Flont, Paweł; Niedzielski, Kryspin Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    Equinovarus deformity is one of the most common deformities seen in patients with cerebral palsy. During years between 1993 and 2004 in 36 patients with cerebral palsy 46 operative procedures of split posterior tibial tendon transfer to peroneus brevis muscle were performed to correct varus deformity of the foot. Additionally equinus was corrected by lengthening lengtheninglengthening of the calcaneal tendon in 42 cases and in 4 cases by gastrocnemius recession according to Baker modification of Vulpius procedure. Children's age at the time of operation was between 3.5 and 16 years of age (average 7.5). In our cohort of 36 patients there were 10 cases of quadriplegia (28%), 12 cases of hemiplegia (33%), 12 cases of paraparesis inferior (33%) and 2 cases of monoplegia (6%). 25 patients with 34 operated feet (73.9%) reported for final examination. Follow-up period was from 18 months to 11 years (average 5.5 years). At final examination we evaluated clinical effectiveness of gait, passive and active range of movement, plantograms, and subjective evaluation of patient and patients' parents. Wearing of orthoses and orthopaedic footwear was noted. The results were divided into groups according to Green's classification. There were 67.6% of very good results, 23.6% of good results and 8.8% of poor results. Basing on our experience in treatment of spastic equinovarus deformity of the foot in children with cerebral palsy we stand, that split posterior tibial tendon transfer can bring good results and is a valuable surgical technique in treatment of equinovarus deformity. PMID:20496775

  5. Comparative evaluation of depigmentation techniques in split-mouth design with electrocautery and laser

    PubMed Central

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Thangavelu, Arthiie; Alex, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Excessive gingival pigmentation is a major esthetic concern for many people. Melanin pigmentation is known to be caused by melanin granules within the gingival epithelium. Smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. It is not a medical problem, but it feels unesthetic for the patient and particularly in patients having a very high lip/smile line. Depigmentation is not a clinical indication but a treatment of choice where esthetics is a concern and is desired by the patient. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. The present case series describes two simple and effective surgical depigmentation techniques treated with diode laser and electrosurgery. PMID:26538970

  6. Comparative evaluation of depigmentation techniques in split-mouth design with electrocautery and laser.

    PubMed

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Thangavelu, Arthiie; Alex, Sanjay

    2015-08-01

    Excessive gingival pigmentation is a major esthetic concern for many people. Melanin pigmentation is known to be caused by melanin granules within the gingival epithelium. Smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. It is not a medical problem, but it feels unesthetic for the patient and particularly in patients having a very high lip/smile line. Depigmentation is not a clinical indication but a treatment of choice where esthetics is a concern and is desired by the patient. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. The present case series describes two simple and effective surgical depigmentation techniques treated with diode laser and electrosurgery.

  7. Split liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yersiz, H; Cameron, A M; Carmody, I; Zimmerman, M A; Kelly, B S; Ghobrial, R M; Farmer, D G; Busuttil, R W

    2006-03-01

    Seventy-five thousand Americans develop organ failure each year. Fifteen percent of those on the list for transplantation die while waiting. Several possible mechanisms to expand the organ pool are being pursued including the use of extended criteria donors, living donation, and split deceased donor transplants. Cadaveric organ splitting results from improved understanding of the surgical anatomy of the liver derived from Couinaud. Early efforts focused on reduced-liver transplantation (RLT) reported by both Bismuth and Broelsch in the mid-1980s. These techniques were soon modified to create both a left lateral segment graft appropriate for a pediatric recipient and a right trisegment for an appropriately sized adult. Techniques of split liver transplantation (SLT) were also modified to create living donor liver transplantation. Pichlmayr and Bismuth reported successful split liver transplantation in 1989 and Emond reported a larger series of nine split procedures in 1990. Broelsch and Busuttil described a technical modification in which the split was performed in situ at the donor institution with surgical division completed in the heart beating cadaveric donor. In situ splitting reduces cold ischemia, simplifies identification of biliary and vascular structures, and reduces reperfusion hemorrhage. However, in situ splits require specialized skills, prolonged operating room time, and increased logistical coordination at the donor institution. At UCLA over 120 in situ splits have been performed and this technique is the default when an optimal donor is available. Split liver transplantation now accounts for 10% of adult transplantations at UCLA and 40% of pediatric transplantations.

  8. Fan-out routing and optical splitting techniques for compact optical interconnects using single-mode polymer waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Kevin L.; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2015-12-01

    Polymer waveguide (WG) S-bends are necessary for fan-out routing techniques and optical splitting in high-density optical interconnects. Designing and manufacturing of optimal S-bends are critical for minimizing optical link loss while maintaining overall size and layout constraints. Complete structural loss analysis is demonstrated theoretically and shown experimentally utilizing both radial and transitional loss in single-mode (SM) polymer WG radial arc, cosine, and raised-sine S-bend profiles. SM polymer WG straights were first fabricated to measure standard propagation loss. SM WG S-bends were fabricated incorporating straight lead-in and lead-out sections to incorporate transitional loss present in workable designs. S-bend designs were measured at different dimensions and matched to theoretical losses. Compact cosine and radial arc S-bends exhibited the lowest structure loss for low and high NA WGs, respectively. High-speed performance of SM WG straights and S-bends was measured at 10 Gbit/s demonstrating low error rate. Optical splitters designed with S-bends and tapers were also evaluated and fabricated. Trade-off between optimal loss and minimal device size is discussed.

  9. Time exponential splitting technique for the Klein-Gordon equation with Hagstrom-Warburton high-order absorbing boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Mallo, I.; Portillo, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    Klein-Gordon equations on an unbounded domain are considered in one dimensional and two dimensional cases. Numerical computation is reduced to a finite domain by using the Hagstrom-Warburton (H-W) high-order absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs). Time integration is made by means of exponential splitting schemes that are efficient and easy to implement. In this way, it is possible to achieve a negligible error due to the time integration and to study the behavior of the absorption error. Numerical experiments displaying the accuracy of the numerical solution for the two dimensional case are provided. The influence of the dispersion coefficient on the error is also studied.

  10. Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belmon, Laura S; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. Objective This study aimed to explore young adults’ opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants’ gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: “goal setting and goal reviewing,” “feedback and self-monitoring,” and “social support and social comparison.” Results Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase “goal setting and goal reviewing” and “feedback and self-monitoring,” but not for BCTs addressing “social support and social comparison.” Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality

  11. Meshless Method with Operator Splitting Technique for Transient Nonlinear Bioheat Transfer in Two-Dimensional Skin Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ze-Wei; Wang, Hui; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    A meshless numerical scheme combining the operator splitting method (OSM), the radial basis function (RBF) interpolation, and the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) is developed for solving transient nonlinear bioheat problems in two-dimensional (2D) skin tissues. In the numerical scheme, the nonlinearity caused by linear and exponential relationships of temperature-dependent blood perfusion rate (TDBPR) is taken into consideration. In the analysis, the OSM is used first to separate the Laplacian operator and the nonlinear source term, and then the second-order time-stepping schemes are employed for approximating two splitting operators to convert the original governing equation into a linear nonhomogeneous Helmholtz-type governing equation (NHGE) at each time step. Subsequently, the RBF interpolation and the MFS involving the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation are respectively employed to obtain approximated particular and homogeneous solutions of the nonhomogeneous Helmholtz-type governing equation. Finally, the full fields consisting of the particular and homogeneous solutions are enforced to fit the NHGE at interpolation points and the boundary conditions at boundary collocations for determining unknowns at each time step. The proposed method is verified by comparison of other methods. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the coefficients in the cases of a linear and an exponential relationship of TDBPR is investigated to reveal their bioheat effect on the skin tissue. PMID:25603180

  12. Influence of core design, production technique, and material selection on fracture behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal fixed dental prostheses produced using different multilayer techniques: split-file, over-pressing, and manually built-up veneers

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Deyar Jallal Hadi; Linderoth, Ewa H; Wennerberg, Ann; Vult Von Steyern, Per

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores. Materials and methods A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1–7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8–11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture. Results There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the core designs, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS® (1,806±165 N) and e.max® ZirPress (1,854±115 N) and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM® 9 (1,849±150 N) demonstrated the highest mean fracture values. Conclusion The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed cores. All veneering materials and techniques tested in the study, split-file, over-press, built-up porcelains, and glass–ceramics are, with a great safety margin, sufficient for clinical use

  13. Investigation of the influence of mallet and chisel techniques on the lingual fracture line and comparison with the use of splitter and separators during sagittal split osteotomy in cadaveric pig mandibles.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Jop P; Mensink, Gertjan; Houppermans, Pascal N W J; Frank, Michael D; van Merkesteyn, J P Richard

    2015-04-01

    In bilateral sagittal split osteotomy the proximal and distal segments of the mandible are traditionally separated using chisels. Modern modifications include prying and spreading the segments with splitters. This study investigates the lingual fracture patterns and status of the nerve after sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) using the traditional chisel technique and compares these results with earlier studies using the splitter technique. Lingual fractures after SSO in cadaveric pig mandibles were analysed using a lingual split scale and split scoring system. Iatrogenic damage to the inferior alveolar nerve was assessed. Fractures started through the caudal cortex more frequently in the chisel group. This group showed more posterior lingual fractures, although this difference was not statistically significant. Nerve damage was present in three cases in the chisel group, but was not observed in the splitter group. A trend was apparent, that SSO using the chisel technique instead of the splitter technique resulted in more posterior lingual fracture lines, although this difference was not statistically significant. Both techniques resulted in reliable lingual fracture patterns. Splitting without chisels could prevent nerve damage, therefore we propose a spreading and prying technique with splitter and separators. However, caution should be exercised when extrapolating these results to the clinic. PMID:25697050

  14. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  15. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  16. Increasing the Width of Keratinized Mucosa in Maxillary Implant Areas Using a Split Palatal Bridge Flap: Surgical Technique and 1-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Eberhard; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Sufficient soft-tissue coverage of maxillary implant sites may be difficult to achieve, especially after bone augmentation. The use of vestibular flaps moves keratinized mucosa (KM) toward the palate and may be disadvantageous for future peri-implant tissue stability. This study describes a new split palatal bridge flap (SPBF) that achieves tension-free wound closure and increases the KM width in maxillary implant areas. We began SPBF surgery with a horizontal incision in the palatal soft tissue to create a split-thickness flap. The second incision was performed perpendicular to the first, using a bridge design, at a distance of 10 to 15 mm. The superior layer can be moved crestally and sutured to cover the soft-tissue defect. The defect width was measured using a periodontal probe. The inferior layer was left exposed, and secondary wound healing created new KM in this region. This SPBF technique was performed on 37 patients. Of these, 16 patients were included in the assessment of clinical peri-implant outcomes. All of the SPBF procedures successfully resulted in a palatal regeneration of KM through secondary wound healing (mean regeneration width, 4.51 ± 1.17 mm; range, 3-6 mm). The 1-year follow-up of 16 patients revealed a mean pocket probing depth of 3.22 ± 0.6 mm with zero cases of peri-implantitis. The vestibular KM width at the involved implants was 2.82 ± 1.07 mm (range, 1.5-6 mm). Surgery for SPBF may be a promising technique for covering soft-tissue defects and increasing KM width in maxillary implant surgery.

  17. Split course interstitial brachytherapy with a source shift: the results of a new iridium implant technique versus single course implants for salvage irradiation of base of tongue cancers in 55 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Housset, M.; Baillet, F.; Delanian, S.; Brunel, P.; Maulard, C.; Michel-Langlet, P.; Huart, J.; Maylin, C.; Boisserie, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Between January 1973 and December 1984, 55 patients with prior irradiation of the oropharynx underwent salvage irradiation for recurrent (26 patients) or second cancers (29 patients) of the base of tongue. The initial irradiation had delivered from 45 to 80 Gy to the base of tongue. One of two techniques of Iridium implantation was used for salvage. Single course implants, delivering 60 Gy, were used until June 1981 in a total of 31 patients. After June 1981, split course implants with a source shift were used in 24 patients in the hope of decreasing treatment complications. The first and second course of the split course implants delivered 35 and 30 Gy, respectively, at a 1-month interval. The active lines of the second implant were placed parallel to and between the position of the lines of the first implant. This shift in the source position resulted in a more uniform dose within the treated volume with a 60% reduction in the high dose sleeves. The overall 3-year survival was 19% (28% T less than or equal to 3 cm). The overall local failure rate was 45.5% (25/55). The difference between the local failure rate after single course implants (52%) and after split course implants (37.5%) was not statistically significative. The response observed after the first course of a split course implant proved to be a reliable indication of the probability of achieving local control after a full course of treatment: 2/14 failures (14%) if the response was greater than or equal to 75% versus 7/10 (70%) if the response was less than 75%. The only complication noted in the 40 patients achieving immediate local control after either implant technique was mucosal necrosis. The introduction of split course implants was followed by a two and a half fold decrease in the incidence of necrosis: 43% (9/21) in the single course group and 16% (3/19) in the split course group.

  18. Pain related to robotic cholecystectomy with lower abdominal ports: effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique of rectus sheath block in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Choi, Jong Bum; Lee, Sook Young; Kim, Wook Hwan; Baek, Nam Hyun; Kim, Jayoun; Park, Chu Kyung; Lee, Yeon Ju; Park, Sung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Robotic cholecystectomy (RC) using port sites in the lower abdominal area (T12-L1) rather than the upper abdomen has recently been introduced as an alternative procedure for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Therefore, we investigated the time course of different components of pain and the analgesic effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique for rectus sheath block (sRSB) after RC in female patients. Methods: We randomly assigned 40 patients to undergo ultrasound-guided sRSB (RSB group, n = 20) or to not undergo any block (control group, n = 20). Pain was subdivided into 3 components: superficial wound pain, deep abdominal pain, and referred shoulder pain, which were evaluated with a numeric rating scale (from 0 to 10) at baseline (time of awakening) and at 1, 6, 9, and 24 hours postoperatively. Consumption of fentanyl and general satisfaction were also evaluated 1 hour (before discharge from the postanesthesia care unit) and 24 hours postoperatively (end of study). Results: Superficial wound pain was predominant only at awakening, and after postoperative 1 hour in the control group. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB significantly decreased superficial pain after RC (P < 0.01) and resulted in a better satisfaction score (P < 0.05) 1 hour after RC in the RSB group compared with the control group. The cumulative postoperative consumption of fentanyl at 6, 9, and 24 hours was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions: After RC with lower abdominal ports, superficial wound pain predominates over deep intra-abdominal pain and shoulder pain only at the time of awakening. Afterwards, superficial and deep pain decreased to insignificant levels in 6 hours. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB was effective only during the first hour. This limited benefit should be balanced against the time and risks entailed in performing RSB. PMID:27495072

  19. Split liver transplantation: What's unique?

    PubMed

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-09-24

    The intraoperative management of split liver transplantation (SLT) has some unique features as compared to routine whole liver transplantations. Only the liver has this special ability to regenerate that confers benefits in survival and quality of life for two instead of one by splitting livers. Primary graft dysfunction may result from small for size syndrome. Graft weight to recipient body weight ratio is significant for both trisegmental and hemiliver grafts. Intraoperative surgical techniques aim to reduce portal hyperperfusion and decrease venous portal pressure. Ischemic preconditioning can be instituted to protect against ischemic reperfusion injury which impacts graft regeneration. Advancement of the technique of SLT is essential as use of split cadaveric grafts expands the donor pool and potentially has an excellent future. PMID:26421261

  20. In-orbit performance of the ITOS improved attitude control system with Hall generator brushless motor and earth-splitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), launched ITOS-D with an improved attitude control system. A Hall generator brushless dc torque motor replaced the brush dc torque motor on Tiros-M and ITOS-A. Two CO2 attitude horizon sensors and one mirror replaced the four wideband horizon sensors and two mirrors on ITOS-1 and NOAA-1. Redundant pitch-control electronic boxes containing additional electronic circuitry for earth-splitting and brushless motor electronics were used. A method of generating a spacecraft earth-facing side reference for comparison to the time occurrence of the earth-splitting pulse was used to automatically correct pitch-attitude error. A single rotating flywheel, supported by a single bearing, provided gyroscopic stability and the required momentum interchange to keep one side of the satellite facing the earth. Magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field eliminated the requirement for expendable propellants which would limit satellite life in orbit.

  1. Thermocouple split follower

    DOEpatents

    Howell, deceased, Louis J.

    1980-01-01

    Thermoelectric generator assembly accommodating differential thermal expansion between thermoelectric elements by means of a cylindrical split follower forming a slot and having internal spring loaded wedges that permit the split follower to open and close across the slot.

  2. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.

    PubMed

    Steenen, S A; Becking, A G

    2016-07-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches.

  3. Prone split-leg position to manage encrusted ureteral stents in a single-stage procedure in women: Step-by-step surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Torricelli, Fábio César Miranda; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Srougi, Miguel; Monga, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The management of encrusted ureteral stents is costly, time consuming and may be risky for the patient and challenging for the urologist. Treatment modalities for encrusted stents include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, cystolithopaxy, rigid or flexible ureteroscopy with intracorporeal lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, open surgery, and a combination of those methods. In this study we describe the management of severe forgotten encrusted ureteral stents in 3 female patients using a prone split-leg position. This position allows us to effectively treat any site and degree of stent encrustation in a single-session approach with the patient in the same position during the whole procedure. All patients were rendered stent and stone free. No complications occurred. PMID:26279723

  4. Will Dutch Become Flemish? Autonomous Developments in Belgian Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Velde, Hans; Kissine, Mikhail; Tops, Evie; van der Harst, Sander; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a series of studies of standard Dutch pronunciation in Belgium and the Netherlands is presented. The research is based on two speech corpora: a diachronic corpus of radio speech (1935-1995) and a synchronic corpus of Belgian and Netherlandic standard Dutch from different regions at the turn of the millennium. It is shown that two…

  5. Pennsylvania Dutch Crafts and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Many people hold two common misconceptions about the Pennsylvania Dutch: first, that these people live exclusively in the state of Pennsylvania; second, that their ancestors came from Holland. However, neither assumption is correct. One can find large Pennsylvania Dutch communities in Mary land, West Virginia, Virginia, the Carolinas, Ohio,…

  6. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Buljan, Marina; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone

    2014-09-01

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  7. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    SciTech Connect

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Buljan, Marina

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  8. Tablet Splitting: A Risky Practice

    MedlinePlus

    ... and splitting tablets in an effort to save money. Regarding the practice of splitting tablets, the Food ... tablet. So a patient may try to save money by buying the 30 mg tablets and splitting ...

  9. Splitting a default theory

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents mathematical results that can sometimes be used to simplify the task of reasoning about a default theory, by {open_quotes}splitting it into parts.{close_quotes} These so-called Splitting Theorems for default logic are related in spirit to {open_quotes}partial evaluation{close_quotes} in logic programming, in which results obtained from one part of a program are used to simplify the remainder of the program. In this paper we focus primarily on the statement and proof of the Splitting Theorems for default logic. We illustrate the usefulness of the results by applying them to an example default theory for commonsense reasoning about action.

  10. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of cancers of the head and neck: Comparison of split-field and whole-field techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dabaja, Bouthaina; Salehpour, Mohammad R.; Rosen, Isaac; Tung, Sam; Morrison, William H.; Ang, K. Kian; Garden, Adam S. . E-mail: agarden@mdanderson.org

    2005-11-15

    Background: Oropharynx cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation (IMRT) are often treated with a monoisocentric or half-beam technique (HB). IMRT is delivered to the primary tumor and upper neck alone, while the lower neck is treated with a matching anterior beam. Because IMRT can treat the entire volume or whole field (WF), the primary aim of the study was to test the ability to plan cases using WF-IMRT while obtaining an optimal plan and acceptable dose distribution and also respecting normal critical structures. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with early-stage oropharynx cancers had treatment plans created with HB-IMRT and WF-IMRT techniques. Plans were deemed acceptable if they met the planning guidelines (as defined or with minor violations) of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol H0022. Comparisons included coverage to the planning target volume (PTV) of the primary (PTV66) and subclinical disease (PTV54). We also compared the ability of both techniques to respect the tolerance of critical structures. Results: The volume of PTV66 treated to >110% was less in 9 of the 13 patients in the WF-IMRT plan as compared to the HB-IMRT plan. The calculated mean volume receiving >110% for all patients planned with WF-IMRT was 9.3% (0.8%-25%) compared to 13.7% (2.7%-23.7%) with HB-IMRT (p = 0.09). The PTV54 volume receiving >110% of dose was less in 10 of the 13 patients planned with WF-IMRT compared to HB-IMRT. The mean doses to all critical structures except the larynx were comparable with each plan. The mean dose to the larynx was significantly less (p = 0.001), 18.7 Gy, with HB-IMRT compared to 47 Gy with WF-IMRT. Conclusions: Regarding target volumes, acceptable plans can be generated with either WF-IMRT or HB-IMRT. WF-IMRT has an advantage if uncertainty at the match line is a concern, whereas HB-IMRT, particularly in cases not involving the base of tongue, can achieve much lower doses to the larynx.

  11. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  12. Glass tube splitting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J. A.; Murray, C. D.; Stein, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Tool accurately splits glass tubing so cuts are aligned 180 deg apart and reassembled tube forms low pressure, gastight enclosure. Device should interest industries using cylindrical closed glass containers.

  13. Aesthetic lip splits.

    PubMed

    Hayter, J P; Vaughan, E D; Brown, J S

    1996-10-01

    Both upper and lower lip splits, usually with osteotomy of the underlying jaw, improve access to the deep structures of the head and neck. A simple modification to the midline lip split is to incorporate a chevron in both the peri-oral skin and vermilion margin. The advantages are: accurate wound closure, no straight line contracture and a broken line of the peri-oral scar. This improves the aesthetic result of the healed lip.

  14. Polarized Antenna Splitting Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2009-10-17

    We consider parton showers based on radiation from QCD dipoles or 'antennae'. These showers are built from 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting processes. The question then arises of what functions replace the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions in this approach. We give a detailed answer to this question, applicable to antenna showers in which partons carry definite helicity, and to both initial- and final-state emissions.

  15. Precision of a splitting device for water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capel, Paul D.; Nacionales, Fernando C.; Larson, Steven J.

    1995-01-01

    Two identical cone splitters, devices designed to split water and its suspended solids into equal aliquots for semi-volatile organic chemical and trace element analyses, were evaluated for their precision. The water-splitting evaluations consisted of experiments to test the effect of water volume, the effect of combining outlet ports, and the effect of different techniques of water introduction. The solids-splitting evaluations consisted of experi- ments to test the effect of particle size (nine different particle diameters ranging from very coarse sand to clay) and suspended-solids concentration. In general, water was equally split with a precision of less than 5 percent relative standard deviation. The accuracy of splitting the solids was a function of particle size. Clay, silt, and fine and medium sand were split with a precision relative standard deviation of less than 7 percent, and coarse sand was split with a relative standard deviation between 12 and 45 percent.

  16. Split liver transplantation in adults.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2016-09-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues. PMID:27672272

  17. Split liver transplantation in adults

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues.

  18. Split liver transplantation in adults

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues. PMID:27672272

  19. Split liver transplantation in adults.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2016-09-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues.

  20. Sisters in Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh-Braam, A H

    1985-11-01

    This study focuses on hospital sisters in 30 Dutch hospitals. The so-called role-set approach has been adopted. In this approach the sisters are the focal persons. Direct superiors, specialists, registered nurses and student nurses acted as role-senders. The possible number of respondents is 600 (120 of each group). The response of hospital sisters is 100%, that of role-senders 88%. The study started out as an attempt to collect background information on the causes of wastage of sisters. High wastage rates are generally regarded as an indication of an unfavourable working environment. Since hospital sisters occupy a key position in hospitals, the ward problems will be studied from their angle. Although wastage rates have dropped recently, it does not necessarily follow that the working environment has improved. Wastage is known to act as a safety valve, thus allowing tensions to resolve. The threat of unemployment clogs this outlet, which increases the tensions on the hospital ward. Data from the study show that work overload is one of the major stress factors for sisters. Analyses demonstrated that there exists a relationship between work overload and tensions with the management and direct superiors, tensions in job execution, irritableness on the ward, low self-esteem, health complaints and psychological condition. Sisters with an excessive job involvement refer to work overload more often than their moderate colleagues. There is a relationship between an unfavourable working environment and irritableness of sisters.

  1. Flux-vector splitting for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleer, Bram

    1991-01-01

    The development of flux-vector splitting through the 1970s and 1980s is reviewed. Attention is given to the diffusive nature of flux-vector splitting, which makes it an undesirable technique for approximating the inviscid fluxes in a Navier-Stokes solver. Several proposed improvements, including a brand new one, are discussed and illustrated by a simple, yet revealing, numerical test case. Finally, an outlook for flux-vector splitting in the 1990s is presented.

  2. Stabilized Zeeman split laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a stablized Zeeman split laser for use in a polarization profilometer is discussed. A Hewlett-Packard laser was modified to stabilize the Zeeman split beat frequency thereby increasing the phase measurement accuracy from the Hewlett-Packard 3 degrees to an accuracy of .01 degrees. The addition of a two layered inductive winding converts the laser to a current controlled oscillator whose frequency is linearly related to coil current. This linear relationship between coil current and laser frequency permits phase locking the laser frequency to a stable crystal controlled reference frequency. The stability of the system is examined and the equipment operation procedures are outlined.

  3. Technical Skills Required in Split Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanqiu; Li, Ruijun; Fu, Jinling; He, Qianyan; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The number of liver grafts obtained from a cadaver can be greatly increased with the application of split liver transplantation. In the last 10 years, pediatric waiting list mortality has been reduced significantly with the use of this form of liver transplantation, which has 2 major forms. In its most commonly used form, the liver can be transplanted into 1 adult and 1 child by splitting it into a right extended and a left lateral graft. For adult and pediatric recipients, the results of this procedure are comparable to those of whole-organ techniques. In another form, 2 hemi-grafts are obtained by splitting the liver, which can be transplanted into a medium-sized adult (the right side) and a large child/small adult (the left side). The adult liver graft pool is expanded through the process of full right/full left splitting; but it is also a critical technique when one considers the knowledge required of the potential anatomic variations and the high technical skill level needed. In this review, we provide some basic insights into the technical and anatomical aspects of these 2 forms of split liver transplantation and present an updated summary of both forms. PMID:27363540

  4. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  5. The Splitting Loope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Teaching experiments have generated several hypotheses concerning the construction of fraction schemes and operations and relationships among them. In particular, researchers have hypothesized that children's construction of splitting operations is crucial to their construction of more advanced fractions concepts (Steffe, 2002). The authors…

  6. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  7. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  8. The Splitting Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Piagetian theory describes mathematical development as the construction and organization of mental operations within psychological structures. Research on student learning has identified the vital roles of two particular operations--splitting and units coordination--play in students' development of advanced fractions knowledge. Whereas Steffe and…

  9. Plasmonic solar water splitting.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S. C.; Thimsen, E.

    2012-01-01

    The study of the optoelectronic effects of plasmonic metal nanoparticles on semiconductors has led to compelling evidence for plasmon-enhanced water splitting. We review the relevant physics, device geometries, and research progress in this area. We focus on localized surface plasmons and their effects on semiconductors, particularly in terms of energy transfer, scattering, and hot electron transfer.

  10. Dutch museum marks Einstein anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Matijn

    2016-01-01

    A new painting of Albert Einstein's field equation from his 1915 general theory of relativity was unveiled in a ceremony in November 2015 by the Dutch physicist Robbert Dijkgraaf, who is director of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study in the US.

  11. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review and meta-analysis of reported risk factors.

    PubMed

    Steenen, S A; van Wijk, A J; Becking, A G

    2016-08-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Patient factors predictive of a bad split reported in the literature are controversial. Suggested risk factors are reviewed in this article. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 30 studies published between 1971 and 2015 reporting the incidence of bad split and patient age, and/or surgical technique employed, and/or the presence of third molars. These included 22 retrospective cohort studies, six prospective cohort studies, one matched-pair analysis, and one case series. Spearman's rank correlation showed a statistically significant but weak correlation between increasing average age and increasing occurrence of bad splits in 18 studies (ρ=0.229; P<0.01). No comparative studies were found that assessed the incidence of bad split among the different splitting techniques. A meta-analysis pooling the effect sizes of seven cohort studies showed no significant difference in the incidence of bad split between cohorts of patients with third molars present and concomitantly removed during surgery, and patients in whom third molars were removed at least 6 months preoperatively (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.85, Z=0.64, P=0.52). In summary, there is no robust evidence to date to show that any risk factor influences the incidence of bad split.

  12. TUBE SPLITTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.

    1961-05-01

    A tool is described for cutting a coolant tube adapted to contain fuel elements to enable the tube to be removed from a graphite moderator mass. The tool splits the tube longitudinally into halves and curls the longitudinal edges of the halves inwardly so that they occupy less space and can be moved radially inwardly away from the walls of the hole in the graphite for easy removal from the graphite.

  13. Stereotypes, stepmothers, and splitting.

    PubMed

    Radomisli, M

    1981-01-01

    Asserting that preteen children cannot tolerate ambivalence, a recent study extols the "wicked stepmother" stereotype in fairy tales for providing a safe outlet for child-mother aggression. However, even theories which consider splitting normal in object-relations development see it as operating mostly before age 3. Dualistic thinking is not ubiquitous in childhood, nor is it ever outgrown. Rather, it is a mode of organizing experience mythopoetically; we learn to minimize its intrusions in dealings with day-to-day realities. There is no scientific justification for (and there are moral objections to) the propagation of the wicked stepmother stereotype.

  14. Bad split during bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible with separators: a retrospective study of 427 patients.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Gertjan; Verweij, Jop P; Frank, Michael D; Eelco Bergsma, J; Richard van Merkesteyn, J P

    2013-09-01

    An unfavourable fracture, known as a bad split, is a common operative complication in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). The reported incidence ranges from 0.5 to 5.5%/site. Since 1994 we have used sagittal splitters and separators instead of chisels for BSSO in our clinic in an attempt to prevent postoperative hypoaesthesia. Theoretically an increased percentage of bad splits could be expected with this technique. In this retrospective study we aimed to find out the incidence of bad splits associated with BSSO done with splitters and separators. We also assessed the risk factors for bad splits. The study group comprised 427 consecutive patients among whom the incidence of bad splits was 2.0%/site, which is well within the reported range. The only predictive factor for a bad split was the removal of third molars at the same time as BSSO. There was no significant association between bad splits and age, sex, class of occlusion, or the experience of the surgeon. We think that doing a BSSO with splitters and separators instead of chisels does not increase the risk of a bad split, and is therefore safe with predictable results.

  15. Naturally split inteins assemble through a "capture and collapse" mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neel H; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Cowburn, David; Muir, Tom W

    2013-12-11

    Split inteins are a class of naturally occurring proteins that carry out protein splicing in trans. The chemical mechanism of protein trans-splicing is well-understood and has been exploited to develop several powerful protein engineering technologies. Split intein chemistry is preceded by efficient molecular recognition between two protomers that become intertwined in their bound state. It is currently unclear how this unique topology is achieved upon fragment association. Using biophysical techniques in conjunction with protein engineering methods, including segmental isotopic labeling, we show that one split intein fragment is partly folded, while the other is completely disordered. These polypeptides capture each other through their disordered regions and form an ordered intermediate with native-like structure at their interface. This intermediate then collapses into the canonical intein fold. This mechanism provides insight into the evolutionary constraints on split intein assembly and should enhance the development of split intein-based technologies.

  16. Comet LINEAR Splits Further

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Third Nucleus Observed with the VLT Summary New images from the VLT show that one of the two nuclei of Comet LINEAR (C/2001 A2), now about 100 million km from the Earth, has just split into at least two pieces . The three fragments are now moving through space in nearly parallel orbits while they slowly drift apart. This comet will pass through its perihelion (nearest point to the Sun) on May 25, 2001, at a distance of about 116 million kilometres. It has brightened considerably due to the splitting of its "dirty snowball" nucleus and can now be seen with the unaided eye by observers in the southern hemisphere as a faint object in the southern constellation of Lepus (The Hare). PR Photo 18a/01 : Three nuclei of Comet LINEAR . PR Photo 18b/01 : The break-up of Comet LINEAR (false-colour). Comet LINEAR splits and brightens ESO PR Photo 18a/01 ESO PR Photo 18a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 438 pix - 55k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 875 pix - 136k] ESO PR Photo 18b/01 ESO PR Photo 18b/01 [Preview - JPEG: 367 x 400 pix - 112k] [Normal - JPEG: 734 x 800 pix - 272k] Caption : ESO PR Photo 18a/01 shows the three nuclei of Comet LINEAR (C/2001 A2). It is a reproduction of a 1-min exposure in red light, obtained in the early evening of May 16, 2001, with the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN (UT4) telescope at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 18b/01 shows the same image, but in a false-colour rendering for more clarity. The cometary fragment "B" (right) has split into "B1" and "B2" (separation about 1 arcsec, or 500 km) while fragment "A" (upper left) is considerably fainter. Technical information about these photos is available below. Comet LINEAR was discovered on January 3, 2001, and designated by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) as C/2001 A2 (see IAU Circular 7564 [1]). Six weeks ago, it was suddenly observed to brighten (IAUC 7605 [1]). Amateurs all over the world saw the comparatively faint comet reaching naked-eye magnitude and soon thereafter, observations with professional telescopes indicated

  17. Split liver transplantation: King's College Hospital experience.

    PubMed Central

    Rela, M; Vougas, V; Muiesan, P; Vilca-Melendez, H; Smyrniotis, V; Gibbs, P; Karani, J; Williams, R; Heaton, N

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of split liver transplantation is to increase the source of pediatric grafts without compromising the adult donor pool. Early results have been discouraging because of technical complications and selection of poor risk patients. METHODS: The results of a single center experience of 41 split liver transplantations were analyzed. Patient and graft survival and complications related to the technique were analyzed. RESULTS: Patient and graft survival for the whole group was 90% and 88% respectively at a median follow up of 12 months (range 6-70 months). Patient and graft survival for the right lobe graft was 95% and the left lateral segment 86% and 82% respectively. Four patients died, of which two of the patients were first two splits following technical complications. Two others died, one from cerebral lymphoma and the other of multiorgan failure secondary to sepsis. One patient has been retransplanted for chronic biliary sepsis. CONCLUSION: Split liver transplantation has now become an acceptable treatment option for both adult and pediatric recipients with end stage liver disease. Right lobe recipients are not disadvantaged by the procedure. Good results can be achieved with better patient selection and by the use of good quality organs. PMID:9488528

  18. Baryogenesis through split Higgsogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Sacha; Felipe, Ricardo González; Serôdio, Hugo; Silva, João P.

    2013-11-01

    We study the cosmological evolution of asymmetries in the two-Higgs doublet extension of the Standard Model, prior to the electroweak phase transition. If Higgs flavour-exchanging interactions are sufficiently slow, then a relative asymmetry among the Higgs doublets corresponds to an effectively conserved quantum number. Since the magnitude of the Higgs couplings depends on the choice of basis in the Higgs doublet space, we attempt to formulate basis-independent out-of-equilibrium conditions. We show that an initial asymmetry between the Higgs scalars, which could be generated by CP violation in the Higgs sector, will be transformed into a baryon asymmetry by the sphalerons, without the need of B - L violation. This novel mechanism of baryogenesis through (split) Higgsogenesis is exemplified with simple scenarios based on the out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy singlet scalar fields into the Higgs doublets.

  19. Leptogenesis from split fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Nagatani, Yukinori; Perez, Gilad

    2004-01-11

    We present a new type of leptogenesis mechanism based on a two-scalar split-fermions framework. At high temperatures the bulk scalar vacuum expectation values (VEVs) vanish and lepton number is strongly violated. Below some temperature, T{sub c}, the scalars develop extra dimension dependent VEVs. This transition is assumed to proceed via a first order phase transition. In the broken phase the fermions are localized and lepton number violation is negligible. The lepton-bulk scalar Yukawa couplings contain sizable CP phases which induce lepton production near the interface between the two phases. We provide a qualitative estimation of the resultant baryon asymmetry which agrees with current observation. The neutrino flavor parameters are accounted for by the above model with an additional approximate U(1) symmetry.

  20. Dutch and English Demonstratives: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piwek, P. L. A.; Cremers, A. H. M.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the differences between English and Dutch demonstratives and concludes that English proximate demonstratives ("this") are used when the referent is identifiable by the addressee, whereas in Dutch they are used for low-accessibility referents, as opposed to distal demonstratives ("that") that are also used for readily accessible terms. (11…

  1. Hollow core anti-resonant fibres with split cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Qi, Wenliang; Ho, Daryl; Luan, Feng; Yong, Ken-Tye; Yoo, Seongwoo

    2016-03-01

    A split cladding fibers (SCF) is proposed as an additional design to the anti-resonant type fiber. The introduced split cladding helps to reduce the fabrication distortion. We use numerical simulations to compare the Kagome fibers (KFs) and the proposed split cladding fibers (SCFs) over two normalized transmission bands. It reveals that SCFs are able to maintain the desired round shape of silica cladding walls, hence improving the confinement loss (CL) compared to the KF. Fabrication of the SCF is demonstrated by the stack-and-draw technique. The near filed mode patterns are measured to prove the feasibility of this fiber design.

  2. Longitudinal fibre splitting in muscular dystrophy: a serial cinematographic study

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Edward R.; Bradley, Walter G.; Henderson, Gerald

    1973-01-01

    A technique of block surface-staining and serial cinematography was modified to review serial sections of normal and dystrophic muscle from the Bar Harbor 129 Re strain of mice as a preliminary study of fibre splitting in dystrophic muscle. Using this technique, muscle fibres were reconstructed for up to 1·5 mm of their length without difficulty. Split fibres were identified only when the actual separation of fibres was observed. Splitting was seen to be a significant cause of the variations in fibre diameter and was at times responsible for the formation of groups of small atrophic fibres which resembled those seen in denervation atrophy. Complex multiple splitting and recombination of daughter and parent fibres was also observed and reconstructed to scale. These results may have considerable significance for the interpretation of physiological data on both human and murine dystrophic muscle. Images PMID:4753877

  3. Recoil splitting of x-ray-induced optical fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilyuk, S.; Aagren, H.; Gel'mukhanov, F.; Sun, Y.-P.; Levin, S.

