Science.gov

Sample records for dutch technique split

  1. The Split-Stem Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Roy A.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a procedure useful for investigating the effects of substances on plant growth and development. A bean seedling's stem is partially split, and each half is placed in a different nutrient solution. Suggestions for the instructional use of the technique are made. (AL)

  2. "Split Cast Mounting: Review and New Technique".

    PubMed

    Gundawar, S M; Pande, Neelam A; Jaiswal, Priti; Radke, U M

    2014-12-01

    For the fabrication of a prosthesis, the Prosthodontist meticulously performs all the steps. The laboratory technician then make every effort/strives to perform the remaining lab procedures. However when the processed dentures are remounted on the articulator, some changes are seen. These changes may be divided into two categories: Pre-insertion and post-insertion changes, which deal with the physical properties of the materials involved (Parker, J Prosthet Dent 31:335-342, 1974). Split cast mounting is the method of mounting casts on the articulator. It is essentially a maxillary cast constructed in two parts with a horizontal division. The procedure allows for the verification of the accuracy of the initial mounting and the ease of removal and replacement of the cast. This provides a precise means of correcting the changes in occlusion occurring as a result of the processing technique (Nogueira et al., J Prosthet Dent 91:386-388, 2004). Instability of the split mounting has always been a problem to the Prosthodontist thereby limiting its use. There are various materials mentioned in the literature. The new technique by using Dowel pins and twill thread is very easy, cheaper and simple way to stabilize the split mounting. It is useful and easy in day to day laboratory procedures. The article presents different methods of split cast mounting and the new procedure using easily available materials in prosthetic laboratory.

  3. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong

    2015-08-15

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  4. The Platform Switching Approach to Optimize Split Crest Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sammartino, G.; Cerone, V.; Gasparro, R.; Riccitiello, F.; Trosino, O.

    2014-01-01

    The split crest technique is a reliable procedure used simultaneously in the implant positioning. In the literature some authors describe a secondary bone resorption as postoperative complication. The authors show how platform switching can be able to avoid secondary resorption as complication of split crest technique. PMID:25165586

  5. Alveolar Ridge Split Technique Using Piezosurgery with Specially Designed Tips

    PubMed Central

    Moro, Alessandro; Foresta, Enrico; Falchi, Marco; De Angelis, Paolo; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Pelo, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of patients with atrophic ridge who need prosthetic rehabilitation is a common problem in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Among the various techniques introduced for the expansion of alveolar ridges with a horizontal bone deficit is the alveolar ridge split technique. The aim of this article is to give a description of some new tips that have been specifically designed for the treatment of atrophic ridges with transversal bone deficit. A two-step piezosurgical split technique is also described, based on specific osteotomies of the vestibular cortex and the use of a mandibular ramus graft as interpositional graft. A total of 15 patients were treated with the proposed new tips by our department. All the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width and height to insert implants according to the prosthetic plan and the proposed tips allowed obtaining the most from the alveolar ridge split technique and piezosurgery. These tips have made alveolar ridge split technique simple, safe, and effective for the treatment of horizontal and vertical bone defects. Furthermore the proposed piezosurgical split technique allows obtaining horizontal and vertical bone augmentation. PMID:28246596

  6. A Novel Split and Merge Technique for Hypertext Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Suman; Murthy, C. A.; Pal, Sankar K.

    As web grows at an increasing speed, hypertext classification is becoming a necessity. While the literature on text categorization is quite mature, the issue of utilizing hypertext structure and hyperlinks has been relatively unexplored. In this paper, we introduce a novel split and merge technique for classification of hypertext documents. The splitting process is performed at the feature level by representing the hypertext features in a tensor space model. We exploit the local-structure and neighborhood recommendation encapsulated in the this representation model. The merging process is performed on multiple classifications obtained from split representation. A meta level decision system is formed by obtaining predictions of base level classifiers trained on different components of the tensor and actual category of the hypertext document. These individual predictions for each component of the tensor are subsequently combined to a final prediction using rough set based ensemble classifiers. Experimental results of classification obtained by using our method is marginally better than other existing hypertext classification techniques.

  7. Application of split window technique to TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Rokugawa, Shuichi; Ishii, Yoshinori

    1992-01-01

    Absorptions by the atmosphere in thermal infrared region are mainly due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone. As the content of water vapor in the atmosphere greatly changes according to weather conditions, it is important to know its amount between the sensor and the ground for atmospheric corrections of thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data (i.e. radiosonde). On the other hand, various atmospheric correction techniques were already developed for sea surface temperature estimations from satellites. Among such techniques, Split Window technique, now widely used for AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), uses no radiosonde or any kind of supplementary data but a difference between observed brightness temperatures in two channels for estimating atmospheric effects. Applications of Split Window technique to TIMS data are discussed because availability of atmospheric profile data is not clear when ASTER operates. After these theoretical discussions, the technique is experimentally applied to TIMS data at three ground targets and results are compared with atmospherically corrected data using LOWTRAN 7 with radiosonde data.

  8. Modified distolingual splitting technique for removal of impacted mandibular third molars: technique.

    PubMed

    Davis, W H; Hochwald, D A; Kaminishi, R M

    1983-07-01

    This first of two articles describes a modified distolingual splitting technique for removal of impaction of various classes. The second article evaluates the efficacy of the technique by reporting and comparing the incidence of postoperative sequelae with earlier research findings. In this technique, the lingual soft tissue is not separated from the bone. In addition, the fragmented lingual bone attached to the periosteum is not removed. The procedure is best performed with the patient under sedation or general anesthesia.

  9. Investigation of Convection and Pressure Treatment with Splitting Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakur, Siddharth; Shyy, Wei; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of convective and pressure fluxes in the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations using splitting formulas for convective velocity and pressure is investigated. Two schemes - controlled variation scheme (CVS) and advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) - are explored for their accuracy in resolving sharp gradients in flows involving moving or reflecting shock waves as well as a one-dimensional combusting flow with a strong heat release source term. For two-dimensional compressible flow computations, these two schemes are implemented in one of the pressure-based algorithms, whose very basis is the separate treatment of convective and pressure fluxes. For the convective fluxes in the momentum equations as well as the estimation of mass fluxes in the pressure correction equation (which is derived from the momentum and continuity equations) of the present algorithm, both first- and second-order (with minmod limiter) flux estimations are employed. Some issues resulting from the conventional use in pressure-based methods of a staggered grid, for the location of velocity components and pressure, are also addressed. Using the second-order fluxes, both CVS and AUSM type schemes exhibit sharp resolution. Overall, the combination of upwinding and splitting for the convective and pressure fluxes separately exhibits robust performance for a variety of flows and is particularly amenable for adoption in pressure-based methods.

  10. Split-step eigenvector-following technique for exploring enthalpy landscapes at absolute zero.

    PubMed

    Mauro, John C; Loucks, Roger J; Balakrishnan, Jitendra

    2006-03-16

    The mapping of enthalpy landscapes is complicated by the coupling of particle position and volume coordinates. To address this issue, we have developed a new split-step eigenvector-following technique for locating minima and transition points in an enthalpy landscape at absolute zero. Each iteration is split into two steps in order to independently vary system volume and relative atomic coordinates. A separate Lagrange multiplier is used for each eigendirection in order to provide maximum flexibility in determining step sizes. This technique will be useful for mapping the enthalpy landscapes of bulk systems such as supercooled liquids and glasses.

  11. Mode of Processing Using the Split-Span Technique in Dichotic Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallup, Howard F.; Bookman, Lisa

    Using the split-span technique in which auditory stimuli are presented in various combinations to the right and left ears, two studies were designed to examine the preferences of subjects as to their mode of recall, to assess the accuracy of such recall, and to look at possible sex differences in both the preferences and the accuracy. A total of…

  12. Ridge Expansion by Flapless Split Crest and Immediate Implant Placement: Evolution of the Technique.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Antonio; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Amato, Massimo; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Various treatment strategies and techniques have been proposed to perform alveolar bone augmentation; most common are guided bone regeneration, split crest, and autologous bone grafting. All of these techniques are reported to possess bone regenerative properties of osteoinduction and osteoconduction in relation to regenerated bone survival. Split crest resulted to be one of the most reliable bone augmentation techniques. In this study, we describe a new flapless-modified split crest technique on 4 patients to optimize the bone regeneration with bone augmentation implant insertion in 1 single stage. The rationale of this technique is to obtain a proper buccal cortex expansion preserving its vascular supply and avoiding periosteal elevation for better cortical bone preservation. The main advantages of this technique consist in a single surgical stage without donor sites, vascular periosteal preservation of vestibular cortical walls, preservation of alveolar bone height avoiding bone loss after implant kit drilling, and preservation of proper cortical thickness on both sides, thereby saving periosteal nourishment on the vestibular side. Indication for this technique could be extended to almost every implant insertion for alveolar height saving at drilling time for implant insertion, because of the alveolar crest shape.

  13. Geometrical splitting technique to improve the computational efficiency in Monte Carlo calculations for proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Méndez, José; Perl, Joseph; Faddegon, Bruce; Schümann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present the implementation and validation of a geometrical based variance reduction technique for the calculation of phase space data for proton therapy dose calculation. Methods: The treatment heads at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center were modeled with a new Monte Carlo tool (TOPAS based on Geant4). For variance reduction purposes, two particle-splitting planes were implemented. First, the particles were split upstream of the second scatterer or at the second ionization chamber. Then, particles reaching another plane immediately upstream of the field specific aperture were split again. In each case, particles were split by a factor of 8. At the second ionization chamber and at the latter plane, the cylindrical symmetry of the proton beam was exploited to position the split particles at randomly spaced locations rotated around the beam axis. Phase space data in IAEA format were recorded at the treatment head exit and the computational efficiency was calculated. Depth–dose curves and beam profiles were analyzed. Dose distributions were compared for a voxelized water phantom for different treatment fields for both the reference and optimized simulations. In addition, dose in two patients was simulated with and without particle splitting to compare the efficiency and accuracy of the technique. Results: A normalized computational efficiency gain of a factor of 10–20.3 was reached for phase space calculations for the different treatment head options simulated. Depth–dose curves and beam profiles were in reasonable agreement with the simulation done without splitting: within 1% for depth–dose with an average difference of (0.2 ± 0.4)%, 1 standard deviation, and a 0.3% statistical uncertainty of the simulations in the high dose region; 1.6% for planar fluence with an average difference of (0.4 ± 0.5)% and a statistical uncertainty of 0.3% in the high fluence region. The percentage differences between dose distributions in water for

  14. Black and Azov Sea circulation numerical modelling on the basis of splitting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. V.; Zalesny, V. B.; Diansky, N. A.; Gusev, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of the Black and Azov Sea dynamics numerical modeling is considered. The INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) is used. The INMOM is based on the multicomponent splitting technique and has a flexible modular structure. The splitting into physical processes and spatial coordinates is used. The entire system is split into a number of energetically balanced modules. Each of them can be split into modules with a simpler structure. A numerical experiment consists in simulating the Black and Azov sea hydrothermodynamics with a spatial resolution 4 km and 40 σ-levels non-uniformly distributed over the depth. The atmospheric forcing is defined using the Era-Interim datasets with a spatial resolution 1.5°x1.5° . The integration period was 2006 - 2007. The results of numerical experiments are in good agreement with observational data and with the results of the model developed in Marine Hydrophysical Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. The presented model is planned to use in further development of monitoring and real-time forecasting systems.

  15. Outcomes and treatments of mal fractures caused by the split-crest technique in the mandible.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Yasuyuki; Yabase, Akiko; Ishida, Suguru; Kobayashi, Masaki; Komori, Takahide

    2014-09-26

    In this study, we investigated cases of mal fracture occurring during the split-crest procedure. In all subjects (six patients), the free cortical bone segment caused by the mal fracture was carefully maintained in the lateral position without fixation using a titanium plate or screw. On pre- and postoperative multiplanar reconstruction CT, the average total alveolar increase was 5.0 mm in the lower portion 1 mm from the top of the alveolar ridge, and the average total alveolar increase in the lower portion 11 mm from the top of the alveolar ridge was 2.2 mm. A total of 11 dental implants were placed immediately at the same time as the split-crest procedure, while three dental implants were placed after a waiting period of 4-11 months from bone augmentation. During an average follow-up of 27.8 months, there were no complications or cases of failed implants. Consequently, among the patients who experienced mal fracture during the split-crest technique, a sufficient volume of alveolar bone was obtained without the need for rigid fixation of the free bone segment, and the dental implants placed within the area of the mal fracture showed a good prognosis.

  16. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery. Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed. All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment. Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  17. Comparison of spread spectrum and pulse signal excitation for split spectrum techniques composite imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svilainis, L.; Kitov, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Vergara, L.; Dumbrava, V.; Chaziachmetovas, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasonic imaging of composites was investigated. Glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastic produced by resin transfer molding and prepreg forming were analyzed. In some of the samples air bubbles were trapped during RTM (resin transfer molding) process and interlayer gaps were present in prepreg technology samples. One of the most expected techniques to apply in such case is the Split Spectrum processing. On the other hand such signals require specific processing to reliably reconstruct the temporal position of the defect reflection. Correlation processing can be used for signal compression or Wiener filtering can be applied for spectral content equalisation. Pulse signals are simple to generate, but lack the possibility to alter the signal's spectrum shape. Spread spectrum signals offer a powerful tool for signal energy over frequency band increase and resolution enhancement. CW (continuous wave) burst has high energy but lacks the bandwidth needed for SSP (spread spectrum processing). The aim of the investigation was to compare the performance of the above signals in case of composite imaging, when various Split Spectrum Processing techniques are used with preceding Wiener processing for spectral content compensation. Resulting composite signals and images obtained are presented. Structural noise removal performance was evaluated as Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC).

  18. Piezoelectric surgery in mandibular split crest technique with immediate implant placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Belleggia, F; Pozzi, A; Rocci, M; Barlattani, A; Gargari, M

    2008-10-01

    Implant supported rehabilitation of thin edentulous ridges with horizontal atrophy necessitates a regenerative approach. Within the procedures for horizontal bone defects augmentation, ridge expansion techniques permit dislocation of the buccal bone plate in a labial direction and simultaneous implant insertion in single-stage surgery, abbreviating overall treatment time.The piezoelectric ridge expansion technique permits to obtain the expansion of very mineralized bone crests without excessive traumas or the risk of ridge fractures. The case reported shows an implant treatment for partial edentulous lower arch rehabilitation. A full-split thickness flap was raised. The mucoperiosteal reflection permitted to identify alveolar crest contour where osteotomies had to be performed. Split thickness dissection allowed periosteal blood supply to be mainteined on the buccal bone plate. After horizontal and vertical osteotomies were performed with OT7 piezoelectric microsaw (Piezo-surgery, Mectron), a single-bevel scalpel was used to move the buccal bone plate to the labial. Two Straumann TE 3.3/4.8 mm wide implants were inserted in the lower right premolar area, and 1 Straumann 4.8 mm Wide Neck implant was inserted to replace lower right first molar. The amount of bone expansion was equal to the cervical diameter of the placed implants (4.8 mm) and residual bone gap was packed with Bio-Oss granules (Geistlich). Healing was uneventful and 3 months later final restorations with implant-supported porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns were cemented.

  19. Our technique of midsagittal splitting laminoplasty for compressive cervical myelopathy and its short-term results

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Niraj Kumar; Singh, Sunita; Chauhan, Shishu Pal Singh; Gopal, Nitya Nand

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to discuss the technique of midsagittal splitting laminoplasty and to compare its short-term follow-up results with laminectomy in cases of compressive cervical spinal cord myelopathy. Materials and Methods: Exclusion criteria were as follows: Intramedullary compressive lesions, kyphotic cervical spine, previous spinal surgeries, and defective anterior vertebral column. Twenty patients (10 each of laminoplasty and laminectomy groups) were prospectively studied from 2005 to 2008. After clinico-radiological assessment, laminoplasty or laminectomy was performed in patients aged <50 years and >50 years, respectively. The laminoplasty was performed by splitting the excised lamina in midline up to the tip of spinous process. Follow-up was done by neurosurgical cervical spine scoring, Nurick's grading, and the final outcome was determined by Odom's criteria. Results: The mean operative time and blood loss in laminoplasty and laminectomy was 100 ± 0.87 (range 90-140 min), 80 ± 0.67 (range 75-100 min) P = 0.04; and 65 ± 0.07 (range 60-90 ml) and 68 ± 0.61 (range 65-80 ml) P = 0.09, respectively. There were no intraoperative accidents, and no postoperative neurological deterioration/recurrence of symptoms. One patient who underwent laminectomy alone developed progressive kyphosis of the spine, whereas one having rheumatoid arthritis and long symptom duration didn’t improve. 85% (17/20 patients) had sustained excellent to fair outcome (improvement by at least one Nurick's grade). Conclusions: The technique used by us was simple, effective, and inexpensive. There was no minimal postoperative morbidity, although long-term results are awaited. PMID:27366246

  20. Re-evaluation of split-course technique for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, J.T.; Bova, F.J.; Million, R.R.

    1980-12-01

    Therapeutic results of split-course vs. continuous-course external beam irradiation were analyzed retrospectively in 468 consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx, and supraglottic larynx who were treated with curative intent at the University of Florida between September 1964 and August 1976. 214 patients received split-course treatment and 254 were treated by the continuous-course method. Except for the planned 14 to 16 day interruption after 2820 to 3000 rad in the split-course group, the techniques and total doses of irradiation did not differ. For each stage of disease, patients who received continuous-course irradiation had approximately 10% higher 5-year survival rates than patients who were treated by the split-course technique. The rate of development of late radiation complications was similar for the 2 treatment techniques. Routine use of the split-course technique has been discontinued since the dose required to compensate for the rest interval is unknown.

  1. A technique for deriving column-integrated water content using VAS split-window data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Fuelberg, Henry E.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm is examined that uses VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) 11- and 12-micron (split-window) data to derive column-integrated water content (IWC) at mesoscale resolution. The algorithm is physically based and derives its first-guess information from radiosonde data. The procedure is applied first to a test case data set and then to the 19 June 1986 study day from the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment (COHMEX). Ground truth data for verifying results from the technique include IWC from National Weather Service and COHMEX radiosondes, the Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS), and a special set of VAS soundings (12 channel) using an independent retrieval method. Results from the test case show reasonable accuracy with the rms errors as low as +/- 3.8 mm. On the 19 June case study day IWC analyses depict reasonable gradients and exhibit good spatial and temporal continuity. Furthermore, they provide insight into preferred regions for cumulus cloud and thunderstorm formation. On the average, a mean absolute retrieval error of 2.4 mm (an 8.1 percent error) and a rms error of +/- 2.9 mm are obtained on the case study day. These results compare favorably with those from existing VAS IWC techniques. Overall, the findings indicate that the technique has excellent potential to depict mesoscale moisture variations.

  2. A split-aperture transmit beamforming technique with phase coherence grating lobe suppression.

    PubMed

    Torbatian, Zahra; Adamson, Rob; Bance, Manohar; Brown, Jeremy A

    2010-11-01

    A small element-to-element pitch (~.5λ) is conventionally required for phased array ultrasound transducers to avoid large grating lobes. This constraint can introduce many fabrication difficulties, particularly in the development of highfrequency phased arrays at operating frequencies greater than 30 MHz. In this paper, a new transmit beamforming technique along with sign coherence factor (SCF) receive beamforming is proposed to suppress grating lobes in large-pitch phased-array transducers. It is based on splitting the transmit aperture (N elements) into N/K transmit elements and receive beamforming on all N elements to reduce the temporal length of the transmit grating lobe signal. Therefore, the use of synthetic aperture beamforming, which can introduce relative phase distortions between the echoes received over many transmit events, can be avoided. After each transmit-receive event, the received signals are weighted by the calculated SCF to suppress the grating lobes. After pulsing all sub-apertures, the RF signals are added to generate one line of the image. Simulated 2-way radiation patterns for different K values show that grating lobes can be suppressed significantly at different steering angles. Grating lobes can be suppressed by approximately 20 dB with K = 2 at steering angles greater than 25° and an element pitch greater than 0.75λ. A technique for determining the optimal transmit sub-apertures has been developed.

  3. Classroom Modified Split-Root Technique and Its Application in a Plant Habitat Selection Experiment at the College Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Shannon S.; Winter, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The split-root technique produces a plant with two equal root masses. Traditionally, the two root masses of the single plant are cultivated in adjacent pots with or without roots from competitors for the purpose of elucidating habitat preferences. We have tailored this technology for the classroom, adjusting protocols to match resources and time…

  4. Improved ITOS attitude control system with Hall generator brushless motor and earth-splitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, W. M.

    1971-01-01

    The ITOS with an improved attitude control system is described. A Hall generator brushless dc torque motor will replace the brush dc torque motor on ITOS-I and ITOS-A (NOAA-1). The four attitude horizon sensors will be replaced with two CO2 sensors for better horizon definition. An earth horizon splitting technique will be used to keep the earth facing side of the satellite toward earth even if the desired circular orbit is not achieved. The external appearance of the pitch control subsystem differs from TIROS-M (ITOS-1) and ITOS-A (NOAA-1) in that two instead of one pitch control electronics (PCE) boxes are used. Two instead of four horizon sensors will be used and one instead of two mirrors will be used for sensor scanning. The brushless motor will eliminate the requirement for brushes, strain gages and the telemetry for the brush wear. A single rotating flywheel, supported by a single bearing provides the gyroscopic stability and the required momentum interchange to keep one side of the satellite facing the earth. Magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field eliminates the requirement for expendable propellants which would limit satellite life in orbit.

  5. Modification of mandibular ridge splitting technique for horizontal augmentation of atrophic ridges

    PubMed Central

    Abu Tair, Jawad A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A two stage approach of ridge splitting and lateral expansion in the mandible to achieve enough bone width for the purpose of dental implants is presented. Materials and Methods: A total of 13 consecutive patients with 16 long-span edentulous areas of the mandibular ridge were included in this study and 42 dental implants were inserted. Corticotomy of a rectangular buccal segment was carried out followed by 3 weeks of recovery; the mandibular ridge was stretched laterally, leaving the buccal periosteum attached to the lateralized segment. In this modification, there was no need for the use of grafted foreign materials to fill the defect and neither the use of barrier membranes, since it was treated practically as a fresh extraction site. To prevent the undesirable movement of the lateral plate, a small chip (2-3 mm in diameter) of bone spacer was properly fixed. The dental implants were placed 3-5 months later on. Results: Approximately, 86% of the expanded areas were successful in providing an adequate width to accommodate an implant. The average gain in width was 3.22 ± 0.97 mm. All intended implants were inserted. Prosthetic loading with fixed prosthesis was successfully implemented in all cases. Conclusion: This modified technique is a simple and short procedure with satisfactory results and minimal morbidity. Of note, this approach is devoid of foreign materials usage and has a low rate cost, therefore, should be employed more often. PMID:24987593

  6. All-Epiphyseal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients: A Surgical Technique Using a Split Tibial Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Lykissas, Marios G.; Nathan, Senthil T.; Wall, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Many techniques have been described for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in skeletally immature patients, including extra-articular, complete or partial transphyseal, and physeal-sparing techniques. An all-epiphyseal technique places the tendon and its tunnels and fixation all within the child's epiphysis, leaving the growth plates untouched. We describe an all-epiphyseal quadruple-hamstring ACL reconstruction using a split tibial tunnel. The split tibial tunnels drop the tunnel size down to 4.5 to 5.5 mm from 7 to 8 mm because only half the total graft diameter passes through each of the split tunnels. This increases the safety margin for keeping the tunnel within the tibial epiphysis, in addition to avoiding damage into the growth plate. The bone bridge between the 2 tunnels serves as a solid low-profile fixation post. Femoral graft fixation is achieved with an interference screw, which allows precise tensioning and low-profile fixation entirely within the femoral tunnel. By placing the graft at the native ACL's anatomic attachment points without spanning or violating the growth plates at any step of the procedure, an all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction with a split tibial tunnel theoretically minimizes the risk of growth disturbance in an ACL-deficient child. PMID:23766968

  7. High Strain Rate Response Testing with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwiessler, R.; Kenkmann, T.; Poelchau, M. H.; Nau, S.; Hess, S.

    2016-08-01

    We present a newly developed split Hopkinson pressure bar which is used to quantify the rate dependent uniaxial stress-strain response of rocks in the high strain rate regime as well as results of our first study on a sandstone and Carrara marble.

  8. A Split Forcing Technique to Reduce Log-layer Mismatch in Wall-modeled Turbulent Channel Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleon, Rey; Senocak, Inanc

    2016-11-01

    The conventional approach to sustain a flow field in a periodic channel flow seems to be the culprit behind the log-law mismatch problem that has been reported in many studies hybridizing Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques, commonly referred to as hybrid RANS-LES. To address this issue, we propose a split-forcing approach that relies only on the conservation of mass principle. We adopt a basic hybrid RANS-LES technique on a coarse mesh with wall-stress boundary conditions to simulate turbulent channel flows at friction Reynolds numbers of 2000 and 5200 and demonstrate good agreement with benchmark data. We also report a duality in velocity scale that is a specific consequence of the split forcing framework applied to hybrid RANS-LES. The first scale is the friction velocity derived from the wall shear stress. The second scale arises in the core LES region, a value different than at the wall. Second-order turbulence statistics agree well with the benchmark data when normalized by the core friction velocity, whereas the friction velocity at the wall remains the appropriate scale for the mean velocity profile. Based on our findings, we suggest reevaluating more sophisticated hybrid RANS-LES approaches within the split-forcing framework. Work funded by National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1056110 and 1229709. First author acknowledges the University of Idaho President's Doctoral Scholars Award.

  9. Algebraic processing technique for extracting frequency-dependent shear-wave splitting parameters in an anisotropic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kai-Feng; Zeng, Xin-Wu

    2011-06-01

    Based on the dual source cumulative rotation technique in the time-domain proposed by Zeng and MacBeth (1993), a new algebraic processing technique for extracting shear-wave splitting parameters from multi-component VSP data in frequency-dependent medium has been developed. By using this dual source cumulative rotation technique in the frequency-domain (DCTF), anisotropic parameters, including polarization direction of the shear-waves and timedelay between the fast and slow shear-waves, can be estimated for each frequency component in the frequency domain. It avoids the possible error which comes from using a narrow-band filter in the current commonly used method. By using synthetic seismograms, the feasibility and validity of the technique was tested and a comparison with the currently used method was also given. The results demonstrate that the shear-wave splitting parameters frequency dependence can be extracted directly from four-component seismic data using the DCTF. In the presence of larger scale fractures, substantial frequency dependence would be found in the seismic frequency range, which implies that dispersion would occur at seismic frequencies. Our study shows that shear-wave anisotropy decreases as frequency increases.

  10. Evaluation of simple pre-determined length insertion technique (SPLIT) with conventional method for oral fibreoptic intubation: A randomised cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Elangovan; Elakkumanan, Lenin Babu; Bidkar, Prasanna Udupi; Satyaprakash, MVS; Mishra, Sandeep Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The difficulty during flexible fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FOB) guided tracheal intubation could be because of inability in visualising glottis, advancing and railroading of endotracheal tube. Several methods are available for visualising glottis, but none is ideal. Hence, this randomised controlled study was designed to evaluate the simple pre-determined length insertion technique (SPLIT) during oral FOB. Methods: Fifty-eight patients were randomised into Group C and Group P. General anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and oxygen in spontaneous respiration. In Group C, conventional flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy was done followed by SPLIT and vice versa in Group P. The time to visualise the glottis (T1), from glottic visualisation to pass beyond glottis (T2) and from incisors to pass beyond the glottis (T3) were noted from the recorded video. The time interval was analysed using Wilcoxon matched pairs test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: The T1 was significantly less in SPLIT as compared to conventional technique (13 [10, 20.25] vs. 33 [22, 48] s). The T3 was significantly less in SPLIT (24.5 [19.75, 30] vs. 44 [34, 61.25] s). The T1 by SPLIT was comparable between residents and consultants (P = 0.09), whereas it was significantly more among residents than the conventional technique. The SPLIT was preferred by 91.3% anaesthesiologists. Conclusion: The SPLIT significantly lessened the time to visualise the glottis than conventional technique for FOB. The SPLIT was the preferred technique. Hence, we suggest using the SPLIT to secure the airway at the earliest and also as an alternative to conventional technique. PMID:28216702

  11. Mobile terminal equipment design utilising split-loop phase-lock techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenington, P. B.; Mcgeehan, J. P.; Edwards, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The design and resultant performance of the terminal equipment in a mobile satellite system is vitally important in respect to the overall cost/performance compromise of the whole system. Improvements in system performance which also result in a reduction of the equipment cost are rare. However, this paper details a significant advance in terminal design, utilizing a novel form of 'split-loop' phase locked receiver/downconverter system to enable an accurate, stable and wide coverage terminal to be realized at a reduced cost. The system has the capability of automatically locking onto any carrier within a complete transponder, and can cope with severe amplitude modulation and fading effects.

  12. Fiber-optic CATV system performance improvement by using split-band technique and photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Tzeng, Shah-Jye; Chuang, Yao-Wei; Chen, Guan-Lin; Peng, Hsiang-Chun

    2007-03-01

    A directly-modulated amplitude modulation-vestigial sideband (AM-VSB) cable television (CATV) erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-repeated system that uses split-band technique and photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as a broadband dispersion compensation device is proposed and demonstrated. In contrast to a conventional externally-modulated fiber-optic CATV system, good performance of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second order (CSO) and composite triple beat (CTB) were obtained in our proposed systems over a combination of 100-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and 3.6 km PCF.

  13. Colloquial Dutch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Leonard

    This course in colloquial Dutch was originally prepared for use by American Armed Forces personnel who needed to develop a working command of the spoken language in a short period of time. Thirty-one lessons, based on activities common to Dutch culture, are contained in the text. Each lesson provides three parallel columns of sentences: the…

  14. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M.; Monty, Chelsea N.

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms. PMID:26824529

  15. Use of an Electrochemical Split Cell Technique to Evaluate the Influence of Shewanella oneidensis Activities on Corrosion of Carbon Steel.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert Bertram; Sadek, Anwar; Rodriguez, Alvaro; Iannuzzi, Mariano; Giai, Carla; Senko, John M; Monty, Chelsea N

    2016-01-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) is a complex problem that affects various industries. Several techniques have been developed to monitor corrosion and elucidate corrosion mechanisms, including microbiological processes that induce metal deterioration. We used zero resistance ammetry (ZRA) in a split chamber configuration to evaluate the effects of the facultatively anaerobic Fe(III) reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the corrosion of UNS G10180 carbon steel. We show that activities of S. oneidensis inhibit corrosion of steel with which that organism has direct contact. However, when a carbon steel coupon in contact with S. oneidensis was electrically connected to a second coupon that was free of biofilm (in separate chambers of the split chamber assembly), ZRA-based measurements indicated that current moved from the S. oneidensis-containing chamber to the cell-free chamber. This electron transfer enhanced the O2 reduction reaction on the coupon deployed in the cell free chamber, and consequently, enhanced oxidation and corrosion of that electrode. Our results illustrate a novel mechanism for MIC in cases where metal surfaces are heterogeneously covered by biofilms.

  16. A contemporary approach for treatment planning of horizontally resorbed alveolar ridge: Ridge split technique with simultaneous implant placement using platelet rich fibrin membrane application in mandibular anterior region.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, Prathahini S; Lakshmi, R Vijaya; Mahendra, Jaideep; Sreekumar, K; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of edentulous sites with horizontal atrophy represents a clinical situation in which the positioning of endosseous implants might be complex or sometimes impossible without a staged regenerative approach. This case report presents management of horizontally deficient mandibular anterior ridge with a contemporary approach to treatment planning and application of platelet-rich fibrin membrane for ridge split technique and simultaneous implant placement. Implants in anterior mandibular area are considered to be most predictable, stable, with high success rate and patients' satisfaction with implant esthetics. In contrast to traditional ridge augmentation techniques, ridge splitting allows for immediate implant placement following surgery and eradicates the possible morbidity from a second surgical site.

  17. Comparative evaluation of depigmentation techniques in split-mouth design with electrocautery and laser

    PubMed Central

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Thangavelu, Arthiie; Alex, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Excessive gingival pigmentation is a major esthetic concern for many people. Melanin pigmentation is known to be caused by melanin granules within the gingival epithelium. Smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. It is not a medical problem, but it feels unesthetic for the patient and particularly in patients having a very high lip/smile line. Depigmentation is not a clinical indication but a treatment of choice where esthetics is a concern and is desired by the patient. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. The present case series describes two simple and effective surgical depigmentation techniques treated with diode laser and electrosurgery. PMID:26538970

  18. Comparison of five different fixation techniques of sagittal split ramus osteotomy using three-dimensional finite elements analysis.

    PubMed

    Sato, F R L; Asprino, L; Noritomi, P Y; da Silva, J V L; de Moraes, M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical stress over hemimandible substrate and hardware after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) fixed with five different techniques using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. A 3D finite element model of a hemimandible was created and a 5mm advancement SSRO was simulated on a computer model. The model was fixed with five different techniques: 3 linear 60° screw arrangement; 3 linear 90° screw arrangement; 3 inverted L screw arrangement; 1 conventional miniplate; and 1 locking miniplate with four monocortical screws. Load was applied until 3mm displacement was reached and the results were compared with previous mechanical and photoelastic tests, thus analysing the mechanical stresses developed in the proximity of miniplates and screws and within the fixation system itself. The maximum principal stress values demonstrate a lower mechanical stress rate in bone and in the fixation system with the inverted L arrangement, followed by the linear 90° and linear 60° arrangements. The locking miniplate/screw system presented lower maximum principal stress and better stress distribution compared with the conventional system. Under the conditions tested, the reversed L arrangement provided the most favourable stress dissipation behaviour.

  19. Evaluation of different screw fixation techniques and screw diameters in sagittal split ramus osteotomy: finite element analysis method.

    PubMed

    Sindel, A; Demiralp, S; Colok, G

    2014-09-01

    Sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) is used for correction of numerous congenital or acquired deformities in facial region. Several techniques have been developed and used to maintain fixation and stabilisation following SSRO application. In this study, the effects of the insertion formations of the bicortical different sized screws to the stresses generated by forces were studied. Three-dimensional finite elements analysis (FEA) and static linear analysis methods were used to investigate difference which would occur in terms of forces effecting onto the screws and transmitted to bone between different application areas. No significant difference was found between 1·5- and 2-mm screws used in SSRO fixation. Besides, it was found that 'inverted L' application was more successful compared to the others and that was followed by 'L' and 'linear' formations which showed close rates to each other. Few studies have investigated the effect of thickness and application areas of bicortical screws. This study was performed on both advanced and regressed jaws positions.

  20. Rapid orthodontic treatment after the ridge-splitting technique--a combined surgical-orthodontic approach for implant site development: case report.

    PubMed

    Amato, Francesco; Mirabella, A Davide; Borlizzi, Diego

    2012-08-01

    This article presents a clinical case of bilateral partial edentulism in the posterior mandible with severe horizontal and moderate vertical bone atrophy. A new technique using rapid orthodontics after ridge splitting is presented. The split-crest technique was carried out using piezosurgical instruments in the first molar and second premolar areas to widen the bone crest and open a channel for tooth movement. Immediately after, orthodontic appliances were used to move the first premolars distally and the second molars mesially into the surgical site. The rationale was to facilitate and accelerate orthodontic movement of the teeth, which is otherwise difficult in a cortical knife-edged ridge. The bone defect was filled with the alveolar bone of the adjacent teeth that were moved into the surgically opened path. Adequate bone volume for implant placement was generated in the first premolar area. Implants were then inserted, and the patient was rehabilitated.

  1. Dutch audiology.

    PubMed

    Grobben, L M; van Ligtenberg, C L

    1977-01-01

    In the Netherlands audiological care is given at different stages. An attempt is made to screen the hearing of all Dutch babies between the ages of 8 and 12 months. At the age of 4 or over, general audiological care is given by the school medical service; referral is first to a family doctor, who may refer to an otolaryngologist. Curative medical care (examination and therapy) is the province of the family doctor and the otolaryngologist. Otolaryngologists and pediatricians can refer patients to one of 19 Audiological Centers distributed around the country, where a number of workers in different disciplines cooperate for habilitation and rehabilitation. These may include an otolaryngologist in charge, a psychologist, a speech and hearing therapist, an audiologist (usually a physicist or university-trained engineer), social worker, technician, ortho-pedagogue, audiology assistant, and teacher. There are at the moment 25 schools for the hard of hearing and 5 institutes for the deaf. These are often found in conjunction with Audiological Centers, the latter providing paramedical assistance to the pupils by agreement. Finally, the Dutch Organization for Preventive Medicine works to prevent hearing loss in noisy industries.

  2. Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belmon, Laura S; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. Objective This study aimed to explore young adults’ opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants’ gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: “goal setting and goal reviewing,” “feedback and self-monitoring,” and “social support and social comparison.” Results Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase “goal setting and goal reviewing” and “feedback and self-monitoring,” but not for BCTs addressing “social support and social comparison.” Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality

  3. Revisiting the Dutch hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Postma, Dirkje S; Weiss, Scott T; van den Berge, Maarten; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Koppelman, Gerard H

    2015-09-01

    The Dutch hypothesis was first articulated in 1961, when many novel and advanced scientific techniques were not available, such as genomics techniques for pinpointing genes, gene expression, lipid and protein profiles, and the microbiome. In addition, computed tomographic scans and advanced analysis techniques to dissect (small) airways disease and emphysema were not available. At that time, the group of researchers under the visionary guidance of Professor N. G. M. Orie put forward that both genetic and environmental factors can determine whether one would have airway obstructive diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Moreover, they stipulated that the phenotype of obstructive airway disease could be affected by sex and changes with aging. Orie and colleagues' call to carefully phenotype patients with obstructive airways diseases has been adopted by many current researchers in an attempt to determine the heterogeneity of both asthma and COPD to better define these diseases and optimize their treatment. The founders of the Dutch hypothesis were far ahead of their time, and we can learn from their insights. We should fully characterize all patients in our clinical practice and not just state that they have asthma, COPD, or asthma and COPD overlap syndrome. This detailed phenotyping can help in understanding these obstructive airway diseases and provide guidance for disease management.

  4. Monte Carlo Simulation of Characteristic Secondary Fluorescence in Electron Probe Microanalysis of Homogeneous Samples Using the Splitting Technique.

    PubMed

    Petaccia, Mauricio; Segui, Silvina; Castellano, Gustavo

    2015-06-01

    Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) is based on the comparison of characteristic intensities induced by monoenergetic electrons. When the electron beam ionizes inner atomic shells and these ionizations cause the emission of characteristic X-rays, secondary fluorescence can occur, originating from ionizations induced by X-ray photons produced by the primary electron interactions. As detectors are unable to distinguish the origin of these characteristic X-rays, Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport becomes a determinant tool in the study of this fluorescence enhancement. In this work, characteristic secondary fluorescence enhancement in EPMA has been studied by using the splitting routines offered by PENELOPE 2008 as a variance reduction alternative. This approach is controlled by a single parameter NSPLIT, which represents the desired number of X-ray photon replicas. The dependence of the uncertainties associated with secondary intensities on NSPLIT was studied as a function of the accelerating voltage and the sample composition in a simple binary alloy in which this effect becomes relevant. The achieved efficiencies for the simulated secondary intensities bear a remarkable improvement when increasing the NSPLIT parameter; although in most cases an NSPLIT value of 100 is sufficient, some less likely enhancements may require stronger splitting in order to increase the efficiency associated with the simulation of secondary intensities.

  5. Meshless method with operator splitting technique for transient nonlinear bioheat transfer in two-dimensional skin tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ze-Wei; Wang, Hui; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2015-01-16

    A meshless numerical scheme combining the operator splitting method (OSM), the radial basis function (RBF) interpolation, and the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) is developed for solving transient nonlinear bioheat problems in two-dimensional (2D) skin tissues. In the numerical scheme, the nonlinearity caused by linear and exponential relationships of temperature-dependent blood perfusion rate (TDBPR) is taken into consideration. In the analysis, the OSM is used first to separate the Laplacian operator and the nonlinear source term, and then the second-order time-stepping schemes are employed for approximating two splitting operators to convert the original governing equation into a linear nonhomogeneous Helmholtz-type governing equation (NHGE) at each time step. Subsequently, the RBF interpolation and the MFS involving the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation are respectively employed to obtain approximated particular and homogeneous solutions of the nonhomogeneous Helmholtz-type governing equation. Finally, the full fields consisting of the particular and homogeneous solutions are enforced to fit the NHGE at interpolation points and the boundary conditions at boundary collocations for determining unknowns at each time step. The proposed method is verified by comparison of other methods. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the coefficients in the cases of a linear and an exponential relationship of TDBPR is investigated to reveal their bioheat effect on the skin tissue.

  6. Influence of core design, production technique, and material selection on fracture behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal fixed dental prostheses produced using different multilayer techniques: split-file, over-pressing, and manually built-up veneers

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Deyar Jallal Hadi; Linderoth, Ewa H; Wennerberg, Ann; Vult Von Steyern, Per

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores. Materials and methods A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1–7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8–11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture. Results There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the core designs, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS® (1,806±165 N) and e.max® ZirPress (1,854±115 N) and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM® 9 (1,849±150 N) demonstrated the highest mean fracture values. Conclusion The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed cores. All veneering materials and techniques tested in the study, split-file, over-press, built-up porcelains, and glass–ceramics are, with a great safety margin, sufficient for clinical use

  7. Mechanical evaluation of six techniques for stable fixation of the sagittal split osteotomy after counterclockwise mandibular advancement.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Leandro Benetti; Reis, Jose Mauricio Nunes; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Gabrielli, Marisa Aparecida Cabrini; Oguz, Yener; Pereira-Filho, Valfrido Antonio

    2016-06-01

    We have evaluated the resistance to displacement of six stable methods of fixation of a sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) in the mandibular advancement with counterclockwise rotation. We tested 60 synthetic hemimandibles in six groups of 10 each: Group I - fixation with a straight four-hole 2.0mm miniplate; Group II - a straight six-hole 2.0mm miniplate; Group III - two straight 2.0mm four-hole miniplates; Group IV - an eight-hole 2.0mm (grid plate); Group V - a 2.0mm four-hole straight miniplate and 2.0×12mm bicortical screw; and Group VI - a straight four-hole 2.0mm locking miniplate. We applied a linear force in the region between the canine and the first premolar using a universal testing machine (EMIC- DL2000) with a loading cell of 10 KN. The loads at 1, 3, and 5mm displacement were recorded (N) and the data transmitted from the load cell to a computer. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p<0.001) and the Tukey post-test for comparison of the significance of the differences between the groups. For the three degrees of displacement, fixation with two straight 2.0mm plates and with the grid plate gave higher load values.

  8. Crack initiation at high loading rates applying the four-point bending split Hopkinson pressure bar technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henschel, Sebastian; Krüger, Lutz

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic crack initiation with crack-tip loading rates of K˙ ≈ 2.106MPa√ms-1 in a high strength G42CrMoS4 steel was investigated. To this end, a previously developed split Hopkinson pressure bar with four-point bending was utilised. V-notched and pre-cracked Charpy specimens were tested. The detection of dynamic crack initiation was performed by analysing the dynamic force equilibrium between the incident and the transmission bar. Additionally, the signal of a near-field strain gauge and high-speed photography were used to determine the instant of crack initiation. To account for vibrations of the sample, a dynamic analysis of the stress intensity factor was performed. The dynamic and static analyses of the tests produced nearly the same results when a force equilibrium was achieved. Fracture-surface analysis revealed that elongated MnS inclusions strongly affected both the dynamic crack initiation and growth. Blunting of the precrack did not take place when a group of MnS inclusions was located directly at the precrack tip. Due to the direction of the elongated MnS inclusions perpendicular to the direction of crack growth, the crack could be deflected. The comparison with a 42CrMo4 steel without elongated MnS inclusions revealed the detrimental effect in terms of resistance to crack initiation. Taking the loading-rate dependency into consideration, it was shown that there was no pronounced embrittlement due to the high loading rates.

