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Sample records for dutch technique split

  1. The Split-Stem Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Roy A.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a procedure useful for investigating the effects of substances on plant growth and development. A bean seedling's stem is partially split, and each half is placed in a different nutrient solution. Suggestions for the instructional use of the technique are made. (AL)

  2. The Split-Stem Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Roy A.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a procedure useful for investigating the effects of substances on plant growth and development. A bean seedling's stem is partially split, and each half is placed in a different nutrient solution. Suggestions for the instructional use of the technique are made. (AL)

  3. "Split Cast Mounting: Review and New Technique".

    PubMed

    Gundawar, S M; Pande, Neelam A; Jaiswal, Priti; Radke, U M

    2014-12-01

    For the fabrication of a prosthesis, the Prosthodontist meticulously performs all the steps. The laboratory technician then make every effort/strives to perform the remaining lab procedures. However when the processed dentures are remounted on the articulator, some changes are seen. These changes may be divided into two categories: Pre-insertion and post-insertion changes, which deal with the physical properties of the materials involved (Parker, J Prosthet Dent 31:335-342, 1974). Split cast mounting is the method of mounting casts on the articulator. It is essentially a maxillary cast constructed in two parts with a horizontal division. The procedure allows for the verification of the accuracy of the initial mounting and the ease of removal and replacement of the cast. This provides a precise means of correcting the changes in occlusion occurring as a result of the processing technique (Nogueira et al., J Prosthet Dent 91:386-388, 2004). Instability of the split mounting has always been a problem to the Prosthodontist thereby limiting its use. There are various materials mentioned in the literature. The new technique by using Dowel pins and twill thread is very easy, cheaper and simple way to stabilize the split mounting. It is useful and easy in day to day laboratory procedures. The article presents different methods of split cast mounting and the new procedure using easily available materials in prosthetic laboratory.

  4. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong

    2015-08-15

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  5. The Platform Switching Approach to Optimize Split Crest Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sammartino, G.; Cerone, V.; Gasparro, R.; Riccitiello, F.; Trosino, O.

    2014-01-01

    The split crest technique is a reliable procedure used simultaneously in the implant positioning. In the literature some authors describe a secondary bone resorption as postoperative complication. The authors show how platform switching can be able to avoid secondary resorption as complication of split crest technique. PMID:25165586

  6. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Alessandro; Foresta, Enrico; Falchi, Marco; De Angelis, Paolo; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Pelo, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation. PMID:28246596

  7. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips.

    PubMed

    Moro, Alessandro; Gasparini, Giulio; Foresta, Enrico; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Falchi, Marco; Cardarelli, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Paolo; Forcione, Mario; Garagiola, Umberto; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Pelo, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation.

  8. A Novel Split and Merge Technique for Hypertext Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Suman; Murthy, C. A.; Pal, Sankar K.

    As web grows at an increasing speed, hypertext classification is becoming a necessity. While the literature on text categorization is quite mature, the issue of utilizing hypertext structure and hyperlinks has been relatively unexplored. In this paper, we introduce a novel split and merge technique for classification of hypertext documents. The splitting process is performed at the feature level by representing the hypertext features in a tensor space model. We exploit the local-structure and neighborhood recommendation encapsulated in the this representation model. The merging process is performed on multiple classifications obtained from split representation. A meta level decision system is formed by obtaining predictions of base level classifiers trained on different components of the tensor and actual category of the hypertext document. These individual predictions for each component of the tensor are subsequently combined to a final prediction using rough set based ensemble classifiers. Experimental results of classification obtained by using our method is marginally better than other existing hypertext classification techniques.

  9. Application of split window technique to TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Rokugawa, Shuichi; Ishii, Yoshinori

    1992-01-01

    Absorptions by the atmosphere in thermal infrared region are mainly due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone. As the content of water vapor in the atmosphere greatly changes according to weather conditions, it is important to know its amount between the sensor and the ground for atmospheric corrections of thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data (i.e. radiosonde). On the other hand, various atmospheric correction techniques were already developed for sea surface temperature estimations from satellites. Among such techniques, Split Window technique, now widely used for AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), uses no radiosonde or any kind of supplementary data but a difference between observed brightness temperatures in two channels for estimating atmospheric effects. Applications of Split Window technique to TIMS data are discussed because availability of atmospheric profile data is not clear when ASTER operates. After these theoretical discussions, the technique is experimentally applied to TIMS data at three ground targets and results are compared with atmospherically corrected data using LOWTRAN 7 with radiosonde data.

  10. Modified distolingual splitting technique for removal of impacted mandibular third molars: technique.

    PubMed

    Davis, W H; Hochwald, D A; Kaminishi, R M

    1983-07-01

    This first of two articles describes a modified distolingual splitting technique for removal of impaction of various classes. The second article evaluates the efficacy of the technique by reporting and comparing the incidence of postoperative sequelae with earlier research findings. In this technique, the lingual soft tissue is not separated from the bone. In addition, the fragmented lingual bone attached to the periosteum is not removed. The procedure is best performed with the patient under sedation or general anesthesia.

  11. Horizontal Ridge Augmentation with Piezoelectric Hinge-Assisted Ridge Split Technique in the Atrophic Posterior Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Min-Sang; Lee, Ji-Hye; Lee, Sang-Woon; Cho, Lee-Ra; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Lee, You-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Onlay bone grafting, guided bone regeneration, and alveolar ridge split technique are considered reliable bone augmentation methods on the horizontally atrophic alveolar ridge. Among these techniques, alveolar ridge split procedures are technique-sensitive and difficult to perform in the posterior mandible. This case report describes successful implant placement with the use of piezoelectric hinge-assisted ridge split technique in an atrophic posterior mandible. PMID:27489822

  12. Para-split laminotomy: a rescue technique for split laminotomy approach in exploring intramedullary midline located pathologies.

    PubMed

    Padanyi, Csaba; Vajda, Janos; Banczerowski, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Conventional posterior approaches, which may involve multilevel laminectomies and facetectomies, may lead to spinal deformities, instability, and subluxation. We developed the multilevel spinous process splitting and distraction laminotomy technique, which is an option for approaching midline intramedullary spinal pathologies with preservation of mechanically relevant bone and muscle structures. In some cases, midline splitting is not feasible or convenient because of anatomical differences of spinous processes and laminas. Our objective was to develop a minimally invasive rescue approach technique that makes it possible to remove intramedullary lesions but does not increase the risk of damage to the crucial posterior stabilizers of the spine. We used the para-split laminotomy technique for opening the spinal canal not in the midline but rather in the parasagittal plane. The technique can be combined with the basic split laminotomy technique. This novel technique was used in five adult patients with midline intramedullary pathologies of the cervical and cervicothoracic spine. The operating field under the microscope was sufficient for tumor removal according to the keyhole concept. The approach used did not affect the extent of resection or neurologic outcome. The average number of split laminae was 6 (range: 3-10). Average follow-up was 18 months (range: 13-36 months). Histologic results were as follows: two ependymomas, two astrocytomas, and one primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). To confirm the extension of resection, all patients underwent postoperative magnetic resonance imaging evaluations. The resections were complete in the cases of two ependymomas, subtotal in one astrocytoma, and partial in the other astrocytoma case and the PNET case. Computed tomography scans showed the extension of para-split approaches and the moderately disturbed bony structures. Instability was detected in none of the patients on the flexion-extension lateral radiographs during

  13. Investigation of Convection and Pressure Treatment with Splitting Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakur, Siddharth; Shyy, Wei; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of convective and pressure fluxes in the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations using splitting formulas for convective velocity and pressure is investigated. Two schemes - controlled variation scheme (CVS) and advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) - are explored for their accuracy in resolving sharp gradients in flows involving moving or reflecting shock waves as well as a one-dimensional combusting flow with a strong heat release source term. For two-dimensional compressible flow computations, these two schemes are implemented in one of the pressure-based algorithms, whose very basis is the separate treatment of convective and pressure fluxes. For the convective fluxes in the momentum equations as well as the estimation of mass fluxes in the pressure correction equation (which is derived from the momentum and continuity equations) of the present algorithm, both first- and second-order (with minmod limiter) flux estimations are employed. Some issues resulting from the conventional use in pressure-based methods of a staggered grid, for the location of velocity components and pressure, are also addressed. Using the second-order fluxes, both CVS and AUSM type schemes exhibit sharp resolution. Overall, the combination of upwinding and splitting for the convective and pressure fluxes separately exhibits robust performance for a variety of flows and is particularly amenable for adoption in pressure-based methods.

  14. Applicability of the Multiple-event Stacking Technique for Shear-wave Splitting Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, F.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    For several decades, shear wave splitting (SWS) parameters (fast polarization orientations and splitting times) have been widely measured to reveal the orientation and strength of mantle anisotropy. One of the most popularly used techniques for obtaining station averaged SWS parameters is the multiple-event stacking technique (MES). Results from previous studies suggest that the splitting times obtained using MES are frequently smaller than those derived from simple averaging of splitting times obtained using the event-specific technique of Silver and Chan (1991) (SC). To confirm such apparent discrepancies between the two popularly used methods and to explore the causes, we conduct numerical experiments using both synthetic and observed data. The results show that when the anisotropic structure can be represented by a horizontal single layer of anisotropy with constant or spatially varying splitting times, MES can accurately retrieve the splitting parameters. However, when the fast orientations or both splitting parameters vary azimuthally due to lateral heterogeneities or double-layer anisotropy, the station averaged fast orientations from MES and SC are mostly comparable, but the splitting times obtained using MES are underestimated. For laterally varying fast orientations in the vicinity of a station, the magnitude of the underestimation is dependent on the arriving azimuth of the events participated in the stacking; for two-layer models of anisotropy, the resulting splitting parameters using MES are biased towards those of the top layer, due to the dominance of events with a back azimuth parallel or orthogonal to the fast orientation of the lower layer. Obviously, MES can still be applied in areas with complex or spatially varying anisotropy to obtain reliable results by stacking events from narrow back-azimuthal windows, especially when limited amounts of high-quality data are present.

  15. Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

  16. Split-step eigenvector-following technique for exploring enthalpy landscapes at absolute zero.

    PubMed

    Mauro, John C; Loucks, Roger J; Balakrishnan, Jitendra

    2006-03-16

    The mapping of enthalpy landscapes is complicated by the coupling of particle position and volume coordinates. To address this issue, we have developed a new split-step eigenvector-following technique for locating minima and transition points in an enthalpy landscape at absolute zero. Each iteration is split into two steps in order to independently vary system volume and relative atomic coordinates. A separate Lagrange multiplier is used for each eigendirection in order to provide maximum flexibility in determining step sizes. This technique will be useful for mapping the enthalpy landscapes of bulk systems such as supercooled liquids and glasses.

  17. Hydraulic conductivity of lung venules determined by split-drop technique.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, J

    1988-06-01

    The split-drop method has been used to determine filtration rate per unit surface area in the single pulmonary venule. In isolated perfused lungs of nine dogs, blood flow was stopped at different vascular pressures. By means of a double-micropuncture technique under stereomicroscopy, an oil drop was injected in a subpleural venule. The oil drop was then split with a solution of albumin (5.6 g/100 ml) in Ringer lactate. As the Ringer-albumin solution filtered, the distance between the menisci of the split oil drop (split-drop length) decreased. The split-drop geometry and the rate of change of split-drop length were recorded. The calculated venular filtration rate per unit surface area related linearly with vascular pressure (P less than 0.05). The slope of the line equaled venular hydraulic conductivity, which averaged 2.9 +/- 0.02 x 10(-7) ml/(cm2.s.cmH2O). Hydraulic conductivity is lower in lung than in systemic venules.

  18. Biomechanical comparison of a novel engine-driven ridge spreader and conventional ridge splitting techniques.

    PubMed

    Jung, Gyu-Un; Kim, Jun Hwan; Lim, Nam Hun; Yoon, Gil Ho; Han, Ji-Young

    2017-06-01

    Ridge splitting techniques are used for horizontal ridge augmentation in implant dentistry. Recently, a novel engine-driven ridge splitting technique was introduced. This study compared the mechanical forces produced by conventional and engine-driven ridge splitting techniques in porcine mandibles. In 33 pigs, mandibular premolar areas were selected for the ridge splitting procedures, designed as a randomized split-mouth study. The conventional group underwent a chisel-and-mallet procedure (control group, n = 20), and percussive impulse (Newton second, Ns) was measured using a sensor attached to the mallet. In the engine-driven ridge spreader group (test group, n = 23), a load cell was used to measure torque values (Newton centimeter, Ncm). Horizontal acceleration generated during procedures (control group, n = 10 and test group, n = 10) was compared between the groups. After ridge splitting, the alveolar crest width was significantly increased both in the control (1.23 ± 0.45 mm) and test (0.98 ± 0.41 mm) groups with no significant differences between the groups. The average impulse of the control group was 4.74 ± 1.05 Ns. Torque generated by rotation in the test group was 9.07 ± 2.15 Ncm. Horizontal acceleration was significantly less in the test group (0.82 ± 1.05 g) than the control group (64.07 ± 42.62 g) (P < 0.001). Narrow edentulous ridges can be expanded by novel engine-driven ridge spreaders. Within the limits of this study, the results suggested that an engine-driven ridge splitting technique may be less traumatic and less invasive than a conventional ridge splitting technique. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mode of Processing Using the Split-Span Technique in Dichotic Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallup, Howard F.; Bookman, Lisa

    Using the split-span technique in which auditory stimuli are presented in various combinations to the right and left ears, two studies were designed to examine the preferences of subjects as to their mode of recall, to assess the accuracy of such recall, and to look at possible sex differences in both the preferences and the accuracy. A total of…

  20. Ridge Expansion by Flapless Split Crest and Immediate Implant Placement: Evolution of the Technique.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Antonio; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Amato, Massimo; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Various treatment strategies and techniques have been proposed to perform alveolar bone augmentation; most common are guided bone regeneration, split crest, and autologous bone grafting. All of these techniques are reported to possess bone regenerative properties of osteoinduction and osteoconduction in relation to regenerated bone survival. Split crest resulted to be one of the most reliable bone augmentation techniques. In this study, we describe a new flapless-modified split crest technique on 4 patients to optimize the bone regeneration with bone augmentation implant insertion in 1 single stage. The rationale of this technique is to obtain a proper buccal cortex expansion preserving its vascular supply and avoiding periosteal elevation for better cortical bone preservation. The main advantages of this technique consist in a single surgical stage without donor sites, vascular periosteal preservation of vestibular cortical walls, preservation of alveolar bone height avoiding bone loss after implant kit drilling, and preservation of proper cortical thickness on both sides, thereby saving periosteal nourishment on the vestibular side. Indication for this technique could be extended to almost every implant insertion for alveolar height saving at drilling time for implant insertion, because of the alveolar crest shape.

  1. Automatic measure of the split in the second cardiac sound by using the wavelet transform technique.

    PubMed

    Debbal, S M; Bereksi-Reguig, F

    2007-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the identification and automatic measure of the split in the second heart sound (S2) of the phonocardiogram signal (PCGs) for normal or pathological case. The second heart sound S2 consists of two acoustic components A2 and P2, the former is due to the closure of the aortic valve and the latter is due to the closure of the pulmonary valve. The aortic valve usually closes before the pulmonary valve, introducing a time delay known as "split". A automatic technique based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is developed in this paper to measure the split of the second cardiac sound (S2) for the normal and pathological cases of the PCG signals. To quantify the splitting, the two components in S2 (i.e. A2 and P2) are identified and, the delay between the two components can be estimated. It is shown that the wavelet transform can provide best information and features of the split of S2 and the major components (A2 and P2) and consequently aid in medical diagnosis.

  2. Association Splitting: feasibility study of a novel technique to reduce weight and shape concerns.

    PubMed

    Musiat, Peter; Moritz, Steffen; Jacobi, Corinna; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2014-06-01

    Weight and shape concerns are core aspects of eating disorders and can have an intrusive and obsessive character. Such thoughts play an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders and seem to be a result of dysfunctional cognitive networks. Association Splitting, a novel intervention for obsessive-compulsive disorders, targets such dysfunctional networks. To adapt Association Splitting for the reduction of weight- and shape-related cognitions in students with high weight and shape concerns. Thirteen students with high weight and shape concerns were recruited and ten completed assessments before and after using the Association Splitting approach. Self-reported weight and shape concerns, eating behaviours and obsessive thinking were assessed. Changes between the two time points were analysed. After using Association Splitting, participants reported lower weight and shape concerns, reduced drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction and lower levels of eating disorder-related behaviours. The technique was perceived as helpful by 70% of the participants. Association Splitting is a feasible approach to reducing weight and shape concerns and might be a useful addition to the treatment or prevention of eating disorders.

  3. Geometrical splitting technique to improve the computational efficiency in Monte Carlo calculations for proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Méndez, José; Perl, Joseph; Faddegon, Bruce; Schümann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present the implementation and validation of a geometrical based variance reduction technique for the calculation of phase space data for proton therapy dose calculation. Methods: The treatment heads at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center were modeled with a new Monte Carlo tool (TOPAS based on Geant4). For variance reduction purposes, two particle-splitting planes were implemented. First, the particles were split upstream of the second scatterer or at the second ionization chamber. Then, particles reaching another plane immediately upstream of the field specific aperture were split again. In each case, particles were split by a factor of 8. At the second ionization chamber and at the latter plane, the cylindrical symmetry of the proton beam was exploited to position the split particles at randomly spaced locations rotated around the beam axis. Phase space data in IAEA format were recorded at the treatment head exit and the computational efficiency was calculated. Depth–dose curves and beam profiles were analyzed. Dose distributions were compared for a voxelized water phantom for different treatment fields for both the reference and optimized simulations. In addition, dose in two patients was simulated with and without particle splitting to compare the efficiency and accuracy of the technique. Results: A normalized computational efficiency gain of a factor of 10–20.3 was reached for phase space calculations for the different treatment head options simulated. Depth–dose curves and beam profiles were in reasonable agreement with the simulation done without splitting: within 1% for depth–dose with an average difference of (0.2 ± 0.4)%, 1 standard deviation, and a 0.3% statistical uncertainty of the simulations in the high dose region; 1.6% for planar fluence with an average difference of (0.4 ± 0.5)% and a statistical uncertainty of 0.3% in the high fluence region. The percentage differences between dose distributions in water for

  4. Geometrical splitting technique to improve the computational efficiency in Monte Carlo calculations for proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Mendez, Jose; Perl, Joseph; Faddegon, Bruce; Schuemann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To present the implementation and validation of a geometrical based variance reduction technique for the calculation of phase space data for proton therapy dose calculation. Methods: The treatment heads at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center were modeled with a new Monte Carlo tool (TOPAS based on Geant4). For variance reduction purposes, two particle-splitting planes were implemented. First, the particles were split upstream of the second scatterer or at the second ionization chamber. Then, particles reaching another plane immediately upstream of the field specific aperture were split again. In each case, particles were split by a factor of 8. At the second ionization chamber and at the latter plane, the cylindrical symmetry of the proton beam was exploited to position the split particles at randomly spaced locations rotated around the beam axis. Phase space data in IAEA format were recorded at the treatment head exit and the computational efficiency was calculated. Depth-dose curves and beam profiles were analyzed. Dose distributions were compared for a voxelized water phantom for different treatment fields for both the reference and optimized simulations. In addition, dose in two patients was simulated with and without particle splitting to compare the efficiency and accuracy of the technique. Results: A normalized computational efficiency gain of a factor of 10-20.3 was reached for phase space calculations for the different treatment head options simulated. Depth-dose curves and beam profiles were in reasonable agreement with the simulation done without splitting: within 1% for depth-dose with an average difference of (0.2 {+-} 0.4)%, 1 standard deviation, and a 0.3% statistical uncertainty of the simulations in the high dose region; 1.6% for planar fluence with an average difference of (0.4 {+-} 0.5)% and a statistical uncertainty of 0.3% in the high fluence region. The percentage differences between dose distributions in water for simulations

  5. An explicit algorithm for a fluid approach to nonlinear optics propagation using splitting and rezoning techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattar, F. P.; Teichmann, J.; Bissonnette, L. R.; Maccormack, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a three-dimensional analysis of the nonlinear light matter interaction in a hydrodynamic context. It is reported that the resulting equations are a generalization of the Navier-Stokes equations subjected to an internal potential which depends solely upon the fluid density. In addition, three numerical approaches are presented to solve the governing equations using an extension of McCormack predict-corrector scheme. These are a uniform grid, a dynamic rezoned grid, and a splitting technique. It is concluded that the use of adaptive mapping and splitting techniques with McCormack two-level predictor-corrector scheme results in an efficient and reliable code whose storage requirements are modest compared with other second order methods of equal accuracy.

  6. Postoperative swelling and trismus after mandibular third molar removal with the lingual split bone technique.

    PubMed

    Rood, J P; Yates, C; Buchanan, M

    1979-02-01

    Several factors have been suggested as possible causes for the development of the swelling and trismus which occur after the surgical removal of impacted third molar teeth. In this investigation, measurements of swelling and trismus were made before and after lower third molar removal by the lingual split technique, in a series of 53 patients. No single cause of these surgical sequelae was identified and the duration and pattern of both swelling and trismus were recorded.

  7. Black and Azov Sea circulation numerical modelling on the basis of splitting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. V.; Zalesny, V. B.; Diansky, N. A.; Gusev, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of the Black and Azov Sea dynamics numerical modeling is considered. The INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) is used. The INMOM is based on the multicomponent splitting technique and has a flexible modular structure. The splitting into physical processes and spatial coordinates is used. The entire system is split into a number of energetically balanced modules. Each of them can be split into modules with a simpler structure. A numerical experiment consists in simulating the Black and Azov sea hydrothermodynamics with a spatial resolution 4 km and 40 σ-levels non-uniformly distributed over the depth. The atmospheric forcing is defined using the Era-Interim datasets with a spatial resolution 1.5°x1.5° . The integration period was 2006 - 2007. The results of numerical experiments are in good agreement with observational data and with the results of the model developed in Marine Hydrophysical Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. The presented model is planned to use in further development of monitoring and real-time forecasting systems.

  8. Alveolar split osteotomy for the treatment of the severe narrow ridge maxillary atrophy: a modified technique.

    PubMed

    González-García, R; Monje, F; Moreno, C

    2011-01-01

    Alveolar bone splitting and immediate implant placement have been proposed for patients with severe atrophy of the maxilla in the horizontal dimension. A new modification of the classical alveolar bone splitting for the treatment of the narrow ridge in the maxilla is provided. Thirty-three dental implants in eight consecutive patients were evaluated retrospectively following the described modified split-crest osteotomy. Inclusion criteria were: inadequate maxillary buccolingual dimension, 3-4mm of crestal width, and sufficient height from alveolar ridge tip to maxillary sinus floor. Primary stability was calculated using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Alveolar bone height was measured in the panorex pre- and postoperatively. Histological bone examination was assessed following trephine bone harvesting during the second operation. Mean follow-up was 28.33 months. Bone regeneration of the inter-cortical gap occurred in 98% of implant sites (implant survival rate 100%). Mean implant stability quotient (ISQ) for the whole series of implants was 69.48. At the second operation, mean loss of the alveolar bone height was 0.542mm. Predictable results are obtained using the modified split-crest osteotomy. This technique provides an acceptable inter-cortical gap, decreases the risk of necrosis of the outer cortex, and provides a firm-wall box for the placement of particulate bone grafting. Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coronal Split Corpus Osteotomy of the Mandible: A Modified Visor Osteotomy Technique for Bone Volume Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ataç, Mustafa Sancar; Kilinç, Yeliz

    2017-03-01

    The bony augmentation of severely atrophied mandible is generally required for the purposes of prosthetic rehabilitations. The treatment strategies have been well defined in the literature ranging from osteotomy techniques to distraction osteogenesis. Visor osteotomy is the milestone of the reconstructive surgery for the atrophied mandible which has received some modifications. In the present study, the authors describe a new modification of visor osteotomy in which a complete coronal split osteotomy down to the inferior border at the mental region has been performed. The main advantage of this modification is to preserve the lingual cortex from the inferior border of the mandible up to the alveolar region without disturbance of the suprahyoid muscle attachments. The procedure is thought to be a "highly sensitive" one and undesired fractures may occur during splitting of the bony segments.

  10. Histological and biomechanical study of dura mater applied to the technique of dura splitting decompression in Chiari type I malformation.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, Dorian; Carpentier, Alexandre; Allain, Jean-Marc; Polivka, Marc; Crépin, Jérôme; George, Bernard

    2010-07-01

    Many techniques are described to treat Chiari type I malformation. One of them is a splitting of the dura, removing its outer layer only to reduce the risks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. We try to show the effectiveness of this technique from histological and biomechanical observations of dura mater. Study was performed on 25 posterior fossa dura mater specimens from fresh human cadavers. Dural composition and architecture was assessed on 47 transversal and sagittal sections. Uniaxial mechanical tests were performed on 22 dural samples (15 entire, 7 split) to focus on the dural macroscopic mechanical behavior comparing entire and split samples and also to understand deformation mechanisms. We finally created a model of volume expansion after splitting. Dura mater was composed of predominant collagen fibers with a few elastin fibers, cranio-caudally orientated. The classical description of two distinct layers remained inconstant. Biomechanical tests showed a significant difference between entire dura, which presents an elastic fragile behavior, with a small domain where deformation is reversible with stress, and split dura, which presents an elasto-plastic behavior with a large domain of permanent strain and a lower stress level. From these experimental results, the model showed a volume increase of approximately 50% below the split area. We demonstrated the capability of the split dura mater to enlarge for suitable stress conditions and we quantified it by biomechanical tests and experimental model. Thus, dural splitting decompression seems to have a real biomechanical substrate to envision the efficacy of this Chiari type I malformation surgical technique.

  11. Outcomes and treatments of mal fractures caused by the split-crest technique in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Yasuyuki; Yabase, Akiko; Ishida, Suguru; Kobayashi, Masaki; Komori, Takahide

    2014-09-26

    In this study, we investigated cases of mal fracture occurring during the split-crest procedure. In all subjects (six patients), the free cortical bone segment caused by the mal fracture was carefully maintained in the lateral position without fixation using a titanium plate or screw. On pre- and postoperative multiplanar reconstruction CT, the average total alveolar increase was 5.0 mm in the lower portion 1 mm from the top of the alveolar ridge, and the average total alveolar increase in the lower portion 11 mm from the top of the alveolar ridge was 2.2 mm. A total of 11 dental implants were placed immediately at the same time as the split-crest procedure, while three dental implants were placed after a waiting period of 4-11 months from bone augmentation. During an average follow-up of 27.8 months, there were no complications or cases of failed implants. Consequently, among the patients who experienced mal fracture during the split-crest technique, a sufficient volume of alveolar bone was obtained without the need for rigid fixation of the free bone segment, and the dental implants placed within the area of the mal fracture showed a good prognosis.

  12. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery. Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed. All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment. Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  13. Comparison of spread spectrum and pulse signal excitation for split spectrum techniques composite imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svilainis, L.; Kitov, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Vergara, L.; Dumbrava, V.; Chaziachmetovas, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasonic imaging of composites was investigated. Glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastic produced by resin transfer molding and prepreg forming were analyzed. In some of the samples air bubbles were trapped during RTM (resin transfer molding) process and interlayer gaps were present in prepreg technology samples. One of the most expected techniques to apply in such case is the Split Spectrum processing. On the other hand such signals require specific processing to reliably reconstruct the temporal position of the defect reflection. Correlation processing can be used for signal compression or Wiener filtering can be applied for spectral content equalisation. Pulse signals are simple to generate, but lack the possibility to alter the signal's spectrum shape. Spread spectrum signals offer a powerful tool for signal energy over frequency band increase and resolution enhancement. CW (continuous wave) burst has high energy but lacks the bandwidth needed for SSP (spread spectrum processing). The aim of the investigation was to compare the performance of the above signals in case of composite imaging, when various Split Spectrum Processing techniques are used with preceding Wiener processing for spectral content compensation. Resulting composite signals and images obtained are presented. Structural noise removal performance was evaluated as Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC).

  14. Piezoelectric surgery in mandibular split crest technique with immediate implant placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Belleggia, F; Pozzi, A; Rocci, M; Barlattani, A; Gargari, M

    2008-10-01

    Implant supported rehabilitation of thin edentulous ridges with horizontal atrophy necessitates a regenerative approach. Within the procedures for horizontal bone defects augmentation, ridge expansion techniques permit dislocation of the buccal bone plate in a labial direction and simultaneous implant insertion in single-stage surgery, abbreviating overall treatment time.The piezoelectric ridge expansion technique permits to obtain the expansion of very mineralized bone crests without excessive traumas or the risk of ridge fractures. The case reported shows an implant treatment for partial edentulous lower arch rehabilitation. A full-split thickness flap was raised. The mucoperiosteal reflection permitted to identify alveolar crest contour where osteotomies had to be performed. Split thickness dissection allowed periosteal blood supply to be mainteined on the buccal bone plate. After horizontal and vertical osteotomies were performed with OT7 piezoelectric microsaw (Piezo-surgery, Mectron), a single-bevel scalpel was used to move the buccal bone plate to the labial. Two Straumann TE 3.3/4.8 mm wide implants were inserted in the lower right premolar area, and 1 Straumann 4.8 mm Wide Neck implant was inserted to replace lower right first molar. The amount of bone expansion was equal to the cervical diameter of the placed implants (4.8 mm) and residual bone gap was packed with Bio-Oss granules (Geistlich). Healing was uneventful and 3 months later final restorations with implant-supported porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns were cemented.

  15. Our technique of midsagittal splitting laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy and its short-term results

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Singh, Sunita; Chauhan, Shishu Pal Singh; Gopal, Nitya Nand

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to discuss the technique of midsagittal splitting laminoplasty and to compare its short-term follow-up results with laminectomy in cases of compressive cervical spinal cord myelopathy. Materials and Methods: Exclusion criteria were as follows: Intramedullary compressive lesions, kyphotic cervical spine, previous spinal surgeries, and defective anterior vertebral column. Twenty patients (10 each of laminoplasty and laminectomy groups) were prospectively studied from 2005 to 2008. After clinico-radiological assessment, laminoplasty or laminectomy was performed in patients aged <50 years and >50 years, respectively. The laminoplasty was performed by splitting the excised lamina in midline up to the tip of spinous process. Follow-up was done by neurosurgical cervical spine scoring, Nurick's grading, and the final outcome was determined by Odom's criteria. Results: The mean operative time and blood loss in laminoplasty and laminectomy was 100 ± 0.87 (range 90-140 min), 80 ± 0.67 (range 75-100 min) P = 0.04; and 65 ± 0.07 (range 60-90 ml) and 68 ± 0.61 (range 65-80 ml) P = 0.09, respectively. There were no intraoperative accidents, and no postoperative neurological deterioration/recurrence of symptoms. One patient who underwent laminectomy alone developed progressive kyphosis of the spine, whereas one having rheumatoid arthritis and long symptom duration didn’t improve. 85% (17/20 patients) had sustained excellent to fair outcome (improvement by at least one Nurick's grade). Conclusions: The technique used by us was simple, effective, and inexpensive. There was no minimal postoperative morbidity, although long-term results are awaited. PMID:27366246

  16. Re-evaluation of split-course technique for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, J.T.; Bova, F.J.; Million, R.R.

    1980-12-01

    Therapeutic results of split-course vs. continuous-course external beam irradiation were analyzed retrospectively in 468 consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx, and supraglottic larynx who were treated with curative intent at the University of Florida between September 1964 and August 1976. 214 patients received split-course treatment and 254 were treated by the continuous-course method. Except for the planned 14 to 16 day interruption after 2820 to 3000 rad in the split-course group, the techniques and total doses of irradiation did not differ. For each stage of disease, patients who received continuous-course irradiation had approximately 10% higher 5-year survival rates than patients who were treated by the split-course technique. The rate of development of late radiation complications was similar for the 2 treatment techniques. Routine use of the split-course technique has been discontinued since the dose required to compensate for the rest interval is unknown.

  17. A technique for deriving column-integrated water content using VAS split-window data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Fuelberg, Henry E.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm is examined that uses VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) 11- and 12-micron (split-window) data to derive column-integrated water content (IWC) at mesoscale resolution. The algorithm is physically based and derives its first-guess information from radiosonde data. The procedure is applied first to a test case data set and then to the 19 June 1986 study day from the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment (COHMEX). Ground truth data for verifying results from the technique include IWC from National Weather Service and COHMEX radiosondes, the Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS), and a special set of VAS soundings (12 channel) using an independent retrieval method. Results from the test case show reasonable accuracy with the rms errors as low as +/- 3.8 mm. On the 19 June case study day IWC analyses depict reasonable gradients and exhibit good spatial and temporal continuity. Furthermore, they provide insight into preferred regions for cumulus cloud and thunderstorm formation. On the average, a mean absolute retrieval error of 2.4 mm (an 8.1 percent error) and a rms error of +/- 2.9 mm are obtained on the case study day. These results compare favorably with those from existing VAS IWC techniques. Overall, the findings indicate that the technique has excellent potential to depict mesoscale moisture variations.

  18. Piezosurgery for the lingual split technique in mandibular third molar removal: a suggestion.

    PubMed

    Pippi, Roberto; Alvaro, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    The lingual split technique is a surgical procedure for extraction of impacted mandibular third molar throughout a lingual approach. The main disadvantage of this technique is the high rate of temporary lingual nerve injury mainly because of the trauma induced by the lingual flap retraction. The purpose of this paper is to suggest the use of piezosurgery in performing the lingual cortical plate osteotomy of the third molar alveolar process. Surgical procedure was performed under general anesthesia, and it lasted approximately 60 minutes. After the buccal and lingual full-thickness flaps were incised and elevated, a piezosurgical device was used for osteotomy. A well-defined bony window was then removed, and it allowed the entire tooth was extracted in a lingual direction. The patient did not show any neurological postoperative complication. Lingual and inferior alveolar nerve functionality was normal before as well as after surgery. The use of piezoelectric surgery seems to be a good option in removing lower third molars when a lingual access is clearly indicated. The only disadvantage of this technique can be represented by an operating time lengthening possibly because of a lower power cut of the piezoelectric device, to the high mineralization of the mandibular cortical bone and to the use of inserts with a low degree of sharpening.

  19. Split-spectrum processing technique for SNR enhancement of ultrasonic guided wave.

    PubMed

    Pedram, Seyed Kamran; Fateri, Sina; Gan, Lu; Haig, Alex; Thornicroft, Keith

    2017-08-24

    Ultrasonic guided wave (UGW) systems are broadly used in several branches of industry where the structural integrity is of concern. In those systems, signal interpretation can often be challenging due to the multi-modal and dispersive propagation of UGWs. This results in degradation of the signals in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spatial resolution. This paper employs the split-spectrum processing (SSP) technique in order to enhance the SNR and spatial resolution of UGW signals using the optimized filter bank parameters in real time scenario for pipe inspection. SSP technique has already been developed for other applications such as conventional ultrasonic testing for SNR enhancement. In this work, an investigation is provided to clarify the sensitivity of SSP performance to the filter bank parameter values for UGWs such as processing bandwidth, filter bandwidth, filter separation and a number of filters. As a result, the optimum values are estimated to significantly improve the SNR and spatial resolution of UGWs. The proposed method is synthetically and experimentally compared with conventional approaches employing different SSP recombination algorithms. The Polarity Thresholding (PT) and PT with Minimization (PTM) algorithms were found to be the best recombination algorithms. They substantially improved the SNR up to 36.9dB and 38.9dB respectively. The outcome of the work presented in this paper paves the way to enhance the reliability of UGW inspections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A split-aperture transmit beamforming technique with phase coherence grating lobe suppression.

    PubMed

    Torbatian, Zahra; Adamson, Rob; Bance, Manohar; Brown, Jeremy A

    2010-11-01

    A small element-to-element pitch (~.5λ) is conventionally required for phased array ultrasound transducers to avoid large grating lobes. This constraint can introduce many fabrication difficulties, particularly in the development of highfrequency phased arrays at operating frequencies greater than 30 MHz. In this paper, a new transmit beamforming technique along with sign coherence factor (SCF) receive beamforming is proposed to suppress grating lobes in large-pitch phased-array transducers. It is based on splitting the transmit aperture (N elements) into N/K transmit elements and receive beamforming on all N elements to reduce the temporal length of the transmit grating lobe signal. Therefore, the use of synthetic aperture beamforming, which can introduce relative phase distortions between the echoes received over many transmit events, can be avoided. After each transmit-receive event, the received signals are weighted by the calculated SCF to suppress the grating lobes. After pulsing all sub-apertures, the RF signals are added to generate one line of the image. Simulated 2-way radiation patterns for different K values show that grating lobes can be suppressed significantly at different steering angles. Grating lobes can be suppressed by approximately 20 dB with K = 2 at steering angles greater than 25° and an element pitch greater than 0.75λ. A technique for determining the optimal transmit sub-apertures has been developed.

  1. Classroom Modified Split-Root Technique and Its Application in a Plant Habitat Selection Experiment at the College Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Shannon S.; Winter, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The split-root technique produces a plant with two equal root masses. Traditionally, the two root masses of the single plant are cultivated in adjacent pots with or without roots from competitors for the purpose of elucidating habitat preferences. We have tailored this technology for the classroom, adjusting protocols to match resources and time…

  2. Modification of mandibular ridge splitting technique for horizontal augmentation of atrophic ridges

    PubMed Central

    Abu Tair, Jawad A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A two stage approach of ridge splitting and lateral expansion in the mandible to achieve enough bone width for the purpose of dental implants is presented. Materials and Methods: A total of 13 consecutive patients with 16 long-span edentulous areas of the mandibular ridge were included in this study and 42 dental implants were inserted. Corticotomy of a rectangular buccal segment was carried out followed by 3 weeks of recovery; the mandibular ridge was stretched laterally, leaving the buccal periosteum attached to the lateralized segment. In this modification, there was no need for the use of grafted foreign materials to fill the defect and neither the use of barrier membranes, since it was treated practically as a fresh extraction site. To prevent the undesirable movement of the lateral plate, a small chip (2-3 mm in diameter) of bone spacer was properly fixed. The dental implants were placed 3-5 months later on. Results: Approximately, 86% of the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width to accommodate an implant. The average gain in width was 3.22 ± 0.97 mm. All intended implants were inserted. Prosthetic loading with fixed prosthesis was successfully implemented in all cases. Conclusion: This modified technique is a simple and short procedure with satisfactory results and minimal morbidity. Of note, this approach is devoid of foreign materials usage and has a low rate cost, therefore, should be employed more often. PMID:24987593

  3. Improved ITOS attitude control system with Hall generator brushless motor and earth-splitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, W. M.

    1971-01-01

    The ITOS with an improved attitude control system is described. A Hall generator brushless dc torque motor will replace the brush dc torque motor on ITOS-I and ITOS-A (NOAA-1). The four attitude horizon sensors will be replaced with two CO2 sensors for better horizon definition. An earth horizon splitting technique will be used to keep the earth facing side of the satellite toward earth even if the desired circular orbit is not achieved. The external appearance of the pitch control subsystem differs from TIROS-M (ITOS-1) and ITOS-A (NOAA-1) in that two instead of one pitch control electronics (PCE) boxes are used. Two instead of four horizon sensors will be used and one instead of two mirrors will be used for sensor scanning. The brushless motor will eliminate the requirement for brushes, strain gages and the telemetry for the brush wear. A single rotating flywheel, supported by a single bearing provides the gyroscopic stability and the required momentum interchange to keep one side of the satellite facing the earth. Magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field eliminates the requirement for expendable propellants which would limit satellite life in orbit.

  4. All-Epiphyseal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients: A Surgical Technique Using a Split Tibial Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Lykissas, Marios G.; Nathan, Senthil T.; Wall, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Many techniques have been described for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in skeletally immature patients, including extra-articular, complete or partial transphyseal, and physeal-sparing techniques. An all-epiphyseal technique places the tendon and its tunnels and fixation all within the child's epiphysis, leaving the growth plates untouched. We describe an all-epiphyseal quadruple-hamstring ACL reconstruction using a split tibial tunnel. The split tibial tunnels drop the tunnel size down to 4.5 to 5.5 mm from 7 to 8 mm because only half the total graft diameter passes through each of the split tunnels. This increases the safety margin for keeping the tunnel within the tibial epiphysis, in addition to avoiding damage into the growth plate. The bone bridge between the 2 tunnels serves as a solid low-profile fixation post. Femoral graft fixation is achieved with an interference screw, which allows precise tensioning and low-profile fixation entirely within the femoral tunnel. By placing the graft at the native ACL's anatomic attachment points without spanning or violating the growth plates at any step of the procedure, an all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction with a split tibial tunnel theoretically minimizes the risk of growth disturbance in an ACL-deficient child. PMID:23766968

  5. A New Non-linear Technique for Measurement of Splitting Functions of Normal Modes of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachhai, S.; Masters, G.; Tkalcic, H.

    2014-12-01

    Normal modes are the vibrating patterns of the Earth in response to the large earthquakes. Normal mode spectra are split due to Earth's rotation, ellipticity, and heterogeneity. The normal mode splitting is visualized through splitting functions, which represent the local radial average of Earth's structure seen by a mode of vibration. The analysis of the splitting of normal modes can provide unique information about the lateral variation of the Earth's elastic properties that cannot be directly imaged in body wave tomographic images. The non-linear iterative spectral fitting of the observed complex spectra and autoregressive linear inversion have been widely utilized to compute the Earth's 3-D structure. However, the non-linear inversion requires a model of the earthquake source and the retrieved 3-D structure is sensitive to the initial constraints. In contrast, the autoregressive linear inversion does not require the source model. However, this method requires many events to achieve full convergence. In addition, significant disagreement exists between different studies because of the non-uniqueness of the problem and limitations of different methods. We thus apply the neighbourhood algorithm (NA) to measure splitting functions. The NA is an efficient model space search technique and works in two steps: In the first step, the algorithm finds all the models compatible with given data while the posterior probability density of the model parameters are obtained in the second step. The NA can address the problem of non-uniqueness by taking advantage of random sampling of the full model space. The parameter trade-offs are conveniently visualized using joint marginal distributions. In addition, structure coefficients uncertainties can be extracted from the posterior probability distribution. After demonstrating the feasibility of NA with synthetic examples, we compute the splitting functions for the mode 13S2 (sensitive to the inner core) from several large

  6. The vascular anatomy of the human temporalis muscle: implications for surgical splitting techniques.

    PubMed

    Cheung, L K

    1996-12-01

    Despite the wide application of the temporalis muscle flap and its modifications, understanding of the vascular pattern and territories within the muscle remains poor. This study aimed to evaluate the vascular architecture in the human temporalis muscle for surgical application. The material comprised 15 fresh cadavers (30 muscle specimens), which were divided into three groups for vascular infusion by either Indian ink solution, lead oxide solution, or methylmethacrylate resin. The vascular network in the temporalis muscle was analyzed by stereomicroscopy, radiography, and scanning electron microscopy. The human temporalis muscle was found to have vascular supply from three primary arteries: the anterior deep temporal artery (ADTA), the posterior deep temporal artery (PDTA), and the middle temporal artery (MTA). Each primary artery branched into the secondary arterioles and then the terminal arterioles. The venous network accompanied the arteries, and double veins pairing one artery was a common finding. The capillaries formed a dense, interlacing network with orientation along the muscle fibres. Arteriovenous anastomosis was absent. In the coronal plane, the vessels were located mainly on the lateral and medial aspects of the muscle with a significantly lower vascular density in the midline. Morphometric analysis of the arterial network showed that the PDTA was larger in size at primary and secondary branching levels than the ADTA and the MTA, whereas no differences were present at the terminal arteriolar levels. The distribution of the arterial territories was as follows: the ADTA occupied 21% anteriorly, the PDTA occupied 41% in the middle region, and the MTA occupied 38% in the posterior region. This improved understanding of the vascular architecture within the temporalis muscle complements the anatomic basis of the flap-splitting technique and increases the safety of its application.

  7. High Strain Rate Response Testing with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwiessler, R.; Kenkmann, T.; Poelchau, M. H.; Nau, S.; Hess, S.

    2016-08-01

    We present a newly developed split Hopkinson pressure bar which is used to quantify the rate dependent uniaxial stress-strain response of rocks in the high strain rate regime as well as results of our first study on a sandstone and Carrara marble.

  8. A Split Forcing Technique to Reduce Log-layer Mismatch in Wall-modeled Turbulent Channel Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleon, Rey; Senocak, Inanc

    2016-11-01

    The conventional approach to sustain a flow field in a periodic channel flow seems to be the culprit behind the log-law mismatch problem that has been reported in many studies hybridizing Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques, commonly referred to as hybrid RANS-LES. To address this issue, we propose a split-forcing approach that relies only on the conservation of mass principle. We adopt a basic hybrid RANS-LES technique on a coarse mesh with wall-stress boundary conditions to simulate turbulent channel flows at friction Reynolds numbers of 2000 and 5200 and demonstrate good agreement with benchmark data. We also report a duality in velocity scale that is a specific consequence of the split forcing framework applied to hybrid RANS-LES. The first scale is the friction velocity derived from the wall shear stress. The second scale arises in the core LES region, a value different than at the wall. Second-order turbulence statistics agree well with the benchmark data when normalized by the core friction velocity, whereas the friction velocity at the wall remains the appropriate scale for the mean velocity profile. Based on our findings, we suggest reevaluating more sophisticated hybrid RANS-LES approaches within the split-forcing framework. Work funded by National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1056110 and 1229709. First author acknowledges the University of Idaho President's Doctoral Scholars Award.

