Science.gov

Sample records for dwarf surf clam

  1. 50 CFR 648.72 - Minimum surf clam size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum surf clam size. 648.72 Section 648... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.72 Minimum surf clam size. (a) Minimum length. The minimum length for surf clams is 4.75 inches (12.065 cm). (b) Determination of compliance. No more than...

  2. 50 CFR 648.72 - Minimum surf clam size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum surf clam size. 648.72 Section... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.72 Minimum surf clam size. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60622, Sept. 29, 2011. (a) Minimum length. The minimum length for surf clams is...

  3. 76 FR 65180 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application to Shuck Surf Clams/Ocean Quahogs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application to Shuck Surf Clams/Ocean Quahogs at Sea AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  4. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). SURF CLAM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Population Dyna•iIcs . . . . . o . # . # # .* , * . . . 10 ECOLOGICAL ROLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Food Habits...cioused by coastal development. Each profile has sections on taxonomy, life history, ecological role , enviroiwnental requirements, and economic...invisible, outer, jellylike layer and mine surf clam gender (Ropes et al. the germinal vesicle (Ropes 1980). 1969). Male and female surf clams Longo

  5. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Surf Clam

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, C.W.; Neves, R.J.; Pardue, G.B.

    1983-10-01

    The surf clam (Spisula solidissima) is a dominant clam species in the mid-Atlantic region, and contributed 71.8% of all clam meats consumed in the United States between 1970 and 1974; total landings in 1981 were 20.9 thousand metric tons (46.1 million lb). Surf clams live in the coastal zone from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina; they are most common in the breaker zone, but occur to depths of 70 m (230 ft). They reach sexual maturity in 2 years and spawn in the mid-Atlantic region from mid-July through mid-October, often with two spawning peaks per year. Larval stages are planktonic; upon settlement, they metamorphose into juvenile clams. Adults live buried in sandy or gravel substrates, with siphons extended above the bottom for feeding and respiration. Surf clams may live up to 25 years and reach a size of 225 mm (8.9 inches). Larvae tolerate water temperatures of 14/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/F (57/sup 0/) to 86/sup 0/F), and salinities as low as 16 ppt. Adults tolerate 0/sup 0/ to 28/sup 0/C (32/sup 0/ to 82/sup 0/F) and 12.5 ppt salinity or higher. Depletion of dissolved oxygen in ocean bottom waters was the major cause for large-scale surf clam mortalities off New York and New Jersey over the last two decades. Sewage, sludge, and heavy metals often cause accumulation of toxic materials in surf clam meats and force closure of beds to fishing to prevent human consumption of these toxic materials. 98 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  6. The calibration of photographic and spectroscopic films. The utilization of the digital image processor in the determination of aging of the surf clam (Spisula solidissima)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Kevin A.; Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The age of the surf clam (Spisula solidissima) can be determined with the use of the Digital Image Processor. This technique is used in conjunction with a modified method for aging, refined by John Ropes of the Woods Hole Laboratory, Massachusetts. This method utilizes a thinned sectioned chondrophore of the surf clam which contains annual rings. The rings of the chondrophore are then counted to determine age. By digitizing the chondrophore, the Digital Image Processor is clearly able to separate these annual rings more accurately. This technique produces an easier and more efficient way to count annual rings to determine the age of the surf clam.

  7. Performance Characteristics of AOAC Method 2005.06 for the Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Manila Clams, European Otter Clams, Grooved Carpet Shell Clams, Surf Clams, and Processed King Scallops.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Alison; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    An approach was developed for the verification of method performance of the AOAC 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detector (FLD) method for determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. This was developed following advice published by the Analytical Laboratory Accreditation Criteria Committee and applied to shellfish species that had not been previously subjected to a full single-laboratory validation scheme. The refined approach was developed following the need to assess performance in a number of shellfish species infrequently monitored through the UK statutory monitoring program, while reducing the impact and cost of the studies, most notably in terms of the use of valuable reference standards. The species assessed were manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), European otter clams (Lutraria lutraria), grooved carpet shell clams (R. decussatus), surf clams (Spisula solida), and king scallops (Pecten maximus) presented as adductor only or adductor plus roe. The method was assessed for sensitivity in terms of LOD and LOQ, toxin recovery, and method precision in each species. It incorporated the PSP toxins deemed toxic and/or prevalent in UK samples and commercially available as certified reference standards. The toxins studied included GTX1-5, dcSTX, STX, C1&2, and NEO. The toxins dcGTX2&3 were included for surf clams due to the prevalence of these toxins in this species as a result of toxin decarbamoylation. Method performance targets were met for each of the characteristics investigated. Consequently, the method was deemed fit for purpose for the screening and quantification of these clam and scallop species for PSP toxins by AOAC Method 2005.06 LC-FLD.

  8. Effect of substrate component on the growth and survival of juvenile sunray surf clam ( Mactra chinensis Philippi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuekai; Li, Zhuang; Huo, Zhongming; Yan, Xiwu; Yang, Feng; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Xingzhi

    2016-08-01

    Substrate is a critical environmental factor affecting the activity of bivalves. To examine the effect of the substrate component on the growth and survival of juvenile sunray surf clam ( Mactra chinensis Philippi), a series of short-term experiments were conducted using a variety of substrates with different ratios of sand to mud. The experimental group cultured without substrate showed poor survival, with all juveniles died after day 20. The juveniles cultured in mud without sand showed a lower survival rate (25.54% ± 0.40% on day 45) than those in other groups. The juveniles cultured in sand without mud, or the mixtures of sand and mud with a ratio of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, exhibited modest survival at day 45. Maximal weight gain rate ( WGR), shell length growth rate ( LGR), and specific growth rate ( SGR) were observed when the sand concentration was 61.97%, 77.69%, and 64.64%, respectively. As the fast growth and high survival were observed when the sand to mud ratio was 1:1 (50% sand) and 2:1 (67% sand), a sand concentration of more than 50% is optimal. The optimal concentration of sand in the substrate for rearing juvenile sunray surf clams was 67% which resulted in the fastest growth and highest survival. These results can be used to developing a nursery/farming technique of improving the yield of sunray surf clams.

  9. Population subdivision of the surf clam Mactra chinensis in the East China Sea: Changjiang River outflow is not the sole driver

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Gang; Ni, Lehai; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The northwestern Pacific, characterized by unique tectonic and hydrological settings, has greatly intrigued marine phylogeographers. However, current studies mostly focus on the influence of Pleistocene isolation of sea basins in population structure of species in the region, leaving the contribution of other factors (such as freshwater outflow and environmental gradients) largely unexploited. Here we shed light on the question by investigating phylogeography of the surf clam Mactra chinensis in the East China Sea (ECS). Genetic information was acquired from 501 specimens collected from its main distribution in the region, represented by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. A shallow and star-like phylogeny was revealed for all COI haplotypes, indicating the origin of populations from a single refugium. Although no divergent lineages existed, population subdivision was detected in both data sets. The most striking pattern was the significant differentiation between populations north and south of a biogeographic boundary—the Changjiang Estuary, suggesting a barrier effect of the freshwater outflow to gene flow. For the northern group, substructure was revealed by COI result as one southernmost population was significant different from other ones. Clear latitude gradations in allele frequencies were revealed by microsatellite analyses, likely influenced by environmental gradient factors such as temperature. Our results demonstrate that genetic subdivision can arise for populations within the ECS despite they have a single origin, and multiple mechanisms including Changjiang River outflow, environmental gradient factors and life-history traits may act in combination in the process. PMID:26468432

  10. Delineation of surf scoter habitat in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland: macrobenthic and sediment composition of surf scoter feeding sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidwell, D.M.; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) along the Atlantic coast of the United States have shown population declines in recent decades. The Chesapeake Bay has traditionally been a key wintering area for surf scoters. Past and present research has shown that bivalves constitute a major food item for seaducks in the Chesapeake Bay, with surf scoters feeding primarily on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum) and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis). Degraded water quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay have been well documented and have been shown to greatly influence the composition of benthic communities. Large concentrations of feeding surf scoters (>500 individuals) in the Bay were determined through monthly boat surveys. Locations consistently lacking surf scoters were also determined. Macrobenthos were seasonally sampled at 3 locations containing scoters and 3 locations without scoters. A 1 kilometer square grid was superimposed over each location using GIS and sampling sites within the square were randomly chosen. Benthos were sampled at each site using SCUBA and a meter square quadrat. Biomass and size class estimates were determined for all bivalves within each kilometer square. Results indicated that scoter feeding sites contained significantly greater biomass of M. lateralis, I. recurvum, and Gemma gemma than locations where no scoters were present. Substrate differences were also detected, with scoter feeding sites being composed of a sand/shell mix while non-scoter sites consisted primarily of mud. This data indicates that surf scoters in the Chesapeake Bay are selecting areas with high densities of preferred food items, potentially maximizing there foraging energetics. In addition, two scoter feeding sites also contained a patchwork of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and oyster shell, on which much of the I. recurvum was attached. This suggests the possibility that surf scoters utilize eastern oyster habitat and the dramatic depletion of

  11. Surfing the vegetal pole in a small population: extracellular vertical transmission of an 'intracellular' deep-sea clam symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Igawa, Kanae; Tame, Akihiro; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Aoki, Yui; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Yukiko; Ozawa, Genki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Fujikura, Katsunori; Maruyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Symbiont transmission is a key event for understanding the processes underlying symbiotic associations and their evolution. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of symbiont transmission remains still fragmentary. The deep-sea clam Calyptogena okutanii harbours obligate sulfur-oxidizing intracellular symbiotic bacteria in the gill epithelial cells. In this study, we determined the localization of their symbiont associating with the spawned eggs, and the population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs. We show that the symbionts are located on the outer surface of the egg plasma membrane at the vegetal pole, and that each egg carries approximately 400 symbiont cells, each of which contains close to 10 genomic copies. The very small population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs might narrow the bottleneck and increase genetic drift, while polyploidy and its transient extracellular lifestyle might slow the rate of genome reduction. Additionally, the extracellular localization of the symbiont on the egg surface may increase the chance of symbiont exchange. This new type of extracellular transovarial transmission provides insights into complex interactions between the host and symbiont, development of both host and symbiont, as well as the population dynamics underlying genetic drift and genome evolution in microorganisms. PMID:27293794

  12. Surfing the vegetal pole in a small population: extracellular vertical transmission of an 'intracellular' deep-sea clam symbiont.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Tetsuro; Igawa, Kanae; Tame, Akihiro; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Aoki, Yui; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Yukiko; Ozawa, Genki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Fujikura, Katsunori; Maruyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Symbiont transmission is a key event for understanding the processes underlying symbiotic associations and their evolution. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of symbiont transmission remains still fragmentary. The deep-sea clam Calyptogena okutanii harbours obligate sulfur-oxidizing intracellular symbiotic bacteria in the gill epithelial cells. In this study, we determined the localization of their symbiont associating with the spawned eggs, and the population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs. We show that the symbionts are located on the outer surface of the egg plasma membrane at the vegetal pole, and that each egg carries approximately 400 symbiont cells, each of which contains close to 10 genomic copies. The very small population size of the symbiont transmitted via the eggs might narrow the bottleneck and increase genetic drift, while polyploidy and its transient extracellular lifestyle might slow the rate of genome reduction. Additionally, the extracellular localization of the symbiont on the egg surface may increase the chance of symbiont exchange. This new type of extracellular transovarial transmission provides insights into complex interactions between the host and symbiont, development of both host and symbiont, as well as the population dynamics underlying genetic drift and genome evolution in microorganisms.

  13. Dwarf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa dwarf occurs rarely in alfalfa fields. Dwarf has been identified only in California, where it is found at a low frequency. Plants with symptoms of dwarf were reported in the 1950s in Mississippi, Georgia, and Rhode Island, but experimental confirmation of the disease in those States was no...

  14. Surf Tourism, Artificial Surfing Reefs, and Environmental Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotkin, Michael H.; Chambliss, Karen; Vamosi, Alexander R.; Lindo, Chris

    2009-07-01

    This paper explores the confluence of surf tourism, artificial surfing reefs, and sustainability. Surfing is an ascendant recreational and tourism industry and artificial surfing reefs are a new and innovative technology and product. Presented within the context of Florida's Space Coast, empirical details on surf tourism are discussed along with the possible implications for sustainability.

  15. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) Pacific Razor Clam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    clam gun. lower in California and the southern Tubular suction devices similar to and central coast of Oregon than to those used for ghost shrimp are...fresh clam market or are digging, created pressure for the used as crab bait. assessment of license fees. The digging and processing of Population...Quayle (1970) surf),scotersi(eewanittascoterci(M. attributed decreased density of razor fusca). Small Dungeness crabs clams from July to September partly

  16. Surfing on the Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apel, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Israel Paskowitz loves surfing. As a former competitive surfer, he has spent much of his life in the ocean and absorbed in a community of athletes that share a special connection with the water. Surfing is often thought of as a spiritual hobby that brings peace and relaxation to those who experience it. However, it was not until Israel's son,…

  17. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  18. Effects of predation by sea ducks on clam abundance in soft-bottom intertidal habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Tyler; Esler, Daniel N.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have documented strong, top-down predation effects of sea ducks on mussel populations in rocky intertidal communities. However, the impact of these gregarious predators in soft-bottom communities has been largely unexplored. We evaluated effects of predation by wintering surf scoters Melanitta perspicillata and white-winged scoters M. fusca on clam populations in soft-bottom intertidal habitats of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Specifically, we documented spatial and temporal variation in clam density (clams m–2), scoter diet composition, and the consequences of scoter predation on clam abundance. Of the 3 most numerous clams, Manila clams Venerupis philippinarum and varnish clams Nuttallia obscurata were the primary prey items of both scoter species, while clams of the genus Macoma were rarely consumed by scoters. Between scoter arrival in the fall and departure in the spring, Manila clams decreased in density at most sample sites, while varnish clam densities did not change or declined slightly. Our estimates of numbers of clams consumed by scoters accounted for most of the observed declines in combined abundance of Manila and varnish clams, despite the presence of numerous other vertebrate and invertebrate species known to consume clams. For Macoma spp., we detected an over-winter increase in density, presumably due to growth of clams too small to be retained by our sieve (<5 mm) during fall sampling, in addition to the lack of predation pressure by scoters. These results illustrate the strong predation potential of scoters in soft-bottom intertidal habitats, as well as their potentially important role in shaping community structure.

  19. CLAMS Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-14

    ... Information The Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites ( CLAMS ) field campaign was conducted from NASA Wallops Flight Facility covering the middle Atlantic eastern seaboard from July 10 - ...

  20. Brown muscle disease: impact on Manila clam Venerupis (=Ruditapes) philippinarum biology.

    PubMed

    Binias, Cindy; Gonzalez, Patrice; Provost, Margot; Lambert, Christophe; de Montaudouin, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the effect of Brown Muscle Disease (BMD) on Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum fitness. BMD was discovered in 2005. It affects the posterior adductor muscle and leads to clam gaping and eventually death. Three statuses of clams were compared: buried individuals with no signs of BMD (BUR); clams at the surface of the sediment with no signs of BMD (SURF) and clams at the surface of the sediment exhibiting signs of brown muscle disease (BMD). Physiological (condition index), immune (hemocyte parameters) and molecular (gene expressions) parameters collected seasonally were analyzed and compared. Results demonstrated a seasonal pattern in condition index (CI) with peaks in spring/summer and decreases in autumn/winter. At each season, the highest CI was observed in BUR and the lowest CI was observed in BMD. In terms of immune response, phagocytosis rate and capacity were higher in clams with BMD whereas the health status of the clams did not influence the total hemocyte count. Genes involved in the immune system (comp, tnf, inter) were upregulated in clams with BMD. The molecular analysis of gill and posterior muscle showed higher mitochondrial metabolism (cox-1, 16S) in cells of infected clams, suggesting a stronger energetic demand by these cells. Finally, genes involved in oxidative stress response (cat, sod), detoxification (mt) and DNA repair (gadd45) were also overexpressed due to reactive oxygen species production. Most of the studied parameters underlined a cause-effect correlation between Manila clam health status (BUR, SUR, BMD) and physiological parameters. An important stress response was observed in BMD-infected clams at different scales, i.e. condition index, immune parameters and stress-related gene expression.

  1. Internal Swash and Surf

    PubMed Central

    Emery, K. O.; Gunnerson, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    114 temperature sections, each containing an average of 10 bathythermograms, show that internal waves commonly become altered on crossing the shoaling bottom of the continental shelf in Santa Monica Bay, Calif. The alteration takes the form of internal swash (in which the lower isotherms reach farther landward than would be expected from their depth above the outer shelf or above deeper bottom) and of internal surf (that is, denoted by temperature inversions, isolated boluses of colder water at the bottom, and complex short wave-length variations of isotherms). PMID:16592105

  2. Physiological demands of competitive surfing.

    PubMed

    Farley, Oliver R L; Harris, Nigel K; Kilding, Andrew E

    2012-07-01

    This study was a performance analysis of surfing athletes during competitive surfing events in an attempt to inform the development of surfing-specific conditioning. Twelve nationally ranked surfers were fitted with heart rate (HR) monitors and global positioning system (GPS) units and videoed during the heats of 2 sanctioned competitions. Means and SDs represented the centrality and spread of analyzed data. From the 32 videos analyzed, the greatest amount of time spent during surfing was paddling (54 ± 6.3% of the total time) (% TT). The remaining stationary represented 28 ± 6.9% TT, wave riding, and paddling for a wave represented only 8 ± 2% TT and 4 ± 1.5% TT, respectively. Surfers spent 61 ± 7% of the total paddling bouts and 64 ± 6.8% of total stationary bouts between 1 and 10 seconds. The average speed recorded via the GPS for all the subjects was 3.7 ± 0.6 km·h(-1), with an average maximum speed of 33.4 ± 6.5 km·h(-1) (45 km·h(-1) was the highest speed recorded). The average distance covered was 1,605 ± 313 m. The mean HR during the surf competitions was 139 ± 11 b·min(-1) (64% HRmax), with a (mean) peak of 190 ± 12 b·min(-1) (87% HRmax). Sixty percent TT was spent between 56 and 74% of the age-predicted HR maximum (HRmax), 19% TT >46% HRmax, and approximately 3% TT >83% HRmax. Competitive surfing therefore involves intermittent high-intensity bouts of all out paddling intercalated with relatively short recovery periods and repeated bouts of low-intensity paddling, incorporating intermittent breath holding. Surfing-specific conditioning sessions should attempt to replicate such a profile.

  3. 21 CFR 102.49 - Fried clams made from minced clams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fried clams made from minced clams. 102.49 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.49 Fried clams made from minced clams. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fried clams, except that it is composed...

  4. 21 CFR 102.49 - Fried clams made from minced clams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fried clams made from minced clams. 102.49 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.49 Fried clams made from minced clams. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fried clams, except that it is composed...

  5. 21 CFR 102.49 - Fried clams made from minced clams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fried clams made from minced clams. 102.49 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.49 Fried clams made from minced clams. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fried clams, except that it is composed...

  6. 21 CFR 102.49 - Fried clams made from minced clams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fried clams made from minced clams. 102.49 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.49 Fried clams made from minced clams. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fried clams, except that it is composed...

  7. 21 CFR 102.49 - Fried clams made from minced clams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fried clams made from minced clams. 102.49 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.49 Fried clams made from minced clams. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fried clams, except that it is composed...

  8. Movements of wintering surf scoters: Predator responses to different prey landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirk, M.; Esler, Daniel; Iverson, S.A.; Boyd, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of predators is widely recognized to be intimately linked to the distribution of their prey. Foraging theory suggests that predators will modify their behaviors, including movements, to optimize net energy intake when faced with variation in prey attributes or abundance. While many studies have documented changes in movement patterns of animals in response to temporal changes in food, very few have contrasted movements of a single predator species naturally occurring in dramatically different prey landscapes. We documented variation in the winter movements, foraging range size, site fidelity, and distribution patterns of a molluscivorous sea duck, the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), in two areas of coastal British Columbia with very different shellfish prey features. Baynes Sound has extensive tidal flats with abundant clams, which are high-quality and temporally stable prey for scoters. Malaspina Inlet is a rocky fjord-like inlet where scoters consume mussels that are superabundant and easily accessible in some patches but are heavily depleted over the course of winter. We used radio telemetry to track surf scoter movements in both areas and found that in the clam habitats of Baynes Sound, surf scoters exhibited limited movement, small winter ranges, strong foraging site fidelity, and very consistent distribution patterns. By contrast, in mussel habitats in the Malaspina Inlet, surf scoters displayed more movement, larger ranges, little fidelity to specific foraging sites, and more variable distribution patterns. We conclude that features associated with the different prey types, particularly the higher depletion rates of mussels, strongly influenced seasonal space use patterns. These findings are consistent with foraging theory and confirm that predator behavior, specifically movements, is environmentally mediated. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Nontraumatic Myelopathy Associated With Surfing

    PubMed Central

    Avilés-Hernández, Israel; García-Zozaya, Inigo; DeVillasante, Jorge M

    2007-01-01

    Background/Objective: Ischemic nontraumatic spinal cord injury associated with surfing is a novel diagnosis believed to be related to prolonged spine hyperextension while lying prone on the surfboard. Only 9 cases have been documented. This report features possible risk factors, etiology, diagnostic imaging, and outcomes of surfer's myelopathy. Design: Case report. Results: A 37-year-old man developed T11 American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A paraplegia shortly after surfing. The clinical history and magnetic resonance imaging findings were compatible with an ischemic insult to the distal thoracic spinal cord. Our patient did not have any of the proposed risk factors associated with this condition, and, contrary to most reports, he sustained a complete spinal cord lesion without neurological recovery by 8 weeks post injury. Conclusions: Surfer's myelopathy, because of its proposed mechanism of injury, is amenable to medical intervention. Increased awareness of this condition may lead to early recognition and treatment, which should contribute to improved neurological outcomes. PMID:17684897

  10. Breaking Wave Turbulence in the Surf Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    the surf zone are indicated by the regions of brighter ( whiter ) pixel intensity ......................................................23 Figure 13. A...of the shoal can be seen as the whiter area along the +80 meter long-shore line; with the darker (lower wave breaking) rip channels on either side...visible within the surf zone. Areas of intense wave breaking within the surf zone are indicated by the regions of brighter ( whiter ) pixel intensity

  11. Molecular identification of larvae of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda) in a razor clam as an alternative intermediate host in the life cycle of Acanthobothrium brevissime.

    PubMed

    Holland, Nicholas D; Wilson, Nerida G

    2009-10-01

    Dwarf razor clams (Ensis minor) in the Gulf of Mexico are known to be infected with plerocercoid larvae of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Here, we show that these larvae live unencysted in the intestinal lumen of the clam. Morphologically, the larvae are similar to (although significantly larger than) tapeworm larvae previously described living in the gut of amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) from the same habitat. Sequence data from the D2 region of the 28S rDNA from clam-infecting larvae were identical to the sequence of Acanthobothrium brevissime isolated as larvae from amphioxus and as adults from a stingray (Dasyatis say). The sequence data leave little doubt that the dwarf razor clam and the amphioxus are alternative intermediate hosts in the life cycle of A. brevissime.

  12. Performance Analysis of Surfing: A Review.

    PubMed

    Farley, Oliver R L; Abbiss, Chris R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Farley, ORL, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Performance Analysis of Surfing: A Review. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 260-271, 2017-Despite the increased professionalism and substantial growth of surfing worldwide, there is limited information available to practitioners and coaches in terms of key performance analytics that are common in other field-based sports. Indeed, research analyzing surfing performance is limited to a few studies examining male surfers' heart rates, surfing activities through time-motion analysis (TMA) using video recordings and Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data during competition and recreational surfing. These studies have indicated that specific activities undertaken during surfing are unique with a variety of activities (i.e., paddling, resting, wave riding, breath holding, and recovery of surfboard in the surf). Furthermore, environmental and wave conditions also seem to influence the physical demands of competition surfing. It is due to these demands that surfers are required to have a high cardiorespiratory fitness, high muscular endurance, and considerable strength and anaerobic power, particular within the upper torso. By exploring various methods of performance analysis used within other sports, it is possible to improve our understanding of surfing demands. In so doing this will assist in the development of protocols and strategies to assess physiological characteristics of surfers, monitor athlete performance, improve training prescription, and identify talent. Therefore, this review explores the current literature to provide insights into methodological protocols, delimitations of research into athlete analysis and an overview of surfing dynamics. Specifically, this review will describe and review the use of TMA, GPS, and other technologies (i.e., HR) that are used in external and internal load monitoring as they pertain to surfing.

  13. Shock Detector for SURF model

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2016-01-11

    SURF and its extension SURFplus are reactive burn models aimed at shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves in high explosives. A distinctive feature of these models is that the burn rate depends on the lead shock pressure. A key part of the models is an algorithm to detect the lead shock. Typically, shock capturing hydro algorithms have small oscillations behind a shock. Here we investigate how well the shock detection algorithm works for a nearly steady propagating detonation wave in one-dimension using the Eulerian xRage code.

  14. Towards designing miniature surfing robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari Kang, Saeed; Vandadi, Vahid; Masoud, Hassan

    2016-11-01

    We theoretically study the surfing motion of chemically and thermally active particles located at a flat liquid-gas interface that sits above a liquid layer of finite depth. The particles' activity creates and maintains a surface tension gradient resulting in the auto-surfing. It is intuitively perceived that Marangoni surfers propel towards the direction with a higher surface tension. Remarkably, we find that the surfers may propel in the lower surface tension direction depending on their geometry and proximity to the bottom of the liquid layer. In particular, our analytical calculations for Stokes flow and diffusion-dominated scalar (i.e. chemical concentration and temperature) fields indicate that spherical particles undergo reverse Marangoni propulsion under confinement whereas disk-shaped surfers always move in the expected direction. We extend our results by proposing an approximate formula for the propulsion speed of oblate spheroidal particles based on the speeds of spheres and disks. Overall, our findings pave the way for designing microsurfers capable of operating in bounded environments.

  15. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    PubMed Central

    Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Kohn, Richard A.; Paynter, Kennedy T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6–12 mm for M. lateralis and 18–24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum’s higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey. PMID:25978636

  16. Composition, shell strength, and metabolizable energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as food for wintering surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew C.; Kohn, R.A.; Paynter, K.T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Hard clam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1984-01-01

    Two species of hard clams occur along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North America: the southern hard clam, Mercenaria campechiensis Gmelin 1791, and the northern hard clam, ~lercenaria mercenaria Linne 1758 (Wells 1957b). The latter species, also commonly kno\\'m as the quahog, was formerly named Venus mercenaria. The two species are closely related, produce viable hybrids (Menzel and Menzel 1965), and may be a single species.

  18. Asiatic clam invasion: causes and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, D.S.; Cairns, J.; Graney, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The recent introduction and subsequent invasion of the Asiatic clam has offered a new problem of infestation in power plant intake systems that conventional intermittent chlorination procedures may not resolve. These clam invasions adversely affect intake systems and irrigation works by clogging the systems and causing erosion of pipes. Heated power plant discharges were found to be a source of thermal enrichment for the clams. Methods of temperature control followed by chlorination appear to offer short-term solutions; harvesting of the clams for protein and calcium contents present an additional solution.

  19. The Rotated Speeded-Up Robust Features Algorithm (R-SURF) (CD-ROM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Weaknesses in the Fast Hessian detector utilized by the speeded-up robust features ( SURF ) algorithm are examined in this research. We evaluate the SURF ...algorithm to identify possible areas for improvement in the performance. A proposed alternative to the SURF detector is proposed called rotated SURF (R- SURF ...against the regular SURF detector. Performance testing shows that the R- SURF outperforms the regular SURF detector when subject to image blurring

  20. Depuration and anatomical distribution of domoic acid in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Regueiro, Jorge; Martin, Helena; Gajardo, Teresa; Jara, Lorena; Blanco, Juan

    2015-08-01

    In northern Chile, domoic acid (DA) has been detected in several bivalve species. In Mesodesma donacium, one of the most important commercial species for local fishermen, no information is available on depuration, or on the anatomical distribution of this toxin and its potential use as a palliative measure to minimize the consequences of ASP outbreaks. Deputation of DA is very fast in M. donacium, and can be adequately described by means of a two-compartment model. The estimated rates for the first and second compartments were 1.27 d(-1) and 0.24 d(-1), respectively, with a transfer rate between compartments of 0.75. Having high depuration rates protects this species from being affected by Pseudo-nitzschia blooms for an extended period of time. Taking this into account, the time in which the bivalves are unsafe for consumers is very short, and therefore the economic losses that could result by the DA outbreaks in local fisheries should be moderate. In relation to anatomical distribution, at least during the uptake phase, the toxin was evenly distributed within the soft tissues, with a total toxin burden corresponding to 27%, 32% and 41% for Digestive Gland (DG), Foot (FT) and Other Body Fractions (OBF), respectively. Since the contribution of each organ to the toxin concentration is a function of both weight contribution and toxin burden, the pattern of toxin distribution showed the following trend: "all other body fractions" (OBF) > Foot (FT) > Digestive Gland (DG). Thus, the highest concentration of DA, with a contribution close to 72%, corresponds to the edible tissues (OBF + FT), while the DG (non-edible tissue) only contributes the remaining 28%. Consequently, in view of the anatomical distribution of domoic acid in M. donacium, the elimination of the digestive gland does not substantially reduce the toxicity of the final product and therefore selective evisceration would not improve their quality for human consumption.

  1. Surfing Global Change: Negotiating Sustainable Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    SURFING GLOBAL CHANGE (SGC) serves as a procedural shell for attaining sustainable solutions for any interdisciplinary issue and is intended for use in advanced university courses. The participants' activities evolve through five levels from individual argumentation to molding one's own views for the "common good." The paradigm of…

  2. Women's Recreational Surfing: A Patronising Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Rebecca; McCuaig, Louise; Phillips, Murray G.

    2015-01-01

    Research analysing the operation of power within sport and physical activity has exposed the marginalisation and exclusion of women's sport in explicit and institutionalised ways. However, for women in recreational and alternative physical activities like surfing, sporting experiences lie outside institutionalised structures, thus requiring…

  3. CLaMS: Classifier for Metagenomic Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Pati, Amrita

    2010-12-01

    CLaMS-"Classifer for Metagenonic Sequences" is a Java application for binning assembled metagenomes wings user-specified training sequence sets and other user-specified initial parameters. Since ClAmS analyzes and matches sequence composition-based genomic signatures, it is much faster than binning tools that rely on alignments to homologs; CLaMS can bin ~20,000 sequences in 3 minutes on a laptop with a 2.4 Ghz. Intel Core 2 Duo processor and 2 GB Ram. CLaMS is meant to be desktop application for biologist and can be run on any machine under any operating system on which the Java Runtime Environment is enabled. CLaMS is freely available in both GVI-based and command-line based forms.