  9. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  10. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  11. Antibiotic prophylaxis in third molar surgery: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial using split-mouth technique.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, A; Morkel, J A; Zafar, S

    2010-02-01

    The use of prophylactic antibiotics to reduce postoperative complications in third molar surgery remains controversial. The study was a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 100 patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Each patient acted as their own control using the split-mouth technique. Two unilateral impacted third molars were removed under antibiotic cover and the other two were removed without antibiotic cover. The first group received antibiotics on the first surgical visit. On the second surgical visit (after 3 weeks), placebo capsules were given or vice versa. The second group received antibiotics with continued therapy for 2 days on the first surgical visit and on the second surgical visit (after 3 weeks) placebo capsules were given or vice versa. Pain, swelling, infection, trismus and temperature were recorded on days 3, 7 and 14 after surgery. Of 380 impactions, 6 sockets (2%) became infected. There was no statistically significant difference in the infection rate, pain, swelling, trismus, and temperature between the two groups (p>0.05). Results of the study showed that prophylactic antibiotics did not have a statistically significant effect on postoperative infections in third molar surgery and should not be routinely administered when third molars are removed in non-immunocompromised patients.

  12. Pain related to robotic cholecystectomy with lower abdominal ports: effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique of rectus sheath block in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Choi, Jong Bum; Lee, Sook Young; Kim, Wook Hwan; Baek, Nam Hyun; Kim, Jayoun; Park, Chu Kyung; Lee, Yeon Ju; Park, Sung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Robotic cholecystectomy (RC) using port sites in the lower abdominal area (T12-L1) rather than the upper abdomen has recently been introduced as an alternative procedure for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Therefore, we investigated the time course of different components of pain and the analgesic effect of the bilateral ultrasound-guided split injection technique for rectus sheath block (sRSB) after RC in female patients. Methods: We randomly assigned 40 patients to undergo ultrasound-guided sRSB (RSB group, n = 20) or to not undergo any block (control group, n = 20). Pain was subdivided into 3 components: superficial wound pain, deep abdominal pain, and referred shoulder pain, which were evaluated with a numeric rating scale (from 0 to 10) at baseline (time of awakening) and at 1, 6, 9, and 24 hours postoperatively. Consumption of fentanyl and general satisfaction were also evaluated 1 hour (before discharge from the postanesthesia care unit) and 24 hours postoperatively (end of study). Results: Superficial wound pain was predominant only at awakening, and after postoperative 1 hour in the control group. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB significantly decreased superficial pain after RC (P < 0.01) and resulted in a better satisfaction score (P < 0.05) 1 hour after RC in the RSB group compared with the control group. The cumulative postoperative consumption of fentanyl at 6, 9, and 24 hours was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions: After RC with lower abdominal ports, superficial wound pain predominates over deep intra-abdominal pain and shoulder pain only at the time of awakening. Afterwards, superficial and deep pain decreased to insignificant levels in 6 hours. Bilateral ultrasound-guided sRSB was effective only during the first hour. This limited benefit should be balanced against the time and risks entailed in performing RSB. PMID:27495072

  13. A New Dutch Spelling Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruyt, J. G.; van Sterkenburg, P. G. J.

    This paper describes the development of two new corpus-based Dutch spelling guides using language data gathered by the Institute for Dutch Lexicology, a research institute subsidized by the Dutch and Belgian governments. The guides were produced in 1990 and 1995. The guides are based on two earlier ones, published in 1866 and 1954, but attempt to…

  14. In-orbit performance of the ITOS improved attitude control system with Hall generator brushless motor and earth-splitting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), launched ITOS-D with an improved attitude control system. A Hall generator brushless dc torque motor replaced the brush dc torque motor on Tiros-M and ITOS-A. Two CO2 attitude horizon sensors and one mirror replaced the four wideband horizon sensors and two mirrors on ITOS-1 and NOAA-1. Redundant pitch-control electronic boxes containing additional electronic circuitry for earth-splitting and brushless motor electronics were used. A method of generating a spacecraft earth-facing side reference for comparison to the time occurrence of the earth-splitting pulse was used to automatically correct pitch-attitude error. A single rotating flywheel, supported by a single bearing, provided gyroscopic stability and the required momentum interchange to keep one side of the satellite facing the earth. Magnetic torquing against the earth's magnetic field eliminated the requirement for expendable propellants which would limit satellite life in orbit.

  15. Thermocouple split follower

    DOEpatents

    Howell, deceased, Louis J.

    1980-01-01

    Thermoelectric generator assembly accommodating differential thermal expansion between thermoelectric elements by means of a cylindrical split follower forming a slot and having internal spring loaded wedges that permit the split follower to open and close across the slot.

  16. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.

    PubMed

    Steenen, S A; Becking, A G

    2016-07-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches.

  17. Will Dutch Become Flemish? Autonomous Developments in Belgian Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Velde, Hans; Kissine, Mikhail; Tops, Evie; van der Harst, Sander; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a series of studies of standard Dutch pronunciation in Belgium and the Netherlands is presented. The research is based on two speech corpora: a diachronic corpus of radio speech (1935-1995) and a synchronic corpus of Belgian and Netherlandic standard Dutch from different regions at the turn of the millennium. It is shown that two…

  18. Pennsylvania Dutch Crafts and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Many people hold two common misconceptions about the Pennsylvania Dutch: first, that these people live exclusively in the state of Pennsylvania; second, that their ancestors came from Holland. However, neither assumption is correct. One can find large Pennsylvania Dutch communities in Mary land, West Virginia, Virginia, the Carolinas, Ohio,…

  19. Field by field hybrid upwind splitting methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coquel, Frederic; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1993-01-01

    A new and general approach to upwind splitting is presented. The design principle combines the robustness of flux vector splitting schemes in the capture of nonlinear waves and the accuracy of some flux difference splitting schemes in the resolution of linear waves. The new schemes are derived following a general hybridization technique performed directly at the basic level of the field by field decomposition involved in FDS methods. The scheme does not use a spatial switch to be tuned up according to the local smoothness of the approximate solution.

  20. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    SciTech Connect

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Buljan, Marina

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  1. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Buljan, Marina; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone

    2014-09-01

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  2. The Plate-Joystick technique to reduce proximal humeral fractures and nonunions with a varus deformity through the extended deltoid-splitting approach.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C Michael; Inman, Dominic; Phillips, Sally-Anne

    2011-10-01

    Fractures and nonunions in which there is a varus deformity of the humeral head producing posterinferior subluxation of the articular surface are increasingly recognized as an important subgroup of proximal humeral fractures. Operative open reduction and internal fixation of these injuries is often recommended when the varus deformity is severe. We describe a simple technique to assist in the open reduction and locking plate stabilization of this challenging and complex fracture subtype using tools and implants that are readily available in most modern orthopaedic trauma operating rooms.

  3. Glass tube splitting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J. A.; Murray, C. D.; Stein, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Tool accurately splits glass tubing so cuts are aligned 180 deg apart and reassembled tube forms low pressure, gastight enclosure. Device should interest industries using cylindrical closed glass containers.

  4. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  5. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of cancers of the head and neck: Comparison of split-field and whole-field techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Dabaja, Bouthaina; Salehpour, Mohammad R.; Rosen, Isaac; Tung, Sam; Morrison, William H.; Ang, K. Kian; Garden, Adam S. . E-mail: agarden@mdanderson.org

    2005-11-15

    Background: Oropharynx cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation (IMRT) are often treated with a monoisocentric or half-beam technique (HB). IMRT is delivered to the primary tumor and upper neck alone, while the lower neck is treated with a matching anterior beam. Because IMRT can treat the entire volume or whole field (WF), the primary aim of the study was to test the ability to plan cases using WF-IMRT while obtaining an optimal plan and acceptable dose distribution and also respecting normal critical structures. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with early-stage oropharynx cancers had treatment plans created with HB-IMRT and WF-IMRT techniques. Plans were deemed acceptable if they met the planning guidelines (as defined or with minor violations) of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol H0022. Comparisons included coverage to the planning target volume (PTV) of the primary (PTV66) and subclinical disease (PTV54). We also compared the ability of both techniques to respect the tolerance of critical structures. Results: The volume of PTV66 treated to >110% was less in 9 of the 13 patients in the WF-IMRT plan as compared to the HB-IMRT plan. The calculated mean volume receiving >110% for all patients planned with WF-IMRT was 9.3% (0.8%-25%) compared to 13.7% (2.7%-23.7%) with HB-IMRT (p = 0.09). The PTV54 volume receiving >110% of dose was less in 10 of the 13 patients planned with WF-IMRT compared to HB-IMRT. The mean doses to all critical structures except the larynx were comparable with each plan. The mean dose to the larynx was significantly less (p = 0.001), 18.7 Gy, with HB-IMRT compared to 47 Gy with WF-IMRT. Conclusions: Regarding target volumes, acceptable plans can be generated with either WF-IMRT or HB-IMRT. WF-IMRT has an advantage if uncertainty at the match line is a concern, whereas HB-IMRT, particularly in cases not involving the base of tongue, can achieve much lower doses to the larynx.

  6. Precision of a splitting device for water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capel, Paul D.; Nacionales, Fernando C.; Larson, Steven J.

    1995-01-01

    Two identical cone splitters, devices designed to split water and its suspended solids into equal aliquots for semi-volatile organic chemical and trace element analyses, were evaluated for their precision. The water-splitting evaluations consisted of experiments to test the effect of water volume, the effect of combining outlet ports, and the effect of different techniques of water introduction. The solids-splitting evaluations consisted of experi- ments to test the effect of particle size (nine different particle diameters ranging from very coarse sand to clay) and suspended-solids concentration. In general, water was equally split with a precision of less than 5 percent relative standard deviation. The accuracy of splitting the solids was a function of particle size. Clay, silt, and fine and medium sand were split with a precision relative standard deviation of less than 7 percent, and coarse sand was split with a relative standard deviation between 12 and 45 percent.

  7. Split liver transplantation in adults

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Fujiki, Masato; Quintini, Cristiano; Aucejo, Federico N; Uso, Teresa Diago; Kelly, Dympna M; Eghtesad, Bijan; Fung, John J; Miller, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Split liver transplantation (SLT), while widely accepted in pediatrics, remains underutilized in adults. Advancements in surgical techniques and donor-recipient matching, however, have allowed expansion of SLT from utilization of the right trisegment graft to now include use of the hemiliver graft as well. Despite less favorable outcomes in the early experience, better outcomes have been reported by experienced centers and have further validated the feasibility of SLT. Importantly, more than two decades of experience have identified key requirements for successful SLT in adults. When these requirements are met, SLT can achieve outcomes equivalent to those achieved with other types of liver transplantation for adults. However, substantial challenges, such as surgical techniques, logistics, and ethics, persist as ongoing barriers to further expansion of this highly complex procedure. This review outlines the current state of SLT in adults, focusing on donor and recipient selection based on physiology, surgical techniques, surgical outcomes, and ethical issues. PMID:27672272

  8. Split spline screw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A split spline screw type payload fastener assembly, including three identical male and female type split spline sections, is discussed. The male spline sections are formed on the head of a male type spline driver. Each of the split male type spline sections has an outwardly projecting load baring segment including a convex upper surface which is adapted to engage a complementary concave surface of a female spline receptor in the form of a hollow bolt head. Additionally, the male spline section also includes a horizontal spline releasing segment and a spline tightening segment below each load bearing segment. The spline tightening segment consists of a vertical web of constant thickness. The web has at least one flat vertical wall surface which is designed to contact a generally flat vertically extending wall surface tab of the bolt head. Mutual interlocking and unlocking of the male and female splines results upon clockwise and counter clockwise turning of the driver element.

  9. Stabilized Zeeman split laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a stablized Zeeman split laser for use in a polarization profilometer is discussed. A Hewlett-Packard laser was modified to stabilize the Zeeman split beat frequency thereby increasing the phase measurement accuracy from the Hewlett-Packard 3 degrees to an accuracy of .01 degrees. The addition of a two layered inductive winding converts the laser to a current controlled oscillator whose frequency is linearly related to coil current. This linear relationship between coil current and laser frequency permits phase locking the laser frequency to a stable crystal controlled reference frequency. The stability of the system is examined and the equipment operation procedures are outlined.

  10. English Language Teaching Profile: Belgium (Dutch Speaking).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form discusses the English language teaching situation in the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking areas of Belgium. The situation in the Dutch-speaking region, which includes Flanders and Brussels (the latter having both Dutch and French as official languages), is described in terms of the extent of English instruction…

  11. Technical Skills Required in Split Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanqiu; Li, Ruijun; Fu, Jinling; He, Qianyan; Li, Ji

    2016-07-01

    The number of liver grafts obtained from a cadaver can be greatly increased with the application of split liver transplantation. In the last 10 years, pediatric waiting list mortality has been reduced significantly with the use of this form of liver transplantation, which has 2 major forms. In its most commonly used form, the liver can be transplanted into 1 adult and 1 child by splitting it into a right extended and a left lateral graft. For adult and pediatric recipients, the results of this procedure are comparable to those of whole-organ techniques. In another form, 2 hemi-grafts are obtained by splitting the liver, which can be transplanted into a medium-sized adult (the right side) and a large child/small adult (the left side). The adult liver graft pool is expanded through the process of full right/full left splitting; but it is also a critical technique when one considers the knowledge required of the potential anatomic variations and the high technical skill level needed. In this review, we provide some basic insights into the technical and anatomical aspects of these 2 forms of split liver transplantation and present an updated summary of both forms.

  12. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  13. Splitting of asphaltene species

    SciTech Connect

    Galimov, R.A.; Yusupova, T.N.; Abushaeva, V.V.

    1994-05-10

    The extent of splitting of asphaltene species under the action of solvents correlates with their nature, and primarily with their electron- and proton-donor properties. According to the data of thermal analysis asphaltene species being retained after the action of solvents differ in the weight ratio of peripheral substituents to condensed part and in the fraction of labile bonds. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  15. Split image optical display

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  16. The Splitting Loope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Teaching experiments have generated several hypotheses concerning the construction of fraction schemes and operations and relationships among them. In particular, researchers have hypothesized that children's construction of splitting operations is crucial to their construction of more advanced fractions concepts (Steffe, 2002). The authors…

  17. Split-Level Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Kelly

    1997-01-01

    Presents photographs and the floor plan of a middle school whose split-level design separates "noisy" areas, such as the band room and gymnasium, from the academic wing. The design encourages teaming and flexibility through its classroom clustering and mobile partitions between classrooms. Additionally, all classrooms possess windows and…

  18. The Splitting Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Piagetian theory describes mathematical development as the construction and organization of mental operations within psychological structures. Research on student learning has identified the vital roles of two particular operations--splitting and units coordination--play in students' development of advanced fractions knowledge. Whereas Steffe and…

  19. A new method to test shear wave splitting: Improving statistical assessment of splitting parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbalan Castejon, Ana

    Shear wave splitting has proved to be a very useful technique to probe for seismic anisotropy in the earth's interior, and measurements of seismic anisotropy are perhaps the best way to constrain the strain history of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. However, existent methods of shear wave splitting analysis do not estimate uncertainty correctly, and do not allow for careful statistical modeling of anisotropy and uncertainty in complex scenarios. Consequently, the interpretation of shear wave splitting measurements has an undesirable subjective component. This study illustrates a new method to characterize shear wave splitting and the associated uncertainty based on the cross-convolution method [Menke and Levin, 2003]. This new method has been tested on synthetic data and benchmarked with data from the Pasadena, California seismic station (PAS). Synthetic tests show that the method can successfully obtain the splitting parameters from observed split shear waves. PAS results are very reasonable and consistent with previous studies [Liu et al., 1995; Ozalaybey and Savage, 1995; Polet and Kanamori, 2002]. As presented, the Menke and Levin [2003] method does not explicitly model the errors. Our method works on noisy data without any particular need for processing, it fully accounts for correlation structures on the noise, and it models the errors with a proper bootstrapping approach. Hence, the method presented here casts the analysis of shear wave splitting into a more formal statistical context, allowing for formal hypothesis testing and more nuanced interpretation of seismic anisotropy results.

  20. Dutch museum marks Einstein anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Matijn

    2016-01-01

    A new painting of Albert Einstein's field equation from his 1915 general theory of relativity was unveiled in a ceremony in November 2015 by the Dutch physicist Robbert Dijkgraaf, who is director of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study in the US.

  1. Metalinguistic Awareness in Dutch Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees

    1992-01-01

    Data are presented on some aspects of metalinguistic awareness in Dutch adults who emigrated to Australia at least 25 years ago. The findings show that the migrants do not differ significantly from a control group in the Netherlands, suggesting that first-language metalinguistic skills are extremely resistant to attrition. (Contains nine…

  2. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review and meta-analysis of reported risk factors.

    PubMed

    Steenen, S A; van Wijk, A J; Becking, A G

    2016-08-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Patient factors predictive of a bad split reported in the literature are controversial. Suggested risk factors are reviewed in this article. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 30 studies published between 1971 and 2015 reporting the incidence of bad split and patient age, and/or surgical technique employed, and/or the presence of third molars. These included 22 retrospective cohort studies, six prospective cohort studies, one matched-pair analysis, and one case series. Spearman's rank correlation showed a statistically significant but weak correlation between increasing average age and increasing occurrence of bad splits in 18 studies (ρ=0.229; P<0.01). No comparative studies were found that assessed the incidence of bad split among the different splitting techniques. A meta-analysis pooling the effect sizes of seven cohort studies showed no significant difference in the incidence of bad split between cohorts of patients with third molars present and concomitantly removed during surgery, and patients in whom third molars were removed at least 6 months preoperatively (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.85, Z=0.64, P=0.52). In summary, there is no robust evidence to date to show that any risk factor influences the incidence of bad split.

  3. Fee splitting in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Levin, Alex V; Ganesh, Anuradha; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed

    2011-02-01

    Fee splitting and co-management are common practices in ophthalmology. These arrangements may conflict with the ethical principles governing the doctor-patient relationship, may constitute professional misconduct, and at times, may be illegal. Implications and perceptions of these practices may vary between different cultures. Full disclosure to the patient may minimize the adverse effects of conflicts of interest that arise from these practices, and may thereby allow these practices to be deemed acceptable by some cultural morays, professional guidelines, or by law. Disclosure does not necessarily relieve the physician from a potential ethical compromise. This review examines the practice of fee splitting in ophthalmology, its legal implications, the policies or guidelines governing such arrangements, and the possible ethical ramifications. A comparative view between 3 countries, Canada, the United States, and Oman, was conducted; illustrating that even in disparate cultures, there may be some universality to the application of ethical principles.

  4. Splitting water with cobalt.

    PubMed

    Artero, Vincent; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Fontecave, Marc

    2011-08-01

    The future of energy supply depends on innovative breakthroughs regarding the design of cheap, sustainable, and efficient systems for the conversion and storage of renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. The production of hydrogen, a fuel with remarkable properties, through sunlight-driven water splitting appears to be a promising and appealing solution. While the active sites of enzymes involved in the overall water-splitting process in natural systems, namely hydrogenases and photosystem II, use iron, nickel, and manganese ions, cobalt has emerged in the past five years as the most versatile non-noble metal for the development of synthetic H(2)- and O(2)-evolving catalysts. Such catalysts can be further coupled with photosensitizers to generate photocatalytic systems for light-induced hydrogen evolution from water.

  5. TUBE SPLITTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.

    1961-05-01

    A tool is described for cutting a coolant tube adapted to contain fuel elements to enable the tube to be removed from a graphite moderator mass. The tool splits the tube longitudinally into halves and curls the longitudinal edges of the halves inwardly so that they occupy less space and can be moved radially inwardly away from the walls of the hole in the graphite for easy removal from the graphite.

  6. Split Q-balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the presence of non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in (1 , 1) spacetime dimensions. The model engenders the global U (1) symmetry and is of the k-field type, since it contains a new term, of the fourth-order power in the derivative of the complex scalar field. It supports analytical solution of the Q-ball type which is stable quantum mechanically. The new solution engenders an interesting behavior, with the charge and energy densities unveiling a splitting profile.

  7. Splitting methods for low Mach number Euler and Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, Saul; Dutt, Pravir; Gottlieb, David

    1987-01-01

    Examined are some splitting techniques for low Mach number Euler flows. Shortcomings of some of the proposed methods are pointed out and an explanation for their inadequacy suggested. A symmetric splitting for both the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations is then presented which removes the stiffness of these equations when the Mach number is small. The splitting is shown to be stable.

  8. Bad split during bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible with separators: a retrospective study of 427 patients.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Gertjan; Verweij, Jop P; Frank, Michael D; Eelco Bergsma, J; Richard van Merkesteyn, J P

    2013-09-01

    An unfavourable fracture, known as a bad split, is a common operative complication in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). The reported incidence ranges from 0.5 to 5.5%/site. Since 1994 we have used sagittal splitters and separators instead of chisels for BSSO in our clinic in an attempt to prevent postoperative hypoaesthesia. Theoretically an increased percentage of bad splits could be expected with this technique. In this retrospective study we aimed to find out the incidence of bad splits associated with BSSO done with splitters and separators. We also assessed the risk factors for bad splits. The study group comprised 427 consecutive patients among whom the incidence of bad splits was 2.0%/site, which is well within the reported range. The only predictive factor for a bad split was the removal of third molars at the same time as BSSO. There was no significant association between bad splits and age, sex, class of occlusion, or the experience of the surgeon. We think that doing a BSSO with splitters and separators instead of chisels does not increase the risk of a bad split, and is therefore safe with predictable results.

  9. Comet LINEAR Splits Further

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Third Nucleus Observed with the VLT Summary New images from the VLT show that one of the two nuclei of Comet LINEAR (C/2001 A2), now about 100 million km from the Earth, has just split into at least two pieces . The three fragments are now moving through space in nearly parallel orbits while they slowly drift apart. This comet will pass through its perihelion (nearest point to the Sun) on May 25, 2001, at a distance of about 116 million kilometres. It has brightened considerably due to the splitting of its "dirty snowball" nucleus and can now be seen with the unaided eye by observers in the southern hemisphere as a faint object in the southern constellation of Lepus (The Hare). PR Photo 18a/01 : Three nuclei of Comet LINEAR . PR Photo 18b/01 : The break-up of Comet LINEAR (false-colour). Comet LINEAR splits and brightens ESO PR Photo 18a/01 ESO PR Photo 18a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 438 pix - 55k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 875 pix - 136k] ESO PR Photo 18b/01 ESO PR Photo 18b/01 [Preview - JPEG: 367 x 400 pix - 112k] [Normal - JPEG: 734 x 800 pix - 272k] Caption : ESO PR Photo 18a/01 shows the three nuclei of Comet LINEAR (C/2001 A2). It is a reproduction of a 1-min exposure in red light, obtained in the early evening of May 16, 2001, with the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN (UT4) telescope at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 18b/01 shows the same image, but in a false-colour rendering for more clarity. The cometary fragment "B" (right) has split into "B1" and "B2" (separation about 1 arcsec, or 500 km) while fragment "A" (upper left) is considerably fainter. Technical information about these photos is available below. Comet LINEAR was discovered on January 3, 2001, and designated by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) as C/2001 A2 (see IAU Circular 7564 [1]). Six weeks ago, it was suddenly observed to brighten (IAUC 7605 [1]). Amateurs all over the world saw the comparatively faint comet reaching naked-eye magnitude and soon thereafter, observations with professional telescopes indicated

  10. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets.

    PubMed

    Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Al-Tabakha, Moawia M M; Eissa, Nermin A M; Javadi, Jeevani

    2016-10-11

    Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril(®) tablets, 20 mg) on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight) than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves). The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  11. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Fahelelbom, Khairi M. S.; Al-Tabakha, Moawia M. M.; Eissa, Nermin A. M.; Javadi, Jeevani

    2016-01-01

    Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg) on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight) than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves). The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used. PMID:27727195

  12. Value Orientations of the Dutch Educational Elite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Sjoerd; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Value orientations that influence opinions on educational policy issues were examined among Dutch leaders of educationally influential organizations. Their attitudes reflected Dutch society's segmentation along, but cooperation across, religious and ideological dividing lines, as well as optimism about educational reform through state…

  13. [Dutch parliament legitimizes harmful quackery].

    PubMed

    van Dam, Frits S A M; Renckens, Cees N M

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch parliament has recently accepted a tax law in which certain groups of alternative therapists can be exempt from VAT. To be eligible for this VAT exemption, the disciplines to which the therapists belong have to meet certain training requirements. In this article it is contended, in agreement with the Royal College of Physicians in the UK, that statutory regulation is inappropriate for disciplines whose therapies are neither of proved benefit nor appropriately tested. It legitimizes harmful therapies. This is illustrated by two serious accidents, previously described in this journal, caused by a chiropractor and a craniosacral therapist.

  14. How contagious is Dutch disease

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, L.O.

    1982-03-01

    Into the vernacular of economists has come the term Dutch Disease from the Netherland's experience as a net energy exporter. After outlining characterisics of the affliction and the ways in which it can be manifested, this article looks at the economies of United Kingdom, Norway, and Mexico. While the stage of economic development, the structure of the balance of payments, and the exchange-rate regime are at least somewhat different for each, all have economies that are feeling the impact of the energy sector. Common factors are a higher value for the exchange rate than would otherwise be the case and a squeeze on nonenergy sectors of the economy. 4 figures.

  15. Hollow core anti-resonant fibres with split cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Qi, Wenliang; Ho, Daryl; Luan, Feng; Yong, Ken-Tye; Yoo, Seongwoo

    2016-03-01

    A split cladding fibers (SCF) is proposed as an additional design to the anti-resonant type fiber. The introduced split cladding helps to reduce the fabrication distortion. We use numerical simulations to compare the Kagome fibers (KFs) and the proposed split cladding fibers (SCFs) over two normalized transmission bands. It reveals that SCFs are able to maintain the desired round shape of silica cladding walls, hence improving the confinement loss (CL) compared to the KF. Fabrication of the SCF is demonstrated by the stack-and-draw technique. The near filed mode patterns are measured to prove the feasibility of this fiber design.

  16. A new flux splitting scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A new flux splitting scheme is proposed. The scheme is remarkably simple and yet its accuracy rivals and in some cases surpasses that of Roe's solver in the Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions performed in this study. The scheme is robust and converges as fast as the Roe splitting. An approximately defined cell-face advection Mach number is proposed using values from the two straddling cells via associated characteristic speeds. This interface Mach number is then used to determine the upwind extrapolation for the convective quantities. Accordingly, the name of the scheme is coined as Advection Upstream Splitting Method (AUSM). A new pressure splitting is introduced which is shown to behave successfully, yielding much smoother results than other existing pressure splittings. Of particular interest is the supersonic blunt body problem in which the Roe scheme gives anomalous solutions. The AUSM produces correct solutions without difficulty for a wide range of flow conditions as well as grids.

  17. Shear wave splitting survey of Western Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhnovich, M.; Levin, V. L.; Cao, Z.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of our study is to investigate the distribution of seismic anisotropy beneath the western part of the Tibetan plateau to better understand the tectonic processes dominating it. We used new data from 29 portable seismic stations in the Western Tibet that operated from 2007 to 2011. The network covered an approximately triangular area between the Karakorum fault (KF) in the south and the Banggong-Nujiang Suture (BNS) in the north, between longitudes of 79.5 and 83.5 east. In our study we used the data covering approximately two and a half years, from July 2007 to December 2009. Ten stations were operating from 2007, and additional 19 were introduced in 2009. We used earthquakes with magnitudes over 5.5, and picked and analyzed 130 well-recorded SKS phases. We employed three different algorithms of shear wave splitting estimation (cross-correlation, minimization of transverse component and an eigenvalue minimization technique) and used agreement in their respective results to assess the relative quality of our measurements. Observations that yielded radical disagreement in results from different algorithms were designated as NULLs. For a subset of NULLs we verified the absence of shear wave birefringence by visual inspection of particle motion. We report a set of 231 nulls and 310 splitting measurements, of which 128 we deem to be good (i.e., three techniques yield consistent results), and 182 are fair (two out of three methods agree). The delay time in good splitting observation varied from as little as 0.3s to 2.2s, with majority of measurements falling below 1 s. Fast polarizations display directional variability at individual observing sites, and also change laterally. We can identify four regions with distinct patterns of splitting. In the area between the KF and the BNS, fast direction of 40-65SE dominates, and most good splitting measurements yield delays ~1s. At most sites here we also see minor changes in fast direction with backazimuth. Two sites

  18. Autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization.

    PubMed

    Budny, Adam M; Schuberth, John M

    2012-01-01

    Lateral ankle instability is a common clinical entity, and a variety of surgical procedures are available for stabilization after conservative management fails. Herein the authors reviewed outcomes after performing autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization, using a previously described surgical technique to anatomically recreate the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments. Twenty-five consecutive patients from 2 surgeons' practices underwent reconstruction between March 2007 and January 2011 with a minimum follow-up of 12 (range 12 to 51) months (mean 29.5 months). Follow-up interviews demonstrated 92.0% good or excellent outcomes with only 8.0% rating the outcome as fair and none as poor; 92.0% had no recurrent sprains or difficulty going up or down hills; 88.0% related no difficulty with uneven ground. The authors conclude that the autologous split peroneus longus lateral ankle stabilization results in a stable ankle with a low rate of complications and high patient satisfaction.

  19. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  20. Probabilistic environmental risk assessment of zinc in Dutch surface waters.

    PubMed

    Van Sprang, Patrick A; Verdonck, Frederik A M; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Vangheluwe, Marnix L; Janssen, Colin R

    2004-12-01

    In the framework of the European Union (EU) New and Existing Chemicals Policy, a regional risk assessment for Zn according to the current technical guidance documents and a probabilistic approach, by mathematically integrating both best-fitting exposure concentrations and species-sensitivity distributions into a probabilistic risk quotient distribution using Monte Carlo analysis, was explored for The Netherlands. Zinc is an essential element, and the current probability distributions may not adequately deal with this property. The threshold Pareto distribution provided the best fit to the chronic Zn toxicity data, resulting in a predicted-no-effect concentration (PNECadd) for dissolved Zn of 34.2 microg/L, whereas use of the conventional normal distribution resulted in a PNECadd for dissolved Zn of 14.6 microg/L. The extracted exposure data resulted in a regional predicted environmental concentration (PEC) for dissolved Zn in the Dutch surface waters of 20.1 microg/L and in PECadd values for dissolved Zn of between 15.5 and 17.3 microg/L, depending on the background correction used. The conventional deterministic risk characterization identified a regional risk for Zn in the Dutch surface waters. The more comprehensive probabilistic approach used in the present study, however, identified only very limited potential risks for the Dutch region. A probabilistic median risk, that the environmental concentration is greater than the no-observed-effect concentration of a species in Dutch surface waters (0.5-0.6%), depending on the inclusion of background correction, was obtained from the best-fitting distributions. Because probabilistic approaches provide a quantifiable and improved assessment of risk and quantification of the uncertainty associated with that assessment, these techniques may be considered as a way to improve the EU risk assessment procedures for data-rich substances.

  1. Apparatus Splits Glass Tubes Longitudinally

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Ernest; Manahan, Robert O'neil

    1993-01-01

    Tubes split into half cylinders by hot-wire/thermal-shock method. Tube to be cut placed on notched jig in apparatus. Nichrome wire stretched between arms of pivoted carriage and oriented parallel to notch. Wire heated by electrical current while resting on tube. After heating for about 1 minute for each millimeter of thickness of glass, tube quenched in water and split by resulting thermal shock. Apparatus used to split tubes in sizes ranging from 3/8 in. in diameter by 1 in. long to 1 1/2 in. in diameter by 4 in. long.

  2. Split-illumination electron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Aizawa, Shinji; Suzuki, Takahiro; Park, Hyun Soon; Inada, Yoshikatsu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Akira; Shindo, Daisuke; Tonomura, Akira

    2012-07-23

    We developed a split-illumination electron holography that uses an electron biprism in the illuminating system and two biprisms (applicable to one biprism) in the imaging system, enabling holographic interference micrographs of regions far from the sample edge to be obtained. Using a condenser biprism, we split an electron wave into two coherent electron waves: one wave is to illuminate an observation area far from the sample edge in the sample plane and the other wave to pass through a vacuum space outside the sample. The split-illumination holography has the potential to greatly expand the breadth of applications of electron holography.

  3. A new taxonomy of Dutch personality traits based on a comprehensive and unrestricted list of descriptors.

    PubMed

    De Raad, Boele; Barelds, Dick P H

    2008-02-01

    A list of 2,365 personality descriptive items was selected from a computerized database of the Dutch language. The list included terms from various word classes, such as trait adjectives, trait nouns, and trait verbs, and from expressions in which the meaning was drawn from a combination of words. The items were administered to 1,466 participants, who provided self- or other-ratings. Principal components analyses were performed on both original and ipsatized data. The data set was split to investigate the invariance of the factors. The analyses yielded a final 8-factorial structure that included the Big 5. Three new trait factors were discovered, namely Virtue, Competence, and Hedonism.

  4. Leaf trait dissimilarities between Dutch elm hybrids with a contrasting tolerance to Dutch elm disease

    PubMed Central

    Ďurkovič, Jaroslav; Čaňová, Ingrid; Lagaňa, Rastislav; Kučerová, Veronika; Moravčík, Michal; Priwitzer, Tibor; Urban, Josef; Dvořák, Miloň; Krajňáková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies have shown that Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causative agent of Dutch elm disease (DED), is able to colonize remote areas in infected plants of Ulmus such as the leaf midrib and secondary veins. The objective of this study was to compare the performances in leaf traits between two Dutch elm hybrids ‘Groeneveld’ and ‘Dodoens’ which possess a contrasting tolerance to DED. Trait linkages were also tested with leaf mass per area (LMA) and with the reduced Young's modulus of elasticity (MOE) as a result of structural, developmental or functional linkages. Methods Measurements and comparisons were made of leaf growth traits, primary xylem density components, gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields between mature plants of ‘Groeneveld’ and ‘Dodoens’ grown under field conditions. A recently developed atomic force microscopy technique, PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical mapping, was used to reveal nanomechanical properties of the cell walls of tracheary elements such as MOE, adhesion and dissipation. Key Results ‘Dodoens’ had significantly higher values for LMA, leaf tissue thickness variables, tracheary element lumen area (A), relative hydraulic conductivity (RC), gas exchange variables and chlorophyll a fluorescence yields. ‘Groeneveld’ had stiffer cell walls of tracheary elements, and higher values for water-use efficiency and leaf water potential. Leaves with a large carbon and nutrient investment in LMA tended to have a greater leaf thickness and a higher net photosynthetic rate, but LMA was independent of RC. Significant linkages were also found between the MOE and some vascular traits such as RC, A and the number of tracheary elements per unit area. Conclusions Strong dissimilarities in leaf trait performances were observed between the examined Dutch elm hybrids. Both hybrids were clearly separated from each other in the multivariate leaf trait space. Leaf growth, vascular and gas

  5. Photocatalytic water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yenting

    New photocatalystic materials Ti-In oxy(nitride) and nanosized Ru-loaded strontium titanate doped with Rh (Ru/SrTiO3:Rh) have been synthesized. The textural and surface characteristic properties were studied by nitrogen BET analysis, diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and powder XRD. The photocatalytic properties were enhanced by the binary metal oxides of titanium dioxide and indium oxide. The XRD patterns confirmed the oxygen exchange between two metal oxides during the synthesis. Moreover, the presence of titanium dioxide can help the stabilization of InN during hot NH3(g) treatment. On the other hand, the particle sizes of aerogel prepared Ru/SrTiO3:Rh varied from 12 to 25 nm depended on different Rh doping. A mixture of ethanol and toluene was found to be the best binary solvent for supercritical drying, which yielded a SrTiO3 sample with a surface area of 130 m2/g and an average crystallite size of 6 nm. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production under UV-vis light irradiation was achieved by ammonolysis of intimately mixed titanium dioxide and indium oxide at high temperatures. Gas chromatography monitored steadily the formation of hydrogen when sacrificial (methanol or ethanol) were present. XRD patterns confirmed that the photocatalysts maintain crystalline integrity before and after water splitting experiments. Moreover, the presence of InN may be crucial for the increase of hydrogen production activities. These Ru/SrTiO3:Rh photocatalysts have been studied for photocatalytic hydrogen production under visible light. The band gap of the bulk SrTiO 3 (3.2 eV) does not allow response to visible light. However, after doping with rhodium and loaded with ruthenium, the modified strontium titanates can utilize light above 400 nm due to the formation of valence band or electron donor levels inside of the band gap. Moreover, the surface areas of these

  6. Development concept for Dutch user support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronk, C. N. A.; Koopman, N.; Dehoop, D.

    1992-06-01

    The main development approaches and some technologies developed in support of the different objectives of the Dutch Utilization Center (DUC) are reported. The DUC acts as a point of coordination of Dutch user support activities. The support needs of the user are analyzed and from there the required support efforts of the entities in the Dutch User Support Organization (DUSO) are activated. The main objectives of the DUSO are to promote the availability of the Columbus Space Station infrastructure among potential Dutch users, and to assist the users during the process of experiment definition, development, execution, and results evaluation. The DUSO support activities cover promotion and familiarization, and administrative, scientific, technical, and operational support to microgravity and space experimentation. The DUC developmental approaches consist of two approaches: a top down or formal approach; and a bottom up approach.

  7. Entropy Splitting and Numerical Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Vinokur, M.; Djomehri, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    A rigorous stability estimate for arbitrary order of accuracy of spatial central difference schemes for initial-boundary value problems of nonlinear symmetrizable systems of hyperbolic conservation laws was established recently by Olsson and Oliger (1994) and Olsson (1995) and was applied to the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas by Gerritsen and Olsson (1996) and Gerritsen (1996). The basic building block in developing the stability estimate is a generalized energy approach based on a special splitting of the flux derivative via a convex entropy function and certain homogeneous properties. Due to some of the unique properties of the compressible Euler equations for a perfect gas, the splitting resulted in the sum of a conservative portion and a non-conservative portion of the flux derivative. hereafter referred to as the "Entropy Splitting." There are several potential desirable attributes and side benefits of the entropy splitting for the compressible Euler equations that were not fully explored in Gerritsen and Olsson. The paper has several objectives. The first is to investigate the choice of the arbitrary parameter that determines the amount of splitting and its dependence on the type of physics of current interest to computational fluid dynamics. The second is to investigate in what manner the splitting affects the nonlinear stability of the central schemes for long time integrations of unsteady flows such as in nonlinear aeroacoustics and turbulence dynamics. If numerical dissipation indeed is needed to stabilize the central scheme, can the splitting help minimize the numerical dissipation compared to its un-split cousin? Extensive numerical study on the vortex preservation capability of the splitting in conjunction with central schemes for long time integrations will be presented. The third is to study the effect of the non-conservative proportion of splitting in obtaining the correct shock location for high speed complex shock

  8. Photoelectrochemical water-splitting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.A.; Kocha, S.S.

    1995-10-01

    Photochemical water-splitting is the process where an illuminated semiconductor is used to decompose water into its components, hydrogen and oxygen. Light, incident on a semiconductor electrode, splits water directly. A one-step monolithic system such as this eliminates the need to generate electricity externally and subsequently feed it to an electrolyser. Combining the electrolyser with the PV system eliminates one of the high cost components of a PV-electrolysis hydrogen generation system. Since external wiring is not used, only the piping necessary for the transport of hydrogen to an external storage system or gas pipeline is required. This paper will discuss the current technical status of direct conversion photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting systems.

  9. Split ring containment attachment device

    DOEpatents

    Sammel, Alfred G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device 10 for operatively connecting a glovebag 200 to plastic sheeting 100 covering hazardous material. The device 10 includes an inner split ring member 20 connected on one end 22 to a middle ring member 30 wherein the free end 21 of the split ring member 20 is inserted through a slit 101 in the plastic sheeting 100 to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting 100. A collar potion 41 having an outer ring portion 42 is provided with fastening means 51 for securing the device 10 together wherein the glovebag 200 is operatively connected to the collar portion 41.

  10. Biphasic water splitting by osmocene

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Peiyu; Todorova, Tanya K.; Patir, Imren Hatay; Olaya, Astrid J.; Vrubel, Heron; Mendez, Manuel; Hu, Xile; Corminboeuf, Clémence; Girault, Hubert H.

    2012-01-01

    The photochemical reactivity of osmocene in a biphasic water-organic solvent system has been investigated to probe its water splitting properties. The photoreduction of aqueous protons to hydrogen under anaerobic conditions induced by osmocene dissolved in 1,2-dichloroethane and the subsequent water splitting by the osmocenium metal-metal dimer formed during H2 production were studied by electrochemical methods, UV-visible spectrometry, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Density functional theory computations were used to validate the reaction pathways. PMID:22665787

  11. 1. PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND UNALASKA FROM THE TOP OF LITTLE SOUTH AMERICA - Naval Operating Base Dutch Harbor & Fort Mears, Hill 400 Fixed Defense Battery Command Post, Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, AK

  12. PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND UNALASKA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PANORAMA, SHOWING COMMAND POST RELATION TO DUTCH HARBOR AND UNALASKA FROM THE TOP OF LITTLE SOUTH AMERICA - Naval Operating Base Dutch Harbor & Fort Mears, Hill 400 Fixed Defense Battery Command Post, Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, AK

  13. Analyzing Collaborative Writing Processes from Split-Screen Video Recordings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Erik

    In this pilot project, nine pairs of Danish teenagers with different levels of English proficiency were observed and of these three pairs were studied in greater detail, as they worked on English writing assignments on a word processor. The approach used in gathering data was based on video recordings using a split-screen technique. Half the…

  14. Split-resonator integrated-post MEMS gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A split-resonator integrated-post vibratory microgyroscope may be fabricated using micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques. The microgyroscope may include two gyroscope sections bonded together, each gyroscope section including resonator petals, electrodes, and an integrated half post. The half posts are aligned and bonded to act as a single post.

  15. Torque-Splitting Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, J.

    1991-01-01

    Geared drive train transmits torque from input shaft in equal parts along two paths in parallel, then combines torques in single output shaft. Scheme reduces load on teeth of meshing gears while furnishing redundancy to protect against failures. Such splitting and recombination of torques common in design of turbine engines.

  16. DNA barcoding of Dutch birds

    PubMed Central

    Aliabadian, Mansour; Beentjes, Kevin K.; Roselaar, C.S. (Kees); van Brandwijk, Hans; Nijman, Vincent; Vonk, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification of animal species, and has been applied in a number of studies on birds. We here sequenced the COI gene for 387 individuals of 147 species of birds from the Netherlands, with 83 species being represented by > 2 sequences. The Netherlands occupies a small geographic area and 95% of all samples were collected within a 50 km radius from one another. The intraspecific divergences averaged 0.29% among this assemblage, but most values were lower; the interspecific divergences averaged 9.54%. In all, 95% of species were represented by a unique barcode, with 6 species of gulls and skua (Larus and Stercorarius) having at least one shared barcode. This is best explained by these species representing recent radiations with ongoing hybridization. In contrast, one species, the Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca showed deep divergences, averaging 5.76% and up to 8.68% between individuals. These possibly represent two distinct taxa, S. curruca and S. blythi, both clearly separated in a haplotype network analysis. Our study adds to a growing body of DNA barcodes that have become available for birds, and shows that a DNA barcoding approach enables to identify known Dutch bird species with a very high resolution. In addition some species were flagged up for further detailed taxonomic investigation, illustrating that even in ornithologically well-known areas such as the Netherlands, more is to be learned about the birds that are present. PMID:24453549

  17. Metrical Segmentation in Dutch: Vowel Quality or Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quene, Hugo; Koster, Mariette L.