  9. Dosimetric Comparison of Split Field and Fixed Jaw Techniques for Large IMRT Target Volumes in the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2011-04-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within {+-}1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 {+-} 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 {+-} 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

  10. Dosimetric comparison of split field and fixed jaw techniques for large IMRT target volumes in the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shiv P; Das, Indra J; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2011-01-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within ± 1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 ± 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 ± 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Lingual split versus surgical bur technique in the extraction of impacted mandibular third molars: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Steel, Ben

    2012-09-01

    The relative merits of different surgical techniques to extract impacted mandibular third molars have been debated for many years. A simple classification is those using a bur and those using a chisel. This article seeks to identify any differences in postoperative outcomes between the surgical bur and lingual split techniques. Using inclusion criteria allowing randomized controlled trials only, 5 studies are identified of which 4 are used in the analysis. The following outcomes are investigated: pain, swelling, trismus, bleeding, delayed healing/infection, and disturbance to lingual and inferior alveolar nerve function. The limited analysis allowed by the number and size of the studies leads to tentative conclusions of no difference between postoperative pain and swelling, and some evidence of less trismus for the lingual split technique. There is some weak evidence of a similar incidence of neurological sequelae between the 2 techniques, but this is not a strong conclusion owing to the small size of the included studies. There are inadequate data regarding bleeding and delayed healing/infection for analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Algebraic processing technique for extracting frequency-dependent shear-wave splitting parameters in an anisotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kai-Feng; Zeng, Xin-Wu

    2011-06-01

    Based on the dual source cumulative rotation technique in the time-domain proposed by Zeng and MacBeth (1993), a new algebraic processing technique for extracting shear-wave splitting parameters from multi-component VSP data in frequency-dependent medium has been developed. By using this dual source cumulative rotation technique in the frequency-domain (DCTF), anisotropic parameters, including polarization direction of the shear-waves and timedelay between the fast and slow shear-waves, can be estimated for each frequency component in the frequency domain. It avoids the possible error which comes from using a narrow-band filter in the current commonly used method. By using synthetic seismograms, the feasibility and validity of the technique was tested and a comparison with the currently used method was also given. The results demonstrate that the shear-wave splitting parameters frequency dependence can be extracted directly from four-component seismic data using the DCTF. In the presence of larger scale fractures, substantial frequency dependence would be found in the seismic frequency range, which implies that dispersion would occur at seismic frequencies. Our study shows that shear-wave anisotropy decreases as frequency increases.

  13. Evaluation of simple pre-determined length insertion technique (SPLIT) with conventional method for oral fibreoptic intubation: A randomised cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Elangovan; Elakkumanan, Lenin Babu; Bidkar, Prasanna Udupi; Satyaprakash, MVS; Mishra, Sandeep Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The difficulty during flexible fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FOB) guided tracheal intubation could be because of inability in visualising glottis, advancing and railroading of endotracheal tube. Several methods are available for visualising glottis, but none is ideal. Hence, this randomised controlled study was designed to evaluate the simple pre-determined length insertion technique (SPLIT) during oral FOB. Methods: Fifty-eight patients were randomised into Group C and Group P. General anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and oxygen in spontaneous respiration. In Group C, conventional flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy was done followed by SPLIT and vice versa in Group P. The time to visualise the glottis (T1), from glottic visualisation to pass beyond glottis (T2) and from incisors to pass beyond the glottis (T3) were noted from the recorded video. The time interval was analysed using Wilcoxon matched pairs test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: The T1 was significantly less in SPLIT as compared to conventional technique (13 [10, 20.25] vs. 33 [22, 48] s). The T3 was significantly less in SPLIT (24.5 [19.75, 30] vs. 44 [34, 61.25] s). The T1 by SPLIT was comparable between residents and consultants (P = 0.09), whereas it was significantly more among residents than the conventional technique. The SPLIT was preferred by 91.3% anaesthesiologists. Conclusion: The SPLIT significantly lessened the time to visualise the glottis than conventional technique for FOB. The SPLIT was the preferred technique. Hence, we suggest using the SPLIT to secure the airway at the earliest and also as an alternative to conventional technique. PMID:28216702

  14. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery.Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed.All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment.Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar.

  15. Mobile terminal equipment design utilising split-loop phase-lock techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenington, P. B.; Mcgeehan, J. P.; Edwards, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The design and resultant performance of the terminal equipment in a mobile satellite system is vitally important in respect to the overall cost/performance compromise of the whole system. Improvements in system performance which also result in a reduction of the equipment cost are rare. However, this paper details a significant advance in terminal design, utilizing a novel form of 'split-loop' phase locked receiver/downconverter system to enable an accurate, stable and wide coverage terminal to be realized at a reduced cost. The system has the capability of automatically locking onto any carrier within a complete transponder, and can cope with severe amplitude modulation and fading effects.

  16. Fiber-optic CATV system performance improvement by using split-band technique and photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Tzeng, Shah-Jye; Chuang, Yao-Wei; Chen, Guan-Lin; Peng, Hsiang-Chun

    2007-03-01

    A directly-modulated amplitude modulation-vestigial sideband (AM-VSB) cable television (CATV) erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-repeated system that uses split-band technique and photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as a broadband dispersion compensation device is proposed and demonstrated. In contrast to a conventional externally-modulated fiber-optic CATV system, good performance of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second order (CSO) and composite triple beat (CTB) were obtained in our proposed systems over a combination of 100-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and 3.6 km PCF.

  17. ["In-situ split" (ISS) liver resection: new aspects of technique and indication].

    PubMed

    Lang, S A; Loss, M; Schlitt, H J

    2014-04-01

    The combination of right portal vein ligation with complete parenchyma dissection ("in-situ split", ISS) for rapid hypertrophy induction of the left-lateral liver lobe is a novel strategy to convert primarily irresectable liver tumours into a resectable stage. Available data so far show a 60-80 % growth induction of the remnant liver within 7(- 9) days. Certainly, a novel concept that comprises two operations within a very short time period raises questions. Based on the very few literature reports that have been published so far, as well as our own experience, we here discuss technical issues such as the use of a plastic sheet on the resection margin, the possibility of laparoscopic dissection and the timing of the second operation. Moreover, aspects of the preoperative diagnostic work-up that is necessary are assessed. Finally, open questions, e.g., concerning the influence of preoperative chemotherapy and the use of ISS in patients with cirrhosis are evaluated. In summary, the assessment of chances and risks of this novel concept with regard to indication and technical issues helps to provide the potentially curative option of the "in-situ split" procedure to more patients with marginal or even irresectable liver tumours. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. The Split Pectoralis Flap: Combining the Benefits of Pectoralis Major Advancement and Turnover Techniques in One Flap.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rodger H; Sharabi, Safa E; Kania, Katarzyna E; Hollier, Larry H; Izaddoost, Shayan A

    2017-06-01

    The pectoralis major is a versatile flap used as an advancement or turnover flap for sternal wound treatment. The advancement flap provides suboptimal inferior sternal coverage and poorly fills mediastinal dead space. The turnover flap covers the inferior sternum and fills dead space but requires disinsertion of the muscle from the humerus, resulting in functional loss and cosmetic deformity. The authors describe a new technique of splitting the pectoralis muscle along its fibers, using the superior portion as an advancement flap and the inferior portion as a turnover flap. Eleven patients underwent the described technique. Nine patients healed without complications or repeated operations. One patient had a recurrent aortic graft infection requiring reoperation. One patient had a postoperative seroma requiring incision and drainage. Using the pectoralis as an advancement and turnover flap allows inferior sternum and mediastinum coverage using one donor site and maintaining the function of the muscle and preventing cosmetic deformity.

  19. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M; Monty, Chelsea N

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms.

  20. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M.; Monty, Chelsea N.

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms. PMID:26824529

  1. Neurosensory alterations and function of the temporomandibular joint after high oblique sagittal split osteotomy: an alternative technique in orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Seeberger, Robin; Asi, Yamen; Thiele, Oliver C; Hoffmann, Juergen; Stucke, Kathrin; Engel, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The current most common technique for repositioning of the mandible, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), was first described by Obwegeser and Dal Pont in the early1960s, and has since been modified several times. However, there is always a risk of damaging the inferior alveolar nerve. We have studied 50 consecutive patients who had high oblique sagittal split osteotomy (HSSO) as an alternative to avoid damage to the nerve. The patients were evaluated for sensory alterations and function of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Healing of both wound and bone were complete and uneventful in all 50 patients. Mean (SD) sagittal movement of the mandible was 6.6 (2.9)mm and length of the osteotomy line was 11.0 (3.1)mm. No patient had either temporary or permanent alteration in sensitivity. Pinprick tests showed no significant changes between the preoperative and postoperative readings (p>0.16) or in the chronological results (p>0.23). No disorders of the TMJ developed. Mean (SD) mouth opening 6months postoperatively was 41.6 (8.6)mm. The lateral excursion increased postoperatively by 1.86mm to the left and by 0.76mm to the right. Protrusion increased by 0.66mm. HSSO is therefore a suitable alternative to BSSO as it avoids injury to the inferior alveolar nerve without compromising the TMJ. Ossification was uneventful though bony attachment was less than with the classic BSSO.

  2. Postoperative stability after setback of sagittal split ramus osteotomy: a comparison of three techniques.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Kwang-Seob; Lee, Young-Joo; Yoon, Youn-Jin; Hong, Soon-Min; Park, Yang-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju; Park, Jun-Woo

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the postoperative stability after bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) for the treatment of mandibular prognathism, in addition to a posterior ostectomy of the distal segment and mandibular angle resection. The present retrospective study included patients with mandibular prognathism who were treated with BSSRO at Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital from July 2007 to July 2011. We assessed the linear changes in the chin position in 17 patients with BSSRO only (control group), 10 with BSSRO and posterior ostectomy of the distal segment (experimental group 1), and 13 with BSSRO and mandibular angle resection (experimental group 2). A cephalogram was taken 2 weeks before surgery and 1 day and 2 months postoperatively. Differences among the groups were determined using 1-way analysis of variance. The demographic and surgical variables were similar among the groups. With regard to the changes observed 1 day to 2 months postoperatively, no statistically significant differences were found; however, the proportion of patients who had highly significant changes (>4 mm) was different. Point B moved forward and upward more than 4 mm in approximately 18% and 12% of patients, respectively, in the control group. However, such movement was not observed in any patient in the experimental group. Less postoperative instability was present in the experimental groups than in the control group. This might have resulted from the reduced tension in the pterygomasseteric sling and the minimized interference between the bony segments. Therefore, improved stability can be obtained regardless of the type of additional procedures. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A contemporary approach for treatment planning of horizontally resorbed alveolar ridge: Ridge split technique with simultaneous implant placement using platelet rich fibrin membrane application in mandibular anterior region.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, Prathahini S; Lakshmi, R Vijaya; Mahendra, Jaideep; Sreekumar, K; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of edentulous sites with horizontal atrophy represents a clinical situation in which the positioning of endosseous implants might be complex or sometimes impossible without a staged regenerative approach. This case report presents management of horizontally deficient mandibular anterior ridge with a contemporary approach to treatment planning and application of platelet-rich fibrin membrane for ridge split technique and simultaneous implant placement. Implants in anterior mandibular area are considered to be most predictable, stable, with high success rate and patients' satisfaction with implant esthetics. In contrast to traditional ridge augmentation techniques, ridge splitting allows for immediate implant placement following surgery and eradicates the possible morbidity from a second surgical site.

  4. Comparative evaluation of depigmentation techniques in split-mouth design with electrocautery and laser

    PubMed Central

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Thangavelu, Arthiie; Alex, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Excessive gingival pigmentation is a major esthetic concern for many people. Melanin pigmentation is known to be caused by melanin granules within the gingival epithelium. Smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. It is not a medical problem, but it feels unesthetic for the patient and particularly in patients having a very high lip/smile line. Depigmentation is not a clinical indication but a treatment of choice where esthetics is a concern and is desired by the patient. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. The present case series describes two simple and effective surgical depigmentation techniques treated with diode laser and electrosurgery. PMID:26538970

  5. Comparison of five different fixation techniques of sagittal split ramus osteotomy using three-dimensional finite elements analysis.

    PubMed

    Sato, F R L; Asprino, L; Noritomi, P Y; da Silva, J V L; de Moraes, M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical stress over hemimandible substrate and hardware after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) fixed with five different techniques using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. A 3D finite element model of a hemimandible was created and a 5mm advancement SSRO was simulated on a computer model. The model was fixed with five different techniques: 3 linear 60° screw arrangement; 3 linear 90° screw arrangement; 3 inverted L screw arrangement; 1 conventional miniplate; and 1 locking miniplate with four monocortical screws. Load was applied until 3mm displacement was reached and the results were compared with previous mechanical and photoelastic tests, thus analysing the mechanical stresses developed in the proximity of miniplates and screws and within the fixation system itself. The maximum principal stress values demonstrate a lower mechanical stress rate in bone and in the fixation system with the inverted L arrangement, followed by the linear 90° and linear 60° arrangements. The locking miniplate/screw system presented lower maximum principal stress and better stress distribution compared with the conventional system. Under the conditions tested, the reversed L arrangement provided the most favourable stress dissipation behaviour. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Built-up terrain wave propagation by Fourier split-step parabolic wave equation-ray optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibert, Thomas F.

    2003-04-01

    Fourier split-step (FSS) solutions of the parabolic wave equation (PWE) represent wave fields in terms of plane wave decompositions. However, those field solutions are usually only valid in the air space above built-up terrain, whereas field predictions for modern wireless systems often require knowledge of the fields on a street level. Since FSS PWE solutions with large step sizes are not applicable for field computations between irregular scattering obstacles such as buildings, this problem is overcome by a two-step approach combining the FSS solution of the PWE with ray optical techniques to compute the fields at ground level in wooded and urbanized areas. To account for the great variety of propagation effects in a statistical sense, direct rays, reflected rays, diffracted rays and attenuated rays at typical receiver locations are included into the considerations. Comparisons to a wide variety of measured data show that this two-step approach produces better results than state of the art semiempirical field prediction techniques.

  7. Esthetic management of developmental enamel opacities in young permanent maxillary incisors with two microabrasion techniques--a split mouth study.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Neha; Garg, Shalini; Damle, Satyawan G; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Opal, Shireen; Gupta, Shivani

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of two microabrasion materials for the removal of developmental enamel opacities in young permanent maxillary incisors. Using a split-mouth study design, 37% phosphoric acid and 18% hydrochloric acid were used for removal of visually unesthetic developmental enamel opacities of young permanent maxillary anterior teeth from 25 subjects (11-13 years old) by two microabrasion techniques for 10 and 5 seconds respectively. This procedure was repeated four to six times during each clinical appointment. The subjects were evaluated about their satisfaction with the treatment. Two blinded evaluators appraised both sides of the mouth using visual analog scale. The records were analyzed using Wilcoxon test. The majority of the subjects (approximately 97%) reported satisfaction at the end of the treatment (p = 0.001**). Statistical significant reduction in enamel opacities was observed by evaluators immediately after microabrasion technique in group 1 (81.75%) and in group 2 (81.4%) (p < 0.002). Reduction was increased to 97.2% in group 1 and 96.7% in group 2 after 1 month. Both microabrasion techniques showed comparative highly significant successful results in esthetic management of enamel opacities clinically and in terms of subject's satisfaction. Developmental enamel defects like diffuse opacities due to high-fluoride content in water and demarcated opacities associated with positive dental history and are commonly seen in young permanent maxillary incisors of both boys and girls in their developing years. They are aware of unesthetic appearance of these newly erupted permanent anterior teeth and become highly motivated when informed about minimally invasive, patient friendly, cost-effective, and safe treatment like microabrasion for esthetic improvement. Both noninvasive microabrasion techniques using 37% phosphoric acid (group 1) and 18% hydrochloric acid (group 2) show comparatively high success results in treating enamel

  8. Analysis of resonant responses of split ring resonators using conformal mapping techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeekin, Scott G.; Khokhar, Ali Z.; Lahiri, Basudev; De La Rue, Richard M.; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2007-05-01

    We report a novel method for modeling the resonant frequency response of infra-red light, in the range of 2 to 10 microns, reflected from metallic spilt ring resonators (SRRs) fabricated on a silicon substrate. The calculated positions of the TM and TE peaks are determined from the plasma frequency associated with the filling fraction of the metal array and the equivalent LC circuit defined by the SRR elements. The capacitance of the equivalent circuit is calculated using conformal mapping techniques to determine the co-planar capacitance associated with both the individual and the neighbouring elements. The inductance of the equivalent circuit is based on the self-inductance of the individual elements and the mutual inductance of the neighboring elements. The results obtained from the method are in good agreement with experimental results and simulation results obtained from a commercial FDTD simulation software package. The method allows the frequency response of a SRR to be readily calculated without complex computational methods and enables new designs to be optimised for a particular frequency response by tuning the LC circuit.

  9. Colloquial Dutch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in colloquial Dutch was originally prepared for use by American Armed Forces personnel who needed to develop a working command of the spoken language in a short period of time. Thirty-one lessons, based on activities common to Dutch culture, are contained in the text. Each lesson provides three parallel columns of sentences: the…

  10. Colloquial Dutch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in colloquial Dutch was originally prepared for use by American Armed Forces personnel who needed to develop a working command of the spoken language in a short period of time. Thirty-one lessons, based on activities common to Dutch culture, are contained in the text. Each lesson provides three parallel columns of sentences: the…

  11. A step-by-step recipe of band-splitting technique for isolation of ionospheric signal in L-band InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, M.; Suzuki, T.; Derauw, D.

    2016-12-01

    Ionospheric signals are widely regarded as nuisance in low-frequency InSAR data, and thus a variety of correction techniques have been proposed. Although band-splitting of range spectrum has been shown to be effective (Brcic et al., 2010; Rosen et al., 2010; Gomba et al., 2015), the band-splitting technique seems to have not yet widely been used. Whereas this would be partly because the impacts of ionosphere on InSAR data are not necessarily serious, depending on each studied data, we consider that this would be also because the details of the technique have not been reproducibly shown. Here we show our step-by-step recipe of the band-splitting technique in two case studies. Firstly, we show some examples of ground deformation mapping at Yamal Peninsula associated with thermo-karst processes, using ALOS2 data. The impacts of ionosphere are often serious at such high-latitude regions, where thermo-karst processes are important. Operational use of the band-splitting technique will be mandatory in such a deformation mapping. One of the key steps is to shift the center frequency of the band-passed SLC to zero (DC) frequency. Also, image registration of slave SLC to master SLC should be separately done at higher and lower frequencies. Secondly, we are going to show the isolation of sporadic-E signals of ionosphere. Sporadic-E event is still one of the enigmatic ionospheric phenomena, whose origins and structure remain elusive. Maeda et al (2016, GRL) reported a detection of sporadic-E signal, using ALOS1 InSAR data and total electron content (TEC) data derived from Japanese nationwide GNSS network. Although Maeda et al (2016) did not employ the band-splitting technique, relying on independent GNSS TEC data, we will show that we can isolate the sporadic-E signals only from the InSAR data.

  12. Evaluation of different screw fixation techniques and screw diameters in sagittal split ramus osteotomy: finite element analysis method.

    PubMed

    Sindel, A; Demiralp, S; Colok, G

    2014-09-01

    Sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) is used for correction of numerous congenital or acquired deformities in facial region. Several techniques have been developed and used to maintain fixation and stabilisation following SSRO application. In this study, the effects of the insertion formations of the bicortical different sized screws to the stresses generated by forces were studied. Three-dimensional finite elements analysis (FEA) and static linear analysis methods were used to investigate difference which would occur in terms of forces effecting onto the screws and transmitted to bone between different application areas. No significant difference was found between 1·5- and 2-mm screws used in SSRO fixation. Besides, it was found that 'inverted L' application was more successful compared to the others and that was followed by 'L' and 'linear' formations which showed close rates to each other. Few studies have investigated the effect of thickness and application areas of bicortical screws. This study was performed on both advanced and regressed jaws positions.

  13. Fan-out routing and optical splitting techniques for compact optical interconnects using single-mode polymer waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Kevin L.; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Polymer waveguide (WG) S-bends are necessary for fan-out routing techniques and optical splitting in high-density optical interconnects. Designing and manufacturing of optimal S-bends are critical for minimizing optical link loss while maintaining overall size and layout constraints. Complete structural loss analysis is demonstrated theoretically and shown experimentally utilizing both radial and transitional loss in single-mode (SM) polymer WG radial arc, cosine, and raised-sine S-bend profiles. SM polymer WG straights were first fabricated to measure standard propagation loss. SM WG S-bends were fabricated incorporating straight lead-in and lead-out sections to incorporate transitional loss present in workable designs. S-bend designs were measured at different dimensions and matched to theoretical losses. Compact cosine and radial arc S-bends exhibited the lowest structure loss for low and high NA WGs, respectively. High-speed performance of SM WG straights and S-bends was measured at 10 Gbit/s demonstrating low error rate. Optical splitters designed with S-bends and tapers were also evaluated and fabricated. Trade-off between optimal loss and minimal device size is discussed. PMID:25892851

  14. Application of split gluteus maximus muscle--adipofascial turnover flap and subcutaneous tension-reducing suture technique in repair of decubitus ulcers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weizhong; Zhou, Zheng; Zhao, Zuojun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the clinical effect of split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap and tension-reducing suture in the treatment of decubitus ulcers. Thirty-one cases of sacrococcygeal decubitus ulcers were repaired by split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap. The surface of flaps ranged from 5×6 cm to 7×8 cm. The skin was then closed, primarily using subcutaneous tension-reducing suture. Eighty-eight percent of the flaps (27 of 31) healed primarily. The split gluteus maximus muscle-adipofascial turnover flap and tension-reducing suture technique was found to be a highly efficient method of repairing decubitus ulcers with a relatively low ratio of recurrence.

  15. Rapid orthodontic treatment after the ridge-splitting technique--a combined surgical-orthodontic approach for implant site development: case report.

    PubMed

    Amato, Francesco; Mirabella, A Davide; Borlizzi, Diego

    2012-08-01

    This article presents a clinical case of bilateral partial edentulism in the posterior mandible with severe horizontal and moderate vertical bone atrophy. A new technique using rapid orthodontics after ridge splitting is presented. The split-crest technique was carried out using piezosurgical instruments in the first molar and second premolar areas to widen the bone crest and open a channel for tooth movement. Immediately after, orthodontic appliances were used to move the first premolars distally and the second molars mesially into the surgical site. The rationale was to facilitate and accelerate orthodontic movement of the teeth, which is otherwise difficult in a cortical knife-edged ridge. The bone defect was filled with the alveolar bone of the adjacent teeth that were moved into the surgically opened path. Adequate bone volume for implant placement was generated in the first premolar area. Implants were then inserted, and the patient was rehabilitated.

  16. Spoken Dutch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in spoken Dutch is intended for use in introductory conversational classes. The book is divided into five major parts, each containing five learning units and one unit devoted to review. Each unit contains sections including (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening comprehension, and (4)…

  17. Determination of Hyperfine Splittings of Biradical Termini by Combining Biradical Trapping and Time-Resolved ESR Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    require accurate triplet splittings. 4 Biradical scavenging was also shown to alter knowledge of hyperfine coupling (HFC) constants and g-factors...serve as an efficient scavenger of the acyl terminus of biradicals such as the one shown in Scheme I. Moreover, the rate constant ŗs 4 "’ for reaction...spectra of radicals ( 4 ) and (6H). produced by In the case of 2-phenyl substituted cyclic ketones (3, St, and scavenging of biradicals generated in the

  18. Reconstruction of the bony chin using sagittal split osteotomies of the remaining mandible - A new technique for a special indication: Case report.

    PubMed

    Hell, Berthold H

    2017-09-01

    There are several indications for resecting the bony chin, such as squamous cell carcinoma, sarcoma, or benign tumors of the jaw such as ameloblastoma. Several techniques for reconstruction of the bony chin, such as the use of metal plates and also revascularized free bone grafts of the iliac crest, fibula, or scapula, are common. In the case of poor vascular supply, however, alternative techniques may be necessary. In this report, a new technique is described using pedicled bone flaps from both sagittally split mandibular stumps following chin resection. These flaps were pedicled on the mylohyoid muscles and advanced to restore the continuity of the mandible. An advantage of this procedure was minimization of the soft tissue defect, making repair easier. Morbidity of the resection and reconstruction was thus reduced, and recovery of the patient was very quick. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Meshless Method with Operator Splitting Technique for Transient Nonlinear Bioheat Transfer in Two-Dimensional Skin Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ze-Wei; Wang, Hui; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    A meshless numerical scheme combining the operator splitting method (OSM), the radial basis function (RBF) interpolation, and the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) is developed for solving transient nonlinear bioheat problems in two-dimensional (2D) skin tissues. In the numerical scheme, the nonlinearity caused by linear and exponential relationships of temperature-dependent blood perfusion rate (TDBPR) is taken into consideration. In the analysis, the OSM is used first to separate the Laplacian operator and the nonlinear source term, and then the second-order time-stepping schemes are employed for approximating two splitting operators to convert the original governing equation into a linear nonhomogeneous Helmholtz-type governing equation (NHGE) at each time step. Subsequently, the RBF interpolation and the MFS involving the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation are respectively employed to obtain approximated particular and homogeneous solutions of the nonhomogeneous Helmholtz-type governing equation. Finally, the full fields consisting of the particular and homogeneous solutions are enforced to fit the NHGE at interpolation points and the boundary conditions at boundary collocations for determining unknowns at each time step. The proposed method is verified by comparison of other methods. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the coefficients in the cases of a linear and an exponential relationship of TDBPR is investigated to reveal their bioheat effect on the skin tissue. PMID:25603180

  20. Meshless method with operator splitting technique for transient nonlinear bioheat transfer in two-dimensional skin tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ze-Wei; Wang, Hui; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2015-01-16

    A meshless numerical scheme combining the operator splitting method (OSM), the radial basis function (RBF) interpolation, and the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) is developed for solving transient nonlinear bioheat problems in two-dimensional (2D) skin tissues. In the numerical scheme, the nonlinearity caused by linear and exponential relationships of temperature-dependent blood perfusion rate (TDBPR) is taken into consideration. In the analysis, the OSM is used first to separate the Laplacian operator and the nonlinear source term, and then the second-order time-stepping schemes are employed for approximating two splitting operators to convert the original governing equation into a linear nonhomogeneous Helmholtz-type governing equation (NHGE) at each time step. Subsequently, the RBF interpolation and the MFS involving the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation are respectively employed to obtain approximated particular and homogeneous solutions of the nonhomogeneous Helmholtz-type governing equation. Finally, the full fields consisting of the particular and homogeneous solutions are enforced to fit the NHGE at interpolation points and the boundary conditions at boundary collocations for determining unknowns at each time step. The proposed method is verified by comparison of other methods. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the coefficients in the cases of a linear and an exponential relationship of TDBPR is investigated to reveal their bioheat effect on the skin tissue.

  1. Monte Carlo Simulation of Characteristic Secondary Fluorescence in Electron Probe Microanalysis of Homogeneous Samples Using the Splitting Technique.

    PubMed

    Petaccia, Mauricio; Segui, Silvina; Castellano, Gustavo

    2015-06-01

    Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) is based on the comparison of characteristic intensities induced by monoenergetic electrons. When the electron beam ionizes inner atomic shells and these ionizations cause the emission of characteristic X-rays, secondary fluorescence can occur, originating from ionizations induced by X-ray photons produced by the primary electron interactions. As detectors are unable to distinguish the origin of these characteristic X-rays, Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport becomes a determinant tool in the study of this fluorescence enhancement. In this work, characteristic secondary fluorescence enhancement in EPMA has been studied by using the splitting routines offered by PENELOPE 2008 as a variance reduction alternative. This approach is controlled by a single parameter NSPLIT, which represents the desired number of X-ray photon replicas. The dependence of the uncertainties associated with secondary intensities on NSPLIT was studied as a function of the accelerating voltage and the sample composition in a simple binary alloy in which this effect becomes relevant. The achieved efficiencies for the simulated secondary intensities bear a remarkable improvement when increasing the NSPLIT parameter; although in most cases an NSPLIT value of 100 is sufficient, some less likely enhancements may require stronger splitting in order to increase the efficiency associated with the simulation of secondary intensities.

  2. Synthesis of oxynitride materials for solar water splitting: investigations with ambient pressure and high pressure synthesis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmagunawardhane, Hingure Arachchilage Naveen

    Solar water splitting, a photocatalytic process where water is directly split into hydrogen and oxygen using sunlight absorbing semiconductor materials, is one of the most sought after methods to make hydrogen economy a reality. Oxynitrides containing d0 and d10 cations tend to have the appropriate band structure required for solar water splitting. So far, reported efficiencies are not high enough for practical use and synthesizing an oxynitride showing high enough efficiency remains necessary. In this dissertation, we discuss the synthesis of oxynitrides and studying their optical and photocatalytic properties with a particular emphasis on utilizing exploratory high pressure synthesis. High pressure synthesis is an interesting route to synthesize oxynitrides as this can stabilize reactants that tend to decompose at ambient pressure, helping to achieve the intended stoichiometry. For synthesis, we selected candidate compositions from published theoretical studies. Reactions were carried out at pressures around 1-3 GPa and at temperatures up to 1300°C in a multi-anvil large volume press. Phase changes were observed with in situ X-ray scattering. In these experiments, we found that most d0 and d10 cations tend to reduce in the high pressure reaction environment as temperature increases, but Zr4+, Hf4+ , and Ta5+ tend to retain their oxidation state. This information will be helpful in future theoretical studies to accurately predict stable oxynitrides synthesizable at high pressure. We synthesized (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid solution in the entire composition range at 1 GPa, 1150°C. The material showed photocatalytic H2 evolution activity even without surface modification with co catalysts, first such observed for this system. The minimum band gap of 2.65 eV and the highest H2 evolution activity of 2.31 mumol/h were observed at x = 0.51. On our initial investigation on the synthesis of gallium oxynitride spinel (Ga3O3N3) at high pressure, we found that the material could

  3. Changes of the Airway Space and the Position of Hyoid Bone after Mandibular Set Back Surgery Using Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Keun; Yoon, Ji-Eun; Cho, Jung-Won; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Sun-Jong; Kim, Myung-Rae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although there have been several studies of reduced airway space after mandibular setback surgery using the sagittal split ramus osteotomy technique, research on the risk factors for changes of the airway space is lacking. Therefore, this study was performed to examine airway changes and the position of the hyoid bone after orthognathic surgery, and to assess possible risk factors. Methods: In this retrospective study, 50 patients who underwent posterior displacement of the mandible by the bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy technique were included. Changes of the position of the hyoid bone and the airway space were analyzed over various follow-up periods, using cephalometric radiography taken preoperatively, immediately after surgery, eight weeks after surgery, six months after surgery, and one year after surgery. To identify risk factors, multiple regression analysis of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), posterior mandibular movement, and the presence of genioplasty was performed. Results: Inferor and posterior movement of the hyoid bone was observed postoperatively, but subsequent observations showed regression towards the anterosuperior aspect. The airway space also significantly decreased after surgery (P <0.05), and increased slightly up until six months after surgery. The airway space significantly decreased (β=0.47, P <0.01) as the amount of mandibular setback increased. However, age, sex, BMI, and presence of genioplasty were not associated with airway reduction. Conclusion: The amount of mandibular set back was significantly associated with postoperative reduction of airway space. It is necessary to establish a treatment plan considering this factor. PMID:27489832

  4. Influence of core design, production technique, and material selection on fracture behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal fixed dental prostheses produced using different multilayer techniques: split-file, over-pressing, and manually built-up veneers.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Deyar Jallal Hadi; Linderoth, Ewa H; Wennerberg, Ann; Vult Von Steyern, Per

    2016-01-01

    To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores. A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1-7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8-11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the core designs, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS(®) (1,806±165 N) and e.max(®) ZirPress (1,854±115 N) and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM(®) 9 (1,849±150 N) demonstrated the highest mean fracture values. The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed cores. All veneering materials and techniques tested in the study, split-file, over-press, built-up porcelains, and glass-ceramics are, with a great safety margin, sufficient for clinical use both anteriorly and posteriorly. Analysis of

  5. Influence of core design, production technique, and material selection on fracture behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal fixed dental prostheses produced using different multilayer techniques: split-file, over-pressing, and manually built-up veneers

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Deyar Jallal Hadi; Linderoth, Ewa H; Wennerberg, Ann; Vult Von Steyern, Per

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores. Materials and methods A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1–7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8–11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture. Results There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the core designs, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS® (1,806±165 N) and e.max® ZirPress (1,854±115 N) and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM® 9 (1,849±150 N) demonstrated the highest mean fracture values. Conclusion The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed cores. All veneering materials and techniques tested in the study, split-file, over-press, built-up porcelains, and glass–ceramics are, with a great safety margin, sufficient for clinical use

  6. Dutch audiology.

    PubMed

    Grobben, L M; van Ligtenberg, C L

    1977-01-01

    In the Netherlands audiological care is given at different stages. An attempt is made to screen the hearing of all Dutch babies between the ages of 8 and 12 months. At the age of 4 or over, general audiological care is given by the school medical service; referral is first to a family doctor, who may refer to an otolaryngologist. Curative medical care (examination and therapy) is the province of the family doctor and the otolaryngologist. Otolaryngologists and pediatricians can refer patients to one of 19 Audiological Centers distributed around the country, where a number of workers in different disciplines cooperate for habilitation and rehabilitation. These may include an otolaryngologist in charge, a psychologist, a speech and hearing therapist, an audiologist (usually a physicist or university-trained engineer), social worker, technician, ortho-pedagogue, audiology assistant, and teacher. There are at the moment 25 schools for the hard of hearing and 5 institutes for the deaf. These are often found in conjunction with Audiological Centers, the latter providing paramedical assistance to the pupils by agreement. Finally, the Dutch Organization for Preventive Medicine works to prevent hearing loss in noisy industries.

  7. Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Belmon, Laura S; Middelweerd, Anouk; Te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2015-11-12

    Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. This study aimed to explore young adults' opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants' gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: "goal setting and goal reviewing," "feedback and self-monitoring," and "social support and social comparison." Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase "goal setting and goal reviewing" and "feedback and self-monitoring," but not for BCTs addressing "social support and social comparison." Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality characteristics and BCTs were observed: "agreeableness" was related to

  8. Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belmon, Laura S; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. Objective This study aimed to explore young adults’ opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants’ gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: “goal setting and goal reviewing,” “feedback and self-monitoring,” and “social support and social comparison.” Results Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase “goal setting and goal reviewing” and “feedback and self-monitoring,” but not for BCTs addressing “social support and social comparison.” Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality

  9. Crack initiation at high loading rates applying the four-point bending split Hopkinson pressure bar technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henschel, Sebastian; Krüger, Lutz

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic crack initiation with crack-tip loading rates of K˙ ≈ 2.106MPa√ms-1 in a high strength G42CrMoS4 steel was investigated. To this end, a previously developed split Hopkinson pressure bar with four-point bending was utilised. V-notched and pre-cracked Charpy specimens were tested. The detection of dynamic crack initiation was performed by analysing the dynamic force equilibrium between the incident and the transmission bar. Additionally, the signal of a near-field strain gauge and high-speed photography were used to determine the instant of crack initiation. To account for vibrations of the sample, a dynamic analysis of the stress intensity factor was performed. The dynamic and static analyses of the tests produced nearly the same results when a force equilibrium was achieved. Fracture-surface analysis revealed that elongated MnS inclusions strongly affected both the dynamic crack initiation and growth. Blunting of the precrack did not take place when a group of MnS inclusions was located directly at the precrack tip. Due to the direction of the elongated MnS inclusions perpendicular to the direction of crack growth, the crack could be deflected. The comparison with a 42CrMo4 steel without elongated MnS inclusions revealed the detrimental effect in terms of resistance to crack initiation. Taking the loading-rate dependency into consideration, it was shown that there was no pronounced embrittlement due to the high loading rates.

  10. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  11. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  12. Revisiting the Dutch hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Postma, Dirkje S; Weiss, Scott T; van den Berge, Maarten; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Koppelman, Gerard H

    2015-09-01

    The Dutch hypothesis was first articulated in 1961, when many novel and advanced scientific techniques were not available, such as genomics techniques for pinpointing genes, gene expression, lipid and protein profiles, and the microbiome. In addition, computed tomographic scans and advanced analysis techniques to dissect (small) airways disease and emphysema were not available. At that time, the group of researchers under the visionary guidance of Professor N. G. M. Orie put forward that both genetic and environmental factors can determine whether one would have airway obstructive diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Moreover, they stipulated that the phenotype of obstructive airway disease could be affected by sex and changes with aging. Orie and colleagues' call to carefully phenotype patients with obstructive airways diseases has been adopted by many current researchers in an attempt to determine the heterogeneity of both asthma and COPD to better define these diseases and optimize their treatment. The founders of the Dutch hypothesis were far ahead of their time, and we can learn from their insights. We should fully characterize all patients in our clinical practice and not just state that they have asthma, COPD, or asthma and COPD overlap syndrome. This detailed phenotyping can help in understanding these obstructive airway diseases and provide guidance for disease management.

  13. A new submerged split-thickness skin graft technique to rebuild peri-implant keratinized soft tissue in composite flap reconstructed mandible or maxilla.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Ma, Wei; Ma, Wei-guang; Li, De-hua; Liu, Bao-lin

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce our preliminary experience on a submerged split-thickness skin graft (STSG) technique combined with secondary vestibuloplasty to rebuild keratinized peri-implant soft tissue and oral vestibule for patients with large oromandibular defects reconstructed by composite flaps. Five patients were enrolled in this study. Stage 1 was submerged STSG and simultaneous implant placement. Stage 2 was the uncovering of the STSG and vestibuloplasty. The implant-borne fixed denture was inserted after this 2-stage treatment. All patients were followed for at least 12 months (average 18 months). Eighteen implants were placed. The rebuilt peri-implant keratinized soft tissue was healthy clinically. The STSG graft had firm adherence to the underlying periosteum. The vestibule had adequate depth to maintain local hygiene. All implants were osseointegrated and all implant-borne prostheses were functioning well. Submerged STSG technique combined with secondary vestibuloplasty may become a feasible and effective solution to rebuild keratinized soft tissue before dental implant restoration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibiotic prophylaxis in third molar surgery: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial using split-mouth technique.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, A; Morkel, J A; Zafar, S

    2010-02-01

    The use of prophylactic antibiotics to reduce postoperative complications in third molar surgery remains controversial. The study was a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 100 patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Each patient acted as their own control using the split-mouth technique. Two unilateral impacted third molars were removed under antibiotic cover and the other two were removed without antibiotic cover. The first group received antibiotics on the first surgical visit. On the second surgical visit (after 3 weeks), placebo capsules were given or vice versa. The second group received antibiotics with continued therapy for 2 days on the first surgical visit and on the second surgical visit (after 3 weeks) placebo capsules were given or vice versa. Pain, swelling, infection, trismus and temperature were recorded on days 3, 7 and 14 after surgery. Of 380 impactions, 6 sockets (2%) became infected. There was no statistically significant difference in the infection rate, pain, swelling, trismus, and temperature between the two groups (p>0.05). Results of the study showed that prophylactic antibiotics did not have a statistically significant effect on postoperative infections in third molar surgery and should not be routinely administered when third molars are removed in non-immunocompromised patients.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Study Comparing Efficacy of Classical and Gow-Gates Technique for Providing Anesthesia During Surgical Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molar: A Split Mouth Design.

    PubMed

    Madan, Nanjappa; Shashidhara Kamath, Kateel; Gopinath, A L; Yashvanth, A; Vaibhav, Nagaraj; Praveen, G

    2017-06-01

    Reliable profound mandibular block anesthesia is questionable when depositing the anesthetic solution at the lingula. The Gow-Gates technique is an useful alternative to the classical inferior alveolar nerve block and the incidence of unsuccessful anesthesia may be as high as classical technique. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical efficacy, degree of patient acceptability, advantages, disadvantages and limitations of the classical and Gow-Gates techniques for providing anesthesia in patients undergoing bilateral symmetrical surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar under local anesthesia. The split mouth design study was conducted on 100 patients aged between 20 to 40 years undergoing surgical removal of bilateral symmetrical impacted mandibular third molar performed by the same maxillofacial surgeon. 2 ml of 2 % lignocaine hydrochloride with 1:80,000 adrenaline was used as a standard local anesthetic solution in all the cases. By using four-digit numbers from a random number table, either Gow-Gates or classical inferior alveolar nerve block were randomly assigned to either left or right sides in each patient. The injections were administered by another surgeon who was blinded to the experiment. The patient was assessed for Pain experienced during injection, frequency of positive aspirations, Onset and duration of anesthesia and Nerves anesthetized. Results were statistically analyzed by Mann-Whitney and chi square test. A 'P' value of less than 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Higher mean pain during injection was recorded in classical group, was found to be statistically significant. No significant association was observed between aspiration and the groups. Higher mean onset of anesthesia was recorded in Gow-gates group, was found to be statistically significant. Higher mean duration of anesthesia was recorded in Gow-gates group, was not statistically significant. Higher success rate was recorded in Gow-gates group and

  16. A rapid tattoo removal technique using a combination of pulsed Er:YAG and Q-Switched Nd:YAG in a split lesion protocol.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Kochhar, Atul M; Mahajan, Khushbu Goel; Garg, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Tattoo removal has evolved over the years and though Q-switched laser is the 'workhorse' laser, it invariably requires multiple sittings, which are dependent on numerous factors, including the skin colour, location of the tattoo, age of the tattoo, colour of pigment used, associated fibrosis and the kind of tattoo treated. Though ablative lasers, both pulsed CO2 and Er:YAG, have been used for recalcitrant tattoos, very few studies have been done comparing them with pigment-specific lasers. Our study was based on the premise that ablating the epidermis overlying the tattoo pigment with Er:YAG could help in gaining better access to the pigment which would enable the Q-switched laser to work effectively with less beam scattering. A study of rapid tattoo removal (RTR) technique using a combination of pulsed Er:YAG and Q-Switched Nd:YAG in a split lesion protocol. This prospective study was undertaken during 2010-13 at a laser Clinic in the Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. A total of 10 patients were recruited, 5 of amateur tattoo and 5 of professional tattoo. After informed consent each tattoo was arbitrarily 'split' into two parts. One part was treated with QS Nd:YAG laser(1064 nm) and the other part with Er:YAG laser immediately followed by the QS Nd:YAG. The laser treatments were repeated at 6-week intervals until the tattoo pigment had cleared. On the combination side in subsequent sittings only the QS Nd:YAG was used, to minimize repetitive ablation. To ensure consistency in the intervention methods a trained dermatologist who was independent of the treatment delivery randomly rated 10% of the procedures. The mean improvement achieved by the Q-switched laser (2.93) was less than the combination laser (3.85) side (p = 0.001) and needed more sessions (3.8 vs. 1.6; p = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the improvement on the combination side till the second session. On the combination side patients required a maximum of 2 sessions

  17. Split-dose technique for FDG PET/CT-guided percutaneous ablation: a method to facilitate lesion targeting and to provide immediate assessment of treatment effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E Ronan; Sofocleous, Constantinos T; Schöder, Heiko; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Nehmeh, Sadek; Larson, Steven M; Thornton, Raymond; Siegelbaum, Robert H; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Solomon, Stephen B

    2013-07-01

    To describe a split-dose technique for fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-guided ablation that permits both target localization and evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Institutional review board approved the study with a waiver of consent. From July to December 2011, 23 patients (13 women, 10 men; mean age, 59 years; range, 35-87 years) with 29 FDG-avid tumors (median size, 1.4 cm; range, 0.6-4.4 cm) were targeted for ablation. The location of the lesion was the liver (n = 23), lung (n = 4), adrenal gland (n = 1), and thigh (n = 1). Radiofrequency ablation was performed in 17 lesions; microwave ablation, in six; irreversible electroporation, in five; and cryoablation, in one. The pathologic condition of the tumor was metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma in 18 lesions, primary hepatocellular carcinoma in one lesion, and a variety of metastatic tumors in the remaining 10 lesions. A total of 4 mCi (148 MBq) of FDG was administered before the procedure for localization and imaging guidance. At completion of the ablation, an additional 8 mCi (296 MBq) of FDG was administered to assess ablation adequacy. Results of subsequent imaging follow-up were used to determine if postablation imaging after the second dose of FDG reliably helped predict complete tumor ablation. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the results. Twenty-eight of 29 (97%) ablated lesions showed no residual FDG activity after the second intraprocedural FDG dose. One patient with residual activity underwent immediate biopsy that revealed residual viable tumor and was immediately re-treated. Follow-up imaging at a median of 155 days (range, 92-257 days) after ablation showed local recurrences in two (7%) lesions that were originally negative at postablation PET. Split-dose FDG PET/CT may be a useful tool to provide both guidance and endpoint evaluation, allowing an opportunity for repeat intervention if necessary. Further work is

  18. Dutch surgery in Japan.

    PubMed

    van Gulik, Thomas M; Nimura, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of Nagasaki, called Decima. Western culture and science reached the Japanese exclusively through the Dutch on Decima. Health care on Decima was provided by Dutch barber-surgeons, who introduced Western surgical practice in Japan. Official interpreters were the only Japanese allowed on Decima. It was from among these interpreters that the first Japanese surgeons arose who, having mastered the Dutch language, translated several Dutch anatomic and surgical texts. Genpaku Sugita translated a Dutch anatomy textbook into Japanese, which was completed in 1774. This book, entitled Kaitai Shinsho [New Book on Anatomy], was the first Western scientific monograph to be translated entirely into Japanese. Several Dutch surgical schools were founded through which Dutch surgery, known in Japan as "surgery of the red-haired" was propagated. According to the custom of the surgical guilds in Holland, certificates were granted to Japanese apprentices who had completed their training in Dutch surgery. About 60 Dutch surgeons had served on Decima up to 1850, providing the basis for surgery to develop in Japan. Among them, Philipp Franz von Siebold was an exceptional scholar who also had a great impact in making Japanese culture known to the Western world.