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Littleneck clam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodnick, Kenneth; Li, Hiram W.

    1983-01-01

    The littleneck clam, a member of the family Veneridae, is a hardshell species found in estuaries, bays, sloughs, and open coastl ines along the Pacific coast. This clam primarily inhabits the intertidal zone, but also occurs in subtidal areas (Hancock et ale 1979). It ranges from the Aleutian Islands to Socorro Island, r,1exico (Fraser and Smith 1928; Fitch 1953). It is commercially important only in Br{tish Columbia and Washington, where it is a highly regarded table item (Goodwin 1971).

  5. Dwarf novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladous, Constanze

    1993-01-01

    Dwarf novae are defined on grounds of their semi-regular brightness variations of some two to five magnitudes on time scales of typically 10 to 100 days. Historically several different classification schemes have been used. Today, dwarf novae are divided into three sub-classes: the U Geminorum stars, the SU Ursae Majoris stars, and the Z Camelopardalis stars. Outbursts of dwarf novae occur at semi-periodic intervals of time, typically every 10 to 100 days; amplitudes range from typically 2 to 5 mag. Within certain limits values are characteristic for each object. Relations between the outburst amplitude, or the total energy released during outburst, and the recurrence time have been found, as well as relations between the orbital period and the outburst decay time, the absolute magnitude during outburst maximum, and the widths of long and short outbursts, respectively. Some dwarf novae are known to have suspended their normal outburst activity altogether for a while. They later resumed it without having undergone any observable changes. The optical colors of dwarf novae all are quite similar during outburst, considerably bluer than during the quiescent state. During the outburst cycle, characteristic loops in the two color diagram are performed. At a time resolution on the order of minutes, strictly periodic photometric changes due to orbital motion become visible in the light curves of dwarf novae. These are characteristic for each system. Remarkably little is known about orbital variations during the course of an outburst. On time-scales of minutes and seconds, further more or less periodic types of variability are seen in dwarf novae. Appreciable flux is emitted by dwarf novae at all wavelengths from the X-rays to the longest IR wavelengths, and in some cases even in the radio. Most dwarf novae exhibit strong emission line spectra in the optical and UV during quiescence, although some have only very weak emissions in the optical and/or weak absorptions at UV

  6. The Clam Trail: Blending Science Education, Public Art, and Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscio, Cara; Flimlin, Gef; Bushnell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The Barnegat Bay Shellfish Restoration's Clam Trail is an award-winning scavenger hunt that combines science education, public art, and tourism. This family adventure has participants seeking out giant painted fiberglass clams, upweller clam nurseries, and points of interest in search of science facts to record on their forms. Upon returning these…

  7. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  8. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay. 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay. The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  9. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay. 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay. The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  10. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  11. 33 CFR 117.323 - Outer Clam Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Outer Clam Bay 117.323 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.323 Outer Clam Bay The drawspan of the Outer Clam Bay Boardwalk Drawbridge shall open on signal if at least 30 minutes advance notice is given....

  12. Surfing into spirituality and a new, aquatic nature religion.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bron

    2007-01-01

    "Soul surfers" consider surfing to be a profoundly meaningful practice that brings physical, psychological, and spiritual benefits. They generally agree on where surfing initially developed, that it assumed a religious character, was suppressed for religious reasons, has been undergoing a revival, and enjoins reverence for and protection of nature. This subset of the global surfing community should be understood as a new religious movement-a globalizing, hybridized, and increasingly influential example of what I call aquatic nature religion. For these individuals, surfing is a religious form in which a specific sensual practice constitutes its sacred center, and the corresponding experiences are constructed in a way that leads to a belief in nature as powerful, transformative, healing, and sacred. I advance this argument by analyzing these experiences, as well as the myths, rites, symbols, terminology, technology, material culture, and ethical mores that are found within surfing subcultures.

  13. User's Manual for Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfer, N. C.

    1996-01-01

    A unique collection of computer codes, Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF), have been developed to assist in the design and analysis of space debris protection systems. SD_SURF calculates and summarizes a vehicle's vulnerability to space debris as a function of impact velocity and obliquity. An SD_SURF analysis will show which velocities and obliquities are the most probable to cause a penetration. This determination can help the analyst select a shield design which is best suited to the predominant penetration mechanism. The analysis also indicates the most suitable parameters for development or verification testing. The SD_SURF programs offer the option of either FORTRAN programs and Microsoft EXCEL spreadsheets and macros. The FORTRAN programs work with BUMPERII version 1.2a or 1.3 (Cosmic released). The EXCEL spreadsheets and macros can be used independently or with selected output from the SD_SURF FORTRAN programs.

  14. Allele surfing promotes microbial adaptation from standing variation.

    PubMed

    Gralka, Matti; Stiewe, Fabian; Farrell, Fred; Möbius, Wolfram; Waclaw, Bartlomiej; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2016-08-01

    The coupling of ecology and evolution during range expansions enables mutations to establish at expanding range margins and reach high frequencies. This phenomenon, called allele surfing, is thought to have caused revolutions in the gene pool of many species, most evidently in microbial communities. It has remained unclear, however, under which conditions allele surfing promotes or hinders adaptation. Here, using microbial experiments and simulations, we show that, starting with standing adaptive variation, range expansions generate a larger increase in mean fitness than spatially uniform population expansions. The adaptation gain results from 'soft' selective sweeps emerging from surfing beneficial mutations. The rate of these surfing events is shown to sensitively depend on the strength of genetic drift, which varies among strains and environmental conditions. More generally, allele surfing promotes the rate of adaptation per biomass produced, which could help developing biofilms and other resource-limited populations to cope with environmental challenges.

  15. Ordering dynamics in collectively swimming Surf Scoters.

    PubMed

    Lukeman, Ryan

    2014-08-21

    One striking feature of collective motion in animal groups is a high degree of alignment among individuals, generating polarized motion. When order is lost, the dynamic process of reorganization, directly resulting from the individual interaction rules, provides significant information about both the nature of the rules, and how these rules affect the functioning of the collective. By analyzing trajectories of collectively swimming Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) during transitions between order and disorder, I find that individual speed and polarization are positively correlated in time, such that individuals move more slowly in groups exhibiting lower alignment. A previously validated zone-based model framework is used to specify interactions that permit repolarization while maintaining group cohesion and avoiding collisions. Polarization efficiency is optimized under the constraints of cohesion and collision-avoidance for alignment-dominated propulsion (versus autonomous propulsion), and for repulsion an order of magnitude larger than attraction and alignment. The relative strengths of interactions that optimize polarization also quantitatively recover the speed-polarization dependence observed in the data. Parameters determined here through optimizing polarization efficiency are essentially the same as those determined previously from a different approach: a best-fit model for polarized Surf Scoter movement data. The rules governing these flocks are therefore robust, accounting for behavior across a range of order and structure, and also highly responsive to perturbation. Flexibility and efficient repolarization offers an adaptive explanation for why specific interactions in such animal groups are used.

  16. Foraging behaviors of Surf Scoters and White-Winged Scoters during spawning of Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel N.; Boyd, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Winter diets of Surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and White-winged Scoters (M. fusca) are composed primarily of bivalves. During spawning of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) in early spring, scoters shift their diets to herring eggs. Using radio-telemetry, we contrasted scoter foraging behaviorsbetween winter and herring spawning periods. Scoters increased their dive durations during herring spawning, likely to maximize the amount of roe consumed per dive; in winter, dives were typically terminated upon clam capture. Scoters spent approximately 50% less time foraging ( $min underwater hr^{-1}$ ) and decreased their dive rate (dives hr -1 ) by 70% when feeding on roe. The observed reduction in time spent foraging was presumably caused by the abundance of herring eggs, and thus a reduction in prey search-time. Scoters were able to meet energetic requirements with reduced effort, despite potentially increased demands related to spring fattening. Less time spentforaging may also allow more time for premigratory courtship behaviors

  17. New White Dwarf-Brown Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casewell, S. L.; Geier, S.; Lodieu, N.

    2017-03-01

    We present follow-up spectroscopy to 12 candidate white dwarf-brown dwarf binaries. We have confirmed that 8 objects do indeed have a white dwarf primary (7 DA, 1 DB) and two are hot subdwarfs. We have determined the Teff and log g for the white dwarfs and subdwarfs, and when combining these values with a model spectrum and the photometry, we have 3 probable white dwarf-substellar binaries with spectral types between M6 and L6.

  18. MISR Browse Images: Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-13

    ... Images: Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS)   These MISR Browse images ... the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) field campaign. CLAMS focused on understanding pieces of the ...

  19. Image mosaicking using SURF features of line segments

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Dinggang; Yap, Pew-Thian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel image mosaicking method that is based on Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) of line segments, aiming to achieve robustness to incident scaling, rotation, change in illumination, and significant affine distortion between images in a panoramic series. Our method involves 1) using a SURF detection operator to locate feature points; 2) rough matching using SURF features of directed line segments constructed via the feature points; and 3) eliminating incorrectly matched pairs using RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus). Experimental results confirm that our method results in high-quality panoramic mosaics that are superior to state-of-the-art methods. PMID:28296919

  20. Uniaxial diffusion bonding of CLAM/CLAM steels: Microstructure and mechanical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaosheng; Liu, Yongchang; Yu, Liming; Liu, Chenxi; Sui, Guofa; Yang, Jianguo

    2015-06-01

    By performing a two-step uniaxial diffusion bonding, the reliable joining between CLAM/CLAM steels has been attained. The microstructures at the vicinity of the joint region and in base material were respectively investigated through OM, SEM and TEM. The joint interface was integrated, and no microstructural defects were observed. In the base material, small amount of austenite is retained as thin films between martensite laths, which was suggested to be related to the compressive deformation in diffusion bonding. As a candidate structural material for the first wall in fusion energy systems, the radiation resistance of CLAM steel would be deteriorated by the retained austenite. Tensile and impact tests were carried out to assess the reliability of the joints subjected to post bond heat treatment. All the tensile specimens fractured in the base CLAM steel, meaning the good joining between CLAM steels. However, due to the low impact absorbed energy of the joints, efforts should still be made to optimize the bonding technology and the post bond heat treatment further.

  1. Guide to Healthy Web Surfing: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/healthywebsurfing.html MedlinePlus Guide to Healthy Web Surfing To use the sharing features on this ... the site, use caution. Focus on quality--All Web sites are not created equal Does the site ...

  2. A role for heparan sulfate in viral surfing.

    PubMed

    Oh, Myung-Jin; Akhtar, Jihan; Desai, Prashant; Shukla, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) moieties on cell surfaces are known to provide attachment sites for many viruses including herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Here, we demonstrate that cells respond to HSV-1 infection by enhancing filopodia formation. Filopodia express HS and are subsequently utilized for the transport of HSV-1 virions to cell bodies in a surfing-like phenomenon, which is facilitated by the underlying actin cytoskeleton and is regulated by transient activation of a small Rho GTPase, Cdc42. We also demonstrate that interaction between a highly conserved herpesvirus envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and HS is required for surfing. A HSV-1 mutant that lacks gB fails to surf and quantum dots conjugated with gB demonstrate surfing-like movements. Our data demonstrates a novel use of a common receptor, HS, which could also be exploited by multiple viruses and quite possibly, many additional ligands for transport along the plasma membrane.

  3. A role for heparan sulfate in viral surfing

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Myung-Jin; Akhtar, Jihan; Desai, Prashant; Shukla, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) moieties on cell surfaces are known to provide attachment sites for many viruses including herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Here, we demonstrate that cells respond to HSV-1 infection by enhancing filopodia formation. Filopodia express HS and are subsequently utilized for the transport of HSV-1 virions to cell bodies in a surfing-like phenomenon, which is facilitated by the underlying actin cytoskeleton and is regulated by transient activation of a small Rho GTPase, Cdc42. We also demonstrate that interaction between a highly conserved herpesvirus envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and HS is required for surfing. A HSV-1 mutant that lacks gB fails to surf and quantum dots conjugated with gB demonstrate surfing-like movements. Our data demonstrates a novel use of a common receptor, HS, which could also be exploited by multiple viruses and quite possibly, many additional ligands for transport along the plasma membrane.

  4. Ship Dynamics in the Surf Zone Model Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Department Technical Report Ship Dynamics in the Surf Zone Model Testing By Miguel Quintero Faydra Schaffer N SW C C D -C IS D -2 00 8...Dynamics in the Surf Zone Model Testing 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5e. TASK...NUMBER Miguel Quintero and Faydra Schaffer 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8

  5. Toxicity of fishery chemicals to the asiatic clam, Corbicula manilensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chandler, Jack H.; Marking, L.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Asiatic clam (Corbicula manilensis), a species introduced into U. S. waters, has spread rapidly, and its ability to survive, reproduce, and spread has caused concern. Aquatic biologists suspect that the clams may crowd out indigenous mollusks, and the animals sometimes plug water intakes and leave shell deposits that interfere with sand and gravel operations. The toxicity of 20 commonly used fishery chemicals to the Asiatic clam was determined to evaluate hazards to a nontarget aquatic invertebrate and to assess the potential of the chemicals for controlling clam populations. Among six piscicides and two lampricides tested, antimycin was most toxic to the clam; the 96-h LC50 was 0.065 mg/L. Among three therapeutants and two disinfectants tested, nifurpirinol was the most toxic; the 96-h LC50 was 7.60 mg/L. All of the compounds were less toxic to the clam than to fish. As a nontarget organism, this clam would be safe in water treated with any of the tested fishery chemicals at recommended use pattern concentrations. None of the chemicals have potential for controlling unwanted populations of these clams.

  6. Naming Disney's Dwarfs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses Disney's version of the folkloric dwarfs in his production of "Snow White" and weighs the Disney rendition of the dwarf figure against the corpus of traits and behaviors pertaining to dwarfs in traditional folklore. Concludes that Disney's dwarfs are "anthropologically true." (HOD)

  7. The behaviour of giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae: Tridacninae).

    PubMed

    Soo, Pamela; Todd, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Giant clams, the largest living bivalves, live in close association with coral reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. These iconic invertebrates perform numerous important ecological roles as well as serve as flagship species-drawing attention to the ongoing destruction of coral reefs and their associated biodiversity. To date, no review of giant clams has focussed on their behaviour, yet this component of their autecology is critical to their life history and hence conservation. Almost 100 articles published between 1865 and 2014 include behavioural observations, and these have been collated and synthesised into five sections: spawning, locomotion, feeding, anti-predation, and stress responses. Even though the exact cues for spawning in the wild have yet to be elucidated, giant clams appear to display diel and lunar periodicities in reproduction, and for some species, peak breeding seasons have been established. Perhaps surprisingly, giant clams have considerable mobility, ranging from swimming and gliding as larvae to crawling in juveniles and adults. Chemotaxis and geotaxis have been established, but giant clams are not phototactic. At least one species exhibits clumping behaviour, which may enhance physical stabilisation, facilitate reproduction, or provide protection from predators. Giant clams undergo several shifts in their mode of acquiring nutrition; starting with a lecithotrophic and planktotrophic diet as larvae, switching to pedal feeding after metamorphosis followed by the transition to a dual mode of filter feeding and phototrophy once symbiosis with zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp.) is established. Because of their shell weight and/or byssal attachment, adult giant clams are unable to escape rapidly from threats using locomotion. Instead, they exhibit a suite of visually mediated anti-predation behaviours that include sudden contraction of the mantle, valve adduction, and squirting of water. Knowledge on the behaviour of giant clams will benefit

  8. Stopover habitats of spring migrating surf scoters in southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lok, E.K.; Esler, Daniel; Takekawa, J.Y.; De La Cruz, S.W.; Sean, Boyd W.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Ward, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat conditions and nutrient reserve levels during spring migration have been suggested as important factors affecting population declines in waterfowl, emphasizing the need to identify key sites used during spring and understand habitat features and resource availability at stopover sites. We used satellite telemetry to identify stopover sites used by surf scoters migrating through southeast Alaska during spring. We then contrasted habitat features of these sites to those of random sites to determine habitat attributes corresponding to use by migrating scoters. We identified 14 stopover sites based on use by satellite tagged surf scoters from several wintering sites. We identified Lynn Canal as a particularly important stopover site for surf scoters originating throughout the Pacific winter range; approximately half of tagged coastally migrating surf scoters used this site, many for extended periods. Stopover sites were farther from the mainland coast and closer to herring spawn sites than random sites, whereas physical shoreline habitat attributes were generally poor predictors of site use. The geography and resource availability within southeast Alaska provides unique and potentially critical stopover habitat for spring migrating surf scoters. Our work identifies specific sites and habitat resources that deserve conservation and management consideration. Aggregations of birds are vulnerable to human activity impacts such as contaminant spills and resource management decisions. This information is of value to agencies and organizations responsible for emergency response planning, herring fisheries management, and bird and ecosystem conservation. Copyright ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  9. Surfing the internet with a BCI mouse.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianyou; Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Gu, Zhenghui

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new web browser based on a two-dimensional (2D) brain-computer interface (BCI) mouse, where our major concern is the selection of an intended target in a multi-target web page. A real-world web page may contain tens or even hundreds of targets, including hyperlinks, input elements, buttons, etc. In this case, a target filter designed in our system can be used to exclude most of those targets of no interest. Specifically, the user filters the targets of no interest out by inputting keywords with a P300-based speller, while keeps those containing the keywords. Such filtering largely facilitates the target selection task based on our BCI mouse. When there are only several targets in a web page (either an original sparse page or a target-filtered page), the user moves the mouse toward the target of interest using his/her electroencephalographic signal. The horizontal movement and vertical movement are controlled by motor imagery and P300 potential, respectively. If the mouse encounters a target of no interest, the user rejects it and continues to move the mouse. Otherwise the user selects the target and activates it. With the collaboration of the target filtering and a series of mouse movements and target selections/rejections, the user can select an intended target in a web page. Based on our browser system, common navigation functions, including history rolling forward and backward, hyperlink selection, page scrolling, text input, etc, are available. The system has been tested on seven subjects. Experimental results not only validated the efficacy of the proposed method, but also showed that free internet surfing with a BCI mouse is feasible.

  10. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake (SURF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, K. T.

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the Berkeley and CUBED low-background counters. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability. These plans include a Generation-2 Dark Matter experiment and the US flagship neutrino experiment, LBNE.

  11. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake (SURF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, K. T.

    2015-03-24

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the Majorana Demonstrator neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the Berkeley and CUBED low-background counters. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability. These plans include a Generation-2 Dark Matter experiment and the US flagship neutrino experiment, LBNE.

  12. Genetic surfing in human populations: from genes to genomes.

    PubMed

    Peischl, Stephan; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Bosshard, Lars; Excoffier, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    Genetic surfing describes the spatial spread and increase in frequency of variants that are not lost by genetic drift and serial migrant sampling during a range expansion. Genetic surfing does not modify the total number of derived alleles in a population or in an individual genome, but it leads to a loss of heterozygosity along the expansion axis, implying that derived alleles are more often in homozygous state. Genetic surfing also affects selected variants on the wave front, making them behave almost like neutral variants during the expansion. In agreement with theoretical predictions, human genomic data reveals an increase in recessive mutation load with distance from Africa, an expansion load likely to have developed during the expansions of human populations out of Africa.

  13. Evaluation of Sift and Surf for Vision Based Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Xiaozhi; Soheilian, Bahman; Habets, Emmanuel; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Vision based localization is widely investigated for the autonomous navigation and robotics. One of the basic steps of vision based localization is the extraction of interest points in images that are captured by the embedded camera. In this paper, SIFT and SURF extractors were chosen to evaluate their performance in localization. Four street view image sequences captured by a mobile mapping system, were used for the evaluation and both SIFT and SURF were tested on different image scales. Besides, the impact of the interest point distribution was also studied. We evaluated the performances from for aspects: repeatability, precision, accuracy and runtime. The local bundle adjustment method was applied to refine the pose parameters and the 3D coordinates of tie points. According to the results of our experiments, SIFT was more reliable than SURF. Apart from this, both the accuracy and the efficiency of localization can be improved if the distribution of feature points are well constrained for SIFT.

  14. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake (SURF)

    DOE PAGES

    Lesko, K. T.

    2015-03-24

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the Majorana Demonstrator neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the Berkeley and CUBED low-background counters. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark mattermore » experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability. These plans include a Generation-2 Dark Matter experiment and the US flagship neutrino experiment, LBNE.« less

  15. Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum as a biomonitor to metal pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huifeng; Ji, Chenglong; Wang, Qing; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Feng, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    The Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum is a good biomonitor/bioindicator to marine metal pollution and is frequently used in aquatic toxicology. Two dominant pedigrees (white and zebra) of clam are distributed in the Bohai Sea; however, little attention has been paid to potential biological differences between these two pedigrees. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of both pedigrees to marine metal (cadmium and zinc) pollution biomonitoring and marine environmental toxicology. Results demonstrate significant biological differences in gills of white and zebra clams based on metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, we found that hypotaurine, malonate and homarine were relatively high in white clam gills, while alanine, arginine, glutamate, succinate, 4-aminobutyrate, taurine and betaine were high in zebra clam gills. Zebra clam gills were also more sensitive to a mixture of Cd and Zn, as shown by antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic profiles, but white clam gills could accumulate more Zn. Therefore, we suggest that the white pedigree can be used as a biomonitor to marine Zn pollution, whereas the zebra pedigree can be used for toxicology studies on Cd and Zn mixed pollution.

  16. Autochthonous clams monitoring of Ganzirri Lake (Sicily).

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Cavallaro, Novella; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Furci, Patrizia; Rando, Rossana; La Pera, Lara; Dugo, Giacomo

    2010-12-01

    Two autochthonous clams, Venerupis aurea laeta and Cerastoderma edule/glaucum, collected for a period of 1 year, from May 2007 to January 2008, were studied in the Cape Peloro lagoon. On the samples, it was evaluated the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and proteins, lipids and yield edible part were determined. It was evaluated the concentration of mineral elements (Cd, Cu, Mn, Se, Pb, Zn) and organic contaminants (∑DDT and PCBs). Salmonella is never present in any sample. Total and faecal coliform values have always been under law limits for alive bivalves mussels production and sale. Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb levels were found in clams where they are slightly lower too. Both species do not show significant changes for Mn and Se. DDT and PCBs traces were discovered in Ganzirri Lake' samples, but in all observed cases, they were below law limits. As a result of all these observations, it is clear that, in recent years, the bivalve's use of Ganzirri Lake does not denote toxicological risk to human health.

  17. Drag reduction mechanisms employed by burrowing razor clams (Ensis directus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Amos; Hosoi, Anette

    2008-11-01

    In this work we describe how razor clams use localized fluidization to reduce drag and efficiently burrow through a granular substrate. Razor clams require nearly two orders of magnitude less force to move through sand than a blunt body of the same size and shape. By visualizing substrate deformation during burrowing, we investigate the clamshell kinematics which fluidize a small pocket of substrate around the body of the organism. Through experimentation and scaling arguments, we show that moving through a fluidized substrate rather than a packed granular medium dramatically reduces the drag force on the clam's body to a point within the animal's strength capabilities.

  18. Razor clam to RoboClam: burrowing drag reduction mechanisms and their robotic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Winter, A G; V; Deits, R L H; Dorsch, D S; Slocum, A H; Hosoi, A E

    2014-09-01

    Estimates based on the strength, size, and shape of the Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus) indicate that the animal's burrow depth should be physically limited to a few centimeters; yet razor clams can dig as deep as 70 cm. By measuring soil deformations around burrowing E. directus, we have found the animal reduces drag by contracting its valves to initially fail, and then fluidize, the surrounding substrate. The characteristic contraction time to achieve fluidization can be calculated directly from soil properties. The geometry of the fluidized zone is dictated by two commonly-measured geotechnical parameters: coefficient of lateral earth pressure and friction angle. Calculations using full ranges for both parameters indicate that the fluidized zone is a local effect, occurring between 1-5 body radii away from the animal. The energy associated with motion through fluidized substrate-characterized by a depth-independent density and viscosity-scales linearly with depth. In contrast, moving through static soil requires energy that scales with depth squared. For E. directus, this translates to a 10X reduction in the energy required to reach observed burrow depths. For engineers, localized fluidization offers a mechanically simple and purely kinematic method to dramatically reduce energy costs associated with digging. This concept is demonstrated with RoboClam, an E. directus-inspired robot. Using a genetic algorithm to find optimal digging kinematics, RoboClam has achieved localized fluidization burrowing performance comparable to that of the animal, with a linear energy-depth relationship, in both idealized granular glass beads and E. directus' native cohesive mudflat habitat.

  19. Searching versus surfing: how different ways of acquiring content online affect cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Wise, Kevin; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2008-06-01

    An experiment tested whether people orient to and encode pictures selected from a Web site differently, depending on whether the pictures were selected by searching or surfing. Participants in the search condition spent more time selecting pictures than the participants in the surf condition spent. The pictures chosen in the search condition elicited cardiac orienting, while pictures chosen in the surf condition did not. Participants recognized pictures acquired by searching more accurately than they recognized those acquired by surfing, indicating that searching led to better encoding than surfing.

  20. Collaboration on ICT in Dutch Higher Education: The SURF Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boezerooy, Petra; Cordewener, Bas; Liebrand, Wim

    2007-01-01

    In "Thinking Ahead: A Vision of the Role of ICT in Education and Research in the Future, 2007-2010," the higher education institutions in the Netherlands agreed on future strategy. Under the direction of SURF, the Dutch national organization, a collaborative strategy for the application of information and communications technology (ICT)…

  1. "Surfing Global Change": How Didactic Visions Can Be Implemented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to examine a negotiation-oriented and partly web-based game "Surfing Global Change" (SGC) invented by the author based on didactics of self-managed learning and successfully implemented in WebCT. Design/methodology/approach: Along three historic generations of web-based teaching (WBT), the key functionalities of any platform…

  2. The Evolution of Technology: A Decade of Surfing the Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    The world was a different place when "Understanding Our Gifted" introduced "Surfing the Net" in 1994 as a regular feature. Since then, technology and the Internet have become part of people's culture, permeating almost every aspect of their lives. The Internet has greatly changed the way they conduct business and communicate with friends, it helps…

  3. Brain Surfing: A Strategy for Making Cross-Curricular Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenski, Susan Davis

    2001-01-01

    Considers how many educators believe that teaching an integrated curriculum should help students develop cross-curricular connections. Notes that students often do not make connections between subject areas even when they are in classrooms with integrated units. Presents a strategy called Brain Surfing that teachers can use to facilitate…

  4. Internet Surfing for Kindergarten Children: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    The Internet is an effective learning tool for gifted children because it allows them to independently select the areas in which they have talent. The Internet also enables children to discover and maximize their potential. However, younger children might not have a large enough vocabulary to surf the Internet, even if they are gifted. For…

  5. Safety Strategies While Surfing Online in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbilek, Muhammet; Cilesiz, Sebnem; Tozoglu, Dogan

    The Internet has become an indispensable medium of the 21st century. Millions of people are using the Internet for exchanging information, surfing for information on virtually any topic, communicating all over the world, participating in discussion groups, shopping, traveling, and many other online activities. The World Wide Web is constantly…

  6. Clam predator protection is effective and necessary for food production.

    PubMed

    Munroe, Daphne; Kraeuter, John; Beal, Brian; Chew, Ken; Luckenbach, Mark; Peterson, Charles P

    2015-11-15

    Shellfish aquaculture is a widely practiced way of producing food for human consumption in coastal areas. When farming intertidal clams, farmers commonly protect young seedling clams from predatory losses by covering farmed plots with netting or screening. Recent discussion of the effectiveness of protective nets or screens and their environmental effects has raised questions concerning the utility of the practice. We provide data based on a review of more than 35 peer-reviewed articles, as well as our own research that demonstrates the efficacy of predator protection for clam farms in various habitats around the world. In addition, we evaluate the effects of screening on temperature, and comment on ancient practices of clam gardening as conducted in the Pacific Northwest.

  7. Characterisation of the secretome of the clam parasite, QPX.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Ewelina; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Koller, Antonius; Allam, Bassem

    2015-02-01

    Secreted and cell surface-associated molecules play a major role in disease development processes and host-pathogen interactions, and usually determine the virulence of invading organisms. In this study, we investigated proteins secreted by quahog parasite unknown, a thraustochytrid protist that infects the hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria. In silico analysis of quahog parasite unknown transcripts predicted over 1200 proteins to possess an amino-terminal signal peptide which directs proteins into the classical eukaryotic secretory pathway. Proteomic analysis using LC/MS technology identified 56 proteins present in the extracellular secretion of quahog parasite unknown cells grown in vitro, including six mucin-like molecules, four glycosyl hydrolases and eight peptidases. Transcription levels of 19 quahog parasite unknown extracellular proteins were investigated in clam tissue lesions (in vivo) using quantitative PCR. The overexpression of six of these extracellular proteins in clam tissues compared with in vitro cultures suggests that they are involved in interaction with the clam host.

  8. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  9. Investigating Dwarf Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasooriya, Sachithra; Dunn, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have proposed that dwarf elliptical / spheroidal galaxies form through the transformation of dwarf irregular galaxies. Early and late type dwarfs resemble each other in terms of their observed colors and light distributions (each can often be represented by exponential disks), providing reason to propose an evolutionary link between the two types. The existence of dwarf spirals has been largely debated. However, more and more recent studies are using the designation of dwarf spiral to describe their targets of interest. This project seeks to explore where dwarf spirals fit into the above mentioned evolutionary sequence, if at all. Optical colors will be compared between a sample of dwarf irregular, dwarf elliptical, and dwarf spiral galaxies. The dwarf irregular and dwarf elliptical samples have previously been found to overlap in both optical color and surface brightness profile shape when limiting the samples to their fainter members. A preliminary comparison including the dwarf spiral sample will be presented here, along with a comparison of available ultraviolet and near-infrared data. Initial results indicate a potential evolutionary link that merits further investigation.