    2010-03-15

    We show that the anisotropy of the recoil velocity distribution of x-ray-ionized atoms or molecules leads to observable splittings in subsequent optical fluorescence or absorption when the polarization vector of the x rays is parallel to the momentum of the fluorescent photons. The order of the magnitude of the recoil-induced splitting is about 10 {mu}eV, which can be observed using Fourier or laser-absorption spectroscopic techniques.

  4. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  5. Split-illumination electron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-07-23

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  6. Apparatus Splits Glass Tubes Longitudinally

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Ernest; Manahan, Robert O'neil

    1993-01-01

    Tubes split into half cylinders by hot-wire/thermal-shock method. Tube to be cut placed on notched jig in apparatus. Nichrome wire stretched between arms of pivoted carriage and oriented parallel to notch. Wire heated by electrical current while resting on tube. After heating for about 1 minute for each millimeter of thickness of glass, tube quenched in water and split by resulting thermal shock. Apparatus used to split tubes in sizes ranging from 3/8 in. in diameter by 1 in. long to 1 1/2 in. in diameter by 4 in. long.

  7. Semantic Parameters of Split Intransitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Valin, Jr., Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper argues that split-intransitive phenomena are better explained in semantic terms. A semantic analysis is carried out in Role and Reference Grammar, which assumes the theory of verb classification proposed in Dowty 1979. (49 references) (JL)

  8. A case against Dutch euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Fenigsen, Richard

    1989-01-01

    The growing acceptance of voluntary active euthanasia by the Dutch is examined in relation to the plastic cards requesting active euthanasia carried by many people in The Netherlands, public opinion polls, and support by leading medical figures of the movement to legalize euthanasia. The author draws upon his experience as a hospital doctor to condemn the practice of active euthanasia, arguing that its voluntariness is often counterfeit and always questionable, that it is inseparable from overtly involuntary forms of euthanasia, and that its promise of sparing the sick person agony is false. "Voluntary" euthanasia also brings an ominous change in society because of the message it sends to the elderly and sick, the weak and the dependent; because the fallibility of medical judgments are inconsistent with the irreversibility of the act; and because the fallacious reasoning of the philosophy threatens to cause irreparable damage to the medical profession.

  9. [Teledermatology within Dutch nursing homes].

    PubMed

    Lubeek, Satish F K; Mommers, Roland J M; van der Geer, Eric R; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Gerritsen, Marie-Jeanne Rianne P

    2016-06-01

    Skin problems are common within the nursing home population and could have a significant impact on quality of life. As a form of long-distance consultation teledermatology offers several potential benefits within this frail population. In this review we discuss several aspects of teledermatology, especially in relation to the nursing home population. Several studies demonstrated that teledermatology is a cost-effective and easy-to-use consultation method, which could significantly reduce the amount of hospital visits. However, teledermatology is only used in a limited number of Dutch nursing homes in daily practice due to several factors. For the optimal implementation of teledermatological consultation there are some important logistical, legal and financial framework conditions. In conclusion, teledermatology has a lot to offer within the nursing home population and therefore teledermatology will hopefully be increasingly used in daily practice within the near future. PMID:27098424

  10. Leaf trait dissimilarities between Dutch elm hybrids with a contrasting tolerance to Dutch elm disease

    PubMed Central

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Čaňová, Ingrid; Lagaňa, Rastislav; Kučerová, Veronika; Moravčík, Michal; Priwitzer, Tibor; Urban, Josef; Dvořák, Miloň; Krajňáková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies have shown that Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causative agent of Dutch elm disease (DED), is able to colonize remote areas in infected plants of Ulmus such as the leaf midrib and secondary veins. The objective of this study was to compare the performances in leaf traits between two Dutch elm hybrids ‘Groeneveld’ and ‘Dodoens’ which possess a contrasting tolerance to DED. Trait linkages were also tested with leaf mass per area (LMA) and with the reduced Young's modulus of elasticity (MOE) as a result of structural, developmental or functional linkages. Methods Measurements and comparisons were made of leaf growth traits, primary xylem density components, gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields between mature plants of ‘Groeneveld’ and ‘Dodoens’ grown under field conditions. A recently developed atomic force microscopy technique, PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical mapping, was used to reveal nanomechanical properties of the cell walls of tracheary elements such as MOE, adhesion and dissipation. Key Results ‘Dodoens’ had significantly higher values for LMA, leaf tissue thickness variables, tracheary element lumen area (A), relative hydraulic conductivity (RC), gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields. ‘Groeneveld’ had stiffer cell walls of tracheary elements, and higher values for water-use efficiency and leaf water potential. Leaves with a large carbon and nutrient investment in LMA tended to have a greater leaf thickness and a higher net photosynthetic rate, but LMA was independent of RC. Significant linkages were also found between the MOE and some vascular traits such as RC, A and the number of tracheary elements per unit area. Conclusions Strong dissimilarities in leaf trait performances were observed between the examined Dutch elm hybrids. Both hybrids were clearly separated from each other in the multivariate leaf trait space. Leaf growth, vascular and gas

  11. Dutch research reforms cause a stir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Martijn

    2015-02-01

    All 69 winners of the Spinoza prize - the highest award in Dutch science - have signed a petition against proposed reforms to the country's leading funding agency, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  12. Entropy Splitting and Numerical Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.; Djomehri, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    A rigorous stability estimate for arbitrary order of accuracy of spatial central difference schemes for initial-boundary value problems of nonlinear symmetrizable systems of hyperbolic conservation laws was established recently by Olsson and Oliger (1994) and Olsson (1995) and was applied to the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas by Gerritsen and Olsson (1996) and Gerritsen (1996). The basic building block in developing the stability estimate is a generalized energy approach based on a special splitting of the flux derivative via a convex entropy function and certain homogeneous properties. Due to some of the unique properties of the compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas, the splitting resulted in the sum of a conservative portion and a non-conservative portion of the flux derivative. hereafter referred to as the "Entropy Splitting." There are several potential desirable attributes and side benefits of the entropy splitting for the compressible Euler equations that were not fully explored in Gerritsen and Olsson. The paper has several objectives. The first is to investigate the choice of the arbitrary parameter that determines the amount of splitting and its dependence on the type of physics of current interest to computational fluid dynamics. The second is to investigate in what manner the splitting affects the nonlinear stability of the central schemes for long time integrations of unsteady flows such as in nonlinear aeroacoustics and turbulence dynamics. If numerical dissipation indeed is needed to stabilize the central scheme, can the splitting help minimize the numerical dissipation compared to its un-split cousin? Extensive numerical study on the vortex preservation capability of the splitting in conjunction with central schemes for long time integrations will be presented. The third is to study the effect of the non-conservative proportion of splitting in obtaining the correct shock location for high speed complex shock

  13. [Dutch government invests in existing biobanks].

    PubMed

    Brandsma, Margreet; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Wijmenga, Cisca; Kiemeney, Lambertus A

    2010-01-01

    Modern research, aimed at discovering factors that influence health and disease, requires large collections of data and samples. Collaboration between biobanks is therefore essential. The Dutch hub in the network of biobanks, the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-NL), is one of the major Dutch biobanking initiatives. It is sponsored by the Dutch government through the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). BBMRI-NL sets up collaboration between approximately 150 existing clinical and population biobanks in the Netherlands, and forms the link with the European BBMRI initiative. BBMRI-NL aims at enrichment and harmonization of existing Dutch biobanks, at data management and analysis, and at laying the legal, social and ethical foundations, in order to improve access and inter-operability, and to render the information and organization up to date. Other major Dutch initiatives are String of Pearls and LifeLines. Together these will create the conditions needed for Dutch researchers to further develop their strong position in the international biobanking field.

  14. Ethnic Identity, Externalizing Problem Behaviour and the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem among Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Yagmur, Sengul; Stams, Geert Jan; de Haan, Mariette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between two aspects of ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity commitment-affirmation) and externalizing problem behaviour in Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents living in the Netherlands. A total number of 345 adolescents (115…

  15. Splitting: The Development of a Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Mary-Joan

    1984-01-01

    Described the development of a scale that measures splitting as a psychological structure. The construct validity of the splitting scale is suggested by the positive relationship between splitting scores and a diagnostic measure of the narcissistic personality disorder, as well as a negative relationship between splitting scores and levels of…

  16. Split ring containment attachment device

    DOEpatents

    Sammel, Alfred G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device 10 for operatively connecting a glovebag 200 to plastic sheeting 100 covering hazardous material. The device 10 includes an inner split ring member 20 connected on one end 22 to a middle ring member 30 wherein the free end 21 of the split ring member 20 is inserted through a slit 101 in the plastic sheeting 100 to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting 100. A collar potion 41 having an outer ring portion 42 is provided with fastening means 51 for securing the device 10 together wherein the glovebag 200 is operatively connected to the collar portion 41.

  17. PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND UNALASKA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND UNALASKA FROM THE TOP OF LITTLE SOUTH AMERICA - Naval Operating Base Dutch Harbor & Fort Mears, Hill 400 Fixed Defense Battery Command Post, Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, AK

  18. 1. PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND UNALASKA FROM THE TOP OF LITTLE SOUTH AMERICA - Naval Operating Base Dutch Harbor & Fort Mears, Hill 400 Fixed Defense Battery Command Post, Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, AK

  19. Large efficiency improvements in BEAMnrc using directional bremsstrahlung splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Kawrakow, I.; Rogers, D.W.O.; Walters, B.R.B.

    2004-10-01

    The introduction into the BEAMnrc code of a new variance reduction technique, called directional bremsstrahlung splitting (DBS), is described. DBS uses a combination of interaction splitting for bremsstrahlung, annihilation, Compton scattering, pair production and photoabsorption, and Russian Roulette to achieve a much better efficiency of photon beam treatment head simulations compared to the splitting techniques already available in BEAMnrc (selective bremsstrahlung splitting, SBS, and uniform bremsstrahlung splitting, UBS). In a simulated 6 MV photon beam (10x10 cm{sup 2} field) photon fluence efficiency in the beam using DBS is over 8 times higher than with optimized SBS and over 20 times higher than with UBS, with a similar improvement in electron fluence efficiency in the beam. Total dose efficiency in a central-axis depth-dose curve improves by a factor of 6.4 over SBS at all depths in the phantom. The performance of DBS depends on the details of the accelerator being simulated. At higher energies, the relative improvement in efficiency due to DBS decreases somewhat, but is still a factor of 3.5 improvement over SBS for total dose efficiency using DBS in a simulated 18 MV photon beam. Increasing the field size of the simulated 6 MV beam to 40x40 cm{sup 2} (broad beam) causes the relative efficiency improvement of DBS to decrease by a factor of {approx_equal}1.7 but is still up to 7 times more efficient than with SBS.

  20. Split-resonator integrated-post MEMS gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A split-resonator integrated-post vibratory microgyroscope may be fabricated using micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques. The microgyroscope may include two gyroscope sections bonded together, each gyroscope section including resonator petals, electrodes, and an integrated half post. The half posts are aligned and bonded to act as a single post.

  1. Torque-Splitting Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, J.

    1991-01-01

    Geared drive train transmits torque from input shaft in equal parts along two paths in parallel, then combines torques in single output shaft. Scheme reduces load on teeth of meshing gears while furnishing redundancy to protect against failures. Such splitting and recombination of torques common in design of turbine engines.

  2. DNA barcoding of Dutch birds

    PubMed Central

    Aliabadian, Mansour; Beentjes, Kevin K.; Roselaar, C.S. (Kees); van Brandwijk, Hans; Nijman, Vincent; Vonk, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification of animal species, and has been applied in a number of studies on birds. We here sequenced the COI gene for 387 individuals of 147 species of birds from the Netherlands, with 83 species being represented by > 2 sequences. The Netherlands occupies a small geographic area and 95% of all samples were collected within a 50 km radius from one another. The intraspecific divergences averaged 0.29% among this assemblage, but most values were lower; the interspecific divergences averaged 9.54%. In all, 95% of species were represented by a unique barcode, with 6 species of gulls and skua (Larus and Stercorarius) having at least one shared barcode. This is best explained by these species representing recent radiations with ongoing hybridization. In contrast, one species, the Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca showed deep divergences, averaging 5.76% and up to 8.68% between individuals. These possibly represent two distinct taxa, S. curruca and S. blythi, both clearly separated in a haplotype network analysis. Our study adds to a growing body of DNA barcodes that have become available for birds, and shows that a DNA barcoding approach enables to identify known Dutch bird species with a very high resolution. In addition some species were flagged up for further detailed taxonomic investigation, illustrating that even in ornithologically well-known areas such as the Netherlands, more is to be learned about the birds that are present. PMID:24453549

  3. A Reference Grammar of Dutch, with Exercises and Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehringer, Carol

    This textbook provides an accessible reference grammar of the Dutch language for English-speaking students of Dutch to help consolidate their knowledge through practical exercises on a whole range of grammatical topics. It is intended both for beginners and intermediate level students. Advanced learners of Dutch wishing to review particular…

  4. Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience.

    PubMed

    Schuijer, J

    1990-01-01

    With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation.

  5. [Organization of the Dutch Cat Fancy].

    PubMed

    Gerrits, P O

    1998-11-01

    The present study of the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy' describes the organization and structure of the Dutch Cat Fancy, and is subdivided into three parts. The first part presents a survey of the number of cat clubs, date of their establishment, number of members, associated breed clubs and participation in the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy'. The second part describes the basic organization of Dutch cat clubs, including their membership, cattery registration, breed registration, exhibitions and judges, cat magazines, health care and welfare, and breed clubs. The third part focuses attention on other organizational forms such as clubs for a particular breed, seen within the Dutch Cat Fancy.

  6. The nucleon-delta splitting in the chiral quark-meson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Thomas D.; Banerjee, Manoj K.

    1986-01-01

    Cranking techniques are employed to calculate the N - Δ splitting in the chiral quark-meson model. A splitting of 322 MeV is obtained. It is determined that about 80% of the angular momentum and isospin in the model are carried by the mesons.

  7. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    PubMed

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Grooters, Hilda G; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A Sandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kampman, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Peeters, Petra H M; de Vries, Esther; Wigger, Stefan; Kiemeney, L A L M Bart

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 common types of cancer. The test provides an estimate of individual risk of a specific type of cancer and gives specific lifestyle advice that could lower that risk. This paper describes the development of the test, how it works, and its strengths and limitations.

  8. The Dutch penal law and homosexual conduct.

    PubMed

    Salden, M

    The history of changes in Dutch penal law regulating homosexual conduct since the 18th century are traced and their effects on homosexual behavior described. Changes in policies and practices regarding enforcement are reviewed. The article discusses the Dutch criminal code of 1886, the criminalization of homosexual contacts involving minors in 1911, the criminalization of male homosexuality from 1941 to 1945, and the progressive relaxation of the law since World War II, resulting in the decriminalization in 1971 of homosexual contacts involving minors and the draft in 1981 for a bill that would prohibit discrimination against homosexuals.

  9. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter A.

    1988-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described, which uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  10. Minimizing the cost of splitting in Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Juzaitis, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    A deterministic analysis of the computational cost associated with geometric splitting/Russian roulette in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations is presented. Appropriate integro-differential equations are developed for the first and second moments of the Monte Carlo tally as well as time per particle history, given that splitting with Russian roulette takes place at one (or several) internal surfaces of the geometry. The equations are solved using a standard S/sub n/ (discrete ordinates) solution technique, allowing for the prediction of computer cost (formulated as the product of sample variance and time per particle history, sigma/sup 2//sub s/tau p) associated with a given set of splitting parameters. Optimum splitting surface locations and splitting ratios are determined. Benefits of such an analysis are particularly noteworthy for transport problems in which splitting is apt to be extensively employed (e.g., deep penetration calculations).

  11. A bootstrap evaluation of the effect of data splitting on financial time series.

    PubMed

    LeBaron, B; Weigend, A S

    1998-01-01

    Exposes problems of the commonly used technique of splitting the available data into training, validation, and test sets that are held fixed, warns about drawing too strong conclusions from such static splits, and shows potential pitfalls of ignoring variability across splits. Using a bootstrap or resampling method, we compare the uncertainty in the solution stemming from the data splitting with neural-network specific uncertainties (parameter initialization, choice of number of hidden units, etc.). We present two results on data from the New York Stock Exchange. First, the variation due to different resamplings is significantly larger than the variation due to different network conditions. This result implies that it is important to not over-interpret a model (or an ensemble of models) estimated on one specific split of the data. Second, on each split, the neural-network solution with early stopping is very close to a linear model; no significant nonlinearities are extracted. PMID:18252443

  12. High efficiency beam splitting for H/sup -/ accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H/sup -/ accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H/sup -/ beam to H/sup 0/ which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ splitting of a 50 MeV H/sup -/ beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction.

  13. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waele, A. T. A. M.; Liang, W.

    2009-02-01

    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the cold finger are connected by a flexible tube. The displacer in the cold head is suspended by a spring. Its motion is pneumatically driven by the pressure oscillations generated by the compressor. In this paper we give the basic dynamic equations of split Stirling refrigerators and investigate the possibility of spontaneous mechanical oscillations if a large temperature gradient develops in the cold finger, e.g. during or after cool down. These oscillations would be superimposed on the pressure oscillations of the compressor and could ruin the cooler performance.

  14. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack....

  15. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  16. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  17. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  18. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  19. National identification of Dutch youth: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2011-06-01

    246 Dutch participants aged 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years were presented with the Strength of Identification Scale (SoIS; Barrett, 2007) and the National Identity scale based on Cultural and Historical achievements (NICH; derived from the NATID, Keillor & Hult, 1999). The study aimed to examine the extent and nature of Dutch children and adolescents' identification with The Netherlands and to explore whether changes in aspects of national identification are evident across age. Already at age 8 years children identify themselves with the Dutch nation and with increasing age national identification becomes primarily determined by the extent that participants consider themselves to be Dutch and show positive affect towards the Dutch nation. Identification on the basis of cultural and historical achievements of the Dutch people became less evident following the age of 10 years although Dutch historical and cultural achievements contributed significantly to the extent of national identification.

  20. Split ring containment attachment device

    SciTech Connect

    Sammel, A.G.

    1995-12-31

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar portion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. Hazardous material such as radioactive waste may be sealed in plastic bags for small items or wrapped in plastic sheeting for large items. Occasionally the need arises to access the hazardous material in a controlled manner, that is, while maintaining total containment. Small items could be placed entirely inside a containment glovebag. However, it may not be possible or practical to place large items inside a containment; instead, one or more glovebags could be attached to the plastic sheeting covering the hazardous material. It is this latter application for which the split ring containment attachment device is intended.

  1. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  2. The Dutch Experience with Weighted Student Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Edward B.; Ladd, Helen F.

    2010-01-01

    Weighted student funding (WSF) is used in several U.S. cities as a method for providing more funds to schools with high concentrations of disadvantaged students. The practice has been used successfully in the Netherlands since 1985. Several factors make the success of the Dutch system unlikely to transfer to the United States, including the Dutch…

  3. Dutch Universities' Joint Aid to Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education and Research in the Netherlands, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A survey is presented of the joint aid in the reconstruction of North and South Vietnam provided by Dutch universities. The hospital project, solid matter physics project, micro-electronics project, agricultural project and dentistry project are defined. (Author/PG)

  4. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  5. Dutch national rainfallradar project: a unique corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuurmans, Hanneke; Maarten Verbree, Jan; Leijnse, Hidde; van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Bierkens, Mark; van de Giesen, Nick; Gooijer, Jan; van den Houten, Gert

    2013-04-01

    Since January 2013 Dutch watermanagers have access to innovative high-quality rainfall data. This product is innovative because of the following reasons. (i) The product is developed in a 'golden triangle' construction - corporation between government, business and research institutes. (ii) Second the rainfall products are developed according to the open-source GPL license. The initiative comes from a group of water boards in the Netherlands that joined their forces to fund the development of a new rainfall product. Not only data from Dutch radar stations (as is currently done by the Dutch meteorological organization KNMI) is used but also data from radars in Germany and Belgium. After a radarcomposite is made, it is adjusted according to data from raingauges (ground truth). This results in 9 different rainfall products that give for each moment the best rainfall data. This data will be used, depending on the end-user for several applications: (i) forecasts: input for flood early warning systems, (ii) water system analysis: hydrological model input, (iii) optimization: real time control and (iv) investigation of incidents: in case of flooding, who's responsible. The latter is mainly insight in the return period of heavy rainfall events. More info (in Dutch): www.nationaleregenradar.nl

  6. Management Development from a Dutch Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paauwe, Jaap, Ed.; Williams, Roger, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Includes "Seven Key Issues for Management Development" (Paauwe, Williams); "Typology of Management Development" (Jansen, van der Velde, Mul); "Management Development at Royal Dutch/Shell" (Mahieu); "Management Development in Unilever" (Reitsma); "International Co-ordination and Management Development" (Hoeksema, de Jong); "Breaking in of New…

  7. School Leadership and Equity: Dutch Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence describing how school principals respond to the changing socioeconomic position and ethnic identities of the urban population. In this paper such empirical evidence is presented in respect of three primary school leaders in the Dutch cities of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. The schools selected were identified as…

  8. Hydrogen productivity by photosynthetic water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the field of hydrogen production by photosynthetic water splitting for both in vitro and in vivo systems. Absolute thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into energy of molecular hydrogen by intact microalgae have been measured with an original physical measuring technique using a tin-oxide semiconducting gas sensor. Thin films of microalgae comprising 5-20 cellular monolayers have been entrapped on filter paper, thereby constraining them in a well-defined circular geometry. Based on absolute light absorption of visible polychromatic illumination in the low-intensity region of the light saturation curve, conversion efficiencies of 6 to 24% have been obtained. These values are the highest ever measured for hydrogen evolution by green algae. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Alternating tip splitting in directional solidification.

    PubMed

    Utter, B; Ragnarsson, R; Bodenschatz, E

    2001-05-14

    We report experimental results on the tip splitting dynamics of seaweed growth in directional solidification of succinonitrile alloys. Despite the random appearance of the growth, a tip splitting morphology was observed in which the tip alternately splits to the left and to the right. The tip splitting frequency f was found to be related to the growth velocity V as a power law f~V1.5. This finding is consistent with the predictions of a tip splitting model that is also presented. Small anisotropies are shown to lead to different kinds of seaweed morphologies.

  10. Detection of merger and splitting of extra-tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kew, Sarah; Hanley, John

    2013-04-01

    Results from the project IMILAST (Intercomparison of mid-latitude storm diagnostics) show that, despite a wide variety in the 15 cyclone identification and tracking techniques considered, a reasonable agreement on tracks of intense cyclones can be reached, at least in the central intensifying stage of the cyclone life cycle. In contrast, diagnostics of cyclone genesis and lysis events show reduced agreement amongst the methods with genesis and lysis density maps exhibiting coherence over smaller spatial scales. Recent work by Hanley and Caballero claims that multi-centre cyclones occur more frequently as storm intensity increases, with an associated increase in the probability of spurious splittings by single-centre tracking routines. We investigate whether the methodological differences in handling of cyclone merger and splitting are responsible for the range in genesis/lysis outcomes exhibited in IMILAST results or whether other factors, such as cyclone definition, have more influence over the spread. The study is focussed on a number of selected cases of intense cyclones that undergo a clear merger or splitting. Of the methods contributing to the IMILAST project, three explicitly handle cyclone merger and splitting. In demonstrating the differences between the techniques, we explore what each approach has to offer.

  11. Do Dutch doctors communicate differently with immigrant patients than with Dutch patients?

    PubMed

    Meeuwesen, Ludwien; Harmsen, Johannes A M; Bernsen, Roos M D; Bruijnzeels, Marc A

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to gain deeper insight into relational aspects of the medical communication pattern in intercultural consultations at GP practices in the Netherlands. We ask whether there are differences in the verbal interaction of Dutch GPs with immigrant and Dutch patients. Data were drawn from 144 adult patient interviews and video observations of consultations between the patients and 31 Dutch GPs. The patient group consisted of 61 non-Western immigrants (Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Antillean, Cape Verdian) and 83 Dutch participants. Affective and instrumental aspects of verbal communication were assessed using Roter's Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Patients' cultural background was assessed by ethnicity, language proficiency, level of education, religiosity and cultural views (in terms of being more traditional or more modern). Consultations with the non-Western immigrant patients (especially those from Turkey and Morocco) were well over 2 min shorter, and the power distance between GPs and these patients was greater when compared to the Dutch patients. Major differences in verbal interaction were observed on the affective behavior dimensions, but not on the instrumental dimensions. Doctors invested more in trying to understand the immigrant patients, while in the case of Dutch patients they showed more involvement and empathy. Dutch patients seemed to be more assertive in the medical conversation. The differences are discussed in terms of patients' ethnic background, cultural views (e.g. practicing a religion) and linguistic barriers. It is concluded that attention to cultural diversity does matter, as this leads to different medical communication patterns. A two-way strategy is recommended for improving medical communication, with implications for both doctor and patient behavior. PMID:16928417

  12. Split quaternion nonlinear adaptive filtering.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Bukhari Che; Took, Clive Cheong; Mandic, Danilo P

    2010-04-01

    A split quaternion learning algorithm for the training of nonlinear finite impulse response adaptive filters for the processing of three- and four-dimensional signals is proposed. The derivation takes into account the non-commutativity of the quaternion product, an aspect neglected in the derivation of the existing learning algorithms. It is shown that the additional information taken into account by a rigorous treatment of quaternion algebra provides improved performance on hypercomplex processes. A rigorous analysis of the convergence of the proposed algorithms is also provided. Simulations on both benchmark and real-world signals support the approach.

  13. Dutch Viking TROS Aktua Special

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Footage shows the night vertical takeoff of the Viking Hollan hot air balloon. The crew is shown participating in survival technique training, boarding the plane to depart to Canada, and preparing for the vertical takeoff in the hot air balloon across the Atlantic Ocean. Scenes also include the making of the capsule for the balloon, some flight activities, and the landing of the balloon.

  14. A Statistical Survey of Sprite Streamer Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaland, R. K.; McHarg, M. G.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Liu, N.; Kanmae, T.

    2014-12-01

    A fundamental understanding of streamers includes the dynamics of streamer tip splitting. Previous work has shown that sprite streamers become wider and brighter immediately before splitting (McHarg et. al [2010].) We extend this work and present a statistical survey of sprite streamer splitting and propagation based on observations made with two intensified, high-speed, CMOS cameras with high temporal and spatial resolution. We determine the number of streamer tips present after splitting and the number of splitting events as a function of angle from the local vertical for a variety of different sprites. We also compare the relative distances between splits, as well as the streamer widths immediately preceding splitting for different sprite events. Where feasible we triangulate the altitudes of the splitting events and categorize them based on the distance, and time, from the causative lightning strike. We relate these measurements to the physical processes that may lead to streamer tip splitting. McHarg, M. G., H. C. Stenbaek-Nielsen, T. Kanmae, and R. K. Haaland (2010), Streamer tip splitting in sprites, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A00E53, doi:10.1029/2009JA014850.

  15. Modification of sagittal split ramus osteotomy to avoid unfavorable fracture around impacted third molars.

    PubMed

    Marquez, I M; Stella, J P

    1998-01-01

    The dental literature recognizes that performing sagittal ramus osteotomy when impacted third molars are present significantly increases the risk of unfavorable fractures of both the proximal and distal segments. Many articles have described how to repair unfavorable fractures of sagittal split segments, but few to date specifically address how to modify the osteotomy design to reduce the potential for unfavorable fractures. Moreover, techniques for removal of impacted third molars after the completion of a sagittal split ramus osteotomy have received little attention in the literature, yet it is obviously a common occurrence. This paper describes a modification of the sagittal split ramus osteotomy when a fully formed impacted third molar is present at the time of the sagittal ramus osteotomy. A technique is also described for removing the impacted third molar after the sagittal split is completed. Clinical experience has demonstrated these techniques to have several advantages.

  16. Flux vector splitting and approximate Newton methods. [for solution of steady Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, D. C.; Pulliam, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    In the present investigation, the basic approach is employed to view an iterative scheme as Newton's method or as a modified Newton's method. Attention is given to various modified Newton methods which can arise from differencing schemes for the Euler equations. Flux vector splitting is considered as the basic spatial differencing technique. This technique is based on the partition of a flux vector into groups which have certain properties. The Euler equations fluxes can be split into two groups, the first group having a flux Jacobian with all positive eigenvalues, and the second group having a flux Jacobian with all negative eigenvalues. Flux vector splitting based on a velocity-sound speed split is considered along with the use of numerical techniques to analyze nonlinear systems, and the steady Euler equations for quasi-one-dimensional flow in a nozzle. Results are given for steady flows with shocks.

  17. Guided wave simulation in plates using split-domain FEM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. R. Sandeep; K, Sri Harsha Reddy; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; N, Ganesan

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the quantitative comparison of A-scans obtained from the simulations of fundamental guided wave modes in a plate by split-domain Finite Element Modeling approach with the more conventional single domain FEM method. Split Approach is the computationally efficient technique that has been developed for simulating long-range guided wave propagation in complex structures with limited computation resources. This Split Approach method involves sub-domain FE modeling which involves the splitting the larger FE model into smaller sub-domain models, solving them individually and finally transferring the wave from one sub-domain to the next sub-domain. In this paper, simulations of guided wave propagation were carried out in a plate using ABAQUS® Explicit FE package. The results thus obtained by split approach were compared with conventional full model approach.

  18. Arthroscopic Anatomic Glenoid Reconstruction Without Subscapularis Split

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ivan H.; Urquhart, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The role of bone loss from the anterior glenoid in recurrent shoulder instability has been well established. We present a completely arthroscopic technique for reconstructing the anterior glenoid with distal tibial allograft and without a subscapularis split. We perform the arthroscopy in the lateral position. We measure and size an allograft distal tibial graft and place it arthroscopically. We use an inside-out medial portal to introduce the graft into the shoulder, passing it through the rotator interval and above the subscapularis. A double-cannula system is used to pass the graft, which is temporarily fixed with K-wires and held in place with cannulated screws. We then perform a Bankart-like repair of the soft tissues to balance the shoulder and augment our repair. Our technique is not only anatomic in the re-creation of the glenoid surface but also anatomic in the preservation of the coracoid and subscapularis tendon and repair of the capsulolabral complex. PMID:26697303

  19. Development of new flux splitting schemes. [computational fluid dynamics algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Maximizing both accuracy and efficiency has been the primary objective in designing a numerical algorithm for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is especially important for solutions of complex three dimensional systems of Navier-Stokes equations which often include turbulence modeling and chemistry effects. Recently, upwind schemes have been well received for their capability in resolving discontinuities. With this in mind, presented are two new flux splitting techniques for upwind differencing. The first method is based on High-Order Polynomial Expansions (HOPE) of the mass flux vector. The second new flux splitting is based on the Advection Upwind Splitting Method (AUSM). The calculation of the hypersonic conical flow demonstrates the accuracy of the splitting in resolving the flow in the presence of strong gradients. A second series of tests involving the two dimensional inviscid flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil demonstrates the ability of the AUSM to resolve the shock discontinuity at transonic speed. A third case calculates a series of supersonic flows over a circular cylinder. Finally, the fourth case deals with tests of a two dimensional shock wave/boundary layer interaction.

  20. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  1. Gauge mediated mini-split

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Timothy; Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon

    2016-03-01

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ- b μ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 105 to 108 GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  2. Dark matter from split seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2010-09-01

    The seesaw mechanism in models with extra dimensions is shown to be generically consistent with a broad range of Majorana masses. The resulting democracy of scales implies that the seesaw mechanism can naturally explain the smallness of neutrino masses for an arbitrarily small right-handed neutrino mass. If the scales of the seesaw parameters are split, with two right-handed neutrinos at a high scale and one at a keV scale, one can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, as well as dark matter. The dark matter candidate, a sterile right-handed neutrino with mass of several keV, can account for the observed pulsar velocities and for the recent data from Chandra X-ray Observatory, which suggest the existence of a 5 keV sterile right-handed neutrino.

  3. Dephasing in coherently split quasicondensates

    SciTech Connect

    Stimming, H.-P.; Mauser, N. J.; Mazets, I. E.

    2011-02-15

    We numerically model the evolution of a pair of coherently split quasicondensates. A truly one-dimensional case is assumed, so that the loss of the (initially high) coherence between the two quasicondensates is due to dephasing only, but not due to the violation of integrability and subsequent thermalization (which are excluded from the present model). We confirm the subexponential time evolution of the coherence between two quasicondensates {proportional_to}exp[-(t/t{sub 0}){sup 2/3}], experimentally observed by Hofferberth et al. [Nature 449, 324 (2007)]. The characteristic time t{sub 0} is found to scale as the square of the ratio of the linear density of a quasicondensate to its temperature, and we analyze the full distribution function of the interference contrast and the decay of the phase correlation.

  4. Split Immunological Tolerance to Trophoblast

    PubMed Central

    de Mestre, Amanda; Noronha, Leela; Wagner, Bettina; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Split immunological tolerance refers to states in which an individual is capable of mounting certain types of immune responses to a particular antigenic challenge, but is tolerant of the same antigen in other compartments of the immune system. This concept is applicable to the immunological relationship between mother and fetus, and particularly relevant in equine pregnancy. In pregnant mares, antibody responses to paternal foreign Major Histocompatibility Complex class I antigens are robust, while anti-paternal cytotoxic T cell responses are diminished compared to those mounted by non-pregnant mares. Here we compared the distribution of the major lymphocyte subsets, the percentage of lymphocytes expressing Interferon Gamma (IFNG) and Interleukin 4 (IL4) and the level of expression of the immunoregulatory transcription factor FOXP3 between pregnant and non-pregnant mares, and between peripheral blood and the endometrium during pregnancy. In a cohort of mares in which peripheral blood lymphocytes were tested during early pregnancy and in the non-pregnant state, there were only slight changes observed during pregnancy. In contrast, comparison of peripheral blood lymphocytes with lymphocytes isolated from the endometrial cups of pregnant mares revealed striking differences in lymphocyte sub-populations. The endometrial cups contained higher numbers of IFNG+ lymphocytes, and lower numbers of lymphocytes expressing IL4. The endometrial cup lymphocytes also had higher numbers of FOXP3+ cells compared to peripheral blood lymphocytes. Taken together, these results strengthen the evidence for a state of split tolerance to trophoblast, and furthermore define sharp differences in immune reactivity during equine pregnancy between peripheral blood lymphocytes and lymphocytes at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:19876828

  5. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  6. A Split-Root Technique for Measuring Root Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Kingsley B.; Rawlins, Stephen L.

    1981-01-01

    Water encounters various resistances in moving along a path of decreasing potential energy from the soil through the plant to the atmosphere. The reported relative magnitudes of these pathway resistances vary widely and often these results are conflicting. One reason for such inconsistency is the difficulty in measuring the potential drop across various segments of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The measurement of water potentials at the soil-root interface and in the root xylem of a transpiring plant remains a challenging problem. In the divided root experiment reported here, the measured water potential of an enclosed, nonabsorbing branch of the root system of young corn (Bonanza) plants to infer the water potential of the remaining roots growing in soil was used. The selected root branch of the seedling was grown in a specially constructed Teflon test tube into which a screen-enclosed thermocouple psychrometer was inserted and sealed to monitor the root's water potential. The root and its surrounding atmosphere were assumed to be in vapor equilibrium. Images PMID:16661886

  7. Split-bolus MR urography: synchronous visualization of obstructing vessels and collecting system in children

    PubMed Central

    Battal, Bilal; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Akgün, Veysel; İnce, Selami; Gök, Faysal; Taşar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Several vascular abnormalities related with urinary system such as crossing accessory renal vessels, retroiliac ureters, retrocaval ureters, posterior nutcracker syndrome, and ovarian vein syndrome may be responsible for urinary collecting system obstruction. Split-bolus magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using contrast material as two separate bolus injections provides superior demonstration of the collecting system and obstructing vascular anomalies simultaneously and enables accurate preoperative radiologic diagnosis. In this pictorial review we aimed to outline the split-bolus MRU technique in children, list the coexisting congenital collecting system and vascular abnormalities, and exhibit the split-bolus MRU appearances of concurrent urinary collecting system and vascular abnormalities. PMID:26359874

  8. The master patient index: split patient records.

    PubMed

    Wieners, W; Stewart, S P

    1988-11-01

    Systems integrators have overlooked the potential for corrupting the medical-record database through the creation of multiple (split) records for the individual patient. This article introduces a computer software technology that has been used at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Medical Center to identify split patient records.

  9. Precision aligned split V-block

    DOEpatents

    George, Irwin S.

    1984-01-01

    A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

  10. Splitting and Projection at Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Gerald; James, Chris; Jones, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report research into the social defence of splitting and projection in schools. In splitting and projection, organisational members separate their unbearable feelings from the more acceptable ones and project them, typically towards other individuals and groups. Design/methodology/approach: The research was…

  11. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  12. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  13. SMART: Unique Splitting-While-Merging Framework for Gene Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Fa, Rui; Roberts, David J.; Nandi, Asoke K.