  19. Pain related to robotic cholecystectomy with lower abdominal ports: effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique of rectus sheath block in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Choi, Jong Bum; Lee, Sook Young; Kim, Wook Hwan; Baek, Nam Hyun; Kim, Jayoun; Park, Chu Kyung; Lee, Yeon Ju; Park, Sung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Robotic cholecystectomy (RC) using port sites in the lower abdominal area (T12-L1) rather than the upper abdomen has recently been introduced as an alternative procedure for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Therefore, we investigated the time course of different components of pain and the analgesic effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique for rectus sheath block (sRSB) after RC in female patients. Methods: We randomly assigned 40 patients to undergo ultrasound-guided sRSB (RSB group, n = 20) or to not undergo any block (control group, n = 20). Pain was subdivided into 3 components: superficial wound pain, deep abdominal pain, and referred shoulder pain, which were evaluated with a numeric rating scale (from 0 to 10) at baseline (time of awakening) and at 1, 6, 9, and 24 hours postoperatively. Consumption of fentanyl and general satisfaction were also evaluated 1 hour (before discharge from the postanesthesia care unit) and 24 hours postoperatively (end of study). Results: Superficial wound pain was predominant only at awakening, and after postoperative 1 hour in the control group. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB significantly decreased superficial pain after RC (P < 0.01) and resulted in a better satisfaction score (P < 0.05) 1 hour after RC in the RSB group compared with the control group. The cumulative postoperative consumption of fentanyl at 6, 9, and 24 hours was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions: After RC with lower abdominal ports, superficial wound pain predominates over deep intra-abdominal pain and shoulder pain only at the time of awakening. Afterwards, superficial and deep pain decreased to insignificant levels in 6 hours. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB was effective only during the first hour. This limited benefit should be balanced against the time and risks entailed in performing RSB. PMID:27495072

  20. A direct comparison of onabotulinumtoxina (Botox) and IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm: a split-face technique.

    PubMed

    Saad, Julien; Gourdeau, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is characterized by progressive involuntary contractions of the protractor muscles, sometimes leading to a debilitating closure of the lids. It is currently treated with the injection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A). The purpose of this study was to compare 2 BoNT/A preparations (i.e., Xeomin and Botox) in the treatment of BEB. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded split-face technique in 48 patients already treated by Botox for BEB. Patients received the same medication to either side of the face for 4 injections, and were then evaluated using subjective and objective measures. Blepharospasm Disability Index (BSDI) and Jankovic Rating Scale (JRS) were assessed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t test. Patient preference and objective comparison of residual orbicularis strength and spasm were compared using a multinomial logistic regression model, a repeated-measures ANOVA, and a paired t test. A paired t test showed no preference between Xeomin and Botox (P = 0.7205) and demonstrated a tendency toward not having a preference for either medication (P = 0.0301 vs Botox and P = 0.0039 vs Xeomin). The regression model showed no effect of time on patient preference (P = 0.4217). The ANOVA for BSDI scores did not reveal any difference between the 2 medications as compared with baseline (P = 0.8161), nor did it demonstrate an effect of time on BSDI scores (P = 0.6108). A paired t test found no difference between the 2 scores (P = 0.1909) at baseline. There was no difference in JRS scores for either medication when compared with baseline (P = 0.2314), nor was there an effect of time on such scores (P = 0.4951). There was also no difference between the 2 medications according to paired t test (P = 0.3224) at baseline. Baseline residual orbicularis strength was similar between the 2 medications (paired t test; P = 0.3228). ANOVA shows an effect of time on orbicularis strength (P = 0

  1. Dutch elm disease

    Treesearch

    James W. Walters

    1992-01-01

    Since its discovery in the United States in 1930, Dutch elm disease has killed thousands of native elms. The three native elms, American, slippery, and rock, have little or no resistance to Dutch elm disease, but individual trees within each species vary in susceptibility to the disease. The most important of these, American elm, is scattered in upland stands but is...

  2. Constructing splits graphs.

    PubMed

    Dress, Andreas W M; Huson, Daniel H

    2004-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees correspond one-to-one to compatible systems of splits and so splits play an important role in theoretical and computational aspects of phylogeny. Whereas any tree reconstruction method can be thought of as producing a compatible system of splits, an increasing number of phylogenetic algorithms are available that compute split systems that are not necessarily compatible and, thus, cannot always be represented by a tree. Such methods include the split decomposition, Neighbor-Net, consensus networks, and the Z-closure method. A more general split system of this kind can be represented graphically by a so-called splits graph, which generalizes the concept of a phylogenetic tree. This paper addresses the problem of computing a splits graph for a given set of splits. We have implemented all presented algorithms in a new program called SplitsTree4.

  3. In-orbit performance of the ITOS improved attitude control system with Hall generator brushless motor and earth-splitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), launched ITOS-D with an improved attitude control system. A Hall generator brushless dc torque motor replaced the brush dc torque motor on Tiros-M and ITOS-A. Two CO2 attitude horizon sensors and one mirror replaced the four wideband horizon sensors and two mirrors on ITOS-1 and NOAA-1. Redundant pitch-control electronic boxes containing additional electronic circuitry for earth-splitting and brushless motor electronics were used. A method of generating a spacecraft earth-facing side reference for comparison to the time occurrence of the earth-splitting pulse was used to automatically correct pitch-attitude error. A single rotating flywheel, supported by a single bearing, provided gyroscopic stability and the required momentum interchange to keep one side of the satellite facing the earth. Magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field eliminated the requirement for expendable propellants which would limit satellite life in orbit.

  4. Thermocouple split follower

    DOEpatents

    Howell, deceased, Louis J.

    1980-01-01

    Thermoelectric generator assembly accommodating differential thermal expansion between thermoelectric elements by means of a cylindrical split follower forming a slot and having internal spring loaded wedges that permit the split follower to open and close across the slot.

  5. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.

    PubMed

    Steenen, S A; Becking, A G

    2016-07-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches.

  6. A New Dutch Spelling Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruyt, J. G.; van Sterkenburg, P. G. J.

    This paper describes the development of two new corpus-based Dutch spelling guides using language data gathered by the Institute for Dutch Lexicology, a research institute subsidized by the Dutch and Belgian governments. The guides were produced in 1990 and 1995. The guides are based on two earlier ones, published in 1866 and 1954, but attempt to…

  7. Methodology investigations for shear wave splitting analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fansheng

    Over the past several decades, shear wave splitting analyses have been increasingly utilized to delineate mantle structure and probe mantle dynamics. However, the reported splitting parameters (fast polarization orientations and splitting times) are frequently inconsistent among different studies, partially due to the different techniques used to estimate the splitting parameters. Here the study conduct research on methodology investigations for shear wave splitting analysis, which are composed of two sub-topics, i.e., a systematic comparison of the transverse minimization (TM) and the splitting intensity (SI) techniques and applicability of the multiple-event stacking technique (MES). Numerical experiments are conducted using both synthetic and observed data. In addition, crustal anisotropy beneath 71 broadband seismic stations situated at the eastern Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas is investigated based on the sinusoidal moveout of P-to-S conversions from the Moho and an intra-crustal discontinuity with an average splitting time of 0.39 +/- 0.19 s and dominantly fracture-parallel fast orientations. The crustal anisotropy measurements support the existences of mid/lower crustal flow in the southern Songpan-Ganzi Terrane and crustal shortening deformation beneath the Longmenshan fault zone.

  8. A split-mouth randomized clinical trial to evaluate the performance of piezosurgery compared with traditional technique in lower wisdom tooth removal.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Edoardo; Arduino, Paolo Giacomo; Schierano, Gianmario; Ferrero, Luca; Gallesio, Giorgia; Mozzati, Marco; Russo, Andrea; Scully, Crispian; Carossa, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    The surgical removal of mandibular third molars is frequently accompanied by significant postsurgical sequelae, and different protocols have been described to decrease such adverse events. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of piezosurgery compared with traditional rotating instruments during mandibular third molar removal. A single-center, randomized, split-mouth study was performed using a consecutive series of unrelated healthy patients attending the Oral Surgery Unit of the University of Turin for surgical removal of bilateral mandibular third molar teeth. Each patient was treated, at the same appointment, using bur removal on 1 side of the mandible and a piezoelectric device on the contralateral side. The primary outcomes reported were postoperative pain, objective orofacial swelling, and surgical duration; secondary outcomes were gender, age, and possible adverse events. Analysis of variance or paired t test was used as appropriate to test any significant differences at baseline according to each treatment subgroup, and categorical variables were analyzed by χ(2) test. The study sample consisted of 100 otherwise healthy patients. The mean pain evaluation reported by patients who underwent surgery with piezosurgery was significantly lower than that reported after bur (conventional) removal, reaching statistical difference after 4 days (P = .043). The clinical value of orofacial swelling at day 7, normalized to baseline, was lower in the piezosurgery group (P < .005). The average surgical duration was significantly shorter in the bur group than in the piezosurgery group (P < .05). Three patients having bur removal developed short-term complications (2 dry sockets and 1 temporary paraesthesia), which totally resolved by 4 weeks. To date, this prospective investigation is the largest reported split-mouth study on piezosurgery for lower third molar tooth removal. This study also compared surgeons with different degrees

  9. Field by field hybrid upwind splitting methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coquel, Frederic; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1993-01-01

    A new and general approach to upwind splitting is presented. The design principle combines the robustness of flux vector splitting schemes in the capture of nonlinear waves and the accuracy of some flux difference splitting schemes in the resolution of linear waves. The new schemes are derived following a general hybridization technique performed directly at the basic level of the field by field decomposition involved in FDS methods. The scheme does not use a spatial switch to be tuned up according to the local smoothness of the approximate solution.

  10. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    SciTech Connect

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Buljan, Marina

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  11. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Buljan, Marina; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone

    2014-09-01

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  12. Results in split liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Meneu, J C; Moreno, E; Garcia, I; Loinaz, C; Jimenez, C; Gómez, R; Abradelo, M; Calvo, J; Fundora, Y; Ortiz, C

    2003-08-01

    The shortage in cadaveric grafts has prompted the development of alternative surgical techniques to expand the donor pool. To evaluate the feasibility of split liver transplantation using an observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study. Between April 1986 and October 2002 we performed 875 liver transplants. From April 1991 to date, we performed 18 split liver transplantations in patients of mean age 42.27+/-25.65 years; five children and 13 adults; and 83.3% women. Urgent transplants accounted for 38.9%. Mean patient weight was 52.29+/-20.87 kg. Ex situ splitting was performed in 33%. The mean cold ischemia time was 460+/-265.69 minutes with a mean warm time of 64.33+/-11.78 minutes. Mean consumption of packed blood was 5.59+/-4.87 units; of frozen fresh plasma, 11.56+/-7.42 units; and of platelets 4.89+/-4.99 units. After a mean follow-up of 10.83+/-12.51 months, 55.56% of the recipients are alive. Actuarial patient and graft survival rates at 1 year are 55.6% and 44.12%, respectively. Actuarial patient and graft survival rates at 1 year, excluding operative mortality were 77% and 68%, respectively. Actuarial patient and graft survival rates at 1 year, comparing urgent and elective transplantations are: 14.29 and 14%, respectively, for urgent cases and 90.91 and 90% for elective ones. Operative mortality was 16.6% while mortality during follow-up was 26.6%. The late complications included arterial thrombosis (n=2): of whom the first needed liver retransplantation 4 months after split liver transplantation; chronic rejection (n=2), recurrence of hepatitis (n=1). Split liver transplantation is a useful way to expand the graft pool and shows better results in elective liver transplantation.

  13. Unequal-Split Strip-Line Power Divider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Simple technique for designing strip-line or microstrip power dividers can be used for unequal, but inphase power split. Technique allows power splits ranging from equal to as large as required, with advantage of using same line impedances and line spacings for all splits. Output power ratio is determined by selecting location of input port in manner analogous to tap point for electric-power transformer.

  14. Dutch perfusion incident survey.

    PubMed

    Groenenberg, Ingrid; Weerwind, Patrick W; Everts, Peter A M; Maessen, Jos G

    2010-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass procedures remain complex, involving many potential risks. Therefore, a nationwide retrospective study was conducted to gain insight into the number of incidents and accidents in Dutch adult perfusion practice. An anonymous postal survey (85 questions about hardware, disposables, fluids and medication, air emboli, anticoagulation, practice, and safety measures) was sent to all Dutch perfusionists involved in adult cardiovascular perfusion during 2006 and 2007. To guarantee complete anonymity, respondents were asked to return the survey to a notary who discarded personal information. The net response rate was 72% and covered 23,500 perfusions. Individual respondents performed 240 ± 103 perfusions during the 2-year study period and had 13.8 ± 8.7 years of practical experience. The incident rate was 1 per 15.6 perfusions and the adverse event rate was 1 per 1,236 perfusions. The three most reported incidents were: (1) persistent inability to raise the activated coagulation time above 400s during perfusion (184 incidents); (2) an allergic or anaphylactic reaction to drugs, fluids, or blood products (114 incidents); and (3) clotting formation in the extracorporeal circuit (74 incidents). Furthermore, pre-bypass safety measures showed no statistically significant association with the reported incidents. In comparison with data from the recent literature, the reported number of incidents is high. Nevertheless, the adverse outcome rate is well matched to other published surveys. The relatively high response rate conveys the impression that the Dutch perfusionist is vigilant and willing to report incidents. Hence, a web-based Dutch perfusion incident registration system is recommended.

  15. The Plate-Joystick technique to reduce proximal humeral fractures and nonunions with a varus deformity through the extended deltoid-splitting approach.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C Michael; Inman, Dominic; Phillips, Sally-Anne

    2011-10-01

    Fractures and nonunions in which there is a varus deformity of the humeral head producing posterinferior subluxation of the articular surface are increasingly recognized as an important subgroup of proximal humeral fractures. Operative open reduction and internal fixation of these injuries is often recommended when the varus deformity is severe. We describe a simple technique to assist in the open reduction and locking plate stabilization of this challenging and complex fracture subtype using tools and implants that are readily available in most modern orthopaedic trauma operating rooms.

  16. Dutch euthanasia revisited.

    PubMed

    Fenigsen, R

    1997-01-01

    The results of a follow-up study of euthanasia by the Dutch government, five years after the first study, were published on November 26, 1996. This article provides a detailed review of the two reports comparing and contrasting the statistics cited therein. The author notes that the "rules of careful conduct" proposed by the courts and by the Royal Dutch Society of Medicine were frequently disregarded. Special topics included for the first time in the second study were the notification and non-prosecution procedure, euthanasia of newborns and infants, and assisted suicide in psychiatric practice. The authors of the follow-up report state that it would be desirable to reduce the number of "terminations of life without patients' request," but this must be the common responsibility of the doctor and the patient. They suggest that the person who does not wish to have his life terminated should declare this clearly, in advance, verbally and in writing, preferably in the form of a living will. Involuntary euthanasia was rampant in 1990 and equally rampant in 1995. The author concludes that Dutch doctors who practice euthanasia are not on the slippery slope. From the very beginning, they have been at the bottom.

  17. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of cancers of the head and neck: Comparison of split-field and whole-field techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dabaja, Bouthaina; Salehpour, Mohammad R.; Rosen, Isaac; Tung, Sam; Morrison, William H.; Ang, K. Kian; Garden, Adam S. . E-mail: agarden@mdanderson.org

    2005-11-15

    Background: Oropharynx cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation (IMRT) are often treated with a monoisocentric or half-beam technique (HB). IMRT is delivered to the primary tumor and upper neck alone, while the lower neck is treated with a matching anterior beam. Because IMRT can treat the entire volume or whole field (WF), the primary aim of the study was to test the ability to plan cases using WF-IMRT while obtaining an optimal plan and acceptable dose distribution and also respecting normal critical structures. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with early-stage oropharynx cancers had treatment plans created with HB-IMRT and WF-IMRT techniques. Plans were deemed acceptable if they met the planning guidelines (as defined or with minor violations) of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol H0022. Comparisons included coverage to the planning target volume (PTV) of the primary (PTV66) and subclinical disease (PTV54). We also compared the ability of both techniques to respect the tolerance of critical structures. Results: The volume of PTV66 treated to >110% was less in 9 of the 13 patients in the WF-IMRT plan as compared to the HB-IMRT plan. The calculated mean volume receiving >110% for all patients planned with WF-IMRT was 9.3% (0.8%-25%) compared to 13.7% (2.7%-23.7%) with HB-IMRT (p = 0.09). The PTV54 volume receiving >110% of dose was less in 10 of the 13 patients planned with WF-IMRT compared to HB-IMRT. The mean doses to all critical structures except the larynx were comparable with each plan. The mean dose to the larynx was significantly less (p = 0.001), 18.7 Gy, with HB-IMRT compared to 47 Gy with WF-IMRT. Conclusions: Regarding target volumes, acceptable plans can be generated with either WF-IMRT or HB-IMRT. WF-IMRT has an advantage if uncertainty at the match line is a concern, whereas HB-IMRT, particularly in cases not involving the base of tongue, can achieve much lower doses to the larynx.

  18. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  19. Glass tube splitting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J. A.; Murray, C. D.; Stein, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Tool accurately splits glass tubing so cuts are aligned 180 deg apart and reassembled tube forms low pressure, gastight enclosure. Device should interest industries using cylindrical closed glass containers.

  20. Will Dutch Become Flemish? Autonomous Developments in Belgian Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Velde, Hans; Kissine, Mikhail; Tops, Evie; van der Harst, Sander; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a series of studies of standard Dutch pronunciation in Belgium and the Netherlands is presented. The research is based on two speech corpora: a diachronic corpus of radio speech (1935-1995) and a synchronic corpus of Belgian and Netherlandic standard Dutch from different regions at the turn of the millennium. It is shown that two…

  1. Will Dutch Become Flemish? Autonomous Developments in Belgian Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Velde, Hans; Kissine, Mikhail; Tops, Evie; van der Harst, Sander; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a series of studies of standard Dutch pronunciation in Belgium and the Netherlands is presented. The research is based on two speech corpora: a diachronic corpus of radio speech (1935-1995) and a synchronic corpus of Belgian and Netherlandic standard Dutch from different regions at the turn of the millennium. It is shown that two…

  2. Precision of a splitting device for water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capel, Paul D.; Nacionales, Fernando C.; Larson, Steven J.

    1995-01-01

    Two identical cone splitters, devices designed to split water and its suspended solids into equal aliquots for semi-volatile organic chemical and trace element analyses, were evaluated for their precision. The water-splitting evaluations consisted of experiments to test the effect of water volume, the effect of combining outlet ports, and the effect of different techniques of water introduction. The solids-splitting evaluations consisted of experi- ments to test the effect of particle size (nine different particle diameters ranging from very coarse sand to clay) and suspended-solids concentration. In general, water was equally split with a precision of less than 5 percent relative standard deviation. The accuracy of splitting the solids was a function of particle size. Clay, silt, and fine and medium sand were split with a precision relative standard deviation of less than 7 percent, and coarse sand was split with a relative standard deviation between 12 and 45 percent.

  3. Evaluation of Mandibular Anatomy Associated With Bad Splits in Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy of Mandible.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tongyue; Han, Jeong Joon; Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Jung, Seunggon; Park, Yeong-Joon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with bad splits during sagittal split ramus osteotomy by using three-dimensional computed tomography. This study included 8 bad splits and 47 normal patients without bad splits. Mandibular anatomic parameters related to osteotomy line were measured. These included anteroposterior width of the ramus at level of lingula, distance between external oblique ridge and lingula, distance between sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible, mandibular angle, distance between inferior outer surface of mandibular canal and inferior border of mandible under distal root of second molar (MCEM), buccolingual thickness of the ramus at level of lingula, and buccolingual thickness of the area just distal to first molar (BTM1) and second molar (BTM2). The incidence of bad splits in 625 sagittal split osteotomies was 1.28%. Compared with normal group, bad split group exhibited significantly thinner BTM2 and shorter sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible (P <0.05). However, for BTM1 and buccolingual thickness of the ramus at level of lingula, there was no statistical difference between the 2 groups. Mandibular angle, anteroposterior width of the ramus at level of lingula, external oblique ridge and lingula, and MCEM were not significantly different between the groups. This study suggests that patients with shorter ramus and low thickness of the buccolingual alveolar region distal to the second molar had a higher risk of bad splits. These anatomic data may help surgeons to choose the safest surgical techniques and best osteotomy sites.

  4. Split liver transplantation in adults

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues. PMID:27672272

  5. Pennsylvania Dutch Crafts and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Many people hold two common misconceptions about the Pennsylvania Dutch: first, that these people live exclusively in the state of Pennsylvania; second, that their ancestors came from Holland. However, neither assumption is correct. One can find large Pennsylvania Dutch communities in Mary land, West Virginia, Virginia, the Carolinas, Ohio,…

  6. Pennsylvania Dutch Crafts and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Many people hold two common misconceptions about the Pennsylvania Dutch: first, that these people live exclusively in the state of Pennsylvania; second, that their ancestors came from Holland. However, neither assumption is correct. One can find large Pennsylvania Dutch communities in Mary land, West Virginia, Virginia, the Carolinas, Ohio,…

  7. Flux-vector splitting for the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleer, Bram

    1991-01-01

    The development of flux-vector splitting through the 1970s and 1980s is reviewed. Attention is given to the diffusive nature of flux-vector splitting, which makes it an undesirable technique for approximating the inviscid fluxes in a Navier-Stokes solver. Several proposed improvements, including a brand new one, are discussed and illustrated by a simple, yet revealing, numerical test case. Finally, an outlook for flux-vector splitting in the 1990s is presented.

  8. Split spline screw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A split spline screw type payload fastener assembly, including three identical male and female type split spline sections, is discussed. The male spline sections are formed on the head of a male type spline driver. Each of the split male type spline sections has an outwardly projecting load baring segment including a convex upper surface which is adapted to engage a complementary concave surface of a female spline receptor in the form of a hollow bolt head. Additionally, the male spline section also includes a horizontal spline releasing segment and a spline tightening segment below each load bearing segment. The spline tightening segment consists of a vertical web of constant thickness. The web has at least one flat vertical wall surface which is designed to contact a generally flat vertically extending wall surface tab of the bolt head. Mutual interlocking and unlocking of the male and female splines results upon clockwise and counter clockwise turning of the driver element.

  9. Stabilized Zeeman split laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a stablized Zeeman split laser for use in a polarization profilometer is discussed. A Hewlett-Packard laser was modified to stabilize the Zeeman split beat frequency thereby increasing the phase measurement accuracy from the Hewlett-Packard 3 degrees to an accuracy of .01 degrees. The addition of a two layered inductive winding converts the laser to a current controlled oscillator whose frequency is linearly related to coil current. This linear relationship between coil current and laser frequency permits phase locking the laser frequency to a stable crystal controlled reference frequency. The stability of the system is examined and the equipment operation procedures are outlined.

  10. The split-brain.

    PubMed

    Lassonde, Maryse; Ouimet, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Research on split-brain individuals started to flourish approximately 70 years ago and has since then significantly contributed to our understanding of hemispheric specialization. This overview aims to capture the essential of its progress. Amongst other things, the disconnection syndrome is exposed through a description of its manifestations on sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. Ground work and recent studies on split-brain individuals are integrated. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Technical Skills Required in Split Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanqiu; Li, Ruijun; Fu, Jinling; He, Qianyan; Li, Ji

    2016-07-01

    The number of liver grafts obtained from a cadaver can be greatly increased with the application of split liver transplantation. In the last 10 years, pediatric waiting list mortality has been reduced significantly with the use of this form of liver transplantation, which has 2 major forms. In its most commonly used form, the liver can be transplanted into 1 adult and 1 child by splitting it into a right extended and a left lateral graft. For adult and pediatric recipients, the results of this procedure are comparable to those of whole-organ techniques. In another form, 2 hemi-grafts are obtained by splitting the liver, which can be transplanted into a medium-sized adult (the right side) and a large child/small adult (the left side). The adult liver graft pool is expanded through the process of full right/full left splitting; but it is also a critical technique when one considers the knowledge required of the potential anatomic variations and the high technical skill level needed. In this review, we provide some basic insights into the technical and anatomical aspects of these 2 forms of split liver transplantation and present an updated summary of both forms.

  12. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  13. A new method to test shear wave splitting: Improving statistical assessment of splitting parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbalan Castejon, Ana

    Shear wave splitting has proved to be a very useful technique to probe for seismic anisotropy in the earth's interior, and measurements of seismic anisotropy are perhaps the best way to constrain the strain history of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. However, existent methods of shear wave splitting analysis do not estimate uncertainty correctly, and do not allow for careful statistical modeling of anisotropy and uncertainty in complex scenarios. Consequently, the interpretation of shear wave splitting measurements has an undesirable subjective component. This study illustrates a new method to characterize shear wave splitting and the associated uncertainty based on the cross-convolution method [Menke and Levin, 2003]. This new method has been tested on synthetic data and benchmarked with data from the Pasadena, California seismic station (PAS). Synthetic tests show that the method can successfully obtain the splitting parameters from observed split shear waves. PAS results are very reasonable and consistent with previous studies [Liu et al., 1995; Ozalaybey and Savage, 1995; Polet and Kanamori, 2002]. As presented, the Menke and Levin [2003] method does not explicitly model the errors. Our method works on noisy data without any particular need for processing, it fully accounts for correlation structures on the noise, and it models the errors with a proper bootstrapping approach. Hence, the method presented here casts the analysis of shear wave splitting into a more formal statistical context, allowing for formal hypothesis testing and more nuanced interpretation of seismic anisotropy results.

  14. Splitting of asphaltene species

    SciTech Connect

    Galimov, R.A.; Yusupova, T.N.; Abushaeva, V.V.

    1994-05-10

    The extent of splitting of asphaltene species under the action of solvents correlates with their nature, and primarily with their electron- and proton-donor properties. According to the data of thermal analysis asphaltene species being retained after the action of solvents differ in the weight ratio of peripheral substituents to condensed part and in the fraction of labile bonds. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. The Splitting Loope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Teaching experiments have generated several hypotheses concerning the construction of fraction schemes and operations and relationships among them. In particular, researchers have hypothesized that children's construction of splitting operations is crucial to their construction of more advanced fractions concepts (Steffe, 2002). The authors…

  16. The Splitting Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Piagetian theory describes mathematical development as the construction and organization of mental operations within psychological structures. Research on student learning has identified the vital roles of two particular operations--splitting and units coordination--play in students' development of advanced fractions knowledge. Whereas Steffe and…

  17. The Splitting Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Piagetian theory describes mathematical development as the construction and organization of mental operations within psychological structures. Research on student learning has identified the vital roles of two particular operations--splitting and units coordination--play in students' development of advanced fractions knowledge. Whereas Steffe and…

  18. Split-Level Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Kelly

    1997-01-01

    Presents photographs and the floor plan of a middle school whose split-level design separates "noisy" areas, such as the band room and gymnasium, from the academic wing. The design encourages teaming and flexibility through its classroom clustering and mobile partitions between classrooms. Additionally, all classrooms possess windows and…

  19. Split-Level Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Kelly

    1997-01-01

    Presents photographs and the floor plan of a middle school whose split-level design separates "noisy" areas, such as the band room and gymnasium, from the academic wing. The design encourages teaming and flexibility through its classroom clustering and mobile partitions between classrooms. Additionally, all classrooms possess windows and…

  20. The Splitting Loope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Teaching experiments have generated several hypotheses concerning the construction of fraction schemes and operations and relationships among them. In particular, researchers have hypothesized that children's construction of splitting operations is crucial to their construction of more advanced fractions concepts (Steffe, 2002). The authors…

  1. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  2. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  3. The effect of PRF (platelet-rich fibrin) inserted with a split-flap technique on soft tissue thickening and initial marginal bone loss around implants: results of a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hehn, Julia; Schwenk, Thomas; Striegel, Markus; Schlee, Markus

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that adequate thickness or initial augmentation of soft tissue has a positive effect on the stability of peri-implant bone. This randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the influence of augmenting soft tissue with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on crestal bone and soft tissue around implants. After randomization, 31 fully threaded titanium implants were inserted in 31 patients (16 men and 15 women) in the lower mandible using a split-flap technique. In the test group (10 patients), mucosa was treated with a PRF membrane. In the control group (21 patients), implantation was realized without soft tissue augmentation. Tissue thickness was measured at point of implant insertion (baseline) and at time of reentry after 3 months. Standardized digital radiographs were obtained for evaluation at time of implant placement, reentry after 3 months and at a 6-month follow-up. Data was analyzed by an independent examiner. After 6 months, all 31 implants were osteointegrated. Soft tissue augmentation with PRF led to a significant tissue loss. In the test group, the crestal tissue thickness dropped from 2.20 mm ± 0.48 SD at baseline to 0.9 mm ± 1.02 SD at reentry, whereas crestal mucosa in the control group showed higher stability (2.64 mm ± 0.48 SD at baseline to 2.62 mm ± 0.61 SD at reentry). For ethical reasons, the test group was terminated after 10 cases, and the remaining cases were finished within the control group. In the test group, radiographic evaluation showed a mean bone loss of 0.77 mm ± 0.42 SD/0.57 mm ± 0.44 SD (defect depth/defect width) on the mesial side and 0.82 mm ± 0.42 SD/0.62 mm ± 0.36 SD (defect depth/defect width) on the distal side. In the control group, a mean bone loss of 0.72 mm ± 0.61 SD/0.51 mm ± 0.48 mm (defect depth/defect width) on the mesial and 0.82 mm ± 0.77 SD/ 0.57 mm ± 0.58 SD (defect depth /defect width) on the distal side was

  4. Numerical simulation and experiment on multilayer stagger-split die.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiwei; Li, Mingzhe; Han, Qigang; Yang, Yunfei; Wang, Bolong; Sui, Zhou

    2013-05-01

    A novel ultra-high pressure device, multilayer stagger-split die, has been constructed based on the principle of "dividing dies before cracking." Multilayer stagger-split die includes an encircling ring and multilayer assemblages, and the mating surfaces of the multilayer assemblages are mutually staggered between adjacent layers. In this paper, we investigated the stressing features of this structure through finite element techniques, and the results were compared with those of the belt type die and single split die. The contrast experiments were also carried out to test the bearing pressure performance of multilayer stagger-split die. It is concluded that the stress distributions are reasonable and the materials are utilized effectively for multilayer stagger-split die. And experiments indicate that the multilayer stagger-split die can bear the greatest pressure.

  5. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review and meta-analysis of reported risk factors.

    PubMed

    Steenen, S A; van Wijk, A J; Becking, A G

    2016-08-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Patient factors predictive of a bad split reported in the literature are controversial. Suggested risk factors are reviewed in this article. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 30 studies published between 1971 and 2015 reporting the incidence of bad split and patient age, and/or surgical technique employed, and/or the presence of third molars. These included 22 retrospective cohort studies, six prospective cohort studies, one matched-pair analysis, and one case series. Spearman's rank correlation showed a statistically significant but weak correlation between increasing average age and increasing occurrence of bad splits in 18 studies (ρ=0.229; P<0.01). No comparative studies were found that assessed the incidence of bad split among the different splitting techniques. A meta-analysis pooling the effect sizes of seven cohort studies showed no significant difference in the incidence of bad split between cohorts of patients with third molars present and concomitantly removed during surgery, and patients in whom third molars were removed at least 6 months preoperatively (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.85, Z=0.64, P=0.52). In summary, there is no robust evidence to date to show that any risk factor influences the incidence of bad split.

  6. Splitting water with cobalt.

    PubMed

    Artero, Vincent; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Fontecave, Marc

    2011-08-01

    The future of energy supply depends on innovative breakthroughs regarding the design of cheap, sustainable, and efficient systems for the conversion and storage of renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. The production of hydrogen, a fuel with remarkable properties, through sunlight-driven water splitting appears to be a promising and appealing solution. While the active sites of enzymes involved in the overall water-splitting process in natural systems, namely hydrogenases and photosystem II, use iron, nickel, and manganese ions, cobalt has emerged in the past five years as the most versatile non-noble metal for the development of synthetic H(2)- and O(2)-evolving catalysts. Such catalysts can be further coupled with photosensitizers to generate photocatalytic systems for light-induced hydrogen evolution from water.

  7. Fee splitting in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Levin, Alex V; Ganesh, Anuradha; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed

    2011-02-01

    Fee splitting and co-management are common practices in ophthalmology. These arrangements may conflict with the ethical principles governing the doctor-patient relationship, may constitute professional misconduct, and at times, may be illegal. Implications and perceptions of these practices may vary between different cultures. Full disclosure to the patient may minimize the adverse effects of conflicts of interest that arise from these practices, and may thereby allow these practices to be deemed acceptable by some cultural morays, professional guidelines, or by law. Disclosure does not necessarily relieve the physician from a potential ethical compromise. This review examines the practice of fee splitting in ophthalmology, its legal implications, the policies or guidelines governing such arrangements, and the possible ethical ramifications. A comparative view between 3 countries, Canada, the United States, and Oman, was conducted; illustrating that even in disparate cultures, there may be some universality to the application of ethical principles.

  8. TUBE SPLITTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.

    1961-05-01

    A tool is described for cutting a coolant tube adapted to contain fuel elements to enable the tube to be removed from a graphite moderator mass. The tool splits the tube longitudinally into halves and curls the longitudinal edges of the halves inwardly so that they occupy less space and can be moved radially inwardly away from the walls of the hole in the graphite for easy removal from the graphite.

  9. Norms of valence, arousal, dominance, and age of acquisition for 4,300 Dutch words.

    PubMed

    Moors, Agnes; De Houwer, Jan; Hermans, Dirk; Wanmaker, Sabine; van Schie, Kevin; Van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; De Schryver, Maarten; De Winne, Jeffrey; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-03-01

    This article presents norms of valence/pleasantness, activity/arousal, power/dominance, and age of acquisition for 4,300 Dutch words, mainly nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs. The norms are based on ratings with a 7-point Likert scale by independent groups of students from two Belgian (Ghent and Leuven) and two Dutch (Rotterdam and Leiden-Amsterdam) samples. For each variable, we obtained high split-half reliabilities within each sample and high correlations between samples. In addition, the valence ratings of a previous, more limited study (Hermans & De Houwer, Psychologica Belgica, 34:115-139, 1994) correlated highly with those of the present study. Therefore, the new norms are a valuable source of information for affective research in the Dutch language.

  10. Splitting methods for low Mach number Euler and Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, Saul; Dutt, Pravir; Gottlieb, David

    1987-01-01

    Examined are some splitting techniques for low Mach number Euler flows. Shortcomings of some of the proposed methods are pointed out and an explanation for their inadequacy suggested. A symmetric splitting for both the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations is then presented which removes the stiffness of these equations when the Mach number is small. The splitting is shown to be stable.

  11. 77 FR 19967 - Safety Zone, Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK... temporary safety zones in the Port of Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and adjacent U.S. territorial sea from 12:01 a.m... high volume of vessel traffic in the Port of Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and the adjacent territorial sea due...

  12. Bad split during bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible with separators: a retrospective study of 427 patients.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Gertjan; Verweij, Jop P; Frank, Michael D; Eelco Bergsma, J; Richard van Merkesteyn, J P

    2013-09-01

    An unfavourable fracture, known as a bad split, is a common operative complication in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). The reported incidence ranges from 0.5 to 5.5%/site. Since 1994 we have used sagittal splitters and separators instead of chisels for BSSO in our clinic in an attempt to prevent postoperative hypoaesthesia. Theoretically an increased percentage of bad splits could be expected with this technique. In this retrospective study we aimed to find out the incidence of bad splits associated with BSSO done with splitters and separators. We also assessed the risk factors for bad splits. The study group comprised 427 consecutive patients among whom the incidence of bad splits was 2.0%/site, which is well within the reported range. The only predictive factor for a bad split was the removal of third molars at the same time as BSSO. There was no significant association between bad splits and age, sex, class of occlusion, or the experience of the surgeon. We think that doing a BSSO with splitters and separators instead of chisels does not increase the risk of a bad split, and is therefore safe with predictable results.

  13. Split Q-balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the presence of non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in (1 , 1) spacetime dimensions. The model engenders the global U (1) symmetry and is of the k-field type, since it contains a new term, of the fourth-order power in the derivative of the complex scalar field. It supports analytical solution of the Q-ball type which is stable quantum mechanically. The new solution engenders an interesting behavior, with the charge and energy densities unveiling a splitting profile.

  14. English Language Teaching Profile: Belgium (Dutch Speaking).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form discusses the English language teaching situation in the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking areas of Belgium. The situation in the Dutch-speaking region, which includes Flanders and Brussels (the latter having both Dutch and French as official languages), is described in terms of the extent of English instruction…

  15. Development of new flux splitting schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, MENG-S.; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Maximizing both accuracy and efficiency has been the primary objective in designing a numerical algorithm for CFD. This is especially important for solution of complex three-dimensional systems of Navier-Stokes equations which often include turbulence modeling and chemistry effects. Recently, upwind schemes have been well received for both their capability of resolving discontinuities and their sound theoretical basis in characteristic theory for hyperbolic systems. With this in mind, two new flux splitting techniques are presented for upwind differencing.

  16. The SPLIT Research Agenda 2013

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Estella M.; Ng, Vicky L.; Anand, Ravinder; Anderson, Christopher D.; Ekong, Udeme D.; Fredericks, Emily M.; Furuya, Katryn N.; Gupta, Nitika A.; Lerret, Stacee; Sundaram, Shikha; Tiao, Greg

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on active clinical research in pediatric liver transplantation with special emphasis on areas that could benefit from studies utilizing the SPLIT infrastructure and data repository. Ideas were solicited by members of the SPLIT Research Committee and sections were drafted by members of the committee with expertise in those given areas. This review is intended to highlight priorities for clinical research that could successfully be conducted through the SPLIT collaborative and would have significant impact in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:23718800

  17. Comet LINEAR Splits Further

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Third Nucleus Observed with the VLT Summary New images from the VLT show that one of the two nuclei of Comet LINEAR (C/2001 A2), now about 100 million km from the Earth, has just split into at least two pieces . The three fragments are now moving through space in nearly parallel orbits while they slowly drift apart. This comet will pass through its perihelion (nearest point to the Sun) on May 25, 2001, at a distance of about 116 million kilometres. It has brightened considerably due to the splitting of its "dirty snowball" nucleus and can now be seen with the unaided eye by observers in the southern hemisphere as a faint object in the southern constellation of Lepus (The Hare). PR Photo 18a/01 : Three nuclei of Comet LINEAR . PR Photo 18b/01 : The break-up of Comet LINEAR (false-colour). Comet LINEAR splits and brightens ESO PR Photo 18a/01 ESO PR Photo 18a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 438 pix - 55k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 875 pix - 136k] ESO PR Photo 18b/01 ESO PR Photo 18b/01 [Preview - JPEG: 367 x 400 pix - 112k] [Normal - JPEG: 734 x 800 pix - 272k] Caption : ESO PR Photo 18a/01 shows the three nuclei of Comet LINEAR (C/2001 A2). It is a reproduction of a 1-min exposure in red light, obtained in the early evening of May 16, 2001, with the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN (UT4) telescope at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 18b/01 shows the same image, but in a false-colour rendering for more clarity. The cometary fragment "B" (right) has split into "B1" and "B2" (separation about 1 arcsec, or 500 km) while fragment "A" (upper left) is considerably fainter. Technical information about these photos is available below. Comet LINEAR was discovered on January 3, 2001, and designated by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) as C/2001 A2 (see IAU Circular 7564 [1]). Six weeks ago, it was suddenly observed to brighten (IAUC 7605 [1]). Amateurs all over the world saw the comparatively faint comet reaching naked-eye magnitude and soon thereafter, observations with professional telescopes indicated

  18. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets.

    PubMed

    Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Al-Tabakha, Moawia M M; Eissa, Nermin A M; Javadi, Jeevani

    2016-10-11

    Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril(®) tablets, 20 mg) on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight) than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves). The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  19. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Fahelelbom, Khairi M. S.; Al-Tabakha, Moawia M. M.; Eissa, Nermin A. M.; Javadi, Jeevani

    2016-01-01

    Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg) on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight) than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves). The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used. PMID:27727195

  20. Leptogenesis from split fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Nagatani, Yukinori; Perez, Gilad

    2004-01-11

    We present a new type of leptogenesis mechanism based on a two-scalar split-fermions framework. At high temperatures the bulk scalar vacuum expectation values (VEVs) vanish and lepton number is strongly violated. Below some temperature, T{sub c}, the scalars develop extra dimension dependent VEVs. This transition is assumed to proceed via a first order phase transition. In the broken phase the fermions are localized and lepton number violation is negligible. The lepton-bulk scalar Yukawa couplings contain sizable CP phases which induce lepton production near the interface between the two phases. We provide a qualitative estimation of the resultant baryon asymmetry which agrees with current observation. The neutrino flavor parameters are accounted for by the above model with an additional approximate U(1) symmetry.

  1. Use of computed tomography assessed kidney length to predict split renal GFR in living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, François; Pavlov, Patrik; Tissier, Anne-Marie; Harache, Benoit; Eladari, Dominique; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Fournier, Catherine; Léon, Carine; Hignette, Chantal; Friedlander, Gérard; Correas, Jean-Michel; Weinmann, Pierre; Méjean, Arnaud; Houillier, Pascal; Legendre, Christophe; Courbebaisse, Marie

    2017-02-01

    Screening of living kidney donors may require scintigraphy to split glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to split GFR, we compared scintigraphy-split GFR to CT-split GFR. We evaluated CT-split GFR as a screening test to detect scintigraphy-split GFR lower than 40 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/kidney. This was a monocentric retrospective study on 346 potential living donors who had GFR measurement, renal scintigraphy, and CT. We predicted GFR for each kidney by splitting GFR using the following formula: Volume-split GFR for a given kidney = measured GFR*[volume of this kidney/(volume of this kidney + volume of the opposite kidney)]. The same formula was used for length-split GFR. We compared length- and volume-split GFR to scintigraphy-split GFR at donation and with a 4-year follow-up. A better correlation was observed between length-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.92) than between volume-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.89). A length-split GFR threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/kidney had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 75 % to detect scintigraphy-split GFR less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/kidney. Both techniques with their respective thresholds detected living donors with similar eGFR evolution during follow-up. Length-split GFR can be used to detect patients requiring scintigraphy. • Excellent correlation between kidney length and scintigraphy predicted GFR • Kidney length screening detects all donors with GFR lower than 40 mL/min/1.73 m (2) • Kidney length screening can replace scintigraphy screening.

  2. Dutch museum marks Einstein anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Matijn

    2016-01-01

    A new painting of Albert Einstein's field equation from his 1915 general theory of relativity was unveiled in a ceremony in November 2015 by the Dutch physicist Robbert Dijkgraaf, who is director of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study in the US.

  3. Metalinguistic Awareness in Dutch Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on some aspects of metalinguistic awareness in Dutch adults who emigrated to Australia at least 25 years ago. The findings show that the migrants do not differ significantly from a control group in the Netherlands, suggesting that first-language metalinguistic skills are extremely resistant to attrition. (Contains nine…

  4. Hollow core anti-resonant fibres with split cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Qi, Wenliang; Ho, Daryl; Luan, Feng; Yong, Ken-Tye; Yoo, Seongwoo

    2016-03-01

    A split cladding fibers (SCF) is proposed as an additional design to the anti-resonant type fiber. The introduced split cladding helps to reduce the fabrication distortion. We use numerical simulations to compare the Kagome fibers (KFs) and the proposed split cladding fibers (SCFs) over two normalized transmission bands. It reveals that SCFs are able to maintain the desired round shape of silica cladding walls, hence improving the confinement loss (CL) compared to the KF. Fabrication of the SCF is demonstrated by the stack-and-draw technique. The near filed mode patterns are measured to prove the feasibility of this fiber design.

  5. A new flux splitting scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A new flux splitting scheme is proposed. The scheme is remarkably simple and yet its accuracy rivals and in some cases surpasses that of Roe's solver in the Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions performed in this study. The scheme is robust and converges as fast as the Roe splitting. An approximately defined cell-face advection Mach number is proposed using values from the two straddling cells via associated characteristic speeds. This interface Mach number is then used to determine the upwind extrapolation for the convective quantities. Accordingly, the name of the scheme is coined as Advection Upstream Splitting Method (AUSM). A new pressure splitting is introduced which is shown to behave successfully, yielding much smoother results than other existing pressure splittings. Of particular interest is the supersonic blunt body problem in which the Roe scheme gives anomalous solutions. The AUSM produces correct solutions without difficulty for a wide range of flow conditions as well as grids.