  10. Two variants of the assembly factor Surf1 target specific terminal oxidases in Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Freya A; Hoffmeier, Klaus; Ludwig, Bernd

    2008-10-01

    Biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) relies on a large number of assembly proteins, one of them being Surf1. In humans, the loss of Surf1 function is associated with Leigh syndrome, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. In the soil bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, homologous genes specifying Surf1 have been identified and located in two operons of terminal oxidases: surf1q is the last gene of the qox operon (coding for a ba(3)-type ubiquinol oxidase), and surf1c is found at the end of the cta operon (encoding subunits of the aa(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase). We introduced chromosomal single and double deletions for both surf1 genes, leading to significantly reduced oxidase activities in membrane. Our experiments on P. denitrificans surf1 single deletion strains show that both Surf1c and Surf1q are functional and act independently for the aa(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase and the ba(3)-type quinol oxidase, respectively. This is the first direct experimental evidence for the involvement of a Surf1 protein in the assembly of a quinol oxidase. Analyzing the heme content of purified cytochrome c oxidase, we conclude that Surf1, though not indispensable for oxidase assembly, is involved in an early step of cofactor insertion into subunit I.

  11. Modeling surf zone-inner shelf exchange: Interaction of rip currents and stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; Feddersen, F.

    2014-12-01

    Transient rip currents on alongshore uniform beaches develop from the coalescence of surf zone eddies, exchanging tracers between the surf zone and the potentially stratified inner shelf. The interaction of stratification and transient rip currents has not yet been investigated. Surf zone eddies responsible for transient rip currents are generated by short-crested wave breaking, a process included in wave-resolving (WR) Boussinesq models. However, WR models are depth-integrated and cannot account for stratification and vertically sheared flows. Wave-averaged (WA) models can simulate these processes, but cannot create surf zone eddies. A combination of WR and WA models is required to accurately simulate surf zone-inner shelf exchange. Here, WR depth-integrated Boussinessq model funwaveC is coupled to the stratification and depth-resolving WA Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. The surf zone eddy generation forcing is extracted from a funwaveC simulation of normally incident waves on a planar beach, and provided to COAWST as a depth-uniform surf zone force. COAWST model simulations resolving the surf zone to mid-shelf are conducted with surf zone eddy forcing, idealistic surface heating/cooling, stratification, and Coriolis effects. These simulations provide three-dimensional evolution of velocity and temperature, diagnosed to quantify the role of surf zone eddy forcing in surf zone-inner shelf exchange. The impact of stratification on rip currents and exchange is studied by varying the stratification. Funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  12. Photosymbiotic Giant Clams are Transformers of Solar Flux

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    photosymbiosis. We discovered that the mantle tissue of giant clams, which harbours symbiotic nutrition-providing microalgae , contains a layer of iridescent cells...geometrically coupled to the vertically pillared microalgae , resulting in an even re-distribution of the incoming light 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND...tissue of giant clams, which harbours symbiotic nutrition-providing microalgae , contains a layer of iridescent cells called iridocytes that serve to

  13. Data on cytochrome c oxidase assembly in mice and human fibroblasts or tissues induced by SURF1 defect.

    PubMed

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, Massimo; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, Carlo; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes data related to a research article entitled "Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects" [1]. This paper includes data of the quantitative analysis of individual forms of respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV present in SURF1 knockout (SURF1 (-/-) ) and control (SURF1 (+/+) ) mouse fibroblasts and tissues and in fibroblasts of human control and patients with SURF1 gene mutation. Also it includes data demonstrating response of complex IV, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), to reversible inhibition of mitochondrial translation in SURF1 (-/-) mouse and SURF1 patient fibroblast cell lines.

  14. A Lagrangian stochastic model of surf zone drifter dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spydell, Matthew S.; Feddersen, Falk

    2012-03-01

    Drifter-derived cross-shore and alongshore surf zone diffusivities were previously estimated on an alongshore uniform beach over 1000 s for five Huntington Beach, California, 2006 (HB06) experiment release days. The cross-shore diffusivity Kx had a nonmonotonic time dependence, potentially due to the shoreline or to weaker diffusivity seaward of the surf zone. The alongshore diffusivities Ky were qualitatively consistent with shear dispersion but differed from the classic Taylor laminar theory. Here, modeled and analytic diffusivities for the five release days are derived from a Lagrangian stochastic model (LSM) that uses the drifter-derived bulk (cross-shore averaged) velocity variance and cross-shore-dependent mean alongshore current. The LSM modeled and analytic cross-shore diffusivities are nonmonotonic due to the shoreline and strongly suggest that the observed cross-shore diffusivity is shoreline affected. The LSM typically reproduce well the observed Kx with Lagrangian time scale between 75 and 200 s, consistent with surf zone eddy time scales. HB06 drifter trajectories were too short to observe the analytic long-time Kx limit, and weaker diffusivity seaward of the surf zone may be important at longer times (>1000 s). On all release days, the LSM model and analytic alongshore diffusivity reproduce well the observed Ky with alongshore Lagrangian time scales between 95 and 155 s. The isolated shear-induced diffusivity is very well represented by an analytic theory which incorporates a nonzero Lagrangian time scale. Many of the stochastic model parameters can be specified a priori with reasonable assumptions to predict surf zone dispersion of an initial value problem pollution spill.

  15. Car surfing: case studies of a growing dangerous phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven; Mangram, Alicia; Dunn, Ernest

    2008-03-01

    Car surfing is a dangerous new pastime for American youth. Car surfing is an activity that is defined as standing (or lying) on a vehicle while it is being driven. This activity frequently results in severe injuries that often require significant surgical intervention. Despite its destructive nature, however, there are many Internet sites that encourage this behavior and view it as amusing. As a result, car surfing is becoming increasingly popular. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients injured as a result of car surfing over the last 4 years at our Urban Level II trauma center. Data collected included Injury Severity Score (ISS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), age, gender, injury pattern, surgical intervention, and length of stay. Eight car surfers were identified. The average age was 17. The average Revised Trauma Score was 6.8 with an average Injury Severity Score of 16.9. Five patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. Four of these five patients needed to be intubated for ventilatory support. Five of the eight patients had significant intracranial injuries. Two patients had epidural hematomas that required evacuation. Two other patients had subdural hematomas that were treated nonoperatively, and one patient had a subarachnoid hemorrhage that was also treated nonoperatively. Four of the eight patients required surgical intervention. There were no deaths in this study. Car surfing leads to severe injuries that can result in significant morbidity. American youth have access to Internet sites that project this activity as an acceptable behavior. Five of our eight patients had a significant intracranial injury. Trauma surgeons need to be more aware of this injury phenomenon.

  16. Exploring Dwarf Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Jacqueline M.

    2017-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies are the most numerous galaxies in the universe, yet little is definitively understood about their formation and evolution. An evolutionary link has been proposed between dwarf irregular and dwarf elliptical galaxies by previous studies. The nature and existence of so-called dwarf spiral galaxies is still heavily debated. This project explores the properties of dwarf galaxies spanning a range in morphological type, luminosity, physical size, and surrounding environment (i.e. group / field galaxies). The goal of this project is to determine the range of exhibited properties for each type of dwarf galaxy using available ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared imaging and spectra. Similarities in visible, broadband colors support the proposed evolutionary link dwarf irregular and dwarf elliptical galaxies when the range of brightness of the samples is constrained to the fainter galaxies. Here, comparisons amongst a sub-sample of 59 dwarf irregulars, 12 dwarf ellipticals, and 29 dwarf spirals will be presented using archival ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared imaging. The effect of constraining the comparisons to the fainter sample members will be explored, as well as the effect of constraining the comparisons to the brighter sample members.

  17. 50 CFR 648.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fishery (Scallop FMP); the Atlantic surf clam and ocean quahog fisheries (Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean..., in § 648.1, paragraph (a) was amended by removing the words “surf clam” and “Surf Clam” and...

  18. Ancient clam gardens increased shellfish production: adaptive strategies from the past can inform food security today.

    PubMed

    Groesbeck, Amy S; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today.

  19. Ancient Clam Gardens Increased Shellfish Production: Adaptive Strategies from the Past Can Inform Food Security Today

    PubMed Central

    Groesbeck, Amy S.; Rowell, Kirsten; Lepofsky, Dana; Salomon, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining food production while sustaining productive ecosystems is among the central challenges of our time, yet, it has been for millennia. Ancient clam gardens, intertidal rock-walled terraces constructed by humans during the late Holocene, are thought to have improved the growing conditions for clams. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the beach slope, intertidal height, and biomass and density of bivalves at replicate clam garden and non-walled clam beaches in British Columbia, Canada. We also quantified the variation in growth and survival rates of littleneck clams (Leukoma staminea) we experimentally transplanted across these two beach types. We found that clam gardens had significantly shallower slopes than non-walled beaches and greater densities of L. staminea and Saxidomus giganteus, particularly at smaller size classes. Overall, clam gardens contained 4 times as many butter clams and over twice as many littleneck clams relative to non-walled beaches. As predicted, this relationship varied as a function of intertidal height, whereby clam density and biomass tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to non-walled beaches at relatively higher intertidal heights. Transplanted juvenile L. staminea grew 1.7 times faster and smaller size classes were more likely to survive in clam gardens than non-walled beaches, specifically at the top and bottom of beaches. Consequently, we provide strong evidence that ancient clam gardens likely increased clam productivity by altering the slope of soft-sediment beaches, expanding optimal intertidal clam habitat, thereby enhancing growing conditions for clams. These results reveal how ancient shellfish aquaculture practices may have supported food security strategies in the past and provide insight into tools for the conservation, management, and governance of intertidal seascapes today. PMID:24618748

  20. Monitoring system specifications: retrieval of surf from a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The task of developing specifications for a reference monitoring system determined by repository environmental conditions, retrieval operations, and federal regulatory criteria is discussed. The monitoring system specified in this report is capable of measuring (1) package position and orientation, (2) vault deformation, (3) brine accumulation, (4) spent fuel dissolution, (5) temperature, (6) nuclear radiation, and (7) package condition with sufficient accuracy to provide data input to a general risk assessment model. In order to define a monitoring system which can provide probabilistic data on radiological risk to operating personnel and the general public for a salt mine repository, the following information is required: (1) a complete design of the salt SURF repository including inventory, density and waste package design details; (2) probalistic failure rate data on containment integrity of the SURF waste package; (3) probabilistic failure rate data on the monitoring system components (i.e., monitoring procedure, instrumentation, data acquisition, data processing and data interpretation).

  1. Region duplication forgery detection technique based on SURF and HAC.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Parul; Mishra, Nishchol; Sharma, Sanjeev; Patel, Ravindra

    2013-01-01

    Region duplication forgery detection is a special type of forgery detection approach and widely used research topic under digital image forensics. In copy move forgery, a specific area is copied and then pasted into any other region of the image. Due to the availability of sophisticated image processing tools, it becomes very hard to detect forgery with naked eyes. From the forged region of an image no visual clues are often detected. For making the tampering more robust, various transformations like scaling, rotation, illumination changes, JPEG compression, noise addition, gamma correction, and blurring are applied. So there is a need for a method which performs efficiently in the presence of all such attacks. This paper presents a detection method based on speeded up robust features (SURF) and hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). SURF detects the keypoints and their corresponding features. From these sets of keypoints, grouping is performed on the matched keypoints by HAC that shows copied and pasted regions.

  2. Region Duplication Forgery Detection Technique Based on SURF and HAC

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Parul; Sharma, Sanjeev; Patel, Ravindra

    2013-01-01

    Region duplication forgery detection is a special type of forgery detection approach and widely used research topic under digital image forensics. In copy move forgery, a specific area is copied and then pasted into any other region of the image. Due to the availability of sophisticated image processing tools, it becomes very hard to detect forgery with naked eyes. From the forged region of an image no visual clues are often detected. For making the tampering more robust, various transformations like scaling, rotation, illumination changes, JPEG compression, noise addition, gamma correction, and blurring are applied. So there is a need for a method which performs efficiently in the presence of all such attacks. This paper presents a detection method based on speeded up robust features (SURF) and hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). SURF detects the keypoints and their corresponding features. From these sets of keypoints, grouping is performed on the matched keypoints by HAC that shows copied and pasted regions. PMID:24311972

  3. Surf Zone Properties and On/Offshore Sediment Transport.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    wave properties. A review of the previous related works was made. The investigators who developed and applied the surf zone parameter included Iribarren ...breaking wave properties characterized by this parameter are summarized. L~.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ • - Il~i/ l I rT L I - - .- -9- Iribarren and Nogales (1949...where Le is the deep water wave length and rearranging gives 4 a-5_ -10- The derivation given by Iribarren and Nogales sug- gested that the incipient

  4. Surf Zone Currents. Volume I. State of Knowledge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    this way, modern turbulent boun- dary layer theory is incorporated into the bed shear-stress model . Expre - sions for the shear stress at this...factor from a surf zone force balance. The modified model also includes new formulations for lateral turbulent mixing and the *" breaking criteria, y...percent of mean velo- cities, as in normal turbulence (Longuet-Higgins,1972a). 99 p. - *ff f -t. . -. . . . i i I .. - 1 ’ 1 " i " -.. All other models

  5. SURF IA Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Barker, Glover D.

    2012-01-01

    The Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA) algorithm was evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. SURF IA is designed to increase flight crew situation awareness of the runway environment and facilitate an appropriate and timely response to potential conflict situations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the SURF IA algorithm under various runway scenarios, multiple levels of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system equipage, and various levels of horizontal position accuracy. This paper gives an overview of the SURF IA concept, simulation study, and results. Runway incursions are a serious aviation safety hazard. As such, the FAA is committed to reducing the severity, number, and rate of runway incursions by implementing a combination of guidance, education, outreach, training, technology, infrastructure, and risk identification and mitigation initiatives [1]. Progress has been made in reducing the number of serious incursions - from a high of 67 in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 to 6 in FY2010. However, the rate of all incursions has risen steadily over recent years - from a rate of 12.3 incursions per million operations in FY2005 to a rate of 18.9 incursions per million operations in FY2010 [1, 2]. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) also considers runway incursions to be a serious aviation safety hazard, listing runway incursion prevention as one of their most wanted transportation safety improvements [3]. The NTSB recommends that immediate warning of probable collisions/incursions be given directly to flight crews in the cockpit [4].

  6. Fatal accidents due to train surfing in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    1998-06-08

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of analysing under the aspect of legal medicine, fatal accidents due to train surfing in the local transport system of Berlin (S-Bahn and underground). The period of investigation was from 1989 through 1995, with 41 train surfing accidents, among them 18 with fatal outcome. Evaluation included those 14 deaths which were forensically autopsied. It was based on autopsy records of Berlin-based university institutes (Humboldt University and Free University) as well as the Brandenburg State Institute of Legal Medicine. Also used were data obtained from the Berlin Transport Police Record. The casualties were aged between 13 and 25 years, most of them between 16 and 20. The male-female gender ratio was 13:1. Accidents occurred above all in the warmer season of the year, most of them between 20:00 h and midnight. More than 50% of all cases were affected by alcohol, but centrally acting medicaments or other addictive drugs were not noticed at all. Most of the fatal accidents occurred to users of the Berlin S-Bahn network. Older train models were the preferred surfing objects due to their structural peculiarities. Collision with close-to-track obstacles and slipping from the train proved to be the major sources of danger. An analysis of injuries revealed polytraumatisation but for one exception, with craniocerebral injuries being the most common and severest events. The longest survival time amounted to 24 h. As the psychosocial causes of high-risk behaviour of adolescents will hardly be controllable, withdrawal of technical, that is structural design possibilities appears to be the most important approach to prevention of accidents in the future. This demand is met by the new series of the Berlin S-Bahn. The model of the old series, suitable for surfing, still accounts for about 10% of the rolling stock and is to be decommissioned in 1998.

  7. 40 CFR 408.240 - Applicability; description of the mechanized clam processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mechanized clam processing subcategory. 408.240 Section 408.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.240 Applicability; description of the mechanized clam processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  8. 40 CFR 408.240 - Applicability; description of the mechanized clam processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mechanized clam processing subcategory. 408.240 Section 408.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.240 Applicability; description of the mechanized clam processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  9. 40 CFR 408.240 - Applicability; description of the mechanized clam processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mechanized clam processing subcategory. 408.240 Section 408.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.240 Applicability; description of the mechanized clam processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  10. 40 CFR 408.240 - Applicability; description of the mechanized clam processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mechanized clam processing subcategory. 408.240 Section 408.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.240 Applicability; description of the mechanized clam processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  11. 40 CFR 408.240 - Applicability; description of the mechanized clam processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mechanized clam processing subcategory. 408.240 Section 408.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanized Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.240 Applicability; description of the mechanized clam processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  12. Deployed bivalves (oysters and clams) as indicators of estuarine condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ringwood, A.H.; Holland, A.F.; Keppler, C.; Wert, M.; Hyland, J.

    1995-12-31

    Hatchery-reared bivalves, oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), were deployed simultaneously at reference and degraded sites in SC estuaries for approximately 1 month. Juvenile bivalves with endogenously high growth rates were used because effects on growth can be detected in a short time frame. The effects on growth and bioaccumulation of metal contaminants, as well as two biochemical indices (expression of metallothioneins, MT, and multi-xenobiotic transporting proteins, {at}R) were evaluated. Metal concentrations of sediments were also measured. Adverse effects on growth of both species were observed at degraded sites. However, oysters tended to grow more rapidly than clams, and adverse effects on oysters were more pronounced than in clams. Many of the sediments were characterized by elevated concentrations of multiple metals (Cu, Pb, Cr, etc.). However, increases in metal concentrations of oyster tissues were observed primarily with Cu, suggesting that many of the other metals had low bioavailability. There was little evidence of bioconcentration of any metals in clams. There was a significant correlation between sediment Cu and Cu in oyster tissues, but not in clams. Alterations in MT and MXR expression were also observed in oysters deployed at degraded sites. These studies suggest that oysters may be better in-situ indicators of habitat condition because they have more rapid growth rates and greater bioaccumulation potentials.

  13. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  14. Toxicity of a traditional molluscicide to asian clam veligers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; ,; Miho Yoshioka,; Bahram Farokhkish,; ,; Gross, Jackson A.; Sepulveda, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture and hatchery industries are in need of effective control methods to reduce the risk of spreading aquatic invasive species, such as the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea, through aquaculture and hatchery activities. The planktonic nature of Asian clam veligers enables this life stage to enter water-based infrastructure undetected, including hatchery trucks used to stock fish. Once in hatchery trucks, veligers can disperse overland and establish in previously uninvaded habitats. As a result, there is a need to develop techniques that result in veliger mortality but do not harm fish. In September 2012, we conducted laboratory trials to determine if a molluscicide (750 mg/L potassium chloride and 25 mg/L formalin) commonly used to kill zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) veligers in hatchery trucks can also effectively kill Asian clam veligers. We exposed Asian clam veligers to this molluscicide for 1, 3, and 5 h in each of two water types: deionized water and filtered lake water. We found ,20% mortality at the 1-h exposure period and 100% mortality at both the 3-h and 5-h exposure periods, regardless of water type. This laboratory study represents an important step toward reducing the spread of Asian clams by aquaculture facilities.

  15. T Dwarf Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Giovanni; Hora, Joseph; Luhman, Kevin; Marengo, Massimo; Patten, Brian; Sonnett, Sarah; Stauffer, John

    2007-05-01

    With the basic colors and photometry for M, L, and T dwarfs in the IRAC bandpasses established (Patten et al. 2006), we wish to shift our focus to the differences seen among objects with similar T_eff and, in particular, to expand on the exploration of the T dwarfs. While some of the observed dispersion of T dwarf colors and magnitudes in the near- and mid-IR for objects of the same sub-type can be explained by differences in metallicity and gravity, some of this scatter may also be due to binarity and intrinsic variability (i.e., 'brown dwarf weather'). We are curious as to whether or not the observed scatter with color in the infrared, which appears to be largest in the mid-T dwarfs, really tapers off and grows smaller in the late-T dwarfs, or if we are simply not seeing the whole picture due to small number statistics. On the warmer end of the T sequence, recent results suggest that the transition from the late-L to early-T types in brown dwarf temperature progresses very quickly in an evolutionary sense. Therefore, objects with early T types should be relatively rare. Many of the early-T brown dwarfs used in the in the Patten et al. 2006 study (and others) have turned out to be very close binaries (e.g. Burgasser et al. 2006), which has resulted in a deficit of true, single early-T brown dwarfs with well-determined mid-infrared colors and photometry. We are proposing to acquire IRAC photometry for an additional ~23 T-type dwarfs in order to allow us to better characterize trending with color and spectral type for the T dwarfs. These new T dwarf data will be combined with the existing T dwarf data previously acquired by IRAC to produce the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams necessary to compare observation to theory for the coolest sub-stellar mass objects known. These data will prove invaluable in constraining searches in color and magnitude space for brown dwarf companions to nearby stars as well as for free-floating brown dwarfs in the field.

  16. Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects.

    PubMed

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, Massimo; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, Carlo; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial protein SURF1 is a specific assembly factor of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), but its function is poorly understood. SURF1 gene mutations cause a severe COX deficiency manifesting as the Leigh syndrome in humans, whereas in mice SURF1(-/-) knockout leads only to a mild COX defect. We used SURF1(-/-) mouse model for detailed analysis of disturbed COX assembly and COX ability to incorporate into respiratory supercomplexes (SCs) in different tissues and fibroblasts. Furthermore, we compared fibroblasts from SURF1(-/-) mouse and SURF1 patients to reveal interspecies differences in kinetics of COX biogenesis using 2D electrophoresis, immunodetection, arrest of mitochondrial proteosynthesis and pulse-chase metabolic labeling. The crucial differences observed are an accumulation of abundant COX1 assembly intermediates, low content of COX monomer and preferential recruitment of COX into I-III2-IVn SCs in SURF1 patient fibroblasts, whereas SURF1(-/-) mouse fibroblasts were characterized by low content of COX1 assembly intermediates and milder decrease in COX monomer, which appeared more stable. This pattern was even less pronounced in SURF1(-/-) mouse liver and brain. Both the control and SURF1(-/-) mice revealed only negligible formation of the I-III2-IVn SCs and marked tissue differences in the contents of COX dimer and III2-IV SCs, also less noticeable in liver and brain than in heart and muscle. Our studies support the view that COX assembly is much more dependent on SURF1 in humans than in mice. We also demonstrate markedly lower ability of mouse COX to form I-III2-IVn supercomplexes, pointing to tissue-specific and species-specific differences in COX biogenesis.

  17. Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects

    PubMed Central

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, Massimo; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, Carlo; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein SURF1 is a specific assembly factor of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), but its function is poorly understood. SURF1 gene mutations cause a severe COX deficiency manifesting as the Leigh syndrome in humans, whereas in mice SURF1−/− knockout leads only to a mild COX defect. We used SURF1−/− mouse model for detailed analysis of disturbed COX assembly and COX ability to incorporate into respiratory supercomplexes (SCs) in different tissues and fibroblasts. Furthermore, we compared fibroblasts from SURF1−/− mouse and SURF1 patients to reveal interspecies differences in kinetics of COX biogenesis using 2D electrophoresis, immunodetection, arrest of mitochondrial proteosynthesis and pulse-chase metabolic labeling. The crucial differences observed are an accumulation of abundant COX1 assembly intermediates, low content of COX monomer and preferential recruitment of COX into I–III2–IVn SCs in SURF1 patient fibroblasts, whereas SURF1−/− mouse fibroblasts were characterized by low content of COX1 assembly intermediates and milder decrease in COX monomer, which appeared more stable. This pattern was even less pronounced in SURF1−/− mouse liver and brain. Both the control and SURF1−/− mice revealed only negligible formation of the I–III2–IVn SCs and marked tissue differences in the contents of COX dimer and III2–IV SCs, also less noticeable in liver and brain than in heart and muscle. Our studies support the view that COX assembly is much more dependent on SURF1 in humans than in mice. We also demonstrate markedly lower ability of mouse COX to form I–III2–IVn supercomplexes, pointing to tissue-specific and species-specific differences in COX biogenesis. PMID:26804654

  18. Liquid-bubble Interaction under Surf Zone Breaking Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derakhti, M.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Liquid-bubble interaction, especially in complex two-phase bubbly flow under breaking waves, is still poorly understood. Derakhti and Kirby (2014a,b) have recently studied bubble entrainment and turbulence modulation by dispersed bubbles under isolated unsteady breaking waves along with extensive model verifications and convergence tests. In this presentation, we continue this examination with attention turned to the simulation of periodic surf zone breaking waves. In addition, the relative importance of preferential accumulation of dispersed bubbles in coherent vortex cores is investigated. Heavier-than-liquid particles, i.e. sediment, tend to accumulate in regions of high strain rate and avoid regions of intense vorticity. In contrast, lighter-than-liquid particles such as bubbles tend to congregate in vortical regions. We perform a three dimensional (3D) large-eddy simulation (LES) using a Navier-Stokes solver extended to incorporate entrained bubble populations, using an Eulerian-Eulerian formulation for the polydisperse bubble phase. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used for free surface tracking. The model accounts for momentum exchange between dispersed bubbles and liquid phase as well as bubble-induced dissipation. We investigate the formation and evolution of breaking-induced turbulent coherent structures (BTCS) under both plunging and spilling periodic breaking waves as well as BTCS's role on the intermittent 3D distributions of bubble void fraction in the surf zone. We particularly examine the correlation between bubble void fractions and Q-criterion values to quantify this interaction. Also, the vertical transport of dispersed bubbles by downburst type coherent structures in the transition region is compared to that by obliquely descending eddies. All the results are summarized at different zones from outer to inner surf zone.

  19. Mutation surfing and the evolution of dispersal during range expansions.

    PubMed

    Travis, J M J; Münkemüller, T; Burton, O J

    2010-12-01

    A growing body of empirical evidence demonstrates that at an expanding front, there can be strong selection for greater dispersal propensity, whereas recent theory indicates that mutations occurring towards the front of a spatially expanding population can sometimes 'surf' to high frequency and spatial extent. Here, we consider the potential interplay between these two processes: what role may mutation surfing play in determining the course of dispersal evolution and how might dispersal evolution itself influence mutation surfing? Using an individual-based coupled-map lattice model, we first run simulations to determine the fate of dispersal mutants that occur at an expanding front. Our results highlight that mutants that have a slightly higher dispersal propensity than the wild type always have a higher survival probability than those mutants with a dispersal propensity lower than, or very similar to, the wild type. However, it is not always the case that mutants with very high dispersal propensity have the greatest survival probability. When dispersal mortality is high, mutants of intermediate dispersal survive most often. Interestingly, the rate of dispersal that ultimately evolves at an expanding front is often substantially higher than that which confers a novel mutant with the greatest probability of survival. Second, we run a model in which we allow dispersal to evolve over the course of a range expansion and ask how the fate of a neutral or nonneutral mutant depends upon when and where during the expansion it arises. These simulations highlight that the success of a neutral mutant depends upon the dispersal genotypes that it is associated with. An important consequence of this is that novel mutants that arise at the front of an expansion, and survive, typically end up being associated with more dispersive genotypes than the wild type. These results offer some new insights into causes and the consequences of dispersal evolution during range expansions, and

  20. Social Networking Sites' Influence on Travelers' Authentic Experience a Case Study of Couch Surfing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    This study explored travelers' experiences in the era of network hospitality 2.0 using CouchSurfing.org as a case study. The following research questions guided this study: 1) what experience does CouchSurfing create for travelers before, during and after their travel? 2) how does couch surfers' experience relate to authenticity in context of…

  1. Learning and Identity in Overlapping Communities of Practice: Surf Club, School and Sports Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard; Nash, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Large numbers of children and young people spend their weekends and holidays engaged in the activities of over 300 surf clubs across Australia each summer. Long term membership in these clubs, beginning from as young as five years of age, forms a significant part of children's and young people's development yet surf clubs have yet to receive…

  2. Surfinoma: a case report on a pseudotumor developing after a surfing sports injury.

    PubMed

    Squire, Tim; Sherlock, Matthew; Wilson, Peter; Tan, Beng; Hope, Nigel; Anderson, Suzanne E

    2010-12-01

    We describe an unusual pseudotumor of the upper thorax, axillary, and shoulder girdle region with presentation 4 years after a surfing sports injury. We offer the coined term "Surfinoma" to describe a pseudotumor arising from a penetrating piece of fiberglass surf board, which induced a foreign body reaction.

  3. The effects of surfing behaviour on the development of external auditory canal exostosis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, V; Lau, A; Beaumont, E; Hope, A

    2015-07-01

    To examine how individual surfing behaviour affects the development of external auditory canal exostosis and to produce a model to predict exostosis severity. A standardised questionnaire was completed and each participant underwent an otoscopic examination. Surfers were recruited from August to October 2011 from surfing competitions and from colleges in the South West of England. 207 surfers were included, 53 % had evidence of external auditory canal; exostosis: grade 1, 23%; grade 2, 16%, grade 3, 16%. This risk of exostosis significantly increased with (1) surfing for 6 or more years, (2) surfing in the winter months, (3) surfing five or more times per month in the winter and (4) reported ear symptoms. Interestingly, participation in other water sports and wearing earplugs or a hood reduced the risk of developing exostosis. Surfers who surf in England are at significant risk of exostosis. A probability model was designed, incorporating different surfing behaviours and ear symptoms, the first of its kind in exostosis research. This model will be a useful tool for raising awareness of external ear canal exostosis in the surfing community and in assessing individual need for surgical intervention.

  4. Comparison of risks due to HLW and SURF repositories in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Ortiz, N.R.; Wahi, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology was developed for use in the analysis of risks from geologic disposal of nuclear wastes. This methodology is applied to two conceptual nuclear waste repositories in bedded salt containing High-Level Waste (HLW) and Spent Un-Reprocessed Fuel (SURF), respectively. A comparison of the risk estimated from the HLW and SURF repositories is presented.

  5. Development status of CLAM steel for fusion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qunying

    2014-12-01

    The China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel is being developed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST) under wide collaboration within China. Significant R&D work on CLAM steel was carried out to help make it suitable for industrial applications. The effect of refining processes and thermal aging on composition, microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. Material properties before irradiation including impact, fracture toughness, thermal aging, creep and fatigue properties etc. were assessed. A series of irradiation tests in the fission reactor HFETR in Chengdu up to 2 dpa and in the spallation neutron source SINQ in Paul Scherrer Institute up to 20 dpa were performed. PbLi corrosion tests for more than 10,000 h were done in the DRAGON-I and PICOLO loops. Fabrication techniques for a test blanket module (TBM) are being developed and a 1/3 scale TBM prototype is being fabricated with CLAM steel. Recent progresses on the development status of this steel are presented here. The code qualification of CLAM steel is under plan for its final application in ITER-TBM and DEMO in the future.