    1998-01-01

    Examines metrical segmentation strategy in Dutch. The first experiment shows that stress strongly affects Dutch listeners' ability and speed in spotting Dutch monosyllabic words in disyllabic nonwords. The second experiment finds the same stress effect when only the target words are presented without a subsequent syllable triggering segmentation.…

  18. A Reference Grammar of Dutch, with Exercises and Key.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehringer, Carol

    This textbook provides an accessible reference grammar of the Dutch language for English-speaking students of Dutch to help consolidate their knowledge through practical exercises on a whole range of grammatical topics. It is intended both for beginners and intermediate level students. Advanced learners of Dutch wishing to review particular…

  19. The Dutch Perspective on NATO Development during the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    government tried to get a favorable defensive line accepted in NATO, covering as much territory as possible. The Dutch lobbied for a blue water naval...interests within NATO. The Dutch government tried to get a favorable defensive line accepted in NATO, covering as much territory as possible. The Dutch...

  20. Gas treatment installed on Dutch North Sea platform

    SciTech Connect

    Festen, L.J.F.M.; Bronneberg, J.P.A.; Brugman, W.P.T.; Hartmann, D.W.; Huber, B.L.

    1995-03-20

    Installation offshore of a treating system for Amoco Netherlands Petroleum Co. to bring natural gas and condensate up to sales specifications runs counter to conventional development practices of putting such systems on land. The processing scheme is for the P/15-P/18 project in the Dutch North Sea. The project is integrated with the nearby Rijn field production. The field produces up to 13.4 million standard cu m/day (scmd; 500 MMscfd) of gas and 1,900 cu m/day (cmd) of hydrocarbon condensate (12,000 b/d). Four interconnected process units (gas dew point control, vapor recovery, condensate stabilization, and CH{sub 3}OH recovery) were designed to split completely the fluids from the inlet system into pipeline quality gas, stable condensate, clean water, and CH{sub 3}OH for reinjection. The paper describes the platforms and pipelines, the processing units, vapor and methanol recovery utilities, and start up. The methanol is injected into the initial gas stream to control hydrate formation.

  1. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter A.

    1988-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described, which uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  2. Learning Styles of Chinese and Dutch Students Compared within the Context of Dutch Higher Education in Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemans, Harm; Van Mil, Marc

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the learning styles of Chinese students differ from those of Dutch students. The study was conducted within the context of English language Bachelor of Science programmes that Wageningen University offers together with China Agricultural University to Dutch and Chinese students. Sixteen Dutch students…

  3. High efficiency beam splitting for H/sup -/ accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H/sup -/ accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H/sup -/ beam to H/sup 0/ which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ splitting of a 50 MeV H/sup -/ beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction.

  4. Torsional Split Hopkinson Bar Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    is the torsional wave speed . Also, one can relate the torque with the yield stress of the material, as seen in equation 2; where r is the radius of...be equal to the mechanical impedance of the bars. In other words, the product of density, speed of wave and polar moment of inertia must remain...pillow blocks used to mount the incident and transmitter bars are cast iron based- mounted Babbitt-lined bearing split, for 1 in. shaft diameter

  5. Low frequency split cycle cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bian, S. X.; Zhang, Y. D.; Wan, W. W.; Wang, L.; Hu, Q. C.

    1985-01-01

    A split cycle Stirling cryocooler with two different drive motors and operating at a low drive frequency can have high thermodynamic efficiency. The temperature of the cold end of the cryocooler varies with drive frequency, voltage of the input electrical power and initial charge pressure values. The cryocooler operating at 8 Hz can provide 7 watts of refrigeration at 77 K for 230 watts of electrical input power.

  6. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  7. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  8. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  9. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  10. 10 CFR 26.135 - Split specimens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split specimens. 26.135 Section 26.135 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.135 Split specimens. (a) If the FFD program follows split-specimen procedures, as described in § 26.113, the licensee...

  11. Development of a new flux splitting scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The successful use of a novel splitting scheme, the advection upstream splitting method, for model aerodynamic problems where Van Leer and Roe schemes had failed previously is discussed. The present scheme is based on splitting in which the convective and pressure terms are separated and treated differently depending on the underlying physical conditions. The present method is found to be both simple and accurate.

  12. Development of a new flux splitting scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The use of a new splitting scheme, the advection upstream splitting method, for model aerodynamic problems where Van Leer and Roe schemes had failed previously is discussed. The present scheme is based on splitting in which the convective and pressure terms are separated and treated differently depending on the underlying physical conditions. The present method is found to be both simple and accurate.

  13. Government as Electronic Publishers? The Dutch Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwman, Harry; Nouwens, John

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the accessibility of government information focuses on how the Dutch government has tried to improve accessibility in six particular cases of electronic publishing. Topics include public-private partnerships, technological barriers of accessibility, outsourcing, and decentralization. (Author/LRW)

  14. Preaccentual Pitch and Speaker Attitude in Dutch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, Esther; Gussenhoven, Carlos; Haan, Judith; Marsi, Erwin; Post, Brecht Je

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the communicative significance of the pitch of the initial unstressed syllables in Dutch intonation contours, as may be heard, for instance, on unstressed utterance-initial function words like "Ze zijn" in "Ze zijn klaar (they are ready), or the initial unstressed syllables of utterance-initial polysyllabic words, like…

  15. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  16. School Leadership and Equity: Dutch Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence describing how school principals respond to the changing socioeconomic position and ethnic identities of the urban population. In this paper such empirical evidence is presented in respect of three primary school leaders in the Dutch cities of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. The schools selected were identified as…

  17. Dutch national rainfallradar project: a unique corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuurmans, Hanneke; Maarten Verbree, Jan; Leijnse, Hidde; van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Bierkens, Mark; van de Giesen, Nick; Gooijer, Jan; van den Houten, Gert

    2013-04-01

    Since January 2013 Dutch watermanagers have access to innovative high-quality rainfall data. This product is innovative because of the following reasons. (i) The product is developed in a 'golden triangle' construction - corporation between government, business and research institutes. (ii) Second the rainfall products are developed according to the open-source GPL license. The initiative comes from a group of water boards in the Netherlands that joined their forces to fund the development of a new rainfall product. Not only data from Dutch radar stations (as is currently done by the Dutch meteorological organization KNMI) is used but also data from radars in Germany and Belgium. After a radarcomposite is made, it is adjusted according to data from raingauges (ground truth). This results in 9 different rainfall products that give for each moment the best rainfall data. This data will be used, depending on the end-user for several applications: (i) forecasts: input for flood early warning systems, (ii) water system analysis: hydrological model input, (iii) optimization: real time control and (iv) investigation of incidents: in case of flooding, who's responsible. The latter is mainly insight in the return period of heavy rainfall events. More info (in Dutch): www.nationaleregenradar.nl

  18. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  19. Testing split supersymmetry with inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Green, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Split supersymmetry (SUSY) — in which SUSY is relevant to our universe but largely inaccessible at current accelerators — has become increasingly plausible given the absence of new physics at the LHC, the success of gauge coupling unification, and the observed Higgs mass. Indirect probes of split SUSY such as electric dipole moments (EDMs) and flavor violation offer hope for further evidence but are ultimately limited in their reach. Inflation offers an alternate window into SUSY through the direct production of superpartners during inflation. These particles are capable of leaving imprints in future cosmological probes of primordial non-gaussianity. Given the recent observations of BICEP2, the scale of inflation is likely high enough to probe the full range of split SUSY scenarios and therefore offers a unique advantage over low energy probes. The key observable for future experiments is equilateral non-gaussianity, which will be probed by both cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large scale structure (LSS) surveys. In the event of a detection, we forecast our ability to find evidence for superpartners through the scaling behavior in the squeezed limit of the bispectrum.

  20. EQUAL OPTICAL PATH BEAM SPLITTERS BY USE OF AMPLITUDE-SPLITTING AND WAVEFRONT-SPLITTING METHODS FOR PENCIL BEAM INTERFEROMETER.

    SciTech Connect

    QIAN,S.TAKACS,P.

    2003-08-03

    A beam splitter to create two separated parallel beams is a critical unit of a pencil beam interferometer, for example the long trace profiler (LTP). The operating principle of the beam splitter can be based upon either amplitude-splitting (AS) or wavefront-splitting (WS). For precision measurements with the LTP, an equal optical path system with two parallel beams is desired. Frequency drift of the light source in a non-equal optical path system will cause the interference fringes to drift. An equal optical path prism beam splitter with an amplitude-splitting (AS-EBS) beam splitter and a phase shift beam splitter with a wavefront-splitting (WS-PSBS) are introduced. These beam splitters are well suited to the stability requirement for a pencil beam interferometer due to the characteristics of monolithic structure and equal optical path. Several techniques to produce WS-PSBS by hand are presented. In addition, the WS-PSBS using double thin plates, made from microscope cover plates, has great advantages of economy, convenience, availability and ease of adjustment over other beam splitting methods. Comparison of stability measurements made with the AS-EBS, WS-PSBS, and other beam splitters is presented.

  1. Do Dutch doctors communicate differently with immigrant patients than with Dutch patients?

    PubMed

    Meeuwesen, Ludwien; Harmsen, Johannes A M; Bernsen, Roos M D; Bruijnzeels, Marc A

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to gain deeper insight into relational aspects of the medical communication pattern in intercultural consultations at GP practices in the Netherlands. We ask whether there are differences in the verbal interaction of Dutch GPs with immigrant and Dutch patients. Data were drawn from 144 adult patient interviews and video observations of consultations between the patients and 31 Dutch GPs. The patient group consisted of 61 non-Western immigrants (Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Antillean, Cape Verdian) and 83 Dutch participants. Affective and instrumental aspects of verbal communication were assessed using Roter's Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Patients' cultural background was assessed by ethnicity, language proficiency, level of education, religiosity and cultural views (in terms of being more traditional or more modern). Consultations with the non-Western immigrant patients (especially those from Turkey and Morocco) were well over 2 min shorter, and the power distance between GPs and these patients was greater when compared to the Dutch patients. Major differences in verbal interaction were observed on the affective behavior dimensions, but not on the instrumental dimensions. Doctors invested more in trying to understand the immigrant patients, while in the case of Dutch patients they showed more involvement and empathy. Dutch patients seemed to be more assertive in the medical conversation. The differences are discussed in terms of patients' ethnic background, cultural views (e.g. practicing a religion) and linguistic barriers. It is concluded that attention to cultural diversity does matter, as this leads to different medical communication patterns. A two-way strategy is recommended for improving medical communication, with implications for both doctor and patient behavior.

  2. A century of Dutch neurology.

    PubMed

    Koehler, P J; Bruyn, G W; Moffie, D

    1998-12-01

    The Netherlands Society of Neurology evolved from the Society of Psychiatry founded in 1871. The name was changed into Netherlands Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (NSPN) in 1897. In the same year, the word neurology was also added to the name of the journal. The Society steadily blossomed, but in 1909 the first signs of dissatisfaction occurred: the Amsterdam Neurologists Society was founded. A few split-offs would follow. The number of members of the NSPN increased from 205 in 1920 to 585 in 1960. In the early 1960s, the Society was reorganised and would consist of two sections, one for psychiatry and one for neurology. However, this would not last, as a full separation was established in 1974. For several reasons, the name of the journal was changed four times until it assumed its present name in 1974. The 100th volume of CNN was not published, as expected. in 1996, but in 1998, because of two skipped publication years, one during WWII and another in the 1970s. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, teaching of neurology was mostly given within the frame of psychiatry, following the German tradition of 'brainpsychiatry' (organic or biologic psychiatry). The first official chair of psychiatry was founded at Utrecht, 1893 (Winkler). In Amsterdam, private teachers such as Delprat taught 'electro-therapy and nervous diseases' since the 1880s. The first extraordinary chair of neurology and electrotherapy was founded for his successor, Wertheim Salomonson in 1899. The first university clinic for psychiatry and neurology started at the Amsterdam Municipal University, when Winkler became professor of psychiatry and neurology in Amsterdam in 1896. Around the turn of the century, chairs of psychiatry and neurology were also founded in Groningen and Leiden. Separate chairs for neurology and psychiatry appeared in Amsterdam in 1923 and in Utrecht in 1936. Following an initiative of Brouwer, the first neurological university clinic opened its doors in

  3. Verb inflection in monolingual Dutch and sequential bilingual Turkish-Dutch children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Blom, Elma; de Jong, Jan; Orgassa, Antje; Baker, Anne; Weerman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Both children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children who acquire a second language (L2) make errors with verb inflection. This overlap between SLI and L2 raises the question if verb inflection can discriminate between L2 children with and without SLI. In this study we addressed this question for Dutch. The secondary goal of the study was to investigate variation in error types and error profiles across groups. Data were collected from 6-8-year-old children with SLI who acquire Dutch as their first language (L1), Dutch L1 children with a typical development (TD), Dutch L2 children with SLI, and Dutch L1 TD children who were on average 2 years younger. An experimental elicitation task was employed that tested use of verb inflection; context (3SG, 3PL) was manipulated and word order and verb type were controlled. Accuracy analyses revealed effects of impairment in both L1 and L2 children with SLI. However, individual variation indicated that there is no specific error profile for SLI. Verb inflection use as measured in our study discriminated fairly well in the L1 group but classification was less accurate in the L2 group. Between-group differences emerged furthermore for certain types of errors, but all groups also showed considerable variation in errors and there was not a specific error profile that distinguished SLI from TD.

  4. Half a century of Dutch transplant immunology.

    PubMed

    van Rood, Jon J; Claas, Frans H J; Brand, Anneke; Tilanus, Marcel G J; van Kooten, Cees

    2014-12-01

    The sixties have not only witnessed the start of the Dutch Society for Immunology (NvvI), but were also the flourishing beginning of the discipline of transplant immunology. The interest in immunology in the Netherlands had its start in the context of blood transfusions and not for instance in the field of infectious disease, as in many other countries. It began in the 1950-ties thanks to Joghem van Loghem at that time director of the Central Laboratory of Blood Transfusion in Amsterdam. The discoveries of these times have had major impact for transfusion medicine, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and organ transplantation. In this review we will look back at some early highlights of Dutch transplant immunology and put them in the perspective of some recent developments.

  5. Enhancement of Stratified Charge for DISI Engines through Split Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tie; Nishida, Keiya; Zhang, Yuyin; Onoe, Tuyoshi; Hiroyau, Hiroyuki

    The effect of split injection on the mixture characteristics of DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engines was investigated firstly by the Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique. Through splitting the fuel injection process, two possible benefits were found: 1) High density liquid droplets piling up at the leading edge of the spray can be circumvented, subsequently the reduction of the spray tip penetration; 2) The quantity of “over lean” (φv<0.7, φv: equivalence ratio of vapor) mixture in the spray can be significantly reduced. These are believed to contribute to the reduction of the engine-out smoke and HC emissions. In order to clarify the mechanism behind the effect of the split injection, the spray-induced ambient air motion was investigated by the LIF-PIV technique. The strong ambient air entrainment into the tail region of the spray and a counter-vortex structure were found in both the single and split injections. In the case of the single injection, the spray develops in extending its length, subsequently a larger volume results and thus it is diluted to “over lean” by the ambient air entrainment. In contrast, in the case of split injection, the second spray is injected into the tail region of the first spray and its evaporation is promoted by the ambient air motion induced by the first spray. Hence the replenishment of the liquid fuel into the leading edge of the first spray is reduced. As a consequence, the high density liquid droplets piling up at the leading edge is avoided. Furthermore, a more compact spray results so that the ambient air motion plays a positive role on evaporating the spray into “more combustible” (0.7<φv<1.3). This is especially true in the tail region of the spray and the region where the counter-vortex motion is occurring.

  6. High Performance Split-Stirling Cooler Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    7 SPLIT- STIRLING CYCLE CRYOCOOLER . ...... . . . . . 13 8 TEMPERATURE-SHOCK COMPARISON PERFORMANCE DATA, S/N 002 . . 23 9 TEMPERATURE-SHOCK...PERFORMANCE SPLIT- STIRLING "COOLER PROGRAM FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT "September 1982 Prepared for NIGHT VISION AND ELECTRO-OPTICS LABORATORI ES "Contract DAAK70...REPORT & P.Vt2OO COVERED HIGH PERFORMANCE SPLIT- STIRLING COOLER PROGRAM Final Technical Sept. 1979. - Sept. 1982 S. PERPORMING ORO. REPORT KUMMER

  7. Measurement of two-dimensional periodical flow behind turbine guide-vanes by means of a split-fiber probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, H.

    1985-06-01

    The accuracy of a split fiber hot-sensor anemometer in measuring nonstationary flow behind turbine guide vanes is discussed. The techniques used to calibrate split fiber probes are described, and experimental results are presented concerning the sources of error in flow measurements over a temperature range of 20 degrees. It is shown that the split fiber anemometer design compares favorably with hot-wire anemometers which require additional instrumentation for transforming the measuring value into an electrical signal.

  8. Arthroscopic Anatomic Glenoid Reconstruction Without Subscapularis Split

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ivan H.; Urquhart, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The role of bone loss from the anterior glenoid in recurrent shoulder instability has been well established. We present a completely arthroscopic technique for reconstructing the anterior glenoid with distal tibial allograft and without a subscapularis split. We perform the arthroscopy in the lateral position. We measure and size an allograft distal tibial graft and place it arthroscopically. We use an inside-out medial portal to introduce the graft into the shoulder, passing it through the rotator interval and above the subscapularis. A double-cannula system is used to pass the graft, which is temporarily fixed with K-wires and held in place with cannulated screws. We then perform a Bankart-like repair of the soft tissues to balance the shoulder and augment our repair. Our technique is not only anatomic in the re-creation of the glenoid surface but also anatomic in the preservation of the coracoid and subscapularis tendon and repair of the capsulolabral complex. PMID:26697303

  9. ISODATA: Thresholds for splitting clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, E. P. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The parameter AD (average distance) as used in the ISODATA program was critically examined. Thresholds of AD to decide on the splitting of clusters were obtained. For the univariate case, 0.84 was established as a sound choice, after examining several simple, as well as composite, distributions and also after investigating the probability of misclassification when points have to be reassigned to the newly identified clusters. For the multivariate case, the empirical threshold (N-0.16)/square root of N was extrapolated. A final criticism on AD was that AD would lose its effectiveness as a discriminative measure for the present purpose when N was large.

  10. Emittance compensation in split photoinjectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floettmann, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The compensation of correlated emittance contributions is of primary importance to optimize the performance of high brightness photoinjectors. While only extended numerical simulations can capture the complex beam dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams in sufficient detail to optimize a specific injector layout, simplified models are required to gain a deeper understanding of the involved dynamics, to guide the optimization procedure, and to interpret experimental results. In this paper, a slice envelope model for the emittance compensation process in a split photoinjector is presented. The emittance term is included in the analytical solution of the beam envelope in a drift, which is essential to take the emittance contribution due to a beam size mismatch into account. The appearance of two emittance minima in the drift is explained, and the matching into the booster cavity is discussed. A comparison with simulation results points out effects which are not treated in the envelope model, such as overfocusing and field nonlinearities.

  11. Dephasing in coherently split quasicondensates

    SciTech Connect

    Stimming, H.-P.; Mauser, N. J.; Mazets, I. E.

    2011-02-15

    We numerically model the evolution of a pair of coherently split quasicondensates. A truly one-dimensional case is assumed, so that the loss of the (initially high) coherence between the two quasicondensates is due to dephasing only, but not due to the violation of integrability and subsequent thermalization (which are excluded from the present model). We confirm the subexponential time evolution of the coherence between two quasicondensates {proportional_to}exp[-(t/t{sub 0}){sup 2/3}], experimentally observed by Hofferberth et al. [Nature 449, 324 (2007)]. The characteristic time t{sub 0} is found to scale as the square of the ratio of the linear density of a quasicondensate to its temperature, and we analyze the full distribution function of the interference contrast and the decay of the phase correlation.

  12. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  13. Method for carbon dioxide splitting

    DOEpatents

    Miller, James E.; Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Siegel, Nathan P.

    2017-02-28

    A method for splitting carbon dioxide via a two-step metal oxide thermochemical cycle by heating a metal oxide compound selected from an iron oxide material of the general formula A.sub.xFe.sub.3-xO.sub.4, where 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1 and A is a metal selected from Mg, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, and Mn, or a ceria oxide compound of the general formula M.sub.aCe.sub.bO.sub.c, where 0

  14. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2010-06-14

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  15. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kurath, D.E.

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  16. Do Hebrew Electronic Books Differ from Dutch Electronic Books? A Replication of a Dutch Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina

    2004-01-01

    This replication study of Hebrew versus Dutch electronic books for young children was based on De Jong & Bus's content analysis, which explored whether e-books are appropriate supports for young children's literacy development. Our criteria for analysing 43 Hebrew e-books for young children included book processing, multimedia in pictures,…

  17. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  18. Splitting and Projection at Work in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Gerald; James, Chris; Jones, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report research into the social defence of splitting and projection in schools. In splitting and projection, organisational members separate their unbearable feelings from the more acceptable ones and project them, typically towards other individuals and groups. Design/methodology/approach: The research was…

  19. Splitting in Schizophrenia and Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pec, Ondrej; Bob, Petr; Raboch, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Background Splitting describes fragmentation of conscious experience that may occur in various psychiatric disorders. A purpose of this study is to examine relationships between psychological process of splitting and disturbed cognitive and affective functions in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Methods In the clinical study, we have assessed 30 patients with schizophrenia and 35 patients with BPD. The symptoms of splitting were measured using self-reported Splitting Index (SI). As a measure of semantic memory disorganization we have used verbal fluency test. Other psychopathological symptoms were assessed using Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS). Results Main results show that SI is significantly higher in BPD group than in schizophrenia, and on the other hand, verbal fluency is significantly lower in schizophrenia group. Psychopathological symptoms measured by HoNOS are significantly higher in the BPD group than in schizophrenia. Significant relationship was found between verbal fluency and the SI “factor of others” (Spearman r = −0.52, p<0.01) in schizophrenia patients. Conclusions Processes of splitting are different in schizophrenia and BPD. In BPD patients splitting results to mental instability, whereas in schizophrenia the mental fragmentation leads to splitting of associations observed as lower scores of verbal fluency, which in principle is in agreement with Bleuler’s historical concept of splitting in schizophrenia. PMID:24603990

  20. Precision aligned split V-block

    DOEpatents

    George, Irwin S.

    1984-01-01

    A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

  1. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  2. A Split-Root Technique for Measuring Root Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Kingsley B.; Rawlins, Stephen L.

    1981-01-01

    Water encounters various resistances in moving along a path of decreasing potential energy from the soil through the plant to the atmosphere. The reported relative magnitudes of these pathway resistances vary widely and often these results are conflicting. One reason for such inconsistency is the difficulty in measuring the potential drop across various segments of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The measurement of water potentials at the soil-root interface and in the root xylem of a transpiring plant remains a challenging problem. In the divided root experiment reported here, the measured water potential of an enclosed, nonabsorbing branch of the root system of young corn (Bonanza) plants to infer the water potential of the remaining roots growing in soil was used. The selected root branch of the seedling was grown in a specially constructed Teflon test tube into which a screen-enclosed thermocouple psychrometer was inserted and sealed to monitor the root's water potential. The root and its surrounding atmosphere were assumed to be in vapor equilibrium. Images PMID:16661886

  3. SMART: Unique Splitting-While-Merging Framework for Gene Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Fa, Rui; Roberts, David J.; Nandi, Asoke K.

    2014-01-01

    Successful clustering algorithms are highly dependent on parameter settings. The clustering performance degrades significantly unless parameters are properly set, and yet, it is difficult to set these parameters a priori. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a unique splitting-while-merging clustering framework, named “splitting merging awareness tactics” (SMART), which does not require any a priori knowledge of either the number of clusters or even the possible range of this number. Unlike existing self-splitting algorithms, which over-cluster the dataset to a large number of clusters and then merge some similar clusters, our framework has the ability to split and merge clusters automatically during the process and produces the the most reliable clustering results, by intrinsically integrating many clustering techniques and tasks. The SMART framework is implemented with two distinct clustering paradigms in two algorithms: competitive learning and finite mixture model. Nevertheless, within the proposed SMART framework, many other algorithms can be derived for different clustering paradigms. The minimum message length algorithm is integrated into the framework as the clustering selection criterion. The usefulness of the SMART framework and its algorithms is tested in demonstration datasets and simulated gene expression datasets. Moreover, two real microarray gene expression datasets are studied using this approach. Based on the performance of many metrics, all numerical results show that SMART is superior to compared existing self-splitting algorithms and traditional algorithms. Three main properties of the proposed SMART framework are summarized as: (1) needing no parameters dependent on the respective dataset or a priori knowledge about the datasets, (2) extendible to many different applications, (3) offering superior performance compared with counterpart algorithms. PMID:24714159

  4. The Dutch Are Missing in the American Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claunch, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch are missing in any U.S. history textbook, in the content standards, and in the nationally endorsed curriculum. Outside of New York State history classes, there is almost no mention of the Dutch influence in early 17th-century America. Fleeting references to the Netherlands as a staging area for the Pilgrims' famous "Mayflower"…

  5. The Electrophysiological Manifestation of Dutch Verb Second Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the processing of violations of the verb position in Dutch, in a group of healthy subjects, by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) through electroencephalography (EEG). In Dutch, the base position of the verb is clause final, but in matrix clauses, the finite verb is in second position, a construction known as "Verb Second".…

  6. National Identification of Dutch Youth: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2011-01-01

    246 Dutch participants aged 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years were presented with the Strength of Identification Scale (SoIS; Barrett, 2007) and the National Identity scale based on Cultural and Historical achievements (NICH; derived from the NATID, Keillor & Hult, 1999). The study aimed to examine the extent and nature of Dutch children and…

  7. Neural Correlates of Dutch Verb Second in Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Hoogduin, Hans; Stowe, Laurie A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2008-01-01

    Dutch speakers with agrammatic Broca's aphasia are known to have problems with the production of finite verbs in main clauses. This performance pattern has been accounted for in terms of the specific syntactic complexity of the Dutch main clause structure, which requires an extra syntactic operation (Verb Second), relative to the basic…

  8. Face split interpretations in sheet metal design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitalii, Vorkov; Dewil, Reginald; Mannaerts, Jef; Vandepitte, Dirk; Duflou, Joost R.

    2016-10-01

    Most of the modern CAD systems have capabilities to work with sheet metal parts. However, the functionality of these modules is limited to modelling, unfolding and delivering project documentation. In some cases the proposed design cannot be manufactured without splitting one or more faces of the part. In the current work, the graph representation of sheet metal parts and corresponding flat patterns are discussed. A splitting procedure is introduced which keeps all existing connections between faces intact. In addition, three interpretations for splitting are presented and recommendations for possible usage are given. The splitting procedure is found to be a convenient option to create feasible flat patterns. In addition, the different splitting interpretations present more flexibility to the designer.

  9. Study on a splitting-light optical system for spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Huang, Zhen; Xiong, Zhihua

    2015-07-01

    With the development of holography technique and nano-superfinishing technique, holography grating has being used into the spectrometer. To overcome some drawbacks of optical system for traditional plane and concave grating typed spectrometer, a splitting-light optical system for spectrometer based on volume phase holographic transmission (VPHT) grating is designed and developed in this paper. Meanwhile, the principle of VPHT grating is introduced by using the coupled-wave theory, and the relationship between the diffraction efficiency of the VPHT and the grating depth and the irradiation wavelength are simulated by means of MATLAB numerical computing method. In order to validate this splitting-light optical system, the experiment of measuring spectral resolution is performed and the spectral resolution reached 2nm, a calibration equation between the diffraction wavelengths and the shift of the corresponding wavelengths is obtained by using polynomial fitting algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that the design of the splitting-light optical system for spectrometer based on VPHT grating is feasible.

  10. The Dutch Open Telescope on La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; Hammerschlag, R. H.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Leenaarts, J.; Snik, F.; Sütterlin, P.; Tziotziou, K.; de Wijn, A. G.

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma is an innovative solar telescope combining open telescope structure and an open support tower with a multi-wavelength imaging assembly and with synchronous speckle cameras to generate high-resolution movies which sample different layers of the solar atmosphere simultaneously and co-spatially at high resolution over long durations. The DOT test and development phase is nearly concluded. The installation of an advanced speckle processor enables full science utilization including "Open-DOT" time allocation to the international community. Co-pointing with spectropolarimeters at other Canary Island telescopes and with TRACE furnishes valuable Solar-B precursor capabilities.

  11. Circularly split-ring-resonator-based frequency-reconfigurable antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. A.; Faruque, M. R. I.; Islam, M. T.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an antenna with frequency configurability in light of a circularly split-ring resonator (CSRR) is introduced. The proposed reconfigurable monopole antenna consists of a microstrip-fed hook-shaped structure and a CSRR having single reconfigurable split only. A new band of radiation unlike the band radiated from monopole only is observed due to magnetic coupling between the CSRR and the monopole antenna. The resonance frequency of the CSRR can be arbitrarily chosen by varying the dimension and relative position of its gap with the monopole, which leads the antenna to become reconfigurable one. By using a single switch with perfect electric conductor at the gap of CSRR cell, the effect of CSRR can be deactivated and, hence, it is possible to suppress the corresponding resonance, resulting in a frequency-reconfigurable antenna. Commercially available Computer Simulation Technology microwave studio based on finite integration technique was adopted throughout the study.

  12. Split-spectrum phase-gradient optical coherence tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Jia, Yali; Pechauer, Alex D.; Chandwani, Rahul; Huang, David

    2016-01-01

    A phase gradient angiography (PGA) method is proposed for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This method allows the use of phase information to map the microvasculature in tissue without the correction of bulk motion and laser trigger jitter induced phase artifacts. PGA can also be combined with the amplitude/intensity to improve the performance. Split-spectrum technique can further increase the signal to noise ratio by more than two times. In-vivo imaging of human retinal circulation is shown with a 70 kHz, 840 nm spectral domain OCT system and a 200 kHz, 1050 nm swept source OCT system. Four different OCT angiography methods are compared. The best performance was achieved with split-spectrum amplitude and phase-gradient angiography. PMID:27570689

  13. Current status and perspectives in split liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lauterio, Andrea; Di Sandro, Stefano; Concone, Giacomo; De Carlis, Riccardo; Giacomoni, Alessandro; De Carlis, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Growing experience with the liver splitting technique and favorable results equivalent to those of whole liver transplant have led to wider application of split liver transplantation (SLT) for adult and pediatric recipients in the last decade. Conversely, SLT for two adult recipients remains a challenging surgical procedure and outcomes have yet to improve. Differences in organ shortages together with religious and ethical issues related to cadaveric organ donation have had an impact on the worldwide distribution of SLT. Despite technical refinements and a better understanding of the complex liver anatomy, SLT remains a technically and logistically demanding surgical procedure. This article reviews the surgical and clinical advances in this field of liver transplantation focusing on the role of SLT and the issues that may lead a further expansion of this complex surgical procedure. PMID:26494957

  14. Protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2009-09-08

    The invention provides protein subcellular localization assays using split fluorescent protein systems. The assays are conducted in living cells, do not require fixation and washing steps inherent in existing immunostaining and related techniques, and permit rapid, non-invasive, direct visualization of protein localization in living cells. The split fluorescent protein systems used in the practice of the invention generally comprise two or more self-complementing fragments of a fluorescent protein, such as GFP, wherein one or more of the fragments correspond to one or more beta-strand microdomains and are used to "tag" proteins of interest, and a complementary "assay" fragment of the fluorescent protein. Either or both of the fragments may be functionalized with a subcellular targeting sequence enabling it to be expressed in or directed to a particular subcellular compartment (i.e., the nucleus).

  15. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; James, Darryl L.

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  16. Segmented holographic spectrum splitting concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Silvana P.; Vorndran, Shelby; Wu, Yuechen; Chrysler, Benjamin; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a segmented parabolic concentrator employing holographic spectral filters that provide focusing and spectral bandwidth separation capability to the system. Strips of low band gap silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are formed into a parabolic surface as shown by Holman et. al. [1]. The surface of the PV segments is covered with holographic elements formed in dichromated gelatin. The holographic elements are designed to transmit longer wavelengths to silicon cells, and to reflect short wavelength light towards a secondary collector where high-bandgap PV cells are mounted. The system can be optimized for different combinations of diffuse and direct solar illumination conditions for particular geographical locations by controlling the concentration ratio and filtering properties of the holographic elements. In addition, the reflectivity of the back contact of the silicon cells is used to increase the optical path length and light trapping. This potentially allows the use of thin film silicon for the low bandgap PV cell material. The optical design combines the focusing properties of the parabolic concentrator and the holographic element to control the concentration ratio and uniformity of the spectral distribution at the high bandgap cell location. The presentation concludes with a comparison of different spectrum splitting holographic filter materials for this application.

  17. Splitting Methods for Convex Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Eric C.; Lange, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Clustering is a fundamental problem in many scientific applications. Standard methods such as k-means, Gaussian mixture models, and hierarchical clustering, however, are beset by local minima, which are sometimes drastically suboptimal. Recently introduced convex relaxations of k-means and hierarchical clustering shrink cluster centroids toward one another and ensure a unique global minimizer. In this work we present two splitting methods for solving the convex clustering problem. The first is an instance of the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM); the second is an instance of the alternating minimization algorithm (AMA). In contrast to previously considered algorithms, our ADMM and AMA formulations provide simple and unified frameworks for solving the convex clustering problem under the previously studied norms and open the door to potentially novel norms. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm on both simulated and real data examples. While the differences between the two algorithms appear to be minor on the surface, complexity analysis and numerical experiments show AMA to be significantly more efficient. This article has supplemental materials available online. PMID:27087770

  18. Lightweight electrical connector split backshell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Elliot (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electrical connector split backshell is provided, comprising two substantially identical backshell halves. Each half includes a first side and a cam projecting therefrom along an axis perpendicular thereto, the cam having an alignment tooth with a constant radius and an engagement section with a radius that increases with angular distance from the alignment tooth. Each half further includes a second side parallel to the first side and a circular sector opening disposed in the second side, the circular sector opening including an inner surface configured as a ramp with a constant radius, the ramp being configured to engage with an engagement section of a cam of the other half, the circular sector opening further including a relieved pocket configured to receive an alignment tooth of the cam of the other half. Each half further includes a back side perpendicular to the first and second sides and a wire bundle notch disposed in the back side, the wire bundle notch configured to align with a wire bundle notch of the other half to form a wire bundle opening. The two substantially identical halves are rotatably coupled by engaging the engagement section of each half to the ramp of the other half.

  19. Sustainable Phoenix: Lessons from the Dutch Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Jesus J.

    In only fifty years, the Phoenix metropolitan area has expanded from a small desert town into one of the largest urban areas in the United States. Today, it has one of the fastest rates of growth in the nation with an annual rate of 4.5%. This area has grown during a period in urban development that largely ignored local topography, climate, culture, and history. The result has been a sprawling metropolitan area with an ever increasing ecological footprint and a standardized urban design and infrastructure that works against its environmental setting rather than with it. Currently, the city of Phoenix is going through a process of urban revitalization with an increasing demand for urban living and commerce. This research explores sustainable urban design and its potential applications in the metropolitan Phoenix area through an investigation of the Dutch model. The Dutch have successfully dealt with sustainable urban design approaches and their practices represent an unusual learning opportunity for Phoenix. The Netherlands' experience suggests three strategies/themes for rendering Phoenix a more sustainable urban form. These include the strategic planning and development of urban extensions, compact infill, and modernizing infrastructure.

  20. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'.

  1. Budgeted phylogenetic diversity on circular split systems.

    PubMed

    Minh, Bui Quang; Pardi, Fabio; Klaere, Steffen; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2009-01-01

    In the last 15 years, Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) has gained interest in the community of conservation biologists as a surrogate measure for assessing biodiversity. We have recently proposed two approaches to select taxa for maximizing PD, namely PD with budget constraints and PD on split systems. In this paper, we will unify these two strategies and present a dynamic programming algorithm to solve the unified framework of selecting taxa with maximal PD under budget constraints on circular split systems. An improved algorithm will also be given if the underlying split system is a tree.

  2. A Crater Split In Two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 23 September 2003

    A 22 km-diameter crater has been sliced by the tectonic forces that produced the rift known as Sirenum Fossae. The orientation of this rift is roughly radial to the great Tharsis volcano Arsia Mons, probably indicating a link between the formation of the rift and the volcano. Note how the rift cuts through a jumble of mounds on the floor of the crater. This indicates a sequence of events beginning with the formation of the crater followed by an infilling of material that was then eroded into the mounds and ultimately split open by the shifting martian crust.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -29.7, Longitude 211.7 East (148.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    PubMed

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces.

  4. Split Brain Theory: Implications for Nurse Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Meneses, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Discusses incorporating nontraditional concepts of learning in nursing education. Elements explored include the split brain theory, school design, teaching styles, teacher's role, teaching strategies, adding variety to the curriculum, and modular learning. (CT)

  5. Solar activity and oscillation frequency splittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Solar p-mode frequency splittings, parameterized by the coefficients through order N = 12 of a Legendre polynomial expansion of the mode frequencies as a function of m/L, were obtained from an analysis of helioseismology data taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the 4 years 1986 and 1988-1990 (approximately solar minimum to maximum). Inversion of the even-index splitting coefficients confirms that there is a significant contribution to the frequency splittings originating near the solar poles. The strength of the polar contribution is anti correlated with the overall level or solar activity in the active latitudes, suggesting a relation to polar faculae. From an analysis of the odd-index splitting coefficients we infer an uppor limit to changes in the solar equatorial near-surface rotatinal velocity of less than 1.9 m/s (3 sigma limit) between solar minimum and maximum.

  6. The problem of split comets in review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1982-01-01

    Cometary splitting is investigated from the dynamical and physical standpoints. A simple two-parameter model is proposed in which the rate of recession of the fragments is determined by the momentum from outgassing, so that the net differential force is of the same nature as the nongravitational perturbations detected in the motions of unsplit comets; the two parameters of the model are the differential radial acceleration and the time of splitting. It is shown that the model successfully represents the positional observations of nearly all the 21 known split comets. The following candidate triggering mechanisms for cometary splitting are considered: tidal forces, rotation, dust-mantle dumping, and radioactive heating. A model that fits the dynamical data and physical characteristics is presented which suggests that most fragments must be appreciably nonspherical and rapidly precessing.

  7. Split Fingernails: Can They Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your fingernails dry. Repeated or prolonged contact with water can contribute to split fingernails. Wear cotton-lined rubber gloves when washing dishes, cleaning or using harsh chemicals. Practice good nail hygiene. ...

  8. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting.

    PubMed

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization.

  9. Asymmetric split ring resonators for optical sensing of organic materials.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Basudev; Khokhar, Ali Z; De La Rue, Richard M; McMeekin, Scott G; Johnson, Nigel P

    2009-01-19

    Asymmetric Split Ring Resonators are known to exhibit resonant modes where the optical electric field is strongest near the ends of the arms, thereby increasing the sensitivity of spectral techniques such as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). By producing asymmetry in the structures, the two arms of the ring produce distinct plasmonic resonances related to their lengths - but are also affected by the presence of the other arm. This combination leads to a steepening of the slope of the reflection spectrum between the resonances that increases the sensitivity of the resonant behavior to the addition of different molecular species. We describe experimental results, supported by simulation, on the resonances of a series of circular split ring resonators with different gap and section lengths--at wavelengths in the mid-infra red regions of the spectrum--and their utilization for highly sensitive detection of organic compounds. We have used thin films of PMMA with different thicknesses, resulting in characteristic shifts from the original resonance. We also demonstrate matching of asymmetric split ring resonators to a molecular resonance of PMMA.

  10. Noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Yu

    2015-08-07

    Sustainable hydrogen production is an essential prerequisite of a future hydrogen economy. Water electrolysis driven by renewable resource-derived electricity and direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion based on photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting are promising pathways for sustainable hydrogen production. All these techniques require, among many things, highly active noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts to make the water splitting process more energy-efficient and economical. In this review, we highlight the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and their catalytic properties for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We review several important kinds of heterogeneous non-precious metal electrocatalysts, including metal sulfides, metal selenides, metal carbides, metal nitrides, metal phosphides, and heteroatom-doped nanocarbons. In the discussion, emphasis is given to the synthetic methods of these HER electrocatalysts, the strategies of performance improvement, and the structure/composition-catalytic activity relationship. We also summarize some important examples showing that non-Pt HER electrocatalysts could serve as efficient cocatalysts for promoting direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion in both photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting systems, when combined with suitable semiconductor photocatalysts.

  11. Seismic receiver function interpretation: Ps splitting or anisotropic underplating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey

    2017-03-01

    Crustal anisotropy is crucial to understanding the evolutionary history of Earth's lithosphere. Shear wave splitting of Moho P-to-S converted phases in receiver functions (RFs) have been often used to study crustal anisotropy. Harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases in delay times are used to infer splitting parameters of averaged anisotropy in the crust. However, crustal anisotropy may distribute at various levels within the crust due to complex deformational processes. Layered anisotropy requires careful investigation of the distribution of anisotropy before interpreting Moho Ps splitting. In this study, we show results from stations ARU in Russia, KIP in the Hawaiian Islands and LSA in Tibetan Plateau, where layered anisotropy is constrained well by intracrust Ps conversions at high frequencies using a harmonic-decomposition technique. Anisotropic velocity models are inferred by forward-modeling decomposed RF waveforms. We suggest that the harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases should always be investigated to check for anisotropic layering using RFs with frequency content above 1 Hz, rather than simply reporting averaged anisotropy of the whole crust.

  12. Design of a Split Intein with Exceptional Protein Splicing Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein trans-splicing (PTS) by split inteins has found widespread use in chemical biology and biotechnology. Herein, we describe the use of a consensus design approach to engineer a split intein with enhanced stability and activity that make it more robust than any known PTS system. Using batch mutagenesis, we first conduct a detailed analysis of the difference in splicing rates between the Npu (fast) and Ssp (slow) split inteins of the DnaE family and find that most impactful residues lie on the second shell of the protein, directly adjacent to the active site. These residues are then used to generate an alignment of 73 naturally occurring DnaE inteins that are predicted to be fast. The consensus sequence from this alignment (Cfa) demonstrates both rapid protein splicing and unprecedented thermal and chaotropic stability. Moreover, when fused to various proteins including antibody heavy chains, the N-terminal fragment of Cfa exhibits increased expression levels relative to other N-intein fusions. The durability and efficiency of Cfa should improve current intein based technologies and may provide a platform for the development of new protein chemistry techniques. PMID:26854538

  13. Seismic receiver function interpretation: Ps splitting or anisotropic underplating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Crustal anisotropy is crucial to understanding the evolutionary history of Earth's lithosphere. Shear-wave splitting of Moho P-to-S converted phases in receiver functions have been often used to study crustal anisotropy. Harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases in delay times are used to infer splitting parameters of averaged anisotropy in the crust. However, crustal anisotropy may distribute at various levels within the crust due to complex deformational processes. Layered anisotropy requires careful investigation of the distribution of anisotropy before interpreting Moho Ps splitting. In this study, we show results from stations ARU in Russia, KIP in the Hawaiian Islands and LSA in Tibetan Plateau, where layered anisotropy is constrained well by intra-crust Ps conversions at high frequencies using a harmonic-decomposition technique. Anisotropic velocity models are inferred by forward-modeling decomposed RF waveforms. We suggest that the harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases should always be investigated to check for anisotropic layering using RFs with frequency content above 1 Hz, rather than simply reporting averaged anisotropy of the whole crust.