  6. Shear wave splitting survey of Western Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhnovich, M.; Levin, V. L.; Cao, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of our study is to investigate the distribution of seismic anisotropy beneath the western part of the Tibetan plateau to better understand the tectonic processes dominating it. We used new data from 29 portable seismic stations in the Western Tibet that operated from 2007 to 2011. The network covered an approximately triangular area between the Karakorum fault (KF) in the south and the Banggong-Nujiang Suture (BNS) in the north, between longitudes of 79.5 and 83.5 east. In our study we used the data covering approximately two and a half years, from July 2007 to December 2009. Ten stations were operating from 2007, and additional 19 were introduced in 2009. We used earthquakes with magnitudes over 5.5, and picked and analyzed 130 well-recorded SKS phases. We employed three different algorithms of shear wave splitting estimation (cross-correlation, minimization of transverse component and an eigenvalue minimization technique) and used agreement in their respective results to assess the relative quality of our measurements. Observations that yielded radical disagreement in results from different algorithms were designated as NULLs. For a subset of NULLs we verified the absence of shear wave birefringence by visual inspection of particle motion. We report a set of 231 nulls and 310 splitting measurements, of which 128 we deem to be good (i.e., three techniques yield consistent results), and 182 are fair (two out of three methods agree). The delay time in good splitting observation varied from as little as 0.3s to 2.2s, with majority of measurements falling below 1 s. Fast polarizations display directional variability at individual observing sites, and also change laterally. We can identify four regions with distinct patterns of splitting. In the area between the KF and the BNS, fast direction of 40-65SE dominates, and most good splitting measurements yield delays ~1s. At most sites here we also see minor changes in fast direction with backazimuth. Two sites

  7. Autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization.

    PubMed

    Budny, Adam M; Schuberth, John M

    2012-01-01

    Lateral ankle instability is a common clinical entity, and a variety of surgical procedures are available for stabilization after conservative management fails. Herein the authors reviewed outcomes after performing autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization, using a previously described surgical technique to anatomically recreate the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments. Twenty-five consecutive patients from 2 surgeons' practices underwent reconstruction between March 2007 and January 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 12 (range 12 to 51) months (mean 29.5 months). Follow-up interviews demonstrated 92.0% good or excellent outcomes with only 8.0% rating the outcome as fair and none as poor; 92.0% had no recurrent sprains or difficulty going up or down hills; 88.0% related no difficulty with uneven ground. The authors conclude that the autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization results in a stable ankle with a low rate of complications and high patient satisfaction.

  8. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  9. Split-illumination electron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-07-23

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  10. Apparatus Splits Glass Tubes Longitudinally

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Ernest; Manahan, Robert O'neil

    1993-01-01

    Tubes split into half cylinders by hot-wire/thermal-shock method. Tube to be cut placed on notched jig in apparatus. Nichrome wire stretched between arms of pivoted carriage and oriented parallel to notch. Wire heated by electrical current while resting on tube. After heating for about 1 minute for each millimeter of thickness of glass, tube quenched in water and split by resulting thermal shock. Apparatus used to split tubes in sizes ranging from 3/8 in. in diameter by 1 in. long to 1 1/2 in. in diameter by 4 in. long.

  11. Design methodology of Dutch banknotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Heij, Hans A. M.

    2000-04-01

    Since the introduction of a design methodology for Dutch banknotes, the quality of Dutch paper currency has improved in more than one way. The methodology is question provides for (i) a design policy, which helps fix clear objectives; (ii) design management, to ensure a smooth cooperation between the graphic designer, printer, papermaker an central bank, (iii) a program of requirements, a banknote development guideline for all parties involved. This systematic approach enables an objective selection of design proposals, including security features. Furthermore, the project manager obtains regular feedback from the public by conducting market surveys. Each new design of a Netherlands Guilder banknote issued by the Nederlandsche Bank of the past 50 years has been an improvement on its predecessor in terms of value recognition, security and durability.

  12. Dutch concentrate on specialties and market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The success of Dutch offshore multinational companies is said to be based on three factors: an ancient tradition of trade, an ability to forecast the commercial possibilities of technical innovation, and skill at adapting to the outlook of their trading partners. The Netherlands has produced two of the most technically successful companies in the North Sea, Royal Dutch/Shell and the Heerema company. Both tend to be regarded as multinational rather than specifically Dutch, but Dutch managements have had a profound effect on both companies' development.

  13. The Dutch Euthanasia Act and related issues.

    PubMed

    Legemaate, Johan

    2004-02-01

    In 2002 the Dutch Euthanasia Act came into force. This Act is the result of a lengthy developmental process. It codifies the requirements that have evolved in case law and medical ethics since 1973. Empirical data indicate that the Dutch euthanasia practice is stabilising. Euthanasia and assisted suicide occur in 2.7% of all deaths. Now that the Act has been passed, the focus is on improving the quality of medical decision-making. From an international perspective, the Dutch legislation is exceptional. However, it appears that other countries and international organisations are considering euthanasia legislation as well. It remains to be seen how influential the Dutch model will prove to be.

  14. Splitting fees or splitting hairs? Fee splitting and health care--the Florida experience.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, R O; Goodman, E

    1999-01-01

    Attorneys Jacobs and Goodman review the prohibitions against fee-splitting under Florida law and argue that Florida and other states need a clear statutory definition of prohibited activities. In addition, the authors argue that the Florida Board of Medicine has applied the prohibition against fee-splitting arbitrarily and in contrast to legal precedent set by the Second District Court of Appeals. Finally, the authors suggest that Minnesota provides clear legislative guidance on the issue of fee-splitting and that the approach adopted by Minnesota is more practical in today's complex health care reimbursement environment.

  15. Photocatalytic water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yenting

    New photocatalystic materials Ti-In oxy(nitride) and nanosized Ru-loaded strontium titanate doped with Rh (Ru/SrTiO3:Rh) have been synthesized. The textural and surface characteristic properties were studied by nitrogen BET analysis, diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and powder XRD. The photocatalytic properties were enhanced by the binary metal oxides of titanium dioxide and indium oxide. The XRD patterns confirmed the oxygen exchange between two metal oxides during the synthesis. Moreover, the presence of titanium dioxide can help the stabilization of InN during hot NH3(g) treatment. On the other hand, the particle sizes of aerogel prepared Ru/SrTiO3:Rh varied from 12 to 25 nm depended on different Rh doping. A mixture of ethanol and toluene was found to be the best binary solvent for supercritical drying, which yielded a SrTiO3 sample with a surface area of 130 m2/g and an average crystallite size of 6 nm. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production under UV-vis light irradiation was achieved by ammonolysis of intimately mixed titanium dioxide and indium oxide at high temperatures. Gas chromatography monitored steadily the formation of hydrogen when sacrificial (methanol or ethanol) were present. XRD patterns confirmed that the photocatalysts maintain crystalline integrity before and after water splitting experiments. Moreover, the presence of InN may be crucial for the increase of hydrogen production activities. These Ru/SrTiO3:Rh photocatalysts have been studied for photocatalytic hydrogen production under visible light. The band gap of the bulk SrTiO 3 (3.2 eV) does not allow response to visible light. However, after doping with rhodium and loaded with ruthenium, the modified strontium titanates can utilize light above 400 nm due to the formation of valence band or electron donor levels inside of the band gap. Moreover, the surface areas of these

  16. Sanitary locking lip split well seal

    SciTech Connect

    Jozwiak, T.H.; Hunley, E.C. Jr.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a well seal for cooperating with a casing of a wall. It comprises a first split plate; a second split plate having a size and shape to allow insertion within the well casing; a split packer, which is provided with at least one tapered through hole, positioned between first split plate, and second split plate, the split packer having a size and shape approximately the same as an inner dimension of the well casing to allow insertion therein, split packer having at least two sections with interlocking lips to provide an effective sanitary seal by providing a leakproof labyrinth path to avoid a straight-through leak path; and clamp means for compressing split packer between first split plate and second split plates to expand the split packer into sealing engagement with an inner wall of the well casing.

  17. Tattoo Removal by Split Thickness Tangential Excision

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Ervin S.; Miller, Timothy A.

    1976-01-01

    Split thickness tangential excision is a simple means of tattoo removal with very acceptable cosmetic results. The technique has several advantages. (1) The depth of skin removal may accurately be controlled as the tattoo pigment is excised with a dermatome. The major portion, if not all of the remaining pigment, is extruded and sloughs with the crust. (2) Scar formation, if it occurs at all, is negligible. (3) No donor site is created. (4) The procedure may be carried out rapidly without admitting patients to hospital, is inexpensive for patients and conserves time for physicians. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:1266213

  18. Photon splitting in a laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Di Piazza, A.; Keitel, C. H.; Milstein, A. I.

    2007-09-15

    Photon splitting due to vacuum polarization in a laser field is considered. Using an operator technique, we derive the amplitudes for arbitrary strength, spectral content, and polarization of the laser field. The case of a monochromatic circularly polarized laser field is studied in detail, and the amplitudes are obtained as threefold integrals. The asymptotic behavior of the amplitudes for various limits of interest is investigated also in the case of a linearly polarized laser field. Using the results obtained, the possibility of experimental observation of the process is discussed.

  19. Entropy Splitting and Numerical Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.; Djomehri, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    A rigorous stability estimate for arbitrary order of accuracy of spatial central difference schemes for initial-boundary value problems of nonlinear symmetrizable systems of hyperbolic conservation laws was established recently by Olsson and Oliger (1994) and Olsson (1995) and was applied to the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas by Gerritsen and Olsson (1996) and Gerritsen (1996). The basic building block in developing the stability estimate is a generalized energy approach based on a special splitting of the flux derivative via a convex entropy function and certain homogeneous properties. Due to some of the unique properties of the compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas, the splitting resulted in the sum of a conservative portion and a non-conservative portion of the flux derivative. hereafter referred to as the "Entropy Splitting." There are several potential desirable attributes and side benefits of the entropy splitting for the compressible Euler equations that were not fully explored in Gerritsen and Olsson. The paper has several objectives. The first is to investigate the choice of the arbitrary parameter that determines the amount of splitting and its dependence on the type of physics of current interest to computational fluid dynamics. The second is to investigate in what manner the splitting affects the nonlinear stability of the central schemes for long time integrations of unsteady flows such as in nonlinear aeroacoustics and turbulence dynamics. If numerical dissipation indeed is needed to stabilize the central scheme, can the splitting help minimize the numerical dissipation compared to its un-split cousin? Extensive numerical study on the vortex preservation capability of the splitting in conjunction with central schemes for long time integrations will be presented. The third is to study the effect of the non-conservative proportion of splitting in obtaining the correct shock location for high speed complex shock

  20. Value Orientations of the Dutch Educational Elite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Sjoerd; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Value orientations that influence opinions on educational policy issues were examined among Dutch leaders of educationally influential organizations. Their attitudes reflected Dutch society's segmentation along, but cooperation across, religious and ideological dividing lines, as well as optimism about educational reform through state…

  1. The Dutch surgical colorectal audit.

    PubMed

    Van Leersum, N J; Snijders, H S; Henneman, D; Kolfschoten, N E; Gooiker, G A; ten Berge, M G; Eddes, E H; Wouters, M W J M; Tollenaar, R A E M; Bemelman, W A; van Dam, R M; Elferink, M A; Karsten, Th M; van Krieken, J H J M; Lemmens, V E P P; Rutten, H J T; Manusama, E R; van de Velde, C J H; Meijerink, W J H J; Wiggers, Th; van der Harst, E; Dekker, J W T; Boerma, D

    2013-10-01

    In 2009, the nationwide Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit (DSCA) was initiated by the Association of Surgeons of the Netherlands (ASN) to monitor, evaluate and improve colorectal cancer care. The DSCA is currently widely used as a blueprint for the initiation of other audits, coordinated by the Dutch Institute for Clinical Auditing (DICA). This article illustrates key elements of the DSCA and results of three years of auditing. Key elements include: a leading role of the professional association with integration of the audit in the national quality assurance policy; web-based registration by medical specialists; weekly updated online feedback to participants; annual external data verification with other data sources; improvement projects. In two years, all Dutch hospitals participated in the audit. Case-ascertainment was 92% in 2010 and 95% in 2011. External data verification by comparison with the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) showed high concordance of data items. Within three years, guideline compliance for diagnostics, preoperative multidisciplinary meetings and standardised reporting increased; complication-, re-intervention and postoperative mortality rates decreased significantly. The success of the DSCA is the result of effective surgical collaboration. The leading role of the ASN in conducting the audit resulted in full participation of all colorectal surgeons in the Netherlands. By integrating the audit into the ASNs' quality assurance policy, it could be used to set national quality standards. Future challenges include reduction of administrative burden; expansion to a multidisciplinary registration; and addition of financial information and patient reported outcomes to the audit data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How contagious is Dutch disease

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, L.O.

    1982-03-01

    Into the vernacular of economists has come the term Dutch Disease from the Netherland's experience as a net energy exporter. After outlining characterisics of the affliction and the ways in which it can be manifested, this article looks at the economies of United Kingdom, Norway, and Mexico. While the stage of economic development, the structure of the balance of payments, and the exchange-rate regime are at least somewhat different for each, all have economies that are feeling the impact of the energy sector. Common factors are a higher value for the exchange rate than would otherwise be the case and a squeeze on nonenergy sectors of the economy. 4 figures.

  3. [Dutch parliament legitimizes harmful quackery].

    PubMed

    van Dam, Frits S A M; Renckens, Cees N M

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch parliament has recently accepted a tax law in which certain groups of alternative therapists can be exempt from VAT. To be eligible for this VAT exemption, the disciplines to which the therapists belong have to meet certain training requirements. In this article it is contended, in agreement with the Royal College of Physicians in the UK, that statutory regulation is inappropriate for disciplines whose therapies are neither of proved benefit nor appropriately tested. It legitimizes harmful therapies. This is illustrated by two serious accidents, previously described in this journal, caused by a chiropractor and a craniosacral therapist.

  4. Photoelectrochemical water-splitting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.A.; Kocha, S.S.

    1995-10-01

    Photochemical water-splitting is the process where an illuminated semiconductor is used to decompose water into its components, hydrogen and oxygen. Light, incident on a semiconductor electrode, splits water directly. A one-step monolithic system such as this eliminates the need to generate electricity externally and subsequently feed it to an electrolyser. Combining the electrolyser with the PV system eliminates one of the high cost components of a PV-electrolysis hydrogen generation system. Since external wiring is not used, only the piping necessary for the transport of hydrogen to an external storage system or gas pipeline is required. This paper will discuss the current technical status of direct conversion photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting systems.

  5. A histological study of non-ceramic hydroxyapatite as a bone graft substitute material in the vertical bone augmentation of the posterior mandible using an interpositional inlay technique: A split mouth evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Karen; Dottore, Alexandre M; Kawakami, Paulo Y; Gehrke, Sergio A; Coelho, Paulo G; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the influence of graft material (non-ceramic hydroxyapatite versus autologous bone) on bone behaviour and perform a resonance frequency analysis of implants placed in augmented sites to evaluate stability. For this study, 11 patients with bilateral edentulous areas in the mandibular posterior region were selected. Alveolar augmentation osteotomies were bilaterally (split mouth design) performed. In one hemiarch, the space generated by the osteotomy was grafted with an interpositional intra-oral autologous bone graft (control group). In the other hemiarch, the space generated by the osteotomy was grafted with an interpositional non-ceramic hydroxyapatite (ncHA) (test group). The groups were randomized. After 6 months of healing, a bone sample was retrieved from each side for histological evaluation using a trephine drill that was 2-mm in internal diameter. The implant stability quotient (ISQ) was measured by the resonance frequency immediately following implant placement at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up. Good incorporation of the graft was observed in both groups; however, in the test group, a residual-grafted material was observed. Bone density and marrow spaces were similar between groups. Correlations between the ISQ values and the histometric variables were not observed (p>0.05). The results of this trial suggest that both intra-oral autologous bone and ncHA may be elected as interpositional grafting materials to vertically augment posterior atrophic mandibles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. A promising split-lesion technique for rapid tattoo removal using a novel sequential approach of a single sitting of pulsed CO(2) followed by Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm).

    PubMed

    Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K; Bansal, Shivani; Goel, Khushbu

    2013-12-01

    Laser tattoo removal conventionally uses Q-switched (QS) lasers, but they require multiple sittings, and the end results depend largely on the type of tattoo treated. In pigmented skin, due to the competing epidermal pigment results, laser results in tattoo are slow and inadequate. To evaluate the efficacy of a combined use of ultrapulse CO2 and QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser in the treatment of tattoos in Indian skin. A split-lesion trial was carried out in five patients, with the left side of tattoos receiving the QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and the right side, a sequential combination of Up CO2 and QS Nd: YAG at 6 weeks interval with a maximum of six sittings. Outcome assessment was carried out by a blinded assessor using standardized photography. An assessment of physician improvement score, side-effects score, and patient satisfaction score was taken during and at the end of the study. There was a statistically significant improvement on the combination side(physician improvement score -3.7 vs. 1.87: P = 0.0019) which occurred earlier with fewer sittings (1.7 vs. 6). There was no statistically significant difference in the side effects. A combination of an Up CO2 laser with QS Nd: YAG laser is a promising tool for rapid and effective removal of blue-black/blue amateur tattoo in pigmented skin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Split ring containment attachment device

    DOEpatents

    Sammel, Alfred G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device 10 for operatively connecting a glovebag 200 to plastic sheeting 100 covering hazardous material. The device 10 includes an inner split ring member 20 connected on one end 22 to a middle ring member 30 wherein the free end 21 of the split ring member 20 is inserted through a slit 101 in the plastic sheeting 100 to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting 100. A collar potion 41 having an outer ring portion 42 is provided with fastening means 51 for securing the device 10 together wherein the glovebag 200 is operatively connected to the collar portion 41.

  8. Biphasic water splitting by osmocene

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Peiyu; Todorova, Tanya K.; Patir, Imren Hatay; Olaya, Astrid J.; Vrubel, Heron; Mendez, Manuel; Hu, Xile; Corminboeuf, Clémence; Girault, Hubert H.

    2012-01-01

    The photochemical reactivity of osmocene in a biphasic water-organic solvent system has been investigated to probe its water splitting properties. The photoreduction of aqueous protons to hydrogen under anaerobic conditions induced by osmocene dissolved in 1,2-dichloroethane and the subsequent water splitting by the osmocenium metal-metal dimer formed during H2 production were studied by electrochemical methods, UV-visible spectrometry, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Density functional theory computations were used to validate the reaction pathways. PMID:22665787

  9. Level of the Subscapularis Split During Arthroscopic Latarjet.

    PubMed

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Denard, Patrick J; Arrigoni, Paolo; Narbona, Pablo; Burkhart, Stephen S; Barth, Johannes

    2017-08-16

    To determine the location of the subscapularis split during arthroscopic Latarjet created by an inside-out technique passing a switching stick from the posterior portal across the glenohumeral joint. An inside-out technique was used to arthroscopically create a subscapularis split in 20 fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulders. The distance between the exit point of the switching stick and the upper border of the subscapularis and the anterior circumflex vessels was measured arthroscopically and after open dissection. Twelve splits were in the upper third of the subscapularis, 3 were at the junction of the upper third and the middle third, and 5 were in the middle third. None were at the junction between the middle and lower third as desired. Using the inside-out method during arthroscopic Latarjet may produce a high subscapularis split if it is performed from with a switching stick that is inserted through the posterior approach, and passed across the glenohumeral joint at the level of the inferior glenoid. This study analyzed the relative risk of high subscapularis split during the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Probabilistic environmental risk assessment of zinc in Dutch surface waters.

    PubMed

    Van Sprang, Patrick A; Verdonck, Frederik A M; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Vangheluwe, Marnix L; Janssen, Colin R

    2004-12-01

    In the framework of the European Union (EU) New and Existing Chemicals Policy, a regional risk assessment for Zn according to the current technical guidance documents and a probabilistic approach, by mathematically integrating both best-fitting exposure concentrations and species-sensitivity distributions into a probabilistic risk quotient distribution using Monte Carlo analysis, was explored for The Netherlands. Zinc is an essential element, and the current probability distributions may not adequately deal with this property. The threshold Pareto distribution provided the best fit to the chronic Zn toxicity data, resulting in a predicted-no-effect concentration (PNECadd) for dissolved Zn of 34.2 microg/L, whereas use of the conventional normal distribution resulted in a PNECadd for dissolved Zn of 14.6 microg/L. The extracted exposure data resulted in a regional predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for dissolved Zn in the Dutch surface waters of 20.1 microg/L and in PECadd values for dissolved Zn of between 15.5 and 17.3 microg/L, depending on the background correction used. The conventional deterministic risk characterization identified a regional risk for Zn in the Dutch surface waters. The more comprehensive probabilistic approach used in the present study, however, identified only very limited potential risks for the Dutch region. A probabilistic median risk, that the environmental concentration is greater than the no-observed-effect concentration of a species in Dutch surface waters (0.5-0.6%), depending on the inclusion of background correction, was obtained from the best-fitting distributions. Because probabilistic approaches provide a quantifiable and improved assessment of risk and quantification of the uncertainty associated with that assessment, these techniques may be considered as a way to improve the EU risk assessment procedures for data-rich substances.

  11. Split-resonator integrated-post MEMS gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A split-resonator integrated-post vibratory microgyroscope may be fabricated using micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques. The microgyroscope may include two gyroscope sections bonded together, each gyroscope section including resonator petals, electrodes, and an integrated half post. The half posts are aligned and bonded to act as a single post.

  12. Analyzing Collaborative Writing Processes from Split-Screen Video Recordings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Erik

    In this pilot project, nine pairs of Danish teenagers with different levels of English proficiency were observed and of these three pairs were studied in greater detail, as they worked on English writing assignments on a word processor. The approach used in gathering data was based on video recordings using a split-screen technique. Half the…

  13. A new taxonomy of Dutch personality traits based on a comprehensive and unrestricted list of descriptors.

    PubMed

    De Raad, Boele; Barelds, Dick P H

    2008-02-01

    A list of 2,365 personality descriptive items was selected from a computerized database of the Dutch language. The list included terms from various word classes, such as trait adjectives, trait nouns, and trait verbs, and from expressions in which the meaning was drawn from a combination of words. The items were administered to 1,466 participants, who provided self- or other-ratings. Principal components analyses were performed on both original and ipsatized data. The data set was split to investigate the invariance of the factors. The analyses yielded a final 8-factorial structure that included the Big 5. Three new trait factors were discovered, namely Virtue, Competence, and Hedonism.

  14. Torque-Splitting Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, J.

    1991-01-01

    Geared drive train transmits torque from input shaft in equal parts along two paths in parallel, then combines torques in single output shaft. Scheme reduces load on teeth of meshing gears while furnishing redundancy to protect against failures. Such splitting and recombination of torques common in design of turbine engines.

  15. Beam splitting on weak illumination.

    PubMed

    Snyder, A W; Buryak, A V; Mitchell, D J

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate, in both two and three dimensions, how a self-guided beam in a non-Kerr medium is split into two beams on weak illumination. We also provide an elegant physical explanation that predicts the universal character of the observed phenomenon. Possible applications of our findings to guiding light with light are also discussed.

  16. Optical signal splitting and chirping device modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Irina L.; Andrianova, Anna V.; Meshkov, Ivan K.; Sultanov, Albert Kh.; Abdrakhmanova, Guzel I.; Grakhova, Elizaveta P.; Ishmyarov, Arsen A.; Yantilina, Liliya Z.; Kutlieva, Gulnaz R.

    2017-04-01

    This article examines the devices for optical signal splitting and chirping device modeling. Models with splitting and switching functions are taken into consideration. The described device for optical signal splitting and chirping represents interferential splitter with profiled mixer which provides allocation of correspondent spectral component from ultra wide band frequency diapason, and signal phase shift for aerial array (AA) directive diagram control. This paper proposes modeling for two types of devices for optical signal splitting and chirping: the interference-type optical signal splitting and chirping device and the long-distance-type optical signal splitting and chirping device.

  17. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter A.

    1988-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described, which uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  18. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter R.

    1989-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described that uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  19. Leaf trait dissimilarities between Dutch elm hybrids with a contrasting tolerance to Dutch elm disease

    PubMed Central

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Čaňová, Ingrid; Lagaňa, Rastislav; Kučerová, Veronika; Moravčík, Michal; Priwitzer, Tibor; Urban, Josef; Dvořák, Miloň; Krajňáková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies have shown that Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causative agent of Dutch elm disease (DED), is able to colonize remote areas in infected plants of Ulmus such as the leaf midrib and secondary veins. The objective of this study was to compare the performances in leaf traits between two Dutch elm hybrids ‘Groeneveld’ and ‘Dodoens’ which possess a contrasting tolerance to DED. Trait linkages were also tested with leaf mass per area (LMA) and with the reduced Young's modulus of elasticity (MOE) as a result of structural, developmental or functional linkages. Methods Measurements and comparisons were made of leaf growth traits, primary xylem density components, gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields between mature plants of ‘Groeneveld’ and ‘Dodoens’ grown under field conditions. A recently developed atomic force microscopy technique, PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical mapping, was used to reveal nanomechanical properties of the cell walls of tracheary elements such as MOE, adhesion and dissipation. Key Results ‘Dodoens’ had significantly higher values for LMA, leaf tissue thickness variables, tracheary element lumen area (A), relative hydraulic conductivity (RC), gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields. ‘Groeneveld’ had stiffer cell walls of tracheary elements, and higher values for water-use efficiency and leaf water potential. Leaves with a large carbon and nutrient investment in LMA tended to have a greater leaf thickness and a higher net photosynthetic rate, but LMA was independent of RC. Significant linkages were also found between the MOE and some vascular traits such as RC, A and the number of tracheary elements per unit area. Conclusions Strong dissimilarities in leaf trait performances were observed between the examined Dutch elm hybrids. Both hybrids were clearly separated from each other in the multivariate leaf trait space. Leaf growth, vascular and gas

  20. [Teledermatology within Dutch nursing homes].

    PubMed

    Lubeek, Satish F K; Mommers, Roland J M; van der Geer, Eric R; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Gerritsen, Marie-Jeanne Rianne P

    2016-06-01

    Skin problems are common within the nursing home population and could have a significant impact on quality of life. As a form of long-distance consultation teledermatology offers several potential benefits within this frail population. In this review we discuss several aspects of teledermatology, especially in relation to the nursing home population. Several studies demonstrated that teledermatology is a cost-effective and easy-to-use consultation method, which could significantly reduce the amount of hospital visits. However, teledermatology is only used in a limited number of Dutch nursing homes in daily practice due to several factors. For the optimal implementation of teledermatological consultation there are some important logistical, legal and financial framework conditions. In conclusion, teledermatology has a lot to offer within the nursing home population and therefore teledermatology will hopefully be increasingly used in daily practice within the near future.

  1. Management Development from a Dutch Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paauwe, Jaap, Ed.; Williams, Roger, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Includes "Seven Key Issues for Management Development" (Paauwe, Williams); "Typology of Management Development" (Jansen, van der Velde, Mul); "Management Development at Royal Dutch/Shell" (Mahieu); "Management Development in Unilever" (Reitsma); "International Co-ordination and Management…

  2. Development concept for Dutch user support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronk, C. N. A.; Koopman, N.; Dehoop, D.

    1992-06-01

    The main development approaches and some technologies developed in support of the different objectives of the Dutch Utilization Center (DUC) are reported. The DUC acts as a point of coordination of Dutch user support activities. The support needs of the user are analyzed and from there the required support efforts of the entities in the Dutch User Support Organization (DUSO) are activated. The main objectives of the DUSO are to promote the availability of the Columbus Space Station infrastructure among potential Dutch users, and to assist the users during the process of experiment definition, development, execution, and results evaluation. The DUSO support activities cover promotion and familiarization, and administrative, scientific, technical, and operational support to microgravity and space experimentation. The DUC developmental approaches consist of two approaches: a top down or formal approach; and a bottom up approach.

  3. Dutch research reforms cause a stir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Martijn

    2015-02-01

    All 69 winners of the Spinoza prize - the highest award in Dutch science - have signed a petition against proposed reforms to the country's leading funding agency, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  4. High efficiency beam splitting for H/sup -/ accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H/sup -/ accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H/sup -/ beam to H/sup 0/ which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ splitting of a 50 MeV H/sup -/ beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction.

  5. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee testing...

  6. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee testing...

  7. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee testing...

  8. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee testing...

  9. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee testing...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack. ...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack. ...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a...

  14. Low frequency split cycle cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bian, S. X.; Zhang, Y. D.; Wan, W. W.; Wang, L.; Hu, Q. C.

    1985-01-01

    A split cycle Stirling cryocooler with two different drive motors and operating at a low drive frequency can have high thermodynamic efficiency. The temperature of the cold end of the cryocooler varies with drive frequency, voltage of the input electrical power and initial charge pressure values. The cryocooler operating at 8 Hz can provide 7 watts of refrigeration at 77 K for 230 watts of electrical input power.

  15. Torsional Split Hopkinson Bar Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    is the torsional wave speed . Also, one can relate the torque with the yield stress of the material, as seen in equation 2; where r is the radius of...be equal to the mechanical impedance of the bars. In other words, the product of density, speed of wave and polar moment of inertia must remain...pillow blocks used to mount the incident and transmitter bars are cast iron based- mounted Babbitt-lined bearing split, for 1 in. shaft diameter

  16. Testing split supersymmetry with inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Green, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Split supersymmetry (SUSY) — in which SUSY is relevant to our universe but largely inaccessible at current accelerators — has become increasingly plausible given the absence of new physics at the LHC, the success of gauge coupling unification, and the observed Higgs mass. Indirect probes of split SUSY such as electric dipole moments (EDMs) and flavor violation offer hope for further evidence but are ultimately limited in their reach. Inflation offers an alternate window into SUSY through the direct production of superpartners during inflation. These particles are capable of leaving imprints in future cosmological probes of primordial non-gaussianity. Given the recent observations of BICEP2, the scale of inflation is likely high enough to probe the full range of split SUSY scenarios and therefore offers a unique advantage over low energy probes. The key observable for future experiments is equilateral non-gaussianity, which will be probed by both cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large scale structure (LSS) surveys. In the event of a detection, we forecast our ability to find evidence for superpartners through the scaling behavior in the squeezed limit of the bispectrum.

  17. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  18. Ethnic Identity, Externalizing Problem Behaviour and the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem among Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Yagmur, Sengul; Stams, Geert Jan; de Haan, Mariette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between two aspects of ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity commitment-affirmation) and externalizing problem behaviour in Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents living in the Netherlands. A total number of 345 adolescents (115…

  19. Dutch pediatricians' views on the use of neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, K; van de Vathorst, S

    2015-07-01

    To assess Dutch pediatricians' views on neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates. Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 10 Dutch pediatricians working with severely ill neonates. Data were analyzed using appropriate qualitative research techniques. Participants explained their view on neuromuscular blockers for neonates with a protracted dying process. Major themes were the interpretation of gasping, the role of (the suffering of) the parents, the need for judicial review and legislation's impact on the care participants provide for dying neonates. The interviews show no consensus between pediatricians and provide insights into the points of disagreement. Interviews also suggest friction between the convictions of pediatricians and legislation, which seems to have an undesirable impact on Dutch care for dying neonates and their parents. This study raises important questions for pediatricians worldwide to reflect upon, such as: 'what constitutes 'dying well'?' and 'what role should the parents' perspective play?'.

  20. Split Thickness Skin Graft to Lower Leg.

    PubMed

    Fuller, David A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the steps of harvesting, meshing, and applying a split thickness skin graft (STSG) to a lower leg to cover a lateral fasciotomy wound. A patient with a gunshot wound to his tibia has already undergone intramedullary rodding of the fracture and has had and medial and lateral fasciotomies for compartment syndrome. In the video, the lateral leg wound is covered with an STSG from the ipsilateral, lateral thigh. The graft is harvested with a dermatome, then meshed, and then inset for full coverage of the wound. A sterile, negative pressure dressing is applied at the conclusion of the case. The video is 5 minutes, 46 seconds duration in time and 1,922,884,000 bytes in size. Various techniques of STSG have been described. This video demonstrates a successful strategy for coverage of a lateral leg wound with an STSG and negative pressure dressing.

  1. EQUAL OPTICAL PATH BEAM SPLITTERS BY USE OF AMPLITUDE-SPLITTING AND WAVEFRONT-SPLITTING METHODS FOR PENCIL BEAM INTERFEROMETER.

    SciTech Connect

    QIAN,S.TAKACS,P.

    2003-08-03

    A beam splitter to create two separated parallel beams is a critical unit of a pencil beam interferometer, for example the long trace profiler (LTP). The operating principle of the beam splitter can be based upon either amplitude-splitting (AS) or wavefront-splitting (WS). For precision measurements with the LTP, an equal optical path system with two parallel beams is desired. Frequency drift of the light source in a non-equal optical path system will cause the interference fringes to drift. An equal optical path prism beam splitter with an amplitude-splitting (AS-EBS) beam splitter and a phase shift beam splitter with a wavefront-splitting (WS-PSBS) are introduced. These beam splitters are well suited to the stability requirement for a pencil beam interferometer due to the characteristics of monolithic structure and equal optical path. Several techniques to produce WS-PSBS by hand are presented. In addition, the WS-PSBS using double thin plates, made from microscope cover plates, has great advantages of economy, convenience, availability and ease of adjustment over other beam splitting methods. Comparison of stability measurements made with the AS-EBS, WS-PSBS, and other beam splitters is presented.

  2. Are GP patients' needs being met? Unfulfilled information needs among native-Dutch and Turkish-Dutch patients.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Sanne; Schouten, Barbara C; van Weert, Julia C M

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to assess unfulfilled information needs of native-Dutch and Turkish-Dutch general practitioner (GP) patients in the Netherlands. In addition, the relation between perceived and recorded information provision by GPs is studied. Unfulfilled information needs of native-Dutch (N=117) and Turkish-Dutch patients (N=74) were assessed through pre- and post-consultation questionnaires. Audiotapes of GP consultations were made to code GPs' information provision. Turkish-Dutch patients experience more unfulfilled information needs than native-Dutch patients, in particular those who identify equally with Dutch and Turkish culture. Overall, perceived information provision is hardly related to recorded information provision. GPs insufficiently provide Turkish-Dutch patients and, to a lesser extent, native-Dutch patients as well, the information they need. GPs should be trained in giving adequate, tailored information to patients with various ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 77 FR 41909 - Safety Zone; Port of Dutch Harbor; Dutch Harbor, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... unusually high volume of vessel traffic in the Port of Dutch Harbor, Alaska, and the adjacent territorial sea due to additional vessel traffic associated with exploratory drilling operations in the Chukchi... high vessel traffic in the Port of Dutch Harbor and the adjacent territorial sea, and the event is...

  4. Detection of merger and splitting of extra-tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kew, Sarah; Hanley, John

    2013-04-01

    Results from the project IMILAST (Intercomparison of mid-latitude storm diagnostics) show that, despite a wide variety in the 15 cyclone identification and tracking techniques considered, a reasonable agreement on tracks of intense cyclones can be reached, at least in the central intensifying stage of the cyclone life cycle. In contrast, diagnostics of cyclone genesis and lysis events show reduced agreement amongst the methods with genesis and lysis density maps exhibiting coherence over smaller spatial scales. Recent work by Hanley and Caballero claims that multi-centre cyclones occur more frequently as storm intensity increases, with an associated increase in the probability of spurious splittings by single-centre tracking routines. We investigate whether the methodological differences in handling of cyclone merger and splitting are responsible for the range in genesis/lysis outcomes exhibited in IMILAST results or whether other factors, such as cyclone definition, have more influence over the spread. The study is focussed on a number of selected cases of intense cyclones that undergo a clear merger or splitting. Of the methods contributing to the IMILAST project, three explicitly handle cyclone merger and splitting. In demonstrating the differences between the techniques, we explore what each approach has to offer.

  5. Analysis and study of the variation of splitting in the second heartbeat sound of wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Debbal, S M; Bereksi-Reguig, F

    2006-01-01

    The second heart sound, S2, consists of two acoustic components, A2 and P2. The former is due to the closure of the aortic valve and the latter is due to the closure of the pulmonary valve. The aortic valve usually closes before the pulmonary valve, introducing a time delay known as the 'split'. A technique based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is developed in this paper to measure the split. To quantify splitting, two components in S2 (i.e. A2 and P2) are identified, and the delay between the two components can be estimated. One normal case and three pathological cases (mitral stenosis, pulmonary stenosis and atrial septal defect) are considered in this study. The split is measured for each S2 sound of the considered signals. The split normally varies in duration over the cardiac cycle. In certain pathologies such as ASD (atrial septal defect) or PS (pulmonary stenosis), the split becomes fixed over the cardiac cycle. The main part of this paper consists of the identification and measurement of the S2 split. The study confirms the notion of 'variable splitting' for normal phonocardiogram and 'fixed splitting' for ASD and PS cases. This paper relates also to the establishment of statistical parameters to make a distinction between normal and pathological cases of phonocardiogram signals.

  6. StackSplit - a plugin for multi-event shear wave splitting analyses in SplitLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grund, Michael

    2017-08-01

    SplitLab is a powerful and widely used tool for analysing seismological shear wave splitting of single event measurements. However, in many cases, especially temporary station deployments close to the noisy seaside, ocean bottom or for recordings affected by strong anthropogenic noise, only multi-event approaches provide stable and reliable splitting results. In order to extend the original SplitLab environment for such analyses, I present the StackSplit plugin that can easily be implemented within the well accepted main program. StackSplit grants easy access to several different analysis approaches within SplitLab, including a new multiple waveform based inversion method as well as the most established standard stacking procedures. The possibility to switch between different analysis approaches at any time allows the user for the most flexible processing of individual multi-event splitting measurements for a single recording station. Besides the provided functions of the plugin, no other external program is needed for the multi-event analyses since StackSplit performs within the available SplitLab structure which is based on MATLAB. The effectiveness and use of this plugin is demonstrated with data examples of a long running seismological recording station in Finland.

  7. Splitting a colon geometry with multiplanar clipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, David K.; Vining, David J.; Ge, Yaorong; Stelts, David R.

    1998-06-01

    Virtual colonoscopy, a recent three-dimensional (3D) visualization technique, has provided radiologists with a unique diagnostic tool. Using this technique, a radiologist can examine the internal morphology of a patient's colon by navigating through a surface-rendered model that is constructed from helical computed tomography image data. Virtual colonoscopy can be used to detect early forms of colon cancer in a way that is less invasive and expensive compared to conventional endoscopy. However, the common approach of 'flying' through the colon lumen to visually search for polyps is tedious and time-consuming, especially when a radiologist loses his or her orientation within the colon. Furthermore, a radiologist's field of view is often limited by the 3D camera position located inside the colon lumen. We have developed a new technique, called multi-planar geometry clipping, that addresses these problems. Our algorithm divides a complex colon anatomy into several smaller segments, and then splits each of these segments in half for display on a static medium. Multi-planar geometry clipping eliminates virtual colonoscopy's dependence upon expensive, real-time graphics workstations by enabling radiologists to globally inspect the entire internal surface of the colon from a single viewpoint.

  8. Parallel BLAST on split databases.

    PubMed

    Mathog, David R

    2003-09-22

    BLAST programs often run on large SMP machines where multiple threads can work simultaneously and there is enough memory to cache the databases between program runs. A group of programs is described which allows comparable performance to be achieved with a Beowulf configuration in which no node has enough memory to cache a database but the cluster as an aggregate does. To achieve this result, databases are split into equal sized pieces and stored locally on each node. Each query is run on all nodes in parallel and the resultant BLAST output files from all nodes merged to yield the final output. Source code is available from ftp://saf.bio.caltech.edu/

  9. 1. PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND UNALASKA FROM THE TOP OF LITTLE SOUTH AMERICA - Naval Operating Base Dutch Harbor & Fort Mears, Hill 400 Fixed Defense Battery Command Post, Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, AK

  10. PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND UNALASKA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND UNALASKA FROM THE TOP OF LITTLE SOUTH AMERICA - Naval Operating Base Dutch Harbor & Fort Mears, Hill 400 Fixed Defense Battery Command Post, Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, AK

  11. String theorist quits Dutch science for top US role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Martijn

    2011-12-01

    Top Dutch string theorist Robbert Dijkgraaf is to become director of the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, US - just months after accepting a second term as president of the Dutch Royal Academy of Sciences (KNAW).

  12. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples.

    PubMed

    Celenk, Ozgur; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The Netherlands), and 17 Dutch (mainstream couples living in The Netherlands) married dyads (total of 98 individuals) were independently interviewed about positive and negative characteristics of marriages, determinants of general marital satisfaction and dissatisfaction, spousal communication, marital conflict, and marital roles. Multivariate tests revealed ethnic group differences on all marriage-related domains except the conflict resolution strategies. However, univariate analyses showed differences in few themes within domains; main differences were assessed between the Turkish/Turkish-Dutch (who put more emphasis on children and economical aspects) and Dutch couples (who put more emphasis on behavior, and personality of the spouse, reciprocity, emotional sharing, and psychological roles). Turkish-Dutch couples were more similar to Turkish than to Dutch couples. Results were discussed in light of the socioeconomic development and cultural value theories, which are believed to provide a useful framework for understanding the role of culture in marital satisfaction.

  13. Gas treatment installed on Dutch North Sea platform

    SciTech Connect

    Festen, L.J.F.M.; Bronneberg, J.P.A.; Brugman, W.P.T.; Hartmann, D.W.; Huber, B.L.

    1995-03-20

    Installation offshore of a treating system for Amoco Netherlands Petroleum Co. to bring natural gas and condensate up to sales specifications runs counter to conventional development practices of putting such systems on land. The processing scheme is for the P/15-P/18 project in the Dutch North Sea. The project is integrated with the nearby Rijn field production. The field produces up to 13.4 million standard cu m/day (scmd; 500 MMscfd) of gas and 1,900 cu m/day (cmd) of hydrocarbon condensate (12,000 b/d). Four interconnected process units (gas dew point control, vapor recovery, condensate stabilization, and CH{sub 3}OH recovery) were designed to split completely the fluids from the inlet system into pipeline quality gas, stable condensate, clean water, and CH{sub 3}OH for reinjection. The paper describes the platforms and pipelines, the processing units, vapor and methanol recovery utilities, and start up. The methanol is injected into the initial gas stream to control hydrate formation.

  14. DNA barcoding of Dutch birds

    PubMed Central

    Aliabadian, Mansour; Beentjes, Kevin K.; Roselaar, C.S. (Kees); van Brandwijk, Hans; Nijman, Vincent; Vonk, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification of animal species, and has been applied in a number of studies on birds. We here sequenced the COI gene for 387 individuals of 147 species of birds from the Netherlands, with 83 species being represented by > 2 sequences. The Netherlands occupies a small geographic area and 95% of all samples were collected within a 50 km radius from one another. The intraspecific divergences averaged 0.29% among this assemblage, but most values were lower; the interspecific divergences averaged 9.54%. In all, 95% of species were represented by a unique barcode, with 6 species of gulls and skua (Larus and Stercorarius) having at least one shared barcode. This is best explained by these species representing recent radiations with ongoing hybridization. In contrast, one species, the Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca showed deep divergences, averaging 5.76% and up to 8.68% between individuals. These possibly represent two distinct taxa, S. curruca and S. blythi, both clearly separated in a haplotype network analysis. Our study adds to a growing body of DNA barcodes that have become available for birds, and shows that a DNA barcoding approach enables to identify known Dutch bird species with a very high resolution. In addition some species were flagged up for further detailed taxonomic investigation, illustrating that even in ornithologically well-known areas such as the Netherlands, more is to be learned about the birds that are present. PMID:24453549

  15. Enhancement of Stratified Charge for DISI Engines through Split Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tie; Nishida, Keiya; Zhang, Yuyin; Onoe, Tuyoshi; Hiroyau, Hiroyuki

    The effect of split injection on the mixture characteristics of DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engines was investigated firstly by the Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique. Through splitting the fuel injection process, two possible benefits were found: 1) High density liquid droplets piling up at the leading edge of the spray can be circumvented, subsequently the reduction of the spray tip penetration; 2) The quantity of “over lean” (φv<0.7, φv: equivalence ratio of vapor) mixture in the spray can be significantly reduced. These are believed to contribute to the reduction of the engine-out smoke and HC emissions. In order to clarify the mechanism behind the effect of the split injection, the spray-induced ambient air motion was investigated by the LIF-PIV technique. The strong ambient air entrainment into the tail region of the spray and a counter-vortex structure were found in both the single and split injections. In the case of the single injection, the spray develops in extending its length, subsequently a larger volume results and thus it is diluted to “over lean” by the ambient air entrainment. In contrast, in the case of split injection, the second spray is injected into the tail region of the first spray and its evaporation is promoted by the ambient air motion induced by the first spray. Hence the replenishment of the liquid fuel into the leading edge of the first spray is reduced. As a consequence, the high density liquid droplets piling up at the leading edge is avoided. Furthermore, a more compact spray results so that the ambient air motion plays a positive role on evaporating the spray into “more combustible” (0.7<φv<1.3). This is especially true in the tail region of the spray and the region where the counter-vortex motion is occurring.

  16. Metrical Segmentation in Dutch: Vowel Quality or Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quene, Hugo; Koster, Mariette L.

    1998-01-01

    Examines metrical segmentation strategy in Dutch. The first experiment shows that stress strongly affects Dutch listeners' ability and speed in spotting Dutch monosyllabic words in disyllabic nonwords. The second experiment finds the same stress effect when only the target words are presented without a subsequent syllable triggering segmentation.…

  17. The Dutch Perspective on NATO Development during the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    government tried to get a favorable defensive line accepted in NATO, covering as much territory as possible. The Dutch lobbied for a blue water naval...interests within NATO. The Dutch government tried to get a favorable defensive line accepted in NATO, covering as much territory as possible. The Dutch...