  6. Photosymbiotic giant clams are transformers of solar flux

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Amanda L.; Vahidinia, Sanaz; Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Morse, Daniel E.; Sweeney, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Giant’ tridacnid clams have evolved a three-dimensional, spatially efficient, photodamage-preventing system for photosymbiosis. We discovered that the mantle tissue of giant clams, which harbours symbiotic nutrition-providing microalgae, contains a layer of iridescent cells called iridocytes that serve to distribute photosynthetically productive wavelengths by lateral and forward-scattering of light into the tissue while back-reflecting non-productive wavelengths with a Bragg mirror. The wavelength- and angle-dependent scattering from the iridocytes is geometrically coupled to the vertically pillared microalgae, resulting in an even re-distribution of the incoming light along the sides of the pillars, thus enabling photosynthesis deep in the tissue. There is a physical analogy between the evolved function of the clam system and an electric transformer, which changes energy flux per area in a system while conserving total energy. At incident light levels found on shallow coral reefs, this arrangement may allow algae within the clam system to both efficiently use all incident solar energy and avoid the photodamage and efficiency losses due to non-photochemical quenching that occur in the reef-building coral photosymbiosis. Both intra-tissue radiometry and multiscale optical modelling support our interpretation of the system's photophysics. This highly evolved ‘three-dimensional’ biophotonic system suggests a strategy for more efficient, damage-resistant photovoltaic materials and more spatially efficient solar production of algal biofuels, foods and chemicals. PMID:25401182

  7. The Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L., Jr.; Charlock, Thomas; Wielicki, Bruce; Kahn, Ralph; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Gatebe, Charles; Hobbs, Peter V.; Purgold, G. Carl; Redemann, Jens; Remer, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    NASA has developed an Earth Observing System (EOS) consisting of a series of satellites designed to study global change from space. The EOS flagship is the EOS TERRA satellite, launched in December 1999, equipped with five unique sensors to monitor and study the Earth s heat budget and many of the key controlling variables governing the Earth's climate system. CLAMS, the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites field campaign was conducted from NASA Wallops Flight Facility and successfully executed over the middle Atlantic eastern seaboard from July 10 August 2, 2001. CLAMS is primarily a shortwave closure experiment designed to validate and improve EOS TERRA satellite data products being derived from three sensors: CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) and MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). CLAMS is jointly sponsored by the CERES, MISR and MODIS instrument teams and the NASA GEWEX Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP). CLAMS primary objectives are to validate satellite-based retrievals of aerosol properties and vertical profiles of radiative flux, temperature and water vapor. Central to CLAMS measurement strategy is the Chesapeake Lighthouse, a stable sea platform located in the Atlantic Ocean, 13 miles east of Virginia Beach near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and the site of an ongoing CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE). Six research aircraft were deployed to make detailed measurements of the atmosphere and ocean surface in the vicinity of COVE, over the surrounding ocean, over nearby NOAA buoys and over a few land sites. The measurements are used to validate and provide ground truth for simultaneous products being derived from TERRA data, a key step toward an improved understanding and ability to predict changes in the Earth's climate. One of the two CERES instruments on-board TERRA was programmed for Rotating Azimuth Plane Scans (RAPS) during CLAMS

  8. Astrometric Binaries: White Dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliversen, Nancy A.

    We propose to observe a selection of astrometric or spectroscopicastrometric binaries nearer than about 20 pc with unseen low mass companions. Systems of this type are important for determining the luminosity function of low mass stars (white dwarfs and very late main sequence M stars), and their contribution to the total mass of the galaxy. Systems of this type are also important because the low mass, invisible companions are potential candidates in the search for planets. Our target list is selected primarily from the list of 31 astrometric binaries near the sun by Lippincott (1978, Space Sci. Rev., 22, 153), with additional candidates from recent observations by Kamper. The elimination of stars with previous IUE observations, red companions resolved by infrared speckle interferometry, or primaries later than M1 (because if white dwarf companions are present they should have been detected in the visible region) reduces the list to 5 targets which need further information. IUE SWP low dispersion observations of these targets will show clearly whether the remaining unseen companions are white dwarfs, thus eliminating very cool main sequence stars or planets. This is also important in providing complete statistical information about the nearest stars. The discovery of a white dwarf in such a nearby system would provide important additional information about the masses of white dwarfs. Recent results by Greenstein (1986, A. J., 92, 859) from binary systems containing white dwarfs imply that 80% of such systems are as yet undetected. The preference of binaries for companions of approximately equal mass makes the Lippincott-Kamper list of A through K primaries with unseen companions a good one to use to search for white dwarfs. The mass and light dominance of the current primary over the white dwarf in the visible makes ultraviolet observations essential to obtain an accurate census of white dwarf binaries.

  9. M dwarfs: Theoretical work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, Dermott J.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical work on the atmospheres of M dwarfs has progressed along lines parallel to those followed in the study of other classes of stars. Such models have become increasingly sophisticated as improvements in opacities, in the equation of state, and in the treatment of convection were incorporated during the last 15 to 20 years. As a result, spectrophotometric data on M dwarfs can now be fitted rather well by current models. The various attempts at modeling M dwarf photospheres in purely thermal terms are summarized. Some extensions of these models to include the effects of microturbulence and magnetic inhomogeneities are presented.

  10. Spectroscopy of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolo, R.

    Recent searches for brown dwarfs have succeeded in finding these elusive objects. Massive brown dwarfs (40-70 Jupiter masses) have been found in the Pleiades, orbiting around a nearby star and, very recently, in the field. A review is given of their observed photometric and spectroscopic properties in the optical and near-infrared. The diagnosis of substellar nature based on lithium lines and methane bands is discussed in detail. While lithium has proved useful to test brown dwarfs with effective temperatures hotter than ~1600 K, methane is a substellar indicator at lower temperatures.

  11. Patterns in Clam Excurrent Siphon Velocity According to External Environmental Cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Delavan, S. K.

    2010-11-01

    This study attempts to determine the patterns and/or randomness of the excurrent velocity of actively feeding clams, Mercenaria mercenaria. We hypothesize that clams alter their feeding current velocity patterns or randomness according to external cues in the environment such as hydrodynamic characteristics, density of the clam patch, and presence of predators in the upstream flow. A PIV system measured vector fields for two-dimensional planes that bisect the clam excurrent siphons, and time records were extracted at the siphon exit position. Fractal and lacunarity analysis of the jet velocity time records revealed that clams alter their jet excurrent velocity unsteadiness according to the horizontal crossflow velocity. The results also reveal that the effect of clam patch density on the feeding activity was dependent on the size of the organism. This size/density dependent relationship suggests that predation by blue crabs dominates the system since larger clams are no longer susceptible to blue crab predation, whereas clams of all sizes are susceptible to whelk predation. Finally, clams increase the randomness of their excurrent jet velocity values when predator cues are located in the upstream flume flow. This suggests that the presence of predators elicits clam behavior that promotes the mixing and dilution of their chemical metabolites.

  12. Zostera marina seed burial can be enhanced by Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum: A microcosm study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang-Jun; Li, Wen-Tao; Liu, Jianying; Zhang, Xiumei; Zhang, Peidong

    2017-03-01

    Seagrass seed bank plays a key role in the regeneration of new vegetation when seagrasses are removed by the natural or man-made disaster. Various factors may affect the development of sediment seed bank. We conducted a microcosm experiment to test the effects of burrowing and feeding activities of Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum on the burial of Zostera marina seeds in sediments. The effects of lasting time (3-hour, 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 14-day and 28-day), clam density (0, 2, 4 and 8 clams with shell length of 3 cm in each microcosm) and clam size (shell length of 2, 3 and 4 cm at 4-clam density) on seed burial were examined in plastic microcosm cores (30 cm high × 10 in inner diameter) in a 28-day period. Results showed that the seed burial depth significantly increased with time, the density and the size of clams. No seeds were buried in the sediment in the cores without clams during the whole experiment period. For the 3-cm clams, about 91.61% of the seeds were buried in the sediment at the end of the experiment in the high-density treatment (8 clams at each core); while in the medium and low-density treatments (4 and 2 clams in each core, respectively), about 76.93% and 60.61% of the seeds were buried in the sediment, respectively. For the size treatments, large (4 cm) clams buried 89.56% of the seeds at the end of the experiment, much more than those of medium (3 cm, 76.93%) and small (2 cm, 61.50%) size clams. During the whole experiment period, nearly all of the buried seeds were at a depth of from 0 cm to 5 cm. These results suggested that Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum may play an important positive role in seagrass seed bank dynamics in the field.

  13. Information surfing with the JHU/APL coherent imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Shipley, Kara R.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Wolfe, Kevin C.

    2015-05-01

    The ability to perform remote forensics in situ is an important application of autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs). Forensics objectives may include remediation of mines and/or unexploded ordnance, as well as monitoring of seafloor infrastructure. At JHU/APL, digital holography is being explored for the potential application to underwater imaging and integration with an AUV. In previous work, a feature-based approach was developed for processing the holographic imagery and performing object recognition. In this work, the results of the image processing method were incorporated into a Bayesian framework for autonomous path planning referred to as information surfing. The framework was derived assuming that the location of the object of interest is known a priori, but the type of object and its pose are unknown. The path-planning algorithm adaptively modifies the trajectory of the sensing platform based on historical performance of object and pose classification. The algorithm is called information surfing because the direction of motion is governed by the local information gradient. Simulation experiments were carried out using holographic imagery collected from submerged objects. The autonomous sensing algorithm was compared to a deterministic sensing CONOPS, and demonstrated improved accuracy and faster convergence in several cases.

  14. Respiratory Problems Associated with Surfing in Coastal Waters.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Chris; Silver, Mary W; Lahiff, Maureen; Colford, John

    2016-11-08

    A pilot project was conducted to examine the health status and possible adverse health effects associated with seawater exposure (microbial water-quality indicators and phytoplankton abundance and their toxins) of surfers in Monterey Bay, Central California coastal waters. Forty-eight surfers enrolled in the study and completed an initial health background survey and weekly health surveys online using Survey Monkey. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equation, a regression technique, were used to identify longitudinal and correlated results. The surfers were predominately Caucasian, male, and physically active. They surfed approximately 4 h a week. Their average age was 34 years. The data indicated that the surfers were generally "healthy," with a low prevalence of diabetes, high cholesterol, and hypertension. Their most common health problems were allergies and asthma. During the study, 10% of the surfers reported gastrointestinal symptoms and 29% reported upper respiratory symptoms. This study suggests surfers were significantly more likely to report upper respiratory symptoms when they had a history of allergies, housemates with upper respiratory symptoms, and/or a history of previous adverse health symptoms while surfing during a "red tide" (an event often associated with the presence of phytoplankton toxins). Additionally, female surfers reported upper respiratory symptoms more than males.

  15. Clams (Corbicula fluminea) as bioindicators of fecal contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in freshwater ecosystems in California.

    PubMed

    Miller, Woutrina A; Atwill, Edward R; Gardner, Ian A; Miller, Melissa A; Fritz, Heather M; Hedrick, Ronald P; Melli, Ann C; Barnes, Nicole M; Conrad, Patricia A

    2005-05-01

    This study evaluated clams as bioindicators of fecal protozoan contamination using three approaches: (i) clam tissue spiking experiments to compare several detection techniques; (ii) clam tank exposure experiments to evaluate clams that had filtered Cryptosporidium oocysts from inoculated water under a range of simulated environmental conditions; (iii) sentinel clam outplanting to assess the distribution and magnitude of fecal contamination in three riverine systems in California. Our spiking and tank experiments showed that direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), immunomagnetic separation (IMS) in combination with DFA, and PCR techniques could be used to detect Cryptosporidium in clam tissues. The most analytically sensitive technique was IMS concentration with DFA detection of oocysts in clam digestive gland tissues, which detected 10 oocysts spiked into a clam digestive gland 83% of the time. In the tank experiment, oocyst dose and clam collection time were significant predictors for detecting Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in clams. In the wild clam study, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in clams from all three study regions by IMS-DFA analysis of clam digestive glands, with significant variation by sampling year and season. The presence of C. parvum DNA in clams from riverine ecosystems was confirmed with PCR and DNA sequence analysis.

  16. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  17. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  18. 50 CFR 648.4 - Vessel permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under § 648.107. (4) Surf clam and ocean quahog vessels. Any vessel of the United States that fishes for surf clams or ocean quahogs, except vessels taking surf clams and ocean quahogs for personal use or fishing exclusively within state waters, must have been issued and carry on board a valid surf clam...

  19. Reductions in Sprint Paddling Ability and Countermovement Jump Performance After Surfing Training.

    PubMed

    Secomb, Josh L; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether any meaningful change in a surfer's sprint paddling ability and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance developed after a 2-hour surfing training session and also whether any physical demands of the surfing session were related to the resultant changes in the capacities. Fifteen competitive male surfing athletes (age, 22.1 ± 3.9 years; height, 175.4 ± 6.4 cm; body mass, 72.5 ± 7.7 kg) performed a 2-hour surfing training session, with 15-m sprint paddle and CMJ trials performed both before and after the surfing session. Pre- to posttesting measures were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. Likely declines were observed in the velocity achieved at the 5-, 10-, and 15-m splits of the 15-m sprint paddle, as well as peak velocity. Similarly, likely declines were calculated for CMJ peak force, relative peak force, and jump height. Furthermore, large correlations were calculated between presurfing session peak velocity and the change in 5, 10, 15 m, and peak velocity of the 15-m sprint paddle and total distance covered, wave riding bouts, and success rate. Surfing athletes and coaches may need to consider implementing shorter duration training sessions to reduce the decline in sprint paddling ability and CMJ performance. Furthermore, surfing athletes should possess highly developed sprint paddling ability because this may allow them to undertake a greater workload and catch more waves, which will increase the opportunity for technical refinement of maneuvers and skill acquisition.

  20. Injuries resulting from car surfing--United States, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    2008-10-17

    "Car surfing" is a term introduced in the mid-1980s to describe a thrill-seeking activity that involves riding on the exterior of a moving motor vehicle while it is being driven by another person. Although reports of car-surfing injuries have been published in the United States, no study to date has analyzed these events from a national perspective. Because traditional public health datasets do not collect morbidity or mortality data on this practice, CDC searched U.S. newspaper reports to provide an initial characterization of car-surfing injuries on a national scale. That analysis identified 58 reports of car-surfing deaths and 41 reports of nonfatal injury from 1990 through August 2008. Most reports of car-surfing injuries came from newspapers in the Midwest and South (75%), and most of the injuries were among males (70%) and persons aged 15-19 years (69%). The first identified newspaper reports about car-surfing injuries were published in the early 1990s, and new reports have been published every year since then. Parents and teens should be aware of the potentially lethal consequences of car surfing, which can occur even at low vehicle speeds, sometimes resulting from unanticipated movements of the vehicle, such as swerving or braking.

  1. Influence of the Surf Zone on the Marine Aerosol Concentration in a Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Gilles; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Piazzola, Jacques; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta T.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-salt aerosol concentrations in the coastal zone are assessed with the numerical aerosol-transport model MACMod that applies separate aerosol source functions for open ocean and the surf zone near the sea-land transition. Numerical simulations of the aerosol concentration as a function of offshore distance from the surf zone compare favourably with experimental data obtained during a surf-zone aerosol experiment in Duck, North Carolina in autumn 2007. Based on numerical simulations, the effect of variations in aerosol production (source strength) and transport conditions (wind speed, air-sea temperature difference), we show that the surf-zone aerosols are replaced by aerosols generated over the open ocean as the airmass advects out to sea. The contribution from the surf-generated aerosol is significant during high wind speeds and high wave events, and is significant up to 30 km away from the production zone. At low wind speeds, the oceanic component dominates, except within 1-5 km of the surf zone. Similar results are obtained for onshore flow, where no further sea-salt aerosol production occurs as the airmass advects out over land. The oceanic aerosols that are well-mixed throughout the boundary layer are then more efficiently transported inland than are the surf-generated aerosols, which are confined to the first few tens of metres above the surface, and are therefore also more susceptible to the type of surface (trees or grass) that determines the deposition velocity.

  2. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Pismo Clam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    October grains with a byssus . This attachment with some occurrence from June to helps the clam to maintain itself in August. Coe (1947) found a...similar the constantly moving sand of a wave- spawning cycle for clams from San beaten coast (Weymouth 1923). The Diego. length of a byssus can range from...in size the byssus in water temperature (Fitch 1961). As disappears. The clam’s increasing in most bivalves, males usually spawn weight and burrowing

  3. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic) Hard Clam,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    cells. These sex cells are differenti - vest (Fox 1981). The hard clam is a ated, but because of continued prolif- delicacy of considerable nutritional...eration of the spermatogonia , the .. value; it is low in calories but high gonad acquires a predominately male .. . in protein and essential minerals...bars or channels where differentials Adults in water current occur (Carriker 1959). Concentrations of clams in Hard clams live in the substrate these

  4. Surf zone diatoms: A review of the drivers, patterns and role in sandy beaches food chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odebrecht, Clarisse; Du Preez, Derek R.; Abreu, Paulo Cesar; Campbell, Eileen E.

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of high biomass of diatoms in the surf zone is a characteristic feature of some sandy beaches where the wave energy is sufficiently high. A few species of diatoms, called surf diatoms, thrive in this harsh environment. The main processes driving the spatial and temporal distribution of surf diatoms as well as their standing biomass and growth were described twenty to thirty years ago based on studies conducted on the western coast of the United States of America and South African beaches. Since then, over fifty locations around the world have been reported to have surf diatom accumulations with most (three-quarters) of these being in the southern hemisphere. Their occurrence is controlled by physical and chemical factors, including wave energy, beach slope and length, water circulation patterns in the surf zone and the availability of nutrients to sustain the high biomass. The main forces driving the patterns of temporal variability of surf diatom accumulations are meteorological. In the short term (hours), the action of wind stress and wave energy controls the diatom accumulation. In the intermediate time scale (weeks to months), seasonal onshore winds of sufficient strength, as well as storm events are important. Furthermore, anthropogenic disturbances that influence the beach ecosystem as well as large-scale events, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation, may lead to significant changes in surf diatom populations in the long term (inter-annual). Surf diatoms form the base of a short and very productive food chain in the inshore of the sandy beaches where they occur. However, the role of surf diatoms in the microbial food web is not clear and deserves further studies.

  5. Discrimination Among Wave-Generated Sounds by a Swash-Riding Clam.

    PubMed

    Ellers, O

    1995-10-01

    Clams, Donax variabilis, responded to sound stimuli presented to them in a laboratory aquarium by jumping out of the sand, lying on the sand for several seconds, and digging in again. On a beach, clams jump out of the sand and ride waves, migrating shoreward with the rising tide and seaward with the falling tide. Parallels between clam behavior on a beach and that elicited in the laboratory suggest that clams cue on wave sounds to jump out of the sand. Three aspects of the response to sound were parallel. (i) Clams were most responsive to low-frequency sounds similar to those produced on a beach by waves rolling onto shore. (ii) Clams were also more responsive to louder sounds; on a beach, clams jump preferentially for the largest (loudest) 20% of waves, (iii) Responsiveness in the laboratory had an endogenous tidal rhythm, with highest activity occurring at high tide and no activity occurring at low tide; this rhythm corresponds to the activity of clams on the beach from which they were collected. By using sounds to identify large waves, clams can ride selected waves and continuously maintain position at the sea's edge as the tide floods and ebbs.

  6. Hsp 70 in the soft shell clam (Mya arenaria): Potential as a biomarker of field contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, M.E.; Dworak, H.A.; McDowell, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) were collected from 2 contaminated and 2 control sites in Massachusetts at 4 time periods, extending over a 30{degree}C temperature range. Populations at New Bedford Harbor were exposed to PCBs, PAHs, and heavy metals and populations at the Cotuit Bay Shores Beach Club were exposed to an unknown quantity and composition of petroleum hydrocarbons. Heat shock protein (hsp) 70 was measured in the gill of 20 clams per site by ELISA, using a commercially available monoclonal antibody. Expression of hsp 70 was variable between individual clams collected from the same site. Significance of the variables site and month was tested by one-way and two-way ANOVA; site, month, and site by month interaction were all significant. The significant interaction term meant that it was necessary to hold the month variable constant in order to test the hypothesis that clams from the contaminated sites contained more heat shock proteins than clams from the corresponding control sites. In general, the contaminated clams contained a higher concentration of hsp 70 than clams from the control sites, with New Bedford Harbor exhibiting the highest levels. Seasonal differences which could be responsible for the month effect include heat shock, food availability, and reproductive condition. In order to use heat shock protein expression as a biomarker of exposure to contaminants in the field, it is necessary to compare clams from contaminated sites to clams from control sites sampled at the same time.

  7. Development of functional trait biomarkers for trace metal exposure in freshwater clams (Musculium spp.).

    PubMed

    Schoonover, Cody M; Wieker, Jessica; Pope, Rachelle; Brown, Chelsea; Cooper, Emily; DeWitt, Jariel; Gunselman, Samuel; Jensen, Cory; Stevens, Whitney; Yri, Jenae; Nezat, Carmen; Joyner-Matos, Joanna

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to trace metals typically causes oxidative stress; these consequences are better-characterized in estuarine and marine species than in freshwater species. How cellular-level responses to metal pollution influence whole-organism and population-level traits is poorly understood. We tested whether exposure to single metals (zinc and cadmium) and to metal mixtures (water in equilibrium with sediment from a highly polluted lake) alters two ecologically-relevant traits in freshwater clams, locomotion and reproduction. Fingernail clams (Musculium spp.) from unimpacted habitats were exposed to single metals and the metal mixture for up to 49days. The single metal doses (≤5mg/L Zn and ≤20μg/L Cd) were not toxicologically meaningful as clam survival, burial, and climbing activity did not differ across treatments. Water in equilibrium with the lake sediment contained cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Clams exposed to this metal mixture had decreased climbing activity but no change in burial activity. Metal-exposed clams had lower fecundity (number of shelled juveniles extruded by adult clams) and patterns in metal accumulation corresponded with lake sediment dose and clam activity. In contrast to the functional traits, stress protein expression and whole-clam glycogen content did not vary across treatment groups. These results indicate that fingernail clams of the genus Musculium are appropriate for development as sentinel species for metal pollution and can serve as a model for determining how metal pollution alters metabolic allocation patterns in freshwater organisms.

  8. Infection of Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum from Galicia (NW Spain) with a Mikrocytos-like parasite.

    PubMed

    Ramilo, Andrea; Iglesias, David; Abollo, Elvira; González, Mar; Darriba, Susana; Villalba, Antonio

    2014-07-24

    The name 'microcells' is frequently used to refer to small-sized unicellular stages of molluscan parasites of the genera Bonamia (Rhizaria, Haplosporidia) and Mikrocytos (Rhizaria). Histological examination of Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum revealed microcells in the connective tissue of adductor muscle, foot, mantle, gills, siphon and visceral mass. The clams had been collected from 4 beds on the coast of Galicia, Spain. The prevalence of these microcells ranged from 73 to 93% in surface clams and from 3 to 33% in buried clams. However, the detection of brown ring disease signs in clams from every bed prevented us from making the assumption that the microcells alone were responsible for clam mortality. PCR assays using primer pairs designed to detect Bonamia spp. and haplosporidians gave negative results, whereas positive results were obtained with primers for the genus Mikrocytos. A consensus sequence of 1670 bp of the ribosomal gene complex of the microcells was obtained. It contained a section of the 18S region, the whole first internal transcribed spacer, the 5.8S region, the second internal transcribed spacer and a section of the 28S region. Comparison of this sequence with those of M. mackini infecting Crassostrea gigas and Mikrocytos sp. infecting Ostrea edulis showed that the microcells of Galician clams were the most divergent among the compared parasites. This is the first report of a Mikrocytos-like parasite infecting Manila clams. Care must be taken to avoid the spread of this parasite through Manila clam transfers.

  9. Domoic acid excretion in dungeness crabs, razor clams and mussels.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Irvin R; Skillman, Ann; Woodruff, Dana

    2008-07-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxic amino acid produced by several marine algal species of the Pseudo-nitzschia (PN) genus. We studied the elimination of DA from hemolymph after intravascular (IV) injection in razor clams (Siliqua patula), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister). Crabs were also injected with two other organic acids, dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and kainic acid (KA). For IV dosing, hemolymph was repetitively sampled and DA concentrations measured by HPLC-UV. Toxicokinetic analysis of DA in crabs suggested most of the injected dose remained within hemolymph compartment with little extravascular distribution. This observation is in sharp contrast to results obtained from clams and mussels which exhibited similarly large apparent volumes of distribution despite large differences in overall clearance. These findings suggest fundamentally different storage and elimination processes are occurring for DA between bivalves and crabs.

  10. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the razor clam, Sinonovacula constricta.

    PubMed

    Ma, H-T; Jiang, H-B; Liu, X-Q; Wu, X-P; Wei, X-M

    2015-01-15

    The razor clam, Sinonovacula constricta, is an important commercial bivalve and a popular mollusca food in China. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated from the razor clam using a partial genomic library enriched for tandem repeat sequences of (CA)16, (GA)16. Polymorphisms of these loci were evaluated in a wild population of 30 individuals. The allele number of these polymorphic markers ranged from 5-15 per locus with an average of 9.333. Observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.192-1.000 and 0.219-0.906. Polymorphism information content ranged from 0.209-0.892 with an average of 0.704. Three loci significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between these loci. This set of microsatellite loci are useful for genetic studies in S. constricta.

  11. Excurrent jets of a set of model clams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Excurrent jets of a set of model clams that are discharging into the near-wall region of a turbulent boundary layer in a laboratory flume. These false-color images were produced using planar laser-induced fluorescence and represent 16-s averages of dye concentration fields associated with the excurrent jets. Fluid that leaves the excurrent siphone is dyed to represent phytoplankton-depleted fluid, whereas the clear ambient fluid represents phytoplanktonrich fluid. This particular sequence of images shows how the speed of the crossflow affects the food-depleted (high dye concentration) boundary layer that develops over the bed of clams in two different ways—through its direct effect on the trajectories of the excurrent jets and through its effect on turbulent mixing of the jets.

  12. Droplets move over viscoelastic substrates by surfing a ridge

    PubMed Central

    Karpitschka, S.; Das, S.; van Gorcum, M.; Perrin, H.; Andreotti, B.; Snoeijer, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid drops on soft solids generate strong deformations below the contact line, resulting from a balance of capillary and elastic forces. The movement of these drops may cause strong, potentially singular dissipation in the soft solid. Here we show that a drop on a soft substrate moves by surfing a ridge: the initially flat solid surface is deformed into a sharp ridge whose orientation angle depends on the contact line velocity. We measure this angle for water on a silicone gel and develop a theory based on the substrate rheology. We quantitatively recover the dynamic contact angle and provide a mechanism for stick–slip motion when a drop is forced strongly: the contact line depins and slides down the wetting ridge, forming a new one after a transient. We anticipate that our theory will have implications in problems such as self-organization of cell tissues or the design of capillarity-based microrheometers. PMID:26238436

  13. ON PREDICTING INFRAGRAVITY ENERGY IN THE SURF ZONE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Holman, Robert A.; Edge, Billy L.

    1985-01-01

    Flow data were obtained in the surf zone across a barred profile during a storm. RMS cross-shore velocities due to waves in the intragravity band (wave periods greater than 20 s) had maxima in excess of 0. 5 m/s over the bar crest. For comparison to measured spectra, synthetic spectra of cross-shore flow were computed using measured nearshore profiles. The structure, in the infragravity band, of these synthetic spectra corresponded reasonably well with the structure of the measured spectra. Total variances of measured cross-shore flow within the infragravity band were nondimensionalized by dividing by total infragravity variances of synthetic spectra. These nondimensional variances were independent of distance offshore and increased with the square of the breaker height. Thus, cross-shore flow due to infragravity waves can be estimated with knowledge of the nearshore profile and incident wave conditions. Refs.

  14. Droplets move over viscoelastic substrates by surfing a ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpitschka, S.; Das, S.; van Gorcum, M.; Perrin, H.; Andreotti, B.; Snoeijer, J. H.

    2015-08-01

    Liquid drops on soft solids generate strong deformations below the contact line, resulting from a balance of capillary and elastic forces. The movement of these drops may cause strong, potentially singular dissipation in the soft solid. Here we show that a drop on a soft substrate moves by surfing a ridge: the initially flat solid surface is deformed into a sharp ridge whose orientation angle depends on the contact line velocity. We measure this angle for water on a silicone gel and develop a theory based on the substrate rheology. We quantitatively recover the dynamic contact angle and provide a mechanism for stick-slip motion when a drop is forced strongly: the contact line depins and slides down the wetting ridge, forming a new one after a transient. We anticipate that our theory will have implications in problems such as self-organization of cell tissues or the design of capillarity-based microrheometers.

  15. Surfing for history: websites featuring dental history object collections.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    Research is a key activity for any individual interested in dental history. It should come as no surprise that the ever-evolving Internet has become a major resource for those who seek the latest information available on this (or almost any other) subject. As a curator in a dental history museum, the author frequently checks other sources that feature dental objects while cataloging and identifying newly-acquired objects or those under consideration for exhibition. "Surfing" by computer is often the author's first activity in pursuing any research task. This paper is a tour of websites written in English that include historical dental objects. At the risk of stating the obvious, the author would like to point out that the accuracy and reliability of information on websites varies widely, depending on the source. Therefore, most of the sites listed here have been developed by institutions.