  14. Split Bregman's optimization method for image construction in compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, D.; Foo, S.; Meyer-Bäse, A.

    2014-05-01

    The theory of compressive sampling (CS) was reintroduced by Candes, Romberg and Tao, and D. Donoho in 2006. Using a priori knowledge that a signal is sparse, it has been mathematically proven that CS can defY Nyquist sampling theorem. Theoretically, reconstruction of a CS image relies on the minimization and optimization techniques to solve this complex almost NP-complete problem. There are many paths to consider when compressing and reconstructing an image but these methods have remained untested and unclear on natural images, such as underwater sonar images. The goal of this research is to perfectly reconstruct the original sonar image from a sparse signal while maintaining pertinent information, such as mine-like object, in Side-scan sonar (SSS) images. Goldstein and Osher have shown how to use an iterative method to reconstruct the original image through a method called Split Bregman's iteration. This method "decouples" the energies using portions of the energy from both the !1 and !2 norm. Once the energies are split, Bregman iteration is used to solve the unconstrained optimization problem by recursively solving the problems simultaneously. The faster these two steps or energies can be solved then the faster the overall method becomes. While the majority of CS research is still focused on the medical field, this paper will demonstrate the effectiveness of the Split Bregman's methods on sonar images.

  15. Implant-Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Bilateral Agenesis of Maxillary Lateral Incisors with a Mini Split Crest

    PubMed Central

    Figliuzzi, M. M.; Giudice, A.; Pileggi, S.; Pacifico, D.; Marrelli, M.; Tatullo, M.; Fortunato, L.

    2016-01-01

    The reported clinical case describes the surgical procedure of ridge augmentation by using a “split crest” technique with a partial thickness flap and a subsequent implant-prosthetic rehabilitation aimed at treating a bilateral agenesis of the upper lateral incisors. In such cases with vestibule-palatal and mesial-distal scarce bone thicknesses associated with the need of a proper functional and aesthetic rehabilitation, the split crest technique is particularly suitable. In the case we reported, because of the poor bone thicknesses, we performed a minimally invasive split crest which allowed a correct insertion of the fixtures. This technique allowed us to achieve an optimal functional and aesthetic rehabilitation; moreover, we obtained a good emergency profile, ensuring the vitality of the close teeth and ensuring a good primary stability and the following osseointegration of dental implants. PMID:27190658

  16. Conduction band valley splitting in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Boykin, T. B.; Eriksson, M.; Friesen, M.; Coppersmith, S. N.; von Allmen, P.; Oyafuso, F.; Lee, S.

    2004-03-01

    A theory based on localized-orbital approaches is developed to describe the valley splitting observed in silicon nano-structures. The theory is appropriate in the limit of low electron density and relevant for proposed quantum computing architectures. The valley splitting is computed for realistic devices using the quantitative nanoelectronic modeling tool NEMO using the empirical tight binding model sp^3d^5s. The tight binding parameters have been fitted to bulk bandstructure behavior of Si using a genetic algorithm. A 1-D quantum well simulation in NEMO shows the basic features of conduction band valley splitting as a coherent, confinement-induced phenomenon. No additional intervalley scattering parameters are needed. The splitting is in general nonzero even in the absence of electric field. The splitting oscillates as a function of N, the number of layers in the quantum well, with a period that is determined by the location of the valley minimum in the Brillouin zone. The envelope of the splitting decays as N^3. The qualitative physics remain the same irrespective of the details of the quantum well boundaries or the details of the strain treatment in the quantum well.

  17. Double trouble: subsidence and CO2 respiration due to 1,000 years of Dutch coastal peatlands cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; van der Meulen, Michiel J.; Middelkoop, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Coastal plains are amongst the most densely populated areas in the world. Many coastal peatlands are drained to create arable land. This is not without consequences; physical compaction of peat and its degradation by oxidation lead to subsidence, and oxidation also leads to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). This study complements existing studies by quantifying total land subsidence and associated CO2 respiration over the past millennium in the Dutch coastal peatlands, to gain insight into the consequences of cultivating coastal peatlands over longer timescales. Results show that the peat volume loss was 19.8 km3, which lowered the Dutch coastal plain by 1.9 m on average, bringing most of it below sea level. At least 66 % of the volume reduction is the result of drainage, and 34 % was caused by the excavation and subsequent combustion of peat. The associated CO2 respiration is equivalent to a global atmospheric CO2 concentration increase of ~0.39 ppmv. Cultivation of coastal peatlands can turn a carbon sink into a carbon source. If the path taken by the Dutch would be followed worldwide, there will be double trouble: globally significant carbon emissions and increased flood risk in a globally important human habitat. The effects would be larger than the historic ones because most of the cumulative Dutch subsidence and peat loss was accomplished with much less efficient techniques than those available now.

  18. DETECTION OF FLUX EMERGENCE, SPLITTING, MERGING, AND CANCELLATION OF NETWORK FIELD. I. SPLITTING AND MERGING

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Hagenaar, H. J.

    2012-06-20

    Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' Multiplication-Sign 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to {approx}33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of -2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.

  19. [Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats].

    PubMed

    van Doorn, D C K; de Bruin, M J; Jorritsma, R A; Ploeger, H W; Schoormans, A

    2009-09-01

    Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus among Dutch cats The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for, Tritrichomonas foetus among cats in the Netherlands. A total of 154 faecal samples were collected from three groups of cats: cats with diarrhoea (n=53), cattery cats (n=47), and healthy pet cats (n=54). Faecal samples were examined with a T. foetus specific real-time PCR. All PCR-positive samples were run on gel electrophoresis for definitive diagnosis. The prevalence of T. foetus was 2% among cats with diarrhoea and 4% among cattery cats; T. foetus was not prevalent among pet cats (none of the samples tested positive). Questionnaires had been distributed to cat and cattery owners to determine risk factors for T. foetus, but the low prevalence precluded statistical analysis of the questionnaire results.

  20. Subacute ruminal acidosis in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Kleen, J L; Hooijer, G A; Rehage, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2009-05-30

    The prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) was determined in 197 dairy cows in 18 herds in the Dutch province of Friesland. Samples of rumen fluid were taken by rumenocentesis from between five and 19 animals on each farm and the pH of each sample was determined. The body condition of 139 of the cows was scored approximately three weeks before they calved and three weeks after they calved. The overall prevalence of SARA was 13.8 per cent, and the prevalence on individual farms ranged between 0 per cent (on seven of the farms) and 38 per cent (on one farm). The stage of lactation did not influence the prevalence of SARA but the cows with the condition lost more body condition over the calving period.

  1. Development of a Dutch Drainpipe exposure scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiktak, Aaldrik; Boesten, Jos; van der Linden, Ton

    2010-05-01

    In the new Dutch pesticide authorisation procedure, the leaching of pesticides to surface waters will be evaluated. The 90th percentile of the peak concentrations in all Dutch ditches will be used for the exposure assessment of aquatic organisms The peak concentration in surface waters is primarily affected by fast transfer routes (amongst others by macropores). For this reason, we developed a macropore version of the pesticide leaching model PEARL. The macropore version of PEARL describes transport of pesticides through the soil matrix and through two preferential flow domains, i.e. a bypass domain and an internal catchment domain. The drainpipe exposure assessment will be done for a single field site. We selected the Andelst field experiment (Scorza Júnior et al., 2004) for this purpose, because at this site sufficient data is available to parameterise and test the model. To assess the effect of weather variability on drainpipe concentration, the model is run for a 20-years period. Hydrological boundary conditions for the 20-years period were taken from nearby weather stations and ground water observation wells. Application of PEARL to this field site showed that the model adequately describes the peak concentration and the later decline of the concentration for two different pesticides. The exposure assessment at the Andelst field site results in 20 annual peak concentrations, that need to be compared with the 90th percentile of the peak concentration in all Dutch ditches, so we performed simulations with a spatially-distributed version of PEARL. This assessment resulted in 20 times n concentrations, with n the number of locations. A contour diagram was used to assess which weather year corresponds with the 90th percentile of all 20 times n peak concentrations. The X-coordinate in the contour diagram corresponds with the percentile of the cumulative distribution of the predicted concentrations due to spatial variability that is obtained for a median weather

  2. The art of governance of Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hoek, H

    1999-01-01

    Hospitals in The Netherlands are governed by two boards: The Board of Directors, the legal representative of the hospital, responsible for strategic and operational business activities; and the Supervisory Board, made up of co-opted volunteers and responsible for checking and approving of the major decisions of the Board of Directors. The question which arises is whether the system of governance is able to function appropriately and guarantee enough concern about general health problems, moral and ethical questions and the interest of the patients. This paper investigate the successes and shortfalls of such a system of governance in Dutch hospitals. The results and conclusions determine that although copied from the corporate governance model, it does not function well in an environment where the influence of patients and the inhabitants of the region are of great importance and shareholders do not exist.

  3. The Dutch school of malaria research.

    PubMed

    Verhave, J P

    1987-01-01

    An epidemic of tertian malaria in some coastal areas of The Netherlands resulted in the setting up of official measures in 1920. A scientific and a propaganda commission were charged with control. Efforts were made to reduce mosquito populations by adult and larval spraying. After the discovery that infected mosquitoes were to be found only inside houses, control operations were focussed against adult mosquitoes. Some later discoveries resulted in a more effective control. a) Spraying ditches with Paris green did not prevent adult mosquitoes from entering the control area. b) Anopheles maculipennis turned out to be a complex of species, with A. atroparvus as the vector. The latter preferred brackish water and did not go into full hibernation. The closing of the Zuyder Sea and the expected desalinization gave hope for less suitable conditions for the vector. c) Plasmodium vivax normally had an incubation period of 8 months. d) Pyrethrum was an effective but short-lasting insecticide. e) Healthy parasite carriers could infect mosquitoes. This knowledge was applied through an extensive system of investigation, including spleen examination of schoolchildren. Suspected houses were sprayed bimonthly from August to November, during which period infected mosquitoes were likely to be present. This system worked extremely well, and during the next epidemic from 1943 to 1947 the thus treated towns remained virtually free of malaria! DDT became available and was either sprayed in suspected houses as before, or through wide-spread coverage of all houses. The epidemic subsided whatever method employed and not only due to the use of DDT. The number of cases even went down to the point of no return and the last case of Dutch malaria was recorded in 1959. The wealth of experience on house-spray control, parasite and mosquito biology and experimental malaria of the Dutch malariologists has had its impact on the international bodies engaged in the battle against malaria.

  4. Mechanical contact by constraints and split-based preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitry Karpeyev; Derek Gaston; Jason Hales; Steven Novascone

    2014-03-01

    An accurate implementation of glued mechanical contact was developed in MOOSE based on its Constraint system. This approach results in a superior convergence of elastic structure problems, in particular in BISON. Adaptation of this technique to frictionless and frictional contact models is under way. Additionally, the improved convergence of elastic problems results from the application of the split-based preconditioners to constraint-based systems. This yields a substantial increase in the robustness of elastic solvers when the number of nodes in contact is increased and/or the mesh is refined.

  5. Multi-wavelength imaging system for the Dutch Open Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, Felix C.; Suetterlin, Peter; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Jagers, Aswin P.; Rutten, Robert J.

    2003-02-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) is an innovative solar telescope, completely open, on an open steel tower, without a vacuum system. The aim is long-duration high resolution imaging and in order to achieve this the DOT is equipped with a diffraction limited imaging system in combination with a data acquisition system designed for use with the speckle masking reconstruction technique for removing atmospheric aberrations. Currently the DOT is being equipped with a multi-wavelength system forming a high-resolution tomographic imager of magnetic fine structure, topology and dynamics in the photosphere and low- and high chromosphere. Finally the system will contain 6 channels: G-band (430.5 nm), Ca II H (K) (396.8 nm), H-α (656.3 nm), Ba II (455.4 nm), and two continuum channels (432 and 651 nm). Two channels are in full operation now and observations show that the DOT produces real diffraction limited movies (with 0.2" resolution) over hours in G-band (430.5 nm) and continuum (432 nm).

  6. Dutch survey of congenital coronary artery fistulas in adults

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; van der Werf, T.

    2006-01-01

    Aims This Dutch survey focused on the clinical presentation, noninvasive and invasive diagnostic methods, and treatment modalities of adult patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas (CAFs). Methods Between 1996 and 2003, the initiative was taken to start a registry on congenital CAFs in adults. In total 71 patients from a diagnostic coronary angiographic population of 30,829 at 28 hospitals were collected from previously developed case report forms. Patient demographic data, clinical presentation, noninvasive and invasive techniques and treatment options were retrospectively collected and analysed. Results Out of 71 patients with angiographically proven CAFs, 51 (72%) had 63 congenital solitary fistulas and 20 (28%) had 31 congenital coronary-ventricular multiple microfistulas. Patients with pseudofistulas were excluded from the registry. Coronary angiograms were independently re-analysed for morphology and specific fistula details. The majority (72%) of the fistulas were unilateral, 24% were bilateral and only 4% were multilateral. The morphological characteristics of these 94 fistulas were as follows: the origin was multiple in 47% and single in 53%; the termination was multiple in 52% and single in 48%; and the pathway of the fistulous vessels was tortuous/multiple in 66%, tortuous/single in 28%, straight/multiple in 3% and straight/single in 3%. Percutaneous transluminal embolisation (PTE) was performed in two (3%) patients; surgical ligation was undertaken in 13 (18%) patients. The overwhelming majority of the patients (56; 79%) were treated with conservative medical management. The total mortality was 6% (4/71) at a mean follow-up period of approximately five years. Cardiac mortality accounted for 4% (3/71); in all three patients, death could possibly be attributed to the presence of the fistula. Conclusion Registry of congenital coronary artery fistulas in adults in the Netherlands is feasible. In spite of restrictions imposed by the Dutch Privacy

  7. Approximate Splitting for Ensembles of Trees using Histograms

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C; Cantu-Paz, E; Littau, D

    2001-09-28

    Recent work in classification indicates that significant improvements in accuracy can be obtained by growing an ensemble of classifiers and having them vote for the most popular class. Implicit in many of these techniques is the concept of randomization that generates different classifiers. In this paper, they focus on ensembles of decision trees that are created using a randomized procedure based on histograms. Techniques, such as histograms, that discretize continuous variables, have long been used in classification to convert the data into a form suitable for processing and to reduce the compute time. The approach combines the ideas behind discretization through histograms and randomization in ensembles to create decision trees by randomly selecting a split point in an interval around the best bin boundary in the histogram. The experimental results with public domain data show that ensembles generated using this approach are competitive in accuracy and superior in computational cost to other ensembles techniques such as boosting and bagging.

  8. Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of addition pharmacy showing dutch door and security ceiling grate, facing north. - Albrook Air Force Station, Dispensary, East side of Canfield Avenue, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  9. Emerson Parcel of Dutch Slough Tidal Marsh Restoration Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Emerson Parcel of Dutch Slough Tidal Marsh Restoration Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  10. Modified ridge splitting and bone expansion osteotomy for placement of dental implant in esthetic zone

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Mayur S.; Khairnar, Darshana; Bakshi, Kedar

    2014-01-01

    Ridge splitting with bone expansion is a technique of manipulation of bone to form receptor site for implant without removing any bone from the implant site. Maxillary bone has inherent quality of flexibility which can bemolded to desire location by using series of instrument namely chisels and osteotome. This further improves quality of bone all around implant, at the crest and apex both. This article describes a report of a clinical case with management of bucco-palatal ridge defect with modified ridge splitting and expansion osteotomy technique using chisel and osteotomes in an esthetic zone. PMID:24808709

  11. Participation and coordination in Dutch health care policy-making. A network analysis of the system of intermediate organizations in Dutch health care.

    PubMed

    Lamping, Antonie J; Raab, Jörg; Kenis, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    This study explores the system of intermediate organizations in Dutch health care as the crucial system to understand health care policy-making in the Netherlands. We argue that the Dutch health care system can be understood as a system consisting of distinct but inter-related policy domains. In this study, we analyze four such policy domains: Finances, quality of care, manpower planning and pharmaceuticals. With the help of network analytic techniques, we describe how this highly differentiated system of >200 intermediate organizations is structured and coordinated and what (policy) consequences can be observed with regard to its particular structure and coordination mechanisms. We further analyze the extent to which this system of intermediate organizations enables participation of stakeholders in policy-making using network visualization tools. The results indicate that coordination between the different policy domains within the health care sector takes place not as one would expect through governmental agencies, but through representative organizations such as the representative organizations of the (general) hospitals, the health care consumers and the employers' association. We further conclude that the system allows as well as denies a large number of potential participants access to the policy-making process. As a consequence, the representation of interests is not necessarily balanced, which in turn affects health care policy. We find that the interests of the Dutch health care consumers are well accommodated with the national umbrella organization NPCF in the lead. However, this is no safeguard for the overall community values of good health care since, for example, the interests of the public health sector are likely to be marginalized.

  12. Governance and performance: the performance of Dutch hospitals explained by governance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; van Hulst, Bart Laurents

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of Dutch hospitals using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with bootstrapping. In particular, the analysis focuses on accounting for cost inefficiency measures on the part of hospital corporate governance. We use bootstrap techniques, as introduced by Simar and Wilson (J. Econom. 136(1):31-64, 2007), in order to obtain more efficient estimates of the effects of governance on the efficiency. The results show that part of the cost efficiency can be explained with governance. In particular we find that a higher remuneration of the board as well as a higher remuneration of the supervisory board does not implicate better performance.

  13. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate...

  14. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate...

  15. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reverse stock splits. 7.2023 Section 7.2023... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate...

  16. Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Do, Dat T; Mahanti, Subhendra D; Lai, Chih Wei

    2015-11-24

    We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer ε-and γ -type, and odd-number β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the Γ-point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. In these monochalcogenide semiconductors, the separation of the non-degenerate conduction and valence bands from adjacent bands results in the suppression of Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. Therefore, the electron- and hole-spin relaxation times in these systems with zero or minimal spin splittings are expected to exceed those in GaAs when the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation mechanism is also suppressed.

  17. Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Do, Dat T.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Lai, Chih Wei

    2015-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer ε-and γ -type, and odd-number β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the Γ-point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. In these monochalcogenide semiconductors, the separation of the non-degenerate conduction and valence bands from adjacent bands results in the suppression of Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. Therefore, the electron- and hole-spin relaxation times in these systems with zero or minimal spin splittings are expected to exceed those in GaAs when the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation mechanism is also suppressed. PMID:26596907

  18. Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Dat T.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Lai, Chih Wei

    2015-11-01

    We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer ε-and γ -type, and odd-number β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the Γ-point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. In these monochalcogenide semiconductors, the separation of the non-degenerate conduction and valence bands from adjacent bands results in the suppression of Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. Therefore, the electron- and hole-spin relaxation times in these systems with zero or minimal spin splittings are expected to exceed those in GaAs when the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation mechanism is also suppressed.

  19. Conditions for a split diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzberg, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    An unusual phenomenon has been observed in a methane jet diffusion flame subjected to axial acoustic forcing. At specific excitation frequencies and amplitudes, the driven flame splits into a central jet and one or two side jets. The splitting is accompanied by a partial detachment of the flame from the nozzle exit, a shortening of the flame by a factor of 2, and a change from the common yellow color of soot radiation to a clear blue flame. Such a phenomenon may be useful for the control of soot production or product species. The splitting is intermittent in time, bifurcating between the split flame and an ordinary single jet diffusion flame. The experiment consists of an unconfined axisymmetric methane jet formed by a short length of 0.4 cm diameter pipe. The pipe is connected to a large plenum surrounding a bass reflex loudspeaker enclosure that provides the excitation. Conditions producing split and bifurcated flames are presented. The drive frequencies required to cause bifurcation correspond to the first two peaks in the system`s frequency response curve. Bifurcating behavior was observed at a wide range of flow rates, ranging from very small flames of Reynolds number 240 up to turbulent lift-off, at Re = 1,000, based on the inner pipe diameter. It was not sensitive to nozzle length, but the details of the nozzle tip, such as orifice or pipe geometry, can affect the frequency range.

  20. 3D geometric split-merge segmentation of brain MRI datasets.

    PubMed

    Marras, Ioannis; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos; Pitas, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a novel method for MRI volume segmentation based on region adaptive splitting and merging is proposed. The method, called Adaptive Geometric Split Merge (AGSM) segmentation, aims at finding complex geometrical shapes that consist of homogeneous geometrical 3D regions. In each volume splitting step, several splitting strategies are examined and the most appropriate is activated. A way to find the maximal homogeneity axis of the volume is also introduced. Along this axis, the volume splitting technique divides the entire volume in a number of large homogeneous 3D regions, while at the same time, it defines more clearly small homogeneous regions within the volume in such a way that they have greater probabilities of survival at the subsequent merging step. Region merging criteria are proposed to this end. The presented segmentation method has been applied to brain MRI medical datasets to provide segmentation results when each voxel is composed of one tissue type (hard segmentation). The volume splitting procedure does not require training data, while it demonstrates improved segmentation performance in noisy brain MRI datasets, when compared to the state of the art methods.

  1. Persistent Identifiers for Dutch cultural heritage institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ras, Marcel; Kruithof, Gijsbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, more and more collections belonging to archives, libraries, media, museums, and knowledge institutes are being digitised and made available online. These are exciting times for ALM institutions. They are realising that, in the information society, their collections are goldmines. Unfortunately most heritage institutions in the Netherlands do not yet meet the basic preconditions for long-term availability of their collections. The digital objects often have no long lasting fixed reference yet. URL's and web addresses change. Some digital objects that were referenced in Europeana and other portals can no longer be found. References in scientific articles have a very short life span, which is damaging for scholarly research. In 2015, the Dutch Digital Heritage Network (NDE) has started a two-year work program to co-ordinate existing initiatives in order to improve the (long-term) accessibility of the Dutch digital heritage for a wide range of users, anytime, anyplace. The Digital Heritage Network is a partnership established on the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The members of the NDE are large, national institutions that strive to professionally preserve and manage digital data, e.g. the National Library, The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Archive of the Netherlands and the DEN Foundation, and a growing number of associations and individuals both within and outside the heritage sector. By means of three work programmes the goals of the Network should be accomplished and improve the visibility, the usability and the sustainability of digital heritage. Each programme contains of a set of projects. Within the sustainability program a project on creating a model for persistent identifiers is taking place. The main goals of the project are (1) raise awareness among cultural heritage institutions on the

  2. Resonance splitting in gyrotropic ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Jalas, Dirk; Petrov, Alexander; Krause, Michael; Hampe, Jan; Eich, Manfred

    2010-10-15

    We present the theoretical concept of an optical isolator based on resonance splitting in a silicon ring resonator covered with a magneto-optical polymer cladding. For this task, a perturbation method is derived for the modes in the cylindrical coordinate system. A polymer magneto-optical cladding causing a 0.01 amplitude of the off-diagonal element of the dielectric tensor is assumed. It is shown that the derived resonance splitting of the clockwise and counterclockwise modes increases for smaller ring radii. For the ring with a radius of approximately 1.5μm, a 29GHz splitting is demonstrated. An integrated optical isolator with a 10μm geometrical footprint is proposed based on a critically coupled ring resonator.

  3. Notes on the genesis of pathological splitting.

    PubMed

    Ross, J M; Dunn, P B

    1980-01-01

    In this preliminary paper, we have concentrated on the reverberating system that may develop as parents respond to the rapprochement toddler's ambitendent communications of split objects and to some of the ways in which these interactions may become reactivated later in borderline transference phenomena. We have hypothesized that such splits in mental content underlie communication of a fixed, binary and dualistic nature, such as communication that characterizes the so-called double bind. We have further suggested that the double bind, when understood in the context of object relations, usefully highlights the process whereby parent and then therapist become unwitting participants in the toddler's or borderline's world of split-off part objects. Finally, we have touched on certain therapeutic implications, emphasizing the developmental impact of interpreting borderline transference phenomena.

  4. Multiple Spectral Splits of Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Raffelt, Georg G.; Dighe, Amol; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2009-07-31

    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f{sub n}u{sub e}(E) and f{sub n}u{sub e}(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f{sub n}u{sub e}=f{sub n}u{sub x}, f{sub n}u{sub e}=f{sub n}u{sub x} as well as E->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  5. Multiple spectral splits of supernova neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Raffelt, Georg G; Smirnov, Alexei Yu

    2009-07-31

    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f(nu(e))(E) and f(nu[over ](e))(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu[over ] channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f(nu(e))=f(nu(x)), f(nu[over ](e))=f(nu[over ](x)) as well as E-->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  6. Emergency ambulance assistance in The Netherlands: is the Dutch situation optimal?

    PubMed

    van Vugt, A B; van Olden, G D; Edwards, M J

    1995-12-01

    The system of prehospital trauma care in the Netherlands is the subject of great concern. Although many improvements have been achieved in the last decade, there are still some deficits. Legislation concerning the minimal level of education for ambulance attendants was recently upgraded to 'registered nurse', a standard which must be achieved by 1997. Standardization with regard to extrication techniques, equipment and methods of treatment in prehospital trauma care does not yet exist. Although aware of the fact that large regional differences exist throughout the USA, a system of care in accordance with the advanced trauma life support (ATLS) standard of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and by means of prehospital and advanced trauma life support (PHTLS) given according to the standards of the National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMS) was considered to be the 'golden standard'. Nineteen ground ambulance and two helicopter services in different states of the USA, working according to ACS/NAEMS standard, were visited to analyse the system of care, with special reference to (para)medical education, communication, logistics, and immobilization materials and techniques. In the Netherlands all 41 central post ambulance services (CPAs) were asked to return a questionnaire. This resulted in a 90% (37 out of 41) response. The deficits of the Dutch system of care related to the PHTLS/ATLS standard are pointed out, resulting in recommendations to improve the Dutch system. The requirements of the dispatcher are far inferior to the optimal situation, which, together with the lack of technical equipment, results in serious communication problems. The Dutch ambulance attendant education, in which in the present system the education level reaches 'registered nurse' in only 91% and specialized courses are not mandatory, should be upgraded to the PHTLS level of care.

  7. Rabi splitting enhancement in semiconductor microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, James Henry, II

    The physics of the two-level atom has been the basis of research in atomic physics for much of the past several decades. One of the great successes of semiconductor physics has been its capability to mimic the phenomena of other physical systems. Many of the discoveries in atomic physics have prompted studies of the coupling between two-level atom-like structures and photonic system in semiconductor physics. Much of that work has investigated the optics of the energy exchange between atom-like systems and the electromagnetic field mode of the enclosing cavity. Since many applications of microcavities are governed by the control of the spontaneous emission from the structure, command of the emission relies on control of the coupling between the photonic and the excitonic modes of the system. When the energies of the interacting microcavity states are in resonance, the resulting degeneracy yields an energy split between the coincident modes. This energy split produces two branches of the resonant mixed states, which are called polaritons. The energy separation between the mixed state branches is called the vacuum Rabi splitting, Delta. The magnitude of the Rabi splitting is indicative of the coupling strength of the polariton modes. One of the major pursuits of this field has been to augment the control of the coupling strength between the cavity polariton modes. Comprehensive control over the polariton states, be it the modulation of the polariton energies or the suppression of one of the modes, is a key component in the development of microcavity devices. The goal of my thesis research was to discover a simple means to achieve control over the coupling between the photonic and excitonic modes of a microcavity. This entailed the parametric tuning of the Rabi splitting between the coupled modes of the microcavity. Furthermore, we hoped to attain the maximum possible Rabi splitting observed in GaAs/AlxGa1- xAs microcavities with quantum oscillators located only within

  8. [Dutch computer domestication, 1975-1990].

    PubMed

    Veraart, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A computer seems an indispensable tool among twenty-first century households. Computers however, did not come as manna from heaven. The domestication and appropriation of computers in Dutch households was a result of activities by various intermediary actors. Computers became household commodities only gradually. Technophile computer hobbyists imported the first computers into the Netherlands from the USA, and started small businesses from 1975 onwards. They developed a social network in which computer technology was made available for use by individuals. This network extended itself via shops, clubs, magazines, and other means of acquiring and exchanging computer hard- and software. Hobbyist culture established the software-copying habits of private computer users as well as their ambivalence to commercial software. They also made the computer into a game machine. Under the impulse of a national policy that aimed at transforming society into an 'Information Society', clubs and other actors extended their activities and tailored them to this new agenda. Hobby clubs presented themselves as consumer organizations and transformed into intermediary actors that filled the gap between suppliers and a growing group of users. They worked hard to give meaning to (proper) use of computers. A second impulse to the increasing use of computers in the household came from so-called 'private-PC' projects in the late 1980s. In these projects employers financially aided employees in purchasing their own private PCs'. The initially important intermediary actors such as hobby clubs lost control and the agenda for personal computers was shifted to interoperability with office equipment. IBM compatible PC's flooded the households. In the household the new equipment blended with the established uses, such as gaming. The copying habits together with the PC standard created a risky combination in which computer viruses could spread easily. New roles arose for intermediary actors in guiding

  9. The splitting of Comet Halley 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dao-Han; Zheng, Jia-Quing; Liu, Zong-Li; Yan, Lin-Shan; Lui, Lin-Zhong; Zhou, Xing-Hai; Wu, Zhi-Xian; Gilmore, A. C.

    1987-09-01

    Nine photographs taken on 25 Mar., 1986 show that the nucleus of Comet Halley split into 2 widely separated nuclei. The separated projected distance on the plane of the sky is 5000 km. The principal nucleus and the secondary nucleus exhibit their own comas. The prominant jet ejected from the companion curves up to a height of several thousand kilometers and the secondary nucleus must fade out of sight within only a few days. In combination with the results of photoelectric observations it seems that this event of splitting coincides with an outburst. Photographs were digitized, and the image enhancement is described.

  10. Fermion localization on a split brane

    SciTech Connect

    Chumbes, A. E. R.; Vasquez, A. E. O.; Hott, M. B.

    2011-05-15

    In this work we analyze the localization of fermions on a brane embedded in five-dimensional, warped and nonwarped, space-time. In both cases we use the same nonlinear theoretical model with a nonpolynomial potential featuring a self-interacting scalar field whose minimum energy solution is a soliton (a kink) which can be continuously deformed into a two-kink. Thus a single brane splits into two branes. The behavior of spin 1/2 fermions wave functions on the split brane depends on the coupling of fermions to the scalar field and on the geometry of the space-time.

  11. Parallel programming in Split-C

    SciTech Connect

    Culler, D.E.; Dusseau, A.; Goldstein, S.C.; Krishnamurthy, A.; Lumetta, S.; Eicken, T. von; Yelick, K.

    1993-12-31

    The authors introduce the Split-C language, a parallel extension of C intended for high performance programming on distributed memory multiprocessors, and demonstrate the use of the language in optimizing parallel programs. Split-C provides a global address space with a clear concept of locality and unusual assignment operators. These are used as tools to reduce the frequency and cost of remote access. The language allows a mixture of shared memory, message passing, and data parallel programming styles while providing efficient access to the underlying machine. They demonstrate the basic language concepts using regular and irregular parallel programs and give performance results for various stages of program optimization.

  12. Accuracy of tablet splitting: Comparison study between hand splitting and tablet cutter

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Walid A.; Alanizi, Abdulaziz S.; Abdelhamid, Magdi M.; Alanizi, Fars K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tablet splitting is often used in pharmacy practice to adjust the administered doses. It is also used as a method of reducing medication costs. Objective To investigate the accuracy of tablet splitting by comparing hand splitting vs. a tablet cutter for a low dose drug tablet. Methods Salbutamol tablets (4 mg) were chosen as low dose tablets. A randomly selected equal number of tablets were split by hand and a tablet cutter, and the remaining tablets were kept whole. Weight variation and drug content were analysed for salbutamol in 0.1 N HCl using a validated spectrophotometric method. The percentages by which each whole tablet’s or half-tablet’s drug content and weight difference from sample mean values were compared with USP specification ranges for drug content. The %RSD was also calculated in order to determine whether the drugs met USP specification for %RSD. The tablets and half tablets were scanned using electron microscopy to show any visual differences arising from splitting. Results 27.5% of samples differed from sample mean values by a percentage that fell outside of USP specification for weight, of which 15% from the tablet cutter and 25% from those split by hand fell outside the specifications. All whole tablets and half tablets met the USP specifications for drug content but the variation of content between the two halves reached 21.3% of total content in case of hand splitting, and 7.13% only for the tablet cutter. The %RSDs for drug content and weight met the USP specification for whole salbutamol tablets and the half tablets which were split by tablet cutter. The halves which were split by hand fell outside the specification for %RSD (drug content = 6.43%, weight = 8.33%). The differences were visually clear in the electron microscope scans. Conclusion Drug content variation in half-tablets appeared to be attributable to weight variation occurring during the splitting process. This could have serious clinical consequences for

  13. Variability of annual CO2 exchange from Dutch Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, C. M. J.; Jacobs, A. F. G.; Bosveld, F. C.; Hendriks, D. M. D.; Hensen, A.; Kroon, P. S.; Moors, E. J.; Nol, L.; Schrier-Uijl, A.; Veenendaal, E. M.

    2007-05-01

    An intercomparison is made of the Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2, NEE, for eight Dutch grassland sites; four natural grasslands, two production grasslands and two meteorological stations within a rotational grassland region. At all sites the NEE was determined during at least 10 months per site, using the eddy-covariance (EC) technique, but in different years. The photosynthesis-light response analysis technique is used along with the respiration-temperature response technique to partition NEE among Gross Primary Production (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Re) and to obtain the eco-physiological characteristics of the sites at the field scale. Annual sums of NEE, GPP and Re are then estimated using the fitted response curves with observed radiation and air temperature from a meteorological site in the centre of The Netherlands as drivers. These calculations are carried out for four years (2002-2005). The estimated annual Re for all individual sites is more or less constant per site and the average for all sites amounts to 1390±30 gC m-2 a-1. The narrow uncertainty band (±2%) reflects the small differences in the mean annual air temperature. The mean annual GPP was estimated to be 1325 g C m-2 a-1, and displays a much higher standard deviation, of ±100 gC m-2 a-1 (8%), which reflects the relatively large variation in annual solar radiation. The mean annual NEE amounts to -65±85 gC m-2 a-1, which implies that on average the grasslands act as a source, with a relatively large standard deviation. From two sites, four-year records of CO2 flux were available and analyzed (2002-2005). Using the weather record of 2005 with optimizations from the other years, standard deviation of annual GPP was estimated to be 171-206 gC m-2 a-1 (8-14%), of annual Re 227-247 gC m-2 a-1 (14-16%) and of annual NEE 176-276 gC m-2 a-1. The inter-site standard deviation was higher for GPP and Re, 534 gC m-2 a-1 (37.3%) and 486 gC m-2 a-1 (34.8%), respectively. However, the inter

  14. Split-Volume Treatment Planning of Multiple Consecutive Vertebral Body Metastases for Cyberknife Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun Chuang, Cynthia; Larson, David; Huang, Kim; Petti, Paula; Weinstein, Phil; Ma Lijun

    2008-10-01

    Cyberknife treatment planning of multiple consecutive vertebral body metastases is challenging due to large target volumes adjacent to critical normal tissues. A split-volume treatment planning technique was developed to improve the treatment plan quality of such lesions. Treatment plans were generated for 1 to 5 consecutive thoracic vertebral bodies (CVBM) prescribing a total dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of the entire vertebral body(ies). Treatment plans were generated considering both the de novo clinical scenario (no prior radiation), imposing a dose limit of 8 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord, and the retreatment scenario (prior radiation) with a dose limit of 3 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord. The split-volume planning technique was compared with the standard full-volume technique only for targets ranging from 2 to 5 CVBM in length. The primary endpoint was to obtain best PTV coverage by the 24 Gy prescription isodose line. A total of 18 treatment plans were generated (10 standard and 8 split-volume). PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line worsened consistently as the number of CVBM increased for both the de novo and retreatment scenario. Split-volume planning was achieved by introducing a 0.5-cm gap, splitting the standard full-volume PTV into 2 equal length PTVs. In every case, split-volume planning resulted in improved PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line ranging from 4% to 12% for the de novo scenario and, 8% to 17% for the retreatment scenario. We did not observe a significant trend for increased monitor units required, or higher doses to spinal cord or esophagus, with split-volume planning. Split-volume treatment planning significantly improves Cyberknife treatment plan quality for CVBM, as compared to the standard technique. This technique may be of particular importance in clinical situations where stringent spinal cord dose limits are required.

  15. [Dutch radiodiagnosis from an international viewpoint].

    PubMed

    de Valois, J C

    1990-06-02

    A quantitative description of diagnostic radiology is given in terms of radiological density (the number of radiological examinations per 1000 inhabitants), consumption of roentgen film and contrast media. The data concerning examinations were recorded by a yearly inquiry system addressing all Dutch radiologists. The consumption of film and contrast media were derived from the data banks of the industries. In comparing these data with the data for Western Europe, Japan and the United States it is remarkable that diagnostic radiology scores lowest in regard to density, film consumption and use of contrast media. Only in the use of 35 mm cinefilm (coronary angiography) is The Netherlands number 2 on the list preceded by the United States. As a consequence radiation exposure of the population caused by diagnostic radiology is low in The Netherlands. Although the technical condition of the equipment is good due to regular and preventive service the life-span of the radiological equipment is gradually increasing beyond the limits of the normal economic depreciation. Growing arrears are found in the application of new technology: ultrasound, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The substitution of high osmolar contrast media by low osmolar media is also lagging behind.

  16. Dutch Open Telescope: status, results, prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, Robert J.; Sütterlin, Peter; de Wijn, Alfred G.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hoogendoorn, Piet W.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma is a revolutionary telescope achieving high-resolution imaging of the solar surface. The DOT combines a pioneering open design at an excellent wind-swept site with image restoration through speckle interferometry. Its open principle is now followed in major solar-telescope projects elsewhere. In the past three years the DOT became the first solar telescope to regularly obtain 0.2" resolution in extended image sequences, i.e., reaching the diffraction limit of its 45-cm primary mirror. Our aim for 2003-2005 is to turn the DOT into a 0.2" tomographic mapper of the solar atmosphere with frequent partnership in international multi-telescope campaigns through student-serviced time allocation. After 2005 we aim to triple the DOT resolution to 0.07" by increasing the aperture to 140 cm and to renew the speckle cameras and the speckle pipeline in order to increase the field size and sequence duration appreciably. These upgrades will maintain the DOT's niche as a tomographic high-resolution mapper in the era when GREGOR, Solar-B and SDO set the stage.

  17. Dutch Open Telescope: Status and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.; Hammerschlag, R. H.; Bettonvil, F. M.; Suetterlin, P.

    2000-10-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma in the Canary Islands is a small but revolutionary solar telescope of which the image quality matches the superb imaging of the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope (from whose building the DOT is operated). The DOT is an open parabolic 45cm reflector on an open 15m high tower, relying on mirror flushing by the trade winds that bring the best seeing at La Palma to avoid internal turbulence. A water-cooled field stop in the primary image reflects most sunlight and heat out of the telescope. The first data from the DOT combined with speckle reconstruction have yielded sunspot movies of outstanding quality. At present, a multi-channel imaging system is in construction for simultaneous registration of speckle sequences in the G band, in Ca II K and in Hα. The data pipeline permits continuous speckle data acquisition up to 0.5 Tb per day. The advantage of speckle reconstruction over adaptive optics is the much larger field of the restored scene, with the DOT camera's 100x130 arcsec at 0.2 arcsec resolution. The DOT science program is to study magnetic topology and dynamics throughout the photosphere and chromosphere.

  18. A Comparison among Worker Types Using a Composites Approach and Median Splits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Shahnaz; Wuensch, Karl L.; Brandon, Howard R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined Spence and Robbins' (1992) worker types in terms of correlates of workaholism (e.g., work-life imbalance, obsessive-compulsive behavior). A survey was administered to professionals, who were then classified into different worker types following the traditional median-split technique. The data were also analyzed with…

  19. Isospin Splittings of Doubly Heavy Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Guo, Feng-Kun; Hanhart, Christoph; Meissner, Ulf-G.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum /JCHP, Julich /IAS, Julich /Bonn U., HISKP /Bonn U.

    2011-08-18

    The SELEX Collaboration has reported a very large isospin splitting of doubly charmed baryons. We show that this effect would imply that the doubly charmed baryons are very compact. One intriguing possibility is that such baryons have a linear geometry Q-q-Q where the light quark q oscillates between the two heavy quarks Q, analogous to a linear molecule such as carbon dioxide. However, using conventional arguments, the size of a heavy-light hadron is expected to be around 0.5 fm, much larger than the size needed to explain the observed large isospin splitting. Assuming the distance between two heavy quarks is much smaller than that between the light quark and a heavy one, the doubly heavy baryons are related to the heavy mesons via heavy quark-diquark symmetry. Based on this symmetry, we predict the isospin splittings for doubly heavy baryons including {Xi}{sub cc}, {Xi}{sub bb} and {Xi}{sub bc}. The prediction for the {Xi}{sub cc} is much smaller than the SELEX value. On the other hand, the {Xi}{sub bb} baryons are predicted to have an isospin splitting as large as (6.3 {+-} 1.7) MeV. An experimental study of doubly bottomed baryons is therefore very important to better understand the structure of baryons with heavy quarks.

  20. Supporting Students' Constructions of the Splitting Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of particular instructional practices that support students' constructions of the partitive unit fraction scheme and measurement concepts for fractions. Another body of research has demonstrated the power of a particular mental operation--the splitting operation--in supporting students'…

  1. Mechanics analysis of molar tooth splitting.

    PubMed

    Barani, Amir; Chai, Herzl; Lawn, Brian R; Bush, Mark B

    2015-03-01

    A model for the splitting of teeth from wedge loading of molar cusps from a round indenting object is presented. The model is developed in two parts: first, a simple 2D fracture mechanics configuration with the wedged tooth simulated by a compact tension specimen; second, a full 3D numerical analysis using extended finite element modeling (XFEM) with an embedded crack. The result is an explicit equation for splitting load in terms of indenter radius and key tooth dimensions. Fracture experiments on extracted human molars loaded axially with metal spheres are used to quantify the splitting forces and thence to validate the model. The XFEM calculations enable the complex crack propagation, initially in the enamel coat and subsequently in the interior dentin, to be followed incrementally with increasing load. The fracture evolution is shown to be stable prior to failure, so that dentin toughness, not strength, is the controlling material parameter. Critical conditions under which tooth splitting in biological and dental settings are likely to be met, however rare, are considered.

  2. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara

    2017-01-24

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain.

  3. Geometrical splitting and reduction of Feynman diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydychev, Andrei I.

    2016-10-01

    A geometrical approach to the calculation of N-point Feynman diagrams is reviewed. It is shown that the geometrical splitting yields useful connections between Feynman integrals with different momenta and masses. It is demonstrated how these results can be used to reduce the number of variables in the occurring functions.

  4. Split-Ring Marx Generator Grading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent concerns metallic tubing bent to a shape consistent with the cross-sectional shape of a Marx generator. Tubing is split into two...symmetrical halves and insulated; two halves combined have an initial DC potential equal to one stage voltage, after erection of the Marx the potential collapses to zero.