  18. A Reference Grammar of Dutch, with Exercises and Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehringer, Carol

    This textbook provides an accessible reference grammar of the Dutch language for English-speaking students of Dutch to help consolidate their knowledge through practical exercises on a whole range of grammatical topics. It is intended both for beginners and intermediate level students. Advanced learners of Dutch wishing to review particular…

  19. Measurement of two-dimensional periodical flow behind turbine guide-vanes by means of a split-fiber probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, H.

    1985-06-01

    The accuracy of a split fiber hot-sensor anemometer in measuring nonstationary flow behind turbine guide vanes is discussed. The techniques used to calibrate split fiber probes are described, and experimental results are presented concerning the sources of error in flow measurements over a temperature range of 20 degrees. It is shown that the split fiber anemometer design compares favorably with hot-wire anemometers which require additional instrumentation for transforming the measuring value into an electrical signal.

  20. High Performance Split-Stirling Cooler Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    7 SPLIT- STIRLING CYCLE CRYOCOOLER . ...... . . . . . 13 8 TEMPERATURE-SHOCK COMPARISON PERFORMANCE DATA, S/N 002 . . 23 9 TEMPERATURE-SHOCK...PERFORMANCE SPLIT- STIRLING "COOLER PROGRAM FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT "September 1982 Prepared for NIGHT VISION AND ELECTRO-OPTICS LABORATORI ES "Contract DAAK70...REPORT & P.Vt2OO COVERED HIGH PERFORMANCE SPLIT- STIRLING COOLER PROGRAM Final Technical Sept. 1979. - Sept. 1982 S. PERPORMING ORO. REPORT KUMMER

  1. The Dutch Euthanasia Act: recent legal developments.

    PubMed

    Legemaate, Johan; Bolt, Ineke

    2013-12-01

    The Dutch Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide Act [Wet toetsing levensbeëindiging op verzoek en hulp bij zelfdoding (Wtl)] came into force in 2002. Its aim is to increase the degree of due care exercised by physicians when terminating a patient's life and to provide a legal framework within which physicians account for their actions in such cases. On the basis of the second evaluation of the Act, published in December 2012, this article provides an overview of the most recent legal developments regarding the Dutch Euthanasia Act. Special attention is given to patients with dementia, psychiatric patients and patient who are "weary of life".

  2. Arthroscopic Anatomic Glenoid Reconstruction Without Subscapularis Split

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ivan H.; Urquhart, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The role of bone loss from the anterior glenoid in recurrent shoulder instability has been well established. We present a completely arthroscopic technique for reconstructing the anterior glenoid with distal tibial allograft and without a subscapularis split. We perform the arthroscopy in the lateral position. We measure and size an allograft distal tibial graft and place it arthroscopically. We use an inside-out medial portal to introduce the graft into the shoulder, passing it through the rotator interval and above the subscapularis. A double-cannula system is used to pass the graft, which is temporarily fixed with K-wires and held in place with cannulated screws. We then perform a Bankart-like repair of the soft tissues to balance the shoulder and augment our repair. Our technique is not only anatomic in the re-creation of the glenoid surface but also anatomic in the preservation of the coracoid and subscapularis tendon and repair of the capsulolabral complex. PMID:26697303

  3. Development of new flux splitting schemes. [computational fluid dynamics algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Maximizing both accuracy and efficiency has been the primary objective in designing a numerical algorithm for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is especially important for solutions of complex three dimensional systems of Navier-Stokes equations which often include turbulence modeling and chemistry effects. Recently, upwind schemes have been well received for their capability in resolving discontinuities. With this in mind, presented are two new flux splitting techniques for upwind differencing. The first method is based on High-Order Polynomial Expansions (HOPE) of the mass flux vector. The second new flux splitting is based on the Advection Upwind Splitting Method (AUSM). The calculation of the hypersonic conical flow demonstrates the accuracy of the splitting in resolving the flow in the presence of strong gradients. A second series of tests involving the two dimensional inviscid flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil demonstrates the ability of the AUSM to resolve the shock discontinuity at transonic speed. A third case calculates a series of supersonic flows over a circular cylinder. Finally, the fourth case deals with tests of a two dimensional shock wave/boundary layer interaction.

  4. Learning Styles of Chinese and Dutch Students Compared within the Context of Dutch Higher Education in Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemans, Harm; Van Mil, Marc

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the learning styles of Chinese students differ from those of Dutch students. The study was conducted within the context of English language Bachelor of Science programmes that Wageningen University offers together with China Agricultural University to Dutch and Chinese students. Sixteen Dutch students…

  5. ISODATA: Thresholds for splitting clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E. P. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The parameter AD (average distance) as used in the ISODATA program was critically examined. Thresholds of AD to decide on the splitting of clusters were obtained. For the univariate case, 0.84 was established as a sound choice, after examining several simple, as well as composite, distributions and also after investigating the probability of misclassification when points have to be reassigned to the newly identified clusters. For the multivariate case, the empirical threshold (N-0.16)/square root of N was extrapolated. A final criticism on AD was that AD would lose its effectiveness as a discriminative measure for the present purpose when N was large.

  6. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  7. Dephasing in coherently split quasicondensates

    SciTech Connect

    Stimming, H.-P.; Mauser, N. J.; Mazets, I. E.

    2011-02-15

    We numerically model the evolution of a pair of coherently split quasicondensates. A truly one-dimensional case is assumed, so that the loss of the (initially high) coherence between the two quasicondensates is due to dephasing only, but not due to the violation of integrability and subsequent thermalization (which are excluded from the present model). We confirm the subexponential time evolution of the coherence between two quasicondensates {proportional_to}exp[-(t/t{sub 0}){sup 2/3}], experimentally observed by Hofferberth et al. [Nature 449, 324 (2007)]. The characteristic time t{sub 0} is found to scale as the square of the ratio of the linear density of a quasicondensate to its temperature, and we analyze the full distribution function of the interference contrast and the decay of the phase correlation.

  8. Gauge mediated mini-split

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Timothy; Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon

    2016-03-15

    We propose a simple model of split supersymmetry from gauge mediation. This model features gauginos that are parametrically a loop factor lighter than scalars, accommodates a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV, and incorporates a simple solution to the μ–bμ problem. The gaugino mass suppression can be understood as resulting from collective symmetry breaking. Imposing collider bounds on μ and requiring viable electroweak symmetry breaking implies small a-terms and small tan β — the stop mass ranges from 105 to 108 GeV. In contrast with models with anomaly + gravity mediation (which also predict a one-loop loop suppression for gaugino masses), our gauge mediated scenario predicts aligned squark masses and a gravitino LSP. Gluinos, electroweakinos and Higgsinos can be accessible at the LHC and/or future colliders for a wide region of the allowed parameter space.

  9. Emittance compensation in split photoinjectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floettmann, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The compensation of correlated emittance contributions is of primary importance to optimize the performance of high brightness photoinjectors. While only extended numerical simulations can capture the complex beam dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams in sufficient detail to optimize a specific injector layout, simplified models are required to gain a deeper understanding of the involved dynamics, to guide the optimization procedure, and to interpret experimental results. In this paper, a slice envelope model for the emittance compensation process in a split photoinjector is presented. The emittance term is included in the analytical solution of the beam envelope in a drift, which is essential to take the emittance contribution due to a beam size mismatch into account. The appearance of two emittance minima in the drift is explained, and the matching into the booster cavity is discussed. A comparison with simulation results points out effects which are not treated in the envelope model, such as overfocusing and field nonlinearities.

  10. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2010-06-14

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  11. Method for carbon dioxide splitting

    DOEpatents

    Miller, James E.; Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Siegel, Nathan P.

    2017-02-28

    A method for splitting carbon dioxide via a two-step metal oxide thermochemical cycle by heating a metal oxide compound selected from an iron oxide material of the general formula A.sub.xFe.sub.3-xO.sub.4, where 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1 and A is a metal selected from Mg, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, and Mn, or a ceria oxide compound of the general formula M.sub.aCe.sub.bO.sub.c, where 0

  12. Split Immunological Tolerance to Trophoblast

    PubMed Central

    de Mestre, Amanda; Noronha, Leela; Wagner, Bettina; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Split immunological tolerance refers to states in which an individual is capable of mounting certain types of immune responses to a particular antigenic challenge, but is tolerant of the same antigen in other compartments of the immune system. This concept is applicable to the immunological relationship between mother and fetus, and particularly relevant in equine pregnancy. In pregnant mares, antibody responses to paternal foreign Major Histocompatibility Complex class I antigens are robust, while anti-paternal cytotoxic T cell responses are diminished compared to those mounted by non-pregnant mares. Here we compared the distribution of the major lymphocyte subsets, the percentage of lymphocytes expressing Interferon Gamma (IFNG) and Interleukin 4 (IL4) and the level of expression of the immunoregulatory transcription factor FOXP3 between pregnant and non-pregnant mares, and between peripheral blood and the endometrium during pregnancy. In a cohort of mares in which peripheral blood lymphocytes were tested during early pregnancy and in the non-pregnant state, there were only slight changes observed during pregnancy. In contrast, comparison of peripheral blood lymphocytes with lymphocytes isolated from the endometrial cups of pregnant mares revealed striking differences in lymphocyte sub-populations. The endometrial cups contained higher numbers of IFNG+ lymphocytes, and lower numbers of lymphocytes expressing IL4. The endometrial cup lymphocytes also had higher numbers of FOXP3+ cells compared to peripheral blood lymphocytes. Taken together, these results strengthen the evidence for a state of split tolerance to trophoblast, and furthermore define sharp differences in immune reactivity during equine pregnancy between peripheral blood lymphocytes and lymphocytes at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:19876828

  13. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  14. GOING DUTCH WHY THE DUTCH DO NOT SPEND 2% GDP ON DEFENSE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    March 2017 elections. It first regards the Dutch constitution, the Dutch welfare state and the political landscape which explains why the social ...likely to become even more splintered. However, three main groups – Social Democrats, Christian Democrats and 9 Liberals– have been alternately...progressive evangelical and communist views of society.22 Nowadays, GL mainly focuses on environmental issues and broad social reforms. GL does not

  15. Targets and Tools in Dutch Access Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Frans; Vossensteyn, Hans

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science set a concrete target: by 2010, close to 50% of the age cohort should participate in higher education, following the targets set in the UK and Sweden. However clear the target is set, the ways to achieve it are far less specified. In the article a number of possible instruments to…

  16. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  17. Practical Work in Dutch School Physics Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkerk, G.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated what abilities and objectives can be measured on practical tests. Results suggest that these tests be composed of separate parts which measure the ability to perform an experiment and the ability to interpret and analyze an experiment. A brief description of the Dutch school system is included. (JN)

  18. Government as Electronic Publishers? The Dutch Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwman, Harry; Nouwens, John

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the accessibility of government information focuses on how the Dutch government has tried to improve accessibility in six particular cases of electronic publishing. Topics include public-private partnerships, technological barriers of accessibility, outsourcing, and decentralization. (Author/LRW)

  19. School Leadership and Equity: Dutch Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence describing how school principals respond to the changing socioeconomic position and ethnic identities of the urban population. In this paper such empirical evidence is presented in respect of three primary school leaders in the Dutch cities of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. The schools selected were identified as…

  20. Dutch national rainfallradar project: a unique corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuurmans, Hanneke; Maarten Verbree, Jan; Leijnse, Hidde; van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Bierkens, Mark; van de Giesen, Nick; Gooijer, Jan; van den Houten, Gert

    2013-04-01

    Since January 2013 Dutch watermanagers have access to innovative high-quality rainfall data. This product is innovative because of the following reasons. (i) The product is developed in a 'golden triangle' construction - corporation between government, business and research institutes. (ii) Second the rainfall products are developed according to the open-source GPL license. The initiative comes from a group of water boards in the Netherlands that joined their forces to fund the development of a new rainfall product. Not only data from Dutch radar stations (as is currently done by the Dutch meteorological organization KNMI) is used but also data from radars in Germany and Belgium. After a radarcomposite is made, it is adjusted according to data from raingauges (ground truth). This results in 9 different rainfall products that give for each moment the best rainfall data. This data will be used, depending on the end-user for several applications: (i) forecasts: input for flood early warning systems, (ii) water system analysis: hydrological model input, (iii) optimization: real time control and (iv) investigation of incidents: in case of flooding, who's responsible. The latter is mainly insight in the return period of heavy rainfall events. More info (in Dutch): www.nationaleregenradar.nl

  1. The Dutch Experience with Weighted Student Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Edward B.; Ladd, Helen F.

    2010-01-01

    Weighted student funding (WSF) is used in several U.S. cities as a method for providing more funds to schools with high concentrations of disadvantaged students. The practice has been used successfully in the Netherlands since 1985. Several factors make the success of the Dutch system unlikely to transfer to the United States, including the Dutch…

  2. Preaccentual Pitch and Speaker Attitude in Dutch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, Esther; Gussenhoven, Carlos; Haan, Judith; Marsi, Erwin; Post, Brecht Je

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the communicative significance of the pitch of the initial unstressed syllables in Dutch intonation contours, as may be heard, for instance, on unstressed utterance-initial function words like "Ze zijn" in "Ze zijn klaar (they are ready), or the initial unstressed syllables of utterance-initial polysyllabic words, like…

  3. School Leadership and Equity: Dutch Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence describing how school principals respond to the changing socioeconomic position and ethnic identities of the urban population. In this paper such empirical evidence is presented in respect of three primary school leaders in the Dutch cities of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. The schools selected were identified as…

  4. Citizenship Education in the Dutch Multiethnic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Yvonne; Pels, Trees

    2006-01-01

    The main question addressed in this article is how, in light of the multiethnic composition of its population, Dutch education is and should be educating its citizens. Popular politicians and mainstream media advocate discipline-oriented approaches. The authors argue that citizenship education seems to be taking a one-sided turn in Dutch…

  5. The Dutch Experiment in Developing Adult Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haanstra, Folkert H.

    1999-01-01

    The philosophy underlying Dutch creativity centers has been shifting between focus on the intrinsic values of art itself and the instrumental use of art for developmental and social purposes. A more cognitive approach to art education for adults can guide future innovation in the centers. (SK)

  6. Dutch Defensive Preparations, 1933-1940

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-02

    RG 165, NA; Adriaan J. Barnouw., The Dutch (New York: Columbia University Press, 1940), p. 7; ana James H. Huizinga , "Holland in the War," in Landheer...The government selected LTG Henri Gerard Winkelman, who had retired in 1934, to replace Reynders. As events unfolded, he had only three months to

  7. Dutch elm disease control: performance and costs

    Treesearch

    William N., Jr. Cannon; David P. Worley

    1980-01-01

    Municipal programs to suppress Dutch elm disease have had highly variable results. Performance as measured by tree mortality was unrelated to control strategies. Costs for control programs were 37 to 76 percent less than costs without control programs in the 15-year time-span of the study. Only those municipalities that conducted a high-performance program could be...

  8. Dutch elm disease control: performance and costs

    Treesearch

    William N., Jr. Cannon; David P. Worley

    1976-01-01

    Municipal programs to suppress Dutch elm disease have had highly variable results. Performance as measured by tree mortality was unrelated to control strategies. Costs for control programs were 37 to 76 percent less than costs without control programs in the 15-year time-span of the study. Only those municipalities that conducted a high-performance program could be...

  9. Split-bolus MR urography: synchronous visualization of obstructing vessels and collecting system in children.

    PubMed

    Battal, Bilal; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Akgün, Veysel; İnce, Selami; Gök, Faysal; Taşar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Several vascular abnormalities related with urinary system such as crossing accessory renal vessels, retroiliac ureters, retrocaval ureters, posterior nutcracker syndrome, and ovarian vein syndrome may be responsible for urinary collecting system obstruction. Split-bolus magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using contrast material as two separate bolus injections provides superior demonstration of the collecting system and obstructing vascular anomalies simultaneously and enables accurate preoperative radiologic diagnosis. In this pictorial review we aimed to outline the split-bolus MRU technique in children, list the coexisting congenital collecting system and vascular abnormalities, and exhibit the split-bolus MRU appearances of concurrent urinary collecting system and vascular abnormalities.

  10. Split-bolus MR urography: synchronous visualization of obstructing vessels and collecting system in children

    PubMed Central

    Battal, Bilal; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Akgün, Veysel; İnce, Selami; Gök, Faysal; Taşar, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Several vascular abnormalities related with urinary system such as crossing accessory renal vessels, retroiliac ureters, retrocaval ureters, posterior nutcracker syndrome, and ovarian vein syndrome may be responsible for urinary collecting system obstruction. Split-bolus magnetic resonance urography (MRU) using contrast material as two separate bolus injections provides superior demonstration of the collecting system and obstructing vascular anomalies simultaneously and enables accurate preoperative radiologic diagnosis. In this pictorial review we aimed to outline the split-bolus MRU technique in children, list the coexisting congenital collecting system and vascular abnormalities, and exhibit the split-bolus MRU appearances of concurrent urinary collecting system and vascular abnormalities. PMID:26359874

  11. A Split-Root Technique for Measuring Root Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Kingsley B.; Rawlins, Stephen L.

    1981-01-01

    Water encounters various resistances in moving along a path of decreasing potential energy from the soil through the plant to the atmosphere. The reported relative magnitudes of these pathway resistances vary widely and often these results are conflicting. One reason for such inconsistency is the difficulty in measuring the potential drop across various segments of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The measurement of water potentials at the soil-root interface and in the root xylem of a transpiring plant remains a challenging problem. In the divided root experiment reported here, the measured water potential of an enclosed, nonabsorbing branch of the root system of young corn (Bonanza) plants to infer the water potential of the remaining roots growing in soil was used. The selected root branch of the seedling was grown in a specially constructed Teflon test tube into which a screen-enclosed thermocouple psychrometer was inserted and sealed to monitor the root's water potential. The root and its surrounding atmosphere were assumed to be in vapor equilibrium. Images PMID:16661886

  12. SMART: Unique Splitting-While-Merging Framework for Gene Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Fa, Rui; Roberts, David J.; Nandi, Asoke K.

    2014-01-01

    Successful clustering algorithms are highly dependent on parameter settings. The clustering performance degrades significantly unless parameters are properly set, and yet, it is difficult to set these parameters a priori. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a unique splitting-while-merging clustering framework, named “splitting merging awareness tactics” (SMART), which does not require any a priori knowledge of either the number of clusters or even the possible range of this number. Unlike existing self-splitting algorithms, which over-cluster the dataset to a large number of clusters and then merge some similar clusters, our framework has the ability to split and merge clusters automatically during the process and produces the the most reliable clustering results, by intrinsically integrating many clustering techniques and tasks. The SMART framework is implemented with two distinct clustering paradigms in two algorithms: competitive learning and finite mixture model. Nevertheless, within the proposed SMART framework, many other algorithms can be derived for different clustering paradigms. The minimum message length algorithm is integrated into the framework as the clustering selection criterion. The usefulness of the SMART framework and its algorithms is tested in demonstration datasets and simulated gene expression datasets. Moreover, two real microarray gene expression datasets are studied using this approach. Based on the performance of many metrics, all numerical results show that SMART is superior to compared existing self-splitting algorithms and traditional algorithms. Three main properties of the proposed SMART framework are summarized as: (1) needing no parameters dependent on the respective dataset or a priori knowledge about the datasets, (2) extendible to many different applications, (3) offering superior performance compared with counterpart algorithms. PMID:24714159

  13. Precision aligned split V-block

    DOEpatents

    George, Irwin S.

    1984-01-01

    A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

  14. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  15. Splitting in Schizophrenia and Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pec, Ondrej; Bob, Petr; Raboch, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Background Splitting describes fragmentation of conscious experience that may occur in various psychiatric disorders. A purpose of this study is to examine relationships between psychological process of splitting and disturbed cognitive and affective functions in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Methods In the clinical study, we have assessed 30 patients with schizophrenia and 35 patients with BPD. The symptoms of splitting were measured using self-reported Splitting Index (SI). As a measure of semantic memory disorganization we have used verbal fluency test. Other psychopathological symptoms were assessed using Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS). Results Main results show that SI is significantly higher in BPD group than in schizophrenia, and on the other hand, verbal fluency is significantly lower in schizophrenia group. Psychopathological symptoms measured by HoNOS are significantly higher in the BPD group than in schizophrenia. Significant relationship was found between verbal fluency and the SI “factor of others” (Spearman r = −0.52, p<0.01) in schizophrenia patients. Conclusions Processes of splitting are different in schizophrenia and BPD. In BPD patients splitting results to mental instability, whereas in schizophrenia the mental fragmentation leads to splitting of associations observed as lower scores of verbal fluency, which in principle is in agreement with Bleuler’s historical concept of splitting in schizophrenia. PMID:24603990

  16. Splitting and Projection at Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Gerald; James, Chris; Jones, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report research into the social defence of splitting and projection in schools. In splitting and projection, organisational members separate their unbearable feelings from the more acceptable ones and project them, typically towards other individuals and groups. Design/methodology/approach: The research was…

  17. Roll splitting for field processing of biomass

    Treesearch

    Dennis T. Curtin; Donald L. Sirois; John A. Sturos

    1987-01-01

    The concept of roll splitting wood originated in 1967 when the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) forest products specialists developed a wood fibrator. The objective of that work was to produce raw materials for reconstituted board products. More recently, TVA focused on roll splitting as a field process to accelerate drying of small trees (3-15 cm diameter), much...

  18. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  19. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  20. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  1. Splitting and Projection at Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Gerald; James, Chris; Jones, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report research into the social defence of splitting and projection in schools. In splitting and projection, organisational members separate their unbearable feelings from the more acceptable ones and project them, typically towards other individuals and groups. Design/methodology/approach: The research was…

  2. Splitting parameter yield (SPY): A program for semiautomatic analysis of shear-wave splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccarelli, Lucia; Bianco, Francesca; Zaccarelli, Riccardo

    2012-03-01

    SPY is a Matlab algorithm that analyzes seismic waveforms in a semiautomatic way, providing estimates of the two observables of the anisotropy: the shear-wave splitting parameters. We chose to exploit those computational processes that require less intervention by the user, gaining objectivity and reliability as a result. The algorithm joins the covariance matrix and the cross-correlation techniques, and all the computation steps are interspersed by several automatic checks intended to verify the reliability of the yields. The resulting semiautomation generates two new advantages in the field of anisotropy studies: handling a huge amount of data at the same time, and comparing different yields. From this perspective, SPY has been developed in the Matlab environment, which is widespread, versatile, and user-friendly. Our intention is to provide the scientific community with a new monitoring tool for tracking the temporal variations of the crustal stress field.

  3. Face split interpretations in sheet metal design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitalii, Vorkov; Dewil, Reginald; Mannaerts, Jef; Vandepitte, Dirk; Duflou, Joost R.

    2016-10-01

    Most of the modern CAD systems have capabilities to work with sheet metal parts. However, the functionality of these modules is limited to modelling, unfolding and delivering project documentation. In some cases the proposed design cannot be manufactured without splitting one or more faces of the part. In the current work, the graph representation of sheet metal parts and corresponding flat patterns are discussed. A splitting procedure is introduced which keeps all existing connections between faces intact. In addition, three interpretations for splitting are presented and recommendations for possible usage are given. The splitting procedure is found to be a convenient option to create feasible flat patterns. In addition, the different splitting interpretations present more flexibility to the designer.

  4. Study on a splitting-light optical system for spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Huang, Zhen; Xiong, Zhihua

    2015-07-01

    With the development of holography technique and nano-superfinishing technique, holography grating has being used into the spectrometer. To overcome some drawbacks of optical system for traditional plane and concave grating typed spectrometer, a splitting-light optical system for spectrometer based on volume phase holographic transmission (VPHT) grating is designed and developed in this paper. Meanwhile, the principle of VPHT grating is introduced by using the coupled-wave theory, and the relationship between the diffraction efficiency of the VPHT and the grating depth and the irradiation wavelength are simulated by means of MATLAB numerical computing method. In order to validate this splitting-light optical system, the experiment of measuring spectral resolution is performed and the spectral resolution reached 2nm, a calibration equation between the diffraction wavelengths and the shift of the corresponding wavelengths is obtained by using polynomial fitting algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that the design of the splitting-light optical system for spectrometer based on VPHT grating is feasible.

  5. Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2009-09-08

    The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).

  6. Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Jia, Yali; Pechauer, Alex D.; Chandwani, Rahul; Huang, David

    2016-01-01

    A phase gradient angiography (PGA) method is proposed for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This method allows the use of phase information to map the microvasculature in tissue without the correction of bulk motion and laser trigger jitter induced phase artifacts. PGA can also be combined with the amplitude/intensity to improve the performance. Split-spectrum technique can further increase the signal to noise ratio by more than two times. In-vivo imaging of human retinal circulation is shown with a 70 kHz, 840 nm spectral domain OCT system and a 200 kHz, 1050 nm swept source OCT system. Four different OCT angiography methods are compared. The best performance was achieved with split-spectrum amplitude and phase-gradient angiography. PMID:27570689

  7. Current status and perspectives in split liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lauterio, Andrea; Di Sandro, Stefano; Concone, Giacomo; De Carlis, Riccardo; Giacomoni, Alessandro; De Carlis, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Growing experience with the liver splitting technique and favorable results equivalent to those of whole liver transplant have led to wider application of split liver transplantation (SLT) for adult and pediatric recipients in the last decade. Conversely, SLT for two adult recipients remains a challenging surgical procedure and outcomes have yet to improve. Differences in organ shortages together with religious and ethical issues related to cadaveric organ donation have had an impact on the worldwide distribution of SLT. Despite technical refinements and a better understanding of the complex liver anatomy, SLT remains a technically and logistically demanding surgical procedure. This article reviews the surgical and clinical advances in this field of liver transplantation focusing on the role of SLT and the issues that may lead a further expansion of this complex surgical procedure. PMID:26494957

  8. Circularly split-ring-resonator-based frequency-reconfigurable antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. A.; Faruque, M. R. I.; Islam, M. T.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an antenna with frequency configurability in light of a circularly split-ring resonator (CSRR) is introduced. The proposed reconfigurable monopole antenna consists of a microstrip-fed hook-shaped structure and a CSRR having single reconfigurable split only. A new band of radiation unlike the band radiated from monopole only is observed due to magnetic coupling between the CSRR and the monopole antenna. The resonance frequency of the CSRR can be arbitrarily chosen by varying the dimension and relative position of its gap with the monopole, which leads the antenna to become reconfigurable one. By using a single switch with perfect electric conductor at the gap of CSRR cell, the effect of CSRR can be deactivated and, hence, it is possible to suppress the corresponding resonance, resulting in a frequency-reconfigurable antenna. Commercially available Computer Simulation Technology microwave studio based on finite integration technique was adopted throughout the study.

  9. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; James, Darryl L.

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  10. Lightweight electrical connector split backshell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Elliot (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electrical connector split backshell is provided, comprising two substantially identical backshell halves. Each half includes a first side and a cam projecting therefrom along an axis perpendicular thereto, the cam having an alignment tooth with a constant radius and an engagement section with a radius that increases with angular distance from the alignment tooth. Each half further includes a second side parallel to the first side and a circular sector opening disposed in the second side, the circular sector opening including an inner surface configured as a ramp with a constant radius, the ramp being configured to engage with an engagement section of a cam of the other half, the circular sector opening further including a relieved pocket configured to receive an alignment tooth of the cam of the other half. Each half further includes a back side perpendicular to the first and second sides and a wire bundle notch disposed in the back side, the wire bundle notch configured to align with a wire bundle notch of the other half to form a wire bundle opening. The two substantially identical halves are rotatably coupled by engaging the engagement section of each half to the ramp of the other half.

  11. Segmented holographic spectrum splitting concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Silvana P.; Vorndran, Shelby; Wu, Yuechen; Chrysler, Benjamin; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a segmented parabolic concentrator employing holographic spectral filters that provide focusing and spectral bandwidth separation capability to the system. Strips of low band gap silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are formed into a parabolic surface as shown by Holman et. al. [1]. The surface of the PV segments is covered with holographic elements formed in dichromated gelatin. The holographic elements are designed to transmit longer wavelengths to silicon cells, and to reflect short wavelength light towards a secondary collector where high-bandgap PV cells are mounted. The system can be optimized for different combinations of diffuse and direct solar illumination conditions for particular geographical locations by controlling the concentration ratio and filtering properties of the holographic elements. In addition, the reflectivity of the back contact of the silicon cells is used to increase the optical path length and light trapping. This potentially allows the use of thin film silicon for the low bandgap PV cell material. The optical design combines the focusing properties of the parabolic concentrator and the holographic element to control the concentration ratio and uniformity of the spectral distribution at the high bandgap cell location. The presentation concludes with a comparison of different spectrum splitting holographic filter materials for this application.

  12. Splitting Methods for Convex Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Eric C.; Lange, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Clustering is a fundamental problem in many scientific applications. Standard methods such as k-means, Gaussian mixture models, and hierarchical clustering, however, are beset by local minima, which are sometimes drastically suboptimal. Recently introduced convex relaxations of k-means and hierarchical clustering shrink cluster centroids toward one another and ensure a unique global minimizer. In this work we present two splitting methods for solving the convex clustering problem. The first is an instance of the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM); the second is an instance of the alternating minimization algorithm (AMA). In contrast to previously considered algorithms, our ADMM and AMA formulations provide simple and unified frameworks for solving the convex clustering problem under the previously studied norms and open the door to potentially novel norms. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm on both simulated and real data examples. While the differences between the two algorithms appear to be minor on the surface, complexity analysis and numerical experiments show AMA to be significantly more efficient. This article has supplemental materials available online. PMID:27087770

  13. Do Dutch doctors communicate differently with immigrant patients than with Dutch patients?

    PubMed

    Meeuwesen, Ludwien; Harmsen, Johannes A M; Bernsen, Roos M D; Bruijnzeels, Marc A

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to gain deeper insight into relational aspects of the medical communication pattern in intercultural consultations at GP practices in the Netherlands. We ask whether there are differences in the verbal interaction of Dutch GPs with immigrant and Dutch patients. Data were drawn from 144 adult patient interviews and video observations of consultations between the patients and 31 Dutch GPs. The patient group consisted of 61 non-Western immigrants (Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Antillean, Cape Verdian) and 83 Dutch participants. Affective and instrumental aspects of verbal communication were assessed using Roter's Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Patients' cultural background was assessed by ethnicity, language proficiency, level of education, religiosity and cultural views (in terms of being more traditional or more modern). Consultations with the non-Western immigrant patients (especially those from Turkey and Morocco) were well over 2 min shorter, and the power distance between GPs and these patients was greater when compared to the Dutch patients. Major differences in verbal interaction were observed on the affective behavior dimensions, but not on the instrumental dimensions. Doctors invested more in trying to understand the immigrant patients, while in the case of Dutch patients they showed more involvement and empathy. Dutch patients seemed to be more assertive in the medical conversation. The differences are discussed in terms of patients' ethnic background, cultural views (e.g. practicing a religion) and linguistic barriers. It is concluded that attention to cultural diversity does matter, as this leads to different medical communication patterns. A two-way strategy is recommended for improving medical communication, with implications for both doctor and patient behavior.

  14. A century of Dutch neurology.

    PubMed

    Koehler, P J; Bruyn, G W; Moffie, D

    1998-12-01

    The Netherlands Society of Neurology evolved from the Society of Psychiatry founded in 1871. The name was changed into Netherlands Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (NSPN) in 1897. In the same year, the word neurology was also added to the name of the journal. The Society steadily blossomed, but in 1909 the first signs of dissatisfaction occurred: the Amsterdam Neurologists Society was founded. A few split-offs would follow. The number of members of the NSPN increased from 205 in 1920 to 585 in 1960. In the early 1960s, the Society was reorganised and would consist of two sections, one for psychiatry and one for neurology. However, this would not last, as a full separation was established in 1974. For several reasons, the name of the journal was changed four times until it assumed its present name in 1974. The 100th volume of CNN was not published, as expected. in 1996, but in 1998, because of two skipped publication years, one during WWII and another in the 1970s. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, teaching of neurology was mostly given within the frame of psychiatry, following the German tradition of 'brainpsychiatry' (organic or biologic psychiatry). The first official chair of psychiatry was founded at Utrecht, 1893 (Winkler). In Amsterdam, private teachers such as Delprat taught 'electro-therapy and nervous diseases' since the 1880s. The first extraordinary chair of neurology and electrotherapy was founded for his successor, Wertheim Salomonson in 1899. The first university clinic for psychiatry and neurology started at the Amsterdam Municipal University, when Winkler became professor of psychiatry and neurology in Amsterdam in 1896. Around the turn of the century, chairs of psychiatry and neurology were also founded in Groningen and Leiden. Separate chairs for neurology and psychiatry appeared in Amsterdam in 1923 and in Utrecht in 1936. Following an initiative of Brouwer, the first neurological university clinic opened its doors in

  15. Dutch Viking TROS Aktua Special

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Footage shows the night vertical takeoff of the Viking Hollan hot air balloon. The crew is shown participating in survival technique training, boarding the plane to depart to Canada, and preparing for the vertical takeoff in the hot air balloon across the Atlantic Ocean. Scenes also include the making of the capsule for the balloon, some flight activities, and the landing of the balloon.

  16. Budgeted phylogenetic diversity on circular split systems.

    PubMed

    Minh, Bui Quang; Pardi, Fabio; Klaere, Steffen; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2009-01-01

    In the last 15 years, Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) has gained interest in the community of conservation biologists as a surrogate measure for assessing biodiversity. We have recently proposed two approaches to select taxa for maximizing PD, namely PD with budget constraints and PD on split systems. In this paper, we will unify these two strategies and present a dynamic programming algorithm to solve the unified framework of selecting taxa with maximal PD under budget constraints on circular split systems. An improved algorithm will also be given if the underlying split system is a tree.

  17. Conformal Covariance and the Split Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinelli, Vincenzo; Tanimoto, Yoh; Weiner, Mihály

    2017-08-01

    We show that for a conformal local net of observables on the circle, the split property is automatic. Both full conformal covariance (i.e., diffeomorphism covariance) and the circle-setting play essential roles in this fact, while by previously constructed examples it was already known that even on the circle, Möbius covariance does not imply the split property. On the other hand, here we also provide an example of a local conformal net living on the 2-dimensional Minkowski space, which—although being diffeomorphism covariant—does not have the split property.

  18. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N.

    2016-09-01

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν2 bending mode starting with 4ν2.

  19. Binocular rivalry in split-brain observers.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Robert P; Corballis, Paul M

    2003-01-01

    During binocular rivalry, visual perception switches between a stimulus viewed by one eye and a different stimulus viewed by the other. We studied rivalry in split-brain observers to test two explanations. Rivalry could reflect switching of activity between the cerebral hemispheres, or switching by a structure in the right frontoparietal cortex. From these two theories, we predict no rivalry when stimuli are presented to a split-brain observer's left hemisphere. Yet we found similar rivalry from the left and right hemispheres of the split-brain observers, consistent with switchings being mediated by low-level processes within each hemisphere.

  20. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces.

  1. Verb inflection in monolingual Dutch and sequential bilingual Turkish-Dutch children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Blom, Elma; de Jong, Jan; Orgassa, Antje; Baker, Anne; Weerman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Both children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children who acquire a second language (L2) make errors with verb inflection. This overlap between SLI and L2 raises the question if verb inflection can discriminate between L2 children with and without SLI. In this study we addressed this question for Dutch. The secondary goal of the study was to investigate variation in error types and error profiles across groups. Data were collected from 6-8-year-old children with SLI who acquire Dutch as their first language (L1), Dutch L1 children with a typical development (TD), Dutch L2 children with SLI, and Dutch L1 TD children who were on average 2 years younger. An experimental elicitation task was employed that tested use of verb inflection; context (3SG, 3PL) was manipulated and word order and verb type were controlled. Accuracy analyses revealed effects of impairment in both L1 and L2 children with SLI. However, individual variation indicated that there is no specific error profile for SLI. Verb inflection use as measured in our study discriminated fairly well in the L1 group but classification was less accurate in the L2 group. Between-group differences emerged furthermore for certain types of errors, but all groups also showed considerable variation in errors and there was not a specific error profile that distinguished SLI from TD.

  2. A Crater Split In Two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 23 September 2003

    A 22 km-diameter crater has been sliced by the tectonic forces that produced the rift known as Sirenum Fossae. The orientation of this rift is roughly radial to the great Tharsis volcano Arsia Mons, probably indicating a link between the formation of the rift and the volcano. Note how the rift cuts through a jumble of mounds on the floor of the crater. This indicates a sequence of events beginning with the formation of the crater followed by an infilling of material that was then eroded into the mounds and ultimately split open by the shifting martian crust.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -29.7, Longitude 211.7 East (148.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Half a century of Dutch transplant immunology.

    PubMed

    van Rood, Jon J; Claas, Frans H J; Brand, Anneke; Tilanus, Marcel G J; van Kooten, Cees

    2014-12-01

    The sixties have not only witnessed the start of the Dutch Society for Immunology (NvvI), but were also the flourishing beginning of the discipline of transplant immunology. The interest in immunology in the Netherlands had its start in the context of blood transfusions and not for instance in the field of infectious disease, as in many other countries. It began in the 1950-ties thanks to Joghem van Loghem at that time director of the Central Laboratory of Blood Transfusion in Amsterdam. The discoveries of these times have had major impact for transfusion medicine, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and organ transplantation. In this review we will look back at some early highlights of Dutch transplant immunology and put them in the perspective of some recent developments.

  4. The Dutch Claustrophobia Questionnaire: psychometric properties and predictive validity.

    PubMed

    Van Diest, Ilse; Smits, Dirk; Decremer, Davina; Maes, Lori; Claes, Laurence

    2010-10-01

    Fear of suffocation and fear of restriction are thought to underlie claustrophobia and can be assessed with the Claustrophobia Questionnaire (CLQ; Radomsky et al., 2001). A first study tested the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the CLQ. Students (N=363) completed a Dutch translation of the CLQ and a set of other questionnaires assessing other specific fears, anxiety or depression. Results confirmed the two-factor structure and showed that the Dutch version of the CLQ has good psychometric properties. A second study tested the predictive validity of the Dutch CLQ. Participants (N=23) were exposed each to nine claustrophobic situations with elements of suffocation, restriction or both. The Dutch CLQ was found to be a significant predictor of fear and respiratory reactivity during claustrophobic exposure. It can be concluded that the Dutch version of the CLQ is a reliable and valid instrument to assess claustrophobic fear. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investment and regulation: the Dutch experience

    SciTech Connect

    Haffner, Robert; Helmer, Dorine; van Til, Harry

    2010-06-15

    Theoretical studies on the relationship between incentive regulation and investment in network industries generally point out that incentive regulation has a negative impact on investment. However, empirical evidence in this area is scarce. An analysis suggests that in the Dutch electricity and gas networks since 2001, incentive regulation has ensured a more rational and professional approach towards investments, with investment levels coming down somewhat at the start of the regulation but picking up later on. (author)

  6. Dutch chemical producers pledge emissions cuts

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.; Schoenmakers, J.

    1993-02-24

    Dutch chemical producers have negotiated a long-term agreement with government ministries to reduce emissions of a wide range of chemicals. Industry association Vereniging van de Nederlandse Chemische Industrie (VNCI; Leidschendam) says implementing the commitment will cost companies Dfl 10 billion ($5.4 billion) between 1993 and 2000. VNCI technical director Wim Quik welcomes the accord, which he describes as a management contract, saying, Rather than have legislation, there is a certain adjustment available. Peter Santen, managing director of midsized chemicals player Cindu Chemicals (Uithoorn, the Netherlands) voices some concern about the details of the accord, but adds, we are flexible in trying to agree with the contents of the covenant [it] is better than having new rules from law. The Dutch government, traditionally eager for consensus, has struck a number of such deals with Dutch industries - including packaging, metal, and tire - to reduce emissions and set up environmental management programs. The effort is based on the government's National Environmental Policy Plans - NMP and NMP Plus. Targets for emissions reduction by the chemical industry were provided by a government-funded environmental research institute.

  7. Inflammatory responses to infection: the Dutch contribution.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Martijn A; van der Meer, Jos W M

    2014-12-01

    At any given moment, our body is under attack by a large variety of pathogens, which aim to enter and use our body to propagate and disseminate. The extensive cellular and molecular complexity of our immune system enables us to efficiently eliminate invading pathogens or at least develop a condition in which propagation of the microorganism is reduced to a minimum. Yet, the evolutionary pressure on pathogens to circumvent our immune defense mechanisms is immense, which continuously leads to the development of novel pathogenic strains that challenge the health of mankind. Understanding this battle between pathogen and the immune system has been a fruitful area of immunological research over the last century and will continue to do so for many years. In this review, which has been written on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Dutch Society for Immunology, we provide an overview of the major contributions that Dutch immunologists and infection biologists have made in the last decades on the inflammatory response to viral, bacterial, fungal or parasitic infections. We focus on those studies that have addressed both the host and the pathogen, as these are most interesting from an immunological point of view. Although it is not possible to completely cover this comprehensive research field, this review does provide an interesting overview of Dutch research on inflammatory responses to infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Merdeka: Dutch military operations in Indonesia (1945-1950)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    Dutch military capabilities; and the training and experience of the army leaders both in colonial and regular ‘European’ warfare. Dutch forces were...not able to prevail over the Indonesians, but were strong enough to resist being expelled. Although Dutch forces could control the towns and cities in... training and senior commanders make it impossible for this army to be formidable as anything but a force for guerrilla warfare and small scale raids

  9. The problem of split comets in review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1982-01-01

    Cometary splitting is investigated from the dynamical and physical standpoints. A simple two-parameter model is proposed in which the rate of recession of the fragments is determined by the momentum from outgassing, so that the net differential force is of the same nature as the nongravitational perturbations detected in the motions of unsplit comets; the two parameters of the model are the differential radial acceleration and the time of splitting. It is shown that the model successfully represents the positional observations of nearly all the 21 known split comets. The following candidate triggering mechanisms for cometary splitting are considered: tidal forces, rotation, dust-mantle dumping, and radioactive heating. A model that fits the dynamical data and physical characteristics is presented which suggests that most fragments must be appreciably nonspherical and rapidly precessing.

  10. Split Fingernails: Can They Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your fingernails dry. Repeated or prolonged contact with water can contribute to split fingernails. Wear cotton-lined rubber gloves when washing dishes, cleaning or using harsh chemicals. Practice good nail hygiene. ...

  11. Split Brain Theory: Implications for Nurse Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Meneses, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Discusses incorporating nontraditional concepts of learning in nursing education. Elements explored include the split brain theory, school design, teaching styles, teacher's role, teaching strategies, adding variety to the curriculum, and modular learning. (CT)

  12. Solar activity and oscillation frequency splittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Solar p-mode frequency splittings, parameterized by the coefficients through order N = 12 of a Legendre polynomial expansion of the mode frequencies as a function of m/L, were obtained from an analysis of helioseismology data taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the 4 years 1986 and 1988-1990 (approximately solar minimum to maximum). Inversion of the even-index splitting coefficients confirms that there is a significant contribution to the frequency splittings originating near the solar poles. The strength of the polar contribution is anti correlated with the overall level or solar activity in the active latitudes, suggesting a relation to polar faculae. From an analysis of the odd-index splitting coefficients we infer an uppor limit to changes in the solar equatorial near-surface rotatinal velocity of less than 1.9 m/s (3 sigma limit) between solar minimum and maximum.

  13. Solar activity and oscillation frequency splittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Solar p-mode frequency splittings, parameterized by the coefficients through order N = 12 of a Legendre polynomial expansion of the mode frequencies as a function of m/L, were obtained from an analysis of helioseismology data taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the 4 years 1986 and 1988-1990 (approximately solar minimum to maximum). Inversion of the even-index splitting coefficients confirms that there is a significant contribution to the frequency splittings originating near the solar poles. The strength of the polar contribution is anti correlated with the overall level or solar activity in the active latitudes, suggesting a relation to polar faculae. From an analysis of the odd-index splitting coefficients we infer an uppor limit to changes in the solar equatorial near-surface rotatinal velocity of less than 1.9 m/s (3 sigma limit) between solar minimum and maximum.

  14. The problem of split comets in review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1982-01-01

    Cometary splitting is investigated from the dynamical and physical standpoints. A simple two-parameter model is proposed in which the rate of recession of the fragments is determined by the momentum from outgassing, so that the net differential force is of the same nature as the nongravitational perturbations detected in the motions of unsplit comets; the two parameters of the model are the differential radial acceleration and the time of splitting. It is shown that the model successfully represents the positional observations of nearly all the 21 known split comets. The following candidate triggering mechanisms for cometary splitting are considered: tidal forces, rotation, dust-mantle dumping, and radioactive heating. A model that fits the dynamical data and physical characteristics is presented which suggests that most fragments must be appreciably nonspherical and rapidly precessing.

  15. Split Brain Theory: Implications for Nurse Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Meneses, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Discusses incorporating nontraditional concepts of learning in nursing education. Elements explored include the split brain theory, school design, teaching styles, teacher's role, teaching strategies, adding variety to the curriculum, and modular learning. (CT)

  16. Structural basis of photosynthetic water-splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Jian-Ren; Kawakami, Keisuke; Kamiya, Nobuo

    2013-12-10

    Photosynthetic water-splitting takes place in photosystem II (PSII), a membrane protein complex consisting of 20 subunits with an overall molecular mass of 350 kDa. The light-induced water-splitting reaction catalyzed by PSII not only converts light energy into biologically useful chemical energy, but also provides us with oxygen indispensible for sustaining oxygenic life on the earth. We have solved the structure of PSII at a 1.9 Å resolution, from which, the detailed structure of the Mn{sub 4}CaO{sub 5}-cluster, the catalytic center for water-splitting, became clear. Based on the structure of PSII at the atomic resolution, possible mechanism of light-induced water-splitting was discussed.