  16. Hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling of the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelvink, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    Surf zones of sandy beaches are generally very dynamic systems showing complex behaviour over a range of time- and length scales. Modelling of this behaviour has evolved from two extremes of the spectrum: on the one hand, practical engineers who have to predict things on a timescale of months to years are trying to do this in an ever more detailed way, whereas research scientists (a.k.a. 'field guys') have typically tried to understand basic processes first. As long as predictive models are surf-zone averaged (as in many longshore transport predictors) or longshore-averaged (as in coastal profile models) many of the basic processes do not show up in the predictive models or are gathered in lump coefficients with a large scatter. This leads to a frustrating gap between the approaches, where it is often difficult to explain why large sums of money should be spent on either process research that does not improve predictions, or on development of models that do not represent many important processes. This presentation will focus on the challenge of bringing the process research and the development of predictive models together, in such a way that increased knowledge, for instance on the behaviour of rip currents or sand ripples, actually makes a difference in morphological predictions on practically relevant timescales. A very important step in meeting this challenge is to improve the efficiency of the process-based models that we can use both for integrating process knowledge and for making practical predictions. Some examples are: - reducing the domain by improving boundary conditions. A well-known example is the use of cyclic boundary conditions, but these are difficult to implement in implicit schemes and cannot be combined with tidal currents. A Neumann-type boundary condition where the longshore water level gradient is imposed at lateral boundaries provides a solution for surf zone models. - improving the smoothness of transport patterns by taking into account

  17. Droplets move over viscoelastic substrates by surfing a ridge.

    PubMed

    Karpitschka, S; Das, S; van Gorcum, M; Perrin, H; Andreotti, B; Snoeijer, J H

    2015-08-04

    Liquid drops on soft solids generate strong deformations below the contact line, resulting from a balance of capillary and elastic forces. The movement of these drops may cause strong, potentially singular dissipation in the soft solid. Here we show that a drop on a soft substrate moves by surfing a ridge: the initially flat solid surface is deformed into a sharp ridge whose orientation angle depends on the contact line velocity. We measure this angle for water on a silicone gel and develop a theory based on the substrate rheology. We quantitatively recover the dynamic contact angle and provide a mechanism for stick-slip motion when a drop is forced strongly: the contact line depins and slides down the wetting ridge, forming a new one after a transient. We anticipate that our theory will have implications in problems such as self-organization of cell tissues or the design of capillarity-based microrheometers.

  18. Surfing through Hyperspace - Understanding Higher Universes in Six Easy Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1999-09-01

    Do a little armchair time-travel, rub elbows with a four-dimensional intelligent life form, or stretch your mind to the furthest corner of an uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, Surfing Through Hyperspace , you need not be a mathematician or an astrophysicist to explore the all-but-unfathomable concepts of hyperspace and higher-dimensional geometry.No subject in mathematics has intrigued both children and adults as much as the idea of a fourth dimension. Philosophers and parapsychologists have meditated on this mysterious space that no one can point to but may be all around us. Yet this extra dimension has a very real, practical value to mathematicians and physicists who use it every day in their calculations. In the tradtion of Flatland , and with an infectious enthusiasm, Clifford Pickover tackles the problems inherent in our 3-D brains trying to visualize a 4-D world, muses on the religious implications of the existence of higher-dimensional consciousness, and urges all curious readers to venture into "the unexplored territory lying beyond the prison of the obvious." Pickover alternates sections that explain the science of hyperspace with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialogue between two futuristic FBI agents who dabble in the fourth dimension as a matter of national security. This highly accessible and entertaining approach turns an intimidating subject into a scientific game open to all dreamers.Surfing Through Hyperspace concludes with a number of puzzles, computer experiments and formulas for further exploration, inviting readers to extend their minds across this inexhaustibly intriguing scientific terrain.

  19. Surfing through Hyperspace - Understanding Higher Universes in Six Easy Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    2001-05-01

    Do a little armchair time-travel, rub elbows with a four-dimensional intelligent life form, or stretch your mind to the furthest corner of an uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, Surfing Through Hyperspace , you need not be a mathematician or an astrophysicist to explore the all-but-unfathomable concepts of hyperspace and higher-dimensional geometry.No subject in mathematics has intrigued both children and adults as much as the idea of a fourth dimension. Philosophers and parapsychologists have meditated on this mysterious space that no one can point to but may be all around us. Yet this extra dimension has a very real, practical value to mathematicians and physicists who use it every day in their calculations. In the tradition of Flatland , and with an infectious enthusiasm, Clifford Pickover tackles the problems inherent in our 3-D brains trying to visualize a 4-D world, muses on the religious implications of the existence of higher-dimensional consciousness, and urges all curious readers to venture into "the unexplored territory lying beyond the prison of the obvious." Pickover alternates sections that explain the science of hyperspace with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialogue between two futuristic FBI agents who dabble in the fourth dimension as a matter of national security. This highly accessible and entertaining approach turns an intimidating subject into a scientific game open to all dreamers.Surfing Through Hyperspace concludes with a number of puzzles, computer experiments and formulas for further exploration, inviting readers to extend their minds across this inexhaustibly intriguing scientific terrain.

  20. Military personnel recognition system using texture, colour, and SURF features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irhebhude, Martins E.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an automatic, machine vision based, military personnel identification and classification system. Classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) on sets of Army, Air Force and Navy camouflage uniform personnel datasets. In the proposed system, the arm of service of personnel is recognised by the camouflage of a persons uniform, type of cap and the type of badge/logo. The detailed analysis done include; camouflage cap and plain cap differentiation using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture feature; classification on Army, Air Force and Navy camouflaged uniforms using GLCM texture and colour histogram bin features; plain cap badge classification into Army, Air Force and Navy using Speed Up Robust Feature (SURF). The proposed method recognised camouflage personnel arm of service on sets of data retrieved from google images and selected military websites. Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) was used to improve recognition and reduce dimensionality, thereby speeding the classification process. With this method success rates recorded during the analysis include 93.8% for camouflage appearance category, 100%, 90% and 100% rates of plain cap and camouflage cap categories for Army, Air Force and Navy categories, respectively. Accurate recognition was recorded using SURF for the plain cap badge category. Substantial analysis has been carried out and results prove that the proposed method can correctly classify military personnel into various arms of service. We show that the proposed method can be integrated into a face recognition system, which will recognise personnel in addition to determining the arm of service which the personnel belong. Such a system can be used to enhance the security of a military base or facility.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of hydrothermal vent clam Calyptogena magnifica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Helu; Cai, Shanya; Zhang, Haibin; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2016-11-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent clam Calyptogena magnifica (Bivalvia, Veneroida, Vesicomyidae) is reported for the first time in this study. The total length of its mitochondrial genome is 19 738 bp with overall GC content of 31.6%. The mitochondrial genome consists of 36 genes, including 13 protein-coding sequences, 2 rRNA and 21 tRNA genes. Two distinct repeat motifs are located between tRNA(Trp) and ND6.

  2. CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TESTING WITH THE BIVLVE, MULINIA LATERLALIS: CULTURE REFINEMENT FOR ORGANISM AVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Availability of test species for estuarine benthic assessment is limited; therefore, a method was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for utilizing the dwarf surf clam, Mulinia lateralis, to identify adverse biological effects of bulk estuarine sediments. A mult...

  3. CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TESTING WITH THE BIVALVE, MULINA LATERALIS: CULTURE REFINEMENT FOR ORGANISM AVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Availability of test species for estuarine benthic assessment is limited; therefore, a method was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for using the dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis) to identify adverse biological effects of bulk estuarine sediments. A multilab...

  4. Environmental cadmium exposure impacts physiological responses in Manila clams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqiang; Zhang, Yu; Liang, Jian; Xu, Xian; Wang, Hua; Yang, Feng; Yan, Xiwu

    2014-06-01

    The physiological responses of marine bivalves to chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure at sub-lethal concentrations have been well documented. As of now, few studies have examined the effect of Cd exposure and subsequent recovery period at environmentally realistic concentrations. In this study, environmentally, Cd exposures were performed to assess the physiological responses of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The clams were exposed to waterborne Cd at two environmentally realistic concentrations (4 and 40 μg L(-1)) for 35 days and then allowed to recover for another 35 days. The accumulation and elimination of Cd in R. philippinarum were tissue-specific and dose- and time-dependent. Cd accumulation increased sharply in the digestive gland, and Cd elimination was rapid in the gill. Major physiological responses, including clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate, excretion rate, oxygen to nitrogen ratio, and scope for growth, were significantly affected by Cd exposure. Yet, the clams exposed to 4-μg L(-1) Cd were able to quickly recover their normal physiological processes and clearly exhibited catch-up growth once they were transferred to clean seawater. Hence, R. philippinarum can exhibit good physiological plasticity when confronted with moderately environmental Cd exposure. All physiological responses measured exhibited a highly significant and generally predictable correlation with tissue Cd concentration, which in turn, reflected environmentally realistic exposure conditions. Our results further confirm that the measurement of physiological responses is a sensitive method for assessing stress at environmentally realistic metal concentrations.

  5. Photometric Variability of Y Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trucks, Jesica; Cushing, M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Gelino, C. R.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Mace, G. N.; Gizis, J.; Marley, M. S.; Morley, C.; Fortney, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Condensate clouds are present in brown dwarf atmospheres due to their low surface temperatures. As the coolest (Teff < 600 K) class of brown dwarfs currently known, Y dwarfs allow us to study the unique atmospheric physics that occur at these temperatures including the formation of sulfide, chloride, and water clouds. Dynamic inhomogeneities in cloud cover should manifest as photometric variabilities in the observed light curves of brown dwarfs. This phenomenon was originally documented in two brown-dwarfs by Morales-Calderón et al. (2006) at 4.5 microns, and in one brown dwarf by Heinze et al. (2013) at 3.6 microns. We describe our ongoing program to monitor fourteen Y dwarfs for photometric variability at 3.6 and 4.5 microns with the Spitzer Space Telescope and present initial results including the first detection of Y dwarf variability.

  6. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  7. The search for brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of brown dwarfs is summarized and observational findings regarding brown dwarfs are reviewed. The equation of state, the thermal properties, the interior transport properties, the boundary conditions, and the initial conditions are examined. Indirect observations, IR speckle interferometry, IR photometry, and field observations of brown dwarfs are discussed.

  8. Characteristics of vesicomyid clams and their environment at the Blake Ridge cold seep, South Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heyl, Taylor P.; Gilhooly, William P.; Chambers, Randolph M.; Gilchrist, George W.; Macko, Stephen A.; Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial distributions and patchiness of dominant megafaunal invertebrates in deep-sea seep environments may indicate heterogeneities in the flux of reduced chemical compounds. At the Blake Ridge seep off South Carolina, USA, the invertebrate assemblage includes dense populations of live vesicomyid clams (an undescribed species) as well as extensive clam shell beds (i.e. dead clams). In the present study, we characterized clam parameters (density, size-frequency distribution, reproductive condition) in relation to sulfur chemistry (sulfide and sulfate concentrations and isotopic compositions, pyrite and elemental sulfur concentrations) and other sedimentary metrics (grain size, organic content). For clams >5 mm, clam density was highest where the total dissolved sulfide concentration at 10 cm depth (ΣH2S10cm) was 0.4 to 1.1 mmol l–1; juvenile clams (2S10cm was lowest. Clams were reproductively capable across a broad range of ΣH2S10cm (0.1 to 6.4 mmol l–1), and females in the sampled populations displayed asynchronous gametogenesis. Sulfide concentrations in porewaters at the shell–sediment interface of cores from shell beds were high, 3.3 to 12.1 mmol l–1, compared to –1 sulfide concentrations at the clam–sediment interface in live clam beds. Concentration profiles for sulfide and sulfate in shell beds were typical of those expected where there is active microbial sulfate reduction. In clam beds, profiles of sulfide and sulfate concentrations were also consistent with rapid uptake of sulfide by the clams. Sulfate in shell beds was systematically enriched in 34S relative to that in clam beds due to microbial fractionation during sulfate reduction, but in clam beds, sulfate δ34S matched that of seawater (~20‰). Residual sulfide values in clam and shell beds were correspondingly depleted in 34S. Based on porewater sulfide concentrations in shell beds at the time of sampling, we suggest that clam mortality may have been due to an abrupt increase in

  9. 77 FR 43236 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; SURF Program Student Applicant Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Program Student Applicant Information AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST... SURF (Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship) Program. The information will be provided by student... technical evaluators and is needed to determine eligible students, select students for the program using...

  10. Research on target tracking based on improved SURF algorithm and Kalman prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dandan; Nan, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    For the problem of ignoring color information and computing complexity and so on, a new target tracking algorithm based on improved SURF(Speed Up Robust Features) algorithm and Kalman filter fusion is studied. First, the color invariants are added in the generation process of SURF. And then the current position is predicted by using the Kalman filter and establishing the search window. Finally, the feature vectors in the search window are extracted by using the improved SURF algorithm for matching. The experiments prove that the algorithm can always track targets stably when the target appears scale changed, rotation and partial occlusion, and the tracking speed is greatly improved than that of the SURF algorithm.

  11. The effects of surfing and the natural environment on the well-being of combat veterans.

    PubMed

    Caddick, Nick; Smith, Brett; Phoenix, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have identified the benefits of physical activity on well-being, there is little evidence concerning the effects of nature-based physical activity. We investigated the effect of one nature-based activity-surfing-on the well-being of combat veterans experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted interviews and participant observations with a group of combat veterans belonging to a United Kingdom-based veterans' surfing charity. Our primary analytical approach was dialogical narrative analysis. Based on our rigorous analysis and findings, we suggest that surfing facilitated a sense of respite from PTSD. Respite was a fully embodied feeling of release from suffering that was cultivated through surfing and shaped by the stories veterans told of their experiences. We significantly extend previous knowledge on physical activity, combat veterans, and PTSD by highlighting how nature-based physical activity, encapsulated in the conceptual notion of the "blue gym," can promote well-being among combat veterans.

  12. A Structured and Unstructured grid Relocatable ocean platform for Forecasting (SURF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotta, Francesco; Fenu, Elisa; Pinardi, Nadia; Bruciaferri, Diego; Giacomelli, Luca; Federico, Ivan; Coppini, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    We present a numerical platform named Structured and Unstructured grid Relocatable ocean platform for Forecasting (SURF). The platform is developed for short-time forecasts and is designed to be embedded in any region of the large-scale Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) via downscaling. We employ CTD data collected during a campaign around the Elba island to calibrate and validate SURF. The model requires an initial spin up period of a few days in order to adapt the initial interpolated fields and the subsequent solutions to the higher-resolution nested grids adopted by SURF. Through a comparison with the CTD data, we quantify the improvement obtained by SURF model compared to the coarse-resolution MFS model.

  13. The Rotated Speeded-Up Robust Features Algorithm (R-SURF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited THE ROTATED SPEEDED ......ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Weaknesses in the Fast Hessian detector utilized by the speeded -up robust features (SURF) algorithm are examined in

  14. 76 FR 93 - Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships (SURF) NIST Gaithersburg and Boulder Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... computer science as described in the Federal Funding Opportunity. The SURF NIST Boulder Programs are..., mathematics, and computer science as described in the Federal Funding Opportunity. Applications for the... research, engineering, computer science, mathematics, or physics. Participating students must be...

  15. Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

  16. The rate of beneficial mutations surfing on the wave of a range expansion.

    PubMed

    Lehe, Rémi; Hallatschek, Oskar; Peliti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that range expansions can have severe consequences for the gene pool of the expanding population. Due to strongly enhanced genetic drift at the advancing frontier, neutral and weakly deleterious mutations can reach large frequencies in the newly colonized regions, as if they were surfing the front of the range expansion. These findings raise the question of how frequently beneficial mutations successfully surf at shifting range margins, thereby promoting adaptation towards a range-expansion phenotype. Here, we use individual-based simulations to study the surfing statistics of recurrent beneficial mutations on wave-like range expansions in linear habitats. We show that the rate of surfing depends on two strongly antagonistic factors, the probability of surfing given the spatial location of a novel mutation and the rate of occurrence of mutations at that location. The surfing probability strongly increases towards the tip of the wave. Novel mutations are unlikely to surf unless they enjoy a spatial head start compared to the bulk of the population. The needed head start is shown to be proportional to the inverse fitness of the mutant type, and only weakly dependent on the carrying capacity. The precise location dependence of surfing probabilities is derived from the non-extinction probability of a branching process within a moving field of growth rates. The second factor is the mutation occurrence which strongly decreases towards the tip of the wave. Thus, most successful mutations arise at an intermediate position in the front of the wave. We present an analytic theory for the tradeoff between these factors that allows to predict how frequently substitutions by beneficial mutations occur at invasion fronts. We find that small amounts of genetic drift increase the fixation rate of beneficial mutations at the advancing front, and thus could be important for adaptation during species invasions.

  17. Qualitative Task Analysis to Enhance Sports Characterization: A Surfing Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports’ structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals’ behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities’ characterization through the observation, surfer’s opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave’s components and constraints and the surfboards’ qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention. PMID:25414757

  18. Qualitative task analysis to enhance sports characterization: a surfing case study.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports' structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals' behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities' characterization through the observation, surfer's opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave's components and constraints and the surfboards' qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention.

  19. Surfing depth on a behaviour change website: predictors and effects on behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Nele; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Claes, Neree

    2010-03-01

    The primary objectives of the present study were to gain insight into website use and to predict the surfing depth on a behaviour change website and its effect on behaviour. Two hundred eight highly educated adults from the intervention condition of a randomised trial received access to a medical intervention, individual coaching (by e-mail, post, telephone or face-to-face) and a behaviour change website. Website use (e.g. surfing depth, page view duration) was registered. Online questionnaires for physical activity and fat intake were filled out at baseline and after 6 months. Hierarchical linear regression was used to predict surfing depth and its effect on behaviour. Seventy-five per cent of the participants visited the website. Fifty-one and fifty-six per cent consulted the physical activity and fat intake feedback, respectively. The median surfing depth was 2. The total duration of interventions by e-mail predicted deeper surfing (beta=0.36; p<0.001). Surfing depth did not predict changes in fat intake (beta=-0.07; p=0.45) or physical activity (beta=-0.03; p=0.72). Consulting the physical activity feedback led to more physical activity (beta=0.23; p=0.01). The findings from the present study can be used to guide future website development and improve the information architecture of behaviour change websites.

  20. Origins, Evolution, and Fate of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Research related to the origins, evolution and fate of brown dwarfs is presented. The topics include: 1) Imaging surveys for brown dwarfs; 2) Companion detection techniques; 3) Measurements of fundamental properties of brown dwarfs; 4) Classification schemes for ultracool dwarfs; 5) Origins and evolution of brown dwarfs; 6) Ultracool atmospheres and interiors; 7) Time variable phenomena in brown dwarfs; 8) Comparisons between brown dwarfs and planets; 9) Substellar mass functions; and 10) Future facilities.

  1. Behavioral Control of Swash-Riding in the Clam Donax variabilis.

    PubMed

    Ellers, O

    1995-10-01

    Clams of the species Donax variabilis migrate shoreward during rising tides and seaward during falling tides. These clams spend most of the time in the sand, emerging several times per tidal cycle to ride waves. Migration is not merely a passive result of waves eroding clams out of the sand; rather clams actively jump out of the sand and ride specific waves. Such active migration is experimentally demonstrated during a falling tide by comparing the motion of dead and live clams; live clams emerge from the sand and move seaward even when dead ones do not. As low tide approaches, live clams become progressively less active. They cease migrating for 2 hours around low tide and resume jumping to migrate shoreward after the tide has turned. During the rising tide, far from being passive, the clams jump out to ride only the largest 20% of waves. Specifically, they choose swash that have the largest excursion, i.e., those swash that move furthest on the beach.

  2. Two epizootic diseases in Chesapeake Bay commercial clams, Mya arenaria and Tagelus plebeius.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Christopher F; Hamilton, Rosalee M; Hudson, Karen L; McCollough, Carol B; Reece, Kimberly S

    2002-06-21

    Declining Chesapeake Bay harvests of softshell clams, together with historical and emerging reports of epizootic diseases in Mya arenaria, prompted a survey in summer 2000 of the health status of selected commercial clam populations. All sampled populations (8 M arenaria softshell clam, 2 Tagelus plebeius razor clam) were infected by Perkinsus sp. protozoans at prevalences ranging from 30 to 100% of sampled clams. Nucleotide sequences for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene complex were determined for clonal in vitro Perkinsus sp. isolates propagated from both M. arenaria and T plebeius. Multiple polymorphic sequences were amplified from each isolate, but phylogenetic analysis placed all sequences into 2 clades of a monophyletic group, which included both recently described clam parasites P. chesapeaki and P. andrewsi. Sequences amplified from each clonal isolate were found in both sister clades, one containing P. andrewsi and the other P. chesapeaki. Most (7 of 8) M. arenaria samples were also affected with disseminated neoplasia (DN), at prevalences of 3 to 37%, but neither T. plebeius sample showed DN disease. Disease mortalities projected for sampled clam populations, especially those affected by both diseases, may further deplete subtidal commercial clam populations in mesohaline portions of Chesapeake Bay.

  3. 50 CFR 17.45 - Special rules-snails and clams. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special rules-snails and clams. 17.45 Section 17.45 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—snails and clams....

  4. 50 CFR 17.45 - Special rules-snails and clams. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special rules-snails and clams. 17.45 Section 17.45 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—snails and clams....

  5. 50 CFR 17.45 - Special rules-snails and clams. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special rules-snails and clams. 17.45 Section 17.45 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—snails and clams....

  6. Factors affecting growth and survival of the asiatic clam Corbicula sp. under controlled laboratory conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Double, D.D.; Daly, D.S.; Abernethy, C.S.

    1983-04-01

    Growth of Corbicula sp. was determined in relation to food supply, water temperature, and clam size as an aid to researchers conducting chronic effects toxicity studies. Water temperatures for the two 84-day test series were 10, 20, and 30/sup 0/C. Linear models provided good relationships (r/sup 2/ > 0.90) between clam shell length (SL), total weight (TW), and wet/dry tissue weights. Clam growth was minimal during low phytoplankton densities (approx. 300 cells/ml), and all three size groups lost weight at 20 and 30/sup 0/C. Mortality of small clams at 30/sup 0/C was 100% after 71 days. At phytoplankton densities > 1000 cells/ml, overall differences in growth with respect to clam size and temperature were detectable at p < 0.01; growth of all clam groups was greatest at 30/sup 0/C. Small clams exhibited the greatest absolute increase in mean shell length at all test temperatures, and weight gains were similar to those of medium and large clams.

  7. 50 CFR 17.45 - Special rules-snails and clams. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special rules-snails and clams. 17.45 Section 17.45 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—snails and clams....

  8. 40 CFR 408.230 - Applicability; description of the hand-shucked clam processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the hand... SOURCE CATEGORY Hand-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.230 Applicability; description of the hand... from existing hand-shucked clam processing facilities which process more than 1816 kg (4000 lbs) of...

  9. 40 CFR 408.230 - Applicability; description of the hand-shucked clam processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hand... SOURCE CATEGORY Hand-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.230 Applicability; description of the hand... from existing hand-shucked clam processing facilities which process more than 1816 kg (4000 lbs) of...

  10. 40 CFR 408.230 - Applicability; description of the hand-shucked clam processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hand... SOURCE CATEGORY Hand-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.230 Applicability; description of the hand... from existing hand-shucked clam processing facilities which process more than 1816 kg (4000 lbs) of...

  11. 40 CFR 408.230 - Applicability; description of the hand-shucked clam processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hand... SOURCE CATEGORY Hand-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.230 Applicability; description of the hand... from existing hand-shucked clam processing facilities which process more than 1816 kg (4000 lbs) of...

  12. 40 CFR 408.230 - Applicability; description of the hand-shucked clam processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the hand... SOURCE CATEGORY Hand-Shucked Clam Processing Subcategory § 408.230 Applicability; description of the hand... from existing hand-shucked clam processing facilities which process more than 1816 kg (4000 lbs) of...

  13. 50 CFR 17.45 - Special rules-snails and clams. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-snails and clams. 17.45 Section 17.45 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Special rules—snails and clams....

  14. The Relationship Between Shoreline Change and Surf Zone Sand Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miselis, J. L.; McNinch, J. E.

    2002-12-01

    There is a lack of information concerning surf zone geologic processes and their relationship to shoreline behavior despite the consensus that the two are intimately linked. Variations in sand thickness over a highly irregular migration surface close to the shoreline may influence wave dynamics and sediment transport and thus may be connected to hotspot formation. A nearshore survey, spanning 40km from north of the USACE-FRF pier in Duck, NC to just north of Oregon Inlet, was conducted using an interferometric swath bathymetry system and a chirp sub-bottom profiler. The study was conducted within 1km of the shore (in the surf zone) to investigate the processes that may be responsible for the behavior of shoreline hotspots in the area. The topmost reflector and the seafloor of the seismic profile were digitized and the depth difference between them was calculated. Though no ground truths were done in the survey area, cores collected from just north of the site suggest that the topmost reflector is a pre-modern ravinement surface (cohesive muds with layers of sand and gravel) upon which the Holocene sands migrate. An isopach map was generated and shows that the layer of sand above the first sub-bottom reflector is very thin and in some places, exposed. There are many variables that may influence hotspot behavior, including bar position and wave conditions, however, the purpose of this study is to determine if there is a spatial correlation between a thin or absent (exposed reflector) nearshore sand layer and the presence of a shoreline hotspot. In an area associated with a hotspot approximately 14km south of the USACE-FRF pier in Duck, the maximum thickness of Holocene sands was less than 2.5m. The average thickness was less than 1m (0.705m). Thicknesses that were less than 0.2m were classified as areas where the reflector was exposed and accounted for 5 percent of those calculated. It seems the thin layer of sand may represent a deficient nearshore sand source

  15. Research and development on the China low activation martensitic steel (CLAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinnan; Huang, Qunying; Wan, Farong

    2007-08-01

    Chinese low activation martensitic steel (CLAM) has been designed with improved composition, and its performance, such as tensile properties, ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT 41J), creep and thermal physical properties, has been determined. The interaction experiments between CLAM and plasma were carried out in the HT-7 tokamak facility and the activities, afterheat and gamma dose rate for CLAM as a function of cooling time (CT) were calculated to obtain the required control levels of impurities in CLAM. The insulator coatings on CLAM steel prepared by the CVD process at 700 °C and 740 °C have pure Al 2O 3 and Al 2O 3 with an oxygen deficiency layer on surface about 1 μm thick. The electrical resistivity of the coating reaches about 10 4 Ωm 2 on the surface.

  16. Differential metabolic responses of clam Ruditapes philippinarum to Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus challenges.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2013-12-01

    Clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the important marine aquaculture species in North China. However, pathogens can often cause diseases and lead to massive mortalities and economic losses of clam. In this work, we compared the metabolic responses induced by Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus challenges towards hepatopancreas of clam using NMR-based metabolomics. Metabolic responses suggested that both V. anguillarum and V. splendidus induced disturbances in energy metabolism and osmotic regulation, oxidative and immune stresses with different mechanisms, as indicated by correspondingly differential metabolic biomarkers (e.g., amino acids, ATP, glucose, glycogen, taurine, betaine, choline and hypotaurine) and altered mRNA expression levels of related genes including ATP synthase, ATPase, glutathione peroxidase, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme. However, V. anguillarum caused more severe oxidative and immune stresses in clam hepatopancreas than V. splendidus. Our results indicated that metabolomics could be used to elucidate the biological effects of pathogens to the marine clam R. philippinarum.

  17. Multiple biomarkers of biological effects induced by cadmium in clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Zhou, Mo; Zhao, Jianmin

    2015-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a known heavy metal pollutant in the Bohai Sea. Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is an important fishery species along the Bohai coast. In this study, the biological effects induced by two concentrations (20 and 200 μg/L) of Cd were characterized using multiple biochemical indices in the digestive glands of clam R. philippinarum. The total hemocyte counts, reactive oxygen species productions and antioxidant enzyme activities exhibited that Cd induced dose-dependent immune and oxidative stresses in clam digestive glands. Metabolic responses indicated that both Cd exposures caused immune stress marked by the elevated branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine), together with the disturbance in energy metabolism. The differential metabolic biomarkers related to osmotic stress, including homarine, betaine, tyrosine and phenylalanine, suggested the differential responsive mechanisms in clam digestive glands induced by Cd exposures. In addition, both Cd treatments enhanced the anaerobiosis metabolism in clam digestive glands via differential metabolic pathways.

  18. Mercury accumulation in the clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) at the Volta estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obirikorang, K A; Amisah, S; Adjei-Boateng, D; Madkour, H A; Otchere, F A

    2010-11-01

    The concentration of mercury in the tissues of the clam, Galatea paradoxa at in the Volta estuary, Ghana, were analysed over an 18-month period, from March 2008 to August 2009. The concentrations were well below the International Human Consumption Advisory Limit of THg (0.5 μg/g wet weight). The concentrations in the tissues of the different clam size classes were between 6 and 18 times lower than the WHO Safety Reference Standard. Variation in the mean mercury concentration in the different clam size classes was not significant (p > 0.05) for clams from Aveglo but were highly significant (p < 0.0001) for clams from Ada, indicating a possible effect of size on accumulation. G. paradoxa is therefore suitable for human consumption based on the WHO Safety Reference Standards.

  19. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  20. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.

    2014-10-01

    White dwarfs are the evolutionary endpoint for nearly 95% of all stars born in our Galaxy, the final stages of evolution of all low- and intermediate mass stars, i.e., main sequence stars with masses below (8.5± 1.5) M_{odot}, depending on metallicity of the progenitor, mass loss and core overshoot. Massive white dwarfs are intrinsically rare objects, tand produce a gap in the determination of the initial vs. final mass relation at the high mass end (e.g. Weidemann 2000 A&A, 363, 647; Kalirai et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 594; Williams, Bolte & Koester 2009, ApJ, 693, 355). Main sequences stars with higher masses will explode as SNII (Smartt S. 2009 ARA&A, 47, 63), but the limit does depend on the metallicity of the progenitor. Massive white dwarfs are probably SNIa progenitors through accretion or merger. They are rare, being the final product of massive stars (less common) and have smaller radius (less luminous). Kepler et al. 2007 (MNRAS, 375, 1315), Kleinman et al. 2013 (ApJS, 204, 5) estimate only 1-2% white dwarfs have masses above 1 M_{odot}. The final stages of evolution after helium burning are a race between core growth and loss of the H-rich envelope in a stellar wind. When the burning shell is exposed, the star rapidly cools and burning ceases, leaving a white dwarf. As they cool down, the magnetic field freezes in, ranging from a few kilogauss to a gigagauss. Peculiar type Ia SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, SN 2009dc, SN 2003fg suggest progenitors in the range 2.4-2.8 M_{odot}, and Das U. & Mukhopadhyay B. (2012, Phys. Rev. D, 86, 042001) estimate that the Chandrasekhar limit increases to 2.3-2.6 M_{odot} for extremely high magnetic field stars, but differential rotation induced by accretion could also increase it, according to Hachisu I. et al. 2012 (ApJ, 744, 69). García-Berro et al. 2012, ApJ, 749, 25, for example, proposes double degenerate mergers are the progenitors of high-field magnetic white dwarfs. We propose magnetic fields enhance the line broadening in

  1. Declining populations of the fingernail clam Musculium transversum in the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, D.M.; Naimo, T.J.; Weiner, J.G.; Anderson, R.V.; Sandheinrich, M.B.; Sparks, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examined recent temporal trends in the abundance of fingernail clams Musculium transversum (formerly Sphaerium transversum) in the upper Mississippi River. Historical data on densities of fingernail clams were obtained from regional scientists and published literature. We also sampled benthos in six navigation pools in summer 1991, finding very few fingernail clams. The combined data set, including historical data and sampling results, extended from 1973 to 1992 and was sufficient to statistically evaluate trends in densities of fingernail clams in eight pools. Populations of fingernail clams declined significantly in five of the eight pools examined (Pools 2, 5, 7, 9, and 19), which spanned a 700-km reach of river from St. Paul, Minnesota, to Keokuk, Iowa. Densities in Pool 19, which had the longest historical record on fingernail clam abundance, averaged 30 000 m super(-2) in 1985 and progressively declined to zero in 1990. Combined data from all eight pools showed a significant decline in abundance of fingernail clams. An evaluation of potential causal factors led us to hypothesize that the population declines in Pools 2 to 9 were linked to point-source pollution rather than to dredging activity or commercial navigation traffic. In Pool 19, the declines of fingernail clams may have resulted from low-flow conditions during drought periods, but the causal mechanisms by which low flow influences fingernail clam abundance are unclear. The decrease in fingernail clam populations may adversely affect certain fish and wildlife, such as migrating lesser scaup Aythya affinis, which feed heavily on the small mollusk. Moreover, the decreases in populations of this pollution-sensitive mollusk may signal a large-scale deterioration in the health of this riverine ecosystem.