  5. Modeling shear wave splitting observations from Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y. V.; Li, A.; Ito, G.; Hung, S.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the sources of shear-wave splitting in Iceland using synthetic waveforms generated from a variety of models. We employ a pseudospectral method in waveform modeling that allows 3-D heterogeneity and anisotropy. Several 1-D and 2-D models have been tested for a vertically propagating plane shear wave. For the two-layer models with horizontal symmetry axes, our results show that the apparent fast direction is towards the fast orientation in the upper layer. This experiment may explain why shear wave splitting measurements tend to be correlated with surface geology. We have also tested models with lateral anisotropic variations including a dike and a plume. The anisotropic boundary can be well resolved based on the change of fast directions and delay times. The splitting parameters near the boundary are affected by the laterally varied structure and the affected distance depends on wavelength, which is about 40 km for periods of 4-6 s and 50 km for periods of 8-10 s. We are currently performing experiments on a radial flow model from a plume stem. Synthetic shear-wave splitting measurements will be conducted from two more realistic geodynamic models. The first one is the “radial flow” model with low Rayleigh number. The pounding plume material is much thicker than the lithosphere and therefore does not strongly “feel” the lithosphere thickening away from the axis. Thus the plume spreads as fast away from the axis as it does along it. The other one is the “channel flow” model with high Rayleigh number. In this model the plume stem is much narrower and the thickness of the pounding plume material beneath the lithosphere much thinner. Thus the very low viscosity plume material is channeled more along axis by the thickening lithosphere. Combing the synthetic with the observed splitting results, we expect to determine the best geodynamic models for Iceland that fit seismic constraints.

  6. Spin-orbit splitting in neutron drops

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Pandharipande, V.R.; Ravenhall, D.G.

    1995-08-01

    Hartree-Fock calculations of very neutron-rich nuclei are an essential source of input for calculations of the properties of neutron-star crusts. The Hartree-Fock calculations often use Skyrme models whose parameters are determined by fits to known (hence not neutron-rich) nuclei and extrapolations to the N >> Z case. The Vautherin and Brink (VB) prescription for the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit potential, V{sub so}, is usually used; this is based on the assumption that most of V{sub so} comes from a short-range L{center_dot}S nucleon-nucleon interaction. In 1993 we showed that more than half of the spin-orbit splitting in {sup 15}N comes from long-range three-nucleon potentials and correlations, which violate the VB assumption. To investigate the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit splitting, we made calculations of the type described in Sec. B.d for systems of 7 (p-wave splitting) and 19 (d-wave) neutrons. The neutrons were confined in external potentials that were adjusted to give physically reasonable densities. We find that the spin-orbit splitting of these drops is less than half the {sup 15}N value. These values can be used to determine an isospin dependence of V{sub so} that is very different from that of VB. Hartree-Fock calculations of known spin-orbit splittings in nuclei with N significantly different from Z are now being made with this new prescription.

  7. Magnetic impurities in spin-split superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gerven Oei, W.-V.; Tanasković, D.; Žitko, R.

    2017-02-01

    Hybrid semiconductor-superconductor quantum dot devices are tunable physical realizations of quantum impurity models for a magnetic impurity in a superconducting host. The binding energy of the localized subgap Shiba states is set by the gate voltages and external magnetic field. In this work we discuss the effects of the Zeeman spin splitting, which is generically present both in the quantum dot and in the (thin-film) superconductor. The unequal g factors in semiconductor and superconductor materials result in respective Zeeman splittings of different magnitude. We consider both classical and quantum impurities. In the first case we analytically study the spectral function and the subgap states. The energy of bound states depends on the spin-splitting of the Bogoliubov quasiparticle bands as a simple rigid shift. For the case of collinear magnetization of impurity and host, the Shiba resonance of a given spin polarization remains unperturbed when it overlaps with the branch of the quasiparticle excitations of the opposite spin polarization. In the quantum case, we employ numerical renormalization group calculations to study the effect of the Zeeman field for different values of the g factors of the impurity and of the superconductor. We find that in general the critical magnetic field for the singlet-doublet transition changes nonmonotonically as a function of the superconducting gap, demonstrating the existence of two different transition mechanisms: Zeeman splitting of Shiba states or gap closure due to Zeeman splitting of Bogoliubov states. We also study how in the presence of spin-orbit coupling, modeled as an additional noncollinear component of the magnetic field at the impurity site, the Shiba resonance overlapping with the quasiparticle continuum of the opposite spin gradually broadens and then merges with the continuum.

  8. An effective technique of scrotal harvest.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, R L; Ryan, C M; Tompkins, R G

    1993-01-01

    In male patients with extensive burns, the scrotum is often spared and is potentially a very useful donor site. We describe a technique that simplifies scrotal harvest and facilitates the procurement of clinically useful amounts of split-thickness skin.

  9. Electromagnetic interaction of split-ring resonators: The role of separation and relative orientation.

    PubMed

    Feth, Nils; König, Michael; Husnik, Martin; Stannigel, Kai; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Wegener, Martin; Linden, Stefan

    2010-03-29

    Extinction cross-section spectra of split-ring-resonator dimers have been measured at near-infrared frequencies with a sensitive spatial modulation technique. The resonance frequency of the dimer's coupled mode as well as its extinction cross-section and its quality factor depend on the relative orientation and separation of the two split-ring resonators. The findings can be interpreted in terms of electric and magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. Numerical calculations based on a Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain approach are in good agreement with the experiments and support our physical interpretation.

  10. Intake of dietary phytoestrogens by Dutch women.

    PubMed

    Boker, Lital Keinan; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T; De Kleijn, Miriam J J; Jacques, Paul F; Grobbee, Diederick E; Peeters, Petra H M

    2002-06-01

    Higher consumption of phytoestrogens might be protective against certain chronic diseases. Accurate quantification of habitual phytoestrogen intake is important for assessing associations between phytoestrogens and risk for certain diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate dietary intake of phytoestrogens in Dutch middle-aged and elderly women and to describe their main sources. Women were recruited between 1993 and 1997 and aged 50-69 y at enrollment (Prospect-EPIC; n = 17,357). A detailed food frequency questionnaire referring to the preceding year was filled in at recruitment. A literature search was conducted to obtain data regarding content of the isoflavones daidzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A, the coumestan coumesterol and the lignans matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol in relevant food items. Concentrations of each phytoestrogen in each food item were subsequently grouped by seven categories; group scores were multiplied by daily intakes of food items and then summed across food items to produce for each participant a total daily intake score for each phytoestrogen. Approximately 75% of participants were postmenopausal at recruitment. The mean age was 57 y. Geometric means of daily intake of daidzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A, coumesterol, matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol were 0.15, 0.16, 0.08, 0.001, <0.001, 0.07 and 0.93 mg, respectively. The main sources for isoflavones were peas and beans, nuts, grain products, coffee, tea and soy products. The main sources for coumestans were peas, beans and other vegetables. The main sources of lignans were grain products, fruit and alcoholic beverages (red and white wines). We conclude that intake levels of phytoestrogen in our study population are low; however, they are comparable with intake levels previously reported for other Western cohorts. In this population, phytoestrogen intake consisted largely of lignans.

  11. Is Dutch Just Another Berber? An Investigation into the Language Preferences of Immigrants in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltens, Bert; de Bot, Kees

    1995-01-01

    Reports a study of language learning and language attitudes among immigrants to the Netherlands. Questionnaires obtained from college students studying Dutch showed no evidence that Dutch was threatened by English and indicated that the importance attached to English as an international language did not lessen the value of Dutch for living in the…

  12. Word Order and Finiteness in Dutch and English Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien; Edwards, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The effect of two linguistic factors in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia was examined using Dutch and English subjects. Three tasks were used to test (1) the comprehension and (2) the construction of sentences, where verbs (in Dutch) and verb arguments (in Dutch and English) are in canonical versus non-canonical position; (3) the production of…

  13. Dutch Social Democrats and the Struggle for Parental Choice in Education (1890-1940).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Sjoerd

    2003-01-01

    Asserts the Dutch educational systems' key feature is the principle that parents should be given the opportunity to organize and choose the kind of education they desire. Focuses on the role of the Dutch Social Democrats, the Groningen motion, and the outcome and intellectual foundation of publicly run Dutch schools. (KDR)

  14. Challenging Dutch Holocaust Education: Towards a Curriculum Based on Moral Choices and Empathetic Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boersema, Jacob R.; Schimmel, Noam

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the way in which the Holocaust is taught in The Netherlands, with an emphasis on critically examining the content of secondary school textbooks used to teach Dutch students about the history of the Holocaust. We also interview Dutch educators, government officials and academics about the state of Dutch Holocaust education. Our findings…

  15. [The first Dutch debate on anaesthesia in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Bijker, Liselotte E

    2015-01-01

    After the publication of the Dutch medical guideline on pharmacological analgesia during childbirth in 2008, the question of whether pharmacological pain relief should be permissible during labour was hotly debated. This discussion has been going on since the second half of the 19th century when the introduction of ether and chloroform was extensively studied and described in Great Britain. This article looks back on the same debate in the Netherlands when inhalational anaesthetics were introduced into obstetrics. Study of historical journals and textbooks, originating in the Netherlands and elsewhere, and of historical medical literature on anaesthesia and obstetrics shows that the Dutch protagonists adopted more nuanced ideas on this issue than many of their foreign colleagues. This description of the first Dutch debate on anaesthesia in obstetrics shows that in fact the issues and arguments are timeless.

  16. Automatic feathering of split fields for step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nesrin; Leybovich, Leonid B; Sethi, Anil; Emami, Bahman

    2003-05-07

    Due to leaf travel range limitations of the Varian Dynamic Multileaf Collimator (DMLC) system, an IMRT field width exceeding 14.5 cm is split into two or more adjacent abutting sub-fields. The abutting sub-fields are then delivered as separate treatment fields. The accuracy of the delivery is very sensitive to multileaf positioning accuracy. The uncertainties in leaf and carriage positions cause errors in the delivered dose (e.g., hot or cold spots) along the match line of abutting sub-fields. The dose errors are proportional to the penumbra slope at the edge of each sub-field. To alleviate this problem, we developed techniques that feather the split line of IMRT fields. Feathering of the split line was achieved by dividing IMRT fields into several sub-groups with different split line positions. A Varian 21EX accelerator with an 80-leaf DLMC was used for IMRT delivery. Cylindrical targets with varying widths (>14.5 cm) were created to study the split line positions. Seven coplanar 6 MV fields were selected for planning using the NOMOS-CORVUS system. The isocentre of the fields was positioned at the centre of the target volume. Verification was done in a 30 x 30 x 30 cm3 polystyrene phantom using film dosimetry. We investigated two techniques to move the split line from its original position or cause feathering of them: (1) varying the isocentre position along the target width and (2) introduction of a 'pseudo target' outside of the patient (phantom). The position of the 'pseudo target' was determined by analysing the divergence of IMRT fields. For target widths of 14-28 cm, IMRT fields were automatically split into two sub-fields, and the split line was positioned along the centre of the target by CORVUS. Measured dose distributions demonstrated that the dose to the critical structure was 10% higher than planned when the split line crossed through the centre of the target. Both methods of modifying the split line positions resulted in maximum shifts of

  17. Hollow core anti-resonant fiber with split cladding.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Qi, Wenliang; Ho, Daryl; Yong, Ken-Tye; Luan, Feng; Yoo, Seongwoo

    2016-04-04

    An improved design for hollow core anti-resonant fibers (HAFs) is presented. A split cladding structure is introduced to reduce the fabrication distortion within design tolerance. We use numerical simulations to compare the Kagome fibers (KFs) and the proposed split cladding fibers (SCFs) over two normalized transmission bands. It reveals that SCFs are able to maintain the desired round shape of silica cladding walls, hence improving the confinement loss (CL) compared to the KF and is comparable to that of the nested antiresonant nodeless fiber (NANF) with the same core size. In addition, the SCF allows stacking multiple layers of cladding rings to control the CL. The influences of the number of cladding layers and the cladding gap width on the CL of the SCFs have been studied. SCF with three cladding rings is fabricated by the stack-and-draw technique. A measured attenuation spectrum matches well with the calculation prediction. The measured near field mode patterns also prove the feasibility of our fiber design.

  18. Comparative studies on different nanofiber photocatalysts for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Abdulaziz; Alarifi, Ibrahim M.; Khan, Waseem S.; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    Water splitting using photocatalyst has become a topic of recent investigation since it has the potential of producing hydrogen for clean energy from sunlight. An extensive number of solid photocatalysts have been studied for overall water splitting in recent years. In this study, two methods were employed to synthesize two different photocatalysts for water splitting. The first method describes the synthesis of nickel oxide-loaded strontium titanate (NiO-SrTiO3) particles on electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers incorporated with graphene nanoplatelets for water splitting. The electrospun PAN fibers were first oxidized at 270°C for two hours and subsequently immersed in a solution containing ethanol, titanium (IV)-isopropoxide [C12H28O4Ti] and strontium nitrate [Sr(NO3)2]. This solution was then treated with NiO nanoparticles dispersed in toluene. The surface treated PAN fibers were annealed at 600°C in air for 1 hour to transform fibers into a crystalline form for improved photocatalyst performance. In the second method, coaxial electrospinning process was used to produce core/shell strontium titanate/nickel oxide (SrTiO3-NiO) nanofibers. In coaxial method, poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) was dissolved in deionized (DI) water, and then titanium (IV) isopropoxide [C12H28O4Ti] and strontium nitrate [Sr(NO3)2] were added into the solution to form the inner (core) layer. For outer (shell) solution, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer was dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) at a weight ratio of 10:90 and then nickel oxide was mixed with the solution. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry and static contact angle measurement techniques were employed to characterize the structural properties of photocatalysts produced by both methods and a comparison was made between the two photocatalysts. The morphology and diameter of the nanofibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structure and crystallinity of the calcined nanofibers were also observed

  19. Operator splitting for the Benjamin-Ono equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, R.; Holden, H.; Koley, U.; Risebro, N. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we analyze operator splitting for the Benjamin-Ono equation, ut = uux + Huxx, where H denotes the Hilbert transform. If the initial data are sufficiently regular, we show the convergence of both Godunov and Strang splittings.

  20. Seborrheic dermatitis flare in a Dutch male due to commensal Malassezia furfur overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Ran, Yuping; He, Xiaodan; Zhang, Hao; Dai, Yaling; Li, Lina; Bulmer, G S

    2008-09-01

    This is a case of seborrheic dermatitis (SD) barbae from which Malassezia furfur (M. furfur) was isolated. The patient was a 57-year-old Dutch male, who was hospitalized for fever and weakness of extremities. He presented with symmetrical erythema with an abundance of greasy chaffy scales on his beard area. No reasons were detected for his fever following a routine search. M. furfur was identified through mycological examination, including direct microscopic examination, culture, Tween test, esculine splitting test and DNA sequencing, of samples from the skin lesions. The patient was treated with oral itraconazole capsules (200 mg, b.i.d. for 8 days, then 200 mg o.d. for 13 days), washing his scalp and face with 2% ketoconazole shampoo (once a day) and topical application of a cream containing 1% naftifine hydrochloride and 0.25% ketoconazole (b.i.d.). After treatment the fever subsided and the SD lesion gradually healed. M. furfur was not isolated again from skin scrapings and 7 days later therapy was terminated and no recurrence was noted after one week follow-up since the cessation of treatment.

  1. End-of-life decisions in dutch neonatology.

    PubMed

    Moratti, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    This contribution describes the regulation of end-of-life decisions in neonatology in the Netherlands. An account is given of the process of formulating rules, which includes a report by the Dutch Association for Paediatrics, two Court rulings, a report by a Consultation Group appointed by the Ministry of Health and a professional Protocol regulating deliberate ending of life in neonatology that was subsequently adopted as the regulation of this type of decision-making at the national level. The paper presents Dutch and comparative data on the attitude of the medical profession towards end-of-life decisions in neonatology and the frequency of such decisions in medical practice.

  2. Sequential optimization with particle splitting-based reliability assessment for engineering design under uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Xiaotian; Pan, Rong; Sun, Qing

    2014-08-01

    The evaluation of probabilistic constraints plays an important role in reliability-based design optimization. Traditional simulation methods such as Monte Carlo simulation can provide highly accurate results, but they are often computationally intensive to implement. To improve the computational efficiency of the Monte Carlo method, this article proposes a particle splitting approach, a rare-event simulation technique that evaluates probabilistic constraints. The particle splitting-based reliability assessment is integrated into the iterative steps of design optimization. The proposed method provides an enhancement of subset simulation by increasing sample diversity and producing a stable solution. This method is further extended to address the problem with multiple probabilistic constraints. The performance of the particle splitting approach is compared with the most probable point based method and other approximation methods through examples.

  3. One‐dimensional TiO2 Nanotube Photocatalysts for Solar Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Mingzheng; Li, Qingsong; Cao, Chunyan; Huang, Jianying; Li, Shuhui; Zhang, Songnan; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Keqin; Al‐Deyab, Salem S.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen production from water splitting by photo/photoelectron‐catalytic process is a promising route to solve both fossil fuel depletion and environmental pollution at the same time. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes have attracted much interest due to their large specific surface area and highly ordered structure, which has led to promising potential applications in photocatalytic degradation, photoreduction of CO2, water splitting, supercapacitors, dye‐sensitized solar cells, lithium‐ion batteries and biomedical devices. Nanotubes can be fabricated via facile hydrothermal method, solvothermal method, template technique and electrochemical anodic oxidation. In this report, we provide a comprehensive review on recent progress of the synthesis and modification of TiO2 nanotubes to be used for photo/photoelectro‐catalytic water splitting. The future development of TiO2 nanotubes is also discussed. PMID:28105391

  4. Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer δ-doped phosphorus in silicon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunnelling microscope lithography. Using vasp, we develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of systems which is size limited due to computational tractability. Nonetheless, we provide valuable data for the benchmarking of empirical modelling techniques more capable of extending this discussion to confined disordered systems or actual devices. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localised basis functions in siesta, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated δ-layers. In obtaining an agreement between plane-wave and localised methods, we show that valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%. PMID:23445785

  5. Automated cloud screening of AVHRR imagery using split-and-merge clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallaudet, Timothy C.; Simpson, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Previous methods to segment clouds from ocean in AVHRR imagery have shown varying degrees of success, with nighttime approaches being the most limited. An improved method of automatic image segmentation, the principal component transformation split-and-merge clustering (PCTSMC) algorithm, is presented and applied to cloud screening of both nighttime and daytime AVHRR data. The method combines spectral differencing, the principal component transformation, and split-and-merge clustering to sample objectively the natural classes in the data. This segmentation method is then augmented by supervised classification techniques to screen clouds from the imagery. Comparisons with other nighttime methods demonstrate its improved capability in this application. The sensitivity of the method to clustering parameters is presented; the results show that the method is insensitive to the split-and-merge thresholds.

  6. One-dimensional TiO2 Nanotube Photocatalysts for Solar Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mingzheng; Li, Qingsong; Cao, Chunyan; Huang, Jianying; Li, Shuhui; Zhang, Songnan; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Keqin; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Lai, Yuekun

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen production from water splitting by photo/photoelectron-catalytic process is a promising route to solve both fossil fuel depletion and environmental pollution at the same time. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes have attracted much interest due to their large specific surface area and highly ordered structure, which has led to promising potential applications in photocatalytic degradation, photoreduction of CO2, water splitting, supercapacitors, dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium-ion batteries and biomedical devices. Nanotubes can be fabricated via facile hydrothermal method, solvothermal method, template technique and electrochemical anodic oxidation. In this report, we provide a comprehensive review on recent progress of the synthesis and modification of TiO2 nanotubes to be used for photo/photoelectro-catalytic water splitting. The future development of TiO2 nanotubes is also discussed.

  7. Historical Notes on the Dutch and American-Dutch "schools" in Astronomy and Their Relations with Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heuvel, Ed

    2006-04-01

    Dutch astronomy and physics experienced two "golden ages". The firstone covered the 17th century, culminating with Christiaan Huygens,inventor of the pendulum clock and the wave theory of light, anddiscoverer of Saturn's rings and largest satellite Titan. The secondone, which lasts till the present, started around 1880 withphysicists Lorentz, van der Waals, Zeeman and Kamerlingh Onnes andastronomer Kapteijn and his pupils De Sitter, van Rhijn, Oort andSchilt. Kapteijn, through his friendship with George Ellery Hale,initiated the strong connection between American and Dutch astronomy,which led to the rise of many Dutch-born astronomers to prominentpositions in the US, from Luyten, Bok, Brouwer, Schilt and Kuiperto Woltjer, Gehrels, and Beckers. The rise of the second "goldenage" appears to be closely related to drastic reforms in the Dutchhigh school and university systems in the last decades of the 19thcentury.

  8. Splitting TCP Connections Adaptively Inside Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Masayoshi; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Tsuru, Masato

    The explosive growth of Internet usage has caused problems for the current Internet in terms of traffic congestion within networks and performance degradation of end-to-end flows. Therefore, a reconsideration of the current Internet has begun and is being actively discussed worldwide with the goals of enabling efficient share of limited network resources (i.e., the link bandwidth) and improved performance. To directly address the inefficiency of TCP's congestion mitigation solely on the end-to-end basis, in this paper we propose an adaptive split connection scheme on advanced relay nodes; this scheme dynamically splits end-to-end TCP connections on the basis of congestion status in output links. Through simulation evaluations, we examine the effectiveness and potential of the proposed scheme.

  9. Artificial photosynthesis for solar water-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Vayssieres, Lionel; Durrant, James R.

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen generated from solar-driven water-splitting has the potential to be a clean, sustainable and abundant energy source. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, artificial solar water-splitting devices are now being designed and tested. Recent developments based on molecular and/or nanostructure designs have led to advances in our understanding of light-induced charge separation and subsequent catalytic water oxidation and reduction reactions. Here we review some of the recent progress towards developing artificial photosynthetic devices, together with their analogies to biological photosynthesis, including technologies that focus on the development of visible-light active hetero-nanostructures and require an understanding of the underlying interfacial carrier dynamics. Finally, we propose a vision for a future sustainable hydrogen fuel community based on artificial photosynthesis.

  10. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders.

    PubMed

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H2 from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  11. Spin polarization of the split Kondo state.

    PubMed

    von Bergmann, Kirsten; Ternes, Markus; Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J

    2015-02-20

    Spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy is employed to quantitatively determine the spin polarization of the magnetic field-split Kondo state. Tunneling conductance spectra of a Kondo-screened magnetic atom are evaluated within a simple model taking into account inelastic tunneling due to spin excitations and two Kondo peaks positioned symmetrically around the Fermi energy. We fit the spin state of the Kondo-screened atom with a spin Hamiltonian independent of the Kondo effect and account for Zeeman splitting of the Kondo peak in the magnetic field. We find that the width and the height of the Kondo peaks scales with the Zeeman energy. Our observations are consistent with full spin polarization of the Kondo peaks, i.e., a majority spin peak below the Fermi energy and a minority spin peak above.

  12. Solitary waves of the splitted RLW equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki, S. I.

    2001-07-01

    A combination of the splitting method and the cubic B-spline finite elements is used to solve the non-linear regularized long wave (RLW) equation. This approach involves a Bubnov-Galerkin method with cubic B-spline finite elements so that there is continuity of the dependent variable and its first derivative throughout the solution region. Time integration of the resulting systems is effected using a Crank-Nicholson approximation. In simulations of the migration of a single solitary wave this algorithm is shown to have higher accuracy and better conservation than a recent splitting difference scheme based on cubic spline interpolation functions, for different amplitudes ranging from a very small ( ⩾0.03) to a considerably high amplitudes ( ⩽0.3). The development of an undular bore is modeled.

  13. Splitting K-symplectic methods for non-canonical separable Hamiltonian problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Ruili; Tang, Yifa; Tu, Xiongbiao; Zhao, Yue

    2016-10-01

    Non-canonical Hamiltonian systems have K-symplectic structures which are preserved by K-symplectic numerical integrators. There is no universal method to construct K-symplectic integrators for arbitrary non-canonical Hamiltonian systems. However, in many cases of interest, by using splitting, we can construct explicit K-symplectic methods for separable non-canonical systems. In this paper, we identify situations where splitting K-symplectic methods can be constructed. Comparative numerical experiments in three non-canonical Hamiltonian problems show that symmetric/non-symmetric splitting K-symplectic methods applied to the non-canonical systems are more efficient than the same-order Gauss' methods/non-symmetric symplectic methods applied to the corresponding canonicalized systems; for the non-canonical Lotka-Volterra model, the splitting algorithms behave better in efficiency and energy conservation than the K-symplectic method we construct via generating function technique. In our numerical experiments, the favorable energy conservation property of the splitting K-symplectic methods is apparent.

  14. A thermodynamically compatible splitting procedure in hyperelasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Favrie, N. Gavrilyuk, S. Ndanou, S.

    2014-08-01

    A material is hyperelastic if the stress tensor is obtained by variation of the stored energy function. The corresponding 3D mathematical model of hyperelasticity written in the Eulerian coordinates represents a system of 14 conservative partial differential equations submitted to stationary differential constraints. A classical approach for numerical solving of such a 3D system is a geometrical splitting: the 3D system is split into three 1D systems along each spatial direction and solved then by using a Godunov type scheme. Each 1D system has 7 independent eigenfields corresponding to contact discontinuity, longitudinal waves and shear waves. The construction of the corresponding Riemann solvers is not an easy task even in the case of isotropic solids. Indeed, for a given specific energy it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to check its rank-one convexity which is a necessary and sufficient condition for hyperbolicity of the governing equations. In this paper, we consider a particular case where the specific energy is a sum of two terms. The first term is the hydrodynamic energy depending only on the density and the entropy, and the second term is the shear energy which is unaffected by the volume change. In this case a very simple criterion of hyperbolicity can be formulated. We propose then a new splitting procedure which allows us to find a numerical solution of each 1D system by solving successively three 1D sub-systems. Each sub-system is hyperbolic, if the full system is hyperbolic. Moreover, each sub-system has only three waves instead of seven, and the velocities of these waves are given in explicit form. The last property allows us to construct reliable Riemann solvers. Numerical 1D tests confirm the advantage of the new approach. A multi-dimensional extension of the splitting procedure is also proposed.

  15. Malevolence, splitting, and parental ratings by borderlines.

    PubMed

    Baker, L; Silk, K R; Westen, D; Nigg, J T; Lohr, N E

    1992-04-01

    Malevolent object relations as well as splitting have long been considered by psychodynamic theorists as central features of borderline personality disorder. We tested the hypotheses that borderlines would a) perceive their parents more negatively than both nonborderline major depressive patients and nonpatient normal controls, and b) split their representations of their parents into opposites more than the comparison subjects. Borderlines (N = 31), who were identified by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines, Research Diagnostic Criteria major depressives (N = 15), and nonpatient controls (N = 14) were asked to rate each parent on the Adjective Check List (ACL; Gough and Heilbrun, 1983). Seven ACL scales were studied: Favorable, Unfavorable, Critical Parent, Nurturing Parent, Nurturance, Aggression, and Dominance. Correlations were performed between scores for mother and father on the various scales for each of the three cohorts. Analysis of variance and one-way t-tests with Bonferroni correction were used to test group differences. Borderlines rated their parents, especially their fathers, not only as more unfavorable on negative scales than depressives or normals, but as less favorable on positive scales than the comparison groups. Analysis of covariance revealed that a significant portion of the variance in father scores, but not in mother scores, was related to age of respondent and history of sexual abuse. While borderlines did not appear to split their parents into one good and one bad parent, they did show significantly less correlation between parents on the Favorable scale when compared with either depressives or normal subjects. The results imply that borderlines have a greater tendency to view the world in negative, malevolent ways than to split their object representations.

  16. Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Vanleer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1988-01-01

    Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations or auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.

  17. Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1990-01-01

    Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations for auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.

  18. Continuously tunable, split-cavity gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, G. F.; Gross, M.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to a gyrotron cavity configuration which is split in halves longitudinally, to allow any frequency lying between the fixed cavity resonance to be assessed by mechanically changing the separation of the two halves. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the rate-of-change in resonant frequency with separation is greatest if the minor axis of the cavity cross section is the one undergoing change. Excellent agreement with theory is noted for these results.

  19. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or...

  2. Bunch Splitting Simulations for the JLEIC Ion Collider Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Satogata, Todd J.; Gamage, Randika

    2016-05-01

    We describe the bunch splitting strategies for the proposed JLEIC ion collider ring at Jefferson Lab. This complex requires an unprecedented 9:6832 bunch splitting, performed in several stages. We outline the problem and current results, optimized with ESME including general parameterization of 1:2 bunch splitting for JLEIC parameters.

  3. 77 FR 8127 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK50 Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal... credit splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax paid or accrued by a taxpayer, such tax is... splitting event with respect to a foreign income tax paid or accrued by a section 902 corporation, the...

  4. A Method for Maximizing Split-Half Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, John C.; Osburn, H. G.

    1977-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for maximizing split-half reliability coefficients is described. Coefficients derived by the algorithm were found to be generally larger than odd-even split-half coefficients or other internal consistency measures and nearly as large as the largest split half coefficients. MSPLIT, Odd-Even, and Kuder-Richardson-20…

  5. 12 CFR 7.2023 - Reverse stock splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Corporate Practices § 7.2023 Reverse stock splits. (a) Authority to engage in reverse stock splits. A national bank may engage in a reverse stock split if the transaction serves a legitimate corporate purpose and provides adequate dissenting shareholders' rights. (b) Legitimate corporate purpose. Examples...

  6. Universal exchange-driven phonon splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deisenhofer, Joachim; Kant, Christian; Schmidt, Michael; Wang, Zhe; Mayr, Franz; Tsurkan, Vladimir; Loidl, Alois

    2012-02-01

    We report on a linear dependence of the phonon splitting on the non-dominant exchange coupling Jnd in the antiferromagnetic monoxides MnO, Fe0.92O, CoO and NiO, and in the highly frustrated antiferromagnetic spinels CdCr2O4, MgCr2O4 and ZnCr2O4. For the monoxides our results directly confirm the theoretical prediction of a predominantly exchange induced splitting of the zone-centre optical phonon [1,2]. We find the linear relation δφ= βJndS^2 with slope β = 3.7. This relation also holds for a very different class of systems, namely the highly frustrated chromium spinels. Our finding suggests a universal dependence of the exchange-induced phonon splitting at the antiferromagnetic transition on the non-dominant exchange coupling [3].[4pt] [1] S. Massidda et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 430 (1999).[0pt] [2] W. Luo et al., Solid State Commun. 142, 504 (2007).[0pt] [3] Ch. Kant et al., arxiv:1109.4809.

  7. Streamlined expressed protein ligation using split inteins.

    PubMed

    Vila-Perelló, Miquel; Liu, Zhihua; Shah, Neel H; Willis, John A; Idoyaga, Juliana; Muir, Tom W

    2013-01-09

    Chemically modified proteins are invaluable tools for studying the molecular details of biological processes, and they also hold great potential as new therapeutic agents. Several methods have been developed for the site-specific modification of proteins, one of the most widely used being expressed protein ligation (EPL) in which a recombinant α-thioester is ligated to an N-terminal Cys-containing peptide. Despite the widespread use of EPL, the generation and isolation of the required recombinant protein α-thioesters remain challenging. We describe here a new method for the preparation and purification of recombinant protein α-thioesters using engineered versions of naturally split DnaE inteins. This family of autoprocessing enzymes is closely related to the inteins currently used for protein α-thioester generation, but they feature faster kinetics and are split into two inactive polypeptides that need to associate to become active. Taking advantage of the strong affinity between the two split intein fragments, we devised a streamlined procedure for the purification and generation of protein α-thioesters from cell lysates and applied this strategy for the semisynthesis of a variety of proteins including an acetylated histone and a site-specifically modified monoclonal antibody.

  8. Flat, Branched and Split Electrospun Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koombhongse, Sureeporn; Reneker, Darrell H.

    2001-03-01

    The electrospinning process uses electrical force to overcome the force from surface tension. As the electric field increases, the surface of a droplet becomes nearly conical and a charged jet flows from the vertex. The charged jet moves along a straight line for some distance and then begins a spiraling path, which is triggered by a bending instability.[1] The charged jet solidifies as it dries and electrospun nanofibers are collected. The electrospinning process normally produces cylindrical fibers, but sometimes the fibers are flat, branched or split. Flat fibers were electrospun from polystyrene (PS) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA) solution. Flat fibers were formed by the collapse of a tube. Branched fibers of HEMA, PS and poly(vinylidene fluoride) were observed. The thinner branch was usually perpendicular to the axis of the primary jet. Branched fibers are formed by a smaller secondary jet ejected from the surface of the primary jet. The charged jet can split apart into two smaller jets to reduce the charge per unit surface area. Split fibers of HEMA, in which two smaller jets run parallel to the axis of the primary jet were observed. 1. D.H. Reneker, A.L. Yarin, H. Fong, and S. Koombhongse, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 4531 (2000).

  9. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  10. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    1992-01-01

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  11. Nonadiabatic dynamics of positive charge during photocatalytic water splitting on GaN(10-10) surface: charge localization governs splitting efficiency.

    PubMed

    Akimov, Alexey V; Muckerman, James T; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2013-06-12

    Photochemical water splitting is a promising avenue to sustainable, clean energy and fuel production. Gallium nitride (GaN) and its solid solutions are excellent photocatalytic materials; however, the efficiency of the process is low on pure GaN, and cocatalysts are required to increase the yields. We present the first time-domain theoretical study of the initial steps of photocatalytic water splitting on a GaN surface. Our state-of-the-art simulation technique, combining nonadiabatic molecular dynamics and time-dependent density functional theory, allows us to characterize the mechanisms and time scales of the evolution of the photogenerated positive charge (hole) and the subsequent proton transfer at the GaN/water interface. The calculations show that the hole loses its excess energy within 100 fs and localizes primarily on the nitrogen atoms of the GaN surface, initiating a sequence of proton-transfer events from the surface N-H group to the nearby OH groups and bulk water molecules. Water splitting requires hole localization on oxygen rather than nitrogen, necessitating nonadiabatic transitions uphill in energy on pure GaN. Such transitions happen rarely, resulting in low yields of the photocatalytic water splitting observed experimentally. We conclude that efficient cocatalysts should favor localization of the photogenerated hole on oxygen-containing species at the semiconductor/water interface.

  12. Plasmon coupling in vertical split-ring resonator metamolecules.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pin Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Liu, Ai Qun; Zheludev, Nikolay I; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-06-05

    The past decade has seen a number of interesting designs proposed and implemented to generate artificial magnetism at optical frequencies using plasmonic metamaterials, but owing to the planar configurations of typically fabricated metamolecules that make up the metamaterials, the magnetic response is mainly driven by the electric field of the incident electromagnetic wave. We recently fabricated vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs) which behave as magnetic metamolecules sensitive to both incident electric and magnetic fields with stronger induced magnetic dipole moment upon excitation in comparison to planar SRRs. The fabrication technique enabled us to study the plasmon coupling between VSRRs that stand up side by side where the coupling strength can be precisely controlled by varying the gap in between. The resulting wide tuning range of these resonance modes offers the possibility of developing frequency selective functional devices such as sensors and filters based on plasmon coupling with high sensitivity.

  13. Removal of Deeply Impacted Mandibular Molars by Sagittal Split Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Isler, Sabri Cemil

    2016-01-01

    Mandibular third molars are the most common impacted teeth. Mandibular first and second molars do not share the same frequency of occurrence. In rare cases the occlusal surfaces of impacted molars are united by the same follicular space and the roots pointing in opposite direction; these are called kissing molars. In some cases, a supernumerary fourth molar can be seen as unerupted and, in this case, such a supernumerary, deeply impacted fourth molar is seen neighboring kissing molars. The extraction of deeply impacted wisdom molars from the mandible may necessitate excessive bone removal and it causes complications such as damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and iatrogenic fractures of the mandible. This case report describes the use of the sagittal split osteotomy technique to avoid extensive bone removal and protect the inferior alveolar nerve during surgical extruction of multiple impacted teeth. PMID:27429810

  14. Grating beam splitting with liquid crystal adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albero, J.; Moreno, I.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the generation of equi-intense light beams from an adaptive point of view. A phase mask is generated and displayed onto a spatial light modulator, in order to divide an incoming light beam into a chosen number of beams. The use of liquid crystal spatial light modulators can introduce polarization into scalar designs as a parameter acting on the output efficiency. We reproduce the modulator optimal designs proposed theoretically in the literature and we add the polarization features. In addition, we compare this with another beam splitting technique, based on spatial multiplexing of phase masks. It spreads as low-level background noise the light concentrated on diffraction orders other than those targeted. We also demonstrate that using polarization with spatial light modulators can improve in some cases the optimal theoretical efficiencies. Experimental results agree with simulations.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Split Peroneal Tendon Lateral Ankle Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Bazán, D Issac; Evans, Andrew M; Agarwal, Monica R; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lateral ankle instability is a common condition. Split peroneal tendon lateral ankle stabilization, a modification of the Chrisman-Snook procedure, is biomechanically stable and often used for severe and/or recurrent chronic lateral ankle instability. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this technique. Specifically, the midterm recurrence of instability and postoperative complications, such as stiffness, neurologic pain, and wound healing complications, were evaluated. We evaluated 30 consecutive procedures with a minimal follow-up period of 1 year. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 13 (median 19, range 13 to 62) months. Five patients (17%) developed recurrent ankle instability, of whom 4 underwent revision surgery. One superficial infection and two wound disruptions developed. Two patients experienced stiffness and eight (27%) surgically induced neurologic complaints, such as sural neuritis. Finally, 2 patients developed complex regional pain syndrome.

  16. Pitch-based pattern splitting for 1D layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Ryo; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Koji; Tsujita, Koichiro; Yaegashi, Hidetami; Oyama, Kenichi; Smayling, Michael C.; Axelrad, Valery

    2015-07-01

    The pattern splitting algorithm for 1D Gridded-Design-Rules layout (1D layout) for sub-10 nm node logic devices is shown. It is performed with integer linear programming (ILP) based on the conflict graph created from a grid map for each designated pitch. The relation between the number of times for patterning and the minimum pitch is shown systematically with a sample pattern of contact layer for each node. From the result, the number of times for patterning for 1D layout is fewer than that for conventional 2D layout. Moreover, an experimental result including SMO and total integrated process with hole repair technique is presented with the sample pattern of contact layer whose pattern density is relatively high among critical layers (fin, gate, local interconnect, contact, and metal).

  17. Improved specimen recovery in tensile split Hopkinson bar

    PubMed Central

    Isakov, Matti; Hiermaier, Stefan; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an improved specimen recovery method for the tensile split Hopkinson bar (TSHB) technique. The method is based on the trapping of residual stress waves with the use of momentum trap bars. As is well known, successful momentum trapping in TSHB is highly sensitive to experimental uncertainties, especially on the incident bar side of the set-up. However, as is demonstrated in this paper, significant improvement in the reliability of specimen recovery is obtained by using two momentum trap bars in contact with the incident bar. This makes the trapping of the reflected wave insensitive to striker speed and removes the need for a precision set gap between the incident bar and the momentum trap. PMID:25071235

  18. Self-induced spectral splits in supernova neutrino fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2007-10-15

    In the dense-neutrino region above the neutrino sphere of a supernova (r < or approx. 400 km), neutrino-neutrino refraction causes collective flavor transformations. They can lead to 'spectral splits' where an energy E{sub split} splits the transformed spectrum sharply into parts of almost pure but different flavors. Unless there is an ordinary MSW resonance in the dense-neutrino region, E{sub split} is determined by flavor-lepton number conservation alone. Spectral splits are created by an adiabatic transition between regions of large and small neutrino density. We solve the equations of motion in the adiabatic limit explicitly and provide analytic expressions for a generic example.

  19. The structure of split regular BiHom-Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, Antonio J.; Sánchez, José M.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce the class of split regular BiHom-Lie algebras as the natural extension of the one of split Hom-Lie algebras and so of split Lie algebras. We show that an arbitrary split regular BiHom-Lie algebra L is of the form L = U +∑jIj with U a linear subspace of a fixed maximal abelian subalgebra H and any Ij a well described (split) ideal of L, satisfying [Ij ,Ik ] = 0 if j ≠ k. Under certain conditions, the simplicity of L is characterized and it is shown that L is the direct sum of the family of its simple ideals.

  20. How Dutch Employees Experience Freedom of Learning for Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe…

  1. Measurement of Tear Production in English Angora and Dutch Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Rafiee, Siamak Mashhady; Ghaffari, Masoud Selk; Masouleh, Mohammad N; Jamshidian, Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for tear production tests in different breeds of domestic rabbits. Healthy adult rabbits (n = 60; 120 eyes) of 2 different breeds (English angora and Dutch; n = 15 of each sex and breed) were used in this study. Tear production was measured by using the 1-min Schirmer tear test (STT), phenol red thread test (PRTT), and endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPTT). In addition, horizontal palpebral fissure length was evaluated as a measure of ocular adnexal dimensions. Tear production (mean ± 1 SD) in English angora rabbits was 5.4 ± 1.6 mm/min according to the STT, 25.0 ± 2.7 mm in 15 s for the PRTT, and 18.8 ± 2.1 mm/min by the EAPTT; in Dutch rabbits, these values were 4.6 ± 1.2 mm/min, 23.6 ± 2.3 mm in 15 s, and 16.9 ± 1.7 mm/min, respectively. Only the EAPTT revealed a significant difference in tear production between English Angora and Dutch rabbits. These results provide reference values for tear production in English Angora and Dutch rabbits according to 3 different quantitative tear film assessment methods.

  2. Smoking among Dutch Elementary Schoolchildren: Gender-Specific Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausems, M.; Mesters, I.; van Breukelen, G.; De Vries, H.

    2009-01-01

    Higher rates of smoking initiation and continuation by female compared with male adolescents, as found in many developed countries, may call for gender-specific prevention programs. Risk factors of smoking initiation and continuation were examined prospectively (1997-2002) among 3205 Dutch elementary schoolchildren (mean age 11.64) in an…

  3. Developing Classroom Formative Assessment in Dutch Primary Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, M.; Harskamp, E. G.; Suhre, C. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades Dutch primary school students scored below expectation in international mathematics tests. An explanation for this may be that teachers fail to adequately assess their students' understanding of learning goals and provide timely feedback. To improve the teachers' formative assessment practice, researchers, curriculum…

  4. Genetic parameters of insect bite hypersensitivity in Dutch Friesian broodmares.

    PubMed

    Schurink, A; Ducro, B J; Heuven, H C M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2011-05-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal allergic skin disease in horses caused by bites of certain Culicoides spp. The aim of our study was to investigate the maternal effect on IBH and to estimate the heritability and repeatability of IBH in the Dutch Friesian horse population. Data consisted of 3,453 Dutch Friesian broodmares with 3,763 visual observations on IBH clinical symptoms scored by 12 inspectors during organized foal inspections in 2004 and 2008. Nine percent of the mares (n = 310) were scored in both years. Mares descended from 144 sires and 2,554 dams and 26.2% of the dams (n = 669) had more than 1 offspring in the data set (range: 2 to 6). Insect bite hypersensitivity was analyzed as a binary trait with a threshold animal model with and without a maternal effect, using a Bayesian approach. Observed IBH prevalence in Dutch Friesian broodmare population was 18.2%. Heritability on the liability scale was 0.16 (SD = 0.06); heritability on the observed scale was 0.07; and repeatability was 0.89 (SD = 0.03). Maternal effect was 0.17 (SD = 0.06) and significantly differed from zero, although the animal model without a maternal effect fitted the data better. These results show that genetic and permanent environmental factors affect IBH in Dutch Friesian horses. The dam affected the IBH development of her offspring through an additive genetic influence but also by being part of their rearing environment.

  5. Two Dutch brothers with Borrone dermato-cardio-skeletal syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Steensel, M A M; Ceulen, R P M; Delhaas, T; de Die-Smulders, C

    2007-06-01

    In 1993, Borrone et al. described two Italian brothers affected by a syndrome of severe acne, mitral valve prolapse, dysmorphic facies, and Scheuermann-like changes of the vertebral column. Since then, no further cases have been reported. Here, we report on two Dutch brothers with many features suggestive of this rare syndrome.