  17. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting.

    PubMed

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization.

  18. Gate-controlled spin-splitting in quantum dots with ferromagnetic leads in the Kondo regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinek, Jan; Sindel, Michael; Borda, Laszlo; Barnas, Jozef; Bulla, Ralf; Koenig, Juergen; Schoen, Gerd; Maekawa, S.; von Delft, Jan

    2005-03-01

    The effect of a gate voltage on the spin-splitting of an electronic level in a quantum dot (QD) attached to ferromagnetic leads is studied in the Kondo regime using a generalized numerical renormalization group (NRG) technique. We find that the gate-voltage dependence of the QD level spin-splitting strongly depends on the shape of the density of states (DOS). For one class of DOS shapes there is nearly no gate-voltage dependence, for another, the gate voltage can be used to control the magnitude and sign of the spin-splitting, which can be interpreted as a local exchange magnetic field. We find that the spin-splitting acquires a new type of logarithmic divergence. We give an analytical explanation for our numerical results and explain how they arise due to spin-dependent charge fluctuations.

  19. Gate-controlled spin splitting in quantum dots with ferromagnetic leads in the Kondo regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinek, J.; Sindel, M.; Borda, L.; Barnaś, J.; Bulla, R.; König, J.; Schön, G.; Maekawa, S.; von Delft, J.

    2005-09-01

    The effect of a gate voltage ( Vg ) on the spin splitting of an electronic level in a quantum dot (QD) attached to ferromagnetic leads is studied in the Kondo regime using a generalized numerical renormalization group technique. We find that the Vg dependence of the QD level spin splitting strongly depends on the shape of the density of states (DOS). For one class of DOS shapes there is nearly no Vg dependence; for another, Vg can be used to control the magnitude and sign of the spin splitting, which can be interpreted as a local exchange magnetic field. We find that the spin splitting acquires a new type of logarithmic divergence. We give an analytical explanation for our numerical results and explain how they arise due to spin-dependent charge fluctuations.

  20. Noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Yu

    2015-08-07

    Sustainable hydrogen production is an essential prerequisite of a future hydrogen economy. Water electrolysis driven by renewable resource-derived electricity and direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion based on photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting are promising pathways for sustainable hydrogen production. All these techniques require, among many things, highly active noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts to make the water splitting process more energy-efficient and economical. In this review, we highlight the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and their catalytic properties for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We review several important kinds of heterogeneous non-precious metal electrocatalysts, including metal sulfides, metal selenides, metal carbides, metal nitrides, metal phosphides, and heteroatom-doped nanocarbons. In the discussion, emphasis is given to the synthetic methods of these HER electrocatalysts, the strategies of performance improvement, and the structure/composition-catalytic activity relationship. We also summarize some important examples showing that non-Pt HER electrocatalysts could serve as efficient cocatalysts for promoting direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion in both photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting systems, when combined with suitable semiconductor photocatalysts.

  1. Design of a Split Intein with Exceptional Protein Splicing Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein trans-splicing (PTS) by split inteins has found widespread use in chemical biology and biotechnology. Herein, we describe the use of a consensus design approach to engineer a split intein with enhanced stability and activity that make it more robust than any known PTS system. Using batch mutagenesis, we first conduct a detailed analysis of the difference in splicing rates between the Npu (fast) and Ssp (slow) split inteins of the DnaE family and find that most impactful residues lie on the second shell of the protein, directly adjacent to the active site. These residues are then used to generate an alignment of 73 naturally occurring DnaE inteins that are predicted to be fast. The consensus sequence from this alignment (Cfa) demonstrates both rapid protein splicing and unprecedented thermal and chaotropic stability. Moreover, when fused to various proteins including antibody heavy chains, the N-terminal fragment of Cfa exhibits increased expression levels relative to other N-intein fusions. The durability and efficiency of Cfa should improve current intein based technologies and may provide a platform for the development of new protein chemistry techniques. PMID:26854538

  2. Split Bregman's optimization method for image construction in compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, D.; Foo, S.; Meyer-Bäse, A.

    2014-05-01

    The theory of compressive sampling (CS) was reintroduced by Candes, Romberg and Tao, and D. Donoho in 2006. Using a priori knowledge that a signal is sparse, it has been mathematically proven that CS can defY Nyquist sampling theorem. Theoretically, reconstruction of a CS image relies on the minimization and optimization techniques to solve this complex almost NP-complete problem. There are many paths to consider when compressing and reconstructing an image but these methods have remained untested and unclear on natural images, such as underwater sonar images. The goal of this research is to perfectly reconstruct the original sonar image from a sparse signal while maintaining pertinent information, such as mine-like object, in Side-scan sonar (SSS) images. Goldstein and Osher have shown how to use an iterative method to reconstruct the original image through a method called Split Bregman's iteration. This method "decouples" the energies using portions of the energy from both the !1 and !2 norm. Once the energies are split, Bregman iteration is used to solve the unconstrained optimization problem by recursively solving the problems simultaneously. The faster these two steps or energies can be solved then the faster the overall method becomes. While the majority of CS research is still focused on the medical field, this paper will demonstrate the effectiveness of the Split Bregman's methods on sonar images.

  3. Seismic receiver function interpretation: Ps splitting or anisotropic underplating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Crustal anisotropy is crucial to understanding the evolutionary history of Earth's lithosphere. Shear-wave splitting of Moho P-to-S converted phases in receiver functions have been often used to study crustal anisotropy. Harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases in delay times are used to infer splitting parameters of averaged anisotropy in the crust. However, crustal anisotropy may distribute at various levels within the crust due to complex deformational processes. Layered anisotropy requires careful investigation of the distribution of anisotropy before interpreting Moho Ps splitting. In this study, we show results from stations ARU in Russia, KIP in the Hawaiian Islands and LSA in Tibetan Plateau, where layered anisotropy is constrained well by intra-crust Ps conversions at high frequencies using a harmonic-decomposition technique. Anisotropic velocity models are inferred by forward-modeling decomposed RF waveforms. We suggest that the harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases should always be investigated to check for anisotropic layering using RFs with frequency content above 1 Hz, rather than simply reporting averaged anisotropy of the whole crust.

  4. Asymmetric split ring resonators for optical sensing of organic materials.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Basudev; Khokhar, Ali Z; De La Rue, Richard M; McMeekin, Scott G; Johnson, Nigel P

    2009-01-19

    Asymmetric Split Ring Resonators are known to exhibit resonant modes where the optical electric field is strongest near the ends of the arms, thereby increasing the sensitivity of spectral techniques such as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). By producing asymmetry in the structures, the two arms of the ring produce distinct plasmonic resonances related to their lengths - but are also affected by the presence of the other arm. This combination leads to a steepening of the slope of the reflection spectrum between the resonances that increases the sensitivity of the resonant behavior to the addition of different molecular species. We describe experimental results, supported by simulation, on the resonances of a series of circular split ring resonators with different gap and section lengths--at wavelengths in the mid-infra red regions of the spectrum--and their utilization for highly sensitive detection of organic compounds. We have used thin films of PMMA with different thicknesses, resulting in characteristic shifts from the original resonance. We also demonstrate matching of asymmetric split ring resonators to a molecular resonance of PMMA.

  5. Seismic receiver function interpretation: Ps splitting or anisotropic underplating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey

    2017-03-01

    Crustal anisotropy is crucial to understanding the evolutionary history of Earth's lithosphere. Shear wave splitting of Moho P-to-S converted phases in receiver functions (RFs) have been often used to study crustal anisotropy. Harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases in delay times are used to infer splitting parameters of averaged anisotropy in the crust. However, crustal anisotropy may distribute at various levels within the crust due to complex deformational processes. Layered anisotropy requires careful investigation of the distribution of anisotropy before interpreting Moho Ps splitting. In this study, we show results from stations ARU in Russia, KIP in the Hawaiian Islands and LSA in Tibetan Plateau, where layered anisotropy is constrained well by intracrust Ps conversions at high frequencies using a harmonic-decomposition technique. Anisotropic velocity models are inferred by forward-modeling decomposed RF waveforms. We suggest that the harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases should always be investigated to check for anisotropic layering using RFs with frequency content above 1 Hz, rather than simply reporting averaged anisotropy of the whole crust.

  6. Visuomotor integration in split-brain cats.

    PubMed

    SCHRIER, A M; SPERRY, R W

    1959-05-08

    Chiasm- and callosum-sectioned (split-brain) cats and controls were trained to displace the correct one of two different objects, using each forelimb half the time. During this discrimination training, vision was restricted to one eye, thus confining visual input and learning to a single hemisphere in the split-brain animals. It was found that either forelimb could be used about equally well by all the animals.

  7. Antenna Splitting Functions for Massive Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    An antenna shower is a parton shower in which the basic move is a color-coherent 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting process. In this paper, we give compact forms for the spin-dependent antenna splitting functions involving massive partons of spin 0 and spin 1/2. We hope that this formalism we have presented will be useful in describing the QCD dynamics of the top quark and other heavy particles at LHC.

  8. Laser beam splitting by polarization encoding.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chenhao

    2015-03-20

    A scheme is proposed to design a polarization grating that splits an incident linearly polarized beam to an array of linearly polarized beams of identical intensity distribution and various azimuth angles of linear polarization. The grating is equivalent to a wave plate with space-variant azimuth angle and space-variant phase retardation. The linear polarization states of all split beams make the grating suitable for coherent beam combining architectures based on Dammann gratings.

  9. Implant-Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Bilateral Agenesis of Maxillary Lateral Incisors with a Mini Split Crest

    PubMed Central

    Figliuzzi, M. M.; Giudice, A.; Pileggi, S.; Pacifico, D.; Marrelli, M.; Tatullo, M.; Fortunato, L.

    2016-01-01

    The reported clinical case describes the surgical procedure of ridge augmentation by using a “split crest” technique with a partial thickness flap and a subsequent implant-prosthetic rehabilitation aimed at treating a bilateral agenesis of the upper lateral incisors. In such cases with vestibule-palatal and mesial-distal scarce bone thicknesses associated with the need of a proper functional and aesthetic rehabilitation, the split crest technique is particularly suitable. In the case we reported, because of the poor bone thicknesses, we performed a minimally invasive split crest which allowed a correct insertion of the fixtures. This technique allowed us to achieve an optimal functional and aesthetic rehabilitation; moreover, we obtained a good emergency profile, ensuring the vitality of the close teeth and ensuring a good primary stability and the following osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:27190658

  10. Inventory of tools for Dutch clinical language processing.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Ronald; Van Eldik, Armand; De Keizer, Nicolette

    2012-01-01

    Automated encoding of free-text clinical narratives using concepts from terminological systems is widely performed. However, the majority of natural language processing (NLP) tools and terminological systems involve the English language. As parts of the NLP process are language independent, and tools for various languages are available, an overview is needed to determine the applicability to performing NLP of Dutch medical texts. To this end an inventory of tools is created. A literature study and internet search were performed to describe available components for a Dutch NLP system, enabling to encode Dutch text as structured SNOMED CT output without the need to translate SNOMED CT in Dutch. We have found 31 papers, describing a variety of NLP frameworks and tools for the various NLP components for processing English and Dutch free text. Most of them are suitable for English free text, some of them are (also) usable for Dutch. To enable automated encoding of Dutch free text narratives, further research is needed to create a spelling checker, a negation detector, a domain-specific abbreviation/acronym list, and a concept mapper (to map Dutch terms to concepts in a terminological system). Furthermore evaluation of performance for the Dutch 'medical' language is needed.

  11. Metrical segmentation in Dutch: vowel quality or stress?

    PubMed

    Quené, H; Koster, M L

    1998-01-01

    Previous experiments using a word-spotting task suggest that English listeners use metrically strong syllables to segment continuous speech into discrete words (Cutler & Norris, 1988). The present study is concerned with this metrical segmentation strategy in Dutch. Although Dutch and English share general metrical properties, they differ in ways that may affect segmentation. First, the acoustic cues for metrically strong syllables are less salient in Dutch than in English; hence a metrical segmentation strategy is less likely to be applied by Dutch listeners. Second, vowel quality depends less on metrical structure in Dutch than in English; hence segmentation in Dutch is presumably triggered by other acoustic cues, namely, those related to stress. Experiment 1 shows that stress strongly affects Dutch listeners' ability and speed in spotting Dutch monosyllabic words in disyllabic nonwords. Experiment 2, however, finds the same stress effect when only the target words are presented, without a subsequent syllable triggering segmentation. A third experiment shows a small effect of vowel quality on error scores, but not on latencies. These results suggest that Dutch listeners do not apply a metrical segmentation strategy. The discrepancy between the two languages suggests that segmentation strategies may depend on language-specific regularities in the phonology and in the lexicon.

  12. Performance of Dutch children on the Bayley III: a comparison study of US and Dutch norms.

    PubMed

    Steenis, Leonie J P; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hessen, Dave J; van Baar, Anneloes L

    2015-01-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-third edition (Bayley-III) are frequently used to assess early child development worldwide. However, the original standardization only included US children, and it is still unclear whether or not these norms are adequate for use in other populations. Recently, norms for the Dutch version of the Bayley-III (The Bayley-III-NL) were made. Scores based on Dutch and US norms were compared to study the need for population-specific norms. Scaled scores based on Dutch and US norms were compared for 1912 children between 14 days and 42 months 14 days. Next, the proportions of children scoring < 1-SD and < -2 SD based on the two norms were compared, to identify over- or under-referral for developmental delay resulting from non-population-based norms. Scaled scores based on Dutch norms fluctuated around values based on US norms on all subtests. The extent of the deviations differed across ages and subtests. Differences in means were significant across all five subtests (p < .01) with small to large effect sizes (ηp2) ranging from .03 to .26). Using the US instead of Dutch norms resulted in over-referral regarding gross motor skills, and under-referral regarding cognitive, receptive communication, expressive communication, and fine motor skills. The Dutch norms differ from the US norms for all subtests and these differences are clinically relevant. Population specific norms are needed to identify children with low scores for referral and intervention, and to facilitate international comparisons of population data.

  13. Conduction band valley splitting in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Boykin, T. B.; Eriksson, M.; Friesen, M.; Coppersmith, S. N.; von Allmen, P.; Oyafuso, F.; Lee, S.

    2004-03-01

    A theory based on localized-orbital approaches is developed to describe the valley splitting observed in silicon nano-structures. The theory is appropriate in the limit of low electron density and relevant for proposed quantum computing architectures. The valley splitting is computed for realistic devices using the quantitative nanoelectronic modeling tool NEMO using the empirical tight binding model sp^3d^5s. The tight binding parameters have been fitted to bulk bandstructure behavior of Si using a genetic algorithm. A 1-D quantum well simulation in NEMO shows the basic features of conduction band valley splitting as a coherent, confinement-induced phenomenon. No additional intervalley scattering parameters are needed. The splitting is in general nonzero even in the absence of electric field. The splitting oscillates as a function of N, the number of layers in the quantum well, with a period that is determined by the location of the valley minimum in the Brillouin zone. The envelope of the splitting decays as N^3. The qualitative physics remain the same irrespective of the details of the quantum well boundaries or the details of the strain treatment in the quantum well.

  14. Microwave Gaussian beam splitting with a variable split angle by using a chiral lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, Salim; Mahmoud, Samir F.; Laghari, Mohammad S.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present analysis and design of a chiral lens that is used to split a linearly polarized Gaussian beam into right-circularly and left-circularly polarized beams traveling in different directions. It will be shown that split beams remain Gaussian if the curvature of the lens is large in comparison with the beam width. Moreover, the split angle can be varied by changing the point of beam incidence on the curved surface of the lens. Parameters like the beam width and cross-polarization ratio for the split beams are derived and computed.

  15. DETECTION OF FLUX EMERGENCE, SPLITTING, MERGING, AND CANCELLATION OF NETWORK FIELD. I. SPLITTING AND MERGING

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Hagenaar, H. J.

    2012-06-20

    Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' Multiplication-Sign 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to {approx}33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of -2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.

  16. Achromatic multiple beam splitting by adiabatic passage in optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangelov, Andon A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2012-05-01

    A variable achromatic optical beam splitter with one input and N output waveguide channels is introduced. The physical mechanism of this multiple beam splitter is adiabatic passage of light between neighboring optical waveguides in a fashion reminiscent of the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in quantum physics. The input and output waveguides are coupled via a mediator waveguide and the ratios of the light intensities in the output channels are controlled by the couplings of the respective waveguides to the mediator waveguide. Due to its adiabatic nature the beam splitting efficiency is robust to variations in the experimental parameters.

  17. Mechanical contact by constraints and split-based preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitry Karpeyev; Derek Gaston; Jason Hales; Steven Novascone

    2014-03-01

    An accurate implementation of glued mechanical contact was developed in MOOSE based on its Constraint system. This approach results in a superior convergence of elastic structure problems, in particular in BISON. Adaptation of this technique to frictionless and frictional contact models is under way. Additionally, the improved convergence of elastic problems results from the application of the split-based preconditioners to constraint-based systems. This yields a substantial increase in the robustness of elastic solvers when the number of nodes in contact is increased and/or the mesh is refined.

  18. Modified ridge splitting and bone expansion osteotomy for placement of dental implant in esthetic zone

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Mayur S.; Khairnar, Darshana; Bakshi, Kedar

    2014-01-01

    Ridge splitting with bone expansion is a technique of manipulation of bone to form receptor site for implant without removing any bone from the implant site. Maxillary bone has inherent quality of flexibility which can bemolded to desire location by using series of instrument namely chisels and osteotome. This further improves quality of bone all around implant, at the crest and apex both. This article describes a report of a clinical case with management of bucco-palatal ridge defect with modified ridge splitting and expansion osteotomy technique using chisel and osteotomes in an esthetic zone. PMID:24808709

  19. SMT: Split and Merge tractography for DT-MRI.

    PubMed

    Bozkaya, Uğur; Acar, Burak

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) based fiber tractography aims at reconstruction of the fiber network of brain. Most commonly employed techniques for fiber tractography are based on the numerical integration of the principal diffusion directions. Although these approaches generate intuitive and easy to interpret results, they are prone to cumulative errors and mostly discard the stochastic nature of DT-MRI data. The proposed Split & Merge Tractography (SMT) technique aims at overcoming the drawbacks of fiber tractography by incorporating it with Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. SMT is based on clustering diversely distributed short fiber tracts based on their inter-connectivity. SMT also provides real-time interaction to adjust a user defined confidence level for clustering.

  20. Approximate Splitting for Ensembles of Trees using Histograms

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Cantu-Paz, E; Littau, D

    2001-09-28

    Recent work in classification indicates that significant improvements in accuracy can be obtained by growing an ensemble of classifiers and having them vote for the most popular class. Implicit in many of these techniques is the concept of randomization that generates different classifiers. In this paper, they focus on ensembles of decision trees that are created using a randomized procedure based on histograms. Techniques, such as histograms, that discretize continuous variables, have long been used in classification to convert the data into a form suitable for processing and to reduce the compute time. The approach combines the ideas behind discretization through histograms and randomization in ensembles to create decision trees by randomly selecting a split point in an interval around the best bin boundary in the histogram. The experimental results with public domain data show that ensembles generated using this approach are competitive in accuracy and superior in computational cost to other ensembles techniques such as boosting and bagging.

  1. Full-chip pitch/pattern splitting for lithography and spacer double patterning technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Socha, Robert; Kang, Ho-Young; Chen, Alek C.; Hsu, Stephen; Chen, Hong; Chen, Luoqi

    2008-11-01

    layouts. However, a normal pattern-splitting technique is still required. With the assistance of polygon Boolean operations, the trim layout (to remove residual polygons) and makeup layout (to repair irregular missing polygons) can be generated using scripting electronic design automation (EDA) software. In this study, some examples of pattern splitting are demonstrated using the Tachyon pattern-splitting tool. Furthermore, Tachyon scripts are utilized to create layouts with consideration of OPC for spacer DPT. The patterns created after each process step can be emulated with the scripts to help the process verification. All techniques developed in this study for DPT pattern splitting are applicable for 32nm node and beyond.

  2. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate...

  3. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate...

  4. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate...

  5. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate...

  6. Do Hebrew Electronic Books Differ from Dutch Electronic Books? A Replication of a Dutch Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina

    2004-01-01

    This replication study of Hebrew versus Dutch electronic books for young children was based on De Jong & Bus's content analysis, which explored whether e-books are appropriate supports for young children's literacy development. Our criteria for analysing 43 Hebrew e-books for young children included book processing, multimedia in pictures,…

  7. Verb inflection in Monolingual Dutch and Sequential Bilingual Turkish-Dutch Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; De Jong, Jan; Orgassa, Antje; Baker, Anne; Weerman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Both children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children who acquire a second language (L2) make errors with verb inflection. This overlap between SLI and L2 raises the question if verb inflection can discriminate between L2 children with and without SLI. In this study we addressed this question for Dutch. The secondary goal of the study…

  8. Neural Correlates of Dutch Verb Second in Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Hoogduin, Hans; Stowe, Laurie A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2008-01-01

    Dutch speakers with agrammatic Broca's aphasia are known to have problems with the production of finite verbs in main clauses. This performance pattern has been accounted for in terms of the specific syntactic complexity of the Dutch main clause structure, which requires an extra syntactic operation (Verb Second), relative to the basic…

  9. Parental Reports of Symptoms of Childhood Disorders in Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Van der Ploeg, Jan D.; Van den Bergh, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of children displaying childhood disorders in the Netherlands is estimated through a questionnaire referencing DSM-IV symptoms filled out by the parents of 2,563 4-18-year-old Dutch children randomly taken from the general Dutch Youth population in 2004. The number of impaired children was estimated by applying the DSM-IV criteria for…

  10. The Electrophysiological Manifestation of Dutch Verb Second Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the processing of violations of the verb position in Dutch, in a group of healthy subjects, by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) through electroencephalography (EEG). In Dutch, the base position of the verb is clause final, but in matrix clauses, the finite verb is in second position, a construction known as "Verb Second".…

  11. Prefix Identification in the Reading of Dutch Bisyllabic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert; Haarman, Vera

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to explore the role of prefix identification in the reading of Dutch bisyllabic words. Although Dutch orthography is highly regular, several deviations from a one-to-one correspondence exist. A case in point is the grapheme E which can represent the vowels epsilon, e and oe in polysyllabic words. In…

  12. National Identification of Dutch Youth: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2011-01-01

    246 Dutch participants aged 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years were presented with the Strength of Identification Scale (SoIS; Barrett, 2007) and the National Identity scale based on Cultural and Historical achievements (NICH; derived from the NATID, Keillor & Hult, 1999). The study aimed to examine the extent and nature of Dutch children and…

  13. The Dutch Are Missing in the American Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claunch, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch are missing in any U.S. history textbook, in the content standards, and in the nationally endorsed curriculum. Outside of New York State history classes, there is almost no mention of the Dutch influence in early 17th-century America. Fleeting references to the Netherlands as a staging area for the Pilgrims' famous "Mayflower"…

  14. National Identification of Dutch Youth: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2011-01-01

    246 Dutch participants aged 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years were presented with the Strength of Identification Scale (SoIS; Barrett, 2007) and the National Identity scale based on Cultural and Historical achievements (NICH; derived from the NATID, Keillor & Hult, 1999). The study aimed to examine the extent and nature of Dutch children and…

  15. The Electrophysiological Manifestation of Dutch Verb Second Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the processing of violations of the verb position in Dutch, in a group of healthy subjects, by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) through electroencephalography (EEG). In Dutch, the base position of the verb is clause final, but in matrix clauses, the finite verb is in second position, a construction known as "Verb Second".…

  16. The Dutch Are Missing in the American Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claunch, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch are missing in any U.S. history textbook, in the content standards, and in the nationally endorsed curriculum. Outside of New York State history classes, there is almost no mention of the Dutch influence in early 17th-century America. Fleeting references to the Netherlands as a staging area for the Pilgrims' famous "Mayflower"…

  17. Fano resonance Rabi splitting of surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguang; Li, Jiafang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2017-08-14

    Rabi splitting and Fano resonance are well-known physical phenomena in conventional quantum systems as atoms and quantum dots, arising from strong interaction between two quantum states. In recent years similar features have been observed in various nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic systems. Yet, realization of strong interaction between two or more Fano resonance states has not been accomplished either in quantum or in optical systems. Here we report the observation of Rabi splitting of two strongly coupled surface plasmon Fano resonance states in a three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructure consisting of vertical asymmetric split-ring resonators. The plasmonic system stably supports triple Fano resonance states and double Rabi splittings can occur between lower and upper pairs of the Fano resonance states. The experimental discovery agrees excellently with rigorous numerical simulations, and is well explained by an analytical three-oscillator model. The discovery of Fano resonance Rabi splitting could provide a stimulating insight to explore new fundamental physics in analogous atomic systems and could be used to significantly enhance light-matter interaction for optical sensing and detecting applications.

  18. Conditions for a split diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzberg, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    An unusual phenomenon has been observed in a methane jet diffusion flame subjected to axial acoustic forcing. At specific excitation frequencies and amplitudes, the driven flame splits into a central jet and one or two side jets. The splitting is accompanied by a partial detachment of the flame from the nozzle exit, a shortening of the flame by a factor of 2, and a change from the common yellow color of soot radiation to a clear blue flame. Such a phenomenon may be useful for the control of soot production or product species. The splitting is intermittent in time, bifurcating between the split flame and an ordinary single jet diffusion flame. The experiment consists of an unconfined axisymmetric methane jet formed by a short length of 0.4 cm diameter pipe. The pipe is connected to a large plenum surrounding a bass reflex loudspeaker enclosure that provides the excitation. Conditions producing split and bifurcated flames are presented. The drive frequencies required to cause bifurcation correspond to the first two peaks in the system`s frequency response curve. Bifurcating behavior was observed at a wide range of flow rates, ranging from very small flames of Reynolds number 240 up to turbulent lift-off, at Re = 1,000, based on the inner pipe diameter. It was not sensitive to nozzle length, but the details of the nozzle tip, such as orifice or pipe geometry, can affect the frequency range.

  19. Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Dat T.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Lai, Chih Wei

    2015-11-01

    We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer ε-and γ -type, and odd-number β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the Γ-point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. In these monochalcogenide semiconductors, the separation of the non-degenerate conduction and valence bands from adjacent bands results in the suppression of Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. Therefore, the electron- and hole-spin relaxation times in these systems with zero or minimal spin splittings are expected to exceed those in GaAs when the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation mechanism is also suppressed.

  20. Photochemical Water-Splitting with Organomanganese Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kadassery, Karthika J; Dey, Suman Kr; Cannella, Anthony F; Surendhran, Roshaan; Lacy, David C

    2017-08-21

    Certain organometallic chromophores with water-derived ligands, such as the known [Mn(CO)3(μ3-OH)]4 (1) tetramer, drew our attention as possible platforms to study water-splitting reactions. Herein, we investigate the UV irradiation of various tricarbonyl organomanganese complexes, including 1, and demonstrate that dihydrogen, CO, and hydrogen peroxide form as products in a photochemical water-splitting decomposition reaction. The organic and manganese-containing side products are also characterized. Labeling studies with (18)O-1 suggest that the source of oxygen atoms in H2O2 originates from free water that interacts with 1 after photochemical dissociation of CO (1-CO) constituting the oxidative half-reaction of water splitting mediated by 1. Hydrogen production from 1 is the result of several different processes, one of which involves the protons derived from the hydroxido ligands in 1 constituting the reductive half-reaction of water splitting mediated by 1. Other processes that generate H2 are also operative and are described. Collectively the results from the photochemical decomposition of 1 provide an opportunity to propose a mechanism, and it is discussed within the context of developing new strategies for water-splitting reactions with organomanganese complexes.

  1. Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Do, Dat T; Mahanti, Subhendra D; Lai, Chih Wei

    2015-11-24

    We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer ε-and γ -type, and odd-number β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the Γ-point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. In these monochalcogenide semiconductors, the separation of the non-degenerate conduction and valence bands from adjacent bands results in the suppression of Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. Therefore, the electron- and hole-spin relaxation times in these systems with zero or minimal spin splittings are expected to exceed those in GaAs when the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation mechanism is also suppressed.

  2. Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Do, Dat T.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Lai, Chih Wei

    2015-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer ε-and γ -type, and odd-number β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the Γ-point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. In these monochalcogenide semiconductors, the separation of the non-degenerate conduction and valence bands from adjacent bands results in the suppression of Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. Therefore, the electron- and hole-spin relaxation times in these systems with zero or minimal spin splittings are expected to exceed those in GaAs when the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation mechanism is also suppressed. PMID:26596907

  3. A novel split-belt apparatus: the stress distribution and performance of its tangent split die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunfei; Li, Mingzhe; Wang, Bolong; Liu, Zhiwei

    2015-07-01

    A novel high pressure device with a tangent split cylinder was investigated on the basis of the belt-type apparatus. The cylinder is split into several blocks and the dividing line is tangent to the inner hole. This structure of the cylinder can eliminate the tangential tensile stress due to the friction and squeeze each other on the contact surface between the divided bodies. In this paper, different split numbers of the cylinders were choosen to study the stress distribution and the pressure-bearing capacity, and compare them with the traditional belt-type die (BTD). Simulation results show that the more the number of divided bodies, the smaller the stress and the higher the pressure-bearing capacity. The experiments also indicate that the tangent split die can bear higher pressure than the BTD. The tangent split tungsten carbide cylinder has the advantages of easy manufacture, strong bearing capacity and replaceable performance.

  4. Endoleak detection using single-acquisition split-bolus dual-energy computer tomography (DECT).

    PubMed

    Javor, D; Wressnegger, A; Unterhumer, S; Kollndorfer, K; Nolz, R; Beitzke, D; Loewe, C

    2017-04-01

    To assess a single-phase, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with a split-bolus technique and reconstruction of virtual non-enhanced images for the detection of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Fifty patients referred for routine follow-up post-EVAR CT and a history of at least one post-EVAR follow-up CT examination using our standard biphasic (arterial and venous phase) routine protocol (which was used as the reference standard) were included in this prospective trial. An in-patient comparison and an analysis of the split-bolus protocol and the previously used double-phase protocol were performed with regard to differences in diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose, and image quality. The analysis showed a significant reduction of radiation dose of up to 42 %, using the single-acquisition split-bolus protocol, while maintaining a comparable diagnostic accuracy (primary endoleak detection rate of 96 %). Image quality between the two protocols was comparable and only slightly inferior for the split-bolus scan (2.5 vs. 2.4). Using the single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction while maintaining high image quality, resulting in effective endoleak identification. • A single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction. • Endoleak development is the most common complication after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). • CT angiography is the imaging modality of choice for aortic aneurysm evaluation.

  5. 3D geometric split-merge segmentation of brain MRI datasets.

    PubMed

    Marras, Ioannis; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Pitas, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a novel method for MRI volume segmentation based on region adaptive splitting and merging is proposed. The method, called Adaptive Geometric Split Merge (AGSM) segmentation, aims at finding complex geometrical shapes that consist of homogeneous geometrical 3D regions. In each volume splitting step, several splitting strategies are examined and the most appropriate is activated. A way to find the maximal homogeneity axis of the volume is also introduced. Along this axis, the volume splitting technique divides the entire volume in a number of large homogeneous 3D regions, while at the same time, it defines more clearly small homogeneous regions within the volume in such a way that they have greater probabilities of survival at the subsequent merging step. Region merging criteria are proposed to this end. The presented segmentation method has been applied to brain MRI medical datasets to provide segmentation results when each voxel is composed of one tissue type (hard segmentation). The volume splitting procedure does not require training data, while it demonstrates improved segmentation performance in noisy brain MRI datasets, when compared to the state of the art methods.

  6. The Dutch Open Telescope on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Hammerschlag, R. H.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Leenaarts, J.; Snik, F.; Sütterlin, P.; Tziotziou, K.; de Wijn, A. G.

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma is an innovative solar telescope combining open telescope structure and an open support tower with a multi-wavelength imaging assembly and with synchronous speckle cameras to generate high-resolution movies which sample different layers of the solar atmosphere simultaneously and co-spatially at high resolution over long durations. The DOT test and development phase is nearly concluded. The installation of an advanced speckle processor enables full science utilization including "Open-DOT" time allocation to the international community. Co-pointing with spectropolarimeters at other Canary Island telescopes and with TRACE furnishes valuable Solar-B precursor capabilities.

  7. Dutch refinery remediating contaminated soils on site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    A Rotterdam refinery is treating 10,000 metric tons of petroleum-contaminated soils in above ground bioremediation cells equipped with vapor-extraction systems. The treatment process, designed by Groundwater Technology Inc., Norwood, Mass., the refinery's remediation consultant, is degrading the hydrocarbons to meet strict Dutch standards. Project completion is expected by Spring, requiring a total of only about 9 months. The contamination was accumulated in more than 25 years of refining operations at the site. As part of the construction of a new hydrocracker, the refinery was required to remediate the soils and take measures to reduce groundwater contamination.

  8. The Dutch model for legalizing end-of-life decisions.

    PubMed

    Kater, Loes

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch experience with euthanasia is used as a model for other countries for regulating end-of-life decisions. Several elements of the Dutch debate, for example the definition of euthanasia, are copied and imported to other debates. This paper studies the specific Dutch construction of regulating euthanasia and the concept of the requirements of prudent practice. The requirements of prudent practice embody the conditions for careful medical management in end-of-life decisions. It is argued that the requirements of prudent practice are a relatively acceptable way of regulating the Dutch practice of euthanasia as they are embedded in an elaborate network of relations, standards and values. As a consequence of this local character and the way the requirements of prudent practice relate to the Dutch practice of euthanasia it is difficult to simply transport them to other countries in order to regulate euthanasia.

  9. Observers and splitting structures in relativistic electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchmann, B.; Kurz, S.

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a relativistic splitting structure as a means to map fields and equations of electromagnetism from curved four-dimensional space-time to three-dimensional observer's space. We focus on a minimal set of mathematical structures that are directly motivated by the language of the physical theory. Space-time, world-lines, time translation, space platforms and time synchronization all find their mathematical counterparts. The splitting structure is defined without recourse to coordinates or frames. This is noteworthy since, in much of the prevalent literature, observers are identified with adapted coordinates and frames. Among the benefits of the approach is a concise and insightful classification of splitting structures that is juxtaposed to a classification of observers. The application of the framework to the Ehrenfest paradox and Schiff's ‘Question in General Relativity’ further illustrates the advantages of the framework, enabling a compact, yet profound analysis of the problems at hand.

  10. Multiple spectral splits of supernova neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Raffelt, Georg G; Smirnov, Alexei Yu

    2009-07-31

    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f(nu(e))(E) and f(nu[over ](e))(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu[over ] channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f(nu(e))=f(nu(x)), f(nu[over ](e))=f(nu[over ](x)) as well as E-->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  11. Multiple Spectral Splits of Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Raffelt, Georg G.; Dighe, Amol; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2009-07-31

    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f{sub n}u{sub e}(E) and f{sub n}u{sub e}(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f{sub n}u{sub e}=f{sub n}u{sub x}, f{sub n}u{sub e}=f{sub n}u{sub x} as well as E->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  12. Resonance splitting in gyrotropic ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Jalas, Dirk; Petrov, Alexander; Krause, Michael; Hampe, Jan; Eich, Manfred

    2010-10-15

    We present the theoretical concept of an optical isolator based on resonance splitting in a silicon ring resonator covered with a magneto-optical polymer cladding. For this task, a perturbation method is derived for the modes in the cylindrical coordinate system. A polymer magneto-optical cladding causing a 0.01 amplitude of the off-diagonal element of the dielectric tensor is assumed. It is shown that the derived resonance splitting of the clockwise and counterclockwise modes increases for smaller ring radii. For the ring with a radius of approximately 1.5μm, a 29GHz splitting is demonstrated. An integrated optical isolator with a 10μm geometrical footprint is proposed based on a critically coupled ring resonator.

  13. Notes on the genesis of pathological splitting.

    PubMed

    Ross, J M; Dunn, P B

    1980-01-01

    In this preliminary paper, we have concentrated on the reverberating system that may develop as parents respond to the rapprochement toddler's ambitendent communications of split objects and to some of the ways in which these interactions may become reactivated later in borderline transference phenomena. We have hypothesized that such splits in mental content underlie communication of a fixed, binary and dualistic nature, such as communication that characterizes the so-called double bind. We have further suggested that the double bind, when understood in the context of object relations, usefully highlights the process whereby parent and then therapist become unwitting participants in the toddler's or borderline's world of split-off part objects. Finally, we have touched on certain therapeutic implications, emphasizing the developmental impact of interpreting borderline transference phenomena.

  14. Rabi splitting enhancement in semiconductor microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, James Henry, II

    The physics of the two-level atom has been the basis of research in atomic physics for much of the past several decades. One of the great successes of semiconductor physics has been its capability to mimic the phenomena of other physical systems. Many of the discoveries in atomic physics have prompted studies of the coupling between two-level atom-like structures and photonic system in semiconductor physics. Much of that work has investigated the optics of the energy exchange between atom-like systems and the electromagnetic field mode of the enclosing cavity. Since many applications of microcavities are governed by the control of the spontaneous emission from the structure, command of the emission relies on control of the coupling between the photonic and the excitonic modes of the system. When the energies of the interacting microcavity states are in resonance, the resulting degeneracy yields an energy split between the coincident modes. This energy split produces two branches of the resonant mixed states, which are called polaritons. The energy separation between the mixed state branches is called the vacuum Rabi splitting, Delta. The magnitude of the Rabi splitting is indicative of the coupling strength of the polariton modes. One of the major pursuits of this field has been to augment the control of the coupling strength between the cavity polariton modes. Comprehensive control over the polariton states, be it the modulation of the polariton energies or the suppression of one of the modes, is a key component in the development of microcavity devices. The goal of my thesis research was to discover a simple means to achieve control over the coupling between the photonic and excitonic modes of a microcavity. This entailed the parametric tuning of the Rabi splitting between the coupled modes of the microcavity. Furthermore, we hoped to attain the maximum possible Rabi splitting observed in GaAs/AlxGa1- xAs microcavities with quantum oscillators located only within

  15. Photon splitting in strong magnetic fields: S-matrix calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, Jeanette I.; Baring, Matthew G.; Melrose, Donald B.

    1998-05-01

    The S-matrix approach to the treatment of photon splitting in a magnetized vacuum, with the electron propagators expressed in the Landau representation, is discussed critically. Although the analytic results of Mentzel, Berg and Wunner are confirmed, we propose that their available numerical results may be subject to two previously unidentified sources of error associated with the sum over principal quantum number n, leading to spurious contributions to the amplitude, and the extremely slow convergence of the sum for weak fields. It is shown how the sums may be rearranged to avoid the spurious contributions. If the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula is used to evaluate the infinite sums over n, the S-matrix approach then reproduces results derived by the effective Lagrangian and proper-time techniques in the weak-field, low-frequency limit. This method gives reliable results, for B>~0.01 and ω<~0.1, that reproduce those obtained by proper-time techniques. The S-matrix approach simplifies in the strong-field limit, B>>1, where the sum over n converges rapidly. Our results show that the branching ratio for the splittings ⊥-->⊥⊥ and ⊥-->∥∥ decreases from its known value ~3.4 for B<<1 towards zero for B>>1. For weak fields the S-matrix approach is unnecessarily cumbersome, and future numerical work should be based on the alternative approaches.

  16. Parallel programming in Split-C

    SciTech Connect

    Culler, D.E.; Dusseau, A.; Goldstein, S.C.; Krishnamurthy, A.; Lumetta, S.; Eicken, T. von; Yelick, K.

    1993-12-31

    The authors introduce the Split-C language, a parallel extension of C intended for high performance programming on distributed memory multiprocessors, and demonstrate the use of the language in optimizing parallel programs. Split-C provides a global address space with a clear concept of locality and unusual assignment operators. These are used as tools to reduce the frequency and cost of remote access. The language allows a mixture of shared memory, message passing, and data parallel programming styles while providing efficient access to the underlying machine. They demonstrate the basic language concepts using regular and irregular parallel programs and give performance results for various stages of program optimization.

  17. Splitting Strategy for Simulating Genetic Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    You, Xiong; Liu, Xueping; Musa, Ibrahim Hussein

    2014-01-01

    The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions. PMID:24624223

  18. The splitting of Comet Halley 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dao-Han; Zheng, Jia-Quing; Liu, Zong-Li; Yan, Lin-Shan; Lui, Lin-Zhong; Zhou, Xing-Hai; Wu, Zhi-Xian; Gilmore, A. C.

    1987-09-01

    Nine photographs taken on 25 Mar., 1986 show that the nucleus of Comet Halley split into 2 widely separated nuclei. The separated projected distance on the plane of the sky is 5000 km. The principal nucleus and the secondary nucleus exhibit their own comas. The prominant jet ejected from the companion curves up to a height of several thousand kilometers and the secondary nucleus must fade out of sight within only a few days. In combination with the results of photoelectric observations it seems that this event of splitting coincides with an outburst. Photographs were digitized, and the image enhancement is described.

  19. Fermion localization on a split brane

    SciTech Connect

    Chumbes, A. E. R.; Vasquez, A. E. O.; Hott, M. B.

    2011-05-15

    In this work we analyze the localization of fermions on a brane embedded in five-dimensional, warped and nonwarped, space-time. In both cases we use the same nonlinear theoretical model with a nonpolynomial potential featuring a self-interacting scalar field whose minimum energy solution is a soliton (a kink) which can be continuously deformed into a two-kink. Thus a single brane splits into two branes. The behavior of spin 1/2 fermions wave functions on the split brane depends on the coupling of fermions to the scalar field and on the geometry of the space-time.

  20. Accuracy of tablet splitting: Comparison study between hand splitting and tablet cutter

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Walid A.; Alanizi, Abdulaziz S.; Abdelhamid, Magdi M.; Alanizi, Fars K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tablet splitting is often used in pharmacy practice to adjust the administered doses. It is also used as a method of reducing medication costs. Objective To investigate the accuracy of tablet splitting by comparing hand splitting vs. a tablet cutter for a low dose drug tablet. Methods Salbutamol tablets (4 mg) were chosen as low dose tablets. A randomly selected equal number of tablets were split by hand and a tablet cutter, and the remaining tablets were kept whole. Weight variation and drug content were analysed for salbutamol in 0.1 N HCl using a validated spectrophotometric method. The percentages by which each whole tablet’s or half-tablet’s drug content and weight difference from sample mean values were compared with USP specification ranges for drug content. The %RSD was also calculated in order to determine whether the drugs met USP specification for %RSD. The tablets and half tablets were scanned using electron microscopy to show any visual differences arising from splitting. Results 27.5% of samples differed from sample mean values by a percentage that fell outside of USP specification for weight, of which 15% from the tablet cutter and 25% from those split by hand fell outside the specifications. All whole tablets and half tablets met the USP specifications for drug content but the variation of content between the two halves reached 21.3% of total content in case of hand splitting, and 7.13% only for the tablet cutter. The %RSDs for drug content and weight met the USP specification for whole salbutamol tablets and the half tablets which were split by tablet cutter. The halves which were split by hand fell outside the specification for %RSD (drug content = 6.43%, weight = 8.33%). The differences were visually clear in the electron microscope scans. Conclusion Drug content variation in half-tablets appeared to be attributable to weight variation occurring during the splitting process. This could have serious clinical consequences for

  1. Potential of human twin embryos generated by embryo splitting in assisted reproduction and research.

    PubMed

    Noli, Laila; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2017-03-01

    Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans. A number of countries have formulated bans either through laws, decrees or official statements. However, in general, these laws specifically define cloning as an embryo that is generated via nuclear transfer (NT) and do not mention embryo splitting. Only the UK includes under cloning both embryo splitting and NT in the same legislation. On the contrary, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine does not have a major ethical objection to transferring two or more artificially created embryos with the same genome with the aim of producing a single pregnancy, stating that 'since embryo splitting has the potential to improve the efficacy of IVF treatments for infertility, research to investigate the technique is ethically acceptable'. Embryo splitting has been introduced successfully to the veterinary medicine several decades ago and today is a part of standard practice. We present here an overview of embryo splitting experiments in humans and non-human primates and discuss the potential of this technology in assisted reproduction and research. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify studies on embryo splitting in humans and non-human primates. 'Embryo splitting' and 'embryo twinning' were used as the keywords, alone or in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topics of biology of preimplantation embryos. A very limited number of studies have been conducted in humans and non

  2. Split-volume treatment planning of multiple consecutive vertebral body metastases for cyberknife image-guided robotic radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Sahgal, Arjun; Chuang, Cynthia; Larson, David; Huang, Kim; Petti, Paula; Weinstein, Phil; Ma, Lijun

    2008-01-01

    Cyberknife treatment planning of multiple consecutive vertebral body metastases is challenging due to large target volumes adjacent to critical normal tissues. A split-volume treatment planning technique was developed to improve the treatment plan quality of such lesions. Treatment plans were generated for 1 to 5 consecutive thoracic vertebral bodies (CVBM) prescribing a total dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of the entire vertebral body(ies). Treatment plans were generated considering both the de novo clinical scenario (no prior radiation), imposing a dose limit of 8 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord, and the retreatment scenario (prior radiation) with a dose limit of 3 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord. The split-volume planning technique was compared with the standard full-volume technique only for targets ranging from 2 to 5 CVBM in length. The primary endpoint was to obtain best PTV coverage by the 24 Gy prescription isodose line. A total of 18 treatment plans were generated (10 standard and 8 split-volume). PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line worsened consistently as the number of CVBM increased for both the de novo and retreatment scenario. Split-volume planning was achieved by introducing a 0.5-cm gap, splitting the standard full-volume PTV into 2 equal length PTVs. In every case, split-volume planning resulted in improved PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line ranging from 4% to 12% for the de novo scenario and, 8% to 17% for the retreatment scenario. We did not observe a significant trend for increased monitor units required, or higher doses to spinal cord or esophagus, with split-volume planning. Split-volume treatment planning significantly improves Cyberknife treatment plan quality for CVBM, as compared to the standard technique. This technique may be of particular importance in clinical situations where stringent spinal cord dose limits are required.