  2. Infestation of the clam Chione fluctifraga by the burrowing worm Polydora sp. nov. in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2003-07-01

    Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity.

  3. Dwarf Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colín, P.; Klypin, A.; Valenzuela, O.; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2004-09-01

    We study properties of dark matter halos at high redshifts z=2-10 for a vast range of masses with the emphasis on dwarf halos with masses of 107-109 h-1 Msolar. We find that the density profiles of relaxed dwarf halos are well fitted by the Navarro, Frenk, & White (NFW) profile and do not have cores. We compute the halo mass function and the halo spin parameter distribution and find that the former is very well reproduced by the Sheth & Tormen model, while the latter is well fitted by a lognormal distribution with λ0=0.042 and σλ=0.63. We estimate the distribution of concentrations for halos in a mass range that covers 6 orders of magnitude, from 107 to 1013 h-1 Msolar, and find that the data are well reproduced by the model of Bullock et al. The extrapolation of our results to z=0 predicts that present-day isolated dwarf halos should have a very large median concentration of ~35. We measure the subhalo circular velocity functions for halos with masses that range from 4.6×109 to 1013 h-1 Msolar and find that they are similar when normalized to the circular velocity of the parent halo. Dwarf halos studied in this paper are many orders of magnitude smaller than well-studied cluster- and Milky Way-sized halos. Yet, in all respects the dwarfs are just downscaled versions of the large halos. They are cuspy and, as expected, more concentrated. They have the same spin parameter distribution and follow the same mass function that was measured for large halos.

  4. Biodeposition, respiration, and excretion rates of an introduced clam Mercenaria mercenaria in ponds with implications for potential competition with the native clam Meretrix meretrix in Shuangtaizi estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Anguo; Yuan, Xiutang; Hou, Wenjiu; Li, Xiaodong; Zhao, Kai; Chen, Weixin; Su, Xiurong

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential impacts of an introduced clam Mercenaria mercenaria on estuarine ecosystem, and implications for the niche competition with a native clam Meretrix meretrix. The biodeposition, respiration, and excretion rates of M. mercenaria were determined seasonally using a sediment trap and a closed respirator in field. The biodeposition rates of M. mercenaria were 0.06-0.37 g/ (ind.·d), and the respiration rates were 0.31-14.66 mg/(ind.·d). The ammonia and phosphate excretion rates were 0.18-36.70 and 1.44-14.87 μg/(ind.·d), respectively. The hard clam M. mercenaria may discharge dry deposits up to 2.1×105 t, contribute 18.3 t ammonia and 9.0 t phosphate to culture ponds, and consume 7.9×103 t O2 from ponds annually. It suggested that the hard clam M. mercenaria might play an important role in pelagic-benthic coupling in pond ecosystem through biodeposition and excretion. A comparison of the key physiological parameters of the introduced clam M. mercenaria and the native clam Meretrix meretrix suggested that M. mercenaria had a niche similar to that of Meretrix meretrix in Shuangtaizi estuary and might have a potential competition with Meretrix meretrix for habitat and food if M. mercenaria species escaped from the culture pond or artificially released in estuarine ecosystem.

  5. Large herbivores surf waves of green-up during spring.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Jerod A; Monteith, Kevin L; Aikens, Ellen O; Hayes, Matthew M; Hersey, Kent R; Middleton, Arthur D; Oates, Brendan A; Sawyer, Hall; Scurlock, Brandon M; Kauffman, Matthew J

    2016-06-29

    The green wave hypothesis (GWH) states that migrating animals should track or 'surf' high-quality forage at the leading edge of spring green-up. To index such high-quality forage, recent work proposed the instantaneous rate of green-up (IRG), i.e. rate of change in the normalized difference vegetation index over time. Despite this important advancement, no study has tested the assumption that herbivores select habitat patches at peak IRG. We evaluated this assumption using step selection functions parametrized with movement data during the green-up period from two populations each of bighorn sheep, mule deer, elk, moose and bison, totalling 463 individuals monitored 1-3 years from 2004 to 2014. Accounting for variables that typically influence habitat selection for each species, we found seven of 10 populations selected patches exhibiting high IRG-supporting the GWH. Nonetheless, large herbivores selected for the leading edge, trailing edge and crest of the IRG wave, indicating that other mechanisms (e.g. ruminant physiology) or measurement error inherent with satellite data affect selection for IRG. Our evaluation indicates that IRG is a useful tool for linking herbivore movement with plant phenology, paving the way for significant advancements in understanding how animals track resource quality that varies both spatially and temporally.

  6. Cytogenetics of the razor clam Solen marginatus (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Solenidae).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tajes, J; González-Tizón, A; Martínez-Lage, A; Méndez, J

    2003-01-01

    The razor clam Solen marginatus has a diploid chromosome number of 38. The karyotype consists of one metacentric/submetacentric, three submetacentric/metacentric, five submetacentric, one submetacentric/subtelocentric, one subtelocentric/submetacentric, six subtelocentric and two telocentric chromosome pairs. Staining with chromomycin A3 revealed bright positive bands subcentromerically in the long arms of one medium-sized subtelocentric pair, while DAPI staining showed uniform fluorescence in all chromosomes of the complement. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using an 18S-5.8S-28S rDNA probe locates these loci at the subcentromeric region of one subtelocentric pair and at the subtelomeric region of another subtelocentric pair.

  7. Post-processing enhancement of reverberation-noise suppression in dual-frequency SURF imaging.

    PubMed

    Näsholm, Sven Peter; Hansen, Rune; Angelsen, Bjørn A J

    2011-02-01

    A post-processing adjustment technique to enhance dual-frequency second-order ultrasound field (SURF) reverberation-noise suppression imaging in medical ultrasound is analyzed. Two variant methods are investigated through numerical simulations. They both solely involve post-processing of the propagated high-frequency (HF) imaging wave fields, which in real-time imaging corresponds to post-processing of the beamformed receive radio-frequency signals. Hence, the transmit pulse complexes are the same as for the previously published SURF reverberation-suppression imaging method. The adjustment technique is tested on simulated data from propagation of SURF pulse complexes consisting of a 3.5-MHz HF imaging pulse added to a 0.5-MHz low-frequency soundspeed manipulation pulse. Imaging transmit beams are constructed with and without adjustment. The post-processing involves filtering, e.g., by a time-shift, to equalize the two SURF HF pulses at a chosen depth. This depth is typically chosen to coincide with the depth where the first scattering or reflection occurs for the reverberation noise one intends to suppress. The beams realized with post-processing show energy decrease at the chosen depth, especially for shallow depths where, in a medical imaging situation, a body-wall is often located. This indicates that the post-processing may further enhance the reverberation- suppression abilities of SURF imaging. Moreover, it is shown that the methods might be utilized to reduce the accumulated near-field energy of the SURF transmit-beam relative to its imaging region energy. The adjustments presented may therefore potentially be utilized to attain a slightly better general suppression of multiple scattering and multiple reflection noise compared with non-adjusted SURF reverberation-suppression imaging.

  8. Comparative investigations on the biological effects of As (III) and As (V) in clam Ruditapes philippinarum using multiple biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Xu, Hai'e; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2015-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a known pollutant with two chemical forms, arsenite (As (III)) and arsenate (As (V)), in marine environment. Clam Ruditapes philippinarum is an important fishery species along the Bohai coast. In this study, the biological effects induced by the two arsenic chemical forms (arsenite and arsenate) were compared using multiple biochemical indices in the digestive glands of clam R. philippinarum. The production of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic responses exhibited that both As (III) and As (V) induced immune, oxidative and osmotic stresses in clam digestive glands. The differential metabolic biomarkers, histidine and taurine, indicated the differential responsive mechanisms in osmotic regulation in clam digestive glands. In addition, both arsenic treatments enhanced the anaerobiosis metabolism in clam digestive glands. Overall, this work illustrated that arsenite and arsenate induced similar biological effects in clams, which might be accounted for the biological transformation of arsenate to arsenite in clams.

  9. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB bioaccumulation by Manila clam from polluted areas of Venice lagoon (Italy).

    PubMed

    Sfriso, Adriano; Facca, Chiara; Raccanelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    POP bioaccumulation pathways in the clam Tapes philippinarum were examined for two years from juveniles to adult size. Two polluted sites, one with sandy sediment, the other muddy were compared with a reference site characterized by low contamination levels. Juvenile clams coming from a hatchery were reared both on the sediment and in nets suspended at 30 cm from the bottom. POP changes in clam tissue were related to the concentrations recorded in sediments and in the particulate matter during the entire fattening period. Results provided interesting data on the relationships between environmental contamination and bioaccumulation. Contrary to studies on the decontamination times of the clams collected in polluted areas, this work investigates the preferential clam bioaccumulation pathways during growth under different environmental conditions. In general POP bioaccumulation resulted to be correlated to concentrations in SPM rather than in sediments and was higher in S-clams rather than in B-clams.

  10. M Dwarf Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Irwin, Jonathan; Dieterich, Sergio; Finch, Charlie T.; Riedel, Adric R.; Subasavage, John P.; Winters, Jennifer; RECONS Team

    2017-01-01

    During RECONS' 17-year (so far) astrometry/photometry program at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m, we have observed thousands of the ubiquitous red dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. During this reconnaissance, a few mysterious characters have emerged ...The Case of the Mercurial Stars: One M dwarf has been fading steadily for more than a decade, at last measure 6% fainter than when it was first observed. Another has grown brighter by 7% over 15 years. Are these brightness changes part of extremely long stellar cycles, or something else entirely?The Case of Identical Stellar Twins that Aren't: Two M dwarfs seem at first to be identical siblings traveling together through the Galaxy. They have virtually identical spectra at optical wavelengths and identical colors throughout the VRIJHK bands. Long-term astrometry indicates that they are, indeed, at the same distance via parallax measurements, and their proper motions match precisely. Yet, one of the twins is FOUR times brighter than the other. Followup work has revealed that the brighter component is a very close spectroscopic double, but no other stars are seen. So, the mystery may be half solved, but why do the close stars remain twice as bright as their widely-separated twin?The Case of the Great Kaboom!: After more than 1000 nights of observing on the reliable 0.9m telescope, with generally routine frames reading out upon the screen, one stellar system comprised of five red dwarfs flared in stunning fashion. Of the two distinct sources, the fainter one (an unresolved double) surpassed the brightness of the brighter one (an unresolved triple), increasing by more than three full magnitudes in the V filter. Which component actually flared? Is this magnificent outburst an unusual event, or in fact typical for this system and other M dwarfs?At the AAS meeting, we hope to probe the cognoscenti who study the Sun's smaller cousins to solve these intriguing M Dwarf Mysteries.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grants

  11. Predicting coexistence and predominance patterns between the introduced Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and the European native clam (Ruditapes decussatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidegain, Gorka; Bárcena, Javier Francisco; García, Andrés; Juanes, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In several European estuaries, the introduced Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) has become a widespread and predominating species supplanting the native carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus) whereas in other estuaries such as the Bay of Santander (Gulf of Biscay) this pattern has not been detected. Using this estuary as a case study, the potential coexistence/predominance patterns between these two species were explored with the objective of providing insight into the capacity of expansion of R. philippinarum. Firstly, the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) was applied to determine the niches of both species, using seven contemporary environmental variables, i.e. salinity, water depth, current velocity, and sediment sand, gravel, silt and organic matter content. Secondly, ENFA-derived habitat-suitability (HS) maps were simultaneously treated, using geospatial techniques and following HS index-based criteria, to determine the potential distribution patterns. Both species models performed well according to the cross-validation evaluation method. The environmental variables that most determined the presence of both clams were depth, current velocity and salinity. ENFA factors showed that R. philippinarum habitat differs more from the mean environmental conditions over the estuary (i.e. higher marginality) and has less narrow requirements (i.e. lower specialization). R. philippinarum dominated areas, determined by relatively lower current velocities and percentages of sand, higher organic matter contents and slightly shallower depths, were very reduced (i.e. 2.0% of the bay surface) compared to coexistence (47%) and R. decussatus predominance areas (7.4%). These results suggest that HS may regulate the expansion of R. philippinarum. ENFA, together with geospatial analysis of HS index, seems to be a valuable approach to explore the expansion potential of estuarine invasive or introduced species and thus support conservation decisions regarding native species.

  12. White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Koester, D.; Romero, A. D.; Ourique, G.; Pelisoli, I.

    2017-03-01

    We present the mass distribution for all S/N ≥ 15 DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12 in 2015, fitted with Koester models for ML2/α=0.8 (Teff≥ 10000 K), and for DBs with S/N ≥ 10, fitted with ML2/α=1.25, for Teff >16 000 K. These mass distributions are for logg≥6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 M ⊙ but very distinct shapes.

  13. Does cadmium pollution affect reproduction in the clam Ruditapes decussatus? A one-year case study.

    PubMed

    Smaoui-Damak, W; Rebai, T; Berthet, B; Hamza-Chaffai, A

    2006-06-01

    The effect of cadmium (Cd) on the reproduction of Ruditapes decussatus was monitored over a period of 12 months, from June 2001 to June 2002. Two sites "Bordj d'Ungha" and "El Hofra" differing by their degree of cadmium contamination were chosen in the Gulf of Gabès area (Tunisia). Annual mean concentrations of Cd in the whole soft tissues of clams from the site El Hofra were more than 4 times higher than those from the site Bordj d'Ungha (reference site). The gametogenic cycle of the clam R. decussatus was also investigated by histological examination and monthly observations of gonadal sections in a population of clams from both sites. The results show that gametogenesis occurred from March to December in clams from both sites. Nevertheless, spawning and emission of gametes were synchronized in both sexes from only the clams of the reference site. Although this species is considered as gonochoristic, 6.6% of hermaphroditic cases were observed in clams from both sites in which gametes of both males and females were in ripe stage. Moreover, the period of ripening of sexual products led to an increase of condition index and to a decrease of Cd concentrations in the whole soft tissues of clams from both sites, hence reflecting the phenomenon of "biological dilution".

  14. Great Lakes clams find refuge from zebra mussels in restored, lake-connected marsh (Ohio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, more than 95 percent of the freshwater clams once found in Lake Erie have died due to the exotic zebara mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Zebra mussels attach themselves to native clams in large numbers, impeding the ability of the clams to eat and burrow. However, in 1996, we discovered a population of native clams in Metzger Marsh in western Lake Erie (about 50 miles [80 km] east of Toledo) that were thriving despite the longtime presence of zebra mussel in surrounding waters. At that time, Metzger Marsh was undergoing extensive restoration, including construction of a dike to replace the eroded barrier beach and of a water-control structure to maintain hydrologic connections with the lake (Wilcox and Whillans 1999). The restoration plan called for a drawdown of water levels to promote plant growth from the seedbank -- a process that would also destroy most of the clam population. State and federal resource managers recommended removing as many clams as possible to a site that was isolated from zebra mussels, and then returning them to the marsh after it was restored. We removed about 7,000 native clams in 1996 and moved them back to Metzger Marsh in 1999.

  15. [Case of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by short-neck clam ingestion].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Aoki, Takeshi; Shibata, Rumiko; Ichikawa, Kunio

    2010-12-01

    A 6-year-old boy was referred for evaluation because he had several vomiting episodes, from the age of 2 years, following short-neck clam ingestion. He tested negative for short-neck clam-specific IgE just before visiting our hospital, and he was not allergic to other foods or shellfish. The patient had low levels of short-neck clam-specific IgE (1.04 UA/ml), and the skin prick test was positive for short-neck clam (4 mm). The lymphocyte stimulation test was positive (5305 counts per min (cpm), stimulation index (SI) =1211%) and the patch test was positive for short-neck clam ingestion. An oral challenge test with boiled short-neck clam induced abdominal pain and vomiting 2 h after ingestion, and the patient presented with increased peripheral leukocytes after 6 h. He was therefore diagnosed with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) due to short-neck clam ingestion. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of FPIES induced by the intake of shellfish.

  16. Recovery of intertidal hardshelled clams in Prince William Sound from Exxon Valdez oiling and shoreline treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, J.P.; Lees, D.C.; Driskell, W.B.

    1994-12-31

    Native little neck (Protothaca staminea) and butter clams (Saxidomus giganteus) were quantitatively surveyed from 1989 through 1993 to evaluate effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Hydraulic washing of sand and gravel beaches altered beach morphology by transporting material down slope from upper elevations, often burying the lower beach in several centimeters of sediment having a relatively low content of fines and organic carbon. Hydraulically washed beaches showed significant reductions in clam densities in 1989 and 1990. Recruitment of clams was very limited on these beaches through 1993; as a result, clam densities on these hydraulically washed beaches remain very depressed compared to those on beaches that were unoiled or oiled but not washed. Littlenecks transplanted from a reference site to a heavily oiled but untreated site showed significant patterns of increased mortality, decreased growth, and increased bioaccumulation of PAH in response to a gradient in sediment PAH, This same heavily oiled site has consistently had among the highest rates of hardshelled clam recruitment of any of the sites sampled. Littlenecks also were transplanted to another heavily oiled beach that had been hydraulically washed and had little remaining hydrocarbons. These clams showed very high survival, yet this beach has had very little clam recruitment. It is hypothesized that recruitment at this site may be inhibited by the low level of finer sediments and low organic content remaining after washing.

  17. Early reproductive success of the hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) from Five Sites in Long Island Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, S.; Choromanski, J.; Nelson, D.; Miller, J.; Greig, R.; Sennefelder, G. )

    1991-09-01

    Early reproductive success of hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) in Long Island Sound was measured to determine whether pollution may have adverse effects on fragile recruitment to fisheries. Clams were collected at five sites in 1987 when ready to spawn naturally, along with water from within 39 cm of the bottom. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), copper, and cadmium were measured in the mature gonad and were found to be generally low. Clams were spawned and the gametes were collected and cultured both in their respective site waters and in reference laboratory seawater. In both site and reference seawater, embryos of clams from the most highly industrialized area (Bridgeport) with higher contaminant levels exhibited more irregularity in chromosome numbers and greater larval abnormality, possible indicators of long-term sublethal effects. Fertilization and early meiotic success at 1 to 1 1/2 h were significantly lower for clams from Norwalk than for those from Greenwich. At 48 h, mortality was lowest for Greenwich larvae and highest for Norwalk larvae in their respective site waters, but the mortality for these two sites was significantly lower than for other sites in reference water. This suggests sporadically poor environmental quality. Milford larvae also had significant mortality. Population-level significance of pollution effects on clam reproduction will depend on how contaminated the environment is over the entire reproductive season of the clams in Long Island Sound, and over how large a portion of the spawning grounds.

  18. Solidification of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatzman, E.

    1982-01-01

    The internal structure of white dwarfs is discussed. Highly correlated plasmas are reviewed. Implications for phase separation in the core of cooling white dwarfs are considered. The consequences for evolution of white dwarfs are addressed.

  19. Validation of MODIS Aerosol Retrieval over the Ocean during CLAMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, R. C.; Remer, L. A.; Martins, J. V.; Fattori, A. P.; Holben, B. N.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P.; Schuster, G. L.; Rodriquez, W. J.; Rutledge, K.; Kleidman, R.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    2002-05-01

    The Chesapeake Lighthouse Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) took place from 10 July to 2 Aug 2001, over and around the Chesapeake Lighthouse, some 25 kilometers off the coast of Virginia Beach, Virginia, and the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) near Chincoteague, Virginia. This experiment was designed mainly for validating instruments and algorithms aboard the Terra satellite platform, including the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Over ocean pixels, MODIS retrieved optical depths (AOD) at seven wavelengths and an estimate of the aerosol size distribution. Temporally coincident measurements of aerosol properties were made with sunphotometers from sites near WFF, from the Chesapeake Lighthouse, and airborne in a variety of locations just above Atlantic ocean surface. This suite of sunphotometer measurements include: standard visible wavelength AOD and size from three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) instruments, standard visible and new infrared wavelength AOD from six Microtops handheld instruments, infrared wavelength AOD from the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14), and unique hyperspectral AOD from a Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) FieldSpec spectrometer. In this study, we compare AOD retrieved from MODIS with measurements from the surface, paying special attention to the new infrared wavelength validation data. A detailed evaluation of the CLAMS spectral optical depth combined with retrieved size distributions will be a first step toward improvement of the aerosol models used in the MODIS retrieval.

  20. Metal concentrations in sediments and clams in four Moroccan estuaries.

    PubMed

    Cheggour, M; Chafik, A; Fisher, N S; Benbrahim, S

    2005-03-01

    Metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn and Fe) were analyzed seasonally over three years in sediments and in tissues of the clam Scrobicularia plana in four Moroccan Atlantic estuaries: Loukkos, Sebou, Bou Regreg and Oum er Rbia. Of these metals, Cd was at the lowest concentrations in sediment. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, and to a lesser extent Ni, in sediments suggest greater contamination in Sebou and Bou Regreg than in the other estuaries. The fluctuations of Mn and Fe concentrations in the fine surface sediments reflect their continental origin and show seasonal variations that indicate soil run-off following rain events. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, and especially Ni in clam tissues in these estuaries were generally higher than in some other common bioindicator bivalve species. The seasonal variations in S. plana's tissue metal concentrations are linked to patterns of reproductive activity for all metals except Cd and possibly Zn, whose tissue concentrations may be regulated. Mn and Fe concentrations in S. plana were positively correlated to sediment levels of these metals.

  1. Local Universe Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, Claude

    2015-08-01

    One of the outstanding problems in cosmology is addressing the "small-scale crisis" and understanding structure formation at the smallest scales. Standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmological simulations of Milky Way-size DM halos predict many more DM sub-halos than the number of dwarf galaxies observed. This is the so-called Missing Satellites Problem. The most popular interpretation of the Missing Satellites Problem is that the smallest dark matter halos in the universe are extremely inefficient at forming stars. The virialized extent of the Milky Way's halo should contain ~500 satellites, while only ˜100 satellites and dwarfs are observed in the whole Local Group. Despite the large amount of theoretical work and new optical observations, the discrepancy, even if reduced, still persists between observations and hierarchical models, regardless of the model parameters. It may be possible to find those isolated ultra-faint missing dwarf galaxies via their neutral gas component, which is one of the goals we are pursuing with the SKA precursor KAT-7 in South Africa, and soon with the SKA pathfinder MeerKAT.

  2. Convection in White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, Judith L.; Shipman, H.; Dalessio, J.; M, M.

    2012-01-01

    Convection is one of the largest sources of theoretical uncertainty in our understanding of stellar physics. Current studies of convective energy transport are based on the mixing length theory. Originally intended to depict turbulent flows in engineering situations, MLT enjoys moderate success in describing stellar convection. However, problems arising from MLT's incompleteness are apparent in studies ranging from determinations of the ages of massive stars, to understanding the structure F and early A stars, to predicting the pulsation periods of solar stars, to understanding the atmosphere of Titan. As an example for white dwarfs, Bergeron et al. (1995) show that model parameters such as flux, line profiles, energy distribution, color indices, and equivalent widths are extremely sensitive to the assumed MLT parameterization. The authors find systematic uncertainties ranging from 25% for effective temperatures to 11% for mass and radius. The WET is engaged in a long term project to empirically determine the physical properties of convection in the atmospheres of pulsating white dwarfs. The technique, outlined by Montgomery et al. (2010), uses information from nonlinear (non-sinusoidal) pulse shapes of the target star to empirically probe the physical properties of its convection zone. Approximately two thirds of all white dwarfs show nonlinear characteristics in their light curves. We present current results from WET targets in 2008-2011.

  3. Mutagenic activation of arylamines by subcellular fractions of Chamaelea gallina clams exposed to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel José; Rodríguez-Ariza, Antonio; Amezcua, Oscar; López-Barea, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Biochemical measurements in the sentinel clam Chamaelea gallina have been used as biomarkers of marine pollution. In this study, S9, cytosolic fractions (CF), and microsomal fractions (MF) prepared from unexposed clams and clams exposed to model pollutants were used to activate 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) to mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium strain BA149, which overexpresses O-acetyltransferase. Arylamine activation was similar with subcellular fractions from unexposed and Aroclor 1254-exposed clams, but decreased with fractions from As(III)- and Cu(II)-exposed clams. Bioactivation of arylamines by CF was higher than by MF, and higher with NADH than with NADPH as the reducing agent. alpha-Naphthoflavone inhibited AAF activation by CF and MF, but increased 2-AA activation nearly twofold. In contrast to the results with arylamine activation, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase (BPH) activity increased twofold in fractions from Aroclor 1254- and Cu(II)-exposed clams. Activation of 2-AA was also evaluated using S9 fractions from clams sampled at littoral sites with different pollutant levels. Compared to a reference site, lower 2-AA bioactivation and higher BPH activity were found in clams containing high levels of copper and organic contaminants, although the differences were not statistically significant. While these findings agree with the results of the model Cu(II) exposure, the effects of other pollutants cannot be ruled out. The results of the study demonstrate that arylamine activation by clams is not preferentially catalyzed by microsomal monooxygenases but by unknown cytosolic system(s), and that bioactivation of 2-AA and AAF appears to occur by different pathways.

  4. Distribution and winter survival health of Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, in the St. Clair River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the distribution and winter survival of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, in the St. Clair River from the fall of 1988 to the spring of 1990. Between fall of 1988 and spring of 1989, distribution of Corbicula was extended from 5.5 to 11.5 km downstream from an electric power plant. However, total abundance of clams decreased during the winter. By fall of 1989, Corbicula was found 14.5 km from the power plant, and the mean density of clams was 27 individuals/m2. Between fall of 1989 and spring of 1990, distribution was reduced to 7.5 km from the power plant and abundance decreased 97%. During the winter of 1988-1989, we collected clams monthly from one station 2.2 km from the power plant, and we observed that clams survived the harsh winter for two months after the water temperature dropped about 1.5°C below the reported lethal level for Corbicula in midwinter. During the winer of 1989-1990, we held clams at the sediment-water interface in enclosures, and we observed that condition indices (dry body weight; dry shell weight) of clams remained stable (mean = 0.05 ± 0.01) in December and January and then declined significantly (p < 0.05) to 0.04 ± 0.01 in February. All clams perished by late March. The deteriorating physiological state of clams, as indicated by declining condition index, seemingly is a factor in late winter mortalities of Corbicula in the St. Clair River. In contrast to the rapid geographic spread and population increases in the southern United States, Corbicula likely will not spread rapidly throughout the Great Lakes beyond shoreline thermal refugia of heated-water discharge plumes from power plants.