  6. A Collaborative Dialogue--Research in Dutch Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Ven, Piet-Hein

    2007-01-01

    In order to address a perceived gap between academic knowledge and education, The Dutch National Advisory Board on Education has suggested that there is a need for more communication between research and practice. For me the gap is more than simply a matter of lack of communication, than a result of the model of Research, Development and Diffusion…

  7. How Dutch employees experience freedom of learning for work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dellen, Theo; Heidekamp, Ina

    2015-12-01

    This article focuses on the perceived freedom of Dutch employees to embark on workplace learning in terms of whether they feel it is "voluntary" or "compulsory". The paper is based on the findings of a large international explorative survey carried out by the Workplace Learning (WPL) Research Network (RN2) of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Lifelong Learning (LLL) Research Hub. The comparative study focused on employees' quest for "freedom of learning for work". This paper reports on the Dutch part of the research, the quantitative results of which seem to indicate that the freedom of learning for work is not as important to Dutch employees as might be expected. In a second phase, to investigate employees' experiences of work-related learning in more depth, the Dutch researchers added a follow-up qualitative study, involving one-on-one interviews. In order to triangulate the results of the quantitative and qualitative research phases, the authors then added a mixed-methods sequential explanatory analysis. They assessed the quality of the collected data in both distinct phases by identifying converging results, which are useful for refining our understanding of learning for work. The paper draws both on rich insights into workplace learning based on this research as well as on theoretical literature which refers to concepts like motivation, subjectivity, work identity and agency in connection with the quest for freedom of learning.

  8. Phonotactics and Morphophonology in Early Child Language: Evidence from Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Fikkert, Paula

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates children's knowledge of how surface pronunciations of lexical items vary according to their phonological and morphological context. Dutch-learning children aged 2.5 and 3.5 years were tested on voicing neutralization and morphophonological alternations. For instance, voicing does not alternate between the pair…

  9. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  10. Development of a Test of Spoken Dutch for Prospective Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, John H. A. L.; Lennig, Matthew; Kerkhoff, Anne; Poelmans, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Based on a parliamentary vote with broad support, the Ministry of Justice of the Netherlands in December 2003 commissioned the development of an examination system to test the Dutch oral language skills of foreigners who want to immigrate permanently to the Netherlands for economic or family reasons. This assessment would take place in the country…

  11. Citizenship Education and the Dutch National Identity Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of dramatic demographic changes during the last half century as well as a series of recent events surrounding prominent personas, the Dutch have been engaged in an intense debate about their national identity and how citizenship education can contribute to the integration of Muslim immigrants in particular. This article analyses the…

  12. Two Profiles of the Dutch High Performing Employee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Waal, A. A.; Oudshoorn, Michella

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the profile of an ideal employee, to be more precise the behavioral characteristics of the Dutch high-performing employee (HPE). Organizational performance depends for a large part on the commitment of employees. Employees provide their knowledge, skills, experiences and creativity to the…

  13. Collaboration on ICT in Dutch Higher Education: The SURF Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boezerooy, Petra; Cordewener, Bas; Liebrand, Wim

    2007-01-01

    In "Thinking Ahead: A Vision of the Role of ICT in Education and Research in the Future, 2007-2010," the higher education institutions in the Netherlands agreed on future strategy. Under the direction of SURF, the Dutch national organization, a collaborative strategy for the application of information and communications technology (ICT)…

  14. Evaluation of Transition in Dutch Senior Secondary Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazonder, Ard W.; de Jong, Frank P. C. M.

    1999-01-01

    Survey responses from 55 Dutch agricultural vocational schools show that administrators believe that transition, the ability of students to change between training modes or qualification levels easily, has enhanced the flexibility of the qualification system developed under recent national reforms. (SLD)

  15. Dutch Treat for U.S. Database Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boumans, Jak

    1984-01-01

    Reports on investments in the United States (including database activities) by four Dutch publishing companies--Elsevier-NDU, VNU, Kluwer, Wolters Samsom Group. An analysis of the reasons behind these investments, the solidness of the companies, the approach to the U.S. information market, and the knowledge transfer to Europe are highlighted. (EJS)

  16. Alliances in the Dutch BeweegKuur Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Hartog, Franciska; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Vaandrager, Lenneke; van Dijk, Marieke; Koelen, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: BeweegKuur (Exercise Therapy) is a Dutch lifestyle programme in which participants are referred by a general practitioner (GP) to a lifestyle advisor. To support participants, regional and local alliances are established. The present study explored the successes and challenges associated with collaboration processes in local BeweegKuur…

  17. Gender Representation and Participation in Dutch Human Geography Departments. Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuijn, Joos Droogleever

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970s the under-representation of women in geography has been questioned in several publications. Most articles refer to the situation in English-speaking countries. This paper examines the vertical and horizontal gender segregation in human geography departments in Dutch universities. In spite of several policy measures…

  18. Cognitive and Linguistic Constraints on Phoneme Isolation in Dutch Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaff, Saskia; Hasselman, Fred; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether task instructions affect sound-isolation performance. The effects of phoneme class and phoneme position were also assessed. Two hundred Dutch kindergartners were presented with a free-sound-isolation task and its constrained counterparts: an initial-, a middle-, and a final-sound-isolation task. All tasks contained…

  19. Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gays among American and Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Kate L.; Horn, Stacey S.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the U.S. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and American heterosexual adolescents, utilizing survey data from 1,080 American adolescents (mean age = 15.86 years) attending two schools and from 1,391 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 16.27 years) attending eight schools. Findings indicated the Dutch participants were more tolerant of lesbians and gays, after adjusting for the gender, age, and racial/ethnic minority status of the participants. However, between-country differences were attenuated by accounting for the beliefs about lesbians and gays that participants used to justify their attitudes. American participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to social norms and religious opposition, while the Dutch participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to individual rights and the biological/genetic basis of homosexuality. The results suggest that the relative importance of particular beliefs about lesbians and gays to attitudes at the group level may be context-dependent but also that certain beliefs are salient to attitudes across national contexts. PMID:24512056

  20. Equality on Different Terms: The Case of Dutch Hindu Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.; Driessen, Geert

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors examine the reasons for the establishment of Hindu schools in the Netherlands and how the Dutch system of education facilitates these and other voluntarily separate schools. In particular, the authors explore the manner in which Hindu schools aim to cultivate and sustain attachments to their own group through a…

  1. Organisational Factors and Teachers' Professional Development in Dutch Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Arnoud T.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Kreijns, Karel; Gerrichhauzen, John T. G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study that investigates the relationship between organisational factors, Teachers' Professional Development (TPD) and occupational expertise. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was administered among 152 Dutch teachers in secondary education. Findings: Analysis of the data revealed that of…

  2. Career Guidance and Student Success in Dutch Higher Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Wierik, Mark L. J.; Beishuizen, Jos; van Os, Willem

    2015-01-01

    To enhance student success, a growing number of vocational education and training institutions in the Netherlands are nowadays implementing new career guidance practices in their competence-based approaches to learning. Based on individual-level data of undergraduate first-year full-time students from a Dutch university of applied sciences, this…

  3. Exploring EFL Literature Approaches in Dutch Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloemert, Jasmijn; Jansen, Ellen; van de Grift, Wim

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the inclusion of literature in foreign language (FL) curricula can be beneficial to language learners. Especially, the move towards integrated language and literature curricula is gaining ground. In this study we investigated the way English as a foreign language (EFL) is approached in Dutch secondary…

  4. Sex Differences on the Dutch WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Sophie; Posthuma, Danielle; Dolan, Conor V.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Colom, Roberto; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2006-01-01

    Using multi-group covariance and means structure analysis (MG-CMSA), this study investigated whether sex differences were present on the Dutch WAIS-III, and if so, whether these sex differences were attributable to differences in general intelligence ("g"). The sample consisted of 294 females and 228 males between 18 and 46 years old.…

  5. Trends in Educational Disadvantage in Dutch Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; Merry, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether the language and math delays of the different socio-economic and ethnic minority groups targeted by Dutch educational disadvantage policy have diminished or not. Data are from the years 1995, 1999, 2003 and 2008. Information from a total of 90,000 pupils in Grades 2 and 8 was selected to represent the…

  6. The Prevalence of Poor Reading in Dutch Special Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bon, Wim H. J.; Bouwmans, Mieke; Broeders, Ivy N. L. D. C.

    2006-01-01

    The relative frequency of poor readers in Dutch general elementary education (GEE) and special elementary education (SEE) and the characteristics of their reading performance were investigated using a lexical decision procedure. According to the same norms that identified 9% of students as poor readers in GEE, no less than 73% of the students in…

  7. Stylizing Standard Dutch by Moroccan Boys in Antwerp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Jurgen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines ethnographic data that show Belgian adolescents of Moroccan descent stylizing Standard Dutch. Analysis addresses the importance of this variety in Belgian-Flemish society and in the school these boys attended, and shows how in interviews with Moroccan boys the hegemonic status of this variety is generally accepted. In…

  8. Symmetry property of a generalized Billet's N-split lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chieh-Jen; Chern, Jyh-Long

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the diffraction properties of a generalized split N-sector lens originating from Billet's split bi-sector lens. The intensity distributions vary dramatically as the number of split sectors increases, and especially compared with those of the classical Billet's split lens. Nevertheless, the type of lens splitting selected causes the interference pattern of equidistant straight lines in the original Billet's lens to form an N-fold angularly distributed pattern with an angle difference of 2 π/ N. For an odd number of splitting N, there is an additional angle shift of π/ N for the azimuthally distributed patterns of equidistant straight lines. In other words, there are two kinds of symmetry even for simple splitting operations. On the other hand, the peak intensity distribution in the central portion resembles a concentric-circle-like pattern, when N is large as a result of N-beam interference.

  9. A novel strategy to increase heating efficiency in a split-focus ultrasound phased array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Li; Shih, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Ju, Kuen-Cheng

    2007-07-01

    Focus splitting using sector-based phased arrays increases the necrosed volume in a single sonication and reduces the total treatment time in the treatment of large tumors. However, split-focus sonication results in a lower energy density and worse focal-beam distortion, which limits its usefulness in practical treatments. Here, we propose a new heating strategy involving consecutive strongly focused and split-focus sonications to improve the heating efficiency. Theoretical predictions including linear and thermal-dose-dependent attenuation change were employed to investigate potential factors of this strategy, and ex vivo tissue experiments were conducted to confirm its effectiveness. Results showed that the thermal lesions produced by the proposed strategy could be increased when comparing with the previous reported strategies. The proposed heating strategy also induces a thermal lesion more rapidly, and exhibits higher robustness to various blood perfusion conditions, higher robustness to various power/heating time combinations, and superiority to generate deep-seated lesions through tissues with complex interfaces. Possible mechanisms include the optimization of the thermal conduction created by the strongly focused sonication and the temperature buildup gained from thermally induced tissue attenuation change based on the theoretical analysis. This may represent a useful technique for increasing the applicability of split-focus and multiple-focus sonication techniques, and solve the obstacles encountered when attempting to use these methods to shorten the total clinical treatment time.

  10. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-02-01

    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  11. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds.

  12. Applying Dutch and US Versions of the BSID-II in Dutch Children Born Preterm Leads to Different Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westera, J. J.; Houtzager, B. A.; Overdiek, B.; van Wassenaer, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the application of Dutch versus US test procedures and norms of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2nd edition (BSID-II) leads to different developmental outcomes. The BSID-II was administered to 376 preterm infants (191 males, 185 females; mean gestational age 30wks [SD 2.7], mean…

  13. A splitting-free vorticity redistribution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhart, M.; Obi, S.

    2017-02-01

    We present a splitting-free variant of the vorticity redistribution method. Spatial consistency and stability when combined with a time-stepping scheme are proven. We propose a new strategy preventing excessive growth in the number of particles while retaining the order of consistency. The novel concept of small neighbourhoods significantly reduces the method's computational cost. In numerical experiments the method showed second order convergence, one order higher than predicted by the analysis. Compared to the fast multipole code used in the velocity computation, the method is about three times faster.

  14. Strength of Wood Beams with End Splits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    equation (5) 6 (w =0) and Ri = 2,035 and 1,865 psi , In. for single and double end-split beams, respectively. Also plotted in figure 8 are the experi...t9.4 00 * 41 0 4 p T 4 1 Wri V-4 0 ~0 0 Ia 4 0). $43 ri *10 w~ 4 e~ 50 .~ o %W 44 . ! ~ 0be 4 a 4.104 0 v .40 V Literature Cited 1. American Society...Sons. Inc. 13. Savin. G. N. 1961. Stress concentration around holes Pergammon Press. 14. Schniewind, A. P.. and J. C. Centeno . 1973. Fracture toughness

  15. Split universal extra dimension and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Seong Chan; Shu Jing

    2009-05-01

    Motivated by the recent observation of the high energy electron and positron excesses in cosmic ray by PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS, we suggest an anomaly-free scenario for the universal extra dimension that localizes the standard model quarks and splits the spectrum of Kaluza-Klein (KK) quarks from KK leptons. When the SM quarks are 'well localized' at the boundaries, the most stringent bound of the model (1/R>510 GeV) comes from the resonance search for the Tevatron dijet channels. Even at the early stage of LHC, one can discover the second KK gluon for masses up to 4 TeV.

  16. String splitting and strong coupling meson decay.

    PubMed

    Cotrone, A L; Martucci, L; Troost, W

    2006-04-14

    We study the decay of high spin mesons using the gauge-string theory correspondence. The rate of the process is calculated by studying the splitting of a macroscopic string intersecting a D-brane. The result is applied to the decay of mesons in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a small number of flavors and in a gravity dual of large N QCD. In QCD the decay of high spin mesons is found to be heavily suppressed in the regime of validity of the supergravity description.

  17. Coupling Between Split-Ring Resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Michael; Stannigel, Kai; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt

    2009-10-07

    Numerical methods have become invaluable tools for research in the field of photonics and plasmonics. The Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain (DGTD) method, complemented by numerous extensions, allows us to solve Maxwell's equations on unstructured grids while maintaining an efficient, explicit time-stepping scheme. In this contribution we employ our DGTD computer code to analyse dimers of split-ring resonators (SRRs), metallic nano-structures often used as building blocks for metamaterials. We find that electromagnetic coupling between two SRRs heavily influences the dimers' resonances. Results for two SRRs facing each other are presented and the influence of the particle spacing is investigated.

  18. Production of arrays of chemically distinct nanolitre plugs via repeated splitting in microfluidic devices†

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, David N.; Mustafi, Debarshi; Zhang, John X. J.; Zheng, Bo; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a method for the production of arrays of nanolitre plugs with distinct chemical compositions. One of the primary constraints on the use of plug-based microfluidics for large scale biological screening is the difficulty of fabricating arrays of chemically distinct plugs on the nanolitre scale. Here, using microfluidic devices with several T-junctions linked in series, a single input array of large (~320 nL) plugs was split to produce 16 output arrays of smaller (~20 nL) plugs; the composition and configuration of these arrays were identical to that of the input. This paper shows how the passive break-up of plugs in T-junction microchannel geometries can be used to produce a set of smaller-volume output arrays useful for chemical screening from a single large-volume array. A simple theoretical description is presented to describe splitting as a function of the Capillary number, the capillary pressure, the total pressure difference across the channel, and the geometric fluidic resistance. By accounting for these considerations, plug coalescence and plug–plug contamination can be eliminated from the splitting process and the symmetry of splitting can be preserved. Furthermore, single-outlet splitting devices were implemented with both valve- and volume-based methods for coordinating the release of output arrays. Arrays of plugs containing commercial sparse matrix screens were obtained from the presented splitting method and these arrays were used in protein crystallization trials. The techniques presented in this paper may facilitate the implementation of high-throughput chemical and biological screening. PMID:16929397

  19. Artificial photosynthesis: understanding water splitting in nature

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Nicholas; Pantazis, Dimitrios A.; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a global artificial photosynthesis (GAP) project, we review our current work on nature's water splitting catalyst. In a recent report (Cox et al. 2014 Science 345, 804–808 (doi:10.1126/science.1254910)), we showed that the catalyst—a Mn4O5Ca cofactor—converts into an ‘activated’ form immediately prior to the O–O bond formation step. This activated state, which represents an all MnIV complex, is similar to the structure observed by X-ray crystallography but requires the coordination of an additional water molecule. Such a structure locates two oxygens, both derived from water, in close proximity, which probably come together to form the product O2 molecule. We speculate that formation of the activated catalyst state requires inherent structural flexibility. These features represent new design criteria for the development of biomimetic and bioinspired model systems for water splitting catalysts using first-row transition metals with the aim of delivering globally deployable artificial photosynthesis technologies. PMID:26052426

  20. Renewable hydrogen production by photosynthetic water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1998-06-01

    This mission-oriented research project is focused on the production of renewable hydrogen. The authors have demonstrated that certain unicellular green algae are capable of sustained simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen by light-activated photosynthetic water splitting. It is the goal of this project to develop a practical chemical engineering system for the development of an economic process that can be used to produce renewable hydrogen. There are several fundamental problems that need to be solved before the application of this scientific knowledge can be applied to the development a practical process: (I) maximizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into hydrogen energy, (2) development of oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase-containing mutants, and (3) development of bioreactors that can be used in a real-world chemical engineering process. The authors are addressing each of these problems here at ORNL and in collaboration with their research colleagues at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Hawaii. This year the authors have focused on item 1 above. In particular, they have focused on the question of how many light reactions are required to split water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen.

  1. Photosynthetic water splitting: 1987 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1988-01-01

    This document is an annual report of photosynthetic water splitting for the production of hydrogen and oxygen. Unicellular green algae are capable of evolving molecular hydrogen in the presence of carbon dioxide. Controlling factors that determine hydrogen evolution are either temperature or light intensity. Also, mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas are capable of evolving hydrogen in the presence of carbon dioxide. The significance of these discoveries is that the presence of carbon dioxide (or bicarbonate) is a key factor in determining the activity of the Photosystem II water splitting complex. Second, a new advance in oxygen sensor technology has been made that, for the first time, allows the absolute measurement of photosynthetically evolved oxygen from a single colony of microalgae growing on a solidified agar medium. The key aspect of this electrochemical sensor is the utilization of ultra-pure potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and a recognition of the role that electrolyte impurities play in contributing to base line noise. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Vibration Analysis of a Split Path Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Rashidi, Majid

    1995-01-01

    Split path gearboxes can be attractive alternatives to the common planetary designs for rotorcraft, but because they have seen little use, they are relatively high risk designs. To help reduce the risk of fielding a rotorcraft with a split path gearbox, the vibration and dynamic characteristics of such a gearbox were studied. A mathematical model was developed by using the Lagrangian method, and it was applied to study the effect of three design variables on the natural frequencies and vibration energy of the gearbox. The first design variable, shaft angle, had little influence on the natural frequencies. The second variable, mesh phasing, had a strong effect on the levels of vibration energy, with phase angles of 0 deg and 180 deg producing low vibration levels. The third design variable, the stiffness of the shafts connecting the spur gears to the helical pinions, strongly influenced the natural frequencies of some of the vibration modes, including two of the dominant modes. We found that, to achieve the lowest level of vibration energy, the natural frequencies of these two dominant modes should be less than those of the main excitation sources.

  3. Artificial photosynthesis: understanding water splitting in nature.

    PubMed

    Cox, Nicholas; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-06-06

    In the context of a global artificial photosynthesis (GAP) project, we review our current work on nature's water splitting catalyst. In a recent report (Cox et al. 2014 Science 345, 804-808 (doi:10.1126/science.1254910)), we showed that the catalyst-a Mn4O5Ca cofactor-converts into an 'activated' form immediately prior to the O-O bond formation step. This activated state, which represents an all Mn(IV) complex, is similar to the structure observed by X-ray crystallography but requires the coordination of an additional water molecule. Such a structure locates two oxygens, both derived from water, in close proximity, which probably come together to form the product O2 molecule. We speculate that formation of the activated catalyst state requires inherent structural flexibility. These features represent new design criteria for the development of biomimetic and bioinspired model systems for water splitting catalysts using first-row transition metals with the aim of delivering globally deployable artificial photosynthesis technologies.

  4. Distributed transform coding via source-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahampath, Pradeepa

    2012-12-01

    Transform coding (TC) is one of the best known practical methods for quantizing high-dimensional vectors. In this article, a practical approach to distributed TC of jointly Gaussian vectors is presented. This approach, referred to as source-split distributed transform coding (SP-DTC), can be used to easily implement two terminal transform codes for any given rate-pair. The main idea is to apply source-splitting using orthogonal-transforms, so that only Wyner-Ziv (WZ) quantizers are required for compression of transform coefficients. This approach however requires optimizing the bit allocation among dependent sets of WZ quantizers. In order to solve this problem, a low-complexity tree-search algorithm based on analytical models for transform coefficient quantization is developed. A rate-distortion (RD) analysis of SP-DTCs for jointly Gaussian sources is presented, which indicates that these codes can significantly outperform the practical alternative of independent TC of each source, whenever there is a strong correlation between the sources. For practical implementation of SP-DTCs, the idea of using conditional entropy constrained (CEC) quantizers followed by Slepian-Wolf coding is explored. Experimental results obtained with SP-DTC designs based on both CEC scalar quantizers and CEC trellis-coded quantizers demonstrate that actual implementations of SP-DTCs can achieve RD performance close to the analytically predicted limits.

  5. Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOEpatents

    Walrath, David E.; Lindberg, William R.; Burgess, Robert K.

    2000-08-29

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane.

  6. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOEpatents

    Walrath, David E.; Lindberg, William R.; Burgess, Robert K.; LaBelle, James

    2000-02-22

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  7. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    1994-06-01

    Split torque designs, proposed as alternatives to traditional planetary designs for helicopter main rotor transmissions, can save weight and be more reliable than traditional designs. This report presents the results of an analytical study of the system dynamics and performance of a split torque gearbox that uses a balance beam mechanism for load sharing. The Lagrange method was applied to develop a system of equations of motion. The mathematical model includes time-varying gear mesh stiffness, friction, and manufacturing errors. Cornell's method for calculating the stiffness of spur gear teeth was extended and applied to helical gears. The phenomenon of sidebands spaced at shaft frequencies about gear mesh fundamental frequencies was simulated by modeling total composite gear errors as sinusoid functions. Although the gearbox has symmetric geometry, the loads and motions of the two power paths differ. Friction must be considered to properly evaluate the balance beam mechanism. For the design studied, the balance beam is not an effective device for load sharing unless the coefficient of friction is less than 0.003. The complete system stiffness as represented by the stiffness matrix used in this analysis must be considered to precisely determine the optimal tooth indexing position.

  8. Non-split and split deformations of {{AdS}}_{5}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-12-01

    The η deformation of the {{AdS}}5× {S}5 superstring depends on a non-split r matrix for the superalgebra {psu}(2,2| 4). Much of the investigation into this model has considered one particular choice, however there are a number of inequivalent alternatives. This is also true for the bosonic sector of the theory with {su}(2,2), the isometry algebra of {{AdS}}5, admitting one split and three non-split r matrices. In this article we explore these r matrices and the corresponding geometries. We investigate their contraction limits, comment on supergravity backgrounds and demonstrate their relation to gauged-WZW deformations. We then extend the three non-split cases to {{AdS}}5× {S}5 and compute four separate bosonic two-particle tree-level S-matrices based on inequivalent BMN-type light-cone gauges. The resulting S-matrices, while different, are related by momentum-dependent one-particle changes of basis.

  9. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. Methods We identified 17 helminth species from 136 foxes by mucosal scraping, centrifugal sedimentation/flotation and the washing and sieving technique. We applied rarefaction analysis to our samples and compared the resulting curve to the helminth community reported in literature 35 years ago. Results Fox helminth species significantly increased in number in the last 35 years (p-value <0.025). Toxascaris leonina, Mesocestoides litteratus, Trichuris vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are four new veterinary-relevant species. The zoonotic fox tapeworm (E. multilocularis) was found outside the previously described endemic regions in the Netherlands. Conclusions Helminth fauna in Dutch red foxes increased in biodiversity over the last three decades. PMID:24708710

  10. Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Joshua A. Holloway, Christopher L.; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A.; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric-field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 wave guide band is measured for frequencies of 93.71 GHz and 104.77 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measured the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.

  11. Split Node and Stress Glut Methods for Dynamic Rupture Simulations in Finite Elements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Bielak, J.

    2008-12-01

    I present two numerical techniques to solve the Dynamic problem. I revisit and modify the Split Node approach and introduce a Stress Glut type Method. Both algorithms are implemented using a iso/sub- parametric FEM solver. In the first case, I discuss the formulation and perform an analysis of convergence for different orders of approximation for the acoustic case. I describe the algorithm of the second methodology as well as the assumptions made. The key to the new technique is to have an accurate representation of the traction. Thus, I devote part of the discussion to analyze the tractions for a simple example. The sensitivity of the method is tested by comparing against Split Node solutions.

  12. Variability of annual CO2 exchange from Dutch grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, C. M. J.; Jacobs, A. F. G.; Bosveld, F. C.; Hendriks, D. M. D.; Hensen, A.; Kroon, P. S.; Moors, E. J.; Nol, L.; Schrier-Uijl, A.; Veenendaal, E. M.

    2007-10-01

    An intercomparison is made of the Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2, NEE, for eight Dutch grassland sites: four natural grasslands, two production grasslands and two meteorological stations within a rotational grassland region. At all sites the NEE was determined during at least 10 months per site, using the eddy-covariance (EC) technique, but in different years. The NEE does not include any import or export other than CO2. The photosynthesis-light response analysis technique is used along with the respiration-temperature response technique to partition NEE into Gross Primary Production (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (Re) and to obtain the eco-physiological characteristics of the sites at the field scale. Annual sums of NEE, GPP and Re are then estimated using the fitted response curves with observed radiation and air temperature from a meteorological site in the centre of The Netherlands as drivers. These calculations are carried out for four years (2002-2005). Land use and management histories are not considered. The estimated annual Re for all individual sites is more or less constant per site and the average for all sites amounts to 1390±30 gC m-2 a-1. The narrow uncertainty band (±2%) reflects the small differences in the mean annual air temperature. The mean annual GPP was estimated to be 1325 g C m-2 a-1, and displays a much higher standard deviation, of ±110 gC m-2 a-1 (8%), which reflects the relatively large variation in annual solar radiation. The mean annual NEE amounts to -65±85 gC m-2 a-1. From two sites, four-year records of CO2 flux were available and analyzed (2002-2005). Using the weather record of 2005 with optimizations from the other years, the standard deviation of annual GPP was estimated to be 171-206 gC m-2 a-1 (8-14%), of annual Re 227-247 gC m-2 a-1 (14-16%) and of annual NEE 176-276 gC m-2 a-1. The inter-site standard deviation was higher for GPP and Re, 534 gC m-2 a-1 (37.3%) and 486 gC m-2 a-1 (34.8%), respectively. However, the inter

  13. Solar hydrogen production on some water splitting photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Tsuyoshi; Hisatomi, Takashi; Domen, Kazunari

    2016-09-01

    Photocatalytic overall water splitting into H2 and O2 is expected to be a promising method for the efficient utilization of solar energy. The design of optimal photocatalyst structures is a key to efficient overall water splitting, and the development of photocatalysts which can efficiently convert large portion of visible light spectrum has been required. Recently, a series of complex perovskite type transition metal oxynitrides, LaMgxT 1-xO1+3xN2-3x, was developed as photocatalysts for direct water splitting operable at wide wavelength of visible light. In addition two-step excitation water splitting via a novel photocatalytic device termed as photocatalyst sheet was developed. This consists of two types of semiconductors (hydrogen evolution photocatalyst and oxygen evolution photocatalyst) particles embedded in a conductive layer, and showed high efficiency for overall water splitting. These recent advances in photocatalytic water splitting were introduced.

  14. Halogenated benzene radical cations and ground state degeneracy splitting by asymmetric substitution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bondybey, V.E.; Vaughn, C.R.; Miller, T.A.; English, J.H.; Shiley, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption and laser induced fluorescence of several halogenated benzene radical cations were studied in solid Ne matrices. The spectra of 1,2,4-trifluorobenzene, l,3-dichloro-5-fluorobenzene, and l-chloro-3,5- difluorobenzene radical cations are observed and analyzed. Studies of fluorescence polarization and a photoselection technique were used to examine the splitting of the degeneracy of the benzene cation ground state by asymmetric subsitution. ?? 1981 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Quantum tunneling splittings from path-integral molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyus, Edit; Wales, David J.; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2016-03-01

    We illustrate how path-integral molecular dynamics can be used to calculate ground-state tunnelling splittings in molecules or clusters. The method obtains the splittings from ratios of density matrix elements between the degenerate wells connected by the tunnelling. We propose a simple thermodynamic integration scheme for evaluating these elements. Numerical tests on fully dimensional malonaldehyde yield tunnelling splittings in good overall agreement with the results of diffusion Monte Carlo calculations.

  16. A combined approach of variance-reduction techniques for the efficient Monte Carlo simulation of linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Sempau, J.; Brualla, L.

    2012-05-01

    A method based on a combination of the variance-reduction techniques of particle splitting and Russian roulette is presented. This method improves the efficiency of radiation transport through linear accelerator geometries simulated with the Monte Carlo method. The method named as ‘splitting-roulette’ was implemented on the Monte Carlo code \\scriptsize{{PENELOPE}} and tested on an Elekta linac, although it is general enough to be implemented on any other general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code and linac geometry. Splitting-roulette uses any of the following two modes of splitting: simple splitting and ‘selective splitting’. Selective splitting is a new splitting mode based on the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung photons implemented in the Monte Carlo code \\scriptsize{{PENELOPE}}. Splitting-roulette improves the simulation efficiency of an Elekta SL25 linac by a factor of 45.

  17. Combatting Electoral Traces: The Dutch Tempest Discussion and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Wolter

    In the Dutch e-voting debate, the crucial issue leading to the abandonment of all electronic voting machines was compromising radiation, or tempest: it would be possible to eavesdrop on the choice of the voter by capturing the radiation from the machine. Other countries, however, do not seem to be bothered by this risk. In this paper, we use actor-network theory to analyse the socio-technical origins of the Dutch tempest issue in e-voting, and we introduce concepts for discussing its implications for e-voting beyond the Netherlands. We introduce the term electoral traces to denote any physical, digital or social evidence of a voter’s choices in an election. From this perspective, we provide a framework for risk classification as well as an overview of countermeasures against such traces.

  18. Epilepsy and self-identity among the Dutch.

    PubMed

    Reis, R

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between societal images of epilepsy and the self-identity of Dutch people with epilepsy. I show that the condition of having epilepsy is only constructed as chronic if people continue to have seizures. Chronic epilepsy, or "real epilepsy" as it is sometimes called, is not burdened with such classic stereotypes as "the epileptic personality" or "the epileptic genius." However, Dutch people replace these stereotypes with stereotypes based on ideas about "tension" and "weak spots"--phenomena that are allegedly linked to "sensitive," "brooding" types of people and that are thought to trigger epileptic seizures. Thus there develops a notion of self related to frequency of epileptic seizures. Those who are close to people with epilepsy--relatives and non-medical professionals--play an important role in this development.

  19. Splitting Neutrino masses and Showering into Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, D.; D'Armiento, D.; Lanciano, O.; Oliva, P.; Iacobelli, M.; de Sanctis Lucentini, P. G.; Grossi, M.; de Santis, M.

    2007-06-01

    Neutrino masses might be as light as a few time the atmospheric neutrino mass splitting. The relic cosmic neutrinos may cluster in wide Dark Hot Local Group Halo. High Energy ZeV cosmic neutrinos (in Z-Showering model) might hit relic ones at each mass in different resonance energies in our nearby Universe. This non-degenerated density and energy must split UHE Z-boson secondaries (in Z-Burst model) leading to multi injection of UHECR nucleons within future extreme AUGER energy. Secondaries of Z-Burst as neutral gamma, below a few tens EeV are better surviving local GZK cut-off and they might explain recent Hires BL-Lac UHECR correlations at small angles. A different high energy resonance must lead to Glashow's anti-neutrino showers while hitting electrons in matter. In water and ice it leads to isotropic light explosions. In air, Glashow's anti-neutrino showers lead to collimated and directional air-showers offering a new Neutrino Astronomy. Because of neutrino flavor mixing, astrophysical energetic tau neutrino above tens GeV must arise over atmospheric background. At TeV range is difficult to disentangle tau neutrinos from other atmospheric flavors. At greater energy around PeV, Tau escaping mountains and Earth and decaying in flight are effectively showering in air sky. These Horizontal showering is splitting by geomagnetic field in forked shapes. Such air-showers secondaries release amplified and beamed gamma bursts (like observed TGF), made also by muon and electron pair bundles, with their accompanying rich Cherenkov flashes. Also planet's largest (Saturn, Jupiter) atmosphere limbs offer an ideal screen for UHE GZK and Z-burst tau neutrino, because their largest sizes. Titan thick atmosphere and small radius are optimal for discovering up-going resonant Glashow resonant anti-neutrino electron showers. Detection from Earth of Tau, anti-Tau, anti-electron neutrino induced Air-showers by twin Magic Telescopes on top mountains, or space based detection on

  20. The Use of Split-Thickness Skin Grafts on Diabetic Foot Ulcerations: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    McCartan, Brant; Dinh, Thanh

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcerations are historically difficult to treat despite advanced therapeutic modalities. There are numerous modalities described in the literature ranging from noninvasive topical wound care to more invasive surgical procedures such as primary closure, skin flaps, and skin grafting. While skin grafting provides faster time to closure with a single treatment compared to traditional topical wound treatments, the potential risks of donor site morbidity and poor wound healing unique to the diabetic state have been cited as a contraindication to its widespread use. In order to garner clarity on this issue, a literature review was undertaken on the use of split-thickness skin grafts on diabetic foot ulcers. Search of electronic databases yielded four studies that reported split-thickness skin grafts as definitive means of closure. In addition, several other studies employed split-thickness skin grafts as an adjunct to a treatment that was only partially successful or used to fill in the donor site of another plastic surgery technique. When used as the primary closure on optimized diabetic foot ulcerations, split-thickness skin grafts are 78% successful at closing 90% of the wound by eight weeks. PMID:22666573

  1. Transient Exciton Spin Splitting in GaAs Quantum Wells under Near-Resonant Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin Latt, Kyaw; Lai, Chih-Wei

    2010-03-01

    We investigated spin dependent exciton-exciton interaction and energy relaxation under near-resonant circularly polarized ps pulsed excitation in single, multiple, or double coupled GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. Transient exciton spin splitting and relaxation were determined from time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy and polarimetry with a streak camera system. In contrast to standard TRPL measurements based on up-conversion and pump-probe techniques, the streak-camera setup allows for speedy spectroscopy and Stokes polarimetry measurements as a function of the exciton density and magnetic/electric field under near -resonant excitation (˜3 to 10 meV from the exciton resonance). For 6-nm and 14-nm GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells at intermediate density (a few 10^10 cm-2), a spin splitting of 2 and 1 meV appeared instantly within 10 ps after excitation and exhibited a decay time constant of ˜100 and 500 ps, respectively. In the presence of magnetic fields, the spin splitting and relaxation dynamics became non-exponential and exhibited asymmetric and nonlinear dependence on the direction and magnitude of the field up to 10 Tesla. We analyzed the spin splitting and relaxation dynamics in terms of inter-exciton and intra-exciton exchange interaction and exciton-carrier interaction.

  2. Selectively splitting a droplet using superhydrophobic stripes on hydrophilic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong; Song, Baowei; Hu, Haibao; Du, Xiaosong; Zhou, Feng

    2015-06-07

    Superhydrophobic patterns were fabricated on hydrophilic surfaces by selective painting. The impinging process of water droplets on these hybrid surfaces was investigated. The droplet can be split by impinging on the hydrophilic surface with a single stripe at a high velocity. The time to split the droplet is independent of the impact velocity and it is smaller than the contact time of a droplet impinging on the fully superhydrophobic surface. The volume ratios of the split mini-droplets could be precisely controlled by adjusting the landing position of the original droplet. The droplet could be split uniformly into more mini-marbles by increasing the stripe numbers.

  3. Processing grammatical gender in Dutch: Evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Susanne; Sprenger, Simone; Unsworth, Sharon

    2017-03-03

    Previous research has demonstrated that grammatical gender in Dutch is typically acquired late. Most of this work used production data only, and consequently children's knowledge of Dutch gender may have been underestimated. In this study, therefore, we examined whether 49 4- to 7-year-old Dutch-speaking children (and 19 adult controls) were able to use gender marking in the article preceding the object label during online sentence processing to (a) anticipate the upcoming object label or to (b) facilitate the processing of that label as it is presented. In addition, we investigated whether children's online processing and production of gender marking on articles were related. In an eye-tracking task, participants were presented with sentences and visual displays with two objects, representing nouns of either the same gender (uninformative) or different genders (informative). Children were divided into a non-targetlike group and a targetlike group on the basis of their scores for neuter nouns in the production task. Our analyses examined whether participants could use gender marking anticipatorily (i.e., before the onset of the noun) and facilitatively (i.e., from noun onset). Results showed that Dutch-speaking adults and children who were successful in production used gender marking anticipatorily. However, children who did not systematically produce gender-marked articles used gender marking only facilitatively. These findings reveal that successful online comprehension may in part be possible before targetlike production is completely in place, but at the same time targetlike production may be a trigger for online comprehension to be completely successful.

  4. Autosomal dominant congenital Horner's syndrome in a Dutch family.

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, G; Ippel, P F; te Nijenhuis, F C

    1992-01-01

    A Dutch family is reported with congenital Horner's syndrome in five cases spanning five generations, with symptoms of varying degree but mainly ptosis and meiosis. Heterochromia iridium, anhidrosis, and enophthalmos were not present. The site of the lesion may be in the region between Gasser's ganglion and the short vertical segment of the internal carotid artery near the siphon. There are only four previous reports showing autosomal dominant inheritance of congenital Horner's syndrome. Images PMID:1548493

  5. Autosomal dominant congenital Horner's syndrome in a Dutch family.

    PubMed

    Hageman, G; Ippel, P F; te Nijenhuis, F C

    1992-01-01

    A Dutch family is reported with congenital Horner's syndrome in five cases spanning five generations, with symptoms of varying degree but mainly ptosis and meiosis. Heterochromia iridium, anhidrosis, and enophthalmos were not present. The site of the lesion may be in the region between Gasser's ganglion and the short vertical segment of the internal carotid artery near the siphon. There are only four previous reports showing autosomal dominant inheritance of congenital Horner's syndrome.

  6. Predictors of photo naming: Dutch norms for 327 photos.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Stiegert, Julia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report naming latencies and norms for 327 photos of objects in Dutch. We provide norms for eight psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, objective and subjective visual complexity, word frequency, word length in syllables and letters, and name agreement. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that the significant predictors of photo-naming latencies were name agreement, word frequency, imageability, and image agreement. The naming latencies, norms, and stimuli are provided as supplemental materials.

  7. The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C: normative data of a Dutch student sample.

    PubMed

    Näring, G W; Roelofs, K; Hoogduin, K A

    2001-04-01

    Norms for the Dutch language version of the Standford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C; Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962) are presented. These norms are based upon a sample of 135 students at a Dutch university. Generally, the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the SHSS:C are similar to other language versions. However, the mean score was somewhat lower than that found in the original norming studies at Stanford University.

  8. Sexual orientation of parents and Dutch family law.

    PubMed

    van Nijnatten, C H

    1995-01-01

    A few years ago, the Dutch government asked for advice about the legal consequences of various living arrangements. One of the main issues concerned the legal consequences thereof for children. In a letter to parliament, the Dutch cabinet confirmed that couples of the same sex would be excluded from being awarded children for adoption. Legal and psychological reasons play an important role in the reasoning of the Dutch government. The harmonious development of children is supposed to be at risk when the child is reared by two adults of the same sex. This article sets out psychological theories and the results of recent research which contradict the argumentation presented in a number of recent reports published by the government. The outcome of most research is that gay and lesbian parents 'perform' as well as heterosexual parents. Excluding lesbian and gay parents from taking responsibility for children seems to be a poor policy which does not take into account the social capacities of the population.

  9. Young Dutch people's experiences of trading sex: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    van de Walle, Robert; Picavet, Charles; van Berlo, Willy; Verhoeff, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the subject of transactional sex among young Dutch people has generated a heated social debate in the Netherlands. However, accurate data on this phenomenon are scarce. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on young Dutch people's experiences of having sex in return for money or a material reward. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with young Dutch men and women aged 14 to 24. Participants came from diverse backgrounds in terms of gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Experiences of trading sex differed in terms of the motivation to trade sex, the presence or absence of coercion, and the availability of other options for earning money. Participants' feelings about their experiences varied. For most participants, the sex itself was unpleasant and required considerable emotion management. Still, some felt adequately compensated by the reward or felt trading sex was preferable to other jobs. Gender played an important role, with feelings of disgust or shame reported especially by female participants, whereas male participants reported more positive experiences. Interactions involving coercion or financial dependence on trading sex generally had a negative emotional impact. Participants stressed the differences between their own experiences and professional prostitution.

  10. Relative Age Effects in Dutch Adolescents: Concurrent and Prospective Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384

  11. Lexical frequency and voice assimilation in complex words in Dutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernestus, Mirjam; Lahey, Mybeth; Verhees, Femke; Baayen, Harald

    2004-05-01

    Words with higher token frequencies tend to have more reduced acoustic realizations than lower frequency words (e.g., Hay, 2000; Bybee, 2001; Jurafsky et al., 2001). This study documents frequency effects for regressive voice assimilation (obstruents are voiced before voiced plosives) in Dutch morphologically complex words in the subcorpus of read-aloud novels in the corpus of spoken Dutch (Oostdijk et al., 2002). As expected, the initial obstruent of the cluster tends to be absent more often as lexical frequency increases. More importantly, as frequency increases, the duration of vocal-fold vibration in the cluster decreases, and the duration of the bursts in the cluster increases, after partialing out cluster duration. This suggests that there is less voicing for higher-frequency words. In fact, phonetic transcriptions show regressive voice assimilation for only half of the words and progressive voice assimilation for one third. Interestingly, the progressive voice assimilation observed for higher-frequency complex words renders these complex words more similar to monomorphemic words: Dutch monomorphemic words typically contain voiceless obstruent clusters (Zonneveld, 1983). Such high-frequency complex words may therefore be less easily parsed into their constituent morphemes (cf. Hay, 2000), favoring whole word lexical access (Bertram et al., 2000).

  12. [Dutch-Romanian cooperation in the area of family practice].

    PubMed

    van Es, J C

    2001-10-27

    During the years 1992-2000, there was a cooperative programme between the Romanian general practitioners' association (Societatea Nationala de Medicina Generala) in Romania and the Dutch Foundation for the Advancement of Quality in Healthcare in Romania. A succession of programmes were developed and carried out, which were financed by the Dutch government. The purpose of the cooperative programme was to support the development of Romanian general practice in terms of quality and structure. In the first programme, financed by the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, about 200 Romanian general practitioners received continuing education. This was followed by a social transformation programme (MATRA) that had two parts: (a) the general practitioners association was supported and advised with respect to improving its organisational efficiency and (b) about 50 carefully selected Romanian general practitioners were trained, in post-academic research, management or teaching. The Romanian authorities accredited these trainees as teachers. The co-operation is being continued in 2001 with the setting up of a sentinel station programme in which 100 Romanian general practitioners collect relevant, representative data on health, illness and practice.

  13. [Topics in clinical dentistry. Trends in the Dutch dental literature].