  3. Split-Volume Treatment Planning of Multiple Consecutive Vertebral Body Metastases for Cyberknife Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun Chuang, Cynthia; Larson, David; Huang, Kim; Petti, Paula; Weinstein, Phil; Ma Lijun

    2008-10-01

    Cyberknife treatment planning of multiple consecutive vertebral body metastases is challenging due to large target volumes adjacent to critical normal tissues. A split-volume treatment planning technique was developed to improve the treatment plan quality of such lesions. Treatment plans were generated for 1 to 5 consecutive thoracic vertebral bodies (CVBM) prescribing a total dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of the entire vertebral body(ies). Treatment plans were generated considering both the de novo clinical scenario (no prior radiation), imposing a dose limit of 8 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord, and the retreatment scenario (prior radiation) with a dose limit of 3 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord. The split-volume planning technique was compared with the standard full-volume technique only for targets ranging from 2 to 5 CVBM in length. The primary endpoint was to obtain best PTV coverage by the 24 Gy prescription isodose line. A total of 18 treatment plans were generated (10 standard and 8 split-volume). PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line worsened consistently as the number of CVBM increased for both the de novo and retreatment scenario. Split-volume planning was achieved by introducing a 0.5-cm gap, splitting the standard full-volume PTV into 2 equal length PTVs. In every case, split-volume planning resulted in improved PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line ranging from 4% to 12% for the de novo scenario and, 8% to 17% for the retreatment scenario. We did not observe a significant trend for increased monitor units required, or higher doses to spinal cord or esophagus, with split-volume planning. Split-volume treatment planning significantly improves Cyberknife treatment plan quality for CVBM, as compared to the standard technique. This technique may be of particular importance in clinical situations where stringent spinal cord dose limits are required.

  4. Sustainable Phoenix: Lessons from the Dutch Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Jesus J.

    In only fifty years, the Phoenix metropolitan area has expanded from a small desert town into one of the largest urban areas in the United States. Today, it has one of the fastest rates of growth in the nation with an annual rate of 4.5%. This area has grown during a period in urban development that largely ignored local topography, climate, culture, and history. The result has been a sprawling metropolitan area with an ever increasing ecological footprint and a standardized urban design and infrastructure that works against its environmental setting rather than with it. Currently, the city of Phoenix is going through a process of urban revitalization with an increasing demand for urban living and commerce. This research explores sustainable urban design and its potential applications in the metropolitan Phoenix area through an investigation of the Dutch model. The Dutch have successfully dealt with sustainable urban design approaches and their practices represent an unusual learning opportunity for Phoenix. The Netherlands' experience suggests three strategies/themes for rendering Phoenix a more sustainable urban form. These include the strategic planning and development of urban extensions, compact infill, and modernizing infrastructure.

  5. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'.

  6. Gerontology and geriatrics in Dutch medical education.

    PubMed

    Tersmette, W; van Bodegom, D; van Heemst, D; Stott, D; Westendorp, R

    2013-01-01

    The world population is ageing and healthcare services require trained staff who can address the needs of older patients. In this study we determined how current medical education prepares Dutch students of medicine in the field of Gerontology and Geriatrics (G&G). Using a checklist of the essentials of G&G, we assessed Dutch medical education on three levels. On the national level we analysed the latest National Blueprint for higher medical education (Raamplan artsopleiding 2009). On the faculty level we reviewed medical curricula on the basis of interviews with program directors and inspection of course materials. On the student level we assessed the topics addressed in the questions of the cross-institutional progress test (CIPT). The National Bluepr int contains few specific G&G objectives. Obligatory G&G courses in medical schools on average amount to 2.2% of the total curriculum measured as European Credit Transfer System units (ECTS). Only two out of eight medical schools have practical training during the Master phase in the form of a clerkship in G&G. In the CIPT, on average 1.5% of questions cover G&G. Geriatric education in the Netherlands does not seem to be in line with current demographic trends. The National Blueprint falls short of providing sufficiently detailed objectives for education on the care of older people. The geriatric content offered by medical schools is varied and incomplete, and students are only marginally tested on their knowledge of G&G in the CIPT.

  7. Adaptive Multilevel Splitting for Monte Carlo particle transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louvin, Henri; Dumonteil, Eric; Lelièvre, Tony; Rousset, Mathias; Diop, Cheikh M.

    2017-09-01

    In the Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport, and especially for shielding applications, variance reduction techniques are widely used to help simulate realisations of rare events and reduce the relative errors on the estimated scores for a given computation time. Adaptive Multilevel Splitting is one of these variance reduction techniques that has recently appeared in the literature. In the present paper, we propose an alternative version of the AMS algortihm, adapted for the first time to the field of particle tranport. Within this context, it can be used to build an unbiased estimator of any quantity associated with particle tracks, such as flux, reaction rates or even non-Boltzmann tallies. Furthermore, the effciency of the AMS algorithm is shown not to be very sensitive to variations of its input parameters, which makes it capable of significant variance reduction without requiring extended user effort.

  8. Laser Cleaning of Peristyle in Diocletian Palace in Split (HR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almesberger, D.; Rizzo, A.; Zanini, A.; Geometrante, R.

    Before starting the cleaning program of the peristyle of Diocletian Palace in Split, a series of tests have been performed on it. First of all, the state of conservation of columns and capitals has been assessed applying non-destructive techniques such as thermography, magnetoscopy and superficial ultrasonic tests. All the areas with black crusts, exfoliation and stone cracks have been determined. In this stage, parameters such as water absorption and colour have been estimated in order to compare them with those measured after the cleaning operation. Then, more than 3-month period of tests have been performed to set up all the parameters concerning the application of the laser cleaning techniques. In this chapter, the results of these preliminary investigations are presented.

  9. A Comparison among Worker Types Using a Composites Approach and Median Splits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Shahnaz; Wuensch, Karl L.; Brandon, Howard R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined Spence and Robbins' (1992) worker types in terms of correlates of workaholism (e.g., work-life imbalance, obsessive-compulsive behavior). A survey was administered to professionals, who were then classified into different worker types following the traditional median-split technique. The data were also analyzed with…

  10. A Comparison among Worker Types Using a Composites Approach and Median Splits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Shahnaz; Wuensch, Karl L.; Brandon, Howard R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined Spence and Robbins' (1992) worker types in terms of correlates of workaholism (e.g., work-life imbalance, obsessive-compulsive behavior). A survey was administered to professionals, who were then classified into different worker types following the traditional median-split technique. The data were also analyzed with…

  11. An effective technique of scrotal harvest.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, R L; Ryan, C M; Tompkins, R G

    1993-01-01

    In male patients with extensive burns, the scrotum is often spared and is potentially a very useful donor site. We describe a technique that simplifies scrotal harvest and facilitates the procurement of clinically useful amounts of split-thickness skin.

  12. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara

    2017-01-24

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain.

  13. Mechanics analysis of molar tooth splitting.

    PubMed

    Barani, Amir; Chai, Herzl; Lawn, Brian R; Bush, Mark B

    2015-03-01

    A model for the splitting of teeth from wedge loading of molar cusps from a round indenting object is presented. The model is developed in two parts: first, a simple 2D fracture mechanics configuration with the wedged tooth simulated by a compact tension specimen; second, a full 3D numerical analysis using extended finite element modeling (XFEM) with an embedded crack. The result is an explicit equation for splitting load in terms of indenter radius and key tooth dimensions. Fracture experiments on extracted human molars loaded axially with metal spheres are used to quantify the splitting forces and thence to validate the model. The XFEM calculations enable the complex crack propagation, initially in the enamel coat and subsequently in the interior dentin, to be followed incrementally with increasing load. The fracture evolution is shown to be stable prior to failure, so that dentin toughness, not strength, is the controlling material parameter. Critical conditions under which tooth splitting in biological and dental settings are likely to be met, however rare, are considered.

  14. Supporting Students' Constructions of the Splitting Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of particular instructional practices that support students' constructions of the partitive unit fraction scheme and measurement concepts for fractions. Another body of research has demonstrated the power of a particular mental operation--the splitting operation--in supporting students'…

  15. Geometrical splitting and reduction of Feynman diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydychev, Andrei I.

    2016-10-01

    A geometrical approach to the calculation of N-point Feynman diagrams is reviewed. It is shown that the geometrical splitting yields useful connections between Feynman integrals with different momenta and masses. It is demonstrated how these results can be used to reduce the number of variables in the occurring functions.

  16. Split-Ring Marx Generator Grading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent concerns metallic tubing bent to a shape consistent with the cross-sectional shape of a Marx generator. Tubing is split into two...symmetrical halves and insulated; two halves combined have an initial DC potential equal to one stage voltage, after erection of the Marx the potential collapses to zero.

  17. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER...

  18. Isospin Splittings of Doubly Heavy Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Guo, Feng-Kun; Hanhart, Christoph; Meissner, Ulf-G.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.

    2011-08-18

    The SELEX Collaboration has reported a very large isospin splitting of doubly charmed baryons. We show that this effect would imply that the doubly charmed baryons are very compact. One intriguing possibility is that such baryons have a linear geometry Q-q-Q where the light quark q oscillates between the two heavy quarks Q, analogous to a linear molecule such as carbon dioxide. However, using conventional arguments, the size of a heavy-light hadron is expected to be around 0.5 fm, much larger than the size needed to explain the observed large isospin splitting. Assuming the distance between two heavy quarks is much smaller than that between the light quark and a heavy one, the doubly heavy baryons are related to the heavy mesons via heavy quark-diquark symmetry. Based on this symmetry, we predict the isospin splittings for doubly heavy baryons including {Xi}{sub cc}, {Xi}{sub bb} and {Xi}{sub bc}. The prediction for the {Xi}{sub cc} is much smaller than the SELEX value. On the other hand, the {Xi}{sub bb} baryons are predicted to have an isospin splitting as large as (6.3 {+-} 1.7) MeV. An experimental study of doubly bottomed baryons is therefore very important to better understand the structure of baryons with heavy quarks.

  19. Layer Splitting in a Complex Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bernard; Hyde, Truell; Matthews, Lorin; Johnson, Megan; Cook, Mike; Schmoke, Jimmy

    2009-11-01

    Dust particle clouds are found in most plasma processing environments and many astrophysical environments. Dust particles suspended within such plasmas often acquire an electric charge from collisions with free electrons in the plasma. Depending upon the ratio of interparticle potential energy to average kinetic energy, charged dust particles can form a gaseous, liquid or crystalline structure with short to longer range ordering. An interesting facet of complex plasma behavior is that particle layers appear to split as the DC bias is increased. This splitting of layers points to a phase transition differing from the normal phase transitions found in two-dimensional solids. In 1993, Dubin noted that as the charged particle density of an initially two-dimensional Coulomb crystal increases the system's layers split at specific charge densities. This work modeled ions in a Paul or Penning trap, but may be applicable to dusty plasma systems as well. This work will discuss this possibility along with splitting observed in the CASPER GEC rf Reference Cell at specific pressures and powers.

  20. Supporting Students' Constructions of the Splitting Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of particular instructional practices that support students' constructions of the partitive unit fraction scheme and measurement concepts for fractions. Another body of research has demonstrated the power of a particular mental operation--the splitting operation--in supporting students'…

  1. Controlled Splitting of an Atomic Wave Packet

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Zhang, P.; Chapman, M. S.; You, L.

    2006-08-18

    We propose a simple scheme capable of adiabatically splitting an atomic wave packet using two independent translating traps. Implemented with optical dipole traps, our scheme allows a high degree of flexibility for atom interferometry arrangements and highlights its potential as an efficient and high fidelity atom optical beam splitter.

  2. Medical examinations undertaken by Dutch professional football clubs.

    PubMed

    Gouttebarge, V; Sluiter, J K

    2014-01-01

    During their career, professional football players undergo periodic medical examinations intended to screen and monitor their fitness and health. In the Netherlands, information about the content of these examinations is lacking and it is not known whether they comply with current Dutch occupational medicine guidelines. To explore the content of medical examinations undertaken in Dutch professional football clubs, and assess whether they comply with current Dutch occupational medicine guidelines. An observational study conducted among physicians working for all clubs in the Dutch first- and second-tier professional football leagues, using an electronic questionnaire. Cardiovascular assessment based on different instruments was used in all clubs and respiratory assessment based on different instruments was used in most (87%). Other assessments such as mental health (7%), neurological (27%) or urinary (22%) assessments were only undertaken in some clubs. Seven out of the 26 clubs met some of the relevant aspects of current Dutch occupational medicine guidelines. The medical examinations currently undertaken in Dutch professional football clubs are diverse in nature and not consistent from one club to another. Only a limited number of clubs meet Dutch guidelines for periodic medical examinations of workers.

  3. Magnetic impurities in spin-split superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gerven Oei, W.-V.; Tanasković, D.; Žitko, R.

    2017-02-01

    Hybrid semiconductor-superconductor quantum dot devices are tunable physical realizations of quantum impurity models for a magnetic impurity in a superconducting host. The binding energy of the localized subgap Shiba states is set by the gate voltages and external magnetic field. In this work we discuss the effects of the Zeeman spin splitting, which is generically present both in the quantum dot and in the (thin-film) superconductor. The unequal g factors in semiconductor and superconductor materials result in respective Zeeman splittings of different magnitude. We consider both classical and quantum impurities. In the first case we analytically study the spectral function and the subgap states. The energy of bound states depends on the spin-splitting of the Bogoliubov quasiparticle bands as a simple rigid shift. For the case of collinear magnetization of impurity and host, the Shiba resonance of a given spin polarization remains unperturbed when it overlaps with the branch of the quasiparticle excitations of the opposite spin polarization. In the quantum case, we employ numerical renormalization group calculations to study the effect of the Zeeman field for different values of the g factors of the impurity and of the superconductor. We find that in general the critical magnetic field for the singlet-doublet transition changes nonmonotonically as a function of the superconducting gap, demonstrating the existence of two different transition mechanisms: Zeeman splitting of Shiba states or gap closure due to Zeeman splitting of Bogoliubov states. We also study how in the presence of spin-orbit coupling, modeled as an additional noncollinear component of the magnetic field at the impurity site, the Shiba resonance overlapping with the quasiparticle continuum of the opposite spin gradually broadens and then merges with the continuum.

  4. Spin-orbit splitting in neutron drops

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Pandharipande, V.R.; Ravenhall, D.G.

    1995-08-01

    Hartree-Fock calculations of very neutron-rich nuclei are an essential source of input for calculations of the properties of neutron-star crusts. The Hartree-Fock calculations often use Skyrme models whose parameters are determined by fits to known (hence not neutron-rich) nuclei and extrapolations to the N >> Z case. The Vautherin and Brink (VB) prescription for the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit potential, V{sub so}, is usually used; this is based on the assumption that most of V{sub so} comes from a short-range L{center_dot}S nucleon-nucleon interaction. In 1993 we showed that more than half of the spin-orbit splitting in {sup 15}N comes from long-range three-nucleon potentials and correlations, which violate the VB assumption. To investigate the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit splitting, we made calculations of the type described in Sec. B.d for systems of 7 (p-wave splitting) and 19 (d-wave) neutrons. The neutrons were confined in external potentials that were adjusted to give physically reasonable densities. We find that the spin-orbit splitting of these drops is less than half the {sup 15}N value. These values can be used to determine an isospin dependence of V{sub so} that is very different from that of VB. Hartree-Fock calculations of known spin-orbit splittings in nuclei with N significantly different from Z are now being made with this new prescription.

  5. Modeling shear wave splitting observations from Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y. V.; Li, A.; Ito, G.; Hung, S.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the sources of shear-wave splitting in Iceland using synthetic waveforms generated from a variety of models. We employ a pseudospectral method in waveform modeling that allows 3-D heterogeneity and anisotropy. Several 1-D and 2-D models have been tested for a vertically propagating plane shear wave. For the two-layer models with horizontal symmetry axes, our results show that the apparent fast direction is towards the fast orientation in the upper layer. This experiment may explain why shear wave splitting measurements tend to be correlated with surface geology. We have also tested models with lateral anisotropic variations including a dike and a plume. The anisotropic boundary can be well resolved based on the change of fast directions and delay times. The splitting parameters near the boundary are affected by the laterally varied structure and the affected distance depends on wavelength, which is about 40 km for periods of 4-6 s and 50 km for periods of 8-10 s. We are currently performing experiments on a radial flow model from a plume stem. Synthetic shear-wave splitting measurements will be conducted from two more realistic geodynamic models. The first one is the “radial flow” model with low Rayleigh number. The pounding plume material is much thicker than the lithosphere and therefore does not strongly “feel” the lithosphere thickening away from the axis. Thus the plume spreads as fast away from the axis as it does along it. The other one is the “channel flow” model with high Rayleigh number. In this model the plume stem is much narrower and the thickness of the pounding plume material beneath the lithosphere much thinner. Thus the very low viscosity plume material is channeled more along axis by the thickening lithosphere. Combing the synthetic with the observed splitting results, we expect to determine the best geodynamic models for Iceland that fit seismic constraints.

  6. Metal oxide semiconductors in PEC splitting of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satsangi, Vibha R.

    2007-09-01

    With hydrogen being accepted as fuel for the future, the world is looking forward to development of clean and sustainable methods of its production from renewable energy. In this context, area of research in the PEC splitting of water assumes great significance and the challenge is to develop corrosion resistant, chemically stable semiconductor that absorbs sunlight in the visible region and also has the band edges matching to the redox level of water. The advent of nanotechnology has opened new vistas in the production of semiconductor with large surface area for solar energy absorption and other favourable properties, which has lead to restudy the old workhorses, viz α-Fe IIO 3 and TiO II in the PEC splitting of water. This communication reports the study on metal oxides, towards the photoelectrochemical splitting of water as function of material properties and characteristics of semiconductor- electrolyte junction, viz; particle size, suitable dopants, crystalline phase, surface morphology, resistivity, bandgap, donor density and flatband potential. Effect of sensitizers and surface modification has also been investigated. Both the techniques of surface modification: (i) depositing metal dots and (ii) swift heavy ion irradiation in α-Fe IIO 3 were observed to be much effective in improving the photoresponse of the material. α-Fe IIO 3 thin films prepared using spray pyrolysis having Zn dots (dot height: 260 Å) on its surface exhibited the best of photocurrent density (1.82 mA/cm2), at 0.6 V applied bias. Nitrogen doped nanostructured TiO II prepared by sol gel method exhibited much better photoresponse as compared to any other dopant.

  7. Development of metal tungstate alloys for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasher, D.; Chong, M.; Chang, Y.; Sarker, P.; Huda, M. N.; Gaillard, N.

    2013-09-01

    In the present paper, we report our efforts on the development of metal tungstate alloys for efficient and economical photoelectrochemical water splitting. As suggested by density functional theory (DFT), the addition of copper to the host tungsten trioxide improves the visible light absorption. Past studies at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute have demonstrated that water splitting with co-sputtered and spray-deposited CuWO4 with 2.2 eV band gap was feasible, although the efficiency of the process was severely limited by charge carrier recombination. Density functional theory calculation showed that CuWO4 contains unfilled mid-gap states and high electron effective mass. To improve transport properties of CuWO4, we hypothesized that copper tungstate (CuWO4) hollow nanospheres could improve holes transfer to the electrolyte and reduce recombination, improving the water splitting efficiency. Nanospheres were synthesized by sonochemical technique in which the precursors used were copper acetate, ammonium meta-tungstate and thiourea (used as a fuel to complete the reaction). All chemicals undergo a high-energy sonication by using ethylene glycol as a solvent. Preliminary linear scan voltammetry (LSV) performed for annealed CuWO4 under front side and back side simulated AM-1.5 illumination demonstrated that the CuWO4 hollow nanospheres were photoactive. Subsequent scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy studies revealed the clear formation of nano sized hollow spherical shaped CuWO4 particles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a clear formation of triclinic CuWO4 structure during the sonochemical process.

  8. Double trouble: subsidence and CO2 respiration due to 1,000 years of Dutch coastal peatlands cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; van der Meulen, Michiel J.; Middelkoop, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Coastal plains are amongst the most densely populated areas in the world. Many coastal peatlands are drained to create arable land. This is not without consequences; physical compaction of peat and its degradation by oxidation lead to subsidence, and oxidation also leads to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). This study complements existing studies by quantifying total land subsidence and associated CO2 respiration over the past millennium in the Dutch coastal peatlands, to gain insight into the consequences of cultivating coastal peatlands over longer timescales. Results show that the peat volume loss was 19.8 km3, which lowered the Dutch coastal plain by 1.9 m on average, bringing most of it below sea level. At least 66 % of the volume reduction is the result of drainage, and 34 % was caused by the excavation and subsequent combustion of peat. The associated CO2 respiration is equivalent to a global atmospheric CO2 concentration increase of ~0.39 ppmv. Cultivation of coastal peatlands can turn a carbon sink into a carbon source. If the path taken by the Dutch would be followed worldwide, there will be double trouble: globally significant carbon emissions and increased flood risk in a globally important human habitat. The effects would be larger than the historic ones because most of the cumulative Dutch subsidence and peat loss was accomplished with much less efficient techniques than those available now.

  9. The Split-Brain Phenomenon Revisited: A Single Conscious Agent with Split Perception.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Yair; de Haan, Edward H F; Lamme, Victor A F

    2017-09-25

    The split-brain phenomenon is caused by the surgical severing of the corpus callosum, the main route of communication between the cerebral hemispheres. The classical view of this syndrome asserts that conscious unity is abolished. The left hemisphere consciously experiences and functions independently of the right hemisphere. This view is a cornerstone of current consciousness research. In this review, we first discuss the evidence for the classical view. We then propose an alternative, the 'conscious unity, split perception' model. This model asserts that a split brain produces one conscious agent who experiences two parallel, unintegrated streams of information. In addition to changing our view of the split-brain phenomenon, this new model also poses a serious challenge for current dominant theories of consciousness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electromagnetic interaction of split-ring resonators: The role of separation and relative orientation.

    PubMed

    Feth, Nils; König, Michael; Husnik, Martin; Stannigel, Kai; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Wegener, Martin; Linden, Stefan

    2010-03-29

    Extinction cross-section spectra of split-ring-resonator dimers have been measured at near-infrared frequencies with a sensitive spatial modulation technique. The resonance frequency of the dimer's coupled mode as well as its extinction cross-section and its quality factor depend on the relative orientation and separation of the two split-ring resonators. The findings can be interpreted in terms of electric and magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. Numerical calculations based on a Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain approach are in good agreement with the experiments and support our physical interpretation.

  11. Automatic feathering of split fields for step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nesrin; Leybovich, Leonid B; Sethi, Anil; Emami, Bahman

    2003-05-07

    Due to leaf travel range limitations of the Varian Dynamic Multileaf Collimator (DMLC) system, an IMRT field width exceeding 14.5 cm is split into two or more adjacent abutting sub-fields. The abutting sub-fields are then delivered as separate treatment fields. The accuracy of the delivery is very sensitive to multileaf positioning accuracy. The uncertainties in leaf and carriage positions cause errors in the delivered dose (e.g., hot or cold spots) along the match line of abutting sub-fields. The dose errors are proportional to the penumbra slope at the edge of each sub-field. To alleviate this problem, we developed techniques that feather the split line of IMRT fields. Feathering of the split line was achieved by dividing IMRT fields into several sub-groups with different split line positions. A Varian 21EX accelerator with an 80-leaf DLMC was used for IMRT delivery. Cylindrical targets with varying widths (>14.5 cm) were created to study the split line positions. Seven coplanar 6 MV fields were selected for planning using the NOMOS-CORVUS system. The isocentre of the fields was positioned at the centre of the target volume. Verification was done in a 30 x 30 x 30 cm3 polystyrene phantom using film dosimetry. We investigated two techniques to move the split line from its original position or cause feathering of them: (1) varying the isocentre position along the target width and (2) introduction of a 'pseudo target' outside of the patient (phantom). The position of the 'pseudo target' was determined by analysing the divergence of IMRT fields. For target widths of 14-28 cm, IMRT fields were automatically split into two sub-fields, and the split line was positioned along the centre of the target by CORVUS. Measured dose distributions demonstrated that the dose to the critical structure was 10% higher than planned when the split line crossed through the centre of the target. Both methods of modifying the split line positions resulted in maximum shifts of

  12. The art of governance of Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hoek, H

    1999-01-01

    Hospitals in The Netherlands are governed by two boards: The Board of Directors, the legal representative of the hospital, responsible for strategic and operational business activities; and the Supervisory Board, made up of co-opted volunteers and responsible for checking and approving of the major decisions of the Board of Directors. The question which arises is whether the system of governance is able to function appropriately and guarantee enough concern about general health problems, moral and ethical questions and the interest of the patients. This paper investigate the successes and shortfalls of such a system of governance in Dutch hospitals. The results and conclusions determine that although copied from the corporate governance model, it does not function well in an environment where the influence of patients and the inhabitants of the region are of great importance and shareholders do not exist.

  13. Development of a Dutch Drainpipe exposure scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiktak, Aaldrik; Boesten, Jos; van der Linden, Ton

    2010-05-01

    In the new Dutch pesticide authorisation procedure, the leaching of pesticides to surface waters will be evaluated. The 90th percentile of the peak concentrations in all Dutch ditches will be used for the exposure assessment of aquatic organisms The peak concentration in surface waters is primarily affected by fast transfer routes (amongst others by macropores). For this reason, we developed a macropore version of the pesticide leaching model PEARL. The macropore version of PEARL describes transport of pesticides through the soil matrix and through two preferential flow domains, i.e. a bypass domain and an internal catchment domain. The drainpipe exposure assessment will be done for a single field site. We selected the Andelst field experiment (Scorza Júnior et al., 2004) for this purpose, because at this site sufficient data is available to parameterise and test the model. To assess the effect of weather variability on drainpipe concentration, the model is run for a 20-years period. Hydrological boundary conditions for the 20-years period were taken from nearby weather stations and ground water observation wells. Application of PEARL to this field site showed that the model adequately describes the peak concentration and the later decline of the concentration for two different pesticides. The exposure assessment at the Andelst field site results in 20 annual peak concentrations, that need to be compared with the 90th percentile of the peak concentration in all Dutch ditches, so we performed simulations with a spatially-distributed version of PEARL. This assessment resulted in 20 times n concentrations, with n the number of locations. A contour diagram was used to assess which weather year corresponds with the 90th percentile of all 20 times n peak concentrations. The X-coordinate in the contour diagram corresponds with the percentile of the cumulative distribution of the predicted concentrations due to spatial variability that is obtained for a median weather

  14. Material efficiency in Dutch packaging policy.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Ernst; van Sluisveld, Mariësse A E

    2013-03-13

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implemented to reduce the environmental impact of packaging. The analysis shows that Dutch packaging policies helped to reduce the total packaging volume until 1999. After 2000, packaging consumption increased more rapidly than the baseline, suggesting that policy measures were not effective. Generally, we see limited attention to material efficiency to reduce packaging material use. For this purpose, we tried to gain more insight in recent activities on material efficiency, by building a database of packaging prevention initiatives. We identified 131 alterations to packaging implemented in the period 2005-2010, of which weight reduction was the predominant approach. More appropriate packaging policy is needed to increase the effectiveness of policies, with special attention to material efficiency.

  15. Dutch X-band SLAR calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groot, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    In August 1989 the NASA/JPL airborne P/L/C-band DC-8 SAR participated in several remote sensing campaigns in Europe. Amongst other test sites, data were obtained of the Flevopolder test site in the Netherlands on August the 16th. The Dutch X-band SLAR was flown on the same date and imaged parts of the same area as the SAR. To calibrate the two imaging radars a set of 33 calibration devices was deployed. 16 trihedrals were used to calibrate a part of the SLAR data. This short paper outlines the X-band SLAR characteristics, the experimental set-up and the calibration method used to calibrate the SLAR data. Finally some preliminary results are given.

  16. Moral problems among Dutch nurses: a survey.

    PubMed

    van der Arend, A J; Remmers-van den Hurk, C H

    1999-11-01

    This article reports on a survey of the moral problems that Dutch nurses experience during their everyday practice. A questionnaire was developed, based on published literature, panel discussions, in-depth interviews and participation observations. The instrument was tested in a pilot study and proved to be useful. A total of 2122 questionnaires were sent to 91 institutions in seven different health care settings. The results showed that nurses were not experiencing important societal issues such as abortion and euthanasia as morally the most problematic, but rather situations such as verbally aggressive behaviour of colleagues towards patients, keeping silent about errors, and medical treatment given against the wishes of patients. Moral problems occurred especially when nurses experienced feelings of powerlessness with regard to the well-being of patients. Moreover, these moral problems proved to be related to institutional organization, leadership, and collaboration with colleagues and other disciplines. Nurses appeared to have a limited awareness of the moral dimensions of their practice.

  17. [Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats].

    PubMed

    van Doorn, D C K; de Bruin, M J; Jorritsma, R A; Ploeger, H W; Schoormans, A

    2009-09-01

    Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for, Tritrichomonas foetus among cats in the Netherlands. A total of 154 faecal samples were collected from three groups of cats: cats with diarrhoea (n=53), cattery cats (n=47), and healthy pet cats (n=54). Faecal samples were examined with a T. foetus specific real-time PCR. All PCR-positive samples were run on gel electrophoresis for definitive diagnosis. The prevalence of T. foetus was 2% among cats with diarrhoea and 4% among cattery cats; T. foetus was not prevalent among pet cats (none of the samples tested positive). Questionnaires had been distributed to cat and cattery owners to determine risk factors for T. foetus, but the low prevalence precluded statistical analysis of the questionnaire results.

  18. Subacute ruminal acidosis in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Kleen, J L; Hooijer, G A; Rehage, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2009-05-30

    The prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) was determined in 197 dairy cows in 18 herds in the Dutch province of Friesland. Samples of rumen fluid were taken by rumenocentesis from between five and 19 animals on each farm and the pH of each sample was determined. The body condition of 139 of the cows was scored approximately three weeks before they calved and three weeks after they calved. The overall prevalence of SARA was 13.8 per cent, and the prevalence on individual farms ranged between 0 per cent (on seven of the farms) and 38 per cent (on one farm). The stage of lactation did not influence the prevalence of SARA but the cows with the condition lost more body condition over the calving period.

  19. Multi-wavelength imaging system for the Dutch Open Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, Felix C.; Suetterlin, Peter; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Jagers, Aswin P.; Rutten, Robert J.

    2003-02-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) is an innovative solar telescope, completely open, on an open steel tower, without a vacuum system. The aim is long-duration high resolution imaging and in order to achieve this the DOT is equipped with a diffraction limited imaging system in combination with a data acquisition system designed for use with the speckle masking reconstruction technique for removing atmospheric aberrations. Currently the DOT is being equipped with a multi-wavelength system forming a high-resolution tomographic imager of magnetic fine structure, topology and dynamics in the photosphere and low- and high chromosphere. Finally the system will contain 6 channels: G-band (430.5 nm), Ca II H (K) (396.8 nm), H-α (656.3 nm), Ba II (455.4 nm), and two continuum channels (432 and 651 nm). Two channels are in full operation now and observations show that the DOT produces real diffraction limited movies (with 0.2" resolution) over hours in G-band (430.5 nm) and continuum (432 nm).

  20. The Dutch school of malaria research.

    PubMed

    Verhave, J P

    1987-01-01

    An epidemic of tertian malaria in some coastal areas of The Netherlands resulted in the setting up of official measures in 1920. A scientific and a propaganda commission were charged with control. Efforts were made to reduce mosquito populations by adult and larval spraying. After the discovery that infected mosquitoes were to be found only inside houses, control operations were focussed against adult mosquitoes. Some later discoveries resulted in a more effective control. a) Spraying ditches with Paris green did not prevent adult mosquitoes from entering the control area. b) Anopheles maculipennis turned out to be a complex of species, with A. atroparvus as the vector. The latter preferred brackish water and did not go into full hibernation. The closing of the Zuyder Sea and the expected desalinization gave hope for less suitable conditions for the vector. c) Plasmodium vivax normally had an incubation period of 8 months. d) Pyrethrum was an effective but short-lasting insecticide. e) Healthy parasite carriers could infect mosquitoes. This knowledge was applied through an extensive system of investigation, including spleen examination of schoolchildren. Suspected houses were sprayed bimonthly from August to November, during which period infected mosquitoes were likely to be present. This system worked extremely well, and during the next epidemic from 1943 to 1947 the thus treated towns remained virtually free of malaria! DDT became available and was either sprayed in suspected houses as before, or through wide-spread coverage of all houses. The epidemic subsided whatever method employed and not only due to the use of DDT. The number of cases even went down to the point of no return and the last case of Dutch malaria was recorded in 1959. The wealth of experience on house-spray control, parasite and mosquito biology and experimental malaria of the Dutch malariologists has had its impact on the international bodies engaged in the battle against malaria.

  1. Gastric residual volume after split-dose compared with evening-before polyethylene glycol bowel preparation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Deepak; Elsbernd, Benjamin; Singal, Amit G; Rockey, Don

    2016-03-01

    Split-dose bowel preparation for colonoscopy results in superior preparation quality. However, some endoscopy units remain hesitant to prescribe split-dose preparation given theoretical concerns about possible aspiration caused by gastric residual fluid when a second dose is given close to the time of endoscopy. Our aim was to compare gastric residual volume (GRV) in patients taking split-dose bowel preparation and those taking preparation the evening before colonoscopy. We performed a prospective observational comparison of GRV among random inpatients undergoing same-day EGD and colonoscopy either after a split-dose bowel preparation or after a bowel preparation the prior evening. GRV was measured in 150 patients undergoing EGD and colonoscopy: 75 who completed a split-dose bowel preparation 2 to 3 hours before endoscopy and 75 who completed the bowel preparation regimen the prior evening. The mean GRV 2 to 3 hours after the last ingestion of bowel preparation among split-dose group patients was 21 ± 24 mL (± standard deviation; range, 0 to 125 mL), which was not different from the mean GRV of 24 ± 22 mL (range, 0 to 135 mL) in patients who ingested the preparation the prior evening (P = .08). GRV had no association with the presence of diabetes, gastroparesis, or opioid use. GRV is the same after a split preparation and fasting for 2 to 3 hours or after preparation with overnight fasting. The data suggest that the risk of aspiration is identical after either preparation technique and thus that sedation for colonoscopy can be performed safely 2 hours after bowel preparation ingestion. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oriented epitaxial TiO2 nanowires for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Wenting; Cortez, Pablo; Wuhrer, Richard; Macartney, Sam; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Liu, Rong; Sheppard, Leigh R.; Kisailus, David

    2017-06-01

    Highly oriented epitaxial rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays have been hydrothermally grown on polycrystalline TiO2 templates with their orientation dependent on the underlying TiO2 grain. Both the diameter and areal density of the nanowires were tuned by controlling the precursor concentration, and the template surface energy and roughness. Nanowire tip sharpness was influenced by precursor solubility and diffusivity. A new secondary ion mass spectrometer technique has been developed to install additional nucleation sites in single crystal TiO2 templates and the effect on nanowire growth was probed. Using the acquired TiO2 nanowire synthesis knowhow, an assortment of nanowire arrays were installed upon the surface of undoped TiO2 photo-electrodes and assessed for their photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. The key result obtained was that the presence of short and dispersed nanowire arrays significantly improved the photocurrent when the illumination intensity was increased from 100 to 200 mW cm-2. This is attributed to the alignment of the homoepitaxially grown nanowires to the [001] direction, which provides the fastest charge transport in TiO2 and an improved pathway for photo-holes to find water molecules and undertake oxidation. This result lays a foundation for achieving efficient water splitting under conditions of concentrated solar illumination.

  3. Hollow core anti-resonant fiber with split cladding.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Qi, Wenliang; Ho, Daryl; Yong, Ken-Tye; Luan, Feng; Yoo, Seongwoo

    2016-04-04

    An improved design for hollow core anti-resonant fibers (HAFs) is presented. A split cladding structure is introduced to reduce the fabrication distortion within design tolerance. We use numerical simulations to compare the Kagome fibers (KFs) and the proposed split cladding fibers (SCFs) over two normalized transmission bands. It reveals that SCFs are able to maintain the desired round shape of silica cladding walls, hence improving the confinement loss (CL) compared to the KF and is comparable to that of the nested antiresonant nodeless fiber (NANF) with the same core size. In addition, the SCF allows stacking multiple layers of cladding rings to control the CL. The influences of the number of cladding layers and the cladding gap width on the CL of the SCFs have been studied. SCF with three cladding rings is fabricated by the stack-and-draw technique. A measured attenuation spectrum matches well with the calculation prediction. The measured near field mode patterns also prove the feasibility of our fiber design.

  4. Modelling shear wave splitting observations from Wellington, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marson-Pidgeon, Katrina; Savage, Martha K.

    2004-05-01

    Frequency-dependent anisotropy was previously observed at the permanent broad-band station SNZO, South Karori, Wellington, New Zealand. This has important implications for the interpretation of measurements in other subduction zones and hence for our understanding of mantle flow. This motivated us to make further splitting measurements using events recorded since the previous study and to develop a new modelling technique. Thus, in this study we have made 67 high-quality shear wave splitting measurements using events recorded at the SNZO station spanning a 10-yr period. This station is the only one operating in New Zealand for longer than 2 yr. Using a combination of teleseismic SKS and S phases and regional ScS phases provides good azimuthal coverage, allowing us to undertake detailed modelling. The splitting measurements indicate that in addition to the frequency dependence observed previously at this station, there are also variations with propagation and initial polarization directions. The fast polarization directions range between 2° and 103°, and the delay times range between 0.75 s and 3.05 s. These ranges are much larger than observed previously at SNZO or elsewhere in New Zealand. Because of the observed frequency dependence we measure the dominant frequency of the phase used to make the splitting measurement, and take this into account in the modelling. We fit the fast polarization directions fairly well with a two-layer anisotropic model with horizontal axes of symmetry. However, such a model does not fit the delay times or explain the frequency dependence. We have developed a new inversion method which allows for an inclined axis of symmetry in each of the two layers. However, applying this method to SNZO does not significantly improve the fit over a two-layer model with horizontal symmetry axes. We are therefore unable to explain the frequency dependence or large variation in delay time values with multiple horizontal layers of anisotropy, even

  5. Comparative studies on different nanofiber photocatalysts for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Alarifi, Ibrahim M.; Khan, Waseem S.; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    Water splitting using photocatalyst has become a topic of recent investigation since it has the potential of producing hydrogen for clean energy from sunlight. An extensive number of solid photocatalysts have been studied for overall water splitting in recent years. In this study, two methods were employed to synthesize two different photocatalysts for water splitting. The first method describes the synthesis of nickel oxide-loaded strontium titanate (NiO-SrTiO3) particles on electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers incorporated with graphene nanoplatelets for water splitting. The electrospun PAN fibers were first oxidized at 270°C for two hours and subsequently immersed in a solution containing ethanol, titanium (IV)-isopropoxide [C12H28O4Ti] and strontium nitrate [Sr(NO3)2]. This solution was then treated with NiO nanoparticles dispersed in toluene. The surface treated PAN fibers were annealed at 600°C in air for 1 hour to transform fibers into a crystalline form for improved photocatalyst performance. In the second method, coaxial electrospinning process was used to produce core/shell strontium titanate/nickel oxide (SrTiO3-NiO) nanofibers. In coaxial method, poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) was dissolved in deionized (DI) water, and then titanium (IV) isopropoxide [C12H28O4Ti] and strontium nitrate [Sr(NO3)2] were added into the solution to form the inner (core) layer. For outer (shell) solution, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) at a weight ratio of 10:90 and then nickel oxide was mixed with the solution. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry and static contact angle measurement techniques were employed to characterize the structural properties of photocatalysts produced by both methods and a comparison was made between the two photocatalysts. The morphology and diameter of the nanofibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structure and crystallinity of the calcined nanofibers were also observed

  6. Dutch survey of congenital coronary artery fistulas in adults

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; van der Werf, T.

    2006-01-01

    Aims This Dutch survey focused on the clinical presentation, noninvasive and invasive diagnostic methods, and treatment modalities of adult patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas (CAFs). Methods Between 1996 and 2003, the initiative was taken to start a registry on congenital CAFs in adults. In total 71 patients from a diagnostic coronary angiographic population of 30,829 at 28 hospitals were collected from previously developed case report forms. Patient demographic data, clinical presentation, noninvasive and invasive techniques and treatment options were retrospectively collected and analysed. Results Out of 71 patients with angiographically proven CAFs, 51 (72%) had 63 congenital solitary fistulas and 20 (28%) had 31 congenital coronary-ventricular multiple microfistulas. Patients with pseudofistulas were excluded from the registry. Coronary angiograms were independently re-analysed for morphology and specific fistula details. The majority (72%) of the fistulas were unilateral, 24% were bilateral and only 4% were multilateral. The morphological characteristics of these 94 fistulas were as follows: the origin was multiple in 47% and single in 53%; the termination was multiple in 52% and single in 48%; and the pathway of the fistulous vessels was tortuous/multiple in 66%, tortuous/single in 28%, straight/multiple in 3% and straight/single in 3%. Percutaneous transluminal embolisation (PTE) was performed in two (3%) patients; surgical ligation was undertaken in 13 (18%) patients. The overwhelming majority of the patients (56; 79%) were treated with conservative medical management. The total mortality was 6% (4/71) at a mean follow-up period of approximately five years. Cardiac mortality accounted for 4% (3/71); in all three patients, death could possibly be attributed to the presence of the fistula. Conclusion Registry of congenital coronary artery fistulas in adults in the Netherlands is feasible. In spite of restrictions imposed by the Dutch Privacy

  7. Operator splitting for the Benjamin-Ono equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, R.; Holden, H.; Koley, U.; Risebro, N. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we analyze operator splitting for the Benjamin-Ono equation, ut = uux + Huxx, where H denotes the Hilbert transform. If the initial data are sufficiently regular, we show the convergence of both Godunov and Strang splittings.

  8. Participation and coordination in Dutch health care policy-making. A network analysis of the system of intermediate organizations in Dutch health care.

    PubMed

    Lamping, Antonie J; Raab, Jörg; Kenis, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the system of intermediate organizations in Dutch health care as the crucial system to understand health care policy-making in the Netherlands. We argue that the Dutch health care system can be understood as a system consisting of distinct but inter-related policy domains. In this study, we analyze four such policy domains: Finances, quality of care, manpower planning and pharmaceuticals. With the help of network analytic techniques, we describe how this highly differentiated system of >200 intermediate organizations is structured and coordinated and what (policy) consequences can be observed with regard to its particular structure and coordination mechanisms. We further analyze the extent to which this system of intermediate organizations enables participation of stakeholders in policy-making using network visualization tools. The results indicate that coordination between the different policy domains within the health care sector takes place not as one would expect through governmental agencies, but through representative organizations such as the representative organizations of the (general) hospitals, the health care consumers and the employers' association. We further conclude that the system allows as well as denies a large number of potential participants access to the policy-making process. As a consequence, the representation of interests is not necessarily balanced, which in turn affects health care policy. We find that the interests of the Dutch health care consumers are well accommodated with the national umbrella organization NPCF in the lead. However, this is no safeguard for the overall community values of good health care since, for example, the interests of the public health sector are likely to be marginalized.

  9. Charge carrier separation in nanostructured TiO2 photoelectrodes for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Alexander J; Leng, Wenhua; Barnes, Piers R F; Klug, David R; Durrant, James R

    2013-06-14

    There is intense interest in developing new novel nanostructured photoanodes for water splitting. It is therefore important that methods to analyze the effect of nanostructuring on water splitting yields are developed in order to rationalize the relative merits of this approach for different materials. In this study the dependence of charge separation efficiency (η(sep)) on potential during photoelectrochemical water splitting at pH 2 has been quantified in a model electrode system (nanocrystalline, mesoporous TiO2) using two independent methods. These are (i) analysis of incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurements and (ii) transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy measurements. The techniques provide good agreement with each other and show that a low maximum value of η(sep) (~0.18) is the primary cause of the low IPCE for water oxidation on these nc-TiO2 electrodes.

  10. Automated cloud screening of AVHRR imagery using split-and-merge clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallaudet, Timothy C.; Simpson, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Previous methods to segment clouds from ocean in AVHRR imagery have shown varying degrees of success, with nighttime approaches being the most limited. An improved method of automatic image segmentation, the principal component transformation split-and-merge clustering (PCTSMC) algorithm, is presented and applied to cloud screening of both nighttime and daytime AVHRR data. The method combines spectral differencing, the principal component transformation, and split-and-merge clustering to sample objectively the natural classes in the data. This segmentation method is then augmented by supervised classification techniques to screen clouds from the imagery. Comparisons with other nighttime methods demonstrate its improved capability in this application. The sensitivity of the method to clustering parameters is presented; the results show that the method is insensitive to the split-and-merge thresholds.