  5. Solar winds surfs waves in the Sun's atmosphere!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    opposite ends after threading it through an object, like a ring. If one person wiggles the string rapidly up and down, waves form in the string that move toward the person at the other end. The ring will "surf" these waves and move toward the other person as well. Try it! "Even with this major discovery, there are questions left to answer. The observations have made it abundantly clear that heavy particles like oxygen 'surf' on the waves, and there is also mounting evidence that waves are responsible for accelerating the hydrogen atoms, the most common constituent of the solar wind. Future observations are needed to establish this fact. Many other kinds of particles, such as helium (second most common) have never been observed in the accelerating part of the corona, and new observations are also needed to refine our understanding of how the waves interact with the solar wind as a whole," said Dr. Steven Cranmer of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, lead author of the research to be published in the Astrophysical Journal*. Nevertheless, SOHO has again been able to reveal another of the Sun's mysteries: "This is another triumph for SOHO, stealing a long-held secret from our Sun", said Dr Martin Huber, Head of ESA Space Science Department and co-investigator for UVCS. *Ref. Article by S.Cranmer, G.B. Field and J.L. Kohl on Astrophysical Journal ( June 20, Vol 518, p. 937-947) available on the web at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v518n2/39802/sc0.html

  6. Solar winds surfs waves in the Sun's atmosphere!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    opposite ends after threading it through an object, like a ring. If one person wiggles the string rapidly up and down, waves form in the string that move toward the person at the other end. The ring will "surf" these waves and move toward the other person as well. Try it! "Even with this major discovery, there are questions left to answer. The observations have made it abundantly clear that heavy particles like oxygen 'surf' on the waves, and there is also mounting evidence that waves are responsible for accelerating the hydrogen atoms, the most common constituent of the solar wind. Future observations are needed to establish this fact. Many other kinds of particles, such as helium (second most common) have never been observed in the accelerating part of the corona, and new observations are also needed to refine our understanding of how the waves interact with the solar wind as a whole," said Dr. Steven Cranmer of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, lead author of the research to be published in the Astrophysical Journal*. Nevertheless, SOHO has again been able to reveal another of the Sun's mysteries: "This is another triumph for SOHO, stealing a long-held secret from our Sun", said Dr Martin Huber, Head of ESA Space Science Department and co-investigator for UVCS. *Ref. Article by S.Cranmer, G.B. Field and J.L. Kohl on Astrophysical Journal ( June 20, Vol 518, p. 937-947) available on the web at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v518n2/39802/sc0.html

  7. Cluster of Leptospirosis Acquired Through River Surfing in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Peter W.; Aceto, Leonardo; Korach, Raphael; Marreros, Nelson; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Günthard, Huldrych F.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Switzerland, leptospirosis is still considered as a travel-associated disease. After the surprising diagnosis of leptospirosis in a patient who was initially suspected as having primary human immunodeficiency virus infection, we recognized that acquisition of leptospirosis occurred through recreational activities and we identified additional affected individuals. Methods. Detailed anamnesis, excluding occupational exposure, acquisition abroad, and pet contacts, enabled us to detect the source of infection and identify a cluster of leptospirosis. Convalescent sera testing was performed to confirm Leptospira infection. Microscopic agglutination tests were used to determine the infecting serovar. Results. We identified a cluster of leptospirosis in young, previously healthy persons. Acquisition of leptospirosis was traced back to a surfing spot on a river in Switzerland (Reuss, Aargau). Clinical presentation was indistinct. Two of the 3 reported cases required hospitalization, and 1 case even suffered from meningitis. Serologic tests indicated infection with the serovar Grippotyphosa in all cases. With the exception of the case with meningitis, no antibiotics were administered, because leptospirosis was diagnosed after spontaneous resolution of most symptoms. Despite a prolonged period of convalescence in 2 cases, full recovery was achieved. Recent reports on beavers suffering from leptospirosis in this region underline the possible water-borne infection of the 3 cases and raise the question of potential wildlife reservoirs. Conclusions. Insufficient awareness of caregivers, which may be promoted by the missing obligation to report human leptospirosis, combined with the multifaceted presentation of the disease result in significant underdiagnosis. More frequent consideration of leptospirosis as differential diagnosis is inevitable, particularly as veterinary data suggest re-emergence of the disease. PMID:26269796

  8. Cluster of Leptospirosis Acquired Through River Surfing in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Peter W; Aceto, Leonardo; Korach, Raphael; Marreros, Nelson; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Günthard, Huldrych F

    2015-09-01

    Background.  In Switzerland, leptospirosis is still considered as a travel-associated disease. After the surprising diagnosis of leptospirosis in a patient who was initially suspected as having primary human immunodeficiency virus infection, we recognized that acquisition of leptospirosis occurred through recreational activities and we identified additional affected individuals. Methods.  Detailed anamnesis, excluding occupational exposure, acquisition abroad, and pet contacts, enabled us to detect the source of infection and identify a cluster of leptospirosis. Convalescent sera testing was performed to confirm Leptospira infection. Microscopic agglutination tests were used to determine the infecting serovar. Results.  We identified a cluster of leptospirosis in young, previously healthy persons. Acquisition of leptospirosis was traced back to a surfing spot on a river in Switzerland (Reuss, Aargau). Clinical presentation was indistinct. Two of the 3 reported cases required hospitalization, and 1 case even suffered from meningitis. Serologic tests indicated infection with the serovar Grippotyphosa in all cases. With the exception of the case with meningitis, no antibiotics were administered, because leptospirosis was diagnosed after spontaneous resolution of most symptoms. Despite a prolonged period of convalescence in 2 cases, full recovery was achieved. Recent reports on beavers suffering from leptospirosis in this region underline the possible water-borne infection of the 3 cases and raise the question of potential wildlife reservoirs. Conclusions.  Insufficient awareness of caregivers, which may be promoted by the missing obligation to report human leptospirosis, combined with the multifaceted presentation of the disease result in significant underdiagnosis. More frequent consideration of leptospirosis as differential diagnosis is inevitable, particularly as veterinary data suggest re-emergence of the disease.

  9. The asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea (Müller), in the tidal Potomac River, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dresler, Paul V.; Cory, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    The Asiatic clam,Corbicula fluminea (Müller), has extended its range to include the tidal fresh-water portion of the Potomac River, Maryland. Though patchily distributed, the clams have attained densities of 665 m−2. Size-class distributions indicate that the clams first appeared in 1975. About 90% of the population belong to year-class I and were less than 12 mm in length. Elsewhere, this species has created severe water quality problems; it should be closely watched in the Potomac.

  10. Non-linear control of the ''clam'' wave energy device. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A promising wave energy device being currently investigated is the ''clam'' device. The clam extracts energy by pumping air through a specially designed (Wells) turbine. Although operation of the Wells turbine does not require a rectified air flow, some additional control will be necessary to optimize the phase of the clam motion for good efficiencies. An examination of the equation of motion in the time domain suggests the possibility of non-linear phase control by mechanical, power take-off, or pneumatic latching. Latching can be shown to increase the efficiency of the device in the longer wavelengths of the wave spectrum, i.e. those of high incident wave power.

  11. A Novel Image Retrieval Based on Visual Words Integration of SIFT and SURF

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nouman; Bajwa, Khalid Bashir; Sablatnig, Robert; Chatzichristofis, Savvas A.; Iqbal, Zeshan; Rashid, Muhammad; Habib, Hafiz Adnan

    2016-01-01

    With the recent evolution of technology, the number of image archives has increased exponentially. In Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR), high-level visual information is represented in the form of low-level features. The semantic gap between the low-level features and the high-level image concepts is an open research problem. In this paper, we present a novel visual words integration of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF). The two local features representations are selected for image retrieval because SIFT is more robust to the change in scale and rotation, while SURF is robust to changes in illumination. The visual words integration of SIFT and SURF adds the robustness of both features to image retrieval. The qualitative and quantitative comparisons conducted on Corel-1000, Corel-1500, Corel-2000, Oliva and Torralba and Ground Truth image benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed visual words integration. PMID:27315101

  12. Surfing in tortoises? Empirical signs of genetic structuring owing to range expansion.

    PubMed

    Graciá, Eva; Botella, Francisco; Anadón, José Daniel; Edelaar, Pim; Harris, D James; Giménez, Andrés

    2013-06-23

    Much of our current knowledge about the genetic dynamics in range expansions originates from models, simulations and microcosm experiments that need to be corroborated by field data. Here, we report a neutral genetic pattern that matches the predictions of the genetic surfing theory. Genetic surfing occurs when repeated founding events and genetic drift act on the wave of advance of an expanding population, promoting strong spatial structure. In the range expansion of the tortoise Testudo graeca from North Africa to southeastern Spain, we found several genetic signatures consistent with surfing: a decrease of genetic diversity with distance from the initial founder area, clinal patterns in allele frequencies, rare African alleles which have become common at distal sites in the Spanish range, and stronger spatial differentiation in the expanded range than in the original one. Our results provide support for the theory that genetic drift can be an important force in shaping the genetic structure of expanding populations.

  13. A pilot study of cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder augmented by panic surfing.

    PubMed

    Lamplugh, Claire; Berle, David; Milicevic, Denise; Starcevic, Vladan

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study reports the outcome of cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder augmented by panic surfing. This treatment approach encourages acceptance of feelings rather than control of symptoms and anxiety, at the same time also targeting catastrophic misinterpretations, bodily vigilance and safety-seeking behaviours. Eighteen participants completed a brief group treatment for panic disorder incorporating psychoeducation, panic surfing, interoceptive exposure, graded exposure and cognitive restructuring. Significant improvements occurred over the course of this treatment and were maintained at a 1-month follow-up. Results suggest that cognitive behaviour therapy augmented by panic surfing may be effective in the treatment of panic disorder, but there is a need for controlled studies and investigation of the relative contribution of its various components.

  14. A Novel Image Retrieval Based on Visual Words Integration of SIFT and SURF.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nouman; Bajwa, Khalid Bashir; Sablatnig, Robert; Chatzichristofis, Savvas A; Iqbal, Zeshan; Rashid, Muhammad; Habib, Hafiz Adnan

    2016-01-01

    With the recent evolution of technology, the number of image archives has increased exponentially. In Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR), high-level visual information is represented in the form of low-level features. The semantic gap between the low-level features and the high-level image concepts is an open research problem. In this paper, we present a novel visual words integration of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF). The two local features representations are selected for image retrieval because SIFT is more robust to the change in scale and rotation, while SURF is robust to changes in illumination. The visual words integration of SIFT and SURF adds the robustness of both features to image retrieval. The qualitative and quantitative comparisons conducted on Corel-1000, Corel-1500, Corel-2000, Oliva and Torralba and Ground Truth image benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed visual words integration.

  15. The State of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Moo Y.

    2016-10-01

    As a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SubTER (Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research, Development and Demonstration) initiative, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Sandia National Laboratories, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducted the Permeability (k) and Induced Seismicity Management for Energy Technologies (kISMET) project. The objectives of the project are to define the in situ status of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota and to establish the relations between in situ stress and induced fracture through hydraulically stimulating the fracture. (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota. In situ tests are conducted in a 7.6 cm diameter and 100 long vertical borehole located in the 4850 Level West Access Drift near Davies Campus of SURF (Figure 1). The borehole is located in the zone of Precambrian Metamorphic Schist.

  16. Surf1, Associated with Leigh Syndrome in Humans, Is a Heme-binding Protein in Bacterial Oxidase Biogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Bundschuh, Freya A.; Hannappel, Achim; Anderka, Oliver; Ludwig, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Biogenesis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) relies on a large number of assembly factors, among them the transmembrane protein Surf1. The loss of human Surf1 function is associated with Leigh syndrome, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by severe COX deficiency. In the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, two homologous proteins, Surf1c and Surf1q, were identified, which we characterize in the present study. When coexpressed in Escherichia coli together with enzymes for heme a synthesis, the bacterial Surf1 proteins bind heme a in vivo. Using redox difference spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry, the binding of the heme cofactor to purified apo-Surf1c and apo-Surf1q is quantified: Each of the Paracoccus proteins binds heme a in a 1:1 stoichiometry and with Kd values in the submicromolar range. In addition, we identify a conserved histidine as a residue crucial for heme binding. Contrary to most earlier concepts, these data support a direct role of Surf1 in heme a cofactor insertion into COX subunit I by providing a protein-bound heme a pool. PMID:19625251

  17. Satellite dwarf galaxies in a hierarchical universe: the prevalence of dwarf-dwarf major mergers

    SciTech Connect

    Deason, Alis; Wetzel, Andrew; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea

    2014-10-20

    Mergers are a common phenomenon in hierarchical structure formation, especially for massive galaxies and clusters, but their importance for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group remains poorly understood. We investigate the frequency of major mergers between dwarf galaxies in the Local Group using the ELVIS suite of cosmological zoom-in dissipationless simulations of Milky Way- and M31-like host halos. We find that ∼10% of satellite dwarf galaxies with M {sub star} > 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} that are within the host virial radius experienced a major merger of stellar mass ratio closer than 0.1 since z = 1, with a lower fraction for lower mass dwarf galaxies. Recent merger remnants are biased toward larger radial distance and more recent virial infall times, because most recent mergers occurred shortly before crossing within the virial radius of the host halo. Satellite-satellite mergers also occur within the host halo after virial infall, catalyzed by the large fraction of dwarf galaxies that fell in as part of a group. The merger fraction doubles for dwarf galaxies outside of the host virial radius, so the most distant dwarf galaxies in the Local Group are the most likely to have experienced a recent major merger. We discuss the implications of these results on observable dwarf merger remnants, their star formation histories, the gas content of mergers, and massive black holes in dwarf galaxies.

  18. Fatty acid composition, sarcoplasmic reticular lipid oxidation, and immunity of hard clam (Meretrix lusoria) fed different dietary microalgae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Mei; Tseng, Kai-Yi; Huang, Chen-Huei

    2015-07-01

    Fatty acid profiles, activities of biomembrane lipid peroxidation, and immunity of a seawater clam (Meretrix lusoria) fed three species of dietary microalgae were investigated. Clams of a marketable size (25 g mean weight) were fed Tetraselmis chui, Chaetoceros muelleri, or Isochrysis galbana for 8 weeks. Fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the polar lipid fractions of clams reflected those of the dietary algae species. Clams fed with T. chui and C. muelleri contained higher proportion of non-methylene interrupted (NMI) fatty acids than those fed I. galbana. Proportion of DHA in lipids of the clams fed with I. galbana was the highest among test groups. The NADH-dependent sarcoplasmic reticular lipid peroxidation activity of clams fed I. galbana was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than that of clams fed T. chui or C. muelleri. The hemocyte adhesion capacity of clams fed C. muelleri or I. galbana was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of clams fed T. chui. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) in total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, clearance efficiency hemocyte and phagocytosis were detected among clams fed different microalgae.

  19. 50 CFR 648.73 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.73 Closed areas. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60623... surf clam and ocean quahog fishing because of adverse environmental conditions. These areas will remain... small surf clams. Areas may be closed because they contain small surf clams. (1) Closure. The...

  20. Toxicological responses to acute mercury exposure for three species of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum by NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Linbao; You, Liping; Cong, Ming; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng; Li, Chenghua; Liu, Dongyan; Yu, Junbao

    2011-03-01

    The Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) has been considered a good sentinel species for metal pollution monitoring in estuarine tidal flats. Along the Bohai coast of China, there are dominantly distributed three species of clams (White, Liangdao Red and Zebra in Yantai population) endowed with distinct tolerances to environmental stressors. In this study, adductor muscle samples were collected from both control and acute mercury exposed White, Liangdao Red and Zebra clams, and the extracts were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics to compare the metabolic profiles and responses to the acute mercury exposure to determine the most sensitive clam species capable of acting as abioindicator for heavy metal pollution monitoring. The major abundant metabolites in the White clam sample were branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine), lactate, arginine, aspartate, acetylcholine, homarine and ATP/ADP, while the metabolite profile of Zebra clam sample comprised high levels of glutamine, acetoacetate, betaine, taurine and one unidentified metabolite. For the Liangdao Red clam sample, the metabolite profile relatively exhibited high amount of branched-chain amino acids, arginine, glutamate, succinate, acetylcholine, homarine and two unassigned metabolites. After 48h exposure of 20μgL(-1) Hg(2+), the metabolic profiles showed significant differences between three clam species, which included increased lactate, succinate, taurine, acetylcholine, betaine and homarine and decreased alanine, arginine, glutamine, glutamate, acetoacetate, glycine and ATP/ADP in White clam samples, and elevated succinate, taurine and acetylcholine, and declined glutamine, glycine, and aspartate in Liangdao Red clam samples, while the increased branched-chain amino acids, lactate, succinate, acetylcholine and homarine, and reduced alanine, acetoacetate, glycine and taurine were observed in the Zebra clam samples. Overall, our findings showed that White clams could be a preferable

  1. Heart Rate Responses of High School Students Participating in Surfing Physical Education.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Michelle M; Cummins, Kevin M; Nessler, Jeff A; Newcomer, Sean C

    2016-06-01

    Despite the nation's rising epidemic of childhood obesity and diabetes, schools struggle to promote physical activities that help reduce risks for cardiovascular disease. Emerging data suggest that adopting novel activities into physical education (PE) curriculum may serve as an effective strategy for increasing physical activity in children. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize activity in the water and heart rates (HRs) of high school students participating in surf PE courses. Twenty-four male (n = 20) and female (n = 4) high school students (mean age = 16.7 ± 1.0 years) who were enrolled in surf PE courses at 2 high schools participated in this investigation. Daily measurements of surfing durations, average HR, and maximum HR were made on the students with HR monitors (PolarFT1) over an 8-week period. In addition, HR and activity in the water was evaluated during a single session in a subset of students (n = 11) using a HR monitor (PolarRCX5) and a video camera (Canon HD). Activity and HR were synchronized and evaluated in 5-second intervals during data analyses. The average duration that PE students participated in surfing during class was 61.7 ± 1.0 minutes. Stationary, paddling, wave riding, and miscellaneous activities comprised 42.7 ± 9.5, 36.7 ± 7.9, 2.9 ± 1.4, and 17.8 ± 11.4 percent of the surf session, respectively. The average and maximum HRs during these activities were 131.1 ± 0.9 and 177.2 ± 1.0 b·min, respectively. These data suggest that high school students participating in surf PE attained HRs and durations that are consistent with recommendations with cardiovascular fitness and health. In the future, PE programs should consider incorporating other action sports into their curriculum to enhance cardiovascular health.

  2. The design, testing, and performance of RoboClam, a robot inspired by the burrowing mechanisms of Atlantic razor clams (Ensis directus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Amos; Hosoi, Anette; Slocum, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    In this work we present the design, testing, and performance of RoboClam, a robot that mimics digging methods employed by the Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus). Ensis is one of nature's most adept burrowing organisms, able to dig to 70cm at nearly 1cm/s using only 0.21J/cm. We have found that Ensis reduces burrowing drag by using motions of its shell to fluidize a thin layer of substrate around its body. Although these shell motions have an energetic cost, moving through fluidized rather than packed soil results in dramatically lower overall energy consumption. RoboClam was constructed to understand the limits of razor clam-inspired burrowing, how the relevant parameters scale for different environments and conditions, and how this understanding can be transferred into engineering applications. Through experimental data gathered in idealized granular, as well as real ocean substrates, we show that RoboClam exploits localized fluidization to attain nearly the same burrowing energy savings as Ensis.

  3. SURF: Taking Sustainable Remediation from Concept to Standard Operating Procedure (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. M.; Wice, R. B.; Torrens, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, many sectors of industrialized society have been rethinking behavior and re-engineering practices to reduce consumption of energy and natural resources. During this time, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has evolved from conceptual discussions to standard operating procedure for many environmental remediation practitioners. Government agencies and private sector entities have incorporated GSR metrics into their performance criteria and contracting documents. One of the early think tanks for the development of GSR was the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). SURF brings together representatives of government, industry, consultancy, and academia to parse the means and ends of incorporating societal and economic considerations into environmental cleanup projects. Faced with decades-old treatment programs with high energy outputs and no endpoints in sight, a small group of individuals published the institutional knowledge gathered in two years of ad hoc meetings into a 2009 White Paper on sustainable remediation drivers, practices, objectives, and case studies. Since then, SURF has expanded on those introductory topics, publishing its Framework for Integrating Sustainability into Remediation Projects, Guidance for Performing Footprint Analyses and Life-Cycle Assessments for the Remediation Industry, a compendium of metrics, and a call to improve the integration of land remediation and reuse. SURF's research and members have also been instrumental in the development of additional guidance through ASTM International and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. SURF's current efforts focus on water reuse, the international perspective on GSR (continuing the conversations that were the basis of SURF's December 2012 meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC), and ways to capture and evaluate the societal benefits of site remediation. SURF also promotes and supports student chapters at universities across the US

  4. Kinematics of faint white dwarfs.

    PubMed

    Luyten, W J

    1978-10-01

    An analysis has been made for solar motion for 128 very faint white dwarfs of color class b or a. While about 40% of these stars may be high-velocity objects, it seems definitely indicated that the luminosity of all of them is considerably lower than that for the "normal" white dwarf of the same color.

  5. Giardia duodenalis cysts of genotype A recovered from clams in the Chesapeake Bay subestuary, Rhode River.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, T K; Thompson, R C; Fayer, R; Adams, P; Morgan, U M; Lewis, E J

    1999-10-01

    Filter-feeding molluscan shellfish can concentrate zoonotic and anthroponotic waterborne pathogens. Cysts of Giardia sp. were detected by immunofluorescent antibodies in tissues of the clams Macoma balthica and M. mitchelli from Rhode River, a Chesapeake Bay (Maryland) subestuary. Molecular tests identified the cysts as Giardia duodenalis Genotype A, the most common genotype recovered from humans. Macoma clams are burrowers in mud or sandy-mud substrata and preferentially feed on the surface sediment layer. Waterborne Giardia cysts settle rapidly to the bottom in slow-moving waters and contaminate the sediment. Macoma clams do not have economic value, but can serve as biologic indicators of sediment contamination with Giardia sp. cysts of public health importance. These clams can be used for sanitary assessment of water quality.

  6. Preliminary analysis of irradiation effects on CLAM after low dose neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lei; Huang, Qunying; Li, Chunjing; Liu, Shaojun

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the irradiation effects on a new version of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) i.e. China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM), neutron irradiation experiments has been being carried out under wide collaboration in China and overseas. In this paper, the mechanical properties of CLAM heats 0603A, 0408B, and 0408D were investigated before and after neutron irradiation to ˜0.02 dpa at 250 °C. The test results showed that ultimate strength and yield stress of CLAM HEAT 0603A increased about 10-30 MPa and ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) shift was about 5 °C. For CLAM heats 0408B and 0408D, ultimate strength and yield stress increased about 80-150 MPa.

  7. Angiotensin III as well as angiotensin II regulates water flow through aquaporins in a clam worm.

    PubMed

    Satou, Ryousuke; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Ido, Hiroki; Tomomatsu, Masayuki; Suzuki, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Yukio

    2005-07-01

    Angiotensin III has been reported to exist in various animals and tissues. The physiological role, however, is still unclear except that brain angiotensin III is a central regulator of vasopressin release. In this study, angiotensin III as well as angiotensin II enhanced an increase in body weight of clam worms of Perinereis sp. under a hypo-osmotic condition and suppressed a decrease in body weight under a hyper-osmotic condition. When clam worms were treated with tetrachloroaurate (III) after angiotensin-treatment, these enhancing and suppressive effects of the angiotensins under hypo- and hyper-osmotic conditions were inhibited. In contrast, when clam worms were pretreated with tetrachloroaurate (III) before angiotensin-treatment, these effects of angiotensins were not inhibited. Since tetrachloroaurate (III) is a representative blocker of aquaporins, these results indicate that angiotensin III as well as angiotensin II regulates water flow through aquaporins in clam worms.

  8. Copper and silver accumulation in transplanted and resident clams (Macoma balthica) in South San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, D.J.; Luoma, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    Accumulation of Cu and Ag by soft tissues of the deposit-feeding clam Macoma balthica was less than half in clams transplanted to a contaminated area than in clams native to that area. During a period of tissue growth, the transplants retained 50% and 90%, respectively, of the net Cu and Ag accumulated, but loss of metals from soft tissue by the resident population equalled net accumulation. Copper accumulation in the transplants did not occur during some periods when increases in the metal body burden of the resident population indicated that environmental exposures were high. The difference in metal accumulation of the two groups of clams may be the result of past environmental exposures. The results illustrate some limitations of using transplants as indicators of pollution events or of pollutant impact upon resident populations.

  9. Assessment of immune parameters of manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in different physiological conditions using flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyung-Il; Donaghy, Ludovic; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Kim, Young-Ok; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2012-03-01

    Cellular and humoral immune parameters are often used as biomarkers to trace environmental and physiological stresses in marine bivalves. In this study, we compared various immune parameters of Manila clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) under normal conditions and under a high level of desiccation, using flow cytometry. The immune parameters analyzed included, total hemocyte count, hemocyte mortality, hemocyte DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and phagocytosis activity. Total hemocyte count, hemocyte DNA damage, and hemocyte mortality were significantly elevated among clams under high desiccation stress, while phagocytosis activity and spontaneous ROS production were significantly lower compared to those parameters of the control clams ( p<0.05). These data suggest that the immune parameters analyzed in this study well reflect the physiological status of clams.

  10. Total reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF) for trace elements assessment in edible clams.

    PubMed

    Marguí, Eva; de Fátima Marques, Alexandra; de Lurdes Prisal, Maria; Hidalgo, Manuela; Queralt, Ignasi; Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution presents a preliminary investigation of the chemical composition with respect to major, minor, trace, and ultratrace elements in several clam species that are frequently used for human consumption in Portuguese markets and worldwide. In order to use a simple and rapid analytical methodology for clam analysis, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry were selected as analytical techniques. The analytical capabilities of TXRF spectrometry were evaluated for the determination of minor and trace elements in commercial edible clams. We compared the direct analysis of powdered suspensions (using different sample amounts and dispersant agents) with the analysis of the digested samples for trace element determination. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of clam digests was also performed to evaluate the analytical possibilities of TXRF spectrometry for trace and ultratrace analysis.

  11. Tidal Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, James R.; Higdon, Sarah

    2004-09-01

    Tidal Dwarf Galaxies (TDG's) are formed from material stripped from the disks of spiral galaxies, which are undergoing tidal interactions with a nearby companion. These galaxies provide important clues to our understanding of galaxy formation, evolution and cosmic recycling. Using the IRS we will measure the star formation activity in 6 TDG candidates. We will measure the ionization state ( [NeII] 12.8 um, [NeIII] 15.6 um and [NeV] 14.3um and [OIV] 25.9 um), the density in the ionized gas ([SIII] 18.7um/33.5um), the PAH fractions at 5.5-9um and 11-12.2um and possibly (optimistic here!) molecular hydrogen emission form PDRs at H2 (S0) 28um and H2 (S1) at 17um. In addition to the IRS observations we will map both the Guitar and Stephan's Quintet with IRAC. This will enable us to compare the PAH fraction in the dwarf galaxy to that of its parent. Similarly we will compare our observation of the proposed TDG at the southern tip of NGC 4038 with the GT observations of the central region of the Antennae. This program compliments two existing GT programmes: 1) the high-Z program - these observations enable us to observe in fine detail the nearby/present day analogs of galaxy formation in the early universe. 2) Blue Compact Dwarf programme - On first inpsection BCD's and TDG's appear the same: BCDs are similar in size to TDG's, but TDG's may not have a large dark matter halo component (affecting the long term stability of an object) and BCD's typically have a much lower metallicity. We will be able to compare the star formation activity in terms of the ionization state and PAH fraction in the two galaxy types.

  12. Pressure Gradients in the Inner Surf and Outer Swash Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.

    2010-12-01

    The swash zone is a highly dynamic region of the beach profile. Although there has been significant progression in understanding the complex hydrodynamics of the swash zone, an improvement in the understanding of the sediment transport mechanisms deserves further investigation. Prior studies have demonstrated that the existing formulations derived from the energetics-type formulation do not accurately and consistently predict sediment transport. Thus, measurements and numerical modeling can contribute in the improvement of the current predictive capability of sediment transport. A potential enhancement to nearshore sediment transport is the horizontal pressure gradient. However, measuring the dynamic pressure gradient in nearshore flows is a difficult task. For instance, standard pressure sensors are generally ill-suited for this type of measurement in shallow swash flows due to the obstructing size of the sensor and the potential for flow interference. With improved measurement apparati and techniques, it is possible to obtain measurements of the horizontal pressure gradient. Our current research includes laboratory and numerical model investigation of the horizontal pressure gradient in the inner surf and outer swash zone. An inexpensive differential pressure gauge is employed allowing for a pressure port on the order of 2 mm diameter. Four pressure sensor pairs are installed 1 cm above the bed with a cross-shore spacing of 8 cm. The sensors are deployed just outside of and at various locations within the outer swash zone to determine spatio-temporal pressure variations. The measurement of total pressure coupled with the corresponding free surface measurements from co-located capacitance wave gauges yields time series of the hydrostatic and dynamic pressure and pressure gradients. A VOF-type RANS model is employed in this investigation. Firstly, the numerical model is validated with swash measurements. Then, model simulations will be performed in order to

  13. A theoretical individual-based model of Brown Ring Disease in Manila clams, Venerupis philippinarum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, Christine; Jean, Fred; Ford, Susan E.; Powell, Eric N.; Klinck, John M.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    An individual-based mathematical model was developed to investigate the biological and environmental interactions that influence the prevalence and intensity of Brown Ring Disease (BRD), a disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio tapetis, in the Manila clam (Venerupis (= Tapes, = Ruditapes) philippinarum). V. tapetis acts as an external microparasite, adhering at the surface of the mantle edge and its secretion, the periostracal lamina, causing the symptomatic brown deposit. Brown Ring Disease is atypical in that it leaves a shell scar that provides a unique tool for diagnosis of either live or dead clams. The model was formulated using laboratory and field measurements of BRD development in Manila clams, physiological responses of the clam to the pathogen, and the physiology of V. tapetis, as well as theoretical understanding of bacterial disease progression in marine shellfish. The simulation results obtained for an individual Manila clam were expanded to cohorts and populations using a probability distribution that prescribed a range of variability for parameters in a three dimensional framework; assimilation rate, clam hemocyte activity rate (the number of bacteria ingested per hemocyte per day), and clam calcification rate (a measure of the ability to recover by covering over the symptomatic brown ring deposit), which sensitivity studies indicated to be processes important in determining BRD prevalence and intensity. This approach allows concurrent simulation of individuals with a variety of different physiological capabilities (phenotypes) and hence by implication differing genotypic composition. Different combinations of the three variables provide robust estimates for the fate of individuals with particular characteristics in a population that consists of mixtures of all possible combinations. The BRD model was implemented using environmental observations from sites in Brittany, France, where Manila clams routinely exhibit BRD signs. The simulated

  14. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version

    The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way.

    The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light.

    The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light.

    Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve.

    The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The

  15. Dwarfs in Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger poster version

    This false-color mosaic of the central region of the Coma cluster combines infrared and visible-light images to reveal thousands of faint objects (green). Follow-up observations showed that many of these objects, which appear here as faint green smudges, are dwarf galaxies belonging to the cluster. Two large elliptical galaxies, NGC 4889 and NGC 4874, dominate the cluster's center. The mosaic combines visible-light data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (color coded blue) with long- and short-wavelength infrared views (red and green, respectively) from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

  16. White Dwarf Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colina, Luis

    1994-01-01

    As a result of last November calibration workshop, all parties agreed that the HST should be switched to the WD basis for absolute fluxes. This proposal implements that decision. A measurement of the absolute sensitivity of the FOS detectors will be performed using theoretical pure hydrogen model atmosphere calculations for three white dwarfs. The high resolution gratings will be used in the 1 arcsec aperture. A four stage peakup of the standard star provides centering in the aperture. Observations are requested for fall 94 with repeated observations about two months after.

  17. Reproducibility of the Most Probable Numbers Technique for Determining the Sanitary Quality of Clams1

    PubMed Central

    Lear, Donald W.