    PubMed

    van der Sanden, W J; Mettes, T G; Grol, R; Plasschaert, A J; Verdonschot, E H

    1999-10-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate a method for selecting topics suitable for developing dental clinical practice guidelines in the Netherlands, based on an analysis of Dutch dental journals. A search for dental clinical topics was conducted by analysing Dutch dental journals, magazines and series over the period 1992-1997. The numbers of publications per topic were plotted against the publication years. The number of publications as well as the value of the slope of the linear regression were considered to be indicators of the importance of a topic. 'Dental implants (indication)' had the highest number of publications, followed by 'orthodontic treatment planning' and 'periodontology (indication)'. The topic 'practice hygiene' showed the highest value of the slope of the linear regression, followed by 'TMJ dysfunction' and 'dental implants (indication)'. With this method, it is feasible to detect changes and tendencies in the Dutch dental literature. It permits a selection of clinically relevant topics over a time span. It was concluded that this method may be very useful in the selection of a topic, but should probably be combined with other methods.

  14. When Correction Turns Positive: Processing Corrective Prosody in Dutch

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Diana V.; Stowe, Laurie A.; Hoeks, John C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research on spoken language does not provide a consistent picture as to whether prosody, the melody and rhythm of speech, conveys a specific meaning. Perception studies show that English listeners assign meaning to prosodic patterns, and, for instance, associate some accents with contrast, whereas Dutch listeners behave more controversially. In two ERP studies we tested how Dutch listeners process words carrying two types of accents, which either provided new information (new information accents) or corrected information (corrective accents), both in single sentences (experiment 1) and after corrective and new information questions (experiment 2). In both experiments corrective accents elicited a sustained positivity as compared to new information accents, which started earlier in context than in single sentences. The positivity was not modulated by the nature of the preceding question, suggesting that the underlying neural mechanism likely reflects the construction of an interpretation to the accented word, either by identifying an alternative in context or by inferring it when no context is present. Our experimental results provide strong evidence for inferential processes related to prosodic contours in Dutch. PMID:25973607

  15. Near-Unity Cooper Pair Splitting Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindele, J.; Baumgartner, A.; Schönenberger, C.

    2012-10-01

    The two electrons of a Cooper pair in a conventional superconductor form a spin singlet and therefore a maximally entangled state. Recently, it was demonstrated that the two particles can be extracted from the superconductor into two spatially separated contacts via two quantum dots in a process called Cooper pair splitting (CPS). Competing transport processes, however, limit the efficiency of this process. Here we demonstrate efficiencies up to 90%, significantly larger than required to demonstrate interaction-dominated CPS, and on the right order to test Bell’s inequality with electrons. We compare the CPS currents through both quantum dots, for which large apparent discrepancies are possible. The latter we explain intuitively and in a semiclassical master equation model. Large efficiencies are required to detect electron entanglement and for prospective electronics-based quantum information technologies.

  16. Shaping light with split lens configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizana, A.; Vargas, A.; Turpin, A.; Ramirez, C.; Estevez, I.; Campos, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present an intuitive and versatile method that can dynamically generate 2D and 3D tailored light patterns. The light structures are generated by dynamically implementing discrete and continuous split lens configurations onto a spatial light modulator. These configurations can be dynamically modified by tuning a reduced number of control parameters with simple physical interpretation. We demonstrate the versatility of the method by experimentally implementing a wide number of structured beams, including optical lattices, a light cone, and vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum. Compared with other optical illuminators, the advantages of our method are its simple interpretation and control for creating the light structures, and that it is based on a robust, dynamic and easy-to-build optical set-up. The proposed method may be useful in a large number of applications, such as optical trapping, super-resolution imaging or illuminating arrays of photonic switching devices.

  17. Efficiency limits for photoelectrochemical water-splitting

    PubMed Central

    Fountaine, Katherine T.; Lewerenz, Hans Joachim; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical limiting efficiencies have a critical role in determining technological viability and expectations for device prototypes, as evidenced by the photovoltaics community's focus on detailed balance. However, due to their multicomponent nature, photoelectrochemical devices do not have an equivalent analogue to detailed balance, and reported theoretical efficiency limits vary depending on the assumptions made. Here we introduce a unified framework for photoelectrochemical device performance through which all previous limiting efficiencies can be understood and contextualized. Ideal and experimentally realistic limiting efficiencies are presented, and then generalized using five representative parameters—semiconductor absorption fraction, external radiative efficiency, series resistance, shunt resistance and catalytic exchange current density—to account for imperfect light absorption, charge transport and catalysis. Finally, we discuss the origin of deviations between the limits discussed herein and reported water-splitting efficiencies. This analysis provides insight into the primary factors that determine device performance and a powerful handle to improve device efficiency. PMID:27910847

  18. Split-field pupil plane determination apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, Joseph T.

    1996-01-01

    A split-field pupil plane determination apparatus (10) having a wedge assembly (16) with a first glass wedge (18) and a second glass wedge (20) positioned to divide a laser beam (12) into a first laser beam half (22) and a second laser beam half (24) which diverge away from the wedge assembly (16). A wire mask (26) is positioned immediately after the wedge assembly (16) in the path of the laser beam halves (22, 24) such that a shadow thereof is cast as a first shadow half (30) and a second shadow half (32) at the input to a relay telescope (14). The relay telescope (14) causes the laser beam halves (22, 24) to converge such that the first shadow half (30) of the wire mask (26) is aligned with the second shadow half (32) at any subsequent pupil plane (34).

  19. Efficiency limits for photoelectrochemical water-splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountaine, Katherine T.; Lewerenz, Hans Joachim; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-12-01

    Theoretical limiting efficiencies have a critical role in determining technological viability and expectations for device prototypes, as evidenced by the photovoltaics community's focus on detailed balance. However, due to their multicomponent nature, photoelectrochemical devices do not have an equivalent analogue to detailed balance, and reported theoretical efficiency limits vary depending on the assumptions made. Here we introduce a unified framework for photoelectrochemical device performance through which all previous limiting efficiencies can be understood and contextualized. Ideal and experimentally realistic limiting efficiencies are presented, and then generalized using five representative parameters--semiconductor absorption fraction, external radiative efficiency, series resistance, shunt resistance and catalytic exchange current density--to account for imperfect light absorption, charge transport and catalysis. Finally, we discuss the origin of deviations between the limits discussed herein and reported water-splitting efficiencies. This analysis provides insight into the primary factors that determine device performance and a powerful handle to improve device efficiency.

  20. Cryptic splice sites and split genes.

    PubMed

    Kapustin, Yuri; Chan, Elcie; Sarkar, Rupa; Wong, Frederick; Vorechovsky, Igor; Winston, Robert M; Tatusova, Tatiana; Dibb, Nick J

    2011-08-01

    We describe a new program called cryptic splice finder (CSF) that can reliably identify cryptic splice sites (css), so providing a useful tool to help investigate splicing mutations in genetic disease. We report that many css are not entirely dormant and are often already active at low levels in normal genes prior to their enhancement in genetic disease. We also report a fascinating correlation between the positions of css and introns, whereby css within the exons of one species frequently match the exact position of introns in equivalent genes from another species. These results strongly indicate that many introns were inserted into css during evolution and they also imply that the splicing information that lies outside some introns can be independently recognized by the splicing machinery and was in place prior to intron insertion. This indicates that non-intronic splicing information had a key role in shaping the split structure of eukaryote genes.

  1. Cryptic splice sites and split genes

    PubMed Central

    Kapustin, Yuri; Chan, Elcie; Sarkar, Rupa; Wong, Frederick; Vorechovsky, Igor; Winston, Robert M.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Dibb, Nick J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new program called cryptic splice finder (CSF) that can reliably identify cryptic splice sites (css), so providing a useful tool to help investigate splicing mutations in genetic disease. We report that many css are not entirely dormant and are often already active at low levels in normal genes prior to their enhancement in genetic disease. We also report a fascinating correlation between the positions of css and introns, whereby css within the exons of one species frequently match the exact position of introns in equivalent genes from another species. These results strongly indicate that many introns were inserted into css during evolution and they also imply that the splicing information that lies outside some introns can be independently recognized by the splicing machinery and was in place prior to intron insertion. This indicates that non-intronic splicing information had a key role in shaping the split structure of eukaryote genes. PMID:21470962

  2. Shear Wave Splitting Beneath the Galapagos Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, F. R.; Burkett, P. G.; Hooft, E. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Silver, P. G.

    2004-12-01

    We report measurements of teleseismic shear wave splitting in the Galápagos Archipelago. The inferred lateral variations in azimuthal anisotropy allow us to examine the dynamics of an evolving hotspot-ridge system. The data are from SKS and SKKS phases, as well as S waves from deep sources, recorded by a relatively dense network of 10 portable broadband seismometers deployed from 1999 to 2003 for the IGUANA (Imaging Galápagos Upwelling and Neotectonics of the Archipelago) experiment and from the GSN broadband station in Santa Cruz (PAYG). We find a delay time between fast and slow shear waves of 0.4 to 0.9 s and fast polarization directions of N85-90° E beneath five stations at the leading and southern edge of the archipelago. Despite clear seismic signals, we did not find any anisotropy at the six stations located in the interior of the archipelago. For those stations that show shear wave splitting, there is an increase in the delay time toward the expected location of the Galápagos hotspot at the western edge of the archipelago. With the exception of Española, fast polarization directions (N85-90° E) are close to the current direction of absolute plate motion of the overlying Nazca plate (N91° E). The lack of azimuthal anisotropy in the interior of the archipelago is interpreted as an absence of strongly oriented mantle fabric beneath these stations. The apparent isotropy in this dynamic region, where we expect considerable mantle strain, is surprising. It is not likely that the olivine a-axis is oriented vertically beneath the interior of the archipelago as the Galápagos plume is thought to lie at the western edge. It is also unlikely that there are two layers of perpendicularly-oriented anisotropy which are solely confined to the center of the archipelago. However, there appears to be some correlation between the region of apparent isotropy and a zone of anomalously low upper mantle velocities imaged beneath Santiago and Marchena from surface waves by

  3. Split driveshaft pump for hazardous fluids

    DOEpatents

    Evans, II, Thomas P.; Purohit, Jwalit J.; Fazio, John M.

    1995-01-01

    A pump having a split driveshaft for use in pumping hazardous fluids wherein only one driveshaft becomes contaminated by the fluid while the second remains isolated from the fluid. The pump has a first portion and a second portion. The first portion contains a pump motor, the first driveshaft, a support pedestal, and vapor barriers and seals. The second portion contains a second, self-lubricating driveshaft and an impeller. The first and second driveshafts are connected together by a releasable coupling. A shield and a slinger deployed below the coupling prevent fluid from the second portion from reaching the first portion. In operation, only the second assembly comes into contact with the fluid being pumped, so the risk of contamination of the first portion by the hazardous fluid is reduced. The first assembly can be removed for repairs or routine maintenance by decoupling the first and second driveshafts and disconnecting the motor from the casing.

  4. Studies of thermochemical water-splitting cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.; Foh, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    Higher temperatures and more isothermal heat profiles of solar heat sources are developed. The metal oxide metal sulfate class of cycles were suited for solar heat sources. Electrochemical oxidation of SO2 and thermochemical reactions are presented. Electrolytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide in dilute sulfuric acid solutions were appropriate for metal oxide metal sulfate cycles. The cell voltage at workable current densities required for the oxidation of SO2 was critical to the efficient operation of any metal oxide metal sulfate cycle. A sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolysis cell for the splitting of water via optimization of the anode reaction is discussed. Sulfuric acid concentrations of 30 to 35 weight percent are preferred. Platinized platinum or smooth platinum gave the best anode kinetics at a given potential of the five materials examined.

  5. Split-Doa10: a naturally split polytopic eukaryotic membrane protein generated by fission of a nuclear gene.

    PubMed

    Stuerner, Elisabeth; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Hochstrasser, Mark; Kreft, Stefan G

    2012-01-01

    Large polytopic membrane proteins often derive from duplication and fusion of genes for smaller proteins. The reverse process, splitting of a membrane protein by gene fission, is rare and has been studied mainly with artificially split proteins. Fragments of a split membrane protein may associate and reconstitute the function of the larger protein. Most examples of naturally split membrane proteins are from bacteria or eukaryotic organelles, and their exact history is usually poorly understood. Here, we describe a nuclear-encoded split membrane protein, split-Doa10, in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. In most species, Doa10 is encoded as a single polypeptide with 12-16 transmembrane helices (TMs), but split-KlDoa10 is encoded as two fragments, with the split occurring between TM2 and TM3. The two fragments assemble into an active ubiquitin-protein ligase. The K. lactis DOA10 locus has two ORFs separated by a 508-bp intervening sequence (IVS). A promoter within the IVS drives expression of the C-terminal KlDoa10 fragment. At least four additional Kluyveromyces species contain an IVS in the DOA10 locus, in contrast to even closely related genera, allowing dating of the fission event to the base of the genus. The upstream Kluyveromyces Doa10 fragment with its N-terminal RING-CH and two TMs resembles many metazoan MARCH (Membrane-Associated RING-CH) and related viral RING-CH proteins, suggesting that gene splitting may have contributed to MARCH enzyme diversification. Split-Doa10 is the first unequivocal case of a split membrane protein where fission occurred in a nuclear-encoded gene. Such a split may allow divergent functions for the individual protein segments.

  6. BMP-2/ACS/allograft for combined maxillary alveolar split/sinus floor grafting with and without simultaneous dental implant placement: report of 21 implants placed into 7 alveolar split sites followed for up to 3 years.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ole T; Kuhlke, K Lee; Leopardi, Aldo; Adams, Mark W; Ringeman, Jason L

    2014-01-01

    This report presents seven patients who were treated with combined alveolar split/sinus grafting technique and dental implants and followed for 1 to 3 years. The grafting material included bone morphogenetic protein-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge plus allograft. The procedure was successful in all patients, who received implants either simultaneously with grafting or 4 to 6 months after grafting.

  7. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  8. Summary of the Dutch S3-guidelines on the treatment of psoriasis 2011. Dutch Society of Dermatology and Venereology.

    PubMed

    Zweegers, J; de Jong, E M G J; Nijsten, T E C; de Bes, J; te Booij, M; Borgonjen, R J; van Cranenburgh, O D; van Deutekom, H; van Everdingen, J J E; de Groot, M; Van Hees, C L M; Hulshuizen, H; Koek, M B G; de Korte, W J A; de Korte, J; Lecluse, L L A; Pasch, M C; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P A; Prens, E P; Seyger, M M B; Thio, H B; Torcque, L A; de Vries, A C Q; van de Kerkhof, P C M; Spuls, Ph I

    2014-03-17

    This document provides a summary of the Dutch S3-guidelines on the treatment of psoriasis. These guidelines were finalized in December 2011 and contain unique chapters on the treatment of psoriasis of the face and flexures, childhood psoriasis as well as the patient's perspective on treatment. They also cover the topical treatment of psoriasis, photo(chemo)therapy, conventional systemic therapy and biological therapy.

  9. Internal Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) in a (Nearly) Representative Dutch Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Barrada, Juan Ramón; van Strien, Tatjana; Cebolla, Ausiàs

    2016-11-01

    The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire is a widely used instrument for assessment of emotional, external and restrained eating. The aim of the present study is to (i) analyse its internal structure using exploratory structural equation modelling; (ii) to assess its measurement invariance with respect to sex, BMI, age and level of education; and (iii) to evaluate the relations of the factors with these variables. Except that women were slightly over-represented, the sample (n = 2173) closely followed the sociodemographic characteristics of the overall Dutch population. The three theoretical factors that emerged from the analysis were in close correspondence with the three scales for emotional, external and restrained eating. Only two items (item 3 - 'desire to eat when nothing to do…' and item 21 - 'resist delicious food...') presented problematic loadings. The questionnaire showed satisfactory measurement invariance, and expected patterns of mean differences and relations were found. All in all, the results highlight the adequate psychometric properties of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    New ESO Observations of P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 A few months ago, Periodic Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 underwent a dramatic and completely unexpected, thousand-fold brightening. At that time, the cause for this interesting event was unknown. However, observations with the two largest ESO telescopes have now shown that the ``dirty snowball'' nucleus of this comet has recently split into at least four individual pieces [1]. There is little doubt that the outburst and the splitting event(s) are closely related and that the greatly increased dust and gas production is due to ``fresh'' material of the icy cometary nucleus becoming exposed to the surrounding space for the first time. A Comet with a Troubled History Comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 was discovered on May 2, 1930, on a photographic plate obtained at the Hamburg Observatory (Germany) by two astronomers at this institution, Arnold Schwassmann and Arthur Arno Wachmann. The subsequent observations showed that the comet moved in an elliptical orbit with a revolution period of somewhat more than 5 years. Great efforts were expended to observe the comet during the next returns, but it was not recovered until nearly 50 years and eight revolutions later, when its faint image was found of a plate obtained in August 1979 with a telescope at the Perth Observatory in Western Australia. It was missed in 1984, but was sighted again in 1989 and most recently in 1994. Thus this comet has only been observed during four out of thirteen approaches since 1930. While this may be partly due to a less advantageous location in the sky at some returns, it is also a strong indication that the comet behaves unpredictably and must have a quite variable brightness. For the sake of convenience this comet is often referred to as ``SW-3'' by professional astronomers. Recent orbital calculations have shown that it was inserted into the present, short-period orbit by the strong gravitational pull of Jupiter during several, relatively close

  11. Experimental observation of isotropic in-plane spin splitting in GaN /AlGaN two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongming; Liu, Baoli; Guo, Liwei; Tan, Changling; Chen, Hong; Chen, Dongmin

    2007-12-01

    The circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) was used to study the in-plane-orientation dependent spin splitting in the C(0001)-oriented GaN /AlGaN two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The CPGE current induced by the interband transition shows an isotropic in-plane spin splitting in this system at room temperature. The spin relaxation time is found to be 14ps using the time resolved Kerr rotation technique, which is another evidence of the spin splitting in this 2DEG system.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2125 - Split or broken kernels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split or broken kernels. 51.2125 Section 51.2125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... kernels. Split or broken kernels means seven-eighths or less of complete whole kernels but which will...

  15. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (the indirect participant), the effect of a below-market split-dollar loan is to transfer value from... loans) as provided in this paragraph (e)(2). The transfers of value described in the preceding sentence... parties, the effect of the below-market split-dollar loan from X to A is to transfer value from X to B...

  16. Costs and risks of catfish split-pond systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Split ponds are a recently developed, pond-based aquaculture system that allows intensification of catfish aquaculture. Successful industry-wide adoption of newly developing technologies like split-pond systems will depend upon their productivity and cost efficiencies. Costs and production performan...

  17. On Pesin's entropy formula for dominated splittings without mixed behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongluo; Yang, Dawei

    2016-10-01

    For C1 diffeomorphisms, we prove that the Pesin's entropy formula holds for some invariant measure supported on any topological attractor that admits a dominated splitting without mixed behavior. We also prove Shub's entropy conjecture for diffeomorphisms having such kind of splittings.

  18. Editorial Involvement in Regional/Split Run Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuss, Carol

    This document is a preliminary study of the listings of a wide variety of regional/split-run editorial practices of major American periodicals. Publications chosen for the study were selected from the tenth edition of "Magazine Regional and Split-Run Advertising," published by the Magazine Advertising Bureau of the Magazine Publishers Association.…

  19. 77 FR 8184 - Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK49 Foreign Tax Credit Splitting Events AGENCY: Internal... elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register.] Sec. 1.909-6 Pre-2011 foreign tax credit splitting...

  20. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  1. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  2. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  3. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  4. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees and other entities may, but are not required to, use...

  5. Regulation of bite force increase during splitting of food.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Krister G; Trulsson, Mats

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze how increases in the bite force, during the splitting of food morsels of different hardness, are modulated, and to evaluate the role of periodontal mechanoreceptors in this control. Fifteen subjects were instructed to hold and split food morsels of different hardness (peanuts and biscuits) between a pair of opposing central incisors before and during anesthesia of the teeth. The split occurred at an average bite force of 9 N for biscuits and at an average bite force of 18 N for peanuts. The duration of the split phase was longer, and the split force rate higher, for peanuts compared with biscuits. Furthermore, a steeper force trajectory was observed for the peanut. During anesthesia of the teeth, the duration of the split phase increased and the mean split force rate decreased for peanuts. Force trajectories for peanuts and biscuits were indistinguishable during anesthesia. The present results show that when higher bite forces are needed to split a morsel, both the duration and the rate of the bite force produced is increased. Furthermore, adaptation of the bite force rate to the hardness of the food is dependent on information from periodontal mechanoreceptors.

  6. LOOKING SOUTHEAST UP STAIRS TO LANDING THAT SPLITS TO GO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING SOUTHEAST UP STAIRS TO LANDING THAT SPLITS TO GO DOWN TO MAIN ENTRY AND CONTINUES UP TO 2ND LANDING WHICH SPLITS TO GO TO LEFT AND RIGHT PARTS OF SECOND FLOOR - Fort Leavenworth, Building No. 436, 5 Riverside Avenue, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  7. N-terminal chemical protein labeling using the naturally split GOS-TerL intein.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Anne-Lena; Mootz, Henning D

    2017-03-23

    Chemoselective and regioselective chemical protein labeling is of great importance, yet no current technique is sufficiently general and simple to perform. Protein trans-splicing by split inteins can be used to ligate short tags with chemical labels to either the N or the C terminus of a protein. The CysTag approach exploits split intein fragments without a cysteine fused with such a short tag containing a single cysteine that is easily amenable to selective modification using classical cysteine bioconjugation. Labeling of the protein of interest is achieved through transfer of the pre-labeled tag by protein trans-splicing. This protocol keeps other cysteines unmodified. While split inteins for C-terminal CysTag labeling were previously reported, no high-yielding and naturally split intein for N-terminal labeling has been available. In this work, the recently discovered GOS-TerL intein was explored as the only known naturally split intein that both lacks a cysteine in its N-terminal fragment and is active under ambient conditions. Thioredoxin as a model protein and a camelid nanobody were labeled with a synthetic fluorophore by transferring the pre-labeling CysTag in the protein trans-splicing reaction with yields of about 50 to 90%. The short N-terminal intein fragment was also chemically synthesized with a tag to enable protein labeling by semi-synthetic protein trans-splicing. Our results expand the scope of the CysTag labeling strategy, which achieves selective chemical modification without the requirement for sophisticated biorthogonal functional groups and rather builds on the plethora of commercially available reagents directed at the thiol side chain of cysteine. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Shear wave splitting and shear wave splitting tomography of the southern Puna plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calixto, Frank J.; Robinson, Danielle; Sandvol, Eric; Kay, Suzanne; Abt, David; Fischer, Karen; Heit, Ben; Yuan, Xiaohui; Comte, Diana; Alvarado, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the seismic anisotropy beneath the Central Andean southern Puna plateau by applying shear wave splitting analysis and shear wave splitting tomography to local S waves and teleseismic SKS, SKKS and PKS phases. Overall, a very complex pattern of fast directions throughout the southern Puna plateau region and a circular pattern of fast directions around the region of the giant Cerro Galan ignimbrite complex are observed. In general, teleseismic lag times are much greater than those for local events which are interpreted to reflect a significant amount of sub and inner slab anisotropy. The complex pattern observed from shear wave splitting analysis alone is the result of a complex 3-D anisotropic structure under the southern Puna plateau. Our application of shear wave splitting tomography provides a 3-D model of anisotropy in the southern Puna plateau that shows different patterns depending on the driving mechanism of upper-mantle flow and seismic anisotropy. The trench parallel a-axes in the continental lithosphere above the slab east of 68W may be related to deformation of the overriding continental lithosphere since it is under compressive stresses which are orthogonal to the trench. The more complex pattern below the Cerro Galan ignimbrite complex and above the slab is interpreted to reflect delamination of continental lithosphere and upwelling of hot asthenosphere. The a-axes beneath the Cerro Galan, Cerro Blanco and Carachi Pampa volcanic centres at 100 km depth show some weak evidence for vertically orientated fast directions, which could be due to vertical asthenospheric flow around a delaminated block. Additionally, our splitting tomographic model shows that there is a significant amount of seismic anisotropy beneath the slab. The subslab mantle west of 68W shows roughly trench parallel horizontal a-axes that are probably driven by slab roll back and the relatively small coupling between the Nazca slab and the underlying mantle. In

  9. Adiabaticity and spectral splits in collective neutrino transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2007-12-15

    Neutrinos streaming off a supernova core transform collectively by neutrino-neutrino interactions, leading to 'spectral splits' where an energy E{sub split} divides the transformed spectrum sharply into parts of almost pure but different flavors. We present a detailed description of the spectral-split phenomenon which is conceptually and quantitatively understood in an adiabatic treatment of neutrino-neutrino effects. Central to this theory is a self-consistency condition in the form of two sum rules (integrals over the neutrino spectra that must equal certain conserved quantities). We provide explicit analytic and numerical solutions for various neutrino spectra. We introduce the concept of the adiabatic reference frame and elaborate on the relative adiabatic evolution. Violating adiabaticity leads to the spectral split being 'washed out'. The sharpness of the split appears to be represented by a surprisingly universal function.

  10. A study on springback of bending linear flow split profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, P.; Taplick, C.; Özel, M.; Groche, P.

    2016-11-01

    The bending of linear flow split profiles made up of high strength materials involves high bending loads leading to high springback and geometrical defects. In addition, the linear flow split profiles are made stronger due to the high plastic deformation applied by the process itself. The bending method proposed in this paper combines the linear flow splitting process with a movable bending tool. The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of superimposed stresses exerted by the linear flow splitting process on bending load and springback of the profile by using a finite element model. The latter was validated by means of experimental results. The results show that the bending loads and the springback were reduced by increasing the superposition of stress applied by the linear flow splitting process. The reduction in the bending loads leads to a reduction in the cross-sectional distortion. Furthermore, the springback was compensated by controlling the amount of superimposed stress.

  11. [Dr Erwin Treu--the first permanent ophthalmologist in Split].

    PubMed

    Ivanisević, Milan; Bojić, Lovro; Bućan, Kajo; Kovacić, Zeljko

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Erwin Treu (Kotor, 1875-Skopje, 1937) was the first permanent ophthalmologist in Split, Croatia. He finished his ophthalmological specialization at the Eye Clinic in Prague in 1900 at W.P. Czermak. He originates from Tirol. Dr. Treu led and organized ophthalmological service in Split and worked from 1902 to 1921 in the Split Hospital, and had a private practice until 1923. From 1904 to 1910 he temporarily worked outside Split, in Sibenik, Zadar, Dubrovnik, Kotor and Cetinje. During the First World War he was a military doctor in Split and Trogir. He performed ophthalmological operations, cataracts, glaucomas (iridectomy), strabismus (tenotomies), ocular adnexa, injuries, trachoma etc. In 1923 he left for Skopje where he at first worked as a medical major in Military Hospital, and after that as a primarius in Civil Hospital at the Department of Ophthalmology till the end of his life.

  12. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    PubMed

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs.

  13. Some splitting methods for equations of geophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhongzhen; Wang, Bin

    1995-03-01

    In this paper, equations of atmospheric and oceanic dynamics are reduced to a kind of evolutionary equation in operator form, based on which a conclusion that the separability of motion stages is relative is made and an issue that the tractional splitting methods established on the physical separability of the fast stage and the slow stage neglect the interaction between the two stages to some extent is shown. Also, three splitting patterns are summed up from the splitting methods in common use so that a comparison between them is carried out. The comparison shows that only the improved splitting pattern (ISP) can be in second order and keep the interaction well. Finally, the applications of some splitting methods on numerical simulations of typhoon tracks made clear that ISP owns the best effect and can save more than 80% CPU time.

  14. 75 FR 48736 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Miró: The Dutch Interiors”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Mir : The Dutch Interiors'' SUMMARY..., I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Mir : The Dutch...

  15. ECM techniques generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, Abel S.; Marshall, Patrick T.; McGrath, Michael; Byers, Christopher D.; Simpson, Chad; Hong, Seng M.

    2006-05-01

    The development of electronic countermeasures against target track radars is both an expensive and time-consuming process. One method of cutting development time is to use genetic algorithms to develop electronic countermeasures using integrated software models of the target track radar and the jammer. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of this idea by using a genetic algorithm to optimize the parameters of a range gate pull-off electronic countermeasure technique to break the target lock of a generic radar split gate range tracker.

  16. A New Approach to Reduce Number of Split Fields in Large Field IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chen-Chiao; Wu, Andrew; Garg, Madhur; Mutyala, Subhakar; Kalnicki, Shalom; Sayed, Gary; Mah, Dennis

    2011-04-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been applied for treatments of primary head with neck nodes, lung with supraclavicular nodes, and high-risk prostate cancer with pelvis wall nodes, all of which require large fields. However, the design of the Varian multileaf collimator requires fields >14 cm in width to be split into 2 or more carriage movements. With the split-field technique, both the number of monitor units (MUs) and total treatment time are significantly increased. Although many different approaches have been investigated to reduce the MU, including introducing new leaf segmentation algorithms, none have resulted in widespread success. In addition, for most clinics, writing such algorithms is not a feasible solution, particularly with commercial treatment planning systems. We introduce a new approach that can minimize the number of split fields and reduce the total MUs, thereby reducing treatment time. The technique is demonstrated on the Eclipse planning system V7.3, but could be generalized to any other system.

  17. A new approach to reduce number of split fields in large field IMRT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Chiao; Wu, Andrew; Garg, Madhur; Mutyala, Subhakar; Kalnicki, Shalom; Sayed, Gary; Mah, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been applied for treatments of primary head with neck nodes, lung with supraclavicular nodes, and high-risk prostate cancer with pelvis wall nodes, all of which require large fields. However, the design of the Varian multileaf collimator requires fields >14 cm in width to be split into 2 or more carriage movements. With the split-field technique, both the number of monitor units (MUs) and total treatment time are significantly increased. Although many different approaches have been investigated to reduce the MU, including introducing new leaf segmentation algorithms, none have resulted in widespread success. In addition, for most clinics, writing such algorithms is not a feasible solution, particularly with commercial treatment planning systems. We introduce a new approach that can minimize the number of split fields and reduce the total MUs, thereby reducing treatment time. The technique is demonstrated on the Eclipse planning system V7.3, but could be generalized to any other system.

  18. Detection of elliptical polarization and mode splitting in discrete Schumann resonance excitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentman, D. D.

    1989-01-01

    Elliptical polarization and mode splitting have been detected in the magnetic component of discrete, well defined Schumann resonance excitations. These ELF excitations, which are large electromagnetic transients of approximately 1 s duration, are called Q-bursts and typically occur every few minutes. They are believed to be the signature of the impulsive excitation of the earth-ionosphere cavity by ultra-large lightning currents. In this paper the magnetic polarization and spectral characteristics of four large Q-bursts are examined in detail using a new analysis technique. Two events display right-hand polarization and two display left-hand polarization. The theoretical polarization properties of the central and side multiplets of the Schumann resonances are used to define a local orthogonal coordinate system in the measurement frame in which these components may be separated. Maximum entropy spectrums computed separately for what are identified to be the central and side multiplets in this coordinate system show distinctly different eigenfrequencies for the lowest mode near 7.5 Hz. For the limited number of cases examined the magnitude of the line splitting detected using this technique is roughly 1.4-1.8 Hz, larger by nearly a factor of two than theoretical or observed values of the splitting previously reported. The frequencies of the side multiplets may lie either above or below the frequency of the central multiplet.

  19. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Kondo Resonance Splitting in a Quantum Dot with Perpendicular Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ju; Yu, Hua-Ling; Wang, Xia-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Gao

    2009-12-01

    Using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique, we investigate the Kondo effect in the quantum dot with perpendicular magnetic fields, in which one is the Zeeman splitting lies in the z-direction and the other is the spin flip points at the x-direction. It is found whatever one or two magnetic fields are applied, the local density of states (LDOS) will split into two peaks. The positions of two Kondo resonance peaks are determined by Zeeman energy Δ when J = 0, and by when J ≠ 0.

  20. Giant Rashba-type splitting in molybdenum-driven bands of MoS2/Bi (111 ) heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyuhwan; Yun, Won Seok; Lee, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the electronic band structure of the MoS2/Bi (111 ) heterostructure, for which the supercell calculation is performed due to the lattice mismatch between two structures but the effective primitive cell is recovered by using the band unfolding technique. It is found that the strong molybdenum-bismuth band hybridization together with a generation of the interfacial dipole field induces the giant Rashba-type splitting accompanying the proper spin topology in molybdenum-driven bands at the Γ point. Similar splittings are also found in the heterostructure with other transition-metal dichalcogenides, i.e., with MoSe2,WS2, and WSe2.

  1. Searching for ivermectin resistance in Dutch horses.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, D C K; Eysker, M; Kooyman, F N J; Wagenaar, J A; Ploeger, H W

    2012-04-30

    A study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of resistance against, in particular, ivermectin in cyathostomins in the Netherlands. Seventy horse farms were visited between October 2007 and November 2009. In initial screening, faecal samples were collected 2 weeks after deworming with either ivermectin, moxidectin or doramectin. Pooled faecal samples from a maximum of 10 horses were examined for worm eggs using a modified McMaster technique and for worm larvae after faecal larval cultures. In total 931 horses were involved. On 15 of 70 farms eggs and/or larvae were found. On 8 of these 15 farms a FECRT with ivermectin was performed on 43 horses. Efficacy of ivermectin against cyathostomins of 93% was found in one animal on one farm. Additionally, the strategies and efforts of the horse owners to control cyathostomins, as well as risk factors for the development of macrocyclic lactone resistance were evaluated with a questionnaire. Strikingly, many responders indicated that the control of cyathostomins in horses is achieved through very frequent deworming. Fourteen percent of these owners deworm seven times per year or more. On 34% of the 70 farms treatment was repeated within the Egg Reappearance Period of a product.

  2. GPU implementation of the simplex identification via split augmented Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla, Jorge; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging can be used for object detection and for discriminating between different objects based on their spectral characteristics. One of the main problems of hyperspectral data analysis is the presence of mixed pixels, due to the low spatial resolution of such images. This means that several spectrally pure signatures (endmembers) are combined into the same mixed pixel. Linear spectral unmixing follows an unsupervised approach which aims at inferring pure spectral signatures and their material fractions at each pixel of the scene. The huge data volumes acquired by such sensors put stringent requirements on processing and unmixing methods. This paper proposes an efficient implementation of a unsupervised linear unmixing method on GPUs using CUDA. The method finds the smallest simplex by solving a sequence of nonsmooth convex subproblems using variable splitting to obtain a constraint formulation, and then applying an augmented Lagrangian technique. The parallel implementation of SISAL presented in this work exploits the GPU architecture at low level, using shared memory and coalesced accesses to memory. The results herein presented indicate that the GPU implementation can significantly accelerate the method's execution over big datasets while maintaining the methods accuracy.

  3. Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma.

    PubMed

    Golingo, R P; Shumlak, U; Den Hartog, D J

    2010-12-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

  4. Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2010-12-15

    The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

  5. Enhancement of photoelectrochemical activity for water splitting by controlling hydrodynamic conditions on titanium anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Tovar, R.; Fernández-Domene, R. M.; García-García, D. M.; García-Antón, J.

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties of a new type of TiO2 nanostructure (nanosponge) obtained by means of anodization in a glycerol/water/NH4F electrolyte under controlled hydrodynamic conditions. For this purpose different techniques such as Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM), Raman Spectroscopy, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements, Mott-Schottky (M-S) analysis and photoelectrochemical water splitting tests under standard AM 1.5 conditions are carried out. The obtained results show that electron-hole separation is facilitated in the TiO2 nanosponge if compared with highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays. As a result, nanosponges enhance the photoelectrochemical activity for water splitting.

  6. The split-ubiquitin system for the analysis of three-component interactions.

    PubMed

    Grefen, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are vital to all living cells. Many different in vivo and in vitro approaches are published which enable detection and determination of interactions between two proteins. However, most of these techniques are not designed to test for multi-protein interactions although oligomeric protein complexes are probably more likely to be the status quo in vivo than simple binary interactions. This chapter describes how a well-established system for detection of protein-protein interactions can be exploited for assaying and screening of different kinds of oligomeric interactions. The split-ubiquitin bridge assay (SUB) is based on the split-ubiquitin system and enables detection of trimeric protein complexes. SUB assays can be used to check several putative interaction couples and to screen for novel interaction partners in different ways.

  7. Potential splitting approach to e–H and e–He+ scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarevsky, E.; Yakovlev, S. L.; Elander, N.

    2017-03-01

    An approach based on splitting the reaction potential into a finite range part and a long range tail part to describe few-body scattering in the case of a Coulombic interaction is proposed. The solution to the Schrödinger equation for the long range tail of the reaction potential is used as an incoming wave. This reformulation of the scattering problem into an inhomogeneous Schrödinger equation with asymptotic outgoing waves makes it suitable for solving with the exterior complex scaling technique. The validity of the approach is analyzed from a formal point of view and demonstrated numerically, where the calculations are performed with the finite element method. The method of splitting the potential in this way is illustrated with calculations of the electron scattering on the hydrogen atom and the positive helium ion in energy regions where resonances appear.

  8. Open-split interface for mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Diehl, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An open-split interface includes a connector body having four leg members projecting therefrom within a single plane, the first and third legs being coaxial and the second and fourth legs being coaxial. A tubular aperture extends through the first and third legs and a second tubular aperture extends through the second and fourth legs, connecting at a juncture within the center of the connector body. A fifth leg projects from the connector body and has a third tubular aperture extending therethrough to the juncture of the first and second tubular apertures. A capillary column extends from a gas chromatograph into the third leg with its end adjacent the juncture. A flow restrictor tube extends from a mass spectrometer through the first tubular aperture in the first and third legs and into the capillary columnm end, so as to project beyond the end of the third leg within the capillary column. An annular gap between the tube and column allows excess effluent to pass to the juncture. A pair of short capillary columns extend from separate detectors into the second tubular aperture in the second and fourth legs, and are oriented with their ends spaced slightly from the first capillary column end. A sweep flow tube is mounted in the fifth leg so as to supply a helium sweep flow to the juncture.

  9. Descent Assisted Split Habitat Lunar Lander Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The Descent Assisted Split Habitat (DASH) lunar lander concept utilizes a disposable braking stage for descent and a minimally sized pressurized volume for crew transport to and from the lunar surface. The lander can also be configured to perform autonomous cargo missions. Although a braking-stage approach represents a significantly different operational concept compared with a traditional two-stage lander, the DASH lander offers many important benefits. These benefits include improved crew egress/ingress and large-cargo unloading; excellent surface visibility during landing; elimination of the need for deep-throttling descent engines; potentially reduced plume-surface interactions and lower vertical touchdown velocity; and reduced lander gross mass through efficient mass staging and volume segmentation. This paper documents the conceptual study on various aspects of the design, including development of sortie and outpost lander configurations and a mission concept of operations; the initial descent trajectory design; the initial spacecraft sizing estimates and subsystem design; and the identification of technology needs

  10. Deformation and signature splitting in 74Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, J. W.; Johnson, T. D.; Womble, P. C.; Cottle, P. D.; Tabor, S. L.; Durham, F. E.; Buccino, S. G.

    1991-02-01

    The high-spin states of 74Br were studied via the 48Ti(32S,αpn)74Br and the 58Ni(19F,2pn)74Br fusion-evaporation reactions at energies of 105 and 62 MeV, respectively, using the Florida State University Tandem LINAC. γ-γ coincidence arrays were produced using four Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. Two independent groups of γ rays were studied-one of positive parity and one of negative parity, both of which appear to be based on an isomeric 4(+) state. Lifetimes were measured using both the Doppler-shift attenuation and recoil-distance methods. A cranking-model analysis of the bands shows that the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia for the bands are rather similar and fairly constant for high spins with values of (20-23)ħ2/MeV. A phase reversal occurs in the signature splitting in the yrast band around spin 9 which is related to the quasiparticle alignments. The lifetimes imply an average axial quadrupole deformation of 0.37 in the yrast band and 0.34 in the negative-parity band. These deformations are close to those predicted by Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov cranking calculations.

  11. [Drug advertising as communication between the pharmaceutical industry and the physician: advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the Dutch medical journal, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 1900-1940].

    PubMed

    van der Hoogte, Arjo Roersch; Pieters, Toine

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the historical development of drug advertisements for psychotropic drugs in the leading Dutch medical journal from 1900 to 1940. The advertisements for hypnotics and sedatives, in The Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (Dutch medical journal) reflected the changes in the vocabulary and image promoted by the pharmaceutical companies. In the first two decades, the advertisements were sober and to the point, and included the trademark, company name, molecular formula and therapeutic properties of the medication. The emphasis was on creating a scientific image of reliable symptom control for the therapeutic drug. In doing so, the ethical drug companies tried (successfully) to distinguish themselves from the producers of patent medicines. Once scientific credibility was established, the form and content of the advertisements changed significantly. In the late 1920s and 1930s drug companies embraced modern advertising techniques, developing a figurative language to address the changing beliefs and practices of Dutch physicians. Instead of promoting therapeutic drugs as safe and scientific, the emphasis was on their effectiveness in comparison to similar drugs. In the process, scientific information was reduced to an indispensable standardized minimum, whereby therapeutic drugs were advertised according to the latest pharmacological taxonomy rather than molecular formulas. The image-making of 'ethical marketing' began during the interwar years when marketers applied modern advertising techniques and infotainment strategies. The scanty black and white informational bulletins transitioned into colourful advertisements. The pharmaceutical companies employed the same medical language as used by physicians, so that one word or image in an advertisement would suffice for the physician to recognize a drug and its therapeutic properties. These developments show the changing relationship between the modern ethical pharmaceutical industry and Dutch

  12. Eight Years of Specialist Training of Dutch Intellectual Disability Physicians: Results of Scientific Research Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2009-01-01

    Training in scientific research methods and skills is a vital part of Dutch specialist training in intellectual disability medicine. The authors evaluated results of such training at one Dutch university medical facility that had an obligatory research program involving projects conducted by the physicians-in-training (topics, teamwork, acquired…

  13. Zertifikat Niederlaendisch: Examen en getuigschrift Nederlands als vreemde taal (Certificate in Dutch)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beersmans, Frans; Sudhoelter, Juergen

    1976-01-01

    An interim report on preparations for designing an examination in Dutch. The "unit-credit system" proposed by the Council of Europe is being used. The Dutch certificate will be comparable to the certificates given by the British Council and by the People's Universities. Sample portions are given. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  14. Modality, Infinitives, and Finite Bare Verbs in Dutch and English Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the meaning of nonfinite clauses ("root infinitives") in Dutch and English child language. I present experimental and naturalistic data confirming the claim that Dutch root infinitives are more often modal than English root infinitives. This cross-linguistic difference is significantly smaller than previously assumed,…

  15. On-Line Access to Linguistically Annotated Text Corpora of Dutch via Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruyt, J. G.; Raaijmakers, S. A.; van der Kamp, P. H. J.; van Strien, R. J.

    Corpora of present-day Dutch developed by the Institute for Dutch Lexicology include two linguistically annotated corpora that can be accessed via Internet: a 5-million word corpus covering a variety of topics and text types, and a 27-million word newspaper corpus. The texts of both were acquired in machine-readable form and have been lemmatized…

  16. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  17. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  18. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  19. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  20. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following...