    2014-01-01

    Successful clustering algorithms are highly dependent on parameter settings. The clustering performance degrades significantly unless parameters are properly set, and yet, it is difficult to set these parameters a priori. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a unique splitting-while-merging clustering framework, named “splitting merging awareness tactics” (SMART), which does not require any a priori knowledge of either the number of clusters or even the possible range of this number. Unlike existing self-splitting algorithms, which over-cluster the dataset to a large number of clusters and then merge some similar clusters, our framework has the ability to split and merge clusters automatically during the process and produces the the most reliable clustering results, by intrinsically integrating many clustering techniques and tasks. The SMART framework is implemented with two distinct clustering paradigms in two algorithms: competitive learning and finite mixture model. Nevertheless, within the proposed SMART framework, many other algorithms can be derived for different clustering paradigms. The minimum message length algorithm is integrated into the framework as the clustering selection criterion. The usefulness of the SMART framework and its algorithms is tested in demonstration datasets and simulated gene expression datasets. Moreover, two real microarray gene expression datasets are studied using this approach. Based on the performance of many metrics, all numerical results show that SMART is superior to compared existing self-splitting algorithms and traditional algorithms. Three main properties of the proposed SMART framework are summarized as: (1) needing no parameters dependent on the respective dataset or a priori knowledge about the datasets, (2) extendible to many different applications, (3) offering superior performance compared with counterpart algorithms. PMID:24714159

  14. Verb inflection in Monolingual Dutch and Sequential Bilingual Turkish-Dutch Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; De Jong, Jan; Orgassa, Antje; Baker, Anne; Weerman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Both children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children who acquire a second language (L2) make errors with verb inflection. This overlap between SLI and L2 raises the question if verb inflection can discriminate between L2 children with and without SLI. In this study we addressed this question for Dutch. The secondary goal of the study…

  15. Do Hebrew Electronic Books Differ from Dutch Electronic Books? A Replication of a Dutch Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina

    2004-01-01

    This replication study of Hebrew versus Dutch electronic books for young children was based on De Jong & Bus's content analysis, which explored whether e-books are appropriate supports for young children's literacy development. Our criteria for analysing 43 Hebrew e-books for young children included book processing, multimedia in pictures,…

  16. Splitting parameter yield (SPY): A program for semiautomatic analysis of shear-wave splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccarelli, Lucia; Bianco, Francesca; Zaccarelli, Riccardo

    2012-03-01

    SPY is a Matlab algorithm that analyzes seismic waveforms in a semiautomatic way, providing estimates of the two observables of the anisotropy: the shear-wave splitting parameters. We chose to exploit those computational processes that require less intervention by the user, gaining objectivity and reliability as a result. The algorithm joins the covariance matrix and the cross-correlation techniques, and all the computation steps are interspersed by several automatic checks intended to verify the reliability of the yields. The resulting semiautomation generates two new advantages in the field of anisotropy studies: handling a huge amount of data at the same time, and comparing different yields. From this perspective, SPY has been developed in the Matlab environment, which is widespread, versatile, and user-friendly. Our intention is to provide the scientific community with a new monitoring tool for tracking the temporal variations of the crustal stress field.

  17. Comparison of dust related respiratory effects in Dutch and Canadian grain handling industries: a pooled analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Peelen, S J; Heederik, D; Dimich-Ward, H D; Chan-Yeung, M; Kennedy, S M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Four previously conducted epidemiological studies in more than 1200 grain workers were used to compare exposure-response relations between exposure to grain dust and respiratory health. METHODS: The studies included Dutch workers from an animal feed mill and a transfer grain elevator and Canadian workers from a terminal grain elevator and the docks. Relations between forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and exposure were analysed with multiple regression analysis corrected for smoking, age, and height. Exposure variables examined included cumulative and current dust exposure and the numbers of years a subject was employed in the industry. Sampling efficiencies of the Dutch and Canadian measurement techniques were compared in a pilot study. Results of this study were used to correct slopes of exposure-response relations for differences in dust fractions sampled by Dutch and Canadian personal dust samplers. RESULTS: Negative exposure-response relations were shown for regressions of FEV1 on cumulative and current exposure and years employed. Slopes of the exposure-response relations differed by a factor of three to five between industries, apart from results for cumulative exposure. Here the variation in slopes differed by a factor of 100, from -1 to -0.009 ml/mg.y/m3. The variation in slopes between industries reduced to between twofold to fivefold when the Dutch transfer elevator workers were not considered. There was evidence that the small exposure-response slope found for this group is caused by misclassification of exposure and a strong healthy worker effect. Alternative, but less likely explanations for the variation in slopes were differences in exposure concentrations, composition of grain dust, exposure characteristics, and measurement techniques. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study showed moderately similar negative exposure-response relations for four different populations from different countries, despite differences in methods of

  18. Dutch Elementary School Children's Attribution of Meaning to Written Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellings, Agnes; Bouts, Lex

    2011-01-01

    Grade two through six elementary school Dutch children were asked to perform a lexical decision task including 90 pseudowords constructed by changing one or two letters in a Dutch word. Subsequently, the children were asked about the meaning of pseudowords they had not crossed out and that they, apparently, had considered to be words. Multiple…

  19. National Identification of Dutch Youth: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2011-01-01

    246 Dutch participants aged 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years were presented with the Strength of Identification Scale (SoIS; Barrett, 2007) and the National Identity scale based on Cultural and Historical achievements (NICH; derived from the NATID, Keillor & Hult, 1999). The study aimed to examine the extent and nature of Dutch children and…

  20. Units of Analysis in Reading Dutch Bisyllabic Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert; Baayen, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to explore the units of analysis used by children to read Dutch bisyllabic pseudowords. Although Dutch orthography is highly regular, several deviations from a one-to-one correspondence occur. In polysyllabic words, the grapheme e may represent three different vowels: /e/, /e/, or [/schwa/]. In Experiment 1, Grade…

  1. Parental Reports of Symptoms of Childhood Disorders in Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Van der Ploeg, Jan D.; Van den Bergh, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of children displaying childhood disorders in the Netherlands is estimated through a questionnaire referencing DSM-IV symptoms filled out by the parents of 2,563 4-18-year-old Dutch children randomly taken from the general Dutch Youth population in 2004. The number of impaired children was estimated by applying the DSM-IV criteria for…

  2. Neural Correlates of Dutch Verb Second in Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Hoogduin, Hans; Stowe, Laurie A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2008-01-01

    Dutch speakers with agrammatic Broca's aphasia are known to have problems with the production of finite verbs in main clauses. This performance pattern has been accounted for in terms of the specific syntactic complexity of the Dutch main clause structure, which requires an extra syntactic operation (Verb Second), relative to the basic…

  3. The Dutch Are Missing in the American Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claunch, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch are missing in any U.S. history textbook, in the content standards, and in the nationally endorsed curriculum. Outside of New York State history classes, there is almost no mention of the Dutch influence in early 17th-century America. Fleeting references to the Netherlands as a staging area for the Pilgrims' famous "Mayflower" voyage or…

  4. The Electrophysiological Manifestation of Dutch Verb Second Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the processing of violations of the verb position in Dutch, in a group of healthy subjects, by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) through electroencephalography (EEG). In Dutch, the base position of the verb is clause final, but in matrix clauses, the finite verb is in second position, a construction known as "Verb Second".…

  5. Prefix Identification in the Reading of Dutch Bisyllabic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert; Haarman, Vera

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to explore the role of prefix identification in the reading of Dutch bisyllabic words. Although Dutch orthography is highly regular, several deviations from a one-to-one correspondence exist. A case in point is the grapheme E which can represent the vowels epsilon, e and oe in polysyllabic words. In…

  6. Spinous Process-Splitting Hemilaminoplasty for Intradural and Extradural Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Seok; Park, Seung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe a novel spinous process-splitting hemilaminoplasty technique for the surgical treatment of intradural and posterior epidural lesions that promotes physiological restoration. Methods The spinous process was split, the area of the facet lamina junction was drilled, and en bloc hemilaminectomy was then performed. After removing intradural and posterior epidural lesions, we fitted the previously en bloc-removed bone to the pre-surgery same shape, and held it in place with non-absorbable sutures. Surgery was performed on 16 laminas from a total of nine patients between 2011 and 2014. Bony union of the reconstructed lamina was assessed using computed tomography (CT) at 6 months after surgery. Results Spinous process-slitting hemilaminoplasty was performed for intradural extramedullary tumors in eight patients and for ossification of the ligament flavum in one patient. Because we were able to visualize the margin of the ipsilateral and contralateral dura, we were able to secure space for removal of the lesion and closure of the dura. None of the cases showed spinal deformity or other complications. Bone fusion and maintenance of the spinal canal were found to be perfect on CT scans. Conclusion The spinous process-splitting hemilaminoplasty technique presented here was successful in creating sufficient space to remove intradural and posterior epidural lesions and to close the dura. Furthermore, we were able to maintain the physiological barrier and integrity after surgery because the posterior musculature and bone structures were restored. PMID:26713155

  7. Lightweight electrical connector split backshell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Elliot (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electrical connector split backshell is provided, comprising two substantially identical backshell halves. Each half includes a first side and a cam projecting therefrom along an axis perpendicular thereto, the cam having an alignment tooth with a constant radius and an engagement section with a radius that increases with angular distance from the alignment tooth. Each half further includes a second side parallel to the first side and a circular sector opening disposed in the second side, the circular sector opening including an inner surface configured as a ramp with a constant radius, the ramp being configured to engage with an engagement section of a cam of the other half, the circular sector opening further including a relieved pocket configured to receive an alignment tooth of the cam of the other half. Each half further includes a back side perpendicular to the first and second sides and a wire bundle notch disposed in the back side, the wire bundle notch configured to align with a wire bundle notch of the other half to form a wire bundle opening. The two substantially identical halves are rotatably coupled by engaging the engagement section of each half to the ramp of the other half.

  8. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; James, Darryl L.

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  9. Process for photosynthetically splitting water

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-01-28

    In one form of the invention, hydrogen is produced by providing a reactor containing a body of water. The water contains photolytic material, i.e., photoactive material containing a hydrogen-catalyst. The interior of the reactor is isolated from atmosphere and includes a volume for receiving gases evolved from the body of water. The photolytic material is exposed to light to effect photosynthetic splitting of the water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. The gas-receiving volume is continuously evacuated by pumping to promote evolution of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen into that volume and to withdraw them therefrom. In another form of the invention, separation of the hydrogen and oxygen is effected by selectively diffusing the hydrogen through a heated semipermeable membrane in a separation zone while maintaining across the zone a magnetic field gradient biasing the oxygen away from the membrane. In a third form of the invention, the withdrawn gas is contacted with a membrane blocking flow of water vapor to the region for effecting recovery of the hydrogen. In a fourth embodiment, the invention comprises a process for selectively recovering hydrogen from a gas mixture comprising hydrogen and oxygen. The process is conducted in a separation zone and comprises contacting the mixture with a semipermeable membrane effecting selective diffusion of hydrogen while maintaining across the zone a magnetic field gradient effecting movement of oxygen in a direction away from the membrane.

  10. Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gangjun; Jia, Yali; Pechauer, Alex D; Chandwani, Rahul; Huang, David

    2016-08-01

    A phase gradient angiography (PGA) method is proposed for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This method allows the use of phase information to map the microvasculature in tissue without the correction of bulk motion and laser trigger jitter induced phase artifacts. PGA can also be combined with the amplitude/intensity to improve the performance. Split-spectrum technique can further increase the signal to noise ratio by more than two times. In-vivo imaging of human retinal circulation is shown with a 70 kHz, 840 nm spectral domain OCT system and a 200 kHz, 1050 nm swept source OCT system. Four different OCT angiography methods are compared. The best performance was achieved with split-spectrum amplitude and phase-gradient angiography. PMID:27570689

  11. Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Jia, Yali; Pechauer, Alex D.; Chandwani, Rahul; Huang, David

    2016-01-01

    A phase gradient angiography (PGA) method is proposed for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This method allows the use of phase information to map the microvasculature in tissue without the correction of bulk motion and laser trigger jitter induced phase artifacts. PGA can also be combined with the amplitude/intensity to improve the performance. Split-spectrum technique can further increase the signal to noise ratio by more than two times. In-vivo imaging of human retinal circulation is shown with a 70 kHz, 840 nm spectral domain OCT system and a 200 kHz, 1050 nm swept source OCT system. Four different OCT angiography methods are compared. The best performance was achieved with split-spectrum amplitude and phase-gradient angiography. PMID:27570689

  12. Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2009-09-08

    The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).

  13. Splitting embryos on the slippery slope: ethics and public policy.

    PubMed

    Macklin, Ruth

    1994-09-01

    Neither the George Washington University embryo splitting experiment nor the technique of embryo splitting itself has ethical flaws. The experiment harmed or wronged no one, and the investigators followed intramural review procedures for the experiment, although some might fault them for failing to seek extramural consultation or for not waiting until national guidelines for research on preembryos were developed. Ethical objections to such cloning on the basis of possible loss of individuality, possible lessening of individual worth, and concern about potential harm to the resulting children are discussed and challenged, as are objections to the creation of embryos for the purpose of genetic diagnosis. Many of the ethical questions raised by the George Washington experiment are similar to those posed by existing reproductive technologies that allow the simultaneous production of several embryos. A multidisciplinary group should consider whether regulation of cloning is needed, and laws should be enacted to prohibit a commercial market for all frozen embryos.

  14. Current status and perspectives in split liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lauterio, Andrea; Di Sandro, Stefano; Concone, Giacomo; De Carlis, Riccardo; Giacomoni, Alessandro; De Carlis, Luciano

    2015-10-21

    Growing experience with the liver splitting technique and favorable results equivalent to those of whole liver transplant have led to wider application of split liver transplantation (SLT) for adult and pediatric recipients in the last decade. Conversely, SLT for two adult recipients remains a challenging surgical procedure and outcomes have yet to improve. Differences in organ shortages together with religious and ethical issues related to cadaveric organ donation have had an impact on the worldwide distribution of SLT. Despite technical refinements and a better understanding of the complex liver anatomy, SLT remains a technically and logistically demanding surgical procedure. This article reviews the surgical and clinical advances in this field of liver transplantation focusing on the role of SLT and the issues that may lead a further expansion of this complex surgical procedure. PMID:26494957

  15. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'. PMID:23707157

  16. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N.

    2016-09-01

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν2 bending mode starting with 4ν2.

  17. Budgeted phylogenetic diversity on circular split systems.

    PubMed

    Minh, Bui Quang; Pardi, Fabio; Klaere, Steffen; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2009-01-01

    In the last 15 years, Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) has gained interest in the community of conservation biologists as a surrogate measure for assessing biodiversity. We have recently proposed two approaches to select taxa for maximizing PD, namely PD with budget constraints and PD on split systems. In this paper, we will unify these two strategies and present a dynamic programming algorithm to solve the unified framework of selecting taxa with maximal PD under budget constraints on circular split systems. An improved algorithm will also be given if the underlying split system is a tree.

  18. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N

    2016-09-01

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν2 bending mode starting with 4ν2. PMID:27608982

  19. A Crater Split In Two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 23 September 2003

    A 22 km-diameter crater has been sliced by the tectonic forces that produced the rift known as Sirenum Fossae. The orientation of this rift is roughly radial to the great Tharsis volcano Arsia Mons, probably indicating a link between the formation of the rift and the volcano. Note how the rift cuts through a jumble of mounds on the floor of the crater. This indicates a sequence of events beginning with the formation of the crater followed by an infilling of material that was then eroded into the mounds and ultimately split open by the shifting martian crust.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -29.7, Longitude 211.7 East (148.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces.

  1. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces. PMID:27625978

  2. Two-phase slug flow splitting phenomenon at a regular horizontal side-arm tee

    SciTech Connect

    Arirachakaran, S.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of two-phase slug flow splitting at a regular horizontal side-arm tee was performed. A new test facility was designed and constructed, suitable for acquiring pertinent slug flow splitting data. Elaborate measurement techniques and sophisticated instrumentation and computerized data acquisition system were implemented to assure high-quality data for this complex flow pattern. Splitting data were acquired for a wide range of slug flow conditions. Data analysis showed a steep-slope trend, exhibited by the splitting curves. Under these conditions, liquid preferentially flows into the run arm due to its high inertia forces associated with slug flow. A model which describes preferential liquid movement under slug flow conditions in a regular horizontal pipe tee has been developed from physical principles. The model consists of two splitting mechanisms. These include the Breaking-of-a-Dam mechanism for the slug body, and the Equilibrium Stratified Film concept for the gas pocket-liquid film region. The proposed slug flow splitting model along with other published splitting prediction methods are tested against new data acquired in the present study, and additional data available in the literature. Good agreement was found between the proposed model and the data. The present model also outperforms other available methods.

  3. Structural basis of photosynthetic water-splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Jian-Ren; Kawakami, Keisuke; Kamiya, Nobuo

    2013-12-10

    Photosynthetic water-splitting takes place in photosystem II (PSII), a membrane protein complex consisting of 20 subunits with an overall molecular mass of 350 kDa. The light-induced water-splitting reaction catalyzed by PSII not only converts light energy into biologically useful chemical energy, but also provides us with oxygen indispensible for sustaining oxygenic life on the earth. We have solved the structure of PSII at a 1.9 Å resolution, from which, the detailed structure of the Mn{sub 4}CaO{sub 5}-cluster, the catalytic center for water-splitting, became clear. Based on the structure of PSII at the atomic resolution, possible mechanism of light-induced water-splitting was discussed.

  4. Divided Opinions on the Split Fovea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Andrew W.; Brysbaert, Marc

    2010-01-01

    We explain once again the distinction between the "split fovea theory" and the "bilateral projection theory", and consider the implications of the two theories for understanding the processing of centrally fixated words and faces.

  5. Solar activity and oscillation frequency splittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Solar p-mode frequency splittings, parameterized by the coefficients through order N = 12 of a Legendre polynomial expansion of the mode frequencies as a function of m/L, were obtained from an analysis of helioseismology data taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the 4 years 1986 and 1988-1990 (approximately solar minimum to maximum). Inversion of the even-index splitting coefficients confirms that there is a significant contribution to the frequency splittings originating near the solar poles. The strength of the polar contribution is anti correlated with the overall level or solar activity in the active latitudes, suggesting a relation to polar faculae. From an analysis of the odd-index splitting coefficients we infer an uppor limit to changes in the solar equatorial near-surface rotatinal velocity of less than 1.9 m/s (3 sigma limit) between solar minimum and maximum.

  6. Supramolecular Control over Split-Luciferase Complementation.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Ralph P G; Briels, Jeroen M; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; de Greef, Tom F A; Merkx, Maarten; Brunsveld, Luc

    2016-07-25

    Supramolecular split-enzyme complementation restores enzymatic activity and allows for on-off switching. Split-luciferase fragment pairs were provided with an N-terminal FGG sequence and screened for complementation through host-guest binding to cucurbit[8]uril (Q8). Split-luciferase heterocomplex formation was induced in a Q8 concentration dependent manner, resulting in a 20-fold upregulation of luciferase activity. Supramolecular split-luciferase complementation was fully reversible, as revealed by using two types of Q8 inhibitors. Competition studies with the weak-binding FGG peptide revealed a 300-fold enhanced stability for the formation of the ternary heterocomplex compared to binding of two of the same fragments to Q8. Stochiometric binding by the potent inhibitor memantine could be used for repeated cycling of luciferase activation and deactivation in conjunction with Q8, providing a versatile module for in vitro supramolecular signaling networks.

  7. Splitting automorphisms of free Burnside groups

    SciTech Connect

    Atabekyan, Varuzhan S

    2013-02-28

    It is proved that, if the order of a splitting automorphism of odd period n{>=}1003 of a free Burnside group B(m,n) is a prime, then the automorphism is inner. This implies, for every prime n{>=}1009, an affirmative answer to the question on the coincidence of the splitting automorphisms of period n of the group B(m,n) with the inner automorphisms (this question was posed in the 'Kourovka Notebook' in 1990). Bibliography: 17 titles.

  8. Antenna Splitting Functions for Massive Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    An antenna shower is a parton shower in which the basic move is a color-coherent 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting process. In this paper, we give compact forms for the spin-dependent antenna splitting functions involving massive partons of spin 0 and spin 1/2. We hope that this formalism we have presented will be useful in describing the QCD dynamics of the top quark and other heavy particles at LHC.

  9. Ray splitting in paraxial optical cavities.

    PubMed

    Puentes, G; Aiello, A; Woerdman, J P

    2004-03-01

    We present a numerical investigation of the ray dynamics in a paraxial optical cavity when a ray-splitting mechanism is present. The cavity is a conventional two-mirror stable resonator and the ray splitting is achieved by inserting an optical beam splitter perpendicular to the cavity axis. We show that depending on the position of the beam splitter the optical resonator can become unstable and the ray dynamics displays a positive Lyapunov exponent. PMID:15089394

  10. Spontaneous splitting of a quadruply charged vortex.

    PubMed

    Isoshima, T; Okano, M; Yasuda, H; Kasa, K; Huhtamäki, J A M; Kumakura, M; Takahashi, Y

    2007-11-16

    We studied the splitting instability of a quadruply charged vortex both experimentally and theoretically. The density defect, which is a signature of the vortex core, is experimentally observed to deform into a linear shape. The deformed defect is theoretically confirmed to be an array of four linearly aligned singly charged vortices. The array of vortices rotates and precesses simultaneously with different angular velocities. The initial state of the system is not rotationally symmetric, which enables spontaneous splitting without external perturbations. PMID:18233124

  11. Spontaneous Splitting of a Quadruply Charged Vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Isoshima, T.; Okano, M.; Yasuda, H.; Kasa, K.; Huhtamaeki, J. A. M.; Kumakura, M.; Takahashi, Y.

    2007-11-16

    We studied the splitting instability of a quadruply charged vortex both experimentally and theoretically. The density defect, which is a signature of the vortex core, is experimentally observed to deform into a linear shape. The deformed defect is theoretically confirmed to be an array of four linearly aligned singly charged vortices. The array of vortices rotates and precesses simultaneously with different angular velocities. The initial state of the system is not rotationally symmetric, which enables spontaneous splitting without external perturbations.

  12. An experimental investigation of bubble splitting in a bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Andres; Bull, Joseph L.

    2003-11-01

    It is possible to "starve" cancerous tumors to death by restricting their blood flow. We are investigating a novel gas embolotherapy technique for occluding blood vessels using perfluorocarbon (PFC) bubbles that are produced by the acoustic vaporization of liquid droplets. The droplets are small enough to pass through the microcirculation, but the bubbles are large enough to become stuck and occlude flow. A homogenous distribution of bubbles in the tumor vasculature will occur if bubbles split evenly at bifurcations and will result in uniform occlusion of blood flow to the tumor. These experiments investigate the effects of roll angle, capillary number, and bubble volume on the splitting of bubbles as they pass through a symmetric bifurcation. The bifurcation was designed to match Reynolds, Bond and capillary numbers to the physiologic values for arteries and arterioles. Higher capillary numbers and low roll angles result in more even bubble splitting. For non-zero roll angles and low capillary numbers, bubbles were observed to enter the lower bifurcation before moving backwards into the upper branch. There is also appears to be a critical capillary number for each angle in which the homogeneity is maximum. This work is funded by NSF Grant BES 0301278 and a grant from the Whitaker Foundation.

  13. Noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Sustainable hydrogen production is an essential prerequisite of a future hydrogen economy. Water electrolysis driven by renewable resource-derived electricity and direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion based on photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting are promising pathways for sustainable hydrogen production. All these techniques require, among many things, highly active noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts to make the water splitting process more energy-efficient and economical. In this review, we highlight the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and their catalytic properties for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We review several important kinds of heterogeneous non-precious metal electrocatalysts, including metal sulfides, metal selenides, metal carbides, metal nitrides, metal phosphides, and heteroatom-doped nanocarbons. In the discussion, emphasis is given to the synthetic methods of these HER electrocatalysts, the strategies of performance improvement, and the structure/composition-catalytic activity relationship. We also summarize some important examples showing that non-Pt HER electrocatalysts could serve as efficient cocatalysts for promoting direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion in both photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting systems, when combined with suitable semiconductor photocatalysts.

  14. Implant-Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Bilateral Agenesis of Maxillary Lateral Incisors with a Mini Split Crest.

    PubMed

    Figliuzzi, M M; Giudice, A; Pileggi, S; Pacifico, D; Marrelli, M; Tatullo, M; Fortunato, L

    2016-01-01

    The reported clinical case describes the surgical procedure of ridge augmentation by using a "split crest" technique with a partial thickness flap and a subsequent implant-prosthetic rehabilitation aimed at treating a bilateral agenesis of the upper lateral incisors. In such cases with vestibule-palatal and mesial-distal scarce bone thicknesses associated with the need of a proper functional and aesthetic rehabilitation, the split crest technique is particularly suitable. In the case we reported, because of the poor bone thicknesses, we performed a minimally invasive split crest which allowed a correct insertion of the fixtures. This technique allowed us to achieve an optimal functional and aesthetic rehabilitation; moreover, we obtained a good emergency profile, ensuring the vitality of the close teeth and ensuring a good primary stability and the following osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:27190658

  15. Implant-Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Bilateral Agenesis of Maxillary Lateral Incisors with a Mini Split Crest

    PubMed Central

    Figliuzzi, M. M.; Giudice, A.; Pileggi, S.; Pacifico, D.; Marrelli, M.; Tatullo, M.; Fortunato, L.

    2016-01-01

    The reported clinical case describes the surgical procedure of ridge augmentation by using a “split crest” technique with a partial thickness flap and a subsequent implant-prosthetic rehabilitation aimed at treating a bilateral agenesis of the upper lateral incisors. In such cases with vestibule-palatal and mesial-distal scarce bone thicknesses associated with the need of a proper functional and aesthetic rehabilitation, the split crest technique is particularly suitable. In the case we reported, because of the poor bone thicknesses, we performed a minimally invasive split crest which allowed a correct insertion of the fixtures. This technique allowed us to achieve an optimal functional and aesthetic rehabilitation; moreover, we obtained a good emergency profile, ensuring the vitality of the close teeth and ensuring a good primary stability and the following osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:27190658

  16. Double trouble: subsidence and CO2 respiration due to 1,000 years of Dutch coastal peatlands cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; van der Meulen, Michiel J.; Middelkoop, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Coastal plains are amongst the most densely populated areas in the world. Many coastal peatlands are drained to create arable land. This is not without consequences; physical compaction of peat and its degradation by oxidation lead to subsidence, and oxidation also leads to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). This study complements existing studies by quantifying total land subsidence and associated CO2 respiration over the past millennium in the Dutch coastal peatlands, to gain insight into the consequences of cultivating coastal peatlands over longer timescales. Results show that the peat volume loss was 19.8 km3, which lowered the Dutch coastal plain by 1.9 m on average, bringing most of it below sea level. At least 66 % of the volume reduction is the result of drainage, and 34 % was caused by the excavation and subsequent combustion of peat. The associated CO2 respiration is equivalent to a global atmospheric CO2 concentration increase of ~0.39 ppmv. Cultivation of coastal peatlands can turn a carbon sink into a carbon source. If the path taken by the Dutch would be followed worldwide, there will be double trouble: globally significant carbon emissions and increased flood risk in a globally important human habitat. The effects would be larger than the historic ones because most of the cumulative Dutch subsidence and peat loss was accomplished with much less efficient techniques than those available now.

  17. DETECTION OF FLUX EMERGENCE, SPLITTING, MERGING, AND CANCELLATION OF NETWORK FIELD. I. SPLITTING AND MERGING

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Hagenaar, H. J.

    2012-06-20

    Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' Multiplication-Sign 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to {approx}33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of -2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.

  18. Quintessence and phantom emerging from the split-complex field and the split-quaternion field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Changjun; Chen, Xuelei; Shen, You-Gen

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the mathematic theory of split-complex numbers (or hyperbolic numbers, also perplex numbers) and the split-quaternion numbers (or coquaternion numbers), we define the notion of split-complex scalar field and the split-quaternion scalar field. Then we explore the cosmic evolution of these scalar fields in the background of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe. We find that both the quintessence field and the phantom field could naturally emerge in these scalar fields. Introducing the metric of field space, these theories fall into a subclass of the multi-field theories which have been extensively studied in inflationary cosmology.

  19. Dutch X-band SLAR calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groot, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    In August 1989 the NASA/JPL airborne P/L/C-band DC-8 SAR participated in several remote sensing campaigns in Europe. Amongst other test sites, data were obtained of the Flevopolder test site in the Netherlands on August the 16th. The Dutch X-band SLAR was flown on the same date and imaged parts of the same area as the SAR. To calibrate the two imaging radars a set of 33 calibration devices was deployed. 16 trihedrals were used to calibrate a part of the SLAR data. This short paper outlines the X-band SLAR characteristics, the experimental set-up and the calibration method used to calibrate the SLAR data. Finally some preliminary results are given.

  20. Material efficiency in Dutch packaging policy.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Ernst; van Sluisveld, Mariësse A E

    2013-03-13

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implemented to reduce the environmental impact of packaging. The analysis shows that Dutch packaging policies helped to reduce the total packaging volume until 1999. After 2000, packaging consumption increased more rapidly than the baseline, suggesting that policy measures were not effective. Generally, we see limited attention to material efficiency to reduce packaging material use. For this purpose, we tried to gain more insight in recent activities on material efficiency, by building a database of packaging prevention initiatives. We identified 131 alterations to packaging implemented in the period 2005-2010, of which weight reduction was the predominant approach. More appropriate packaging policy is needed to increase the effectiveness of policies, with special attention to material efficiency. PMID:23359741

  1. The art of governance of Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hoek, H

    1999-01-01

    Hospitals in The Netherlands are governed by two boards: The Board of Directors, the legal representative of the hospital, responsible for strategic and operational business activities; and the Supervisory Board, made up of co-opted volunteers and responsible for checking and approving of the major decisions of the Board of Directors. The question which arises is whether the system of governance is able to function appropriately and guarantee enough concern about general health problems, moral and ethical questions and the interest of the patients. This paper investigate the successes and shortfalls of such a system of governance in Dutch hospitals. The results and conclusions determine that although copied from the corporate governance model, it does not function well in an environment where the influence of patients and the inhabitants of the region are of great importance and shareholders do not exist.

  2. Moral problems among Dutch nurses: a survey.

    PubMed

    van der Arend, A J; Remmers-van den Hurk, C H

    1999-11-01

    This article reports on a survey of the moral problems that Dutch nurses experience during their everyday practice. A questionnaire was developed, based on published literature, panel discussions, in-depth interviews and participation observations. The instrument was tested in a pilot study and proved to be useful. A total of 2122 questionnaires were sent to 91 institutions in seven different health care settings. The results showed that nurses were not experiencing important societal issues such as abortion and euthanasia as morally the most problematic, but rather situations such as verbally aggressive behaviour of colleagues towards patients, keeping silent about errors, and medical treatment given against the wishes of patients. Moral problems occurred especially when nurses experienced feelings of powerlessness with regard to the well-being of patients. Moreover, these moral problems proved to be related to institutional organization, leadership, and collaboration with colleagues and other disciplines. Nurses appeared to have a limited awareness of the moral dimensions of their practice.

  3. The Dutch school of malaria research.

    PubMed

    Verhave, J P

    1987-01-01

    An epidemic of tertian malaria in some coastal areas of The Netherlands resulted in the setting up of official measures in 1920. A scientific and a propaganda commission were charged with control. Efforts were made to reduce mosquito populations by adult and larval spraying. After the discovery that infected mosquitoes were to be found only inside houses, control operations were focussed against adult mosquitoes. Some later discoveries resulted in a more effective control. a) Spraying ditches with Paris green did not prevent adult mosquitoes from entering the control area. b) Anopheles maculipennis turned out to be a complex of species, with A. atroparvus as the vector. The latter preferred brackish water and did not go into full hibernation. The closing of the Zuyder Sea and the expected desalinization gave hope for less suitable conditions for the vector. c) Plasmodium vivax normally had an incubation period of 8 months. d) Pyrethrum was an effective but short-lasting insecticide. e) Healthy parasite carriers could infect mosquitoes. This knowledge was applied through an extensive system of investigation, including spleen examination of schoolchildren. Suspected houses were sprayed bimonthly from August to November, during which period infected mosquitoes were likely to be present. This system worked extremely well, and during the next epidemic from 1943 to 1947 the thus treated towns remained virtually free of malaria! DDT became available and was either sprayed in suspected houses as before, or through wide-spread coverage of all houses. The epidemic subsided whatever method employed and not only due to the use of DDT. The number of cases even went down to the point of no return and the last case of Dutch malaria was recorded in 1959. The wealth of experience on house-spray control, parasite and mosquito biology and experimental malaria of the Dutch malariologists has had its impact on the international bodies engaged in the battle against malaria.

  4. The Dutch school of malaria research.

    PubMed

    Verhave, J P

    1987-01-01

    An epidemic of tertian malaria in some coastal areas of The Netherlands resulted in the setting up of official measures in 1920. A scientific and a propaganda commission were charged with control. Efforts were made to reduce mosquito populations by adult and larval spraying. After the discovery that infected mosquitoes were to be found only inside houses, control operations were focussed against adult mosquitoes. Some later discoveries resulted in a more effective control. a) Spraying ditches with Paris green did not prevent adult mosquitoes from entering the control area. b) Anopheles maculipennis turned out to be a complex of species, with A. atroparvus as the vector. The latter preferred brackish water and did not go into full hibernation. The closing of the Zuyder Sea and the expected desalinization gave hope for less suitable conditions for the vector. c) Plasmodium vivax normally had an incubation period of 8 months. d) Pyrethrum was an effective but short-lasting insecticide. e) Healthy parasite carriers could infect mosquitoes. This knowledge was applied through an extensive system of investigation, including spleen examination of schoolchildren. Suspected houses were sprayed bimonthly from August to November, during which period infected mosquitoes were likely to be present. This system worked extremely well, and during the next epidemic from 1943 to 1947 the thus treated towns remained virtually free of malaria! DDT became available and was either sprayed in suspected houses as before, or through wide-spread coverage of all houses. The epidemic subsided whatever method employed and not only due to the use of DDT. The number of cases even went down to the point of no return and the last case of Dutch malaria was recorded in 1959. The wealth of experience on house-spray control, parasite and mosquito biology and experimental malaria of the Dutch malariologists has had its impact on the international bodies engaged in the battle against malaria. PMID:3334084

  5. Mechanical contact by constraints and split-based preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitry Karpeyev; Derek Gaston; Jason Hales; Steven Novascone

    2014-03-01

    An accurate implementation of glued mechanical contact was developed in MOOSE based on its Constraint system. This approach results in a superior convergence of elastic structure problems, in particular in BISON. Adaptation of this technique to frictionless and frictional contact models is under way. Additionally, the improved convergence of elastic problems results from the application of the split-based preconditioners to constraint-based systems. This yields a substantial increase in the robustness of elastic solvers when the number of nodes in contact is increased and/or the mesh is refined.

  6. Cloning in cattle: from embryo splitting to somatic nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Y; Vignon, X; Chesné, P; Le Bourhis, D; Marchal, J; Renard, J P

    1998-01-01

    The ability to obtain genetically identical offspring in cattle (clones) is useful for research and for potential applications to breeding schemes. Experimental possibilities for generating such animals have evolved considerably in the last two decades. Embryo splitting has become a relatively simple technique but is limited to twinning. Embryonic nuclear transfer has improved and is associated with sexing to generate sets of clones despite a great variability of results between parent embryos. The factors of progress are reviewed here. Recently, somatic cells used as a source of nuclei in bovine nuclear transfer has been demonstrated. Here we present the results of the developmental potential of nuclei from skin and muscle cells.

  7. Split biceps femoris tendon reconstruction for proximal tibiofibular joint instability.

    PubMed

    Mena, H; Brautigan, B; Johnson, D L

    2001-07-01

    Recurrent instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is an infrequently diagnosed abnormality. We present a new technique for reconstructing the joint using a split biceps femoris tendon passed through a bone tunnel in both the proximal tibial metaphysis and fibular head. The case report is also presented. The procedure offers an anatomic reconstruction and firm stabilization. It allows normal motion of the proximal tibiofibular joint and preserves the normal mechanics of the ankle. This procedure is an excellent alternative to resection of the fibular head, transarticular arthrodesis, or pseudoarthrosis focus at the fibular head.

  8. Approximate Splitting for Ensembles of Trees using Histograms

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Cantu-Paz, E; Littau, D

    2001-09-28

    Recent work in classification indicates that significant improvements in accuracy can be obtained by growing an ensemble of classifiers and having them vote for the most popular class. Implicit in many of these techniques is the concept of randomization that generates different classifiers. In this paper, they focus on ensembles of decision trees that are created using a randomized procedure based on histograms. Techniques, such as histograms, that discretize continuous variables, have long been used in classification to convert the data into a form suitable for processing and to reduce the compute time. The approach combines the ideas behind discretization through histograms and randomization in ensembles to create decision trees by randomly selecting a split point in an interval around the best bin boundary in the histogram. The experimental results with public domain data show that ensembles generated using this approach are competitive in accuracy and superior in computational cost to other ensembles techniques such as boosting and bagging.

  9. 1. FRONT CORNER, LOOKING NORTHEAST, TOP HALF OF 'DUTCH DOORS' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FRONT CORNER, LOOKING NORTHEAST, TOP HALF OF 'DUTCH DOORS' LEANING AGAINST FRONT WALL. - A. D. Wilcox Drift Mine, Boiler Cabin, Linda Creek near Dalton Highway, Bettles, Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, AK

  10. Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis of the SUBTLEX-NL corpus (Keuleers, Brysbaert, & New, Behavior Research Methods, 42, 643-650, 2010). For 104 of the pictures, naming latencies and name agreement were determined in a separate naming experiment with 74 native speakers of Dutch. The Dutch norms closely corresponded to the norms for British English. Multiple regression analysis showed that age of acquisition, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, and name agreement were significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas word frequency and word length were not. Combined with the results of a principal-component analysis, these findings suggest that variables influencing the processes of conceptual preparation and lexical selection affect latencies more strongly than do variables influencing word-form encoding.

  11. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. Participation and coordination in Dutch health care policy-making. A network analysis of the system of intermediate organizations in Dutch health care.

    PubMed

    Lamping, Antonie J; Raab, Jörg; Kenis, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the system of intermediate organizations in Dutch health care as the crucial system to understand health care policy-making in the Netherlands. We argue that the Dutch health care system can be understood as a system consisting of distinct but inter-related policy domains. In this study, we analyze four such policy domains: Finances, quality of care, manpower planning and pharmaceuticals. With the help of network analytic techniques, we describe how this highly differentiated system of >200 intermediate organizations is structured and coordinated and what (policy) consequences can be observed with regard to its particular structure and coordination mechanisms. We further analyze the extent to which this system of intermediate organizations enables participation of stakeholders in policy-making using network visualization tools. The results indicate that coordination between the different policy domains within the health care sector takes place not as one would expect through governmental agencies, but through representative organizations such as the representative organizations of the (general) hospitals, the health care consumers and the employers' association. We further conclude that the system allows as well as denies a large number of potential participants access to the policy-making process. As a consequence, the representation of interests is not necessarily balanced, which in turn affects health care policy. We find that the interests of the Dutch health care consumers are well accommodated with the national umbrella organization NPCF in the lead. However, this is no safeguard for the overall community values of good health care since, for example, the interests of the public health sector are likely to be marginalized.