  11. Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer δ-doped phosphorus in silicon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunnelling microscope lithography. Using vasp, we develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of systems which is size limited due to computational tractability. Nonetheless, we provide valuable data for the benchmarking of empirical modelling techniques more capable of extending this discussion to confined disordered systems or actual devices. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localised basis functions in siesta, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated δ-layers. In obtaining an agreement between plane-wave and localised methods, we show that valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%. PMID:23445785

  12. Sequential optimization with particle splitting-based reliability assessment for engineering design under uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Xiaotian; Pan, Rong; Sun, Qing

    2014-08-01

    The evaluation of probabilistic constraints plays an important role in reliability-based design optimization. Traditional simulation methods such as Monte Carlo simulation can provide highly accurate results, but they are often computationally intensive to implement. To improve the computational efficiency of the Monte Carlo method, this article proposes a particle splitting approach, a rare-event simulation technique that evaluates probabilistic constraints. The particle splitting-based reliability assessment is integrated into the iterative steps of design optimization. The proposed method provides an enhancement of subset simulation by increasing sample diversity and producing a stable solution. This method is further extended to address the problem with multiple probabilistic constraints. The performance of the particle splitting approach is compared with the most probable point based method and other approximation methods through examples.

  13. One‐dimensional TiO2 Nanotube Photocatalysts for Solar Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Mingzheng; Li, Qingsong; Cao, Chunyan; Huang, Jianying; Li, Shuhui; Zhang, Songnan; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Keqin; Al‐Deyab, Salem S.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen production from water splitting by photo/photoelectron‐catalytic process is a promising route to solve both fossil fuel depletion and environmental pollution at the same time. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes have attracted much interest due to their large specific surface area and highly ordered structure, which has led to promising potential applications in photocatalytic degradation, photoreduction of CO2, water splitting, supercapacitors, dye‐sensitized solar cells, lithium‐ion batteries and biomedical devices. Nanotubes can be fabricated via facile hydrothermal method, solvothermal method, template technique and electrochemical anodic oxidation. In this report, we provide a comprehensive review on recent progress of the synthesis and modification of TiO2 nanotubes to be used for photo/photoelectro‐catalytic water splitting. The future development of TiO2 nanotubes is also discussed. PMID:28105391

  14. Activation of different split functionalities on re-association of RNA-DNA hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, Kirill A.; Viard, Mathias; Martins, Angelica N.; Lockett, Stephen J.; Maciag, Anna E.; Freed, Eric O.; Heldman, Eliahu; Jaeger, Luc; Blumenthal, Robert; Shapiro, Bruce A.

    2013-04-01

    Split-protein systems, an approach that relies on fragmentation of proteins with their further conditional re-association to form functional complexes, are increasingly used for various biomedical applications. This approach offers tight control of protein functions and improved detection sensitivity. Here we report a similar technique based on a pair of RNA-DNA hybrids that can be used generally for triggering different split functionalities. Individually, each hybrid is inactive but when two cognate hybrids re-associate, different functionalities are triggered inside mammalian cells. As a proof of concept, this work mainly focuses on the activation of RNA interference. However, the release of other functionalities (such as resonance energy transfer and RNA aptamer) is also shown. Furthermore, in vivo studies demonstrate a significant uptake of the hybrids by tumours together with specific gene silencing. This split-functionality approach presents a new route in the development of `smart' nucleic acid-based nanoparticles and switches for various biomedical applications.

  15. Facile Preparation of Porous WO3 Film for Photoelectrochemical Splitting of Natural Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yonghong; Li, Yuangang; Wei, Xiaoliang; Feng, Juan; Li, Huajing; Zhou, Wanyi

    2017-08-01

    Sunlight-driven natural seawater splitting provides a promising way for large-scale conversion and storage of solar energy. Here, we develop a facile and low-cost method via a deposition-annealing technique to fabricate porous WO3 film and demonstrate its application as a photoanode for natural seawater splitting. The WO3 film yields a photocurrent density of 1.95 mA cm-2 and possesses excellent stability at 1.23 V (versus RHE), under the illumination of 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5G). The photoelectrochemical performance is ascribed to the large surface area and good permeation of the electrolyte into the porous film. Furthermore, the photocurrent density remains almost the same during 3 h continuous light irradiation. The evolution of chlorine gas from seawater splitting was determined with qualitative and quantitative analyses, with a Faradic efficiency of about 56%.

  16. One-dimensional TiO2 Nanotube Photocatalysts for Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mingzheng; Li, Qingsong; Cao, Chunyan; Huang, Jianying; Li, Shuhui; Zhang, Songnan; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Keqin; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Lai, Yuekun

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen production from water splitting by photo/photoelectron-catalytic process is a promising route to solve both fossil fuel depletion and environmental pollution at the same time. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes have attracted much interest due to their large specific surface area and highly ordered structure, which has led to promising potential applications in photocatalytic degradation, photoreduction of CO2, water splitting, supercapacitors, dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium-ion batteries and biomedical devices. Nanotubes can be fabricated via facile hydrothermal method, solvothermal method, template technique and electrochemical anodic oxidation. In this report, we provide a comprehensive review on recent progress of the synthesis and modification of TiO2 nanotubes to be used for photo/photoelectro-catalytic water splitting. The future development of TiO2 nanotubes is also discussed.

  17. Governance and performance: the performance of Dutch hospitals explained by governance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; van Hulst, Bart Laurents

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of Dutch hospitals using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with bootstrapping. In particular, the analysis focuses on accounting for cost inefficiency measures on the part of hospital corporate governance. We use bootstrap techniques, as introduced by Simar and Wilson (J. Econom. 136(1):31-64, 2007), in order to obtain more efficient estimates of the effects of governance on the efficiency. The results show that part of the cost efficiency can be explained with governance. In particular we find that a higher remuneration of the board as well as a higher remuneration of the supervisory board does not implicate better performance.

  18. Emerson Parcel of Dutch Slough Tidal Marsh Restoration Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Emerson Parcel of Dutch Slough Tidal Marsh Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  19. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. 1. FRONT CORNER, LOOKING NORTHEAST, TOP HALF OF 'DUTCH DOORS' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FRONT CORNER, LOOKING NORTHEAST, TOP HALF OF 'DUTCH DOORS' LEANING AGAINST FRONT WALL. - A. D. Wilcox Drift Mine, Boiler Cabin, Linda Creek near Dalton Highway, Bettles, Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, AK

  1. Measurements of Rotational Frequency Splitting of Low Angular Degree Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toutain, Thierry

    2001-05-01

    The rotational splitting of low-degree p modes is still a controversial issue. There are small but nevertheless real discrepancies between the different measurements of splittings obtained with the existing helioseismology experiments from ground (BISON, IRIS, GONG, LOWL) or from space (VIRGO, GOLF, MDI). I review the current status of rotational splitting in the field of low-degree helioseismology and how we could explain the remaining discrepancies between the various sets of splittings.

  2. A combined approach of variance-reduction techniques for the efficient Monte Carlo simulation of linacs.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Sempau, J; Brualla, L

    2012-05-21

    A method based on a combination of the variance-reduction techniques of particle splitting and Russian roulette is presented. This method improves the efficiency of radiation transport through linear accelerator geometries simulated with the Monte Carlo method. The method named as 'splitting-roulette' was implemented on the Monte Carlo code [Formula: see text] and tested on an Elekta linac, although it is general enough to be implemented on any other general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code and linac geometry. Splitting-roulette uses any of the following two modes of splitting: simple splitting and 'selective splitting'. Selective splitting is a new splitting mode based on the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung photons implemented in the Monte Carlo code [Formula: see text]. Splitting-roulette improves the simulation efficiency of an Elekta SL25 linac by a factor of 45.

  3. Splitting K-symplectic methods for non-canonical separable Hamiltonian problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Ruili; Tang, Yifa; Tu, Xiongbiao; Zhao, Yue

    2016-10-01

    Non-canonical Hamiltonian systems have K-symplectic structures which are preserved by K-symplectic numerical integrators. There is no universal method to construct K-symplectic integrators for arbitrary non-canonical Hamiltonian systems. However, in many cases of interest, by using splitting, we can construct explicit K-symplectic methods for separable non-canonical systems. In this paper, we identify situations where splitting K-symplectic methods can be constructed. Comparative numerical experiments in three non-canonical Hamiltonian problems show that symmetric/non-symmetric splitting K-symplectic methods applied to the non-canonical systems are more efficient than the same-order Gauss' methods/non-symmetric symplectic methods applied to the corresponding canonicalized systems; for the non-canonical Lotka-Volterra model, the splitting algorithms behave better in efficiency and energy conservation than the K-symplectic method we construct via generating function technique. In our numerical experiments, the favorable energy conservation property of the splitting K-symplectic methods is apparent.

  4. Outcomes for split-thickness skin transplantation in high-risk patients using octenidine.

    PubMed

    Matiasek, J; Djedovic, G; Unger, L; Beck, H; Mattesich, M; Pierer, G; Koller, R; Rieger, U M

    2015-06-01

    Skin transplantation is a commonly used surgical technique; however, the complication rate, including postoperative infection and delayed wound healing due to inefficient perfusion, is significantly higher in patients suffering from comorbidities. Hence, a subsequent repeat procedure is often necessary. In this report, two case studies are presented in which an octenidine-based antiseptic is used with a tie-over dressing (TOD) instead of povidone iodine (PVP-iodine), following a split-thickness skin graft. The two patients selected were deemed to be at high risk of impaired wound healing due to comorbidities. The first patient, a confirmed smoker with diabetes, presented with a nodular melanoma that was resected and covered with a split-thickness skin graft. After 5 days of negative pressure wound therapy as a TOD, in combination with PVP-iodine, the graft became necrotic. A second split-thickness skin graft was performed and an antiseptic regimen with octenidine in combination with the same TOD resulted in a completely healed transplant. The second patient, also a confirmed smoker with diabetes and receiving oral corticosteroid treatment, was diagnosed with a skin necrosis on her leg. Following the split-thickness skin graft, octenidine and TOD were applied. The patient's skin graft completely healed without any adverse events. These two case studies indicate that the combination of octenidine and TOD following split-thickness skin transplantation is safe, well-tolerated and appears to have positive benefits in the reconstruction of defects in patients with impaired wound healing.

  5. Cartilage thickness and split-line pattern at the canine humeral trochlea.

    PubMed

    Zeissler, M; Maierl, J; Grevel, V; Oechtering, G; Böttcher, P

    2010-01-01

    To characterise the humeral trochlea in middle to large breed dogs in respect to split-line pattern and cartilage thickness. In 15 paired cadaveric elbow joints of mature dogs (>20 kg body weight) collagen network orientation of the hyaline cartilage of the humeral trochlea was visualised using a traditional split-line technique in which a dissecting needle dipped in India ink was inserted into the cartilage (n = 10). Cartilage thickness was measured radiographically on osteochondral plugs harvested at four representative locations within the joint surface of the humeral trochlea (n = 15). The joint surface of the humeral trochlea showed a distinct pattern of centripetally oriented split-lines with less pronounced or even absent split-lines caudo- proximally towards the olecranon fossa. Median cartilage thickness at the canine humeral trochlea was 0.51 mm (interquartile range: 0.42 - 0.61 mm). Centrally, at the region where osteochondrosis lesions commonly occur in middle to large breed dogs, the median cartilage thickness was 0.55 mm (interquartile range: 0.48 - 0.62 mm). When focusing on anatomical joint resurfacing while performing osteochondral transplantation at the canine humeral trochlea, transplants should be implanted such that their split-lines are oriented centripetally. Hyaline cartilage thickness of transferred grafts should be in the range of half a millimetre to optimally match the situation at the canine humeral trochlea.

  6. Accuracy of tablet splitting and liquid measurements: an examination of who, what and how.

    PubMed

    Abu-Geras, Dana; Hadziomerovic, Dunja; Leau, Andrew; Khan, Ramzan Nazim; Gudka, Sajni; Locher, Cornelia; Razaghikashani, Maryam; Lim, Lee Yong

    2017-05-01

    To examine factors that might affect the ability of patients to accurately halve tablets or measure a 5-ml liquid dose. Eighty-eight participants split four different placebo tablets by hand and using a tablet splitter, while 85 participants measured 5 ml of water, 0.5% methylcellulose (MC) and 1% MC using a syringe and dosing cup. Accuracy of manipulation was determined by mass measurements. The general population was less able than pharmacy students to break tablets into equal parts, although age, gender and prior experience were insignificant factors. Greater accuracy of tablet halving was observed with tablet splitter, with scored tablets split more equally than unscored tablets. Tablet size did not affect the accuracy of splitting. However, >25% of small scored tablets failed to be split by hand, and 41% of large unscored tablets were split into >2 portions in the tablet splitter. In liquid measurement, the syringe provided more accurate volume measurements than the dosing cup, with higher accuracy observed for the more viscous MC solutions than water. Formulation characteristics and manipulation technique have greater influences on the accuracy of medication modification and should be considered in off-label drug use in vulnerable populations. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. The practice and clinical implications of tablet splitting in international health

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Ivo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Yeuichaixong, Sengchanh; Lee, Sue J; Newton, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tablet splitting is frequently performed to facilitate correct dosing, but the practice and implications in low-income settings have rarely been discussed. Methods We selected eight drugs, with narrow therapeutic indices or critical dosages, frequently divided in the Lao PDR (Laos). These were split, by common techniques used in Laos, by four nurses and four laypersons. The mean percentage deviation from the theoretical expected weight and weight loss of divided tablets/capsules were recorded. Results Five of eight study drugs failed, on splitting, to meet European Pharmacopoeia recommendations for tablet weight deviation from the expected weight of tablet/capsule halves with 10% deviating by more than 25%. There was a significant difference in splitting accuracy between nurses and laypersons (P = 0.027). Coated and unscored tablets were less accurately split than uncoated (P = 0.03 and 0.0019 for each half) and scored (0.0001 for both halves) tablets. Conclusion These findings have potential clinical implications on treatment outcome and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Investment by drug companies in a wider range of dosage units, particularly for narrow therapeutic index and critical dosage medicines, is strongly recommended. PMID:24702766

  8. The practice and clinical implications of tablet splitting in international health.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Ivo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Yeuichaixong, Sengchanh; Lee, Sue J; Newton, Paul N

    2014-07-01

    Tablet splitting is frequently performed to facilitate correct dosing, but the practice and implications in low-income settings have rarely been discussed. We selected eight drugs, with narrow therapeutic indices or critical dosages, frequently divided in the Lao PDR (Laos). These were split, by common techniques used in Laos, by four nurses and four laypersons. The mean percentage deviation from the theoretical expected weight and weight loss of divided tablets/capsules were recorded. Five of eight study drugs failed, on splitting, to meet European Pharmacopoeia recommendations for tablet weight deviation from the expected weight of tablet/capsule halves with 10% deviating by more than 25%. There was a significant difference in splitting accuracy between nurses and laypersons (P = 0.027). Coated and unscored tablets were less accurately split than uncoated (P = 0.03 and 0.0019 for each half) and scored (0.0001 for both halves) tablets. These findings have potential clinical implications on treatment outcome and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Investment by drug companies in a wider range of dosage units, particularly for narrow therapeutic index and critical dosage medicines, is strongly recommended. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Palindromic 3-stage splitting integrators, a roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Cédric M.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    The implementation of multi-stage splitting integrators is essentially the same as the implementation of the familiar Strang/Verlet method. Therefore multi-stage formulas may be easily incorporated into software that now uses the Strang/Verlet integrator. We study in detail the two-parameter family of palindromic, three-stage splitting formulas and identify choices of parameters that may outperform the Strang/Verlet method. One of these choices leads to a method of effective order four suitable to integrate in time some partial differential equations. Other choices may be seen as perturbations of the Strang method that increase efficiency in molecular dynamics simulations and in Hybrid Monte Carlo sampling.

  10. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders.

    PubMed

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H2 from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  11. Modelling heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Ping, Yuan; Galli, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    The generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight offers a promising approach for producing scalable and sustainable carbon-free energy. The key of a successful solar-to-fuel technology is the design of efficient, long-lasting and low-cost photoelectrochemical cells, which are responsible for absorbing sunlight and driving water splitting reactions. To this end, a detailed understanding and control of heterogeneous interfaces between photoabsorbers, electrolytes and catalysts present in photoelectrochemical cells is essential. Here we review recent progress and open challenges in predicting physicochemical properties of heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting applications using first-principles-based approaches, and highlights the key role of these calculations in interpreting increasingly complex experiments.

  12. Artificial photosynthesis for solar water-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Vayssieres, Lionel; Durrant, James R.

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen generated from solar-driven water-splitting has the potential to be a clean, sustainable and abundant energy source. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, artificial solar water-splitting devices are now being designed and tested. Recent developments based on molecular and/or nanostructure designs have led to advances in our understanding of light-induced charge separation and subsequent catalytic water oxidation and reduction reactions. Here we review some of the recent progress towards developing artificial photosynthetic devices, together with their analogies to biological photosynthesis, including technologies that focus on the development of visible-light active hetero-nanostructures and require an understanding of the underlying interfacial carrier dynamics. Finally, we propose a vision for a future sustainable hydrogen fuel community based on artificial photosynthesis.

  13. Spin polarization of the split Kondo state.

    PubMed

    von Bergmann, Kirsten; Ternes, Markus; Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J

    2015-02-20

    Spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy is employed to quantitatively determine the spin polarization of the magnetic field-split Kondo state. Tunneling conductance spectra of a Kondo-screened magnetic atom are evaluated within a simple model taking into account inelastic tunneling due to spin excitations and two Kondo peaks positioned symmetrically around the Fermi energy. We fit the spin state of the Kondo-screened atom with a spin Hamiltonian independent of the Kondo effect and account for Zeeman splitting of the Kondo peak in the magnetic field. We find that the width and the height of the Kondo peaks scales with the Zeeman energy. Our observations are consistent with full spin polarization of the Kondo peaks, i.e., a majority spin peak below the Fermi energy and a minority spin peak above.

  14. Interhemispheric visual matching in the split brain.

    PubMed

    Corballis, M C; Corballis, P M

    2001-01-01

    Three split-brained subjects, one (N.G.) with full forebrain commissurotomy and two (V.P. and J.W.) with callosotomy, made same-different judgments about pairs of visual stimuli that were flashed either unilaterally or bilaterally. In separate blocks of trials, the stimuli could differ in luminance, size, or color. In the bilateral condition, only J.W. scored above chance, and only minimally, on the luminance and size tasks, and none of the subjects scored above chance on the color task. Accuracy was generally much higher, especially for V.P. and J.W., when the stimuli were unilateral. These results confirm that there is little or no interhemispheric transfer of the visual attributes of luminance, size or color in the split brain.

  15. Splitting TCP Connections Adaptively Inside Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Masayoshi; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Tsuru, Masato

    The explosive growth of Internet usage has caused problems for the current Internet in terms of traffic congestion within networks and performance degradation of end-to-end flows. Therefore, a reconsideration of the current Internet has begun and is being actively discussed worldwide with the goals of enabling efficient share of limited network resources (i.e., the link bandwidth) and improved performance. To directly address the inefficiency of TCP's congestion mitigation solely on the end-to-end basis, in this paper we propose an adaptive split connection scheme on advanced relay nodes; this scheme dynamically splits end-to-end TCP connections on the basis of congestion status in output links. Through simulation evaluations, we examine the effectiveness and potential of the proposed scheme.

  16. Solitary waves of the splitted RLW equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, S. I.

    2001-07-01

    A combination of the splitting method and the cubic B-spline finite elements is used to solve the non-linear regularized long wave (RLW) equation. This approach involves a Bubnov-Galerkin method with cubic B-spline finite elements so that there is continuity of the dependent variable and its first derivative throughout the solution region. Time integration of the resulting systems is effected using a Crank-Nicholson approximation. In simulations of the migration of a single solitary wave this algorithm is shown to have higher accuracy and better conservation than a recent splitting difference scheme based on cubic spline interpolation functions, for different amplitudes ranging from a very small ( ⩾0.03) to a considerably high amplitudes ( ⩽0.3). The development of an undular bore is modeled.

  17. HOW to Differentiate Dutch Elm Disease from Elm Phloem Necrosis

    Treesearch

    Lester Paul Gibson; Arthur R. Hastings; Leon A. LeMadeliene

    1981-01-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED) and elm phloem necrosis are the two most serious diseases of elm in the United States (Figs. 1 and 2). Most native species of elm are susceptible to both diseases. Dutch elm disease is caused by a fungus, Ceratocystis u1mi (Buisman) C. Moreau, and is transmitted by two species of elm bark beetles-the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  19. A Method for Maximizing Split-Half Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, John C.; Osburn, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for maximizing split-half reliability coefficients is described. Coefficients derived by the algorithm were found to be generally larger than odd-even split-half coefficients or other internal consistency measures and nearly as large as the largest split half coefficients. MSPLIT, Odd-Even, and Kuder-Richardson-20…

  20. Improved version of the split routine for CLASSY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rassbach, M. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical basis for a new version of the SPLIT routine for CLASSY is developed. (The SPLIT routine is used to guess the positions of the parts of a cluster which is not normally distributed.) The proposed routine would be a faster, more accurate replacement for the existing SPLIT routine, which was developed on an ad hoc basis.

  1. Improved version of the split routine for CLASSY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rassbach, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical basis for a new version of the SPLIT routine for CLASSY is described. (The SPLIT routine is used to guess the positions of the parts of a cluster which is not normally distributed). The proposed routine would be a faster, more accurate replacement for the existing SPLIT routine, which was developed on an ad hoc basis.

  2. 16 CFR 802.10 - Stock dividends and splits; reorganizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stock dividends and splits; reorganizations... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.10 Stock dividends and splits; reorganizations. (a) The acquisition of voting securities pursuant to a stock split...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  4. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  5. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use split...

  6. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use split...

  7. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use split...

  8. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use split...

  9. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use split...

  10. Bunch Splitting Simulations for the JLEIC Ion Collider Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Satogata, Todd J.; Gamage, Randika

    2016-05-01

    We describe the bunch splitting strategies for the proposed JLEIC ion collider ring at Jefferson Lab. This complex requires an unprecedented 9:6832 bunch splitting, performed in several stages. We outline the problem and current results, optimized with ESME including general parameterization of 1:2 bunch splitting for JLEIC parameters.

  11. Beam-splitting ball lens: a new integrated optical component.

    PubMed

    Ai, J; Popelek, J; Li, Y; Chen, R T

    1999-11-01

    A beam-splitting ball lens is introduced as a new integrated optical component for board- and backplane-level optical interconnection applications. The proposed beam-splitting ball lenses can be used in conjunction with polymer fiber image guides to split and combine imaged patterns of two-dimensional array optical data. Power and resolution performance parameters of a packaged system are presented.

  12. Nanostructured hematite for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yichuan

    Solar water splitting is an environmentally friendly reaction of producing hydrogen gas. Since Honda and Fujishima first demonstrated solar water splitting in 1972 by using semiconductor titanium dioxide (TiO2) as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell, extensive efforts have been invested into improving the solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency and lower the production cost of photoelectrochemical devices. In the last few years, hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanostructures have been extensively studied as photoanodes for PEC water splitting. Although nanostructured hematite can improve its photoelectrochemical water splitting performance to some extent, by increasing active sites for water oxidation and shortening photogenerated hole path length to semiconductor/electrolyte interface, the photoactivity of pristine hematite nanostructures is still limited by a number of factors, such as poor electrical conductivities and slow oxygen evolution reaction kinetics. Previous studies have shown that tin (Sn) as an n-type dopant can substantially enhance the photoactivity of hematite photoanodes by modifying their optical and electrical properties. In this thesis, I will first demonstrate an unintentional Sn-doping method via high temperature annealing of hematite nanowires grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate to enhance the donor density. In addition to introducing extrinsic dopants into semiconductors, the carrier densities of hematite can also be enhanced by creating intrinsic defects. Oxygen vacancies function as shallow donors for a number of hematite. In this regard, I have investigated the influence of oxygen content on thermal decomposition of FeOOH to induce oxygen vacancies in hematite. In the end, I have studied low temperature activation of hematite nanostructures.

  13. Ispra Mark-10 water splitting process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A thermochemical water splitting process, the Ispra Mark-10 chemical reaction cycle, was chosen for examining the possibility of using water to produce hydrogen on a large scale for fuel and major industrial chemical uses. The assumed energy source for the process is an HTGR (helium cooled). A process flow diagram, a material balance, and an energy balance were developed for the thermochemical reaction cycle. Principal reactions which constitute the cycle are included.

  14. Limits on Split Supersymmetry from Gluino Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitaki, A.

    2005-04-25

    An upper limit on the masses of scalar superpartners in split supersymmetry is found by considering cosmological constraints on long-lived gluinos. Over most of parameter space, the most stringent constraint comes from big bang nucleosynthesis. A TeV mass gluino must have a lifetime of less than 100 seconds to avoid altering the abundances of D and Li-6. This sets an upper limit on the supersymmetry breaking scale of 10{sup 9} GeV.

  15. Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Vanleer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1988-01-01

    Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations or auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.

  16. Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1990-01-01

    Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations for auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.

  17. Complete spacelike hypersurfaces in orthogonally splitted spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Giulio; Rigoli, Marco

    2017-10-01

    We provide some "half-space theorems" for spacelike complete non-compact hypersurfaces into orthogonally splitted spacetimes. In particular we generalize some recent work of Rubio and Salamanca on maximal spacelike compact hypersurfaces. Beside compactness, we also relax some of their curvature assumptions and even consider the case of nonconstant mean curvature bounded from above. The analytic tools used in various arguments are based on some forms of the weak maximum principle.

  18. A thermodynamically compatible splitting procedure in hyperelasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Favrie, N. Gavrilyuk, S. Ndanou, S.

    2014-08-01

    A material is hyperelastic if the stress tensor is obtained by variation of the stored energy function. The corresponding 3D mathematical model of hyperelasticity written in the Eulerian coordinates represents a system of 14 conservative partial differential equations submitted to stationary differential constraints. A classical approach for numerical solving of such a 3D system is a geometrical splitting: the 3D system is split into three 1D systems along each spatial direction and solved then by using a Godunov type scheme. Each 1D system has 7 independent eigenfields corresponding to contact discontinuity, longitudinal waves and shear waves. The construction of the corresponding Riemann solvers is not an easy task even in the case of isotropic solids. Indeed, for a given specific energy it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to check its rank-one convexity which is a necessary and sufficient condition for hyperbolicity of the governing equations. In this paper, we consider a particular case where the specific energy is a sum of two terms. The first term is the hydrodynamic energy depending only on the density and the entropy, and the second term is the shear energy which is unaffected by the volume change. In this case a very simple criterion of hyperbolicity can be formulated. We propose then a new splitting procedure which allows us to find a numerical solution of each 1D system by solving successively three 1D sub-systems. Each sub-system is hyperbolic, if the full system is hyperbolic. Moreover, each sub-system has only three waves instead of seven, and the velocities of these waves are given in explicit form. The last property allows us to construct reliable Riemann solvers. Numerical 1D tests confirm the advantage of the new approach. A multi-dimensional extension of the splitting procedure is also proposed.

  19. Malevolence, splitting, and parental ratings by borderlines.

    PubMed

    Baker, L; Silk, K R; Westen, D; Nigg, J T; Lohr, N E

    1992-04-01

    Malevolent object relations as well as splitting have long been considered by psychodynamic theorists as central features of borderline personality disorder. We tested the hypotheses that borderlines would a) perceive their parents more negatively than both nonborderline major depressive patients and nonpatient normal controls, and b) split their representations of their parents into opposites more than the comparison subjects. Borderlines (N = 31), who were identified by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines, Research Diagnostic Criteria major depressives (N = 15), and nonpatient controls (N = 14) were asked to rate each parent on the Adjective Check List (ACL; Gough and Heilbrun, 1983). Seven ACL scales were studied: Favorable, Unfavorable, Critical Parent, Nurturing Parent, Nurturance, Aggression, and Dominance. Correlations were performed between scores for mother and father on the various scales for each of the three cohorts. Analysis of variance and one-way t-tests with Bonferroni correction were used to test group differences. Borderlines rated their parents, especially their fathers, not only as more unfavorable on negative scales than depressives or normals, but as less favorable on positive scales than the comparison groups. Analysis of covariance revealed that a significant portion of the variance in father scores, but not in mother scores, was related to age of respondent and history of sexual abuse. While borderlines did not appear to split their parents into one good and one bad parent, they did show significantly less correlation between parents on the Favorable scale when compared with either depressives or normal subjects. The results imply that borderlines have a greater tendency to view the world in negative, malevolent ways than to split their object representations.

  20. Continuously tunable, split-cavity gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, G. F.; Gross, M.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to a gyrotron cavity configuration which is split in halves longitudinally, to allow any frequency lying between the fixed cavity resonance to be assessed by mechanically changing the separation of the two halves. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the rate-of-change in resonant frequency with separation is greatest if the minor axis of the cavity cross section is the one undergoing change. Excellent agreement with theory is noted for these results.

  1. Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1990-01-01

    Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations for auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.

  2. Splitting quantum information via W states

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Shibiao

    2006-11-15

    We describe a procedure for splitting quantum information into two or more parts so that if and only if the recipients cooperate, the original qubit can be reconstructed. Our scheme uses W-type entangled states as the quantum channel and thus the scheme is robust against decoherence. We illustrate the procedure in the ion-trap system, but the idea can also be realized in other systems.

  3. Beam splitting mirrors for an APS beamline.

    SciTech Connect

    Khounsary, A.; McNulty, I.; X-Ray Science Division

    2007-01-01

    We describe a set of two cooled mirrors used in tandem on a high-heat-load undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to spatially split an incoming X-ray beam into two parts, allowing simultaneous operation on two beamlines. Such arrangements have the potential to increase beamline throughput by as much as a factor of two at a modest cost. Conceptual design, engineering analyses, and fabrication steps are outlined.

  4. Effect of split foliar fertilisation on the quality and quantity of active constituents in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Rabani-Foroutagheh, Mehdi; Hamidoghli, Yousef; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most expensive medicinal and aromatic plants in the world. Due to the excessive application of chemical fertilisers in saffron farms and alkalinity of most cultivated soils, split foliar fertilisation has been suggested. The primary goal of this study was to propose split foliar fertilisation as a technique in increasing the quality and quantity of active constituents in saffron. HPLC analysis was used to quantify the most important saffron components; crocins (colour), picrocrocin (taste), and safranal (odour). This study was carried out in Kashmar, Iran, to determine the effect of split foliar fertilisations on quality and quantity of saffron in 2011 and 2012. A split-plot design experiment based on randomised complete block with three replications was conducted to examine three fertiliser types in three regimes for split foliar fertilisation. Statistical analysis showed that split foliar fertilisation and the fertiliser type significantly increased saffron yield, number of flowers and crocin; whereas it decreased the picrocrocin and safranal content of the saffron stigmas (P < 0.05). Overall, split foliar fertilisation increased saffron yield and colour but decreased the taste and the odour of saffron. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  6. P-wave Cooper pair splitting.

    PubMed

    Soller, Henning; Komnik, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Splitting of Cooper pairs has recently been realized experimentally for s-wave Cooper pairs. A split Cooper pair represents an entangled two-electron pair state, which has possible application in on-chip quantum computation. Likewise the spin-activity of interfaces in nanoscale tunnel junctions has been investigated theoretically and experimentally in recent years. However, the possible implications of spin-active interfaces in Cooper pair splitters so far have not been investigated. We analyze the current and the cross correlation of currents in a superconductor-ferromagnet beam splitter, including spin-active scattering. Using the Hamiltonian formalism, we calculate the cumulant-generating function of charge transfer. As a first step, we discuss characteristics of the conductance for crossed Andreev reflection in superconductor-ferromagnet beam splitters with s-wave and p-wave superconductors and no spin-active scattering. In a second step, we consider spin-active scattering and show how to realize p-wave splitting using only an s-wave superconductor, through the process of spin-flipped crossed Andreev reflection. We present results for the conductance and cross correlations. Spin-activity of interfaces in Cooper pair splitters allows for new features in ordinary s-wave Cooper pair splitters, that can otherwise only be realized by using p-wave superconductors. In particular, it provides access to Bell states that are different from the typical spin singlet state.

  7. Universal exchange-driven phonon splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deisenhofer, Joachim; Kant, Christian; Schmidt, Michael; Wang, Zhe; Mayr, Franz; Tsurkan, Vladimir; Loidl, Alois

    2012-02-01

    We report on a linear dependence of the phonon splitting on the non-dominant exchange coupling Jnd in the antiferromagnetic monoxides MnO, Fe0.92O, CoO and NiO, and in the highly frustrated antiferromagnetic spinels CdCr2O4, MgCr2O4 and ZnCr2O4. For the monoxides our results directly confirm the theoretical prediction of a predominantly exchange induced splitting of the zone-centre optical phonon [1,2]. We find the linear relation δφ= βJndS^2 with slope β = 3.7. This relation also holds for a very different class of systems, namely the highly frustrated chromium spinels. Our finding suggests a universal dependence of the exchange-induced phonon splitting at the antiferromagnetic transition on the non-dominant exchange coupling [3].[4pt] [1] S. Massidda et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 430 (1999).[0pt] [2] W. Luo et al., Solid State Commun. 142, 504 (2007).[0pt] [3] Ch. Kant et al., arxiv:1109.4809.

  8. Streamlined expressed protein ligation using split inteins.

    PubMed

    Vila-Perelló, Miquel; Liu, Zhihua; Shah, Neel H; Willis, John A; Idoyaga, Juliana; Muir, Tom W

    2013-01-09

    Chemically modified proteins are invaluable tools for studying the molecular details of biological processes, and they also hold great potential as new therapeutic agents. Several methods have been developed for the site-specific modification of proteins, one of the most widely used being expressed protein ligation (EPL) in which a recombinant α-thioester is ligated to an N-terminal Cys-containing peptide. Despite the widespread use of EPL, the generation and isolation of the required recombinant protein α-thioesters remain challenging. We describe here a new method for the preparation and purification of recombinant protein α-thioesters using engineered versions of naturally split DnaE inteins. This family of autoprocessing enzymes is closely related to the inteins currently used for protein α-thioester generation, but they feature faster kinetics and are split into two inactive polypeptides that need to associate to become active. Taking advantage of the strong affinity between the two split intein fragments, we devised a streamlined procedure for the purification and generation of protein α-thioesters from cell lysates and applied this strategy for the semisynthesis of a variety of proteins including an acetylated histone and a site-specifically modified monoclonal antibody.

  9. Flat, Branched and Split Electrospun Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koombhongse, Sureeporn; Reneker, Darrell H.

    2001-03-01

    The electrospinning process uses electrical force to overcome the force from surface tension. As the electric field increases, the surface of a droplet becomes nearly conical and a charged jet flows from the vertex. The charged jet moves along a straight line for some distance and then begins a spiraling path, which is triggered by a bending instability.[1] The charged jet solidifies as it dries and electrospun nanofibers are collected. The electrospinning process normally produces cylindrical fibers, but sometimes the fibers are flat, branched or split. Flat fibers were electrospun from polystyrene (PS) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA) solution. Flat fibers were formed by the collapse of a tube. Branched fibers of HEMA, PS and poly(vinylidene fluoride) were observed. The thinner branch was usually perpendicular to the axis of the primary jet. Branched fibers are formed by a smaller secondary jet ejected from the surface of the primary jet. The charged jet can split apart into two smaller jets to reduce the charge per unit surface area. Split fibers of HEMA, in which two smaller jets run parallel to the axis of the primary jet were observed. 1. D.H. Reneker, A.L. Yarin, H. Fong, and S. Koombhongse, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 4531 (2000).

  10. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  11. Nonadiabatic dynamics of positive charge during photocatalytic water splitting on GaN(10-10) surface: charge localization governs splitting efficiency.

    PubMed

    Akimov, Alexey V; Muckerman, James T; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2013-06-12

    Photochemical water splitting is a promising avenue to sustainable, clean energy and fuel production. Gallium nitride (GaN) and its solid solutions are excellent photocatalytic materials; however, the efficiency of the process is low on pure GaN, and cocatalysts are required to increase the yields. We present the first time-domain theoretical study of the initial steps of photocatalytic water splitting on a GaN surface. Our state-of-the-art simulation technique, combining nonadiabatic molecular dynamics and time-dependent density functional theory, allows us to characterize the mechanisms and time scales of the evolution of the photogenerated positive charge (hole) and the subsequent proton transfer at the GaN/water interface. The calculations show that the hole loses its excess energy within 100 fs and localizes primarily on the nitrogen atoms of the GaN surface, initiating a sequence of proton-transfer events from the surface N-H group to the nearby OH groups and bulk water molecules. Water splitting requires hole localization on oxygen rather than nitrogen, necessitating nonadiabatic transitions uphill in energy on pure GaN. Such transitions happen rarely, resulting in low yields of the photocatalytic water splitting observed experimentally. We conclude that efficient cocatalysts should favor localization of the photogenerated hole on oxygen-containing species at the semiconductor/water interface.

  12. Pitch-based pattern splitting for 1D layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Ryo; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Koji; Tsujita, Koichiro; Yaegashi, Hidetami; Oyama, Kenichi; Smayling, Michael C.; Axelrad, Valery

    2015-07-01

    The pattern splitting algorithm for 1D Gridded-Design-Rules layout (1D layout) for sub-10 nm node logic devices is shown. It is performed with integer linear programming (ILP) based on the conflict graph created from a grid map for each designated pitch. The relation between the number of times for patterning and the minimum pitch is shown systematically with a sample pattern of contact layer for each node. From the result, the number of times for patterning for 1D layout is fewer than that for conventional 2D layout. Moreover, an experimental result including SMO and total integrated process with hole repair technique is presented with the sample pattern of contact layer whose pattern density is relatively high among critical layers (fin, gate, local interconnect, contact, and metal).

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Split Peroneal Tendon Lateral Ankle Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Bazán, D Issac; Evans, Andrew M; Agarwal, Monica R; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lateral ankle instability is a common condition. Split peroneal tendon lateral ankle stabilization, a modification of the Chrisman-Snook procedure, is biomechanically stable and often used for severe and/or recurrent chronic lateral ankle instability. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this technique. Specifically, the midterm recurrence of instability and postoperative complications, such as stiffness, neurologic pain, and wound healing complications, were evaluated. We evaluated 30 consecutive procedures with a minimal follow-up period of 1 year. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 13 (median 19, range 13 to 62) months. Five patients (17%) developed recurrent ankle instability, of whom 4 underwent revision surgery. One superficial infection and two wound disruptions developed. Two patients experienced stiffness and eight (27%) surgically induced neurologic complaints, such as sural neuritis. Finally, 2 patients developed complex regional pain syndrome.

  14. Grating beam splitting with liquid crystal adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albero, J.; Moreno, I.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the generation of equi-intense light beams from an adaptive point of view. A phase mask is generated and displayed onto a spatial light modulator, in order to divide an incoming light beam into a chosen number of beams. The use of liquid crystal spatial light modulators can introduce polarization into scalar designs as a parameter acting on the output efficiency. We reproduce the modulator optimal designs proposed theoretically in the literature and we add the polarization features. In addition, we compare this with another beam splitting technique, based on spatial multiplexing of phase masks. It spreads as low-level background noise the light concentrated on diffraction orders other than those targeted. We also demonstrate that using polarization with spatial light modulators can improve in some cases the optimal theoretical efficiencies. Experimental results agree with simulations.

  15. Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pin Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Liu, Ai Qun; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a number of interesting designs proposed and implemented to generate artificial magnetism at optical frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials, but owing to the planar configurations of typically fabricated metamolecules that make up the metamaterials, the magnetic response is mainly driven by the electric field of the incident electromagnetic wave. We recently fabricated vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs) which behave as magnetic metamolecules sensitive to both incident electric and magnetic fields with stronger induced magnetic dipole moment upon excitation in comparison to planar SRRs. The fabrication technique enabled us to study the plasmon coupling between VSRRs that stand up side by side where the coupling strength can be precisely controlled by varying the gap in between. The resulting wide tuning range of these resonance modes offers the possibility of developing frequency selective functional devices such as sensors and filters based on plasmon coupling with high sensitivity. PMID:26043931

  16. Improved specimen recovery in tensile split Hopkinson bar

    PubMed Central

    Isakov, Matti; Hiermaier, Stefan; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an improved specimen recovery method for the tensile split Hopkinson bar (TSHB) technique. The method is based on the trapping of residual stress waves with the use of momentum trap bars. As is well known, successful momentum trapping in TSHB is highly sensitive to experimental uncertainties, especially on the incident bar side of the set-up. However, as is demonstrated in this paper, significant improvement in the reliability of specimen recovery is obtained by using two momentum trap bars in contact with the incident bar. This makes the trapping of the reflected wave insensitive to striker speed and removes the need for a precision set gap between the incident bar and the momentum trap. PMID:25071235

  17. Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pin Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Liu, Ai Qun; Zheludev, Nikolay I; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-06-05

    The past decade has seen a number of interesting designs proposed and implemented to generate artificial magnetism at optical frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials, but owing to the planar configurations of typically fabricated metamolecules that make up the metamaterials, the magnetic response is mainly driven by the electric field of the incident electromagnetic wave. We recently fabricated vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs) which behave as magnetic metamolecules sensitive to both incident electric and magnetic fields with stronger induced magnetic dipole moment upon excitation in comparison to planar SRRs. The fabrication technique enabled us to study the plasmon coupling between VSRRs that stand up side by side where the coupling strength can be precisely controlled by varying the gap in between. The resulting wide tuning range of these resonance modes offers the possibility of developing frequency selective functional devices such as sensors and filters based on plasmon coupling with high sensitivity.

  18. Removal of Deeply Impacted Mandibular Molars by Sagittal Split Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Isler, Sabri Cemil

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first and second molars do not share the same frequency of occurrence. In rare cases the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots pointing in opposite direction; these are called kissing molars. In some cases, a supernumerary fourth molar can be seen as unerupted and, in this case, such a supernumerary, deeply impacted fourth molar is seen neighboring kissing molars. The extraction of deeply impacted wisdom molars from the mandible may necessitate excessive bone removal and it causes complications such as damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and iatrogenic fractures of the mandible. This case report describes the use of the sagittal split osteotomy technique to avoid extensive bone removal and protect the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extruction of multiple impacted teeth. PMID:27429810

  19. Estimating the risk of dengue transmission from Dutch blood donors travelling to Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Oei, W; Lieshout-Krikke, R W; Kretzschmar, M E; Zaaijer, H L; Coutinho, R A; Eersel, M; Jubithana, B; Halabi, Y; Gerstenbluth, I; Maduro, E; Tromp, M; Janssen, M P

    2016-05-01

    The risk of dengue transmitted by travellers is known. Methods to estimate the transmission by transfusion (TT) risk from blood donors travelling to risk areas are available, for instance, the European Up-Front Risk Assessment Tool (EUFRAT). This study aimed to validate the estimated risk from travelling donors obtained from EUFRAT. Surveillance data on notified dengue cases in Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean islands (Aruba, Curaçao, St. Maarten, Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba) in 2001-2011 was used to calculate local incidence rates. Information on travel and donation behaviour of Dutch donors was collected. With the EUFRAT model, the TT risks from Dutch travelling donors were calculated. Model estimates were compared with the number of infections in Dutch travellers found by laboratory tests in the Netherlands. The expected cumulative number of donors becoming infected during travels to Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean from 2001 to 2011 was estimated at 5 (95% CI, 2-11) and 86 (45-179), respectively. The infection risk inferred from the laboratory-based study was 19 (9-61) and 28 (14-92). Given the independence of the data sources, these estimates are remarkably close. The model estimated that 0·02 (0·001-0·06) and 0·40 (0·01-1·4) recipients would have been infected by these travelling donors. The EUFRAT model provided an estimate close to actual observed number of dengue infections. The dengue TT risk among Dutch travelling donors can be estimated using basic transmission, travel and donation information. The TT risk from Dutch donors travelling to Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean is small. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. Emergency ambulance assistance in The Netherlands: is the Dutch situation optimal?

    PubMed

    van Vugt, A B; van Olden, G D; Edwards, M J

    1995-12-01

    The system of prehospital trauma care in the Netherlands is the subject of great concern. Although many improvements have been achieved in the last decade, there are still some deficits. Legislation concerning the minimal level of education for ambulance attendants was recently upgraded to 'registered nurse', a standard which must be achieved by 1997. Standardization with regard to extrication techniques, equipment and methods of treatment in prehospital trauma care does not yet exist. Although aware of the fact that large regional differences exist throughout the USA, a system of care in accordance with the advanced trauma life support (ATLS) standard of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and by means of prehospital and advanced trauma life support (PHTLS) given according to the standards of the National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMS) was considered to be the 'golden standard'. Nineteen ground ambulance and two helicopter services in different states of the USA, working according to ACS/NAEMS standard, were visited to analyse the system of care, with special reference to (para)medical education, communication, logistics, and immobilization materials and techniques. In the Netherlands all 41 central post ambulance services (CPAs) were asked to return a questionnaire. This resulted in a 90% (37 out of 41) response. The deficits of the Dutch system of care related to the PHTLS/ATLS standard are pointed out, resulting in recommendations to improve the Dutch system. The requirements of the dispatcher are far inferior to the optimal situation, which, together with the lack of technical equipment, results in serious communication problems. The Dutch ambulance attendant education, in which in the present system the education level reaches 'registered nurse' in only 91% and specialized courses are not mandatory, should be upgraded to the PHTLS level of care.