  1. A Comparison of Dutch and US Teachers' Perceptions of the Incidence and Management of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havey, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Dutch and US teachers were questioned about their perceptions of the incidence and causes of ADHD, as well as their views of appropriate treatments. Dutch teachers were more likely than US teachers to think the etiology of the disorder lay in biochemistry, while US teachers were more likely to believe in a combination of environmental and…

  2. In the Shadow of Tolerance: The Discursive Context of Dutch-Born Muslim Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaal, Mayida

    2014-01-01

    Despite a public discourse on tolerance, anxiety about immigrants, Islam and the preservation of Dutch values has amplified fear of Muslim youth in the Netherlands. In this context, Dutch-born Muslim youth endure social and systemic discrimination that affects all aspects of their futures, including available educational opportunities and…

  3. From Noun to Intensifier: Massa and Massa's in Flemish Varieties of Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Clerck, Bernard; Colleman, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a case of synchronic layering is examined in which Dutch "massa" ("mass") and plural "massa's" ("masses") are attested with lexical uses as a collective noun, quantifying uses ("a large quantity of") and intensifying uses ("very")--with plural "massa's" only--in some Flemish varieties of Dutch. Against the background of…

  4. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  5. Phoneme Awareness, Vocabulary and Word Decoding in Monolingual and Bilingual Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Marije; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47 immigrant first-grade children with various…

  6. Home Language and Language Proficiency; A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study in Dutch Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert; van der Slik, Frans; De Bot, Kees

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a large-scale longitudinal study into the development of language proficiency of Dutch primary school children aged 7-10. Data on language proficiency and a range of background variables were analyzed. Results suggest that while immigrant children develop their language skill in Dutch considerably over 2 years, they are nonetheless…

  7. A 16-Year Longitudinal Study of Language Attrition in Dutch Immigrants in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees; Clyne, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Speech material gathered from Dutch-English bilinguals in Australia questioned in 1971 and 1987 was analyzed, showing no evidence of attrition in Dutch. It is concluded that first-language attrition does not necessarily occur in an immigrant setting and that immigrants who maintain their language in the first years of their stay will likely remain…

  8. Nano-manufactured catalyst for the production of hydrogen via solar thermal water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clower, William; Wilson, Chester G.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on the creation of nano-manufactured catalyst for the production of hydrogen fuel via the solar thermal water splitting process. The solar thermal water splitting process is considered the holy grail of green energy as the process produces zero carbon emissions. This is made possible by focusing solar energy as the heating source, while the only reactant consumed in the process is water. For this work we are investigating the reaction dynamics of cobalt ferrite catalyst supported on an aluminum oxide support. Solar thermal water splitting occurs in two steps: reduction and oxidation reactions. The reduction step occurs by heating the catalyst, which produces oxygen and converts the cobalt ferrite/aluminum oxide to metal aluminates. The oxidation step begins by flowing water over the newly created metal aluminates. The metal aluminates react with the oxygen creating the original cobalt ferrite/aluminum oxide catalyst as well as hydrogen gas. The catalyst created for this work was done utilizing an electrospinning technique. In a one-step process the aluminum oxide support material can be incorporated with cobalt ferrite catalyst into a single nanofiber. With this technique nanofiber catalyst can be created with diameters ranging from 20 to 80 nm. Nanostructured materials allow for large surface areas >50 m2/g and surface area to volume ratios >9e7/m. The large surface area creates the opportunity for more active sites where the reactions can occur. An increase in reactivity has the potential to move fuel production rate for solar thermal water splitting closer to large-scale commercialization.

  9. Do Mothers Have the Right to Bring up Their Own Children? How Facts Do Not Determine (Dutch) Government Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allewijn, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch government has a double moral message for Dutch parents. On the one hand, they expect mothers to work more hours outside the home; on the other hand, they expect parents to perform better in their parental tasks. New research shows again that in spite of all stimulation measures, Dutch women with children prefer their part-time jobs, and…

  10. Social Integration and Religious Identity Expression among Dutch Muslims: The Role of Minority and Majority Group Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maliepaard, Mieke; Phalet, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of contrasting religious versus secular norms in immigrant communities and in Dutch society, this study examines how religious identity expression is related to the social integration of Dutch Muslims within (a) Turkish or Moroccan minority groups and (b) Dutch majority groups. Using nationally representative survey data (N…

  11. 75 FR 54692 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Miró: The Dutch Interiors”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Mir : The Dutch Interiors'' ACTION... ''Mir : The Dutch Interiors.'' The reference notice is corrected to accommodate an additional object to... determine that the additional object to be included in the exhibition ``Mir : The Dutch...

  12. The Prevalence of Tooth Wear in the Dutch Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Wetselaar, Peter; Vermaire, Jan H.; Visscher, Corine M.; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schuller, Annemarie A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of tooth wear in different age groups of the Dutch adult population and to determine this tooth wear distribution by gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Results were compared with the outcomes of a previous study in a comparable population. As part of a comprehensive investigation of the oral health of the general Dutch adult population in 2013, tooth wear was assessed among 1,125 subjects in the city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. The data collected were subjected to stratified analysis by 5 age groups (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years), gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Tooth wear was assessed using a 5-point ordinal occlusal/incisal grading scale. The number of teeth affected was higher in older age groups. Men showed more tooth wear than women, and subjects with low socioeconomic status (low SES) showed on average higher scores than those with high SES. Tooth wear prevalence found in this study was higher in all age groups than in the previous study. The present study found prevalences of 13% for mild tooth wear and 80% for moderate tooth wear, leading to the conclusion that these are common conditions in the Dutch adult population. Severe tooth wear (prevalence 6%) may however be characterized as rare. A tendency was found for there to be more tooth wear in older age groups, in men as compared with women, in persons with lower SES, and in the present survey as compared with the previous one. PMID:27694757

  13. The development of flux-split algorithms for flows with non-equilibrium thermodynamics and chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, B.; Cinella, P.

    1988-01-01

    A finite-volume method for the numerical computation of flows with nonequilibrium thermodynamics and chemistry is presented. A thermodynamic model is described which simplifies the coupling between the chemistry and thermodynamics and also results in the retention of the homogeneity property of the Euler equations (including all the species continuity and vibrational energy conservation equations). Flux-splitting procedures are developed for the fully coupled equations involving fluid dynamics, chemical production and thermodynamic relaxation processes. New forms of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms are embodied in a fully coupled, implicit, large-block structure, including all the species conservation and energy production equations. Several numerical examples are presented, including high-temperature shock tube and nozzle flows. The methodology is compared to other existing techniques, including spectral and central-differenced procedures, and favorable comparisons are shown regarding accuracy, shock-capturing and convergence rates.

  14. Splitting fields and general differential Galois theory

    SciTech Connect

    Trushin, Dmitry V

    2010-11-11

    An algebraic technique is presented that does not use results of model theory and makes it possible to construct a general Galois theory of arbitrary nonlinear systems of partial differential equations. The algebraic technique is based on the search for prime differential ideals of special form in tensor products of differential rings. The main results demonstrating the work of the technique obtained are the theorem on the constructedness of the differential closure and the general theorem on the Galois correspondence for normal extensions. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  15. Dutch Minister of Science Visits ESO Facilities in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, who travelled to the Republic of Chile, arrived at the ESO Paranal Observatory on Friday afternoon, May 13, 2005. The Minister was accompanied, among others, by the Dutch Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, and Mr. Cornelis van Bochove, the Dutch Director of Science. The distinguished visitors were able to acquaint themselves with one of the foremost European research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), during an overnight stay at this remote site, and later, with the next major world facility in sub-millimetre and millimetre astronomy, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). At Paranal, the guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky; the ESO Council President, Prof. Piet van der Kruit; the ESO Representative in Chile, Prof. Felix Mirabel; the Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory, Dr. Jason Spyromilio; by one of the Dutch members of the ESO Council, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw; by the renowned astrophysicist from Leiden, Prof. Ewine van Dishoek, as well as by ESO staff members. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at the observatory, including many of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. Explanations were given by ESO astronomers and engineers and the Minister gained a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the Paranal deck, the Minister visited the VLT Control Room from where the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) are operated. Here, the Minister was invited to follow an observing sequence at the console of the Kueyen (UT2) and Melipal (UT3) telescopes. "I was very impressed, not just by the technology and the science, but most of all by all the people involved

  16. Patient safety in Dutch primary care: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insight into the frequency and seriousness of potentially unsafe situations may be the first step towards improving patient safety. Most patient safety attention has been paid to patient safety in hospitals. However, in many countries, patients receive most of their healthcare in primary care settings. There is little concrete information about patient safety in primary care in the Netherlands. The overall aim of this study was to provide insight into the current patient safety issues in Dutch general practices, out-of-hours primary care centres, general dental practices, midwifery practices, and allied healthcare practices. The objectives of this study are: to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients; to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals; and to provide insight into patient safety management in primary care practices. Design and methods The study consists of three parts: a retrospective patient record study of 1,000 records per practice type was conducted to determine the frequency, type, impact, and causes of incidents found in the records of primary care patients (objective one); a prospective component concerns an incident-reporting study in each of the participating practices, during two successive weeks, to determine the type, impact, and causes of incidents reported by Dutch healthcare professionals (objective two); to provide insight into patient safety management in Dutch primary care practices (objective three), we surveyed organizational and cultural items relating to patient safety. We analysed the incidents found in the retrospective patient record study and the prospective incident-reporting study by type of incident, causes (Eindhoven Classification Model), actual harm (severity-of-outcome domain of the International Taxonomy of Medical Errors in Primary Care), and probability of severe harm or death. Discussion

  17. Magnetic photon splitting and gamma ray burst spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    1992-01-01

    The splitting of photons into two photons becomes both possible and significant in magnetic fields in excess of 10(exp 12) Gauss. Below the threshold energy, 2m sub e c(exp 2) for single photon pair production, splitting can be an astronomically observable phenomenon evident in gamma ray burst spectra. In such circumstances, it was found that magnetic photon splitting reprocesses the gamma ray burst continuum by degrading the photon energy, with a net effect that is quite similar to pair cascade reprocessing of the spectrum. Results are presented for the spectral modifications due to splitting, taking into account the different probabilities for splitting for different polarization modes. Unpolarized and polarized pair cascade photon spectra form the input spectra for the model, which calculates the resulting splitting reprocessed spectra numerically by solving the photon kinetic equations for each polarization mode. This inclusion of photon polarizations is found to not alter previous predictions that splitting produce a significant flattening of the hard X ray continuum and a bump at MeV energies below a pair production turnover. The spectrum near the bump is always strongly polarized.

  18. Vibrational quenching of excitonic splittings in H-bonded molecular dimers: The electronic Davydov splittings cannot match experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottiger, Philipp; Leutwyler, Samuel; Köppel, Horst

    2012-05-01

    The S1/S2 state exciton splittings of symmetric doubly hydrogen-bonded gas-phase dimers provide spectroscopic benchmarks for the excited-state electronic couplings between UV chromophores. These have important implications for electronic energy transfer in multichromophoric systems ranging from photosynthetic light-harvesting antennae to photosynthetic reaction centers, conjugated polymers, molecular crystals, and nucleic acids. We provide laser spectroscopic data on the S1/S2 excitonic splitting Δexp of the doubly H-bonded o-cyanophenol (oCP) dimer and compare to the splittings of the dimers of (2-aminopyridine)2, [(2AP)2], (2-pyridone)2, [(2PY)2], (benzoic acid)2, [(BZA)2], and (benzonitrile)2, [(BN)2]. The experimental S1/S2 excitonic splittings are Δexp = 16.4 cm-1 for (oCP)2, 11.5 cm-1 for (2AP)2, 43.5 cm-1 for (2PY)2, and <1 cm-1 for (BZA)2. In contrast, the vertical S1/S2 energy gaps Δcalc calculated by the approximate second-order coupled cluster (CC2) method for the same dimers are 10-40 times larger than the Δexp values. The qualitative failure of this and other ab initio methods to reproduce the exciton splitting Δexp arises from the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation, which implicitly assumes the strong-coupling case and cannot be employed to evaluate excitonic splittings of systems that are in the weak-coupling limit. Given typical H-bond distances and oscillator strengths, the majority of H-bonded dimers lie in the weak-coupling limit. In this case, the monomer electronic-vibrational coupling upon electronic excitation must be accounted for; the excitonic splittings arise between the vibronic (and not the electronic) transitions. The discrepancy between the BO-based splittings Δcalc and the much smaller experimental Δexp values is resolved by taking into account the quenching of the BO splitting by the intramolecular vibronic coupling in the monomer S1 ← S0 excitation. The vibrational quenching factors Γ for the five dimers (oCP)2, (2AP)2

  19. Oriented covalent immobilization of antibodies for measurement of intermolecular binding forces between zipper-like contact surfaces of split inteins

    PubMed Central

    Sorci, Mirco; Dassa, Bareket; Liu, Hongwei; Anand, Gaurav; Dutta, Amit K.; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Belfort, Marlene; Belfort, Georges

    2013-01-01

    In order to measure the intermolecular binding forces between two halves (or partners) of naturally split protein splicing elements called inteins, a novel thiol-hydrazide linker was designed and used to orient immobilized antibodies specific for each partner. Activation of the surfaces was achieved in one step allowing direct force measurements of the formation of a peptide bond catalyzed by the binding of the two partners of the split intein (called protein trans-splicing). Through this binding process, a whole functional intein is formed resulting in subsequent splicing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to directly measure the split intein partner binding at 1µm/s between native (wild-type) and mixed pairs of C- and N-terminal partners of naturally occurring split inteins from three cyanobacteria. Native and mixed pairs exhibit similar binding forces within the error of the measurement technique (~52 pN). Bioinformatic sequence analysis and computational structural analysis discovered a zipper-like contact between the two partners with electrostatic and non-polar attraction between multiple aligned ion pairs and hydrophobic residues. Also, we tested the Jarzynski’s equality and demonstrated, as expected, that non-equilibrium dissipative measurements obtained here gave larger energies of interaction as compared with those for equilibrium. Hence, AFM coupled with our immobilization strategy and computational studies provides a useful analytical tool for the direct measurement of intermolecular association of split inteins and could be extended to any interacting protein pair. PMID:23679912

  20. Large spin splitting of metallic surface-state bands at adsorbate-modified gold/silicon surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, L. V.; Gruznev, D. V.; Yakovlev, A. A.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Usachov, D.; Vilkov, O.; Fedorov, A.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Eremeev, S. V.; Chulkov, E. V.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Finding appropriate systems with a large spin splitting of metallic surface-state band which can be fabricated on silicon using routine technique is an essential step in combining Rashba-effect based spintronics with silicon technology. We have found that originally poor structural and electronic properties of the surface can be substantially improved by adsorbing small amounts of suitable species (e.g., Tl, In, Na, Cs). The resultant surfaces exhibit a highly-ordered atomic structure and spin-split metallic surface-state band with a momentum splitting of up to 0.052 Å−1 and an energy splitting of up to 190 meV at the Fermi level. The family of adsorbate-modified surfaces, on the one hand, is thought to be a fascinating playground for exploring spin-splitting effects in the metal monolayers on a semiconductor and, on the other hand, expands greatly the list of material systems prospective for spintronics applications. PMID:23661151

  1. Large spin splitting of metallic surface-state bands at adsorbate-modified gold/silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, L V; Gruznev, D V; Yakovlev, A A; Tupchaya, A Y; Usachov, D; Vilkov, O; Fedorov, A; Vyalikh, D V; Eremeev, S V; Chulkov, E V; Zotov, A V; Saranin, A A

    2013-01-01

    Finding appropriate systems with a large spin splitting of metallic surface-state band which can be fabricated on silicon using routine technique is an essential step in combining Rashba-effect based spintronics with silicon technology. We have found that originally poor structural and electronic properties of the Au/Si(111) √3 x √3 surface can be substantially improved by adsorbing small amounts of suitable species (e.g., Tl, In, Na, Cs). The resultant surfaces exhibit a highly-ordered atomic structure and spin-split metallic surface-state band with a momentum splitting of up to 0.052 Å(-1) and an energy splitting of up to 190 meV at the Fermi level. The family of adsorbate-modified Au/Si(111) √3 x √3 surfaces, on the one hand, is thought to be a fascinating playground for exploring spin-splitting effects in the metal monolayers on a semiconductor and, on the other hand, expands greatly the list of material systems prospective for spintronics applications.

  2. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

  3. Practice variation in the Dutch long-term care and the role of supply-sensitive care: Is access to the Dutch long-term care equitable?

    PubMed

    Duell, Daisy; Koolman, Xander; Portrait, France

    2017-03-02

    Universal access and generous coverage are important goals of the Dutch long-term care (LTC) system. It is a legal requirement that everyone eligible for LTC should be able to receive it. Institutional care (IC) made up for 90% of Dutch LTC spending. To investigate whether access to IC is as equitable as the Dutch government aspires, we explored practice variation in entitlements to IC across Dutch regions. We used a unique dataset that included all individual applications for Dutch LTC in January 2010-December 2013 (N = 3,373,358). This dataset enabled an accurate identification of the need for care. We examined the local variation in the probability of being granted long-term IC and in the intensity of the care granted given that individuals have applied for LTC. We also investigated whether the variation observed was related to differences in the local availability of care facilities. Although our analyses indicated the presence of some practice variation, its magnitude was very small by national and international standards (up to 3%). Only a minor part of the practice variation could be accounted for by local supply differences in care facilities. Overall, we conclude that, unlike many other developed countries, the Dutch system ensured equitable access to long-term IC.

  4. A splitting algorithm for Vlasov simulation with filamentation filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimas, A. J.; Farrell, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    A Fourier-Fourier transformed version of the splitting algorithm for simulating solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations is introduced. It is shown that with the inclusion of filamentation filtration in this transformed algorithm it is both faster and more stable than the standard splitting algorithm. It is further shown that in a scalar computer environment this new algorithm is approximately equal in speed and far less noisy than its particle-in-cell counterpart. It is conjectured that in a multiprocessor environment the filtered splitting algorithm would be faster while producing more precise results.

  5. Thermoelectric-induced unitary Cooper pair splitting efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng; Li, Lin; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2015-11-23

    Thermoelectric effect is exploited to optimize the Cooper pair splitting efficiency in a Y-shaped junction, which consists of two normal leads coupled to an s-wave superconductor via double noninteracting quantum dots. Here, utilizing temperature difference rather than bias voltage between the two normal leads, and tuning the two dot levels such that the transmittance of elastic cotunneling process is particle-hole symmetric, we find current flowing through the normal leads are totally contributed from the splitting of Cooper pairs emitted from the superconductor. Such a unitary splitting efficiency is significantly better than the efficiencies obtained in experiments so far.

  6. Collider Phenomenology with Split-UED

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Park, Seong Chan; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2011-12-15

    We investigate the collider implications of Split Universal Extra Dimensions. The non-vanishing fermion mass in the bulk, which is consistent with the KK-parity, largely modifies the phenomenology of Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions. We scrutinize the behavior of couplings and study the discovery reach of the Tevatron and the LHC for level-2 Kaluza-Klein modes in the dilepton channel, which would indicates the presence of the extra dimensions. Observation of large event rates for dilepton resonances can result from a nontrivial fermion mass profile along the extra dimensions, which, in turn, may corroborate extra dimensional explanation for the observation of the positron excess in cosmic rays. The Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions scenario has received great attention. Recently non-vanishing bulk fermion masses have been introduced without spoiling the virtue of KK-parity. The fermion profiles are no longer simple sine/cosine functions and depend upon the specific values of bulk parameters. The profiles of fermions are split along the extra dimensions while the wave functions of the bosons remain the same as in UED. A simple introduction of a KK-parity conserving bulk fermion mass has significant influences on collider aspects as well as astrophysical implications of UED. For instance, the DM annihilation fraction into certain SM fermion pairs is either enhanced or reduced (compared to the MUED case) so that one can perhaps explain the PAMELA positron excess while suppressing the anti-proton flux. In this paper, we have concentrated on collider phenomenology of Split Universal Extra Dimensions. We have revisited the KK decomposition in detail and analyzed wave function overlaps to compute relevant couplings for collider studies. We have discussed general collider implication for level-1 KK modes and level-2 KK with non-zero bulk mass and have computed LHC reach for the EW level-2 KK bosons, {gamma}{sub 2} and Z{sub 2}, in the dilepton channel. The LHC should

  7. Application of Process Mining in Healthcare - A Case Study in a Dutch Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mans, R. S.; Schonenberg, M. H.; Song, M.; van der Aalst, W. M. P.; Bakker, P. J. M.

    To gain competitive advantage, hospitals try to streamline their processes. In order to do so, it is essential to have an accurate view of the "careflows" under consideration. In this paper, we apply process mining techniques to obtain meaningful knowledge about these flows, e.g., to discover typical paths followed by particular groups of patients. This is a non-trivial task given the dynamic nature of healthcare processes. The paper demonstrates the applicability of process mining using a real case of a gynecological oncology process in a Dutch hospital. Using a variety of process mining techniques, we analyzed the healthcare process from three different perspectives: (1) the control flow perspective, (2) the organizational perspective and (3) the performance perspective. In order to do so we extracted relevant event logs from the hospital's information system and analyzed these logs using the ProM framework. The results show that process mining can be used to provide new insights that facilitate the improvement of existing careflows.

  8. Gerrit Dou: 17th century Dutch artist portraying dentists at work.

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2002-07-01

    The Dutch painter, Gerrit Dou (1613-1675), was, during his lifetime, a prestigious and highly paid artist. Critics and collectors of that era marveled at his extraordinary technical skill, his masterful illusionism and his keen portrayal of everyday life. He was the first artist to perfect the technique of "fine painting"--the production of small, detailed pictures wherein subjects are painted in a photographically realistic style. Because of his exceptional skill in this technique, the brushwork in his painting was almost invisible. Additionally, he masterfully used light and shade to achieve the effect of a third dimension. In many of his portraits, subjects stare ahead from inside a window (or niche), whose sill is overflowing with small, familiar objects. Dou's focus was on 17th century Holland and his work included: portraits, genre (scenes of everyday life) and religious themes. Between 1628 and 1675, he painted about three hundred pictures: six of these portrayed dentists at work. Most artists of those days depicted dentists as plying their trade in theatrical, circus-like environments, as in crowded county fairs. However, Dou's dentists interact with their patients in a realistic, professional manner. In this article, his most famous dental painting, "The Dentist," created in 1672, is analyzed in detail. Over the centuries, Dou's public recognition has faded into obscurity. However, his exceptional talents are currently being rediscovered.

  9. Evidence for locus heterogeneity in human autosomal dominant split hand/split foot malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.; Wijsman, E.M.; Stephens, K.; Evans, J.P. ); Scherer, S.W.; Tsui, L.C. ); Kukolich, M. )

    1994-07-01

    Split hand/split foot (SHSF; also known as ectrodactyly) is a human developmental disorder characterized by missing central digits and other distal limb malformations. An association between SHSF and cytogenetically visible rearrangements of chromosome 7 at bands q21-q22 provides compelling evidence for the location of a causative gene at this location, and the locus has been designated SHFD1. In the present study, marker loci were localized to the SHFD1 critical region through the analysis of somatic cell hybrids derived from individuals with SHSF and cytogenetic abnormalities involving the 7q21-q22 region. Combined genetic and physical data suggest that the order of markers in the SHFD1 critical region is cen-D7S492-D7S527-(D7S479-D7S491)-SHFD1-D7S553-D7S518-qter. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms at three of these loci were used to test for linkage of SHSF to this region in a large pedigree that demonstrates autosomal dominant SHSF. Evidence against linkage of the SHSF gene to 7q21-q22 was obtained in this pedigree. Therefore, combined molecular and genetic data provide evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant SHSF. The authors propose the name SHSF2 for this second locus. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Dutch Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Broiler Welfare.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Machiel; Zomer, Sigourney

    2017-02-06

    This article analyzes Dutch consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for the welfare of broiler chickens and the consequences for nonhuman animal welfare policies. Using data from a discrete-choice experiment and a random parameter logit model, this study showed that consumers particularly value opportunities for outdoor access and the method used for anesthesia before slaughter. The WTP was also positively related to the number of consumers buying the same product, indicating that they experience the public-good dilemma. Moreover, the WTP was higher if consumers knew that animal welfare practices were subject to public or collective supervision. Women, people with more education, those with higher income, and nonreligious people had relatively high WTP values. For 87.5% of the respondents, the WTP exceeded the price difference between a broiler with a higher level of animal welfare and a regular chicken. The findings suggest that the Dutch market for broiler chickens can be improved by raising consumer confidence in the labeling system.

  11. Lexical frequency and acoustic reduction in spoken Dutch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymaekers, Mark; Ernestus, Mirjam; Baayen, R. Harald

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of lexical frequency on the durational reduction of morphologically complex words in spoken Dutch. The hypothesis that high-frequency words are more reduced than low-frequency words was tested by comparing the durations of affixes occurring in different carrier words. Four Dutch affixes were investigated, each occurring in a large number of words with different frequencies. The materials came from a large database of face-to-face conversations. For each word containing a target affix, one token was randomly selected for acoustic analysis. Measurements were made of the duration of the affix as a whole and the durations of the individual segments in the affix. For three of the four affixes, a higher frequency of the carrier word led to shorter realizations of the affix as a whole, individual segments in the affix, or both. Other relevant factors were the sex and age of the speaker, segmental context, and speech rate. To accommodate for these findings, models of speech production should allow word frequency to affect the acoustic realizations of lower-level units, such as individual speech sounds occurring in affixes.

  12. [Multiresistant Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in a Dutch sow herd].

    PubMed

    Duinhof, T F; Dierikx, C M; Koene, M G J; van Bergen, M A P; Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; van Beers-Schreurs, H M G; de Winne, R T J A

    This case study describes the isolation ofa multiresistant strain ofBrachyspira hyodysenteriae in April 2007 in a Dutch sow herd with recurrent diarrhoea. Examination of faecal samples taken from 7-month-old breeding gilts with diarrhoea revealed the presence of resistance against tiamulin, lincomycin, tylosin, doxycycline, and tylvalosin (the active substance in Aivlosin) in four of five samples. Tiamulin resistance has not been reported in The Netherlands before. The repeated use of tiamulin on the affected farm was assumed to be the main cause of the development of resistance to the drug. The farmer was advised to adopt a medication strategy and to implement management practices that would prevent an ongoing cycle of infection on the farm. It is important that the Dutch swine industry appreciates that tiamulin-resistant strains of B. hyodysenteriae may be found on other farms as well. The appropriate and prudent use of antibiotics is essential in order to prevent the development of resistance against the last option left to cure B. hyodysenteriae infections: valnemulin.

  13. Sub-wavelength imaging and field mapping via electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, Christopher L. Gordon, Joshua A.; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-06-16

    We present a technique for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric field strengths with sub-wavelength resolution. We use Rydberg states of rubidium atoms to probe the RF field. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect, and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use this technique to measure the electric field distribution inside a glass cylinder with applied RF fields at 17.04 GHz and 104.77 GHz. We achieve a spatial resolution of ≈100 μm, limited by the widths of the laser beams utilized for the EIT spectroscopy. We numerically simulate the fields in the glass cylinder and find good agreement with the measured fields. Our results suggest that this technique could be applied to image fields on a small spatial scale over a large range of frequencies, up into the sub-terahertz regime.

  14. The Importance of Relationships with Parents and Best Friends for Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Quality: Differences between Indigenous and Ethnic Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; de Greef, Marieke; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how the quality of relationships with parents and friends were related to intimacy, commitment, and passion in adolescents' romantic relationships for indigenous Dutch and ethnic Dutch adolescents. Self-report survey data were used from 444 (88.9%) indigenous Dutch and 55 (11.1%) ethnic Dutch adolescents between 12 and 18 years…

  15. Measuring and Evaluating TCP Splitting for Cloud Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Abhinav; Wang, Y. Angela; Huang, Cheng; Greenberg, Albert; Hu, Y. Charlie; Kern, Randy; Li, Jin; Ross, Keith W.

    In this paper, we examine the benefits of split-TCP proxies, deployed in an operational world-wide network, for accelerating cloud services. We consider a fraction of a network consisting of a large number of satellite datacenters, which host split-TCP proxies, and a smaller number of mega datacenters, which ultimately perform computation or provide storage. Using web search as an exemplary case study, our detailed measurements reveal that a vanilla TCP splitting solution deployed at the satellite DCs reduces the 95 th percentile of latency by as much as 43% when compared to serving queries directly from the mega DCs. Through careful dissection of the measurement results, we characterize how individual components, including proxy stacks, network protocols, packet losses and network load, can impact the latency. Finally, we shed light on further optimizations that can fully realize the potential of the TCP splitting solution.

  16. Field Monitoring Protocol. Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Dane; Fang, Xia; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon; Hancock, E.

    2011-03-01

    This Building America program report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential mini-split heat pump, which will be used in high-performance retrofit applications.

  17. Performance Models for Split-execution Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; McCaskey, Alex; Schrock, Jonathan; Seddiqi, Hadayat; Britt, Keith A; Imam, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Split-execution computing leverages the capabilities of multiple computational models to solve problems, but splitting program execution across different computational models incurs costs associated with the translation between domains. We analyze the performance of a split-execution computing system developed from conventional and quantum processing units (QPUs) by using behavioral models that track resource usage. We focus on asymmetric processing models built using conventional CPUs and a family of special-purpose QPUs that employ quantum computing principles. Our performance models account for the translation of a classical optimization problem into the physical representation required by the quantum processor while also accounting for hardware limitations and conventional processor speed and memory. We conclude that the bottleneck in this split-execution computing system lies at the quantum-classical interface and that the primary time cost is independent of quantum processor behavior.

  18. Resonant Nanophotonic Spectrum Splitting for Ultrathin Multijunction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Mann, Sander A; Garnett, Erik C

    2015-07-15

    We present an approach to spectrum splitting for photovoltaics that utilizes the resonant optical properties of nanostructures for simultaneous voltage enhancement and spatial separation of different colors of light. Using metal-insulator-metal resonators commonly used in broadband metamaterial absorbers we show theoretically that output voltages can be enhanced significantly compared to single-junction devices. However, the approach is general and works for any type of resonator with a large absorption cross section. Due to its resonant nature, the spectrum splitting occurs within only a fraction of the wavelength, as opposed to traditional spectrum splitting methods, where many wavelengths are required. Combining nanophotonic spectrum splitting with other nanophotonic approaches to voltage enhancements, such as angle restriction and concentration, may lead to highly efficient but deeply subwavelength photovoltaic devices.

  19. Splitting a simple homotopy equivalence along a submanifold with filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, A; Muranov, Yu V

    2008-06-30

    A simple homotopy equivalence f:M{sup n}{yields}X{sup n} of manifolds splits along a submanifold Y subset of X if it is homotopic to a map that is a simple homotopy equivalence on the transversal preimage of the submanifold and on the complement of this preimage. The problem of splitting along a submanifold with filtration is a natural generalization of this problem. In this paper we define groups LSF{sub *} of obstructions to splitting along a submanifold with filtration and describe their properties. We apply the results obtained to the problem of the realization of surgery and splitting obstructions by maps of closed manifolds and consider several examples. Bibliography: 36 titles.

  20. Interior view showing split levels with buildings 87 windows in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view showing split levels with buildings 87 windows in distance; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Evidence for Split NMR Lines in Ferromagnetic 3He Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Zhang, Jinshan; Du, Yuliang; Gould, C. M.; Bozler, H. M.

    2006-09-01

    In earlier experiments on ferromagnetic 3He films, we observed a complex lineshape due in part to the dipolar field generated by polarization of the 3He nuclei. Much of the complex lineshape can be explained by the known distribution of the Grafoil platelets. However, there remained some evidence for a split NMR line at some temperatures. In our new experiments on ZYX grade exfoliated graphite where the size of individual platelets is much larger and the angular distribution is three times smaller, this splitting has become more evident over a wider range of temperatures. Now it is clear that the complex lineshape includes two peaks along with remaining orientation effects. We also find that roughly 2% of our signal comes from randomly oriented platelets. We present the details of our model for analyzing these lineshapes and the experimental results for the line splitting at several coverages in the ferromagnetic range. We discuss the possible sources of this line splitting.

  2. Resonant Nanophotonic Spectrum Splitting for Ultrathin Multijunction Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach to spectrum splitting for photovoltaics that utilizes the resonant optical properties of nanostructures for simultaneous voltage enhancement and spatial separation of different colors of light. Using metal–insulator–metal resonators commonly used in broadband metamaterial absorbers we show theoretically that output voltages can be enhanced significantly compared to single-junction devices. However, the approach is general and works for any type of resonator with a large absorption cross section. Due to its resonant nature, the spectrum splitting occurs within only a fraction of the wavelength, as opposed to traditional spectrum splitting methods, where many wavelengths are required. Combining nanophotonic spectrum splitting with other nanophotonic approaches to voltage enhancements, such as angle restriction and concentration, may lead to highly efficient but deeply subwavelength photovoltaic devices. PMID:26322319

  3. Proton-structure corrections to hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Carl E.; Nazaryan, Vahagn; Griffioen, Keith

    2011-04-15

    We present the derivation of the formulas for the proton structure-dependent terms in the hyperfine splitting of muonic hydrogen. We use compatible conventions throughout the calculations to derive a consistent set of formulas that reconcile differences between our results and some specific terms in earlier work. Convention conversion corrections are explicitly presented, which reduce the calculated hyperfine splitting by about 46 ppm. We also note that using only modern fits to the proton elastic form factors gives a smaller than historical spread of Zemach radii and leads to a reduced uncertainty in the hyperfine splitting. Additionally, hyperfine splittings have an impact on the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and proton radius measurement, however the correction we advocate has a small effect there.

  4. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, Jordan; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  5. Helicopter transmission arrangements with split-torque gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, G.

    1983-01-01

    As an alternative to component development, the case for improved drive-train configuration is argued. In particular, the use of torque-splitting gear trains is proposed as a practicable means of improving the effectiveness of helicopter main gearboxes.

  6. Field Monitoring Protocol: Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Tomerlin, J.; Winkler, J.; Hancock, E.

    2011-03-01

    The report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential Mini-Split Heat Pump. It will be used in high-performance retrofit applications, and as part of DOE's Building America residential research program.

  7. Split-sideband spectroscopy in slowly modulated optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranas, E. B.; Fonseca, P. Z. G.; Barker, P. F.; Monteiro, T. S.

    2016-11-01

    Optomechanical coupling between the motion of a mechanical oscillator and a cavity represents a new arena for experimental investigation of quantum effects on the mesoscopic and macroscopic scale. The motional sidebands of the output of a cavity offer ultra-sensitive probes of the dynamics. We introduce a scheme whereby these sidebands split asymmetrically and show how they may be used as experimental diagnostics and signatures of quantum noise limited dynamics. We show split-sidebands with controllable asymmetry occur by simultaneously modulating the light-mechanical coupling g and the mechanical frequency, {ω }{{M}}—slowly and out-of-phase. Such modulations are generic but already occur in optically trapped set-ups where the equilibrium point of the oscillator is varied cyclically. We analyse recently observed, but overlooked, experimental split-sideband asymmetries; although not yet in the quantum regime, the data suggests that split sideband structures are easily accessible to future experiments.

  8. Traffic dispersion through a series of signals with irregular split

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We study the traffic behavior of a group of vehicles moving through a sequence of signals with irregular splits on a roadway. We present the stochastic model of vehicular traffic controlled by signals. The dynamic behavior of vehicular traffic is clarified by analyzing traffic pattern and travel time numerically. The group of vehicles breaks up more and more by the irregularity of signal's split. The traffic dispersion is induced by the irregular split. We show that the traffic dispersion depends highly on the cycle time and the strength of split's irregularity. Also, we study the traffic behavior through the series of signals at the green-wave strategy. The dependence of the travel time on offset time is derived for various values of cycle time. The region map of the traffic dispersion is shown in (cycle time, offset time)-space.

  9. Mytilus galloprovincialis-type foot-protein-1 alleles occur at low frequency among mussels in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; Koolhaas, Anita; Bol, Anneke; Piersma, Theunis

    2002-11-01

    The presence of M. galloprovincialis-type genes among the population of mussels in the Dutch Wadden Sea, historically described as M. edulis, was assessed. We applied the molecular technique in which a fragment of the gene coding for an adhesive protein of the byssus of mussels is amplified by PCR and assayed for length using electrophoresis. Among 321 individual mussels collected in August-October 2001 at 14 sites (5 intertidal, 9 subtidal) widely dispersed over the Dutch Wadden Sea, 6 specimens (collected at 5 sites) were found that showed a heterozygote genotype with both the M. edulis- and the M. galloprovincialis-type alleles being amplified; all others were identified as homozygotes for the M. edulis-type allele. Differentiation in frequencies of heterozygotes among sites was not detected. The fact that the M. galloprovincialis-type allele was present at low frequency (0.0093) may be attributed to one of three possible, and not mutually exclusive, causes: incomplete diagnosticity of this marker, an historically stable introgression zone in the Wadden Sea, or a recent invasion.

  10. Splitting of Forced Elliptic Jets and Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, J.; Carlton, J.; Schwieterman, M.; Davis, E.; Bradley, E.; Linne, M.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the fluid dynamics in the interaction of large scale, three-dimensional vortex structures and transitional diffusion flames in a microgravity environment. The vortex structures are used to provide a known perturbation of the type used in passive and active shear layer control techniques. 'Passive techniques' refers to manipulation of the system geometry to influence the three dimensional dynamics of vortex structures, and 'active' refers to any technique which adds energy (acoustic or kinetic) to the flow to influence the shear layer vortex dynamics. In this work the passive forcing is provided by an elliptic jet cross-section, and the active forcing is incorporated by perturbing the jet velocity using a loudspeaker in the plenum section.

  11. Polarization operator contributions to the Lamb shift and hyperfine splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, Michael I.; Shelyuto, Valery A.

    2003-10-01

    We calculate radiative corrections to the Lamb shift of order {alpha}{sup 3}(Z{alpha}){sup 5}m and radiative corrections to hyperfine splitting of order {alpha}{sup 3}(Z{alpha})E{sub F} generated by the diagrams with insertions of radiative photons and electron polarization loops in the graphs with two external photons. We also obtain the radiative-recoil correction to hyperfine splitting in muonium generated by the diagrams with the {tau} polarization loop.

  12. Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearities Via Whispering Gallery Mode Splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Hongrok; Smith, David D.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An iterative method is applied to the analysis of N coupled ring-resonators, and the results are compared with multilayered spheres. Splitting of the whispering gallery modes into N higher-Q modes occurs when the round-trip phase shifts in each ring (or layer) are equal, in agreement with results for planar resonators. This mode-splitting is, therefore, a universal phenomenon for resonant structures, and can lead to reduced thresholds for nonlinear optical effects.

  13. Exploring various flux vector splittings for the magnetohydrodynamic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Montecinos, Gino I.; Toro, Eleuterio F.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we explore flux vector splittings for the MHD system of equations. Our approach follows the strategy that was initially put forward in Toro and Vázquez-Cendón (2012) [55]. We split the flux vector into an advected sub-system and a pressure sub-system. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the split sub-systems are then studied for physical suitability. Not all flux vector splittings for MHD yield physically meaningful results. We find one that is completely useless, another that is only marginally useful and one that should work well in all regimes where the MHD equations are used. Unfortunately, this successful flux vector splitting turns out to be different from the Zha-Bilgen flux vector splitting. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this favorable FVS are explored in great detail in this paper. The pressure sub-system holds the key to finding a successful flux vector splitting. The eigenstructure of the successful flux vector splitting for MHD is thoroughly explored and orthonormalized left and right eigenvectors are explicitly catalogued. We present a novel approach to the solution of the Riemann problem formed by the pressure sub-system for the MHD equations. Once the pressure sub-system is solved, the advection sub-system follows naturally. Our method also works very well for the Euler system. Our FVS successfully captures isolated, stationary contact discontinuities in MHD. However, we explain why any FVS for MHD is not adept at capturing isolated, stationary Alfvenic discontinuities. Several stringent one-dimensional Riemann problems are presented to show that the method works successfully and can effectively capture the full panoply of wave structures that arise in MHD. This includes compound waves and switch-on and switch-off shocks that arise because of the non-convex nature of the MHD system.

  14. Flux-vector splitting for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Leer, B.

    1982-01-01

    Flux-vector splitting is shown to be the simplest way of implementing upwind differencing for the full or isenthalpic Euler equations combined with the ideal-gas law. The scheme presented produces steady shock profiles with two interior zones. A disadvantage in using flux-vector splitting is that it leads to numerical diffusion of a contact discontinuity at rest. This diffusion, however, can be removed, and present research is aimed at achieving this with minimal computational effort.

  15. Successive splitting of autowaves in a nonlinear chemical reaction medium.

    PubMed

    Okano, Taiji; Matsuda, Yuki; Miyakawa, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    The phenomenon of wave splitting is investigated in a two-dimensional excitable light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction medium after extremely changing the intensity of illuminated light for a short time. It is found that successive wave splitting and nonannihilation collision between two waves of different amplitudes occur spontaneously under narrow experimental conditions. Experimental observations are approximately reproduced in the specific parameter range by a numerical simulation with a Bär-Eiswirth model.

  16. Overall water splitting on (oxy)nitride photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domen, Kazunari

    2008-08-01

    Overall water splitting to form hydrogen and oxygen on a heterogeneous photocatalyst using solar energy is an attractive process for large-scale hydrogen production. In recent years, numerous attempts have been made for the development of visible-light-responsive photocatalysts to efficiently utilize solar energy. In this article, recent research progress in the development of visible-light-driven photocatalysts is described, specifically focusing on our efforts made on the development of (oxy)nitride photocatalysts for overall water splitting.

  17. TS: a test-split algorithm for inductive learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xindong

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents a new attribute-based learning algorithm, TS. Different from ID3, AQ11, and HCV in strategies, this algorithm operates in cycles of test and split. It uses those attribute values which occur only in positives but not in negatives to straightforwardly discriminate positives against negatives and chooses the attributes with least number of different values to split example sets. TS is natural, easy to implement, and low-order polynomial in time complexity.

  18. Split cord malformation type I distal to segmental myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Addas, Bassam M.

    2014-01-01

    The coexistence of myelomeningocele (MMC) and split cord malformation (SCM) is a well-known phenomenon. The SCM is usually above or at the level of the MMC. Split cord malformation distal to the MMC is considered to be the rarest form of such a combination. We report a case of SCM (type I) distal to the MMC diagnosed pre-operatively. Repair of the MMC and the SCM were carried out in the same setting. PMID:25551117

  19. Calculation of Radiative Corrections to Hyperfine Splitting in p1/2 States

    SciTech Connect

    Sapirstein, J; Cheng, K T

    2006-09-20

    Techniques to calculate one-loop radiative corrections to hyperfine splitting including binding corrections to all orders have been developed in the last decade for s states of atoms and ions. In this paper these methods are extended to p{sub 1/2} states for three cases. In the first case, the point-Coulomb 2p{sub 1/2} hyperfine splitting is treated for the hydrogen isoelectronic sequence, and the lowest order result, {alpha}/4{pi} E{sub F}, is shown to have large binding corrections at high Z. In the second case, neutral alkalis are considered. In the third case, hyperfine splitting of the 2p{sub 1/2} state of lithium-like bismuth is treated. In the latter two cases, correlation corrections are included and, in addition, the point is stressed that uncertainties associated with nuclear structure, which complicate comparison with experiment for s states, are considerably reduced because of the smaller overlap with the nucleus.

  20. Calculation of radiative corrections to hyperfine splitting in p{sub 1/2} states

    SciTech Connect

    Sapirstein, J.; Cheng, K. T.

    2006-10-15

    Techniques to calculate one-loop radiative corrections to hyperfine splitting including binding corrections to all orders have been developed in the last decade for s states of atoms and ions. In this paper these methods are extended to p{sub 1/2} states for three cases. In the first case, the point-Coulomb 2p{sub 1/2} hyperfine splitting is treated for the hydrogen isoelectonic sequence, and the lowest order result ({alpha}/4{pi})E{sub F}, is shown to have large binding corrections at high Z. In the second case, neutral alkali-metal atoms are considered. In the third case, hyperfine splitting of the 2p{sub 1/2} state of lithiumlike bismuth is treated. In the latter two cases, correlation corrections are included and, in addition, the point is stressed that uncertainties associated with nuclear structure, which complicate comparison with experiment for s states, are considerably reduced because of the smaller overlap with the nucleus.