  13. Governance and performance: the performance of Dutch hospitals explained by governance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; van Hulst, Bart Laurents

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of Dutch hospitals using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with bootstrapping. In particular, the analysis focuses on accounting for cost inefficiency measures on the part of hospital corporate governance. We use bootstrap techniques, as introduced by Simar and Wilson (J. Econom. 136(1):31-64, 2007), in order to obtain more efficient estimates of the effects of governance on the efficiency. The results show that part of the cost efficiency can be explained with governance. In particular we find that a higher remuneration of the board as well as a higher remuneration of the supervisory board does not implicate better performance. PMID:20703757

  14. Governance and performance: the performance of Dutch hospitals explained by governance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; van Hulst, Bart Laurents

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of Dutch hospitals using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with bootstrapping. In particular, the analysis focuses on accounting for cost inefficiency measures on the part of hospital corporate governance. We use bootstrap techniques, as introduced by Simar and Wilson (J. Econom. 136(1):31-64, 2007), in order to obtain more efficient estimates of the effects of governance on the efficiency. The results show that part of the cost efficiency can be explained with governance. In particular we find that a higher remuneration of the board as well as a higher remuneration of the supervisory board does not implicate better performance.

  15. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy... Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use split-specimen methods of collection. (b) If the urine specimen is to be split into two specimen...

  16. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy... Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use split-specimen methods of collection. (b) If the urine specimen is to be split into two specimen...

  17. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy... Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use split-specimen methods of collection. (b) If the urine specimen is to be split into two specimen...

  18. Conditions for a split diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzberg, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    An unusual phenomenon has been observed in a methane jet diffusion flame subjected to axial acoustic forcing. At specific excitation frequencies and amplitudes, the driven flame splits into a central jet and one or two side jets. The splitting is accompanied by a partial detachment of the flame from the nozzle exit, a shortening of the flame by a factor of 2, and a change from the common yellow color of soot radiation to a clear blue flame. Such a phenomenon may be useful for the control of soot production or product species. The splitting is intermittent in time, bifurcating between the split flame and an ordinary single jet diffusion flame. The experiment consists of an unconfined axisymmetric methane jet formed by a short length of 0.4 cm diameter pipe. The pipe is connected to a large plenum surrounding a bass reflex loudspeaker enclosure that provides the excitation. Conditions producing split and bifurcated flames are presented. The drive frequencies required to cause bifurcation correspond to the first two peaks in the system`s frequency response curve. Bifurcating behavior was observed at a wide range of flow rates, ranging from very small flames of Reynolds number 240 up to turbulent lift-off, at Re = 1,000, based on the inner pipe diameter. It was not sensitive to nozzle length, but the details of the nozzle tip, such as orifice or pipe geometry, can affect the frequency range.

  19. Planar Microfluidic Drop Splitting and Merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collignon, Sean; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie; MAD-LAB Team

    2015-11-01

    Open drop microfluidic platforms offer attractive alternatives to closed microchannel devices, however, to be effective they require efficient schemes for planar drop transport and manipulation. While there are many methods that have been reported for drop transport, it is far more difficult to carry out drop operations of dispensing, merging and splitting. In this work, we introduce a novel alternative to merge and split drops using laterally-offset modulated surface acoustic waves (SAWs). To do so, the energy delivery into the drop is modulated to induce drop stretching. Upon removal of the SAW energy, capillary forces at the center of the elongated drop drain the capillary bridge region towards both ends, resulting in its collapse and consequential splitting of the drop. This occurs only below a critical Ohnesorge number, a balance between the viscous forces that retard the drainage and the sufficiently large capillary forces that cause the liquid bridge to pinch. By this scheme we show the possibility of both reliable symettric splitting of a drop with an average deviation in droplet volumes of only around 4%, and no greater than 10%, as well as asymmetric splitting, by tuning the input energy to the device--thus presenting a comparable alternative to electrowetting.

  20. Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Do, Dat T.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Lai, Chih Wei

    2015-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer ε-and γ -type, and odd-number β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the Γ-point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. In these monochalcogenide semiconductors, the separation of the non-degenerate conduction and valence bands from adjacent bands results in the suppression of Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. Therefore, the electron- and hole-spin relaxation times in these systems with zero or minimal spin splittings are expected to exceed those in GaAs when the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation mechanism is also suppressed. PMID:26596907

  1. Similar associations between personality dimensions and anxiety or depressive disorders in a population study of Turkish-Dutch, Moroccan-Dutch, and native Dutch subjects.

    PubMed

    Schrier, Agnes C; de Wit, Matty A S; Krol, Anneke; Fassaert, Thijs J L; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Kupka, Ralph W; Dekker, Jack; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2013-05-01

    It is well established that personality traits are associated with anxiety and depressive disorders in Western populations, but it is not known whether this is true also for people from non-Western cultures. In this study, we examined whether ethnicity moderates the association between personality dimensions and anxiety or depressive disorders or symptoms. In a random urban population sample, stratified by ethnicity, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, we interviewed 309 native Dutch subjects, 203 Turkish-Dutch subjects, and 170 Moroccan-Dutch subjects. Dimensions of personality were measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Anxiety and depressive disorders and symptom levels were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The association between personality factors and disorders or symptoms of anxiety and depression was very similar in the three ethnic groups: all show the typical profile of high neuroticism and low extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

  2. Ethical issues in split versus whole liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vulchev, Anntim; Roberts, John P; Stock, Peter G

    2004-11-01

    Technologic advances in split liver transplantation have resulted in an ethical dilemma. Although splitting a liver maximizes the number of patients receiving an organ transplant, it may increase the morbidity and mortality for the individual patient receiving the split liver. This essay explores the ethical issues involved in the allocation of split livers, and proposes general policy guidelines for the allocation of split versus whole liver transplants. PMID:15476469

  3. Multiple Spectral Splits of Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Raffelt, Georg G.; Dighe, Amol; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2009-07-31

    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f{sub n}u{sub e}(E) and f{sub n}u{sub e}(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f{sub n}u{sub e}=f{sub n}u{sub x}, f{sub n}u{sub e}=f{sub n}u{sub x} as well as E->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  4. Observers and splitting structures in relativistic electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchmann, B.; Kurz, S.

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a relativistic splitting structure as a means to map fields and equations of electromagnetism from curved four-dimensional space-time to three-dimensional observer's space. We focus on a minimal set of mathematical structures that are directly motivated by the language of the physical theory. Space-time, world-lines, time translation, space platforms and time synchronization all find their mathematical counterparts. The splitting structure is defined without recourse to coordinates or frames. This is noteworthy since, in much of the prevalent literature, observers are identified with adapted coordinates and frames. Among the benefits of the approach is a concise and insightful classification of splitting structures that is juxtaposed to a classification of observers. The application of the framework to the Ehrenfest paradox and Schiff's ‘Question in General Relativity’ further illustrates the advantages of the framework, enabling a compact, yet profound analysis of the problems at hand.

  5. Horizontal augmentation through the ridge-split procedure: a predictable surgical modality in implant reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tolstunov, Len; Hicke, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Among alveolar ridge augmentation techniques, the ridge-split procedure demonstrates many benefits, including no need for a second (donor) surgical site, rare risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, and less pain and swelling, and others. Lateral bone augmentation through the ridge-split works best in a localized lateral bony defect intended for 1 or 2 implants and where the ridge is vertically intact. In this article, the authors present a detailed description of the implant-driven technique of alveolar ridge-split procedure in small and large bone deficiencies, in maxilla and mandible, supplemented by multiple photographs. The authors emphasize the need for careful manipulation of the thin ridge based on knowledge of precise surgical principles and stress that a practitioner needs specialized training and experience to perform this type of alveolar bone augmentation.

  6. Horizontal augmentation through the ridge-split procedure: a predictable surgical modality in implant reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tolstunov, Len; Hicke, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Among alveolar ridge augmentation techniques, the ridge-split procedure demonstrates many benefits, including no need for a second (donor) surgical site, rare risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, and less pain and swelling, and others. Lateral bone augmentation through the ridge-split works best in a localized lateral bony defect intended for 1 or 2 implants and where the ridge is vertically intact. In this article, the authors present a detailed description of the implant-driven technique of alveolar ridge-split procedure in small and large bone deficiencies, in maxilla and mandible, supplemented by multiple photographs. The authors emphasize the need for careful manipulation of the thin ridge based on knowledge of precise surgical principles and stress that a practitioner needs specialized training and experience to perform this type of alveolar bone augmentation. PMID:23402358

  7. Persistent Identifiers for Dutch cultural heritage institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ras, Marcel; Kruithof, Gijsbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, more and more collections belonging to archives, libraries, media, museums, and knowledge institutes are being digitised and made available online. These are exciting times for ALM institutions. They are realising that, in the information society, their collections are goldmines. Unfortunately most heritage institutions in the Netherlands do not yet meet the basic preconditions for long-term availability of their collections. The digital objects often have no long lasting fixed reference yet. URL's and web addresses change. Some digital objects that were referenced in Europeana and other portals can no longer be found. References in scientific articles have a very short life span, which is damaging for scholarly research. In 2015, the Dutch Digital Heritage Network (NDE) has started a two-year work program to co-ordinate existing initiatives in order to improve the (long-term) accessibility of the Dutch digital heritage for a wide range of users, anytime, anyplace. The Digital Heritage Network is a partnership established on the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The members of the NDE are large, national institutions that strive to professionally preserve and manage digital data, e.g. the National Library, The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Archive of the Netherlands and the DEN Foundation, and a growing number of associations and individuals both within and outside the heritage sector. By means of three work programmes the goals of the Network should be accomplished and improve the visibility, the usability and the sustainability of digital heritage. Each programme contains of a set of projects. Within the sustainability program a project on creating a model for persistent identifiers is taking place. The main goals of the project are (1) raise awareness among cultural heritage institutions on the

  8. Reflection hologram solar spectrum-splitting filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Deming; Gordon, Michael; Russo, Juan M.; Vorndran, Shelby; Escarra, Matthew; Atwater, Harry; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of holographic filters in solar spectrum splitting applications. Photovoltaic (PV) systems utilizing spectrum splitting have higher theoretical conversion efficiency than single bandgap cell modules. Dichroic band-rejection filters have been used for spectrum splitting applications with some success however these filters are limited to spectral control at fixed reflection angles. Reflection holographic filters are fabricated by recording interference pattern of two coherent beams at arbitrary construction angles. This feature can be used to control the angles over which spectral selectivity is obtained. In addition focusing wavefronts can also be used to increase functionality in the filter. Holograms fabricated in dichromated gelatin (DCG) have the benefit of light weight, low scattering and absorption losses. In addition, reflection holograms recorded in the Lippmann configuration have been shown to produce strong chirping as a result of wet processing. Chirping broadens the filter rejection bandwidth both spectrally and angularly. It can be tuned to achieve spectral bandwidth suitable for spectrum splitting applications. We explore different DCG film fabrication and processing parameters to improve the optical performance of the filter. The diffraction efficiency bandwidth and scattering losses are optimized by changing the exposure energy, isopropanol dehydration bath temperature and hardening bath duration. A holographic spectrum-splitting PV module is proposed with Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and silicon (Si) PV cells with efficiency of 25.1% and 19.7% respectively. The calculated conversion efficiency with a prototype hologram is 27.94% which is 93.94% compared to the ideal spectrum-splitting efficiency of 29.74%.

  9. Fermion localization on a split brane

    SciTech Connect

    Chumbes, A. E. R.; Vasquez, A. E. O.; Hott, M. B.

    2011-05-15

    In this work we analyze the localization of fermions on a brane embedded in five-dimensional, warped and nonwarped, space-time. In both cases we use the same nonlinear theoretical model with a nonpolynomial potential featuring a self-interacting scalar field whose minimum energy solution is a soliton (a kink) which can be continuously deformed into a two-kink. Thus a single brane splits into two branes. The behavior of spin 1/2 fermions wave functions on the split brane depends on the coupling of fermions to the scalar field and on the geometry of the space-time.

  10. [Dutch computer domestication, 1975-1990].

    PubMed

    Veraart, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A computer seems an indispensable tool among twenty-first century households. Computers however, did not come as manna from heaven. The domestication and appropriation of computers in Dutch households was a result of activities by various intermediary actors. Computers became household commodities only gradually. Technophile computer hobbyists imported the first computers into the Netherlands from the USA, and started small businesses from 1975 onwards. They developed a social network in which computer technology was made available for use by individuals. This network extended itself via shops, clubs, magazines, and other means of acquiring and exchanging computer hard- and software. Hobbyist culture established the software-copying habits of private computer users as well as their ambivalence to commercial software. They also made the computer into a game machine. Under the impulse of a national policy that aimed at transforming society into an 'Information Society', clubs and other actors extended their activities and tailored them to this new agenda. Hobby clubs presented themselves as consumer organizations and transformed into intermediary actors that filled the gap between suppliers and a growing group of users. They worked hard to give meaning to (proper) use of computers. A second impulse to the increasing use of computers in the household came from so-called 'private-PC' projects in the late 1980s. In these projects employers financially aided employees in purchasing their own private PCs'. The initially important intermediary actors such as hobby clubs lost control and the agenda for personal computers was shifted to interoperability with office equipment. IBM compatible PC's flooded the households. In the household the new equipment blended with the established uses, such as gaming. The copying habits together with the PC standard created a risky combination in which computer viruses could spread easily. New roles arose for intermediary actors in guiding

  11. Accuracy of tablet splitting: Comparison study between hand splitting and tablet cutter

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Walid A.; Alanizi, Abdulaziz S.; Abdelhamid, Magdi M.; Alanizi, Fars K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tablet splitting is often used in pharmacy practice to adjust the administered doses. It is also used as a method of reducing medication costs. Objective To investigate the accuracy of tablet splitting by comparing hand splitting vs. a tablet cutter for a low dose drug tablet. Methods Salbutamol tablets (4 mg) were chosen as low dose tablets. A randomly selected equal number of tablets were split by hand and a tablet cutter, and the remaining tablets were kept whole. Weight variation and drug content were analysed for salbutamol in 0.1 N HCl using a validated spectrophotometric method. The percentages by which each whole tablet’s or half-tablet’s drug content and weight difference from sample mean values were compared with USP specification ranges for drug content. The %RSD was also calculated in order to determine whether the drugs met USP specification for %RSD. The tablets and half tablets were scanned using electron microscopy to show any visual differences arising from splitting. Results 27.5% of samples differed from sample mean values by a percentage that fell outside of USP specification for weight, of which 15% from the tablet cutter and 25% from those split by hand fell outside the specifications. All whole tablets and half tablets met the USP specifications for drug content but the variation of content between the two halves reached 21.3% of total content in case of hand splitting, and 7.13% only for the tablet cutter. The %RSDs for drug content and weight met the USP specification for whole salbutamol tablets and the half tablets which were split by tablet cutter. The halves which were split by hand fell outside the specification for %RSD (drug content = 6.43%, weight = 8.33%). The differences were visually clear in the electron microscope scans. Conclusion Drug content variation in half-tablets appeared to be attributable to weight variation occurring during the splitting process. This could have serious clinical consequences for

  12. Split-Volume Treatment Planning of Multiple Consecutive Vertebral Body Metastases for Cyberknife Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun Chuang, Cynthia; Larson, David; Huang, Kim; Petti, Paula; Weinstein, Phil; Ma Lijun

    2008-10-01

    Cyberknife treatment planning of multiple consecutive vertebral body metastases is challenging due to large target volumes adjacent to critical normal tissues. A split-volume treatment planning technique was developed to improve the treatment plan quality of such lesions. Treatment plans were generated for 1 to 5 consecutive thoracic vertebral bodies (CVBM) prescribing a total dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of the entire vertebral body(ies). Treatment plans were generated considering both the de novo clinical scenario (no prior radiation), imposing a dose limit of 8 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord, and the retreatment scenario (prior radiation) with a dose limit of 3 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord. The split-volume planning technique was compared with the standard full-volume technique only for targets ranging from 2 to 5 CVBM in length. The primary endpoint was to obtain best PTV coverage by the 24 Gy prescription isodose line. A total of 18 treatment plans were generated (10 standard and 8 split-volume). PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line worsened consistently as the number of CVBM increased for both the de novo and retreatment scenario. Split-volume planning was achieved by introducing a 0.5-cm gap, splitting the standard full-volume PTV into 2 equal length PTVs. In every case, split-volume planning resulted in improved PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line ranging from 4% to 12% for the de novo scenario and, 8% to 17% for the retreatment scenario. We did not observe a significant trend for increased monitor units required, or higher doses to spinal cord or esophagus, with split-volume planning. Split-volume treatment planning significantly improves Cyberknife treatment plan quality for CVBM, as compared to the standard technique. This technique may be of particular importance in clinical situations where stringent spinal cord dose limits are required.

  13. Laser Cleaning of Peristyle in Diocletian Palace in Split (HR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almesberger, D.; Rizzo, A.; Zanini, A.; Geometrante, R.

    Before starting the cleaning program of the peristyle of Diocletian Palace in Split, a series of tests have been performed on it. First of all, the state of conservation of columns and capitals has been assessed applying non-destructive techniques such as thermography, magnetoscopy and superficial ultrasonic tests. All the areas with black crusts, exfoliation and stone cracks have been determined. In this stage, parameters such as water absorption and colour have been estimated in order to compare them with those measured after the cleaning operation. Then, more than 3-month period of tests have been performed to set up all the parameters concerning the application of the laser cleaning techniques. In this chapter, the results of these preliminary investigations are presented.

  14. A Comparison among Worker Types Using a Composites Approach and Median Splits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Shahnaz; Wuensch, Karl L.; Brandon, Howard R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined Spence and Robbins' (1992) worker types in terms of correlates of workaholism (e.g., work-life imbalance, obsessive-compulsive behavior). A survey was administered to professionals, who were then classified into different worker types following the traditional median-split technique. The data were also analyzed with…

  15. Isospin Splittings of Doubly Heavy Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Guo, Feng-Kun; Hanhart, Christoph; Meissner, Ulf-G.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.

    2011-08-18

    The SELEX Collaboration has reported a very large isospin splitting of doubly charmed baryons. We show that this effect would imply that the doubly charmed baryons are very compact. One intriguing possibility is that such baryons have a linear geometry Q-q-Q where the light quark q oscillates between the two heavy quarks Q, analogous to a linear molecule such as carbon dioxide. However, using conventional arguments, the size of a heavy-light hadron is expected to be around 0.5 fm, much larger than the size needed to explain the observed large isospin splitting. Assuming the distance between two heavy quarks is much smaller than that between the light quark and a heavy one, the doubly heavy baryons are related to the heavy mesons via heavy quark-diquark symmetry. Based on this symmetry, we predict the isospin splittings for doubly heavy baryons including {Xi}{sub cc}, {Xi}{sub bb} and {Xi}{sub bc}. The prediction for the {Xi}{sub cc} is much smaller than the SELEX value. On the other hand, the {Xi}{sub bb} baryons are predicted to have an isospin splitting as large as (6.3 {+-} 1.7) MeV. An experimental study of doubly bottomed baryons is therefore very important to better understand the structure of baryons with heavy quarks.

  16. Threaded split ring connector separates structural sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, J. W.

    1965-01-01

    Threaded split ring connector quickly and cleanly separates two structural members by remote control. The connector is retained in an expanded position by spring plates that are deflected and held by an explosive bolt. Ignition of the bolt effects the separation. This conceptual approach lends itself to various configurations and sizes of structures.

  17. Spin-orbit splitting in neutron drops

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Pandharipande, V.R.; Ravenhall, D.G.

    1995-08-01

    Hartree-Fock calculations of very neutron-rich nuclei are an essential source of input for calculations of the properties of neutron-star crusts. The Hartree-Fock calculations often use Skyrme models whose parameters are determined by fits to known (hence not neutron-rich) nuclei and extrapolations to the N >> Z case. The Vautherin and Brink (VB) prescription for the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit potential, V{sub so}, is usually used; this is based on the assumption that most of V{sub so} comes from a short-range L{center_dot}S nucleon-nucleon interaction. In 1993 we showed that more than half of the spin-orbit splitting in {sup 15}N comes from long-range three-nucleon potentials and correlations, which violate the VB assumption. To investigate the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit splitting, we made calculations of the type described in Sec. B.d for systems of 7 (p-wave splitting) and 19 (d-wave) neutrons. The neutrons were confined in external potentials that were adjusted to give physically reasonable densities. We find that the spin-orbit splitting of these drops is less than half the {sup 15}N value. These values can be used to determine an isospin dependence of V{sub so} that is very different from that of VB. Hartree-Fock calculations of known spin-orbit splittings in nuclei with N significantly different from Z are now being made with this new prescription.

  18. Microfabricated arrays for splitting and assay of clonal colonies.

    PubMed

    Gach, Philip C; Xu, Wei; King, Samantha J; Sims, Christopher E; Bear, James; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2012-12-18

    A microfabricated platform was developed for highly parallel and efficient colony picking, splitting, and clone identification. A pallet array provided patterned cell colonies which mated to a second printing array composed of bridging microstructures formed by a supporting base and attached post. The posts enabled mammalian cells from colonies initially cultured on the pallet array to migrate to corresponding sites on the printing array. Separation of the arrays simultaneously split the colonies, creating a patterned replica. Optimization of array elements provided transfer efficiencies greater than 90% using bridging posts of 30 μm diameter and 100 μm length and total colony numbers of 3000. Studies using five mammalian cell lines demonstrated that a variety of adherent cell types could be cultured and effectively split with printing efficiencies of 78-92%. To demonstrate the technique's utility, clonal cell lines with siRNA knockdown of Coronin 1B were generated using the arrays and compared to a traditional FACS/Western Blotting-based approach. Identification of target clones required a destructive assay to identify cells with an absence of Coronin 1B brought about by the successful infection of interfering shRNA construct. By virtue of miniaturization and its parallel format, the platform enabled the identification and generation of 12 target clones from a starting sample of only 3900 cells and required only 5 man hours over 11 days. In contrast, the traditional method required 500,000 cells and generated only 5 target clones with 34 man hours expended over 47 days. These data support the considerable reduction in time, manpower, and reagents using the miniaturized platform for clonal selection by destructive assay versus conventional approaches. PMID:23153031

  19. Split mandrel versus split sleeve coldworking: Dual methods for extending the fatigue life of metal structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodman, Geoffrey A.; Creager, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    It is common practice to use split sleeve coldworking of fastener holes as a means of extending the fatigue life of metal structures. In search of lower manufacturing costs, the aerospace industry is examining the split mandrel (sleeveless) coldworking process as an alternative method of coldworking fastener holes in metal structures. The split mandrel process (SpM) significantly extends the fatigue life of metal structures through the introduction of a residual compressive stress in a manner that is very similar to the split sleeve system (SpSl). Since the split mandrel process is significantly less expensive than the split sleeve process and more adaptable to robotic automation, it will have a notable influence upon other new manufacture of metal structures which require coldworking a significant number of holes, provided the aerospace community recognizes that the resulting residual stress distributions and fatigue life improvement are the same for both processes. Considerable testing has validated the correctness of that conclusion. The findings presented in this paper represent the results of an extensive research and development program, comprising data collected from over 400 specimens fabricated from 2024-T3 and 7075-T651 aluminum alloys in varied configurations, which quantify the benefits (fatigue enhancement and cost savings) of automating a sleeveless coldworking system.

  20. Word Order and Finiteness in Dutch and English Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Edwards, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The effect of two linguistic factors in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia was examined using Dutch and English subjects. Three tasks were used to test (1) the comprehension and (2) the construction of sentences, where verbs (in Dutch) and verb arguments (in Dutch and English) are in canonical versus non-canonical position; (3) the production of…

  1. Acquiring Reading and Vocabulary in Dutch and English: The Effect of Concurrent Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Leij, Aryan; Bekebrede, Judith; Kotterink, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of concurrent instruction in Dutch and English on reading acquisition in both languages, 23 pupils were selected from a school with bilingual education, and 23 from a school with education in Dutch only. The pupils had a Dutch majority language background and were comparable with regard to social-economic status (SES).…

  2. Gender-Marked Determiners Help Dutch Learners' Word Recognition when Gender Information Itself Does Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Heugten, Marieke; Johnson, Elizabeth K.

    2011-01-01

    Dutch, unlike English, contains two gender-marked forms of the definite article. Does the presence of multiple definite article forms lead Dutch learners to be delayed relative to English learners in the acquisition of their determiner system? Using the Preferential Looking Procedure, we found that Dutch-learning children aged 1 ; 7 to 2 ; 0 use…

  3. Cultural Perspectives on Peer Conflicts in Multicultural Dutch Child Care Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourou, Amina; Singer, Elly; Bekkema, Nienke; De Haan, Dorian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a study of cultural perspectives on peer conflicts in multicultural child care centres. On the level of child behaviour we did not find differences between native Dutch. Moroccan-Dutch and Antillean-Dutch children with regard to occurrence, duration and actions to solve peer conflicts. On the level of mother' opinions…

  4. Challenging Dutch Holocaust Education: Towards a Curriculum Based on Moral Choices and Empathetic Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boersema, Jacob R.; Schimmel, Noam

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the way in which the Holocaust is taught in The Netherlands, with an emphasis on critically examining the content of secondary school textbooks used to teach Dutch students about the history of the Holocaust. We also interview Dutch educators, government officials and academics about the state of Dutch Holocaust education. Our findings…

  5. Shocked materials from the Dutch Peak diamictite, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.; Bunch, T. E.; Oberbeck, V. R.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence of shock metamorphism in the Dutch Peak diamictite in the Sheeprock Mountains, Utah, is reported. The Dutch Peak diamictite is of Proterozoic age and is a minor part of the Dutch Peak formation. A shocked sample, specimen A250, was collected during a brief visit of the Harker Canyon area of the Sheeprock Mountains. This sample consists of equant, anhedral grains of quartz, K-feldspar, and plagioclase. The crystallographic orientation of 244 lamellae systems in 106 grains was measured. It is presently difficult to evaluate the significance of this single specimen. Without additional and substantial field work, and petrographic characterization of this formation, a number of scenarios for the presence of a shocked clast and the emplacement of the entire formation remain viable.

  6. [The first Dutch debate on anaesthesia in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Bijker, Liselotte E

    2015-01-01

    After the publication of the Dutch medical guideline on pharmacological analgesia during childbirth in 2008, the question of whether pharmacological pain relief should be permissible during labour was hotly debated. This discussion has been going on since the second half of the 19th century when the introduction of ether and chloroform was extensively studied and described in Great Britain. This article looks back on the same debate in the Netherlands when inhalational anaesthetics were introduced into obstetrics. Study of historical journals and textbooks, originating in the Netherlands and elsewhere, and of historical medical literature on anaesthesia and obstetrics shows that the Dutch protagonists adopted more nuanced ideas on this issue than many of their foreign colleagues. This description of the first Dutch debate on anaesthesia in obstetrics shows that in fact the issues and arguments are timeless.

  7. Using the split Hopkinson pressure bar to validate material models.

    PubMed

    Church, Philip; Cornish, Rory; Cullis, Ian; Gould, Peter; Lewtas, Ian

    2014-08-28

    This paper gives a discussion of the use of the split-Hopkinson bar with particular reference to the requirements of materials modelling at QinetiQ. This is to deploy validated material models for numerical simulations that are physically based and have as little characterization overhead as possible. In order to have confidence that the models have a wide range of applicability, this means, at most, characterizing the models at low rate and then validating them at high rate. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is ideal for this purpose. It is also a very useful tool for analysing material behaviour under non-shock wave loading. This means understanding the output of the test and developing techniques for reliable comparison of simulations with SHPB data. For materials other than metals comparison with an output stress v strain curve is not sufficient as the assumptions built into the classical analysis are generally violated. The method described in this paper compares the simulations with as much validation data as can be derived from deployed instrumentation including the raw strain gauge data on the input and output bars, which avoids any assumptions about stress equilibrium. One has to take into account Pochhammer-Chree oscillations and their effect on the specimen and recognize that this is itself also a valuable validation test of the material model. PMID:25071238

  8. Hollow core anti-resonant fiber with split cladding.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Qi, Wenliang; Ho, Daryl; Yong, Ken-Tye; Luan, Feng; Yoo, Seongwoo

    2016-04-01

    An improved design for hollow core anti-resonant fibers (HAFs) is presented. A split cladding structure is introduced to reduce the fabrication distortion within design tolerance. We use numerical simulations to compare the Kagome fibers (KFs) and the proposed split cladding fibers (SCFs) over two normalized transmission bands. It reveals that SCFs are able to maintain the desired round shape of silica cladding walls, hence improving the confinement loss (CL) compared to the KF and is comparable to that of the nested antiresonant nodeless fiber (NANF) with the same core size. In addition, the SCF allows stacking multiple layers of cladding rings to control the CL. The influences of the number of cladding layers and the cladding gap width on the CL of the SCFs have been studied. SCF with three cladding rings is fabricated by the stack-and-draw technique. A measured attenuation spectrum matches well with the calculation prediction. The measured near field mode patterns also prove the feasibility of our fiber design.

  9. Using the split Hopkinson pressure bar to validate material models

    PubMed Central

    Church, Philip; Cornish, Rory; Cullis, Ian; Gould, Peter; Lewtas, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives a discussion of the use of the split-Hopkinson bar with particular reference to the requirements of materials modelling at QinetiQ. This is to deploy validated material models for numerical simulations that are physically based and have as little characterization overhead as possible. In order to have confidence that the models have a wide range of applicability, this means, at most, characterizing the models at low rate and then validating them at high rate. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) is ideal for this purpose. It is also a very useful tool for analysing material behaviour under non-shock wave loading. This means understanding the output of the test and developing techniques for reliable comparison of simulations with SHPB data. For materials other than metals comparison with an output stress v strain curve is not sufficient as the assumptions built into the classical analysis are generally violated. The method described in this paper compares the simulations with as much validation data as can be derived from deployed instrumentation including the raw strain gauge data on the input and output bars, which avoids any assumptions about stress equilibrium. One has to take into account Pochhammer–Chree oscillations and their effect on the specimen and recognize that this is itself also a valuable validation test of the material model. PMID:25071238

  10. Comparative studies on different nanofiber photocatalysts for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Alarifi, Ibrahim M.; Khan, Waseem S.; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    Water splitting using photocatalyst has become a topic of recent investigation since it has the potential of producing hydrogen for clean energy from sunlight. An extensive number of solid photocatalysts have been studied for overall water splitting in recent years. In this study, two methods were employed to synthesize two different photocatalysts for water splitting. The first method describes the synthesis of nickel oxide-loaded strontium titanate (NiO-SrTiO3) particles on electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers incorporated with graphene nanoplatelets for water splitting. The electrospun PAN fibers were first oxidized at 270°C for two hours and subsequently immersed in a solution containing ethanol, titanium (IV)-isopropoxide [C12H28O4Ti] and strontium nitrate [Sr(NO3)2]. This solution was then treated with NiO nanoparticles dispersed in toluene. The surface treated PAN fibers were annealed at 600°C in air for 1 hour to transform fibers into a crystalline form for improved photocatalyst performance. In the second method, coaxial electrospinning process was used to produce core/shell strontium titanate/nickel oxide (SrTiO3-NiO) nanofibers. In coaxial method, poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) was dissolved in deionized (DI) water, and then titanium (IV) isopropoxide [C12H28O4Ti] and strontium nitrate [Sr(NO3)2] were added into the solution to form the inner (core) layer. For outer (shell) solution, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) at a weight ratio of 10:90 and then nickel oxide was mixed with the solution. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry and static contact angle measurement techniques were employed to characterize the structural properties of photocatalysts produced by both methods and a comparison was made between the two photocatalysts. The morphology and diameter of the nanofibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structure and crystallinity of the calcined nanofibers were also observed

  11. Carbon dioxide splitting in a dielectric barrier discharge plasma: a combined experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Robby; Somers, Wesley; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2015-02-01

    Plasma technology is gaining increasing interest for the splitting of CO2 into CO and O2 . We have performed experiments to study this process in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with a wide range of parameters. The frequency and dielectric material did not affect the CO2 conversion and energy efficiency, but the discharge gap can have a considerable effect. The specific energy input has the most important effect on the CO2 conversion and energy efficiency. We have also presented a plasma chemistry model for CO2 splitting, which shows reasonable agreement with the experimental conversion and energy efficiency. This model is used to elucidate the critical reactions that are mostly responsible for the CO2 conversion. Finally, we have compared our results with other CO2 splitting techniques and we identified the limitations as well as the benefits and future possibilities in terms of modifications of DBD plasmas for greenhouse gas conversion in general.

  12. Carbon dioxide splitting in a dielectric barrier discharge plasma: a combined experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Robby; Somers, Wesley; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2015-02-01

    Plasma technology is gaining increasing interest for the splitting of CO2 into CO and O2 . We have performed experiments to study this process in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with a wide range of parameters. The frequency and dielectric material did not affect the CO2 conversion and energy efficiency, but the discharge gap can have a considerable effect. The specific energy input has the most important effect on the CO2 conversion and energy efficiency. We have also presented a plasma chemistry model for CO2 splitting, which shows reasonable agreement with the experimental conversion and energy efficiency. This model is used to elucidate the critical reactions that are mostly responsible for the CO2 conversion. Finally, we have compared our results with other CO2 splitting techniques and we identified the limitations as well as the benefits and future possibilities in terms of modifications of DBD plasmas for greenhouse gas conversion in general. PMID:25641832

  13. Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer δ-doped phosphorus in silicon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunnelling microscope lithography. Using vasp, we develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of systems which is size limited due to computational tractability. Nonetheless, we provide valuable data for the benchmarking of empirical modelling techniques more capable of extending this discussion to confined disordered systems or actual devices. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localised basis functions in siesta, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated δ-layers. In obtaining an agreement between plane-wave and localised methods, we show that valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%. PMID:23445785

  14. Automated cloud screening of AVHRR imagery using split-and-merge clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallaudet, Timothy C.; Simpson, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Previous methods to segment clouds from ocean in AVHRR imagery have shown varying degrees of success, with nighttime approaches being the most limited. An improved method of automatic image segmentation, the principal component transformation split-and-merge clustering (PCTSMC) algorithm, is presented and applied to cloud screening of both nighttime and daytime AVHRR data. The method combines spectral differencing, the principal component transformation, and split-and-merge clustering to sample objectively the natural classes in the data. This segmentation method is then augmented by supervised classification techniques to screen clouds from the imagery. Comparisons with other nighttime methods demonstrate its improved capability in this application. The sensitivity of the method to clustering parameters is presented; the results show that the method is insensitive to the split-and-merge thresholds.

  15. Calculation of radiative corrections to hyperfine splitting in p1/2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapirstein, J.; Cheng, K. T.

    2006-10-01

    Techniques to calculate one-loop radiative corrections to hyperfine splitting including binding corrections to all orders have been developed in the last decade for s states of atoms and ions. In this paper these methods are extended to p1/2 states for three cases. In the first case, the point-Coulomb 2p1/2 hyperfine splitting is treated for the hydrogen isoelectonic sequence, and the lowest order result, (α)/(4π)EF , is shown to have large binding corrections at high Z . In the second case, neutral alkali-metal atoms are considered. In the third case, hyperfine splitting of the 2p1/2 state of lithiumlike bismuth is treated. In the latter two cases, correlation corrections are included and, in addition, the point is stressed that uncertainties associated with nuclear structure, which complicate comparison with experiment for s states, are considerably reduced because of the smaller overlap with the nucleus.

  16. Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer δ-doped phosphorus in silicon.

    PubMed

    Drumm, Daniel W; Budi, Akin; Per, Manolo C; Russo, Salvy P; L Hollenberg, Lloyd C

    2013-02-27

    : The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunnelling microscope lithography. Using vasp, we develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of systems which is size limited due to computational tractability. Nonetheless, we provide valuable data for the benchmarking of empirical modelling techniques more capable of extending this discussion to confined disordered systems or actual devices. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localised basis functions in siesta, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated δ-layers. In obtaining an agreement between plane-wave and localised methods, we show that valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%.

  17. Pow-wowing: the Pennsylvania Dutch way to heal.

    PubMed

    Offner, J

    1998-12-01

    Since ancient times, Germanic tribes from the Palatine valley relied on faith healers, brauchers, when health problems developed. Several hundred years ago, brauchers immigrated to the New World with various Germanic religious sects. Cooperative, instructional meetings, or pow wows, between Native American medicine men and newly immigrated brauchers allowed the newcomers to learn about herbs and remedies indigenous to North America. The brauchers, now known as pow wowers, practice within Pennsylvania Dutch communities across the country, especially in the Lancaster, Pennsylvania region. A review of the literature explores the history and development of the Pennsylvania Dutch practice of pow-wowing.

  18. Spin polarization of the split Kondo state.

    PubMed

    von Bergmann, Kirsten; Ternes, Markus; Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J

    2015-02-20

    Spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy is employed to quantitatively determine the spin polarization of the magnetic field-split Kondo state. Tunneling conductance spectra of a Kondo-screened magnetic atom are evaluated within a simple model taking into account inelastic tunneling due to spin excitations and two Kondo peaks positioned symmetrically around the Fermi energy. We fit the spin state of the Kondo-screened atom with a spin Hamiltonian independent of the Kondo effect and account for Zeeman splitting of the Kondo peak in the magnetic field. We find that the width and the height of the Kondo peaks scales with the Zeeman energy. Our observations are consistent with full spin polarization of the Kondo peaks, i.e., a majority spin peak below the Fermi energy and a minority spin peak above. PMID:25763966

  19. Spiradenoma causing longitudinal splitting of the nail.

    PubMed

    Jha, A K; Sinha, R; Kumar, A; Bhadani, P; Kumar, S

    2016-10-01

    Longitudinal splitting of the nails can occur as a result of any growth arising in the nail matrix. We present a case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with an 18-month history of longitudinal splitting of the nail on her right little finger, along with pain in the proximal nail fold region, which was extremely tender to touch. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intensely enhancing lesion, while colour Doppler imaging revealed hypervascularity within the mass. A provisional diagnosis of glomus tumour was considered. Histopathology demonstrated presence of a well-circumscribed tumour comprising a dual population of cells, which stained negatively with periodic-acid-Schiff. The histopathological features were consistent with those of eccrine spiradenoma (ES). In this case, glomus tumour was considered as the first differential diagnosis, but histopathology confirmed it as an ES. PMID:27663150

  20. Multiple Rabi Splittings under Ultrastrong Vibrational Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Jino; Chervy, Thibault; Shalabney, Atef; Devaux, Eloïse; Hiura, Hidefumi; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W.

    2016-10-01

    From the high vibrational dipolar strength offered by molecular liquids, we demonstrate that a molecular vibration can be ultrastrongly coupled to multiple IR cavity modes, with Rabi splittings reaching 24% of the vibration frequencies. As a proof of the ultrastrong coupling regime, our experimental data unambiguously reveal the contributions to the polaritonic dynamics coming from the antiresonant terms in the interaction energy and from the dipolar self-energy of the molecular vibrations themselves. In particular, we measure the opening of a genuine vibrational polaritonic band gap of ca. 60 meV. We also demonstrate that the multimode splitting effect defines a whole vibrational ladder of heavy polaritonic states perfectly resolved. These findings reveal the broad possibilities in the vibrational ultrastrong coupling regime which impact both the optical and the molecular properties of such coupled systems, in particular, in the context of mode-selective chemistry.

  1. Embryo splitting: a role in infertility?

    PubMed

    Wood, C

    2001-01-01

    Embryo splitting may be used to increase the potential fertility of couples requiring IVF. Using cattle as a model, it is possible to increase pregnancy rates from 70% per transfer of good quality in-vivo-produced embryos, to 110% by transferring the two demi-embryos resulting from the bisection of one embryo. The 30-40% greater chance of conception would reduce costs for the government, health authorities and patients, and reduce stress, time and complications for women having IVF treatment. Embryo splitting may also provide donor embryos for infertile couples that cannot conceive naturally or with IVF. The shortage of children for adoption and donor embryos may be overcome by the production of demi-embryos.

  2. Artificial photosynthesis for solar water-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Vayssieres, Lionel; Durrant, James R.

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen generated from solar-driven water-splitting has the potential to be a clean, sustainable and abundant energy source. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, artificial solar water-splitting devices are now being designed and tested. Recent developments based on molecular and/or nanostructure designs have led to advances in our understanding of light-induced charge separation and subsequent catalytic water oxidation and reduction reactions. Here we review some of the recent progress towards developing artificial photosynthetic devices, together with their analogies to biological photosynthesis, including technologies that focus on the development of visible-light active hetero-nanostructures and require an understanding of the underlying interfacial carrier dynamics. Finally, we propose a vision for a future sustainable hydrogen fuel community based on artificial photosynthesis.

  3. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders.

    PubMed

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H2 from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  4. Historical Notes on the Dutch and American-Dutch "schools" in Astronomy and Their Relations with Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heuvel, Ed

    2006-04-01

    Dutch astronomy and physics experienced two "golden ages". The firstone covered the 17th century, culminating with Christiaan Huygens,inventor of the pendulum clock and the wave theory of light, anddiscoverer of Saturn's rings and largest satellite Titan. The secondone, which lasts till the present, started around 1880 withphysicists Lorentz, van der Waals, Zeeman and Kamerlingh Onnes andastronomer Kapteijn and his pupils De Sitter, van Rhijn, Oort andSchilt. Kapteijn, through his friendship with George Ellery Hale,initiated the strong connection between American and Dutch astronomy,which led to the rise of many Dutch-born astronomers to prominentpositions in the US, from Luyten, Bok, Brouwer, Schilt and Kuiperto Woltjer, Gehrels, and Beckers. The rise of the second "goldenage" appears to be closely related to drastic reforms in the Dutchhigh school and university systems in the last decades of the 19thcentury.

  5. Outcomes for split-thickness skin transplantation in high-risk patients using octenidine.

    PubMed

    Matiasek, J; Djedovic, G; Unger, L; Beck, H; Mattesich, M; Pierer, G; Koller, R; Rieger, U M

    2015-06-01

    Skin transplantation is a commonly used surgical technique; however, the complication rate, including postoperative infection and delayed wound healing due to inefficient perfusion, is significantly higher in patients suffering from comorbidities. Hence, a subsequent repeat procedure is often necessary. In this report, two case studies are presented in which an octenidine-based antiseptic is used with a tie-over dressing (TOD) instead of povidone iodine (PVP-iodine), following a split-thickness skin graft. The two patients selected were deemed to be at high risk of impaired wound healing due to comorbidities. The first patient, a confirmed smoker with diabetes, presented with a nodular melanoma that was resected and covered with a split-thickness skin graft. After 5 days of negative pressure wound therapy as a TOD, in combination with PVP-iodine, the graft became necrotic. A second split-thickness skin graft was performed and an antiseptic regimen with octenidine in combination with the same TOD resulted in a completely healed transplant. The second patient, also a confirmed smoker with diabetes and receiving oral corticosteroid treatment, was diagnosed with a skin necrosis on her leg. Following the split-thickness skin graft, octenidine and TOD were applied. The patient's skin graft completely healed without any adverse events. These two case studies indicate that the combination of octenidine and TOD following split-thickness skin transplantation is safe, well-tolerated and appears to have positive benefits in the reconstruction of defects in patients with impaired wound healing.

  6. Splitting K-symplectic methods for non-canonical separable Hamiltonian problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Ruili; Tang, Yifa; Tu, Xiongbiao; Zhao, Yue

    2016-10-01

    Non-canonical Hamiltonian systems have K-symplectic structures which are preserved by K-symplectic numerical integrators. There is no universal method to construct K-symplectic integrators for arbitrary non-canonical Hamiltonian systems. However, in many cases of interest, by using splitting, we can construct explicit K-symplectic methods for separable non-canonical systems. In this paper, we identify situations where splitting K-symplectic methods can be constructed. Comparative numerical experiments in three non-canonical Hamiltonian problems show that symmetric/non-symmetric splitting K-symplectic methods applied to the non-canonical systems are more efficient than the same-order Gauss' methods/non-symmetric symplectic methods applied to the corresponding canonicalized systems; for the non-canonical Lotka-Volterra model, the splitting algorithms behave better in efficiency and energy conservation than the K-symplectic method we construct via generating function technique. In our numerical experiments, the favorable energy conservation property of the splitting K-symplectic methods is apparent.

  7. Outcomes for split-thickness skin transplantation in high-risk patients using octenidine.

    PubMed

    Matiasek, J; Djedovic, G; Unger, L; Beck, H; Mattesich, M; Pierer, G; Koller, R; Rieger, U M

    2015-06-01

    Skin transplantation is a commonly used surgical technique; however, the complication rate, including postoperative infection and delayed wound healing due to inefficient perfusion, is significantly higher in patients suffering from comorbidities. Hence, a subsequent repeat procedure is often necessary. In this report, two case studies are presented in which an octenidine-based antiseptic is used with a tie-over dressing (TOD) instead of povidone iodine (PVP-iodine), following a split-thickness skin graft. The two patients selected were deemed to be at high risk of impaired wound healing due to comorbidities. The first patient, a confirmed smoker with diabetes, presented with a nodular melanoma that was resected and covered with a split-thickness skin graft. After 5 days of negative pressure wound therapy as a TOD, in combination with PVP-iodine, the graft became necrotic. A second split-thickness skin graft was performed and an antiseptic regimen with octenidine in combination with the same TOD resulted in a completely healed transplant. The second patient, also a confirmed smoker with diabetes and receiving oral corticosteroid treatment, was diagnosed with a skin necrosis on her leg. Following the split-thickness skin graft, octenidine and TOD were applied. The patient's skin graft completely healed without any adverse events. These two case studies indicate that the combination of octenidine and TOD following split-thickness skin transplantation is safe, well-tolerated and appears to have positive benefits in the reconstruction of defects in patients with impaired wound healing. PMID:26075514

  8. Atom beams split by gentle persuasion

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, R.

    1994-02-25

    Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state.

  9. Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Vanleer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1988-01-01

    Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations or auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.

  10. Photosynthetic water splitting for hydrogen fuel synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, E.

    Three key advances in photosynthesis research are reported. A significant advance in microalgal water splitting has been made. In the linear, low-intensity region of the light saturation curves, equivalent solar conversion efficiencies of 10% have been measured. A technological advance in the ability to genetically screen individual algal colonies has been made. Successive subcultures of anaerobiosis-stressed Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibited enhanced capacity for photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen.

  11. Ispra Mark-10 water splitting process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A thermochemical water splitting process, the Ispra Mark-10 chemical reaction cycle, was chosen for examining the possibility of using water to produce hydrogen on a large scale for fuel and major industrial chemical uses. The assumed energy source for the process is an HTGR (helium cooled). A process flow diagram, a material balance, and an energy balance were developed for the thermochemical reaction cycle. Principal reactions which constitute the cycle are included.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2125 - Split or broken kernels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split or broken kernels. 51.2125 Section 51.2125... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2125 Split or broken kernels. Split or broken kernels means seven-eighths or less of complete whole kernels but which will...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2125 - Split or broken kernels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Split or broken kernels. 51.2125 Section 51.2125... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2125 Split or broken kernels. Split or broken kernels means seven-eighths or less of complete whole kernels but which will...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2125 - Split or broken kernels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Split or broken kernels. 51.2125 Section 51.2125... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2125 Split or broken kernels. Split or broken kernels means seven-eighths or less of complete whole kernels but which will...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2125 - Split or broken kernels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Split or broken kernels. 51.2125 Section 51.2125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 51.2125 Split or broken kernels. Split or broken kernels means seven-eighths or less of...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2125 - Split or broken kernels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Split or broken kernels. 51.2125 Section 51.2125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... § 51.2125 Split or broken kernels. Split or broken kernels means seven-eighths or less of...

  18. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  19. Nonadiabatic dynamics of positive charge during photocatalytic water splitting on GaN(10-10) surface: charge localization governs splitting efficiency.

    PubMed

    Akimov, Alexey V; Muckerman, James T; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2013-06-12

    Photochemical water splitting is a promising avenue to sustainable, clean energy and fuel production. Gallium nitride (GaN) and its solid solutions are excellent photocatalytic materials; however, the efficiency of the process is low on pure GaN, and cocatalysts are required to increase the yields. We present the first time-domain theoretical study of the initial steps of photocatalytic water splitting on a GaN surface. Our state-of-the-art simulation technique, combining nonadiabatic molecular dynamics and time-dependent density functional theory, allows us to characterize the mechanisms and time scales of the evolution of the photogenerated positive charge (hole) and the subsequent proton transfer at the GaN/water interface. The calculations show that the hole loses its excess energy within 100 fs and localizes primarily on the nitrogen atoms of the GaN surface, initiating a sequence of proton-transfer events from the surface N-H group to the nearby OH groups and bulk water molecules. Water splitting requires hole localization on oxygen rather than nitrogen, necessitating nonadiabatic transitions uphill in energy on pure GaN. Such transitions happen rarely, resulting in low yields of the photocatalytic water splitting observed experimentally. We conclude that efficient cocatalysts should favor localization of the photogenerated hole on oxygen-containing species at the semiconductor/water interface.

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Split Peroneal Tendon Lateral Ankle Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Bazán, D Issac; Evans, Andrew M; Agarwal, Monica R; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lateral ankle instability is a common condition. Split peroneal tendon lateral ankle stabilization, a modification of the Chrisman-Snook procedure, is biomechanically stable and often used for severe and/or recurrent chronic lateral ankle instability. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this technique. Specifically, the midterm recurrence of instability and postoperative complications, such as stiffness, neurologic pain, and wound healing complications, were evaluated. We evaluated 30 consecutive procedures with a minimal follow-up period of 1 year. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 13 (median 19, range 13 to 62) months. Five patients (17%) developed recurrent ankle instability, of whom 4 underwent revision surgery. One superficial infection and two wound disruptions developed. Two patients experienced stiffness and eight (27%) surgically induced neurologic complaints, such as sural neuritis. Finally, 2 patients developed complex regional pain syndrome.

  1. Removal of Deeply Impacted Mandibular Molars by Sagittal Split Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Cansiz, Erol; Isler, Sabri Cemil; Gultekin, B Alper

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first and second molars do not share the same frequency of occurrence. In rare cases the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots pointing in opposite direction; these are called kissing molars. In some cases, a supernumerary fourth molar can be seen as unerupted and, in this case, such a supernumerary, deeply impacted fourth molar is seen neighboring kissing molars. The extraction of deeply impacted wisdom molars from the mandible may necessitate excessive bone removal and it causes complications such as damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and iatrogenic fractures of the mandible. This case report describes the use of the sagittal split osteotomy technique to avoid extensive bone removal and protect the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extruction of multiple impacted teeth.

  2. Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei-Bei; Clements, William R; Yu, Xiao-Chong; Shi, Kebin; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2014-10-14

    Ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection holds great potential for early-stage diagnosis of human diseases and for environmental monitoring. In this work, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, single nanoparticle detection by monitoring the beat frequency of split-mode Raman lasers in high-Q optical microcavities. We first demonstrate this method by controllably transferring single 50-nm-radius nanoparticles to and from the cavity surface using a fiber taper. We then realize real-time detection of single nanoparticles in an aqueous environment, with a record low detection limit of 20 nm in radius, without using additional techniques for laser noise suppression. Because Raman scattering occurs in most materials under practically any pump wavelength, this Raman laser-based sensing method not only removes the need for doping the microcavity with a gain medium but also loosens the requirement of specific wavelength bands for the pump lasers, thus representing a significant step toward practical microlaser sensors. PMID:25267618

  3. Pitch-based pattern splitting for 1D layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Ryo; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Koji; Tsujita, Koichiro; Yaegashi, Hidetami; Oyama, Kenichi; Smayling, Michael C.; Axelrad, Valery

    2015-07-01

    The pattern splitting algorithm for 1D Gridded-Design-Rules layout (1D layout) for sub-10 nm node logic devices is shown. It is performed with integer linear programming (ILP) based on the conflict graph created from a grid map for each designated pitch. The relation between the number of times for patterning and the minimum pitch is shown systematically with a sample pattern of contact layer for each node. From the result, the number of times for patterning for 1D layout is fewer than that for conventional 2D layout. Moreover, an experimental result including SMO and total integrated process with hole repair technique is presented with the sample pattern of contact layer whose pattern density is relatively high among critical layers (fin, gate, local interconnect, contact, and metal).

  4. Splitting and biopsy for bovine embryo sexing under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R F; Forell, F; Oliveira, A T; Rodrigues, J L

    2001-12-01

    Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo bisection technology in commercial embryo transfer programs, and made possible the direct genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos by biopsy. For example, aspiration and microsection, allow bovine embryos sexing by detection of male-specific Y-chromosome in a sample of embryonic cells. We report on the application of the methodologies of splitting and biopsy of bovine embryos in field conditions, and on the results of embryo sex determination by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pregnancy rates achieved with fresh bisected or biopsied embryos (50 to 60%) were similar to the fresh intact embryos (55 to 61%). The PCR protocol used for embryo sexing showed 92% to 94% of efficiency and 90 to 100% of accuracy. These results demonstrate these procedures are suitable for use in field conditions.

  5. Improved specimen recovery in tensile split Hopkinson bar

    PubMed Central

    Isakov, Matti; Hiermaier, Stefan; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an improved specimen recovery method for the tensile split Hopkinson bar (TSHB) technique. The method is based on the trapping of residual stress waves with the use of momentum trap bars. As is well known, successful momentum trapping in TSHB is highly sensitive to experimental uncertainties, especially on the incident bar side of the set-up. However, as is demonstrated in this paper, significant improvement in the reliability of specimen recovery is obtained by using two momentum trap bars in contact with the incident bar. This makes the trapping of the reflected wave insensitive to striker speed and removes the need for a precision set gap between the incident bar and the momentum trap. PMID:25071235

  6. Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pin Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Liu, Ai Qun; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a number of interesting designs proposed and implemented to generate artificial magnetism at optical frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials, but owing to the planar configurations of typically fabricated metamolecules that make up the metamaterials, the magnetic response is mainly driven by the electric field of the incident electromagnetic wave. We recently fabricated vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs) which behave as magnetic metamolecules sensitive to both incident electric and magnetic fields with stronger induced magnetic dipole moment upon excitation in comparison to planar SRRs. The fabrication technique enabled us to study the plasmon coupling between VSRRs that stand up side by side where the coupling strength can be precisely controlled by varying the gap in between. The resulting wide tuning range of these resonance modes offers the possibility of developing frequency selective functional devices such as sensors and filters based on plasmon coupling with high sensitivity. PMID:26043931

  7. Removal of Deeply Impacted Mandibular Molars by Sagittal Split Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Isler, Sabri Cemil

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first and second molars do not share the same frequency of occurrence. In rare cases the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots pointing in opposite direction; these are called kissing molars. In some cases, a supernumerary fourth molar can be seen as unerupted and, in this case, such a supernumerary, deeply impacted fourth molar is seen neighboring kissing molars. The extraction of deeply impacted wisdom molars from the mandible may necessitate excessive bone removal and it causes complications such as damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and iatrogenic fractures of the mandible. This case report describes the use of the sagittal split osteotomy technique to avoid extensive bone removal and protect the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extruction of multiple impacted teeth. PMID:27429810

  8. Semiconductor Nanowires for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yun Jeong

    Photolysis of water with semiconductor materials has been investigated intensely as a clean and renewable energy resource by storing solar energy in chemical bonds such as hydrogen. One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as nanowires can provide several advantages for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting due to their high surface areas and excellent charge transport and collection efficiency. This dissertation discusses various nanowire photoelectrodes for single or dual semiconductor systems, and their linked PEC cells for self-driven water splitting. After an introduction of solar water splitting in the first chapter, the second chapter demonstrates water oxidative activities of hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanowire arrays depending on their length and surface properties. The photocurrents with TiO2 nanowire arrays approach saturation due to their poor charge collection efficiency with longer nanowires despite increased photon absorption efficiency. Epitaxial grains of rutile atomic layer deposition (ALD) shell on TiO2 nanowire increase the photocurrent density by 1.5 times due to improved charge collection efficiency especially in the short wavelength region. Chapter three compares the photocurrent density of the planar Si and Si nanowire arrays coated by anatase ALD TiO 2 thin film as a model system of a dual bandgap system. The electroless etched Si nanowire coated by ALD TiO2 (Si EENW/TiO2) shows 2.5 times higher photocurrent density due to lower reflectance and higher surface area. Also, this chapter illustrates that n-Si/n-TiO2 heterojunction is a promising structure for the photoanode application of a dual semiconductor system, since it can enhance the photocurrent density compared to p-Si/n-TiO 2 junction with the assistance of bend banding at the interface. Chapter four demonstrates the charge separation and transport of photogenerated electrons and holes within a single asymmetric Si/TiO2 nanowire. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements show

  9. Self-induced spectral splits in supernova neutrino fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2007-10-15

    In the dense-neutrino region above the neutrino sphere of a supernova (r < or approx. 400 km), neutrino-neutrino refraction causes collective flavor transformations. They can lead to 'spectral splits' where an energy E{sub split} splits the transformed spectrum sharply into parts of almost pure but different flavors. Unless there is an ordinary MSW resonance in the dense-neutrino region, E{sub split} is determined by flavor-lepton number conservation alone. Spectral splits are created by an adiabatic transition between regions of large and small neutrino density. We solve the equations of motion in the adiabatic limit explicitly and provide analytic expressions for a generic example.

  10. Career Guidance and Student Success in Dutch Higher Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Wierik, Mark L. J.; Beishuizen, Jos; van Os, Willem

    2015-01-01

    To enhance student success, a growing number of vocational education and training institutions in the Netherlands are nowadays implementing new career guidance practices in their competence-based approaches to learning. Based on individual-level data of undergraduate first-year full-time students from a Dutch university of applied sciences, this…

  11. The Role of Dutch Government in Curriculum Design and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Jeroen; Jenniskens, Ineke

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of Dutch higher education looks at whether a 1985 proposal for fundamental changes in the relationship between government and higher education institutions has been implemented with regard to curriculum design. It is concluded that, despite policy intentions for increased institutional autonomy, the government retains relatively tight…

  12. Library Service for Multicultural Groups in Dutch Prisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijnders, Katinka

    1996-01-01

    Recognizing that the Netherlands is a multicultural society and prisoners from other cultures are especially isolated, the Dutch prison library service attempts to provide materials in different languages. A network of centers of support responsible for specific languages and a computerized catalog help prison libraries serve varied prisoner…

  13. The Dutch-French Language Border in Belgium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemyns, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Describes language border fluctuations in Belgium as far as its Dutch-French portion is concerned. Examines the status and function of the language border in Belgium and of actual border fluctuations. Discusses two problem areas in detail: the "Voerstreek, and the Brussels suburban region. Language shift and language change through erosion in…

  14. Smoking among Dutch Elementary Schoolchildren: Gender-Specific Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausems, M.; Mesters, I.; van Breukelen, G.; De Vries, H.

    2009-01-01

    Higher rates of smoking initiation and continuation by female compared with male adolescents, as found in many developed countries, may call for gender-specific prevention programs. Risk factors of smoking initiation and continuation were examined prospectively (1997-2002) among 3205 Dutch elementary schoolchildren (mean age 11.64) in an…

  15. Equality on Different Terms: The Case of Dutch Hindu Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.; Driessen, Geert

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors examine the reasons for the establishment of Hindu schools in the Netherlands and how the Dutch system of education facilitates these and other voluntarily separate schools. In particular, the authors explore the manner in which Hindu schools aim to cultivate and sustain attachments to their own group through a…

  16. Cognitive and Linguistic Constraints on Phoneme Isolation in Dutch Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Saskia; Hasselman, Fred; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether task instructions affect sound-isolation performance. The effects of phoneme class and phoneme position were also assessed. Two hundred Dutch kindergartners were presented with a free-sound-isolation task and its constrained counterparts: an initial-, a middle-, and a final-sound-isolation task. All tasks contained…

  17. Alliances in the Dutch BeweegKuur Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Hartog, Franciska; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; van Dijk, Marieke; Koelen, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: BeweegKuur (Exercise Therapy) is a Dutch lifestyle programme in which participants are referred by a general practitioner (GP) to a lifestyle advisor. To support participants, regional and local alliances are established. The present study explored the successes and challenges associated with collaboration processes in local BeweegKuur…

  18. Exploring EFL Literature Approaches in Dutch Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloemert, Jasmijn; Jansen, Ellen; van de Grift, Wim

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the inclusion of literature in foreign language (FL) curricula can be beneficial to language learners. Especially, the move towards integrated language and literature curricula is gaining ground. In this study we investigated the way English as a foreign language (EFL) is approached in Dutch secondary…

  19. Sex Differences on the Dutch WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Posthuma, Danielle; Dolan, Conor V.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Colom, Roberto; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2006-01-01

    Using multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA), this study investigated whether sex differences were present on the Dutch WAIS-III, and if so, whether these sex differences were attributable to differences in general intelligence ("g"). The sample consisted of 294 females and 228 males between 18 and 46 years old. Both first…

  20. "Modern" Governance and Codes of Conduct in Dutch Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, Harry; Goedegebuure, Leo

    2007-01-01

    As one of the first countries in Europe to do so, The Netherlands moved towards a new relationship between the state and the higher education institutions in the mid-1980s. Autonomy, quality and accountability were key considerations in this move. In 2006 the Dutch government proposed another radical innovation in its approach to higher education…

  1. Measurement of Tear Production in English Angora and Dutch Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Rafiee, Siamak Mashhady; Ghaffari, Masoud Selk; Masouleh, Mohammad N; Jamshidian, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for tear production tests in different breeds of domestic rabbits. Healthy adult rabbits (n = 60; 120 eyes) of 2 different breeds (English angora and Dutch; n = 15 of each sex and breed) were used in this study. Tear production was measured by using the 1-min Schirmer tear test (STT), phenol red thread test (PRTT), and endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPTT). In addition, horizontal palpebral fissure length was evaluated as a measure of ocular adnexal dimensions. Tear production (mean ± 1 SD) in English angora rabbits was 5.4 ± 1.6 mm/min according to the STT, 25.0 ± 2.7 mm in 15 s for the PRTT, and 18.8 ± 2.1 mm/min by the EAPTT; in Dutch rabbits, these values were 4.6 ± 1.2 mm/min, 23.6 ± 2.3 mm in 15 s, and 16.9 ± 1.7 mm/min, respectively. Only the EAPTT revealed a significant difference in tear production between English Angora and Dutch rabbits. These results provide reference values for tear production in English Angora and Dutch rabbits according to 3 different quantitative tear film assessment methods. PMID:27025815

  2. Contact Hours in Dutch and Vietnamese Higher Education: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quyen, Do Thi Ngoc

    2009-01-01

    The number of contact hours, one of the important institutional context factors, was examined and compared between Dutch and Vietnamese higher education at institute and student levels in Psychology and Business and/or Economics specializations. The quantity of contact hours per credit point given by institutions was investigated in a number of…

  3. How Dutch Employees Experience Freedom of Learning for Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe…

  4. Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gays among American and Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Kate L.; Horn, Stacey S.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the U.S. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and American heterosexual adolescents, utilizing survey data from 1,080 American adolescents (mean age = 15.86 years) attending two schools and from 1,391 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 16.27 years) attending eight schools. Findings indicated the Dutch participants were more tolerant of lesbians and gays, after adjusting for the gender, age, and racial/ethnic minority status of the participants. However, between-country differences were attenuated by accounting for the beliefs about lesbians and gays that participants used to justify their attitudes. American participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to social norms and religious opposition, while the Dutch participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to individual rights and the biological/genetic basis of homosexuality. The results suggest that the relative importance of particular beliefs about lesbians and gays to attitudes at the group level may be context-dependent but also that certain beliefs are salient to attitudes across national contexts. PMID:24512056

  5. Two Profiles of the Dutch High Performing Employee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Waal, A. A.; Oudshoorn, Michella

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the profile of an ideal employee, to be more precise the behavioral characteristics of the Dutch high-performing employee (HPE). Organizational performance depends for a large part on the commitment of employees. Employees provide their knowledge, skills, experiences and creativity to the…

  6. Commentary: Flexner and Dutch medical education: a misinterpretation?

    PubMed

    Custers, Eugène J F M

    2010-11-01

    Abraham Flexner's 1910 report, Medical Education in the United States and Canada, was hardly noticed in the Netherlands, and though his 1925 book, Medical Education: A Comparative Study, was extensively discussed in the Dutch Medical Journal, it did not and could not affect medical education in the Netherlands. Until the 1970s, the medical curriculum in the Netherlands consisted of four phases: the propaedeutic year (premedical sciences), two preclinical years, two theoretical clinical years, and one-and-a-half to two years of clerkships. When in the 1970s interest in curriculum innovation arose in the Netherlands, it was based on developments in North America that challenged "Flexnerian" norms in medical education. As hardly anyone in the Netherlands cared to study Flexner's work closely, his name became synonymous with the conventional curriculum just as it had in North America. However, the Dutch conventional curriculum was quite different from the American conventional curriculum, so attributing its origins to Flexner's work was a serious misrepresentation. In this commentary, the author clarifies common misconceptions about the history of Dutch medical education and argues that the curriculum as Flexner saw it differed considerably from the Dutch medical curriculum a century ago.

  7. The Prevalence of Poor Reading in Dutch Special Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bon, Wim H. J.; Bouwmans, Mieke; Broeders, Ivy N. L. D. C.

    2006-01-01

    The relative frequency of poor readers in Dutch general elementary education (GEE) and special elementary education (SEE) and the characteristics of their reading performance were investigated using a lexical decision procedure. According to the same norms that identified 9% of students as poor readers in GEE, no less than 73% of the students in…

  8. Development of a Test of Spoken Dutch for Prospective Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, John H. A. L.; Lennig, Matthew; Kerkhoff, Anne; Poelmans, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Based on a parliamentary vote with broad support, the Ministry of Justice of the Netherlands in December 2003 commissioned the development of an examination system to test the Dutch oral language skills of foreigners who want to immigrate permanently to the Netherlands for economic or family reasons. This assessment would take place in the country…

  9. Phonotactics and Morphophonology in Early Child Language: Evidence from Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Fikkert, Paula

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates children's knowledge of how surface pronunciations of lexical items vary according to their phonological and morphological context. Dutch-learning children aged 2.5 and 3.5 years were tested on voicing neutralization and morphophonological alternations. For instance, voicing does not alternate between the pair…

  10. The Speed of Obsolescence: Evidence from the Dutch Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Loo, Jasper B.

    2007-01-01

    HRD is extensively concerned with human capital investment, but only focuses on how skills and knowledge become obsolete to a limited extent. In this paper we look at the speed of obsolescence. Using data from a survey among Dutch public sector employees, we find that the yearly rate of skills obsolescence is 2.6%. Subsequent analyses show that…

  11. Dutch Treat for U.S. Database Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumans, Jak

    1984-01-01

    Reports on investments in the United States (including database activities) by four Dutch publishing companies--Elsevier-NDU, VNU, Kluwer, Wolters Samsom Group. An analysis of the reasons behind these investments, the solidness of the companies, the approach to the U.S. information market, and the knowledge transfer to Europe are highlighted. (EJS)

  12. Developments and Issues in Dutch Adult Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Barry

    The three areas of educational activity recognized by the Dutch have developed historically into distinct and separate institutionalized sectors for educational provision for adults. These areas are knowledge-based, skill-based, and value-based. Each is the responsibility of a different governmental department and cabinet minister. Educational…

  13. Stylizing Standard Dutch by Moroccan Boys in Antwerp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Jurgen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines ethnographic data that show Belgian adolescents of Moroccan descent stylizing Standard Dutch. Analysis addresses the importance of this variety in Belgian-Flemish society and in the school these boys attended, and shows how in interviews with Moroccan boys the hegemonic status of this variety is generally accepted. In…

  14. Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

  15. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  16. How Dutch employees experience freedom of learning for work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-12-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Lifelong Learning (LLL) Research Hub. The comparative study focused on employees' quest for "freedom of learning for work". This paper reports on the Dutch part of the research, the quantitative results of which seem to indicate that the freedom of learning for work is not as important to Dutch employees as might be expected. In a second phase, to investigate employees' experiences of work-related learning in more depth, the Dutch researchers added a follow-up qualitative study, involving one-on-one interviews. In order to triangulate the results of the quantitative and qualitative research phases, the authors then added a mixed-methods sequential explanatory analysis. They assessed the quality of the collected data in both distinct phases by identifying converging results, which are useful for refining our understanding of learning for work. The paper draws both on rich insights into workplace learning based on this research as well as on theoretical literature which refers to concepts like motivation, subjectivity, work identity and agency in connection with the quest for freedom of learning.

  17. Organisational Factors and Teachers' Professional Development in Dutch Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Arnoud T.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Kreijns, Karel; Gerrichhauzen, John T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study that investigates the relationship between organisational factors, Teachers' Professional Development (TPD) and occupational expertise. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was administered among 152 Dutch teachers in secondary education. Findings: Analysis of the data revealed that of…

  18. Citizenship Education and the Dutch National Identity Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of dramatic demographic changes during the last half century as well as a series of recent events surrounding prominent personas, the Dutch have been engaged in an intense debate about their national identity and how citizenship education can contribute to the integration of Muslim immigrants in particular. This article analyses the…

  19. Collaboration on ICT in Dutch Higher Education: The SURF Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boezerooy, Petra; Cordewener, Bas; Liebrand, Wim

    2007-01-01

    In "Thinking Ahead: A Vision of the Role of ICT in Education and Research in the Future, 2007-2010," the higher education institutions in the Netherlands agreed on future strategy. Under the direction of SURF, the Dutch national organization, a collaborative strategy for the application of information and communications technology (ICT) was…

  20. Teacher Interpersonal Competence for Dutch Secondary Multicultural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbels, Theo; den Brok, Perry; Veldman, Ietje; van Tartwijk, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, as in many European countries, classrooms display a growing cultural diversity. There are only very limited empirically supported data on the interpersonal competence teachers need in Dutch classrooms and studies from other countries cannot be generalized because of differences in the composition of the student population. This…

  1. Mentoring in Dutch Vocational Education: An Unfulfilled Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijers, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2002 an estimated 250 mentoring programmes were started in Dutch secondary vocational education in order to decrease motivational problems and drop-out rates, especially among youngsters from ethnic minorities. Currently there are only two schools in secondary vocational education that include mentoring as part and parcel of their…

  2. Tensions in water management: Dutch tradition and European policy.

    PubMed

    Ravesteijn, W; Kroesen, O

    2007-01-01

    Present-day worldwide water problems require new management tools and sustainable system innovations. At Delft University of Technology research is being carried out into water resources and management development aimed at forming such tools and innovations, focused on Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). One of the case-studies deals with Dutch water management and technology in the context of European IRBM in the form of the 2000 Water Frame Directive. The Netherlands experience many water problems and European IRBM could bring help by offering a framework for both international cooperation and technological innovations. To work as an adequate management tool European IRBM should be tailored to the Dutch water tradition, which recently culminated in Integrated Water Management. Both approaches are in some respects contradicting. Europe pursues, for example, centralized control; while the Dutch have their strongly water boards based decentralized administration. The tensions between both approaches require mutual adaptation, for which the concept of subsidiarity might offer points of departure. This paper describes the first results of the case-research into Dutch water management and technology in the context of Europe as well as the backgrounds and the set-up of the research as a whole.

  3. A novel strategy to increase heating efficiency in a split-focus ultrasound phased array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Li; Shih, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Ju, Kuen-Cheng

    2007-07-01

    Focus splitting using sector-based phased arrays increases the necrosed volume in a single sonication and reduces the total treatment time in the treatment of large tumors. However, split-focus sonication results in a lower energy density and worse focal-beam distortion, which limits its usefulness in practical treatments. Here, we propose a new heating strategy involving consecutive strongly focused and split-focus sonications to improve the heating efficiency. Theoretical predictions including linear and thermal-dose-dependent attenuation change were employed to investigate potential factors of this strategy, and ex vivo tissue experiments were conducted to confirm its effectiveness. Results showed that the thermal lesions produced by the proposed strategy could be increased when comparing with the previous reported strategies. The proposed heating strategy also induces a thermal lesion more rapidly, and exhibits higher robustness to various blood perfusion conditions, higher robustness to various power/heating time combinations, and superiority to generate deep-seated lesions through tissues with complex interfaces. Possible mechanisms include the optimization of the thermal conduction created by the strongly focused sonication and the temperature buildup gained from thermally induced tissue attenuation change based on the theoretical analysis. This may represent a useful technique for increasing the applicability of split-focus and multiple-focus sonication techniques, and solve the obstacles encountered when attempting to use these methods to shorten the total clinical treatment time.

  4. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-02-01

    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  5. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. PMID:26991480

  6. Analytic comparison of Monte Carlo geometry splitting and exponential transform

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Modern Monte Carlo particle transport codes such as MCNP offer the user a wide variety of variance reduction techniques. These techniques change the score distribution from the physical distribution. For example, if one counts the number of physical neutrons penetrating a (nonmultiplying) shield, then for each incident neutron, either one neutron penetrates the shield with probability p or zero neutrons penetrate with probability 1 {minus} p. The natural variance of this binomial process is p {minus} p{sup 2}. One may not know the value of p, but one knows the form of the score distribution. However, when variance reduction techniques are used, the form of the score distribution usually is not known. This is a significant problem when confidence intervals are desired. This paper considers a simple two-state transport problem and derives the score distribution when geometry splitting/Russian roulette is used and the score distribution when the exponential transform is used. The results provide a theoretical framework for understanding the sometime ill-behaved exponential transform results.

  7. Applying Dutch and US Versions of the BSID-II in Dutch Children Born Preterm Leads to Different Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westera, J. J.; Houtzager, B. A.; Overdiek, B.; van Wassenaer, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the application of Dutch versus US test procedures and norms of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2nd edition (BSID-II) leads to different developmental outcomes. The BSID-II was administered to 376 preterm infants (191 males, 185 females; mean gestational age 30wks [SD 2.7], mean…

  8. ERP evidence for the split fovea theory.

    PubMed

    Martin, Clara D; Thierry, Guillaume; Démonet, Jean-François; Roberts, Mark; Nazir, Tatjana

    2007-12-14

    According to the 'bilateral representation theory', a complete copy of the words presented foveally is received simultaneously in the left and right visual cortices. However, a growing body of observations, which has led to the 'split fovea theory', proposes a functional split of the foveal area between the two hemispheres. In the present study we tested these two accounts using an adapted version of the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm. Ten control participants and ten participants with developmental dyslexia undergoing electroencephalographic recordings were asked to identify one of five letters in a string. The target letter was systematically presented at fixation but the horizontal positioning of the letter string was varied such that the stimulus fluctuated in both the visual hemifields over the experiment. ERP results showed that letter strings encompassing the foveal field were not sent to both cerebral hemispheres simultaneously when fixation coincided with extreme letter positions (i.e., first or last). Indeed, the P1 peak was delayed in this case, which was interpreted as the result of a transfer of visual information from the contralateral hemisphere via the splenium of the corpus callosum. Consistent with the 'split fovea theory', this result suggests that a minimal amount of graphic input is necessary to induce a P1 event. The interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) deducted from peak-to-peak P1 latency delays ranged from 26 to 42 ms. As previously observed, the IHTT was significantly faster for right-to-left than left-to-right transfer in the control group. IHTT was marginally shorter in control participants as compared to participants with developmental dyslexia, and the faster transfer to the left hemisphere seen in the former was not found in the latter.

  9. Mechanically tolerant fluidic split ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Robiatun A.; Baum, Thomas; Nasabi, Mahyar; Sriram, Sharath; Rowe, Wayne S. T.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible resonators are crucial elements for non-planar, conformal and curved or movable surfaces in flexible high frequency electronic environments. Here, we demonstrate a stretchable, bendable, twistable and reversibly deformable split ring resonator (SRR) operating at ∼3 GHz. The mechanical and electrical performance of the SRR was achieved by encapsulating liquid metal (galinstan) in a microfluidic channel of highly elastic polydimethylsiloxane. Applying mechanical deformation (bending, stretching and twisting) to the SRR results in minimal deviation of the transmission response. This offers a stable and predictable response for flexible electronic applications where mechanical deformation or conformity is inherent.

  10. Split universal extra dimension and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Seong Chan; Shu Jing

    2009-05-01

    Motivated by the recent observation of the high energy electron and positron excesses in cosmic ray by PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS, we suggest an anomaly-free scenario for the universal extra dimension that localizes the standard model quarks and splits the spectrum of Kaluza-Klein (KK) quarks from KK leptons. When the SM quarks are 'well localized' at the boundaries, the most stringent bound of the model (1/R>510 GeV) comes from the resonance search for the Tevatron dijet channels. Even at the early stage of LHC, one can discover the second KK gluon for masses up to 4 TeV.

  11. Split Hubbard bands at low densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Daniel; Perepelitsky, Edward; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2011-05-01

    We present a numerical scheme for the Hubbard model that throws light on the rather esoteric nature of the upper and lower Hubbard bands, which have been invoked often in literature. We present a self-consistent solution of the ladder-diagram equations for the Hubbard model, and show that these provide, at least in the limit of low densities of particles, a vivid picture of the Hubbard split bands. We also address the currently topical problem of decay of the doublon states that are measured in optical trap studies, using both the ladder scheme and also an exact two-particle calculation of a relevant Green’s function.

  12. The second order pole over split quaternions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libine, Matvei

    2015-04-01

    This is an addition to a series of papers [1, 2, 3, 4], where we develop quaternionic analysis from the point of view of representation theory of the conformal Lie group and its Lie algebra. In this paper we develop split quaternionic analogues of certain results from [4]. Thus we introduce a space of functions Dh ⊕ Da with a natural action of the Lie algebra gl(2, HC) ≊ sl(4, C), decompose Dh ⊕ Da into irreducible components and find the gl(2, Hc)- equivariant projectors onto each of these irreducible components.

  13. Mild-split SUSY with flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliaz, Latif; Giveon, Amit; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Tsuk, Eitan

    2013-10-01

    In the framework of a gauge mediated quiver-like model, the standard model flavor texture can be naturally generated. The model — like the MSSM — has furthermore a region in parameter space where the lightest Higgs mass is fed by heavy stop loops, which in turn sets the average squark mass scale near 10 - 20TeV. We perform a careful flavor analysis to check whether this type of mild-split SUSY passes all flavor constraints as easily as envisioned in the original type of split SUSY. Interestingly, it turns out to be on the border of several constraints, in particular, the branching ratio of μ → eγ and, if order one complex phases are assumed, also ɛ K , neutron and electron EDM. Furthermore, we consider unification as well as dark matter candidates, especially the gravitino. Finally, we provide a closed-form formula for the soft masses of matter in arbitrary representations of any of the gauge groups in a generic quiver-like model with a general messenger sector.

  14. Renewable hydrogen production by photosynthetic water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1998-06-01

    This mission-oriented research project is focused on the production of renewable hydrogen. The authors have demonstrated that certain unicellular green algae are capable of sustained simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen by light-activated photosynthetic water splitting. It is the goal of this project to develop a practical chemical engineering system for the development of an economic process that can be used to produce renewable hydrogen. There are several fundamental problems that need to be solved before the application of this scientific knowledge can be applied to the development a practical process: (I) maximizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into hydrogen energy, (2) development of oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase-containing mutants, and (3) development of bioreactors that can be used in a real-world chemical engineering process. The authors are addressing each of these problems here at ORNL and in collaboration with their research colleagues at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Hawaii. This year the authors have focused on item 1 above. In particular, they have focused on the question of how many light reactions are required to split water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen.

  15. Oseledets' splitting of standard-like maps.

    PubMed

    Sala, M; Artuso, R

    2015-02-01

    For the class of differentiable maps of the plane and, in particular, for standard-like maps (McMillan form), a simple relation is shown between the directions of the local invariant manifolds of a generic point and its contribution to the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) of the associated orbit. By computing also the point-wise curvature of the manifolds, we produce a comparative study between local Lyapunov exponent, manifold's curvature and splitting angle between stable/unstable manifolds. Interestingly, the analysis of the Chirikov-Taylor standard map suggests that the positive contributions to the FTLE average mostly come from points of the orbit where the structure of the manifolds is locally hyperbolic: where the manifolds are flat and transversal, the one-step exponent is predominantly positive and large; this behaviour is intended in a purely statistical sense, since it exhibits large deviations. Such phenomenon can be understood by analytic arguments which, as a by-product, also suggest an explicit way to point-wise approximate the splitting.

  16. Oseledets' splitting of standard-like maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, M.; Artuso, R.

    2015-02-01

    For the class of differentiable maps of the plane and, in particular, for standard-like maps (McMillan form), a simple relation is shown between the directions of the local invariant manifolds of a generic point and its contribution to the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) of the associated orbit. By computing also the point-wise curvature of the manifolds, we produce a comparative study between local Lyapunov exponent, manifold's curvature and splitting angle between stable/unstable manifolds. Interestingly, the analysis of the Chirikov-Taylor standard map suggests that the positive contributions to the FTLE average mostly come from points of the orbit where the structure of the manifolds is locally hyperbolic: where the manifolds are flat and transversal, the one-step exponent is predominantly positive and large; this behaviour is intended in a purely statistical sense, since it exhibits large deviations. Such phenomenon can be understood by analytic arguments which, as a by-product, also suggest an explicit way to point-wise approximate the splitting.

  17. Artificial photosynthesis: understanding water splitting in nature

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Nicholas; Pantazis, Dimitrios A.; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a global artificial photosynthesis (GAP) project, we review our current work on nature's water splitting catalyst. In a recent report (Cox et al. 2014 Science 345, 804–808 (doi:10.1126/science.1254910)), we showed that the catalyst—a Mn4O5Ca cofactor—converts into an ‘activated’ form immediately prior to the O–O bond formation step. This activated state, which represents an all MnIV complex, is similar to the structure observed by X-ray crystallography but requires the coordination of an additional water molecule. Such a structure locates two oxygens, both derived from water, in close proximity, which probably come together to form the product O2 molecule. We speculate that formation of the activated catalyst state requires inherent structural flexibility. These features represent new design criteria for the development of biomimetic and bioinspired model systems for water splitting catalysts using first-row transition metals with the aim of delivering globally deployable artificial photosynthesis technologies. PMID:26052426

  18. Micro-Miniature Split Stirling Linear Crycooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A.; Zehtzer, S.; Vilenchik, H.; Pundak, N.

    2010-04-01

    Novel tactics for rescue, surveillance, reconnaissance, force protection, perimeter security, navigation and targeting often involve the use of miniature infrared imagers, where the cooled imaging systems are known to be superior to their uncooled rivals in terms of working range, resolution and ability to distinguish/track fast moving objects in dynamic infrared scenes. The latest technological advances in industrial applications of high-temperature infrared detectors have spurred the development of linearly driven, long life, dynamically quiet and aurally undetectable micro-miniature split Stirling linear cryogenic coolers. Recent progress in designing highly efficient "moving magnet" resonant linear actuators and dedicated smart electronics have enabled further improvements to the cooler's size, weight, power consumption, cooldown time and ownership costs. The authors report on the development of a novel micro-miniature split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler, where, by means of increasing the driving frequency up to 90 Hz, it appeared possible to shorten the cold finger to 19 mm. The cooler was specifically designed to cool a new generation of 130 K infrared detectors for portable infrared imagers, where compactness, low steady-state power consumption, fast cool-down time, vibration export and aural stealth are of primary concern.

  19. Shear-wave splitting near Guam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiakang

    1992-08-01

    Polarities of shear waves from intermediate-focus events underneath Guam are studied. For records from a group of ten events, shear-wave splitting with faster-arriving E-W components are observed. This event group occurred within, or above, one geographic portion of the Wadati-Benioff zone, with depths ranging between 57 and 148 km. Ray tracing calculations were performed for 3-D and 1-D velocity models constructed for the region to determine expected S-wave polarities and ray patterns, as well as their sensitivities to variations in velocity structure. These were used to infer the probable existence of intrinsic anisotropy at depth and to determine the location and magnitude of anisotropy which can explain the observed shear-wave splitting. The most probable location of the anisotropy is beneath the crust and above, or partially within, the subducting slab. Assuming a maximum depth range of 10-120 km for the location of the anisotropy, its amount is about 1%, which may be viewed as a lower bound. Plausible causes of the anisotropy include mantle flow and thin, sheet-like channels filled with lava, or water vapor migrating upward from the subducting slab.

  20. Vibration Analysis of a Split Path Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Rashidi, Majid

    1995-01-01

    Split path gearboxes can be attractive alternatives to the common planetary designs for rotorcraft, but because they have seen little use, they are relatively high risk designs. To help reduce the risk of fielding a rotorcraft with a split path gearbox, the vibration and dynamic characteristics of such a gearbox were studied. A mathematical model was developed by using the Lagrangian method, and it was applied to study the effect of three design variables on the natural frequencies and vibration energy of the gearbox. The first design variable, shaft angle, had little influence on the natural frequencies. The second variable, mesh phasing, had a strong effect on the levels of vibration energy, with phase angles of 0 deg and 180 deg producing low vibration levels. The third design variable, the stiffness of the shafts connecting the spur gears to the helical pinions, strongly influenced the natural frequencies of some of the vibration modes, including two of the dominant modes. We found that, to achieve the lowest level of vibration energy, the natural frequencies of these two dominant modes should be less than those of the main excitation sources.

  1. Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOEpatents

    Walrath, David E.; Lindberg, William R.; Burgess, Robert K.

    2000-08-29

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane.

  2. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOEpatents

    Walrath, David E.; Lindberg, William R.; Burgess, Robert K.; LaBelle, James

    2000-02-22

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  3. Distributed transform coding via source-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahampath, Pradeepa

    2012-12-01

    Transform coding (TC) is one of the best known practical methods for quantizing high-dimensional vectors. In this article, a practical approach to distributed TC of jointly Gaussian vectors is presented. This approach, referred to as source-split distributed transform coding (SP-DTC), can be used to easily implement two terminal transform codes for any given rate-pair. The main idea is to apply source-splitting using orthogonal-transforms, so that only Wyner-Ziv (WZ) quantizers are required for compression of transform coefficients. This approach however requires optimizing the bit allocation among dependent sets of WZ quantizers. In order to solve this problem, a low-complexity tree-search algorithm based on analytical models for transform coefficient quantization is developed. A rate-distortion (RD) analysis of SP-DTCs for jointly Gaussian sources is presented, which indicates that these codes can significantly outperform the practical alternative of independent TC of each source, whenever there is a strong correlation between the sources. For practical implementation of SP-DTCs, the idea of using conditional entropy constrained (CEC) quantizers followed by Slepian-Wolf coding is explored. Experimental results obtained with SP-DTC designs based on both CEC scalar quantizers and CEC trellis-coded quantizers demonstrate that actual implementations of SP-DTCs can achieve RD performance close to the analytically predicted limits.

  4. Strong CP, Flavor, and Twisted Split Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2004-11-10

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class.

  5. Photosynthetic water splitting: 1987 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1988-01-01

    This document is an annual report of photosynthetic water splitting for the production of hydrogen and oxygen. Unicellular green algae are capable of evolving molecular hydrogen in the presence of carbon dioxide. Controlling factors that determine hydrogen evolution are either temperature or light intensity. Also, mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas are capable of evolving hydrogen in the presence of carbon dioxide. The significance of these discoveries is that the presence of carbon dioxide (or bicarbonate) is a key factor in determining the activity of the Photosystem II water splitting complex. Second, a new advance in oxygen sensor technology has been made that, for the first time, allows the absolute measurement of photosynthetically evolved oxygen from a single colony of microalgae growing on a solidified agar medium. The key aspect of this electrochemical sensor is the utilization of ultra-pure potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and a recognition of the role that electrolyte impurities play in contributing to base line noise. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Joshua A. Holloway, Christopher L.; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A.; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric-field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 wave guide band is measured for frequencies of 93.71 GHz and 104.77 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measured the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.

  7. Split Node and Stress Glut Methods for Dynamic Rupture Simulations in Finite Elements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Bielak, J.

    2008-12-01

    I present two numerical techniques to solve the Dynamic problem. I revisit and modify the Split Node approach and introduce a Stress Glut type Method. Both algorithms are implemented using a iso/sub- parametric FEM solver. In the first case, I discuss the formulation and perform an analysis of convergence for different orders of approximation for the acoustic case. I describe the algorithm of the second methodology as well as the assumptions made. The key to the new technique is to have an accurate representation of the traction. Thus, I devote part of the discussion to analyze the tractions for a simple example. The sensitivity of the method is tested by comparing against Split Node solutions.

  8. Monitoring Spatial and Temporal Variations in Fracture Networks Using Shear-wave Splitting Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, J. M.; Wuestefeld, A.; Verdon, J.; Rutledge, J. T.; Wookey, J.

    2011-12-01

    Passive seismic monitoring is used to infer fracturing in a range of settings including hydrocarbon reservoirs, mining environments and volcanological systems. However, most studies concentrate on simply locating microseismic events. Measurements of shear-wave splitting in such events provide unambiguous evidence of seismic anisotropy, which may be caused by the rock fabric and/or aligned fractures, which in turn offers insights into the state of stress in the rock. We present a strategy to automatically process shear-wave splitting in large microseismic datasets. This includes an objective quality control of the shear-wave splitting results, based on characteristic differences between two independent splitting techniques. Reliable measurements can be then used in inversion schemes for anisotropy parameters, including those controlled by rock fracturing. We demonstrate this fully automatic workflow with microseismic events recorded during a hydraulic fracture experiment in a tight gas reservoir in Carthage, East Texas. Events were recorded on two downhole arrays of 3-component sensors, the geometry of which provided good ray coverage for anisotropy analysis. A total of 16633 seismograms from 888 located events yielded 1570 well-constrained shear wave splitting measurements. We consider the anisotropy to be controlled by a sedimentary fabric with superimposed fractures and use the splitting measurements to invert for the orthorhombic anisotropic parameters of the rock mass, including the dominant fracture orientation and facture density. The recovered fracture strike in the rock mass is parallel to directions of regional borehole breakout, but oblique to the hydraulic fracture corridor as mapped by the microseismic events. We relate this to en-echelon fracturing of pre-existing cracks. The magnitude of shear wave splitting shows a clear temporal increase during each pumping stage, indicating the generation of cracks and fissures in a halo around the fracture

  9. Is the Cross-sectional Area after Unilateral Open Door Laminoplasty Wider than that after Midline Splitting Laminoplasty ? : Mathematical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan; Jang, Il Tae; Choi, Sang-Eun

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare geometrically cross-sectional areas of two different laminoplasty techniques in same opening size. Some investigators have studied the expanded areas of the two different techniques using imaging study. Although it is unclear that postoperative spinal canal is correlated with the surgical outcome we just focused on mathematical and geometrical correlation of the expandable area with surgical opening size in different laminoplasty techniques. Methods To predict the expandable area by a midline splitting technique and a unilateral open door technique, we placed an imaginary isosceles triangle in the spinal canal and drew graphs for the equation of the expandable areas in same opening size using the Pythagorean theorem and mathematical program. To substitute the constant figures of mathematical formula we estimated the normal cervical spine CT scans of 50 Korean adults. Results We subtracted the imaginary triangle from the spinal canal and were left with the remaining area of the spinal canal that was not changed before and after surgery. In same opening size the expandable area by the midline splitting technique was same but slightly wider than the unilateral open door technique, irrespective of the triangular shape. For a normal isosceles triangle the results were the same. Conclusion Using mathematical proof, the expandable area after the midline splitting technique was same but slightly larger than that after the unilateral open door technique, irrespective of the size of the lamina opening. PMID:24891855

  10. Halogenated benzene radical cations and ground state degeneracy splitting by asymmetric substitution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bondybey, V.E.; Vaughn, C.R.; Miller, T.A.; English, J.H.; Shiley, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption and laser induced fluorescence of several halogenated benzene radical cations were studied in solid Ne matrices. The spectra of 1,2,4-trifluorobenzene, l,3-dichloro-5-fluorobenzene, and l-chloro-3,5- difluorobenzene radical cations are observed and analyzed. Studies of fluorescence polarization and a photoselection technique were used to examine the splitting of the degeneracy of the benzene cation ground state by asymmetric subsitution. ?? 1981 American Institute of Physics.

  11. A combined approach of variance-reduction techniques for the efficient Monte Carlo simulation of linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Sempau, J.; Brualla, L.

    2012-05-01

    A method based on a combination of the variance-reduction techniques of particle splitting and Russian roulette is presented. This method improves the efficiency of radiation transport through linear accelerator geometries simulated with the Monte Carlo method. The method named as ‘splitting-roulette’ was implemented on the Monte Carlo code \\scriptsize{{PENELOPE}} and tested on an Elekta linac, although it is general enough to be implemented on any other general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code and linac geometry. Splitting-roulette uses any of the following two modes of splitting: simple splitting and ‘selective splitting’. Selective splitting is a new splitting mode based on the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung photons implemented in the Monte Carlo code \\scriptsize{{PENELOPE}}. Splitting-roulette improves the simulation efficiency of an Elekta SL25 linac by a factor of 45.

  12. Quantum tunneling splittings from path-integral molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyus, Edit; Wales, David J.; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2016-03-01

    We illustrate how path-integral molecular dynamics can be used to calculate ground-state tunnelling splittings in molecules or clusters. The method obtains the splittings from ratios of density matrix elements between the degenerate wells connected by the tunnelling. We propose a simple thermodynamic integration scheme for evaluating these elements. Numerical tests on fully dimensional malonaldehyde yield tunnelling splittings in good overall agreement with the results of diffusion Monte Carlo calculations.

  13. Testosterone induces "splitting" of circadian locomotor activity rhythms in birds.

    PubMed

    Gwinner, E

    1974-07-01

    Under the influence of testosterone, the free-running circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of the starling, Sturnus vulgaris, tends to "split" into two components which temporarily run with different circadian frequencies: "splitting" occurred in intact birds whose testes grew, and in castrated birds that were injected with testosterone. Since "splitting" most probably reflects the temporal separation of two (or two groups of) circadian oscillators, these results suggest that testosterone affects the mutual coupling of circadian oscillators controlling locomotor activity.

  14. Photon Splitting in the Superstrong Magnetic Fields of Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Vladimir V.

    2002-06-01

    We discuss the polarization selection rules for the splitting of the two principal electromagnetic modes that propagate in a vacuum polarized by a superstrong magnetic field (B>0.1Bcr~=4×1012 G). We show that below the threshold of free pair creation, the selection rules found by Adler in the limit of weak dispersion remain unaffected by taking the resonant effects into consideration; i.e., splitting of one mode is strictly forbidden, while splitting of the other is allowed.

  15. Ordered-subset Split-Bregman algorithm for interior tomography.

    PubMed

    Kong, Huihua; Liu, Rui; Yu, Hengyong

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the Compressed Sensing (CS) theory, it has been proved that the interior problem of computed tomography (CT) can be accurately and stably solved if a region-of-interest (ROI) is piecewise constant or polynomial, resulting in the CS-based interior tomography. The key is to minimize the total variation (TV) of the ROI under the constraint of the truncated projections. Coincidentally, the Split-Bregman (SB) method has attracted a major attention to solve the TV minimization problem for CT image reconstruction. In this paper, we apply the SB approach to reconstruct an ROI for the CS-based interior tomography assuming a piecewise constant imaging model. Furthermore, the ordered subsets (OS) technique is used to accelerate the convergence of SB algorithm, leading to a new OS-SB algorithm for interior tomography. The conventional OS simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (OS-SART) and soft-threshold filtering (STF) based OS-SART are also implemented as references to evaluate the performance of the proposed OS-SB algorithm for interior tomography. Both numerical simulations and clinical applications are performed and the results confirm the advantages of the proposed OS-SB method.

  16. A Dutch perspective: the limits of lawful euthanasia.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Ubaldus

    2004-01-01

    Dutch author Ubaldus de Vries reviews the current state of the euthanasia law in the Netherlands. The legislation, enacted in 2001, creates a medical exception that allows for euthanasia in cases where patients experience "hopeless and unbearable suffering." A brief history of the Dutch approach to euthanasia is set forth, case law is reviewed, and the unique role of the doctor is examined in seeking to understand the extent of one's right to euthanasia in the Netherlands. Because the courts must determine what constitutes "hopeless and unbearable suffering," Professor de Vries analyzes the judicial interpretation of "suffering" and concludes that judicial interpretation has reached its limits, and thus by implication, the limits of lawful euthanasia have been reached.

  17. Combatting Electoral Traces: The Dutch Tempest Discussion and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Wolter

    In the Dutch e-voting debate, the crucial issue leading to the abandonment of all electronic voting machines was compromising radiation, or tempest: it would be possible to eavesdrop on the choice of the voter by capturing the radiation from the machine. Other countries, however, do not seem to be bothered by this risk. In this paper, we use actor-network theory to analyse the socio-technical origins of the Dutch tempest issue in e-voting, and we introduce concepts for discussing its implications for e-voting beyond the Netherlands. We introduce the term electoral traces to denote any physical, digital or social evidence of a voter’s choices in an election. From this perspective, we provide a framework for risk classification as well as an overview of countermeasures against such traces.

  18. Chinese and Dutch parents' perceptions of their children's personality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuching; Kohnstamm, Geldolph; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Elphick, Eric; Cheung, Ping Chung

    2002-06-01

    The authors coded Chinese (n = 401) and Dutch (n = 324) parents' free descriptions of their 3- to 14-year-old children's personalities using a 14-category coding system partially based on the Big Five. Of the Chinese and Dutch personality descriptors, 86% and 77%, respectively, could be classified in the first 5 main categories resembling the five-factor model of adult personality. No significant differences were found for gender, socio-economic status, or city in these categories. Chinese parents of school age children generated many more descriptors, mostly critical, in the domain of conscientiousness. The findings reflect Chinese high achievement orientation and show that the classification system, which presently serves as a basis for developing indigenous questionnaires for personality assessment of children in China and some Western countries, is sensitive to cultural differences.

  19. "Culture of death" in The Netherlands: Dutch perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Almagor, R

    2001-01-01

    During the summer of 1999, extensive interviews with some of the leading authorities on euthanasia policy were conducted in the Netherlands. They were asked: Daniel Callahan argues that there is a 'culture of death' in the Netherlands. What do you think? The majority of interviewees disagreed with the statement. They said that the Netherlands is not fundamentally different than other countries. If at all, the Dutch culture is open and tolerant, welcomes debates and plurality of views, and physicians are decent people who wish to help their patients, not to kill them. A small minority acknowledged that there is some truth in Callahan's observations, arguing that the Dutch actually do not welcome critique and are quite conservative in their liberal attitude toward euthanasia. PMID:11816935

  20. Turn over split fascial flap - a refinement for resurfacing shin defect

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Visweswar; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Chaudhuri, Gaurab R; Barooah, Partha S; SK, Tripathi; Birendra, Rana; Bhattacharya, Siddhartha; Deka, Dhruva J

    2012-01-01

    Moderate size defects of the shin of tibia are frequently encountered following trauma and infection. They may be associated with or without a fracture. Such defects require resurfacing by a flap. Many different types of flaps have been described but most of them proved to be more bulky than desired. Although these procedures cover the defects successfully the results they produce are not aesthetically appropriate. The flap looks bulkier because the native subcutaneous tissue is thin over the shin and distal leg. Hence a search for a vascularized tissue of minimal bulk for suitable resurfacing was initiated. A turnover fascial flap fulfilled the requirement. Such a flap can be made thinner by splitting its distal part into two layers while maintaining a common vascular fascial pedicle with both the layers of the fascia. This allowed a larger surface area to be covered. Such refinement is based on the following parameters (a) fresh cadaveric dissection, (b) demonstration of live microcirculation individually in the superficial and deep layers of the deep fascia and (c) intraoperative flourescein study of the split fascial flap. The technique has been used in 5 cases over the upper and middle third of the shin of tibia. The split fascial flap was turned over and inset in the defect and covered with a split skin graft. The donor site was primarily closed. The functional and aesthetic results were highly satisfactory. The follow up of 18 months proved the durability and usefulness of the flap. PMID:23071906

  1. Springback Behavior of AA6111-T4 with Split-Ring Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Z. C.; Miller, C. E.; Ren, F.

    2004-06-01

    The split-ring test provides a simple yet effective benchmark for correlating forming and springback predictive capabilities with experimental measurements. The experimental procedure consists of deep drawing a cylindrical cup, cutting one or more rings from the mid-section of the cup, and then splitting the ring to let it open up. Both experimental and numerical investigations are conducted in this paper for aluminum alloy 6111-T4 to assess current simulation capabilities. The cup is drawn to a depth of 55mm and 9 rings of 5mm wide each are sequentially cut from the cup and then split open. Complete experimental results are obtained, including punch force trajectories, drawn cup profile, thickness distribution after forming, and the ring opening after splitting. An interesting observation is that the ring cut out near the cup bottom exhibits negative opening as opposed to positive openings for other rings. Extensive numerical simulations are conducted and results are compared against measurements. Deficiencies in current modeling techniques are discussed as a result of this study.

  2. Split Space-Marching Finite-Volume Method for Chemically Reacting Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Arthur W.; Bailey, Harry E.

    1976-01-01

    A space-marching finite-volume method employing a nonorthogonal coordinate system and using a split differencing scheme for calculating steady supersonic flow over aerodynamic shapes is presented. It is a second-order-accurate mixed explicit-implicit procedure that solves the inviscid adiabatic and nondiffusive equations for chemically reacting flow in integral conservation-law form. The relationship between the finite-volume and differential forms of the equations is examined and the relative merits of each discussed. The method admits initial Cauchy data situated on any arbitrary surface and integrates them forward along a general curvilinear coordinate, distorting and deforming the surface as it advances. The chemical kinetics term is split from the convective terms which are themselves dimensionally split, thereby freeing the fluid operators from the restricted step size imposed by the chemical reactions and increasing the computational efficiency. The accuracy of this splitting technique is analyzed, a sufficient stability criterion is established, a representative flow computation is discussed, and some comparisons are made with another method.

  3. Selectively splitting a droplet using superhydrophobic stripes on hydrophilic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong; Song, Baowei; Hu, Haibao; Du, Xiaosong; Zhou, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Superhydrophobic patterns were fabricated on hydrophilic surfaces by selective painting. The impinging process of water droplets on these hybrid surfaces was investigated. The droplet can be split by impinging on the hydrophilic surface with a single stripe at a high velocity. The time to split the droplet is independent of the impact velocity and it is smaller than the contact time of a droplet impinging on the fully superhydrophobic surface. The volume ratios of the split mini-droplets could be precisely controlled by adjusting the landing position of the original droplet. The droplet could be split uniformly into more mini-marbles by increasing the stripe numbers. PMID:25946666

  4. On the tunneling splitting in a cyclic water trimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandziuk, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    We propose an alternative explanation of the "bifurcation" splittings observed for the water trimer in the VRT experiments of Saykally's group [Chem. Rev. 103 (2003) 2533]. In our interpretation, the splittings originate from the quantum delocalization of hydrogen bonded protons in the mean field potential between two oxygen neighbors. The pattern and the order of our calculated splittings is in the range of experimentally observed values. Consequently, quantum delocalization of protons should be considered seriously as the origin of experimentally observed fine splittings. The presented model can be extended to a water pentamer and, hopefully, advance our understanding of liquid water.

  5. Longitudinal splitting in unidirectional composites, analysis and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goree, J. G.; Wolla, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to determine the fracture behavior of center notched, unidirectional graphite/epoxy laminates when subjected to tensile loading. The actual behavior is compared to the behavior predicted by a mathematical model based on classical shear-lag assumptions. The model allows for damage to occur in the form of longitudinal matrix yielding and splitting with the matrix assumed to fail in pure shear. Results indicate that the model is capable of predicting split initiation stress levels accurately, but does not describe the subsequent split growth adequately. The model predicts rapid split growth following split initiation due to shear failure, while the actual behavior involves a slow split growth region prior to the rapid growth region. It is suggested that transverse matrix normal stresses are responsible for split initiation and the early, slow split growth. The model predicts the actual initiation stress levels reliably, and also appears to be able to predict the point at which the shear failure mode begins to dominate. The shear failure mode does eventually dominate, but at a slower rate than predicted. The nonuniform structure of the graphite/epoxy laminates is thought to be responsible for decreasing the split growth rate due to shear failure.

  6. 50 years of Dutch immunology--founders, institutions, highlights.

    PubMed

    Gmelig-Meyling, Frits H J; Meyaard, Linde; Mebius, Reina E

    2014-12-01

    At the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Dutch Society for Immunology (DSI, de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Immunologie), this contribution deals with some highlights of 50 years of Immunology in the Netherlands. It narrates about the founders and first board members of the DSI, their institutes, progeny and patrimony, describes major centers of immunological activities, mentions key persons in the field, and touches upon some events dear to the Society and its members.

  7. Light splitting in nanoporous gold and silver.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Michel; Anstis, Geoffrey R; Keast, Vicki J; Clarke, Jackson D; Cortie, Michael B

    2012-01-24

    Nanoporous gold and silver exhibit strong, omnidirectional broad-band absorption in the far-field. Even though they consist entirely of gold or silver atoms, these materials appear black and dull, in great contrast with the familiar luster of continuous gold and silver. The nature of these anomalous optical characteristics is revealed here by combining nanoscale electron energy loss spectroscopy with discrete dipole and boundary element simulations. It is established that the strong broad-band absorption finds its origin in nanoscale splitting of light, with great local variations in the absorbed color. This nanoscale polychromaticity results from the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances, which are imaged and analyzed here with deep sub-wavelength, nanometer spatial resolution. We demonstrate that, with this insight, it is possible to customize the absorbance and reflectance wavelength bands of thin nanoporous films by only tuning their morphology.

  8. Shaping light with split lens configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizana, A.; Vargas, A.; Turpin, A.; Ramirez, C.; Estevez, I.; Campos, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present an intuitive and versatile method that can dynamically generate 2D and 3D tailored light patterns. The light structures are generated by dynamically implementing discrete and continuous split lens configurations onto a spatial light modulator. These configurations can be dynamically modified by tuning a reduced number of control parameters with simple physical interpretation. We demonstrate the versatility of the method by experimentally implementing a wide number of structured beams, including optical lattices, a light cone, and vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum. Compared with other optical illuminators, the advantages of our method are its simple interpretation and control for creating the light structures, and that it is based on a robust, dynamic and easy-to-build optical set-up. The proposed method may be useful in a large number of applications, such as optical trapping, super-resolution imaging or illuminating arrays of photonic switching devices.

  9. Cryptic splice sites and split genes

    PubMed Central

    Kapustin, Yuri; Chan, Elcie; Sarkar, Rupa; Wong, Frederick; Vorechovsky, Igor; Winston, Robert M.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Dibb, Nick J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new program called cryptic splice finder (CSF) that can reliably identify cryptic splice sites (css), so providing a useful tool to help investigate splicing mutations in genetic disease. We report that many css are not entirely dormant and are often already active at low levels in normal genes prior to their enhancement in genetic disease. We also report a fascinating correlation between the positions of css and introns, whereby css within the exons of one species frequently match the exact position of introns in equivalent genes from another species. These results strongly indicate that many introns were inserted into css during evolution and they also imply that the splicing information that lies outside some introns can be independently recognized by the splicing machinery and was in place prior to intron insertion. This indicates that non-intronic splicing information had a key role in shaping the split structure of eukaryote genes. PMID:21470962

  10. Studies of thermochemical water-splitting cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.; Foh, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    Higher temperatures and more isothermal heat profiles of solar heat sources are developed. The metal oxide metal sulfate class of cycles were suited for solar heat sources. Electrochemical oxidation of SO2 and thermochemical reactions are presented. Electrolytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide in dilute sulfuric acid solutions were appropriate for metal oxide metal sulfate cycles. The cell voltage at workable current densities required for the oxidation of SO2 was critical to the efficient operation of any metal oxide metal sulfate cycle. A sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolysis cell for the splitting of water via optimization of the anode reaction is discussed. Sulfuric acid concentrations of 30 to 35 weight percent are preferred. Platinized platinum or smooth platinum gave the best anode kinetics at a given potential of the five materials examined.

  11. Light-activated Reassembly of Split GFP

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Kevin P.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    Truncated Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) with the 11th β-strand removed is potentially interesting for bioconjugation, imaging, and the preparation of semi-synthetic proteins with novel spectroscopic or functional properties. Surprisingly, the truncated GFP generated by removing the 11th strand, once refolded, does not reassemble with a synthetic peptide corresponding to strand 11, but does reassemble following light activation. The mechanism of this process has been studied in detail by absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. The chromophore in this refolded truncated GFP is found to be in the trans configuration. Upon exposure to light a photostationary state is formed between the trans and cis conformations of the chromophore, and only truncated GFP with the cis configuration of the chromophore binds the peptide. A kinetic model describing the light activated reassembly of this split GFP is discussed. This unique light-driven reassembly is potentially useful for controlling protein-protein interactions. PMID:21351768

  12. Shear Wave Splitting Beneath the Galapagos Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, F. R.; Burkett, P. G.; Hooft, E. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Silver, P. G.

    2004-12-01

    We report measurements of teleseismic shear wave splitting in the Galápagos Archipelago. The inferred lateral variations in azimuthal anisotropy allow us to examine the dynamics of an evolving hotspot-ridge system. The data are from SKS and SKKS phases, as well as S waves from deep sources, recorded by a relatively dense network of 10 portable broadband seismometers deployed from 1999 to 2003 for the IGUANA (Imaging Galápagos Upwelling and Neotectonics of the Archipelago) experiment and from the GSN broadband station in Santa Cruz (PAYG). We find a delay time between fast and slow shear waves of 0.4 to 0.9 s and fast polarization directions of N85-90° E beneath five stations at the leading and southern edge of the archipelago. Despite clear seismic signals, we did not find any anisotropy at the six stations located in the interior of the archipelago. For those stations that show shear wave splitting, there is an increase in the delay time toward the expected location of the Galápagos hotspot at the western edge of the archipelago. With the exception of Española, fast polarization directions (N85-90° E) are close to the current direction of absolute plate motion of the overlying Nazca plate (N91° E). The lack of azimuthal anisotropy in the interior of the archipelago is interpreted as an absence of strongly oriented mantle fabric beneath these stations. The apparent isotropy in this dynamic region, where we expect considerable mantle strain, is surprising. It is not likely that the olivine a-axis is oriented vertically beneath the interior of the archipelago as the Galápagos plume is thought to lie at the western edge. It is also unlikely that there are two layers of perpendicularly-oriented anisotropy which are solely confined to the center of the archipelago. However, there appears to be some correlation between the region of apparent isotropy and a zone of anomalously low upper mantle velocities imaged beneath Santiago and Marchena from surface waves by

  13. Split driveshaft pump for hazardous fluids

    DOEpatents

    Evans, II, Thomas P.; Purohit, Jwalit J.; Fazio, John M.

    1995-01-01

    A pump having a split driveshaft for use in pumping hazardous fluids wherein only one driveshaft becomes contaminated by the fluid while the second remains isolated from the fluid. The pump has a first portion and a second portion. The first portion contains a pump motor, the first driveshaft, a support pedestal, and vapor barriers and seals. The second portion contains a second, self-lubricating driveshaft and an impeller. The first and second driveshafts are connected together by a releasable coupling. A shield and a slinger deployed below the coupling prevent fluid from the second portion from reaching the first portion. In operation, only the second assembly comes into contact with the fluid being pumped, so the risk of contamination of the first portion by the hazardous fluid is reduced. The first assembly can be removed for repairs or routine maintenance by decoupling the first and second driveshafts and disconnecting the motor from the casing.

  14. Molecules to Materials for PEC Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Neale, N. R.; Ruddy, D. A.; Lee, K.; Seabold, J. A.; Deutsch, T. G.; Dukovic, G.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in heterogeneous catalysis are driven by the formation of structure-property relationships at solid-liquid and solid-gaseous interfaces. The establishment of these relationships relies on cooperative research efforts on several fronts: prediction and analysis using high-level theoretical models, the development of new synthetic methods to prepare specific solid-state compositions and structures, new analytical methods to identify the active site and define interfacial properties, and mechanistic analysis of functioning catalysts. However, customized materials that allow for fine control of the interfacial properties at solid-liquid boundaries represent difficult synthetic targets. We have been investigating molecular synthons as precursors to advanced materials to address this challenge. In this presentation, we will discuss (1) the chemistry of molecular inorganic complexes, (2) their conversion to mixed-metal oxides, and (3) structure-property relationships of the resulting oxides relevant to PEC water splitting.

  15. Split-field pupil plane determination apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, Joseph T.

    1996-01-01

    A split-field pupil plane determination apparatus (10) having a wedge assembly (16) with a first glass wedge (18) and a second glass wedge (20) positioned to divide a laser beam (12) into a first laser beam half (22) and a second laser beam half (24) which diverge away from the wedge assembly (16). A wire mask (26) is positioned immediately after the wedge assembly (16) in the path of the laser beam halves (22, 24) such that a shadow thereof is cast as a first shadow half (30) and a second shadow half (32) at the input to a relay telescope (14). The relay telescope (14) causes the laser beam halves (22, 24) to converge such that the first shadow half (30) of the wire mask (26) is aligned with the second shadow half (32) at any subsequent pupil plane (34).

  16. Sexual orientation of parents and Dutch family law.

    PubMed

    van Nijnatten, C H

    1995-01-01

    A few years ago, the Dutch government asked for advice about the legal consequences of various living arrangements. One of the main issues concerned the legal consequences thereof for children. In a letter to parliament, the Dutch cabinet confirmed that couples of the same sex would be excluded from being awarded children for adoption. Legal and psychological reasons play an important role in the reasoning of the Dutch government. The harmonious development of children is supposed to be at risk when the child is reared by two adults of the same sex. This article sets out psychological theories and the results of recent research which contradict the argumentation presented in a number of recent reports published by the government. The outcome of most research is that gay and lesbian parents 'perform' as well as heterosexual parents. Excluding lesbian and gay parents from taking responsibility for children seems to be a poor policy which does not take into account the social capacities of the population.

  17. When correction turns positive: processing corrective prosody in Dutch.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Diana V; Stowe, Laurie A; Hoeks, John C J

    2015-01-01

    Current research on spoken language does not provide a consistent picture as to whether prosody, the melody and rhythm of speech, conveys a specific meaning. Perception studies show that English listeners assign meaning to prosodic patterns, and, for instance, associate some accents with contrast, whereas Dutch listeners behave more controversially. In two ERP studies we tested how Dutch listeners process words carrying two types of accents, which either provided new information (new information accents) or corrected information (corrective accents), both in single sentences (experiment 1) and after corrective and new information questions (experiment 2). In both experiments corrective accents elicited a sustained positivity as compared to new information accents, which started earlier in context than in single sentences. The positivity was not modulated by the nature of the preceding question, suggesting that the underlying neural mechanism likely reflects the construction of an interpretation to the accented word, either by identifying an alternative in context or by inferring it when no context is present. Our experimental results provide strong evidence for inferential processes related to prosodic contours in Dutch.

  18. When Correction Turns Positive: Processing Corrective Prosody in Dutch

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Diana V.; Stowe, Laurie A.; Hoeks, John C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research on spoken language does not provide a consistent picture as to whether prosody, the melody and rhythm of speech, conveys a specific meaning. Perception studies show that English listeners assign meaning to prosodic patterns, and, for instance, associate some accents with contrast, whereas Dutch listeners behave more controversially. In two ERP studies we tested how Dutch listeners process words carrying two types of accents, which either provided new information (new information accents) or corrected information (corrective accents), both in single sentences (experiment 1) and after corrective and new information questions (experiment 2). In both experiments corrective accents elicited a sustained positivity as compared to new information accents, which started earlier in context than in single sentences. The positivity was not modulated by the nature of the preceding question, suggesting that the underlying neural mechanism likely reflects the construction of an interpretation to the accented word, either by identifying an alternative in context or by inferring it when no context is present. Our experimental results provide strong evidence for inferential processes related to prosodic contours in Dutch. PMID:25973607

  19. Relative Age Effects in Dutch Adolescents: Concurrent and Prospective Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384

  20. Split-Doa10: A Naturally Split Polytopic Eukaryotic Membrane Protein Generated by Fission of a Nuclear Gene

    PubMed Central

    Stuerner, Elisabeth; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Hochstrasser, Mark; Kreft, Stefan G.

    2012-01-01

    Large polytopic membrane proteins often derive from duplication and fusion of genes for smaller proteins. The reverse process, splitting of a membrane protein by gene fission, is rare and has been studied mainly with artificially split proteins. Fragments of a split membrane protein may associate and reconstitute the function of the larger protein. Most examples of naturally split membrane proteins are from bacteria or eukaryotic organelles, and their exact history is usually poorly understood. Here, we describe a nuclear-encoded split membrane protein, split-Doa10, in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. In most species, Doa10 is encoded as a single polypeptide with 12–16 transmembrane helices (TMs), but split-KlDoa10 is encoded as two fragments, with the split occurring between TM2 and TM3. The two fragments assemble into an active ubiquitin-protein ligase. The K. lactis DOA10 locus has two ORFs separated by a 508-bp intervening sequence (IVS). A promoter within the IVS drives expression of the C-terminal KlDoa10 fragment. At least four additional Kluyveromyces species contain an IVS in the DOA10 locus, in contrast to even closely related genera, allowing dating of the fission event to the base of the genus. The upstream Kluyveromyces Doa10 fragment with its N-terminal RING-CH and two TMs resembles many metazoan MARCH (Membrane-Associated RING-CH) and related viral RING-CH proteins, suggesting that gene splitting may have contributed to MARCH enzyme diversification. Split-Doa10 is the first unequivocal case of a split membrane protein where fission occurred in a nuclear-encoded gene. Such a split may allow divergent functions for the individual protein segments. PMID:23071509

  1. [Infection prevention in Dutch hospitals; results say more than process indicators].

    PubMed

    Bonten, Marc J M; Friedrich, Alexander; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Voss, Andreas; Vos, Margreet C

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Health Care Inspectorate investigated the preparedness of Dutch hospitals for the emergence of antibiotic resistance, and concluded that hospitals are not well prepared and are insufficiently aware that infection prevention is a prerequisite for patient safety. These conclusions are based on observations of process indicators of current practice guidelines, without including the available outcome indicators that demonstrate the persistently low incidence of infections with antibiotic resistant bacteria in Dutch hospitals. The conclusions may have negative effects on the quality of infection prevention in Dutch hospitals. Therefore, it is advisable to use outcome indicators rather than process indicators to evaluate the quality of infection prevention.

  2. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  3. Air Pollution and Mortality in Seven Million Adults: The Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS)

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Marten; Ameling, Caroline B.; Hoek, Gerard; Beelen, Rob; de Hoogh, Kees; Breugelmans, Oscar; Kruize, Hanneke; Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Houthuijs, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with mortality in urban cohort studies. Few studies have investigated this association in large-scale population registries, including non-urban populations. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in the Netherlands based on existing national databases. Methods We used existing Dutch national databases on mortality, individual characteristics, residence history, neighborhood characteristics, and national air pollution maps based on land use regression (LUR) techniques for particulates with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Using these databases, we established a cohort of 7.1 million individuals ≥ 30 years of age. We followed the cohort for 7 years (2004–2011). We applied Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential individual and area-specific confounders. Results After adjustment for individual and area-specific confounders, for each 10-μg/m3 increase, PM10 and NO2 were associated with nonaccidental mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.09 and HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.03, respectively], respiratory mortality (HR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17 and HR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03, respectively), and lung cancer mortality (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.30 and HR = 1.10 95% CI: 1.09, 1.11, respectively). Furthermore, PM10 was associated with circulatory disease mortality (HR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.08), but NO2 was not (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.01). PM10 associations were robust to adjustment for NO2; NO2 associations remained for nonaccidental mortality and lung cancer mortality after adjustment for PM10. Conclusions Long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 was associated with nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in the Dutch population of ≥ 30 years of age. Citation Fischer PH, Marra M, Ameling CB, Hoek G, Beelen R, de

  4. Summary of the Dutch S3-guidelines on the treatment of psoriasis 2011. Dutch Society of Dermatology and Venereology.

    PubMed

    Zweegers, J; de Jong, E M G J; Nijsten, T E C; de Bes, J; te Booij, M; Borgonjen, R J; van Cranenburgh, O D; van Deutekom, H; van Everdingen, J J E; de Groot, M; Van Hees, C L M; Hulshuizen, H; Koek, M B G; de Korte, W J A; de Korte, J; Lecluse, L L A; Pasch, M C; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P A; Prens, E P; Seyger, M M B; Thio, H B; Torcque, L A; de Vries, A C Q; van de Kerkhof, P C M; Spuls, Ph I

    2014-03-01

    This document provides a summary of the Dutch S3-guidelines on the treatment of psoriasis. These guidelines were finalized in December 2011 and contain unique chapters on the treatment of psoriasis of the face and flexures, childhood psoriasis as well as the patient's perspective on treatment. They also cover the topical treatment of psoriasis, photo(chemo)therapy, conventional systemic therapy and biological therapy. PMID:24656281

  5. Semiconductor thin film transfer by wafer bonding and advanced ion implantation layer splitting technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tien-Hsi

    Wafer bonding is an attractive technology for modern semiconductor and microelectronic industry due to its variability in allowing combination of materials. Initially, the bonding of wafers of the same material, such as silicon-silicon wafer bonding has been major interest. In the meantime, research interest has shifted to the bonding of dissimilar materials such as silicon to quartz or to sapphire. Thermal stress coming from the different expansion coefficients usually is a barrier to the success of dissimilar material bonding. Thermal stress may cause debonding, sliding, cracking, thermal misfit dislocations, or film wrinkle to impair the quality of the transferred layer. This dissertation presents several effective approaches to solve the thermal stress problem. These approaches concern bonding processes (low vacuum bonding and storage), thinning (advanced ion implantation layer splitting), and annealing processes (accumulative effect of blister generation) and are combined to design the best heat-treatment cycle. For this propose the concept of hot bonding is used in order to effectively minimize the thermal mismatch of dissimilar material bonding during the bonding and thinning procedures. During the initial bonding and bond strengthening phase, the difference in the temperature between bonding and annealing processes should be decreased as much as possible to avoid excessive thermal stresses. This concept can be realized either by increasing the bonding temperature or by decreasing the annealing temperature. A thinning technique has to employed that can thin the device wafer before debonding occurs due to the thermal stress generated either from the cooling-down process in the first case or by the annealing process itself in the late case. The ion implantation layer splitting method, also known as the Smart-cutsp°ler process, developed by Bruel at LEIT in France is a practical thinning technique which satisfies the above requirement. In the study, an

  6. Medial transposition of split lateral rectus augmented with fixation sutures in cases of complete third nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Rohit; Sharma, Medha; Singh, Digvijay; Dhiman, Rebika; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    Surgical management of complete third nerve paralysis is a challenge. While several techniques have been described over the years, they result in less than satisfactory outcomes with residual deviations in primary gaze or postoperative drifts. One of the described techniques for management of oculomotor palsy has been medial transposition of the lateral rectus muscle which provides a good surgical alternative but often can result in undercorrection. We describe a modification of the existing technique of medial transposition of the split lateral rectus by force augmentation through the use of equatorial fixation sutures resulting in an improved outcome in primary gaze alignment. The modified technique involves splitting of the lateral rectus into two halves followed by transposing the superior half from below the superior oblique and superior rectus and inferior half from below the inferior oblique and inferior rectus to attach them at the superior and inferior edge of the medial rectus insertion, respectively. This is followed by placing non-absorbable sutures to fix each split belly of the transposed muscles to the sclera at the equator adjacent to the medial rectus such that the split muscles lie nearly parallel to the medial rectus till the equator before reflecting away. These sutures augment the force of the transposed muscles by redirecting the force vectors in the direction of action of the medial rectus. Satisfactory postoperative primary gaze alignment was achieved in three cases of complete third nerve paralysis.

  7. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    New ESO Observations of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 A few months ago, Periodic Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 underwent a dramatic and completely unexpected, thousand-fold brightening. At that time, the cause for this interesting event was unknown. However, observations with the two largest ESO telescopes have now shown that the ``dirty snowball'' nucleus of this comet has recently split into at least four individual pieces [1]. There is little doubt that the outburst and the splitting event(s) are closely related and that the greatly increased dust and gas production is due to ``fresh'' material of the icy cometary nucleus becoming exposed to the surrounding space for the first time. A Comet with a Troubled History Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 was discovered on May 2, 1930, on a photographic plate obtained at the Hamburg Observatory (Germany) by two astronomers at this institution, Arnold Schwassmann and Arthur Arno Wachmann. The subsequent observations showed that the comet moved in an elliptical orbit with a revolution period of somewhat more than 5 years. Great efforts were expended to observe the comet during the next returns, but it was not recovered until nearly 50 years and eight revolutions later, when its faint image was found of a plate obtained in August 1979 with a telescope at the Perth Observatory in Western Australia. It was missed in 1984, but was sighted again in 1989 and most recently in 1994. Thus this comet has only been observed during four out of thirteen approaches since 1930. While this may be partly due to a less advantageous location in the sky at some returns, it is also a strong indication that the comet behaves unpredictably and must have a quite variable brightness. For the sake of convenience this comet is often referred to as ``SW-3'' by professional astronomers. Recent orbital calculations have shown that it was inserted into the present, short-period orbit by the strong gravitational pull of Jupiter during several, relatively close

  8. On Pesin's entropy formula for dominated splittings without mixed behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongluo; Yang, Dawei

    2016-10-01

    For C1 diffeomorphisms, we prove that the Pesin's entropy formula holds for some invariant measure supported on any topological attractor that admits a dominated splitting without mixed behavior. We also prove Shub's entropy conjecture for diffeomorphisms having such kind of splittings.

  9. Regulation of bite force increase during splitting of food.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Krister G; Trulsson, Mats

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze how increases in the bite force, during the splitting of food morsels of different hardness, are modulated, and to evaluate the role of periodontal mechanoreceptors in this control. Fifteen subjects were instructed to hold and split food morsels of different hardness (peanuts and biscuits) between a pair of opposing central incisors before and during anesthesia of the teeth. The split occurred at an average bite force of 9 N for biscuits and at an average bite force of 18 N for peanuts. The duration of the split phase was longer, and the split force rate higher, for peanuts compared with biscuits. Furthermore, a steeper force trajectory was observed for the peanut. During anesthesia of the teeth, the duration of the split phase increased and the mean split force rate decreased for peanuts. Force trajectories for peanuts and biscuits were indistinguishable during anesthesia. The present results show that when higher bite forces are needed to split a morsel, both the duration and the rate of the bite force produced is increased. Furthermore, adaptation of the bite force rate to the hardness of the food is dependent on information from periodontal mechanoreceptors.

  10. Extended model of geometrical surface splitting in Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Dubi, A.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1983-04-01

    An analytic expression was derived for the second moment and average time of a model of geometrical splitting. Two limitations (among others) of the analyzed model were that particles were allowed to split only once on each surface and no Russian Roulette was applied on particles crossing a surface ''backward.'' Those serious limitations are removed.

  11. Management of the difficult split-thickness donor site.

    PubMed

    Wood, R J; Peltier, G L; Twomey, J A

    1989-01-01

    Split-thickness skin graft donor sites are often areas of significant morbidity in the elderly, in immunocompromised patients, and in steroid-dependent patients. We found that managing these donor sites with split-thickness skin and transparent dressings greatly increases the rate of healing and diminishes morbidity.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2711 - U.S. Runner Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Runner Splits. 51.2711 Section 51.2711 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Runner Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2711 U.S. Runner Splits....

  13. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2753 - U.S. Virginia Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Virginia Splits. 51.2753 Section 51.2753... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2753 U.S. Virginia Splits. “U.S. Virginia Splits” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar...

  18. Editorial Involvement in Regional/Split Run Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuss, Carol

    This document is a preliminary study of the listings of a wide variety of regional/split-run editorial practices of major American periodicals. Publications chosen for the study were selected from the tenth edition of "Magazine Regional and Split-Run Advertising," published by the Magazine Advertising Bureau of the Magazine Publishers Association.…

  19. 77 FR 8184 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK49 Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal... elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register.] Sec. 1.909-6 Pre-2011 foreign tax credit splitting...

  20. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  1. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the following examples: Example 1. Assume an employee owns a life insurance policy under a split-dollar life insurance arrangement, the employer makes premium payments on this policy, there is a...) Assume an employee owns a life insurance policy under a split-dollar life insurance arrangement and...

  2. Recent advances in semiconductors for photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Takashi; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2014-11-21

    Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting under irradiation by sunlight has received much attention for production of renewable hydrogen from water on a large scale. Many challenges still remain in improving energy conversion efficiency, such as utilizing longer-wavelength photons for hydrogen production, enhancing the reaction efficiency at any given wavelength, and increasing the lifetime of the semiconductor materials. This introductory review covers the fundamental aspects of photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting. Controlling the semiconducting properties of photocatalysts and photoelectrode materials is the primary concern in developing materials for solar water splitting, because they determine how much photoexcitation occurs in a semiconductor under solar illumination and how many photoexcited carriers reach the surface where water splitting takes place. Given a specific semiconductor material, surface modifications are important not only to activate the semiconductor for water splitting but also to facilitate charge separation and to upgrade the stability of the material under photoexcitation. In addition, reducing resistance loss and forming p-n junction have a significant impact on the efficiency of photoelectrochemical water splitting. Correct evaluation of the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity for water splitting is becoming more important in enabling an accurate comparison of a number of studies based on different systems. In the latter part, recent advances in the water splitting reaction under visible light will be presented with a focus on non-oxide semiconductor materials to give an overview of the various problems and solutions.

  3. LOOKING SOUTHEAST UP STAIRS TO LANDING THAT SPLITS TO GO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING SOUTHEAST UP STAIRS TO LANDING THAT SPLITS TO GO DOWN TO MAIN ENTRY AND CONTINUES UP TO 2ND LANDING WHICH SPLITS TO GO TO LEFT AND RIGHT PARTS OF SECOND FLOOR - Fort Leavenworth, Building No. 436, 5 Riverside Avenue, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  4. Shear wave splitting and shear wave splitting tomography of the southern Puna plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calixto, Frank J.; Robinson, Danielle; Sandvol, Eric; Kay, Suzanne; Abt, David; Fischer, Karen; Heit, Ben; Yuan, Xiaohui; Comte, Diana; Alvarado, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the seismic anisotropy beneath the Central Andean southern Puna plateau by applying shear wave splitting analysis and shear wave splitting tomography to local S waves and teleseismic SKS, SKKS and PKS phases. Overall, a very complex pattern of fast directions throughout the southern Puna plateau region and a circular pattern of fast directions around the region of the giant Cerro Galan ignimbrite complex are observed. In general, teleseismic lag times are much greater than those for local events which are interpreted to reflect a significant amount of sub and inner slab anisotropy. The complex pattern observed from shear wave splitting analysis alone is the result of a complex 3-D anisotropic structure under the southern Puna plateau. Our application of shear wave splitting tomography provides a 3-D model of anisotropy in the southern Puna plateau that shows different patterns depending on the driving mechanism of upper-mantle flow and seismic anisotropy. The trench parallel a-axes in the continental lithosphere above the slab east of 68W may be related to deformation of the overriding continental lithosphere since it is under compressive stresses which are orthogonal to the trench. The more complex pattern below the Cerro Galan ignimbrite complex and above the slab is interpreted to reflect delamination of continental lithosphere and upwelling of hot asthenosphere. The a-axes beneath the Cerro Galan, Cerro Blanco and Carachi Pampa volcanic centres at 100 km depth show some weak evidence for vertically orientated fast directions, which could be due to vertical asthenospheric flow around a delaminated block. Additionally, our splitting tomographic model shows that there is a significant amount of seismic anisotropy beneath the slab. The subslab mantle west of 68W shows roughly trench parallel horizontal a-axes that are probably driven by slab roll back and the relatively small coupling between the Nazca slab and the underlying mantle. In

  5. [Is Dutch swimming pool water erosive?].

    PubMed

    Lokin, P A; Huysmans, M C

    2004-01-01

    Etiological factors in the development of dental erosion are usually listed as dietary acids, for instance in soft drinks and fruit juices, and intrinsic acid exposure due to gastro-intestinal disease or frequent vomiting. Quite often the list of causes in reviews and textbooks also includes frequent swimming. This paper evaluates the evidence behind this erosion etiology. The main disinfection techniques using gas chlorination and sodium hypochlorite are described, and their relative risk for development of low pH water is discussed. In the Netherlands only the relatively safe sodium hypochlorite method is used, and the quality of the water in public swimming pools is monitored monthly by independent test laboratories. Data for 2001 from such a test laboratory show that the percentage of low-pH results is very low (0.14%). It is concluded that the risk of dental erosion from frequent swimming in acidic pool water is probably negligible in the Netherlands.

  6. Adiabaticity and spectral splits in collective neutrino transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2007-12-15

    Neutrinos streaming off a supernova core transform collectively by neutrino-neutrino interactions, leading to 'spectral splits' where an energy E{sub split} divides the transformed spectrum sharply into parts of almost pure but different flavors. We present a detailed description of the spectral-split phenomenon which is conceptually and quantitatively understood in an adiabatic treatment of neutrino-neutrino effects. Central to this theory is a self-consistency condition in the form of two sum rules (integrals over the neutrino spectra that must equal certain conserved quantities). We provide explicit analytic and numerical solutions for various neutrino spectra. We introduce the concept of the adiabatic reference frame and elaborate on the relative adiabatic evolution. Violating adiabaticity leads to the spectral split being 'washed out'. The sharpness of the split appears to be represented by a surprisingly universal function.

  7. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    PubMed

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs. PMID:21627628

  8. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    PubMed

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs.

  9. Modified Y-splitting Procedure for the Treatment of Duane Retraction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Altıntaş, Ayşe Gül; Arifoğlu, Hasan Basri; Köklü, Şükrü Gültekin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To present the outcomes of modified lateral rectus Y-splitting combined with either unilateral or bilateral horizontal rectus recession in Duane Retraction Syndrome (DRS) with significant upshoot or downshoot. Ma­te­ri­als and Met­hods: A total of 12 patients including 10 patients with Type I DRS and 2 with Type III DRS underwent modified Y-splitting surgery. Amount of additional recessions varied with the degree of preoperative deviation by intraoperative adjustable suture technique. Preoperatively 3 patients had esotropia (ET), 6 had exotropia (XT), and 3 patients had orthotropia. The mean preoperative deviation was 19.3 prism diopters (PD) (range, 18-20 PD) in ET patients and 19.2 PD (range, 16-20 PD) in XT patients. Re­sults: Postoperatively, all patients had significant correction in horizontal deviation and aligned within 4 PD of orthotropia, and no patients exhibited abnormal head posture. Co-contraction and globe retraction were markedly reduced and abnormal ocular vertical movement disappeared or significantly decreased in all cases. No patients experienced recurrence of ocular motility disorders in the mean 26-month (range, 13-66 months) follow-up period. Conclusion: Modified Y-splitting surgery combined with co-contracting horizontal muscle recession technique seems to be a safe and effective treatment in DRS. PMID:27800223

  10. A New Approach to Reduce Number of Split Fields in Large Field IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chen-Chiao; Wu, Andrew; Garg, Madhur; Mutyala, Subhakar; Kalnicki, Shalom; Sayed, Gary; Mah, Dennis

    2011-04-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been applied for treatments of primary head with neck nodes, lung with supraclavicular nodes, and high-risk prostate cancer with pelvis wall nodes, all of which require large fields. However, the design of the Varian multileaf collimator requires fields >14 cm in width to be split into 2 or more carriage movements. With the split-field technique, both the number of monitor units (MUs) and total treatment time are significantly increased. Although many different approaches have been investigated to reduce the MU, including introducing new leaf segmentation algorithms, none have resulted in widespread success. In addition, for most clinics, writing such algorithms is not a feasible solution, particularly with commercial treatment planning systems. We introduce a new approach that can minimize the number of split fields and reduce the total MUs, thereby reducing treatment time. The technique is demonstrated on the Eclipse planning system V7.3, but could be generalized to any other system.

  11. 75 FR 48736 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Miró: The Dutch Interiors”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Mir : The Dutch Interiors'' SUMMARY..., I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Mir : The Dutch...

  12. GPU implementation of the simplex identification via split augmented Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla, Jorge; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging can be used for object detection and for discriminating between different objects based on their spectral characteristics. One of the main problems of hyperspectral data analysis is the presence of mixed pixels, due to the low spatial resolution of such images. This means that several spectrally pure signatures (endmembers) are combined into the same mixed pixel. Linear spectral unmixing follows an unsupervised approach which aims at inferring pure spectral signatures and their material fractions at each pixel of the scene. The huge data volumes acquired by such sensors put stringent requirements on processing and unmixing methods. This paper proposes an efficient implementation of a unsupervised linear unmixing method on GPUs using CUDA. The method finds the smallest simplex by solving a sequence of nonsmooth convex subproblems using variable splitting to obtain a constraint formulation, and then applying an augmented Lagrangian technique. The parallel implementation of SISAL presented in this work exploits the GPU architecture at low level, using shared memory and coalesced accesses to memory. The results herein presented indicate that the GPU implementation can significantly accelerate the method's execution over big datasets while maintaining the methods accuracy.

  13. Fabrication of 70nm split ring resonators by nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Graham J.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the fabrication of 70 nm wide, high resolution rectangular U-shaped split ring resonators (SRRs) using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The fabrication method for the nanoimprint stamp does not require dry etching. The stamp is used to pattern SRRs in a thin PMMA layer followed by metal deposition and lift-off. Nanoimprinting in this way allows high resolution patterns with a minimum feature size of 20 nm. This fabrication technique yields a much higher throughput than conventional e-beam lithography and each stamp can be used numerous times to imprint patterns. Reflectance measurements of fabricated aluminium SRRs on silicon substrates show a so-called an LC resonance peak in the visible spectrum under transverse electric polarisation. Fabricating the SRRs by NIL rather than electron beam lithography allows them to be scaled to smaller dimensions without any significant loss in resolution, partly because pattern expansion caused by backscattered electrons and the proximity effect are not present with NIL. This in turn helps to shift the magnetic response to short wavelengths while still retaining a distinct LC peak.

  14. Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma.

    PubMed

    Golingo, R P; Shumlak, U; Den Hartog, D J

    2010-12-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

  15. Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2010-12-15

    The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

  16. Solar photochemical and thermochemical splitting of water.

    PubMed

    Rao, C N R; Lingampalli, S R; Dey, Sunita; Roy, Anand

    2016-02-28

    Artificial photosynthesis to carry out both the oxidation and the reduction of water has emerged to be an exciting area of research. It has been possible to photochemically generate oxygen by using a scheme similar to the Z-scheme, by using suitable catalysts in place of water-oxidation catalyst in the Z-scheme in natural photosynthesis. The best oxidation catalysts are found to be Co and Mn oxides with the e(1) g configuration. The more important aspects investigated pertain to the visible-light-induced generation of hydrogen by using semiconductor heterostructures of the type ZnO/Pt/Cd1-xZnxS and dye-sensitized semiconductors. In the case of heterostructures, good yields of H2 have been obtained. Modifications of the heterostructures, wherein Pt is replaced by NiO, and the oxide is substituted with different anions are discussed. MoS2 and MoSe2 in the 1T form yield high quantities of H2 when sensitized by Eosin Y. Two-step thermochemical splitting of H2O using metal oxide redox pairs provides a strategy to produce H2 and CO. Performance of the Ln0.5A0.5MnO3 (Ln = rare earth ion, A = Ca, Sr) family of perovskites is found to be promising in this context. The best results to date are found with Y0.5Sr0.5MnO3. PMID:26755752

  17. Markov branching in the vertex splitting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Örn Stefánsson, Sigurdur

    2012-04-01

    We study a special case of the vertex splitting model which is a recent model of randomly growing trees. For any finite maximum vertex degree D, we find a one parameter model, with parameter \\alpha \\in [0,1] which has a so-called Markov branching property. When D=\\infty we find a two parameter model with an additional parameter \\gamma \\in [0,1] which also has this feature. In the case D = 3, the model bears resemblance to Ford's α-model of phylogenetic trees and when D=\\infty it is similar to its generalization, the αγ-model. For α = 0, the model reduces to the well known model of preferential attachment. In the case α > 0, we prove convergence of the finite volume probability measures, generated by the growth rules, to a measure on infinite trees which is concentrated on the set of trees with a single spine. We show that the annealed Hausdorff dimension with respect to the infinite volume measure is 1/α. When γ = 0 the model reduces to a model of growing caterpillar graphs in which case we prove that the Hausdorff dimension is almost surely 1/α and that the spectral dimension is almost surely 2/(1 + α). We comment briefly on the distribution of vertex degrees and correlations between degrees of neighbouring vertices.

  18. Open-split interface for mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Diehl, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An open-split interface includes a connector body having four leg members projecting therefrom within a single plane, the first and third legs being coaxial and the second and fourth legs being coaxial. A tubular aperture extends through the first and third legs and a second tubular aperture extends through the second and fourth legs, connecting at a juncture within the center of the connector body. A fifth leg projects from the connector body and has a third tubular aperture extending therethrough to the juncture of the first and second tubular apertures. A capillary column extends from a gas chromatograph into the third leg with its end adjacent the juncture. A flow restrictor tube extends from a mass spectrometer through the first tubular aperture in the first and third legs and into the capillary columnm end, so as to project beyond the end of the third leg within the capillary column. An annular gap between the tube and column allows excess effluent to pass to the juncture. A pair of short capillary columns extend from separate detectors into the second tubular aperture in the second and fourth legs, and are oriented with their ends spaced slightly from the first capillary column end. A sweep flow tube is mounted in the fifth leg so as to supply a helium sweep flow to the juncture.

  19. ["Early patient contact"--the split model].

    PubMed

    Pavlicević, Ivancica

    2013-03-01

    In the 2011/2012 academic year, School of Medicine in Split introduced the subject Clinical and Social Skills for 1st and 2nd year students. During the 25 hours of the 85-hour class, the students spent time in their mentors' general practice offices and made home visits with nurses. The goal of the introduction of this subject was to enable students to meet patients and their surroundings early in their studies; we believed that this would contribute to increased respect towards the profession and better absorption of communication skills, as well as better understanding of the patients and additional motivation to complete their studies. At the end of five-day class, the students wrote down their impressions, revealing that they had adjusted well to this form of the class, and that their expectations were fulfilled. They noticed the value of high-quality communication between the doctor and the patient, gained confidence, and felt more motivated to continue studying. They rated the class as useful and necessary, recommending it to last longer. PMID:24279252

  20. Descent Assisted Split Habitat Lunar Lander Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The Descent Assisted Split Habitat (DASH) lunar lander concept utilizes a disposable braking stage for descent and a minimally sized pressurized volume for crew transport to and from the lunar surface. The lander can also be configured to perform autonomous cargo missions. Although a braking-stage approach represents a significantly different operational concept compared with a traditional two-stage lander, the DASH lander offers many important benefits. These benefits include improved crew egress/ingress and large-cargo unloading; excellent surface visibility during landing; elimination of the need for deep-throttling descent engines; potentially reduced plume-surface interactions and lower vertical touchdown velocity; and reduced lander gross mass through efficient mass staging and volume segmentation. This paper documents the conceptual study on various aspects of the design, including development of sortie and outpost lander configurations and a mission concept of operations; the initial descent trajectory design; the initial spacecraft sizing estimates and subsystem design; and the identification of technology needs

  1. Solar photochemical and thermochemical splitting of water.

    PubMed

    Rao, C N R; Lingampalli, S R; Dey, Sunita; Roy, Anand

    2016-02-28

    Artificial photosynthesis to carry out both the oxidation and the reduction of water has emerged to be an exciting area of research. It has been possible to photochemically generate oxygen by using a scheme similar to the Z-scheme, by using suitable catalysts in place of water-oxidation catalyst in the Z-scheme in natural photosynthesis. The best oxidation catalysts are found to be Co and Mn oxides with the e(1) g configuration. The more important aspects investigated pertain to the visible-light-induced generation of hydrogen by using semiconductor heterostructures of the type ZnO/Pt/Cd1-xZnxS and dye-sensitized semiconductors. In the case of heterostructures, good yields of H2 have been obtained. Modifications of the heterostructures, wherein Pt is replaced by NiO, and the oxide is substituted with different anions are discussed. MoS2 and MoSe2 in the 1T form yield high quantities of H2 when sensitized by Eosin Y. Two-step thermochemical splitting of H2O using metal oxide redox pairs provides a strategy to produce H2 and CO. Performance of the Ln0.5A0.5MnO3 (Ln = rare earth ion, A = Ca, Sr) family of perovskites is found to be promising in this context. The best results to date are found with Y0.5Sr0.5MnO3.

  2. Split crankcase for V-type engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuboi, M.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a V-type internal combustion engine having angularly positioned cylinders radiating from a crankshaft. The improvement comprising, in combination: a split crankcase having an upper portion and a lower portion with mating surfaces in a plane containing the axis of the crankshaft; the upper and lower portions arranged such that the angularly positioned cylinders are contained within upper portion; axially spaced relatively thin stationary webs extending transversely to the crankshaft; each web having an upper portion integral with the upper portion of the crankcase and having a lower portion integral with the lower portion of the crankcase; the webs cooperating to support the crankshaft; at least two fastening elements positioned through each stationary web to each side of the crankshaft for securing the lower web portions with respect to the upper web portions; the fastening elements for each web all lying in the same plane normal to the axis of the crankshaft; each fastening elements has an enlarged central portion extending across and substantially equally on opposite sides of the mating surfaces; these tightly fit each of upper and lower portions of the crankcase.

  3. Long-Range Spin-Polarized Quasiparticle Transport in Mesoscopic Al Superconductors with a Zeeman Splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübler, F.; Wolf, M. J.; Beckmann, D.; v. Löhneysen, H.

    2012-11-01

    We report on nonlocal transport in multiterminal superconductor-ferromagnet structures, which were fabricated by means of e-beam lithography and shadow evaporation techniques. In the presence of a significant Zeeman splitting of the quasiparticle states, we find signatures of spin transport over distances of several μm, exceeding other length scales such as the coherence length, the normal-state spin-diffusion length, and the charge-imbalance length. The relaxation length of the spin signal shows a nearly linear increase with magnetic field, hinting at a freeze-out of relaxation by the Zeeman splitting. We propose that the relaxation length is given by the recombination length of the quasiparticles rather than a renormalized spin-diffusion length.

  4. New techniques on embryo manipulation.

    PubMed

    Escribá, M J; Valbuena, D; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C

    2002-01-01

    For many years, experience has been accumulated on embryo and gamete manipulation in livestock animals. The present work is a review of these techniques and their possible application in human embryology in specific cases. It is possible to manipulate gametes at different levels, producing paternal or maternal haploid embryos (hemicloning), using different techniques including nuclear transfer. At the embryonic stage, considering practical, ethical and legal issues, techniques will be reviewed that include cloning and embryo splitting at the cleavage stage, morula, or blastocyst stage.

  5. [Drug advertising as communication between the pharmaceutical industry and the physician: advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch medical journal, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 1900-1940].

    PubMed

    van der Hoogte, Arjo Roersch; Pieters, Toine

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the historical development of drug advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the leading Dutch medical journal from 1900 to 1940. The advertisements for hypnotics and sedatives, in The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch medical journal) reflected the changes in the vocabulary and image promoted by the pharmaceutical companies. In the first two decades, the advertisements were sober and to the point, and included the trademark, company name, molecular formula and therapeutic properties of the medication. The emphasis was on creating a scientific image of reliable symptom control for the therapeutic drug. In doing so, the ethical drug companies tried (successfully) to distinguish themselves from the producers of patent medicines. Once scientific credibility was established, the form and content of the advertisements changed significantly. In the late 1920s and 1930s drug companies embraced modern advertising techniques, developing a figurative language to address the changing beliefs and practices of Dutch physicians. Instead of promoting therapeutic drugs as safe and scientific, the emphasis was on their effectiveness in comparison to similar drugs. In the process, scientific information was reduced to an indispensable standardized minimum, whereby therapeutic drugs were advertised according to the latest pharmacological taxonomy rather than molecular formulas. The image-making of 'ethical marketing' began during the interwar years when marketers applied modern advertising techniques and infotainment strategies. The scanty black and white informational bulletins transitioned into colourful advertisements. The pharmaceutical companies employed the same medical language as used by physicians, so that one word or image in an advertisement would suffice for the physician to recognize a drug and its therapeutic properties. These developments show the changing relationship between the modern ethical pharmaceutical industry and Dutch

  6. [Drug advertising as communication between the pharmaceutical industry and the physician: advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch medical journal, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 1900-1940].

    PubMed

    van der Hoogte, Arjo Roersch; Pieters, Toine

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the historical development of drug advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the leading Dutch medical journal from 1900 to 1940. The advertisements for hypnotics and sedatives, in The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch medical journal) reflected the changes in the vocabulary and image promoted by the pharmaceutical companies. In the first two decades, the advertisements were sober and to the point, and included the trademark, company name, molecular formula and therapeutic properties of the medication. The emphasis was on creating a scientific image of reliable symptom control for the therapeutic drug. In doing so, the ethical drug companies tried (successfully) to distinguish themselves from the producers of patent medicines. Once scientific credibility was established, the form and content of the advertisements changed significantly. In the late 1920s and 1930s drug companies embraced modern advertising techniques, developing a figurative language to address the changing beliefs and practices of Dutch physicians. Instead of promoting therapeutic drugs as safe and scientific, the emphasis was on their effectiveness in comparison to similar drugs. In the process, scientific information was reduced to an indispensable standardized minimum, whereby therapeutic drugs were advertised according to the latest pharmacological taxonomy rather than molecular formulas. The image-making of 'ethical marketing' began during the interwar years when marketers applied modern advertising techniques and infotainment strategies. The scanty black and white informational bulletins transitioned into colourful advertisements. The pharmaceutical companies employed the same medical language as used by physicians, so that one word or image in an advertisement would suffice for the physician to recognize a drug and its therapeutic properties. These developments show the changing relationship between the modern ethical pharmaceutical industry and Dutch

  7. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  8. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  9. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  10. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  11. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  12. Changing Places: A Cross-Language Perspective on Frequency and Family Size in Dutch and Hebrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscoso del Prado Martin, Fermin; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram; Schreuder, Robert; De Jong, Nivja H.; Baayen, R. Harald

    2005-01-01

    This study uses the morphological family size effect as a tool for exploring the degree of isomorphism in the networks of morphologically related words in the Hebrew and Dutch mental lexicon. Hebrew and Dutch are genetically unrelated, and they structure their morphologically complex words in very different ways. Two visual lexical decision…

  13. Social Workers' Orientation toward the Evidence-Based Practice Process: A Dutch Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zwet, Renske J. M.; Kolmer, Deirdre M. Beneken genaamd; Schalk, René

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses social workers' orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the EBP Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS), along with…

  14. Parent Involvement as Professionalization: Professionals' Struggle for Power in Dutch Urban Deprived Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Marguerite; van Reekum, Rogier

    2011-01-01

    Parent involvement policies have been central in the Dutch push towards educational governance. How the implementation of these policies plays out on the ground is context-dependent. The ethnic and class cleavages impacting the Dutch educational system should be taken into account. On the basis of 50 in-depth interviews with teachers, social…

  15. From Noun to Intensifier: Massa and Massa's in Flemish Varieties of Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Clerck, Bernard; Colleman, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a case of synchronic layering is examined in which Dutch "massa" ("mass") and plural "massa's" ("masses") are attested with lexical uses as a collective noun, quantifying uses ("a large quantity of") and intensifying uses ("very")--with plural "massa's" only--in some Flemish varieties of Dutch. Against the background of…

  16. Phoneme Awareness, Vocabulary and Word Decoding in Monolingual and Bilingual Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Marije; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47 immigrant first-grade children with various…

  17. Eliminating Social Inequality by Reinforcing Standard Language Ideology? Language Policy for Dutch in Flemish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delarue, Steven; De Caluwe, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Flanders, the northern, Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, is experiencing growing intra- and interlingual diversity. On the intralingual level, Tussentaal ("in-between-language") has emerged as a cluster of intermediate varieties between the Flemish dialects and Standard Dutch, gradually becoming "the" colloquial language. At the…

  18. Zertifikat Niederlaendisch: Examen en getuigschrift Nederlands als vreemde taal (Certificate in Dutch)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beersmans, Frans; Sudhoelter, Juergen

    1976-01-01

    An interim report on preparations for designing an examination in Dutch. The "unit-credit system" proposed by the Council of Europe is being used. The Dutch certificate will be comparable to the certificates given by the British Council and by the People's Universities. Sample portions are given. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  19. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  20. Articles, Adjectives and Age of Onset: The Acquisition of Dutch Grammatical Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Polisenska, Daniela; Weerman, Fred

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of the error profiles of monolingual (child L1) learners of Dutch, Moroccan children (child L2) and Moroccan adults (adult L2) learning Dutch as their L2 shows that participants in all groups massively overgeneralize [-neuter] articles to [+neuter] contexts. In all groups, the reverse gender mistake infrequently occurs. Gender…

  1. In the Shadow of Tolerance: The Discursive Context of Dutch-Born Muslim Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaal, Mayida

    2014-01-01

    Despite a public discourse on tolerance, anxiety about immigrants, Islam and the preservation of Dutch values has amplified fear of Muslim youth in the Netherlands. In this context, Dutch-born Muslim youth endure social and systemic discrimination that affects all aspects of their futures, including available educational opportunities and…

  2. Eight Years of Specialist Training of Dutch Intellectual Disability Physicians: Results of Scientific Research Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2009-01-01

    Training in scientific research methods and skills is a vital part of Dutch specialist training in intellectual disability medicine. The authors evaluated results of such training at one Dutch university medical facility that had an obligatory research program involving projects conducted by the physicians-in-training (topics, teamwork, acquired…

  3. Asymmetries in the Acquisition of Subject-Verb Agreement in Dutch: Evidence from Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje; Blom, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Across languages, children do not comprehend 3SG/3PL subject-verb agreement before age five, despite early mastery in spontaneous speech. This study investigates subject-verb agreement in a language hitherto not studied in this respect, namely Dutch. The authors examine if (1) Dutch two- and three-year-olds comprehend subject-verb agreement and…

  4. Modeling the Developmental Patterning of Finiteness Marking in English, Dutch, German, and Spanish Using MOSAIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenthal, Daniel; Pine, Julian M.; Aguado-Orea, Javier; Gobet, Fernand

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we apply MOSAIC (model of syntax acquisition in children) to the simulation of the developmental patterning of children's optional infinitive (OI) errors in 4 languages: English, Dutch, German, and Spanish. MOSAIC, which has already simulated this phenomenon in Dutch and English, now implements a learning mechanism that better…

  5. Acquiring reading and vocabulary in Dutch and English: the effect of concurrent instruction.

    PubMed

    van der Leij, Aryan; Bekebrede, Judith; Kotterink, Mieke

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the effect of concurrent instruction in Dutch and English on reading acquisition in both languages, 23 pupils were selected from a school with bilingual education, and 23 from a school with education in Dutch only. The pupils had a Dutch majority language background and were comparable with regard to social-economic status (SES). Reading and vocabulary were measured twice within an interval of 1 year in Grade 2 and 3. The bilingual group performed better on most English and some of the Dutch tests. Controlling for general variables and related skills, instruction in English contributed significantly to the prediction of L2 vocabulary and orthographic awareness at the second measurement. As expected, word reading fluency was easier to acquire in Dutch with its relatively transparent orthography in comparison to English with its deep orthography, but the skills intercorrelated highly. With regard to cross-linguistic transfer, orthographic knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch were positively influenced by bilingual instruction, but there was no indication of generalization to orthographic awareness or knowledge of a language in which no instruction had been given (German). The results of the present study support the assumption that concurrent instruction in Dutch and English has positive effects on the acquisition of L2 English and L1 Dutch.

  6. Influence of Linguistic Environment on Children's Language Development: Flemish versus Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiefferink, C. H.; Spaai, G. W. G.; Uilenburg, N.; Vermeij, B. A. M.; De Raeve, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, language development of Dutch children with a cochlear implant (CI) in a bilingual educational setting and Flemish children with a CI in a dominantly monolingual educational setting is compared. In addition, we compared the development of spoken language with the development of sign language in Dutch children. Eighteen…

  7. Nano-manufactured catalyst for the production of hydrogen via solar thermal water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clower, William; Wilson, Chester G.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on the creation of nano-manufactured catalyst for the production of hydrogen fuel via the solar thermal water splitting process. The solar thermal water splitting process is considered the holy grail of green energy as the process produces zero carbon emissions. This is made possible by focusing solar energy as the heating source, while the only reactant consumed in the process is water. For this work we are investigating the reaction dynamics of cobalt ferrite catalyst supported on an aluminum oxide support. Solar thermal water splitting occurs in two steps: reduction and oxidation reactions. The reduction step occurs by heating the catalyst, which produces oxygen and converts the cobalt ferrite/aluminum oxide to metal aluminates. The oxidation step begins by flowing water over the newly created metal aluminates. The metal aluminates react with the oxygen creating the original cobalt ferrite/aluminum oxide catalyst as well as hydrogen gas. The catalyst created for this work was done utilizing an electrospinning technique. In a one-step process the aluminum oxide support material can be incorporated with cobalt ferrite catalyst into a single nanofiber. With this technique nanofiber catalyst can be created with diameters ranging from 20 to 80 nm. Nanostructured materials allow for large surface areas >50 m2/g and surface area to volume ratios >9e7/m. The large surface area creates the opportunity for more active sites where the reactions can occur. An increase in reactivity has the potential to move fuel production rate for solar thermal water splitting closer to large-scale commercialization.

  8. 75 FR 54692 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Miró: The Dutch Interiors”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Mir : The Dutch Interiors'' ACTION... ''Mir : The Dutch Interiors.'' The reference notice is corrected to accommodate an additional object to... determine that the additional object to be included in the exhibition ``Mir : The Dutch...

  9. Do Mothers Have the Right to Bring up Their Own Children? How Facts Do Not Determine (Dutch) Government Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allewijn, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch government has a double moral message for Dutch parents. On the one hand, they expect mothers to work more hours outside the home; on the other hand, they expect parents to perform better in their parental tasks. New research shows again that in spite of all stimulation measures, Dutch women with children prefer their part-time jobs, and…

  10. Social Integration and Religious Identity Expression among Dutch Muslims: The Role of Minority and Majority Group Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maliepaard, Mieke; Phalet, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of contrasting religious versus secular norms in immigrant communities and in Dutch society, this study examines how religious identity expression is related to the social integration of Dutch Muslims within (a) Turkish or Moroccan minority groups and (b) Dutch majority groups. Using nationally representative survey data (N…

  11. The distribution of suspended matter in the Dutch coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, M.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.; Postma, L.

    Results are presented of suspended matter observations taken at bi-weekly intervals during the period 1975-1983, in a strip 70 km wide along the Dutch coast. The average distribution showed a (weak) minimum zone located north of Noordwijk at a distance of about 30 km from and parallel to the Dutch coast, between the salinity maximum and the coast. Variability was large between different years, seasons and individual cruises. A clear seasonal cycle emerged from the observed suspended-matter patterns: in winter a pronounced minimum existed, while in summer generally a monotonically decreasing concentration was measured, to open-sea values much lower than in winter. This seasonal cycle may be explained by a combination of variation in wind, river discharge and the activity of suspended-matter sources. The Flemish Banks and Channel waters are the main sources supplying suspended matter to the Dutch coastal area. Especially the varying transport through the Strait of Dover, large in winter, small in summer, determines the seasonal variation in the total amount of suspended matter. The existence of a localized turbidity minimum is tied to relatively large discharges from the Rhine and associated steep salinity gradients, also occurring mainly in winter and early spring. A simple model of cross-shore density-driven circulation shows the possible influence of the strong salinity gradients on the sedimentation of suspended matter. Particles with a settling rate comparable to the vertical velocity component of the circulation are forced to move offshore until they reach an area they sink out of the surface layer. The strength of this circulation is determined by the cross-shore density gradient due to the inflow of fresh water from the Rhine-Meuse estuary.

  12. Secular trend of dental development in Dutch children.

    PubMed

    Vucic, Strahinja; de Vries, Esther; Eilers, Paul H C; Willemsen, Sten P; Kuijpers, Mette A R; Prahl-Andersen, Birte; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Wolvius, Eppo B; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have established dental age standards for different populations; however, very few studies have investigated whether dental development is stable over time on a population level. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze changes in dental maturity in Dutch children born between 1961 and 2004. We used 2,655 dental panoramic radiographs of 2- to 16-year-old Dutch children from studies performed in three major cities in the Netherlands. Based on a trend in children born between 1961 and 1994, we predicted that a child of a certain age and gender born in 1963 achieved the same dental maturity on average, 1.5 years later than a child of the same age born 40 years later. After adjusting for the birth year of a child in the analysis, the regression coefficient of the city variable was reduced by 56.6% and it remained statistically significant. The observed trend from 1961 to 1994 was extrapolated to 9- to 10-year-old children born in 2002-2004, and validation with the other samples of children with the same characteristics showed that 95.9%-96.8% of the children had dental maturity within the 95% of the predicted range. Dental maturity score was significantly and positively associated with the year of birth, gender, and age in Dutch children, indicating a trend in earlier dental development during the observation period, 1961-2004. These findings highlight the necessity of taking the year of birth into account when assessing dental development within a population with a wider time span. PMID:24912457

  13. Choices in Dutch health care: mixing strategies and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    van der Grinten, T E; Kasdorp, J P

    1999-12-01

    In the light of experience that choices in health care appear to be not so much hindered by a lack of insight into how choices should be made in theory, as uncertainty as to how choices could be made in practice, this paper sets out to deepen our insight into the dynamics of health care policy making within the concrete socio-economic and political context. The paper examines how Dutch policy-makers have dealt with the priority issue in health care over the past 10 years by means of a gradual incremental approach. In this approach, use is made of a mix of strategies and shared responsibilities, with an important role for the actors at the meso and the micro levels; while at the same time, the government has not abandoned the tried and trusted policy of national rationing (i.e. keeping the production capacity limited and setting a ceiling on production in order to resist the pressure on the public system of Dutch health care). Looking at the declining percentage of Gross National Product assigned to health care annually, the broad accessibility and the good overall quality of Dutch health care, it may be concluded that the issue of choice has not come off badly under this mixed approach. The degree to which the system can respond adequately to likely developments, such as a recession, worsening waiting lists, further liberalisation (i.e. the application of market forces in health care) and, by way of extension, the ongoing integration of 'Europe' is questioned.

  14. Autonomic and Climatic Impacts on the Dutch Coastal Groundwater System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Baaren, E. S.; Oude Essink, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    Half of the Netherlands is located below sea level and still land subsidence is taking place. As saline groundwater is found within a couple of meters below ground surface, salinization of the freshwater resources is taking place. Above mentioned process together with anthropogenic activities like groundwater exploitation and differentiated water level management is called the autonomic process. As a consequence, salt seepage affects the quality of surface water and reduces the freshwater volume necessary for drinking, environmental, industrial and agricultural purposes. Apart from this autonomic process, the Dutch delta will be jeopardized by climate change due to two effects: sea level rise and a combination of changing precipitation and evapotranspiration. Calculations with a regional density dependent 3D model for the coastal province of Zuid-Holland show increasing piezometric heads for all implemented climate scenarios due to sea level rise. This will, however, only happen at areas less than 10-20 km from the coastline or large rivers. Up to 5 km from the coast, the piezometric heads will increase with more than 50% of the sea level rise. In the inland areas, land subsidence causes decreasing piezometric heads. Salinization of the groundwater system will take place in most parts of the Dutch delta. Around the islands of Zuid-Holland, the main cause for salinization is sea level rise. The autonomic process on the other hand dominates the salinization of the polders. Due to increasing piezometric heads and salinization, the salt seepage will increase up to 20% for inland polders and up to 75% for coastal polders. The effects of the changes in recharge and evapotranspiration are small in general and depend on the climate scenario and area. Adaptive and mitigative activities like land reclamation offshore and desalinization of saline groundwater show some positive effects on the chloride concentrations of the groundwater. Nevertheless, this cannot reverse the

  15. The development of flux-split algorithms for flows with non-equilibrium thermodynamics and chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Cinella, P.

    1988-01-01

    A finite-volume method for the numerical computation of flows with nonequilibrium thermodynamics and chemistry is presented. A thermodynamic model is described which simplifies the coupling between the chemistry and thermodynamics and also results in the retention of the homogeneity property of the Euler equations (including all the species continuity and vibrational energy conservation equations). Flux-splitting procedures are developed for the fully coupled equations involving fluid dynamics, chemical production and thermodynamic relaxation processes. New forms of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms are embodied in a fully coupled, implicit, large-block structure, including all the species conservation and energy production equations. Several numerical examples are presented, including high-temperature shock tube and nozzle flows. The methodology is compared to other existing techniques, including spectral and central-differenced procedures, and favorable comparisons are shown regarding accuracy, shock-capturing and convergence rates.

  16. Tune splitting in the presence of linear coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Parzen, G.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of random skew quadrupole field errors will couple the x and y motions. The x and y motions are then each given by the sum of 2 normal modes with the tunes v{sub 1} and v{sub 2}, which may differ appreciably from v{sub x} and v{sub y}, the unperturbed tunes. This is often called tune splitting since {vert bar}v{sub 1} {minus} v{sub 2}{vert bar} is usually larger than {vert bar}v{sub x} {minus} v{sub y}{vert bar}. This tune splitting may be large in proton accelerators using superconducting magnets, because of the relatively large random skew quadrupole field errors that are expected in these magnets. This effect is also increased by the required insertions in proton colliders which generate large {beta}-functions in the insertion region. This tune splitting has been studied in the RHIC accelerator. For RHIC, a tune splitting as large as 0.2 was found in one worse case. A correction system has been developed for correcting this large tune splitting which uses two families of skew quadrupole correctors. It has been found that this correction system corrects most of the large tune splitting, but a residual tune splitting remains that is still appreciable. This paper discusses the corrections to this residual time.

  17. Dutch Minister of Science Visits ESO Facilities in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, who travelled to the Republic of Chile, arrived at the ESO Paranal Observatory on Friday afternoon, May 13, 2005. The Minister was accompanied, among others, by the Dutch Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, and Mr. Cornelis van Bochove, the Dutch Director of Science. The distinguished visitors were able to acquaint themselves with one of the foremost European research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), during an overnight stay at this remote site, and later, with the next major world facility in sub-millimetre and millimetre astronomy, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). At Paranal, the guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky; the ESO Council President, Prof. Piet van der Kruit; the ESO Representative in Chile, Prof. Felix Mirabel; the Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory, Dr. Jason Spyromilio; by one of the Dutch members of the ESO Council, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw; by the renowned astrophysicist from Leiden, Prof. Ewine van Dishoek, as well as by ESO staff members. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at the observatory, including many of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. Explanations were given by ESO astronomers and engineers and the Minister gained a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the Paranal deck, the Minister visited the VLT Control Room from where the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) are operated. Here, the Minister was invited to follow an observing sequence at the console of the Kueyen (UT2) and Melipal (UT3) telescopes. "I was very impressed, not just by the technology and the science, but most of all by all the people involved

  18. [Assessing and measuring language development in the child. The Reynell Scales in a Dutch language area].

    PubMed

    Schaerlaekens, A

    1995-01-01

    This article deals with the recent adaptation of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales to the Dutch language. The existing language tests for the Dutch language are reviewed and the need to adapt a test for young children, measuring both receptive and expressive language development, is argued. The adaptation of the original Reynell Developmental Language Scales to the Dutch language is described. An extensive standardisation was carried out with 1,288 Dutch-speaking children, carefully selected geographically and according to socio-economic status. The psychodiagnostic results of the standardisation are discussed. As a result there are now norms for children between 2 and 5 years, both for receptive and expressive language development. The adaptation of the original Reynell Scales to Dutch functions under the new name RTOS (Reynell Taalontwikkelingsschalen).

  19. Phonological and morphological consistency in the acquisition of vowel duration spelling in Dutch and German.

    PubMed

    Landerl, Karin; Reitsma, Pieter

    2005-12-01

    In Dutch, vowel duration spelling is phonologically consistent but morphologically inconsistent (e.g., paar-paren). In German, it is phonologically inconsistent but morphologically consistent (e.g., Paar-Paare). Contrasting the two orthographies allowed us to examine the role of phonological and morphological consistency in the acquisition of the same orthographic feature. Dutch and German children in Grades 2 to 4 spelled singular and plural word forms and in a second task identified the correct spelling of singular and plural forms of the same nonword. Dutch children were better in word spelling, but German children outperformed the Dutch children in nonword selection. Also, whereas German children performed on a similar level for singular and plural items, Dutch children showed a large discrepancy. The results indicate that children use phonological and morphological rules from an early age but that the developmental balance between the two sources of information is constrained by the specific orthography. PMID:15975590

  20. Vibrational quenching of excitonic splittings in H-bonded molecular dimers: The electronic Davydov splittings cannot match experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottiger, Philipp; Leutwyler, Samuel; Köppel, Horst

    2012-05-01

    The S1/S2 state exciton splittings of symmetric doubly hydrogen-bonded gas-phase dimers provide spectroscopic benchmarks for the excited-state electronic couplings between UV chromophores. These have important implications for electronic energy transfer in multichromophoric systems ranging from photosynthetic light-harvesting antennae to photosynthetic reaction centers, conjugated polymers, molecular crystals, and nucleic acids. We provide laser spectroscopic data on the S1/S2 excitonic splitting Δexp of the doubly H-bonded o-cyanophenol (oCP) dimer and compare to the splittings of the dimers of (2-aminopyridine)2, [(2AP)2], (2-pyridone)2, [(2PY)2], (benzoic acid)2, [(BZA)2], and (benzonitrile)2, [(BN)2]. The experimental S1/S2 excitonic splittings are Δexp = 16.4 cm-1 for (oCP)2, 11.5 cm-1 for (2AP)2, 43.5 cm-1 for (2PY)2, and <1 cm-1 for (BZA)2. In contrast, the vertical S1/S2 energy gaps Δcalc calculated by the approximate second-order coupled cluster (CC2) method for the same dimers are 10-40 times larger than the Δexp values. The qualitative failure of this and other ab initio methods to reproduce the exciton splitting Δexp arises from the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation, which implicitly assumes the strong-coupling case and cannot be employed to evaluate excitonic splittings of systems that are in the weak-coupling limit. Given typical H-bond distances and oscillator strengths, the majority of H-bonded dimers lie in the weak-coupling limit. In this case, the monomer electronic-vibrational coupling upon electronic excitation must be accounted for; the excitonic splittings arise between the vibronic (and not the electronic) transitions. The discrepancy between the BO-based splittings Δcalc and the much smaller experimental Δexp values is resolved by taking into account the quenching of the BO splitting by the intramolecular vibronic coupling in the monomer S1 ← S0 excitation. The vibrational quenching factors Γ for the five dimers (oCP)2, (2AP)2

  1. Oriented covalent immobilization of antibodies for measurement of intermolecular binding forces between zipper-like contact surfaces of split inteins.

    PubMed

    Sorci, Mirco; Dassa, Bareket; Liu, Hongwei; Anand, Gaurav; Dutta, Amit K; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Belfort, Marlene; Belfort, Georges

    2013-06-18

    In order to measure the intermolecular binding forces between two halves (or partners) of naturally split protein splicing elements called inteins, a novel thiol-hydrazide linker was designed and used to orient immobilized antibodies specific for each partner. Activation of the surfaces was achieved in one step, allowing direct intermolecular force measurement of the binding of the two partners of the split intein (called protein trans-splicing). Through this binding process, a whole functional intein is formed resulting in subsequent splicing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to directly measure the split intein partner binding at 1 μm/s between native (wild-type) and mixed pairs of C- and N-terminal partners of naturally occurring split inteins from three cyanobacteria. Native and mixed pairs exhibit similar binding forces within the error of the measurement technique (~52 pN). Bioinformatic sequence analysis and computational structural analysis discovered a zipper-like contact between the two partners with electrostatic and nonpolar attraction between multiple aligned ion pairs and hydrophobic residues. Also, we tested the Jarzynski's equality and demonstrated, as expected, that nonequilibrium dissipative measurements obtained here gave larger energies of interaction as compared with those for equilibrium. Hence, AFM coupled with our immobilization strategy and computational studies provides a useful analytical tool for the direct measurement of intermolecular association of split inteins and could be extended to any interacting protein pair.

  2. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

  3. The residual tune splitting in the presence of linear coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Parzen, G.

    1990-10-01

    The presence of random skew quadrupole field errors will couple the x and y motions. The x and y motions are then each given by the sum of 2 normal modes with the tunes {nu}{sub 1} and {nu}{sub 2}, which may differ appreciably from {nu}{sub x} and {nu}{sub y}, the unperturbed tunes. This is often called tune splitting. This tune splitting may be large in proton accelerators using superconducting magnets, because of the relatively large random skew quadrupole field errors that are expected in these magnets. This tune splitting has been studied in the RHIC accelerator. A correction system has been developed for correcting this large tune splitting which uses two families of skew quadrupole correctors. It has been found that this correction system corrects most of the large tune splitting, but a residual tune splitting remains that is still appreciable. RHIC has to operate within a box in tune space whose width is {Delta}{nu} = 33 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} in order to avoid all resonances which are tenth order or less. It appears desirable to correct the tune splitting to a level which is much smaller than 33 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. The residual tune splitting that remained after correction with the 2 family tune splitting correction system was found to be about 18 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. The residual tune splitting appears to be due to higher order effects of the random a{sub 1} multipole. Loosely speaking, one may say that residual tune splitting is associated with the nearby linear sum resonance, {nu}{sub x}, + {nu}{sub y} = integer. A skew quadrupole correction system has been developed that appears able to correct a large part of the residual tune splitting. This consists of skew quadrupole correctors near the high-{beta} quadrupoles in the insertions, which are excited so as to generate the harmonics that would drive the nearby sum resonances, {nu}{sub x}, + {nu}{sub y} = integer.

  4. A splitting algorithm for Vlasov simulation with filamentation filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimas, A. J.; Farrell, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    A Fourier-Fourier transformed version of the splitting algorithm for simulating solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations is introduced. It is shown that with the inclusion of filamentation filtration in this transformed algorithm it is both faster and more stable than the standard splitting algorithm. It is further shown that in a scalar computer environment this new algorithm is approximately equal in speed and far less noisy than its particle-in-cell counterpart. It is conjectured that in a multiprocessor environment the filtered splitting algorithm would be faster while producing more precise results.

  5. Thermoelectric-induced unitary Cooper pair splitting efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng; Li, Lin; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2015-11-23

    Thermoelectric effect is exploited to optimize the Cooper pair splitting efficiency in a Y-shaped junction, which consists of two normal leads coupled to an s-wave superconductor via double noninteracting quantum dots. Here, utilizing temperature difference rather than bias voltage between the two normal leads, and tuning the two dot levels such that the transmittance of elastic cotunneling process is particle-hole symmetric, we find current flowing through the normal leads are totally contributed from the splitting of Cooper pairs emitted from the superconductor. Such a unitary splitting efficiency is significantly better than the efficiencies obtained in experiments so far.

  6. Initial-state splitting kernels in cold nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovanesyan, Grigory; Ringer, Felix; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    We derive medium-induced splitting kernels for energetic partons that undergo interactions in dense QCD matter before a hard-scattering event at large momentum transfer Q2. Working in the framework of the effective theory SCETG, we compute the splitting kernels beyond the soft gluon approximation. We present numerical studies that compare our new results with previous findings. We expect the full medium-induced splitting kernels to be most relevant for the extension of initial-state cold nuclear matter energy loss phenomenology in both p+A and A+A collisions.

  7. Tunable multiple mode-splitting in coupled graphene resonators system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jicheng; Xia, Xiushan; Wang, Xiaosai; Liu, Shutian

    2016-05-01

    We investigate a coupled graphene resonator system which exhibits multiple mode-splitting effects and electromagnetically-induced-absorption-like transmission. The finite element method has been employed to study the transmission and electromagnetic responses of our designs at mid-infrared frequency. According to simulation results, the mode-splitting effects are mainly dependent on the destructive interference between two graphene resonators. By varying the chemical potential of graphene or the coupling gap, we are accessible to achieve a dynamically controllable mode-splitting system serving as a sensing application.

  8. Nano-architecture and material designs for water splitting photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao Ming; Chen, Chih Kai; Liu, Ru-Shi; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun; Wilkinson, David P

    2012-09-01

    This review concerns the efficient conversion of sunlight into chemical fuels through the photoelectrochemical splitting of water, which has the potential to generate sustainable hydrogen fuel. In this review, we discuss various photoelectrode materials and relative design strategies with their associated fabrication for solar water splitting. Factors affecting photoelectrochemical performance of these materials and designs are also described. The most recent progress in the research and development of new materials as well as their corresponding photoelectrodes is also summarized in this review. Finally, the research strategies and future directions for water splitting are discussed with recommendations to facilitate the further exploration of new photoelectrode materials and their associated technologies.

  9. Collider Phenomenology with Split-UED

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Park, Seong Chan; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2011-12-15

    We investigate the collider implications of Split Universal Extra Dimensions. The non-vanishing fermion mass in the bulk, which is consistent with the KK-parity, largely modifies the phenomenology of Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions. We scrutinize the behavior of couplings and study the discovery reach of the Tevatron and the LHC for level-2 Kaluza-Klein modes in the dilepton channel, which would indicates the presence of the extra dimensions. Observation of large event rates for dilepton resonances can result from a nontrivial fermion mass profile along the extra dimensions, which, in turn, may corroborate extra dimensional explanation for the observation of the positron excess in cosmic rays. The Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions scenario has received great attention. Recently non-vanishing bulk fermion masses have been introduced without spoiling the virtue of KK-parity. The fermion profiles are no longer simple sine/cosine functions and depend upon the specific values of bulk parameters. The profiles of fermions are split along the extra dimensions while the wave functions of the bosons remain the same as in UED. A simple introduction of a KK-parity conserving bulk fermion mass has significant influences on collider aspects as well as astrophysical implications of UED. For instance, the DM annihilation fraction into certain SM fermion pairs is either enhanced or reduced (compared to the MUED case) so that one can perhaps explain the PAMELA positron excess while suppressing the anti-proton flux. In this paper, we have concentrated on collider phenomenology of Split Universal Extra Dimensions. We have revisited the KK decomposition in detail and analyzed wave function overlaps to compute relevant couplings for collider studies. We have discussed general collider implication for level-1 KK modes and level-2 KK with non-zero bulk mass and have computed LHC reach for the EW level-2 KK bosons, {gamma}{sub 2} and Z{sub 2}, in the dilepton channel. The LHC should

  10. Evidence for locus heterogeneity in human autosomal dominant split hand/split foot malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.; Wijsman, E.M.; Stephens, K.; Evans, J.P. ); Scherer, S.W.; Tsui, L.C. ); Kukolich, M. )

    1994-07-01

    Split hand/split foot (SHSF; also known as ectrodactyly) is a human developmental disorder characterized by missing central digits and other distal limb malformations. An association between SHSF and cytogenetically visible rearrangements of chromosome 7 at bands q21-q22 provides compelling evidence for the location of a causative gene at this location, and the locus has been designated SHFD1. In the present study, marker loci were localized to the SHFD1 critical region through the analysis of somatic cell hybrids derived from individuals with SHSF and cytogenetic abnormalities involving the 7q21-q22 region. Combined genetic and physical data suggest that the order of markers in the SHFD1 critical region is cen-D7S492-D7S527-(D7S479-D7S491)-SHFD1-D7S553-D7S518-qter. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms at three of these loci were used to test for linkage of SHSF to this region in a large pedigree that demonstrates autosomal dominant SHSF. Evidence against linkage of the SHSF gene to 7q21-q22 was obtained in this pedigree. Therefore, combined molecular and genetic data provide evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant SHSF. The authors propose the name SHSF2 for this second locus. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Application of Process Mining in Healthcare - A Case Study in a Dutch Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mans, R. S.; Schonenberg, M. H.; Song, M.; van der Aalst, W. M. P.; Bakker, P. J. M.

    To gain competitive advantage, hospitals try to streamline their processes. In order to do so, it is essential to have an accurate view of the "careflows" under consideration. In this paper, we apply process mining techniques to obtain meaningful knowledge about these flows, e.g., to discover typical paths followed by particular groups of patients. This is a non-trivial task given the dynamic nature of healthcare processes. The paper demonstrates the applicability of process mining using a real case of a gynecological oncology process in a Dutch hospital. Using a variety of process mining techniques, we analyzed the healthcare process from three different perspectives: (1) the control flow perspective, (2) the organizational perspective and (3) the performance perspective. In order to do so we extracted relevant event logs from the hospital's information system and analyzed these logs using the ProM framework. The results show that process mining can be used to provide new insights that facilitate the improvement of existing careflows.

  12. Modelling climate change effects on a Dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne electromagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneca Sànchez, M.; Gunnink, J. L.; van Baaren, E. S.; Oude Essink, G. H. P.; Siemon, B.; Auken, E.; Elderhorst, W.; de Louw, P. G. B.

    2012-12-01

    The forecast of climate change effects on the groundwater system in coastal areas is of key importance for policy makers. The Dutch water system has been deeply studied because of its complex system of low-lying areas, dunes, land won to the sea and dikes, but nowadays large efforts are still being done to find out the best techniques to describe complex fresh-brackish-saline groundwater dynamic systems. In this paper, we describe a methodology consisting of high-resolution airborne electromagnetic (EM) measurements used in a 3-D variable-density transient groundwater model for a coastal area in the Netherlands. We used the airborne EM measurements in combination with borehole-logging data, electrical conductivity cone penetration tests and groundwater samples to create a 3-D fresh-brackish-saline groundwater distribution of the study area. The EM measurements proved to be an improvement compared to older techniques and provided quality input for the model. With the help of the built 3-D variable-density groundwater model, we removed the remaining inaccuracies of the 3-D chloride field and predicted the effects of three climate scenarios on the groundwater and surface water system. Results showed significant changes in the groundwater system, and gave direction for future water policy. Future research should provide more insight in the improvement of data collection for fresh-brackish-saline groundwater systems as it is of high importance to further improve the quality of the model.

  13. Modelling climate change effects on a Dutch coastal groundwater system using airborne Electro Magnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneca Sànchez, M.; Gunnink, J. L.; van Baaren, E. S.; Oude Essink, G. H. P.; Siemon, B.; Auken, E.; Elderhorst, W.; de Louw, P. G. B.

    2012-05-01

    The forecast of climate change effects on the groundwater system in coastal areas is of key importance for policy makers. The Dutch water system has been deeply studied because of its complex system of low-lying areas, dunes, land won to the sea and dikes, but nowadays large efforts are still being done to find out the best techniques to describe complex fresh-brackish-saline groundwater dynamic systems. In this article, we describe a methodology consisting of high-resolution airborne Electro Magnetic (EM) measurements used in a 3-D variable-density transient groundwater model for a coastal area in the Netherlands. We used the Airborne EM measurements in combination with borehole-logging data, Electrical Conductivity Cone Penetration Tests and groundwater samples to create a 3-D fresh-brackish-saline groundwater distribution of the study area. The EM measurements proved to be an improvement compared to older techniques and provided quality input for the model. With the help of the built 3-D variable-density groundwater model, we removed the remaining inaccuracies of the 3-D chloride field and predicted the effects of three climate scenarios on the groundwater and surface water system. Results showed significant changes in the groundwater system, and gave direction for future water policy. Future research should provide more insight in the improvement of data collection for fresh-brackish-saline groundwater systems as it is of high importance to further improve the quality of the model.

  14. Sub-wavelength imaging and field mapping via electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, Christopher L. Gordon, Joshua A.; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-06-16

    We present a technique for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric field strengths with sub-wavelength resolution. We use Rydberg states of rubidium atoms to probe the RF field. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect, and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use this technique to measure the electric field distribution inside a glass cylinder with applied RF fields at 17.04 GHz and 104.77 GHz. We achieve a spatial resolution of ≈100 μm, limited by the widths of the laser beams utilized for the EIT spectroscopy. We numerically simulate the fields in the glass cylinder and find good agreement with the measured fields. Our results suggest that this technique could be applied to image fields on a small spatial scale over a large range of frequencies, up into the sub-terahertz regime.

  15. Grafting of burns with widely meshed autograft split skin and Langerhans cell-depressed allograft split skin overlay

    SciTech Connect

    Alsbjoern, B.F.S.; Sorensen, B.

    1986-12-01

    Extensively burned patients suffer from lack of sufficient autologous donor skin. Meshing and wide expansion of the obtained split skin has met the requirement to a large degree. However, the wider the expansion, the less chance of a proper take. By covering widely expanded autografts with viable cadaver split skin, the take has been improved. If the epidermal Langerhans cells in the cadaver split skin are depressed by ultraviolet B light and glucocorticosteroids before grafting, a prolonged allograft take can be achieved and the healing of the underlying autografts is ensured for an extended period. Grafting results in 6 patients with extensive burns are reported.

  16. Rationing and competition in the Dutch health-care system.

    PubMed

    Schut, Frederik T; Van de Ven, Wynand P M M

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we examine the goals and effects of health-care policy in the Netherlands over the period 1980--2000. During this period Dutch health-care policy is marked by a peculiar combination of increasingly stringent cost-containment policies alongside a persistent pursuit of market-oriented reforms. The main goal of cost containment was to keep labour costs down under the restriction of universal equal access to health care. Supply and price control policies were quite successful in achieving cost containment, but in due course prolonged quantity rationing began to jeopardise universal physical access to health services. The main goal of market-oriented health-care reforms is to increase the system's efficiency and its responsiveness to patient's needs, while maintaining equal access. The feasibility of the reforms crucially hinges on the realisation of adequate methods of risk adjustment, product classification and quality measurement, an appropriate consumer information system and an effective competition policy. Realising these preconditions requires a lengthy and cautious implementation process. Although considerable progress has been made in setting the appropriate stage for regulated competition in Dutch health care, the role of the market is still limited. PMID:16161190

  17. A change of direction in the Dutch health care system?

    PubMed

    Lapré, R M

    1988-08-01

    The Dutch health care system seems to be undergoing a clear change of direction. The publication of the Report of the Committee of the Structure and Financing of the Health Care System is a prominent document which marks the emergence of a new trend. After an analysis of the characteristics of the Dutch health care system in the periods 1960-1975 and 1975-1985, an account is given of the most important proposals of the committee. The proposals clearly alter the trend towards more governmental involvement. They envisage a more market-oriented approach and freedom of operation while at the same time paying attention to aspects such as solidarity and social justice. The Committee's suggestions include the introduction of a basic insurance scheme for every citizen with a coverage determined by law, and in addition a voluntary supplementary insurance scheme in which the insured can decide what coverage he requires and that the insurer is obliged to accept him. The fact that there is a certain amount of agreement, at least over the direction that the strategy for change should take, justifies the expectation that many of the committee's proposals will be implemented. PMID:10288395

  18. [Multiresistant Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in a Dutch sow herd].

    PubMed

    Duinhof, T F; Dierikx, C M; Koene, M G J; van Bergen, M A P; Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; van Beers-Schreurs, H M G; de Winne, R T J A

    This case study describes the isolation ofa multiresistant strain ofBrachyspira hyodysenteriae in April 2007 in a Dutch sow herd with recurrent diarrhoea. Examination of faecal samples taken from 7-month-old breeding gilts with diarrhoea revealed the presence of resistance against tiamulin, lincomycin, tylosin, doxycycline, and tylvalosin (the active substance in Aivlosin) in four of five samples. Tiamulin resistance has not been reported in The Netherlands before. The repeated use of tiamulin on the affected farm was assumed to be the main cause of the development of resistance to the drug. The farmer was advised to adopt a medication strategy and to implement management practices that would prevent an ongoing cycle of infection on the farm. It is important that the Dutch swine industry appreciates that tiamulin-resistant strains of B. hyodysenteriae may be found on other farms as well. The appropriate and prudent use of antibiotics is essential in order to prevent the development of resistance against the last option left to cure B. hyodysenteriae infections: valnemulin.

  19. Control of VTEC in Dutch livestock and meat production.

    PubMed

    Reinders, R D; Weber, M F; Lipman, L J; Verhoeff, J; Bijker, P G

    2001-05-21

    The Dutch government and the meat industry, recognising VTEC as having important public health, meat quality and economic implications, have taken a number of initiatives within the last 5 years to control VTEC in livestock and meat. These initiatives, brought together last year in a 'Masterplan VTEC', include short-, middle- and long-term priorities. Short-term priorities include advice on interventions in the cases of an outbreak of VTEC associated with a cattle herd, the implementation of handbooks for Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in slaughterhouses and deboning plants, and the execution of an action programme on zero-tolerance to faecal contamination of carcasses. Mid-term activities include surveillance of the occurrence of VTEC and other enteropathogens in livestock and meat, and the investigations of VTEC population dynamics in dairy farms, transportation and farm hygiene. In the longer term, this programme aims to produce a system of Integrated Quality Assurance, consolidating effective measures to control VTEC in Dutch livestock and meat, and integrating emerging means for control and prevention. PMID:11407551

  20. The disappearance of Dutch malaria and the Rockefeller Foundation.

    PubMed

    Verhave, J P

    2000-06-01

    Sixty years ago Professor Nico Swellengrebel wrote his famous book 'Malaria in the Netherlands' (Swellengrebel and de Buck, 1938). At that time tertian malaria was still endemic, with its epidemic ups and downs. Malaria disappeared as recently as 1960 and the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) contributed substantially to this effect. The Rockefeller Archives proved a valuable source of anecdotal information, which puts the scientific publications of the Dutch malariologists in a more vivid perspective. Following the course of history, first the already existing links with the RF are explained along with some peculiarities of tertian malaria in the Dutch temperate climate. The emergence of a new epidemic during the war years and the implication of new tools and principles for control as advocated by the RF are described. The subsequent shriveling of the vector population and the disappearance of malaria are presented, along with some details about the reluctance of WHO to declare the Netherlands malaria-free. Finally, recent unrest about possible return of malaria is put into perspective.