    1962-01-01

    The reproducibility of most probable numbers results in the bacteriological examination of clam meats, using the tentatively recommended procedure, is less than has been indicated in use with water analysis. Entrapped air bubbles in ground clam meats contribute to the variability of results by (i) lowering the density of the sample material, producing inaccurate aliquots for inocula, and (ii) interfering with the attainment of homogeneity in the brei. PMID:14463247

  18. Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and Fingernail Clams (Sphaeriidae) at Selected Sites in the Upper Mississippi River System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    Figure 16. Abundance of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) at sites in Lake Matanzas (LM) and Quiver Lake (QL) in La Grange Pool of the Illinois River 15...fingernail clams (Sphaeriidae) at sites in Lake Matanzas (LM) and Quiver Lake (QL) in La Grange Pool of the Illinois River 16 Figure 19...At most sample sites, the abundances of mayflies and fingernail clams have never rebounded to the numbers seen by Elstad in the 1970s . Brewer (1992

  19. Ionic and Amino Acid Regulation in Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria) in Response to Salinity Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Yeh, Po-Ling; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Most marine mollusks are osmoconformers, in that, their body fluid osmolality changes in the direction of the change in environmental salinity. Marine mollusks exhibit a number of osmoregulatory mechanisms to cope with either hypo- or hyperosmotic stress. The effects of changes in salinity on the osmoregulatory mechanisms of the hard clam (Meretrix lusoria, an economically important species of marine bivalve for Taiwan) have not been determined. In this study, we examined the effect of exposure to hypo (10‰)- and hyper (35‰)-osmotic salinity on hard clams raised at their natural salinity (20‰). The osmolality, [Na+], and [Cl−] of the hard clam hemolymph were changed in the same direction as the surrounding salinity. Further, the contents of total free amino acids including taurine in the gills and mantles were significantly upregulated in hard clam with increasing salinity. The gill Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) activity, the important enzyme regulating cellular inorganic ions, was not affected by the changed salinity. Mantle NKA activity, however, was stimulated in the 35‰ SW treatment. The taurine transporter (TAUT) is related to the regulation of intracellular contents of taurine, the dominant osmolyte. Herein, a TAUT gene of hard clam was cloned and a TAUT antibody was derived for the immunoblotting. The TAUT mRNA expression of the mantle in hard clam was significantly stimulated in 35‰ SW, but protein expression was not modulated by the changed salinity. In gills of the hard clam with 10‰ SW, both TAUT mRNA and protein expressions were significantly stimulated, and it may reflect a feedback regulation from the decreased gills taurine content under long-term hypoosmotic acclimation. These findings suggest that TAUT expression is regulated differently in gills and mantles following exposure to alterations in environmental salinity. Taken together, this study used the physiological, biochemical and molecular approaches to simultaneously explore the

  20. Ionic and Amino Acid Regulation in Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria) in Response to Salinity Challenges.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Yeh, Po-Ling; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Most marine mollusks are osmoconformers, in that, their body fluid osmolality changes in the direction of the change in environmental salinity. Marine mollusks exhibit a number of osmoregulatory mechanisms to cope with either hypo- or hyperosmotic stress. The effects of changes in salinity on the osmoregulatory mechanisms of the hard clam (Meretrix lusoria, an economically important species of marine bivalve for Taiwan) have not been determined. In this study, we examined the effect of exposure to hypo (10‰)- and hyper (35‰)-osmotic salinity on hard clams raised at their natural salinity (20‰). The osmolality, [Na(+)], and [Cl(-)] of the hard clam hemolymph were changed in the same direction as the surrounding salinity. Further, the contents of total free amino acids including taurine in the gills and mantles were significantly upregulated in hard clam with increasing salinity. The gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity, the important enzyme regulating cellular inorganic ions, was not affected by the changed salinity. Mantle NKA activity, however, was stimulated in the 35‰ SW treatment. The taurine transporter (TAUT) is related to the regulation of intracellular contents of taurine, the dominant osmolyte. Herein, a TAUT gene of hard clam was cloned and a TAUT antibody was derived for the immunoblotting. The TAUT mRNA expression of the mantle in hard clam was significantly stimulated in 35‰ SW, but protein expression was not modulated by the changed salinity. In gills of the hard clam with 10‰ SW, both TAUT mRNA and protein expressions were significantly stimulated, and it may reflect a feedback regulation from the decreased gills taurine content under long-term hypoosmotic acclimation. These findings suggest that TAUT expression is regulated differently in gills and mantles following exposure to alterations in environmental salinity. Taken together, this study used the physiological, biochemical and molecular approaches to simultaneously explore the

  1. Ozone depuration of Vibrio vulnificus from the southern quahog clam, Mercenaria campechiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.R.; Steslow, F.S.; Sierra, F.S.; Rodrick, G.E.; Noss, C.I. )

    1991-03-01

    Southern quahog clams, Mercenaria campechiensis, were dosed with Vibrio vulnificus and placed in a pilot-scale depuration system using ozonated recirculated artificial seawater. Twenty-four hours of treatment with ozone-treated recirculating artificial seawater reduced the numbers of V. vulnificus in the shellfish meats by an average of 2 log units when compared to natural die-off in control clams. The oxidant levels (up to 3 mg/liter) did not adversely affect shellfish pumping during the depuration process.

  2. Identification of leukemia cell surface proteins in clams

    SciTech Connect

    Reinisch, C.L.; Smolowitz, R.; Miosky, D. Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA )

    1988-09-01

    Soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria, develop leukemias which, in the advanced stages of disease, kill the host. The authors laboratory has developed an extensive panel of murine monoclonal antibodies to leukemia cells of Mya, and has used these powerful reagents to diagnose the disease with extreme accuracy. They have now ascertained that one membrane-associated protein of approximately 200kD is immunodominant. The function of this protein, regulation of its production and potential site of synthesis are being evaluated. Monoclonal antibodies have also permitted the exploration of the mechanism of leukemogensis. They have evaluated the specific staining pattern of one monoclonal antibody, and have concluded that at least one ontogenic source of leukemic cells may be connective tissue cells lining the sinusoids. Whether or not exposure to severely polluted sites such as New Bedford Harbor stimulates the export of immature hemocytes which then become transformed is at least one possibility amenable to testing using the monoclonal reagents.

  3. Microplastic ingestion reduces energy intake in the clam Atactodea striata.

    PubMed

    Xu, X-Y; Lee, W T; Chan, A K Y; Lo, H S; Shin, P K S; Cheung, S G

    2016-12-27

    The effects of microplastic concentrations (10itemsl(-1) and 1000itemsl(-1)) on the physiological responses of Atactodea striata (clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate) were investigated. The fates of ingested microplastics and the efficiency of depuration in removing ingested microplastics were also studied. A. striata ingested microplastics and the clearance rate was reduced at high concentration of microplastics. Since the respiration rate and absorption efficiency remained unchanged in exposed A. striata, reduction in the clearance rate would reduce the energy intake. Ingestion and retention of microplastics in the body were further limited by the production of pseudofaeces and faeces, and depuration in clean water, resulting in a very small amount of microplastics stored in the body of the clam.

  4. Lipid characteristics of a seep clam, Mesolinga soliditesta: Comparison with those of two coastal clams, Meretrix lamarckii and Ruditapes philippinarum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Hiroaki; Murata, Masakazu; Hashimoto, Jun

    2014-12-01

    The lipids and fatty acids of two coastal clams, Meretrix lamarckii and Ruditapes philippinarum, collected at 5 and 1 m of depth, and a seep clam, Mesolinga soliditesta, collected at 331 m of depth, were examined to assess their lipid physiology and trophic relationship with their diets. The major fatty acids of lipids in Mer. lamarckii and R. philippinarum were 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9, 18:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, while those of Mes. soliditesta were 16:0, 18:0, 16:1n-7, 18:1n-7, 20:1n-7, 20:1n-13, 20:2n-7, 15 (Δ5,13-20:2), and 22:2n-7,15 (Δ7,15-22:2). The major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the Mer. lamarckii and R. philippinarum lipids consisted of various n-3 and n-6 long-chain (LC) PUFAs, such as 20:4n-6, 22:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, while those in Mes. soliditesta muscle and viscera included various n-4 family PUFAs (18:3n-7, 18:4n-4, 20:2n-7, and 20:3n-7) with limited kinds of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs (20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3). These findings indicate that, like other common shallow-water clams, Mer. lamarckii and R. philippinarum ingest phytoplanktonic n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFAs, whereas Mes. soliditesta utilizes limited kinds of n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFAs. In contrast to the other two bivalves species, Mes. soliditesta yielded various n-4 and n-7 (n-4/n-7) PUFAs, which were assimilated from the chemosynthetic symbionts. The high diversity of PUFAs contained in the Mes. soliditesta lipids (n-3, n-4 family, and n-6 PUFAs) suggests that this species mixotrophically utilized both photosynthetic products and vent chemosynthetic nutrition derived from geothermal energy.

  5. Reverse transcriptase activity in tissues of the soft shell clam Mya arenaria affected with haemic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    AboElkhair, M; Synard, S; Siah, A; Pariseau, J; Davidson, J; Johnson, G; Greenwood, S J; Casey, J W; Berthe, F C J; Cepica, A

    2009-10-01

    Since all retroviruses possess reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme, reverse transcriptase activity has been the main supportive evidence of retroviral etiology of haemic neoplasia (HN) in soft shell clams, Mya arenaria. The objective of the present study was to search for a putative retrovirus in various tissues of diseased clams following quantification of RT activity (biochemical indicator of retroviral infection). The clams were assessed by flow cytometry (FCM) for diagnosis of HN. RT activity was quantified by TaqMan-product enhanced reverse transcriptase (TM-PERT) assay in four different organs, gonad, gills, digestive gland, and mantle, at various stages of HN. The digestive gland, the organ with the highest RT activity, and haemocytes, the target cell of HN, were assessed by EM for presence of retroviruses. All organs were assessed by histology. The results of this study demonstrated that although all organs of healthy clams have some background RT activity, the activity observed in most of organs of diseased clams was significantly increased (p<0.05). An association was observed between the degree of neoplastic cell infiltration and the level of RT activity. Digestive gland showed the highest and most consistent RT activity in both healthy and diseased clams. No evidence for the existence of a retrovirus like particle was found by positive staining EM. The presence of RT activity without indications of retroviral particles in digestive gland and haemocytes suggests a probable endogenous source of RT.

  6. Evaluating sublethal indicators of stress in Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) caged in an urban stream

    SciTech Connect

    Black, M.C.; Belin, J.I.

    1998-12-31

    Freshwater bivalves have been used extensively to monitor chemical accumulation in field exposures, although little information is available on the use of biomarker measurements in field exposures with bivalves. DNA strand breakage, growth rate, condition index and percentage tissue water were measured in freshwater Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) exposed in-situ in a stream that receives urban and industrial stormwater runoff and in a non-impacted reference stream. After 4 weeks exposure, DNA strand lengths in foot tissue from Trail Creek-exposed clams were significantly shorter than DNA from reference clams. These results suggest a reduction in DNA integrity in Trail Creek-exposed clams, possibly indicating exposure to genotoxic chemicals. No significant differences were observed in the growth rates of clams. However, a significant inverse relationship was detected between condition index and % tissue water for all clams. Furthermore, site-specific differences in percentage tissue water and condition indices were observed after 2 and 10 weeks exposure. For this study DNA strand breakage, condition indices, and tissue hydration appear to be more sensitive indicators of sublethal toxicity than growth.

  7. Establishing tolerable dungeness crab (Cancer magister) and razor clam (Siliqua patula) domoic acid contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Mariën, K

    1996-11-01

    Domoic acid has been found in razor clams (Siliqua patula) and dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in Washington State and elsewhere on the West Coast of the United States. Due to toxic effects associated with domoic acid exposure, an effort has been made to establish tolerable domoic acid levels in crabs and clams obtained from commercial harvest and sale and from individual recreational harvesting. To accomplish this, the amount of clams and crabs consumed by populations of concern was determined, a tolerable daily intake (TDI) was developed for individuals most sensitive to effects of this compound, and the TDI was equated with consumption patterns to determine tolerable clam and crab domoic acid levels. Results indicate that the primary health effects associated with domoic acid toxicity can be averted in populations of concern and for others consuming crabs or clams less frequently (or in lesser quantity) if domoic acid contaminant concentration does not exceed 30 mg/kg in the hepatopancreas and viscera of dungeness crabs or 20 mg/kg in clams.

  8. Occurrence of domoic acid in Washington state razor clams (Siliqua patula) during 1991-1993.

    PubMed

    Wekell, J C; Gauglitz, E J; Barnett, H J; Hatfield, C L; Simons, D; Ayres, D

    1994-01-01

    The presence of domoic acid in aquatic species was reported for the first time in the United States in the late summer of 1991 in Monterey Bay, California. By October of 1991, domoic acid was found in razor clams (Siliqua patula) and in the viscera of Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) along the coasts of Washington and Oregon. In response to this outbreak, the National Marine Fisheries Service, in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Fisheries began analysis of Washington State razor clams for the period from November 1991 to June 1993. This survey indicated that domoic acid levels in the edible portion of the razor clams peaked in December of 1991 (average of all Washington state coastal sites: 106 ppm) and followed a slow decline to the present day low levels (< 5 ppm). Sixteen months after the maximum level, domoic acid has not completely disappeared from the razor clams from the Washington State beaches. Unlike mussels (Mytilus edulis), where the toxin is found only in the viscera, domoic acid distributes itself throughout the various body parts of the razor clam. The highest concentration occurs in the foot or "digger" and the lowest in the siphon or "neck." The concentration of domoic acid in the razor clam foot reached a high of 230 ppm.

  9. Production and characterisation of hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory protein hydrolysates from Venus clam.

    PubMed

    Sutthiwanjampa, Chanutchamon; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-01-01

    The hydrolysates of fresh and boiled Venus clams with five different proteases for the production of low-molecular protein hydrolysates were optimised by response surface methodology. Alcalase hydrolysates exhibited the strongest hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of fresh and boiled clams were< enzyme-to-substrate ratio (E/S), 2.15%; time, 150 min; water-to-substrate ratio (W/S), 83.84 mL g(-1) for fresh clam, and E/S, 2.02%; time, 4.11 h; W/S, 69.74 mL g(-1) for boiled clam. The fresh and boiled clam protein hydrolysates were fractionated by S-200 HR size-exclusion chromatography, which resulted in one (FH1) and two (BH1 and BH2) fractions, respectively. BH1 exhibited the highest hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory activities with specific activities of 141.15 and 81.36% mL mg(-1), respectively. Therefore, the boiled Venus clam hydrolysate might be developed as a cosmeceutical agent because of its strong hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory activities.

  10. Hepatoprotection by freshwater clam extract against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Chen; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater clam is traditionally used as a food and has been mentioned in ancient books to have a hepatoprotective effect. The hepatoprotective effect of freshwater clam extract was evaluated in the model of chronic hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated with freshwater clam extract (0.3, 0.6 and 1.5 g/kg of bw) or silymarin (0.2 g/kg of bw) along with the administration of CCl4 (0.5 ml/rat, 20% CCl4 in olive oil) for eight consecutive weeks. Blood samples were collected for assaying serum biochemical parameters. The livers were excised for evaluating peroxidation products and antioxidant substances, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Pathological histology was also performed. The data showed that supplementation of freshwater clam extract (0.6 g/kg bw) significantly reduced the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in rats treated with CCl4, and also decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroxyproline and excessive inflammation in the livers of CCl4-treated rats. Histopathological analysis of the liver showed that freshwater clam extract (0.6 g/kg bw) markedly reduced the injury score of the fibrosis induced by CCl4 in rats. The data suggest that oral administration with freshwater clam extract might provide a novel and alternative approach for treating chronic liver failure.

  11. Spatial distribution and bioaccumulation patterns in three clam populations from a low contaminated ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velez, Cátia; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu; Freitas, Rosa

    2015-03-01

    When consuming bivalves, special concern should be taken to the total element burden. In order to assess this issue the present study aimed to measure the element levels in the sediments of different harvesting areas and relate them with clam accumulation; to assess the elements body burden, their availability for trophic transfer and relate it with total accumulation in clams, comparing the native (Ruditapes decussatus and Venerupis corrugata) and the invasive (Ruditapes philippinarum) species; to evaluate the human risk associated with the consumption of different clam species. The results showed that the element burden in clams does not reflect the sediment contamination and BAF values were higher in the less contaminated areas. Comparison of Maximum Levels (MLs) from international organizations with the concentration of elements in clams showed that As exceeded standard levels. The ingestion of less than 1 Kg per week of clams would result in exceeding the PTWI threshold for As. Furthermore, the results showed that, when comparing to other elements, As and Hg are more easily available to be transferred trophically.

  12. Management strategies to optimise sustainable clam ( Tapes philippinarum) harvests in Barbamarco Lagoon, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillman, C. M.; Hamilton, D. P.; Imberger, J.

    2009-01-01

    Barbamarco Lagoon is a small lagoon adjoining the Northern Adriatic Sea and is the site of a commercially valuable clam ( Tapes philippinarum) fishery. A three-dimensional (3D) coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model was applied to the lagoon with the objective of assessing impacts on clam food supply, commercial harvests and water quality of different clam rearing strategies, lagoon morphologies and flow regimes. Harvest and net growth to seeding ratios, total harvest value, clearance efficiencies and clam satiety were used to quantify the commercial success of different management strategies, while bottom dissolved oxygen concentrations were used as an indicator of ecosystem health. Increasing exchange with the Northern Adriatic Sea or increasing freshwater inputs into the lagoon improved clam food supply and increased both harvest production and ecosystem health in model simulations of the system. Results indicated that the high spatial and temporal variability of clam production and water quality responses must be considered for a holistic assessment of the outcomes of strategies in the context of ecological and production carrying capacity.

  13. Soft shell clams Mya arenaria with disseminated neoplasia demonstrate reverse transcriptase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, M.L.; Kim, C.H.; Reno, P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Disseminated neoplasia (DN), a proliferative cell disorder of the circulatory system of bivalves, was first reported in oysters in 1969. Since that time, the disease has been determined to be transmissible through water-borne exposure, but the etiological agent has not been unequivocally identified. In order to determine if a viral agent, possibly a retrovirus, could be the causative agent of DN, transmission experiments were performed, using both a cell-free filtrate and a sucrose gradient-purified preparation of a cell-free filtrate of DN positive materials. Additionally, a PCR-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay was used to determine if reverse transcriptase was present in tissues or hemolymph from DN positive soft shell clams Mya arenaria. DN was transmitted to healthy clams by injection with whole DN cells, but not with cell-free flitrates prepared from either tissues from DN positive clams, or DN cells. The cell-free preparations from DN-positive tissues and hemolymph having high levels of DN cells in circulation exhibited positive reactions in the PCR-enhanced reverse transcriptase assay. Cell-free preparations of hemolymph from clams having low levels of DN (<0.1% of cells abnormal), hemocytes from normal soft shell clams, and normal soft shell clam tissues did not produce a positive reaction in the PCR enhanced reverse transcriptase assay.

  14. Microplastic Ingestion by Wild and Cultured Manila Clams (Venerupis philippinarum) from Baynes Sound, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Katie; Dudas, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    Microplastics, plastic particles <5 mm, are an emerging concern in aquatic ecosystems. Because microplastics are small, they are available to many filter-feeding organisms, which can then be consumed by higher trophic level organisms, including humans. This study documents the quantity of microplastics present in wild and cultured Manila clams (Venerupis philippinarum). Three active shellfish farms and three reference beaches (i.e., non-shellfish farm sites) in Baynes Sound, British Columbia were chosen to examine the microplastic concentrations in wild and cultured Manila clams. Microplastics were isolated using a nitric acid digestion technique and enumerated from 54 clams (27 farmed and 27 non-farmed). Qualitative attributes, such as colour and microplastic type (fiber, fragment, or film) also were recorded. There was no significant difference (F = 1.29; df = 1,4; P = 0.289) between microplastic concentrations in cultured and wild clams. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 5.47 particles/g (from reference beach and shellfish farm clams, respectively). Fibers were the dominant microplastic (90 %); colourless and dark gray fibers were the most common colours observed (36 and 26 %, respectively). Although this indicates that microplastics are definitely present in seafood consumed by humans, shellfish aquaculture operations do not appear to be increasing microplastic concentrations in farmed clams in this region.

  15. Relative importance of burrow sediment and porewater to the accumulation of trace metals in the clam Amiantis umbonella.

    PubMed

    Tarique, Qaiser; Burger, Joanna; Reinfelder, John R

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the infaunal, facultative deposit-feeding clam Amiantis umbonella as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination and the relative importance of clam burrow sediment and porewater to total accumulation in an urban/industrial coastal environment. Concentrations of eight trace metals (cadmium [Cd], chromium, copper, mercury [Hg], nickel, lead [Pb], vanadium, and zinc) were measured in the soft tissues of clams and in sediment and porewater from clam burrows along a 5-km transect from desalination/power plant discharges in inner Kuwait Bay. All metals had significantly greater concentrations in clams collected near the desalination/power plant discharges than from the reference site and exhibited decreasing trends with distance from the point source in clam soft tissues and burrow sediment and porewater. Concentrations of Hg (1-9 ppm [dry weight]) and the highest concentrations of Pb (3 ppm) and Cd (7 ppm) in clams from contaminated sites in Kuwait Bay were greater than human consumption limits. Metal concentrations in clams were correlated with those in burrow sediment and porewater across all sites and at sites closest to the point source but not within the reference site. The concentrations of all metals, except Pb, in clams from the contaminated sites were more highly correlated with those in clam burrow sediment than porewater. Concentrations of Pb in clam soft tissues were more strongly correlated with those in burrow porewater than sediment. These results indicate that A. umbonella is an excellent bioindicator of trace metal contamination and that sediment is an important source of contaminant metals to this infaunal clam; however, the source of each metal must be evaluated separately.

  16. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe.

    Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old.

    The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at

    http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or

    http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc .

    The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope.

    The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars.

    Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the

  17. Validation of accuracy and repeatability of UltraSurf metrology on common optical shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFisher, Scott; Matthews, Greg; Fess, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Advancements in optical manufacturing technology allow optical designers to implement steep aspheric or high departure surfaces into their systems. Accurate metrology during the grinding and polishing stages of asphere manufacturing will reduce time and cost. Measuring these surfaces with common interferometers or profilometers can be difficult due to large surface slopes or unpolished surface texture. OptiPro has developed UltraSurf to qualify the form, figure, and thickness of steep aspheric and freeform optics. UltraSurf is a computer controlled, non-contact coordinate measuring machine. It incorporates five air-bearing axes, linear motors, high-resolution feedback, and a non-contact probe. The measuring probe is scanned over the optical surface while maintaining perpendicularity and a constant focal offset. There are multiple probe technologies available on UltraSurf, and each probe has strengths and weaknesses relative to the material properties, surface finish, and figure error of an optical component. Validation of the system accuracy, repeatability, and methodology must be performed to trust the measurement data. Form and figure maps of a flat, a sphere, and an asphere using UltraSurf will be presented with comparisons to interferometry. In addition, accuracy, repeatability, and machine qualification will be discussed.

  18. 76 FR 8651 - Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ..., Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary special local regulation on certain navigable waters of Half Moon Bay in support of... Half Moon Bay. The Mavericks Surf Competition will occur in the vicinity of Pillar Point in...

  19. The Web Surfer: What (Literacy) Skills Does It Take to Surf Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Jessie

    2010-01-01

    This article looks closely at some of the lingering stereotypes that Composition Studies holds toward Web surfing and queries the resulting literacy hierarchy against our students' reading and writing practices that take place online. This article claims that while good progress has been made in the way of revising twenty-first century definitions…

  20. The Ocean as a Unique Therapeutic Environment: Developing a Surfing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily D.; Armitano, Cortney N.; Lamont, Linda S.; Audette, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Educational aquatic programming offers necessary physical activity opportunities to children with disabilities and the benefits of aquatic activities are more pronounced for children with disabilities than for their able-bodied peers. Similar benefits could potentially be derived from surfing in the ocean. This article describes an adapted surfing…

  1. VolSurf: a new tool for the pharmacokinetic optimization of lead compounds.

    PubMed

    Cruciani, G; Pastor, M; Guba, W

    2000-10-01

    A method for the modeling and prediction of pharmacokinetic properties based on computed molecular interaction fields and multivariate statistics has been investigated in different experimental datasets. The program VolSurf was used to correlate 3D molecular structures with physico-chemical and pharmacokinetic properties. In membrane partitioning, VolSurf produced a two-component model explaining 94% of the total variation with a predictive q(2) of 0.90. This result was achieved without conformational sampling and without any quantum-chemical calculation. For the prediction of blood-brain barrier penetration the VolSurf model was able to predict the BBB profile for most of the drugs in the external prediction set. In Caco-2 and MDCK permeation experiments, VolSurf was used with success to establish statistical models and to predict the behaviour of new compounds. The method thus appears as a valuable new property filter in virtual screening and as a novel tool in optimizing the pharmacokinetic profile of pharmaceutically relevant compounds.

  2. Access Without Authentication: How and Why We Let Anyone Surf Our Wireless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Donna

    2006-01-01

    Wireless hotspots are popping up in local coffee shops everywhere. Anyone with a wireless-ready laptop or PDA can surf the Internet at one of these hotspots. The same is now true for all 32 branches of the Orange County Public Library (OCPL) in California. Though many public library systems are moving toward wireless access, most require patrons…

  3. PROPERTIES OF THE COOLEST DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    SAUMON, DIDIER; LEGGETT, SANDY K.; FREEDMAN, RICHARD S.; GEBALLE, THOMAS R.; GOLIMOWSKI, DAVID A.; LODIEU, NICOLAS; MARLEY, MARK S.; STEPHENS, DENISE; PINFIELD, DAVID J.; WARREN, STEPHEN J.

    2007-01-18

    Eleven years after the discovery of the first T dwarf, we have a population of ultracool L and T dwarfs that is large enough to show a range of atmospheric properties, as well as model atmospheres advanced enough to study these properties in detail. Since the last Cool Stars meeting, there have been observational developments which aid in these studies. they present recent mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope which confirms the prevalence of vertical mixing in the atmospheres of L and T dwarfs. Hence, the 700 K to 2200 K L and t dwarf photspheres require a large number of parameters for successful modeling: effective temperature, gravity, metallicity, grain sedimentation and vertical mixing efficiency. They also describe initial results of a search for ultracool dwarfs in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, and present the latest T dwarf found to date. They conclude with a discussion of the definition of the later-than-T spectral type, the Y dwarf.

  4. Effect of coastal eutrophication on heavy metal bioaccumulation and oral bioavailability in the razor clam, Sinonovacula constricta.

    PubMed

    Tu, Tengxiu; Li, Shunxing; Chen, Lihui; Zheng, Fengying; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2014-10-01

    As traditional seafoods, the razor clams are widely distributed from tropical to temperate areas. Coastal razor clams are often exposed to eutrophication. Heavy metal contamination is critical for seafood safety. However, how eutrophication affects bioaccumulation and oral bioavailability of heavy metals in the razor clams is unknown. After a four-month field experimental cultivation, heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, V, As, and Pb) could be bioaccumulated by the razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) through exposure to metals present in water and sediments or in the food chain, and then transferred to human via consumption of razor clams. Bionic gastrointestinal digestion and monolayer liposome extraction are used for metal oral bioavailability (OBA) assessment. The influence of eutrophication on OBA is decreased for Fe and Pb and increased for V. A significant positive linear correlation was observed between the bioaccumulation factors of Fe, Ni, V, and As in razor clams and the coastal eutrophication. These results may be due to the effect of eutrophication on metal species transformation in coastal seawater and subcellular distribution in razor clams. The maximum allowable daily intakes of razor clams are controlled by eutrophication status and the concentration of affinity-liposome As in razor clams.

  5. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (south Atlantic): Hard clam. [Mercenaria mercenaria

    SciTech Connect

    Eversole, A.G.

    1987-08-01

    The hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, supports an important commercial fishery in the South Atlantic, averaging about 1 million kg of meats annually from 1979 to 1983. It also is an important constituent of estuarine systems throughout the region. Spawning occurs in the spring and the fall at 16 to 30/sup 0/C. Planktonic eggs and larvae are carried by water currents, and larvae set sometime after 6 days of age. Mortality is highest in egg and larval stages, the most sensitive part of the life cycle. Spat display gregarious setting behavior and appear to select sand over finer substrates. Highest densities of clams occur in sandy bottoms with shell. Crab predation is an important factor influencing the density and distribution of clams. Blue crabs and mud crabs appear to be the most important predators. Hard clams are infested by few parasites. Adult clams feed by filtering suspended particulate matter from the water. Growth of clams decreases with size and age. Growth occurs year-round with peaks in spring and fall. Growth of adult hard clams occurs at 9 to 31/sup 0/C and at 4 to 35 ppt (optima near 20/sup 0/C and 24 to 28 ppt). Hard clams mature in 2 years and reach commercial size in 3 years in the South Atlantic. Tight-fitting shells permit hard clams to survive poor water quality for short periods.

  6. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic): Softshell clam. [Mya arenaria

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.J.; Dillon, P.L.

    1986-08-01

    The softshell clam supports the third most valuable commercial clam fishery in the United States. Density is highest at depths of 3 to 4 m, temperatures less than 28/sup 0/C, and salinities greater than 3 ppt. Its near-shore habitat makes it easily threatened by pollution. Clam beds in some places have been closed because of contamination by bacteria. Softshell clams are more sensitive to oil pollution than are the other clams that share its habitat. The softshell clam spawns in spring (sometimes in early summer) and again in fall. In 36 to 48 h after fertilization, a pelagic veliger larva develops and persists for 2 to 6 weeks. Then it settles out of the plankton. It attaches to the substrate and can move and reattach itself. Eventually, it adopts the adult lifestyle and occupies a permanent burrow, usually in sandy bottom with less than 50% silt. Adult clams feed by filtering small particles from the water column. Predators of adult clams include crabs, fish, birds, and raccoons. The 24-h LC/sub 50/ values for summer-acclimated clams have been reported as 32.5 to 34.4/sup 0/C. Juveniles and adults can withstand long periods of anaerobiosis.

  7. The brown dwarf kinematics project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jackie K.

    2010-10-01

    Brown dwarfs are a recent addition to the plethora of objects studied in Astronomy. With theoretical masses between 13 and 75 MJupiter , they lack sustained stable Hydrogen burning so they never join the stellar main sequence. They have physical properties similar to both planets and low-mass stars so studies of their population inform on both. The distances and kinematics of brown dwarfs provide key statistical constraints on their ages, moving group membership, absolute brightnesses, evolutionary trends, and multiplicity. Yet, until my thesis, fundamental measurements of parallax and proper motion were made for only a relatively small fraction of the known population. To address this deficiency, I initiated the Brown Dwarf Kinematics (BDKP). Over the past four years I have re-imaged the majority of spectroscopically confirmed field brown dwarfs (or ultracool dwarfs---UCDs) and created the largest proper motion catalog for ultracool dwarfs to date. Using new astrometric information I examined population characteristics such as ages calculated from velocity dispersions and correlations between kinematics and colors. Using proper motions, I identified several new wide co-moving companions and investigated binding energy (and hence formation) limitations as well as the frequency of hierarchical companions. Concurrently over the past four years I have been conducting a parallax survey of 84 UCDs including those showing spectral signatures of youth, metal-poor brown dwarfs, and those within 20 pc of the Sun. Using absolute magnitude relations in J,H, and K, I identified overluminous binary candidates and investigated known flux-reversal binaries. Using current evolutionary models, I compared the MK vs J-K color magnitude diagram to model predictions and found that the low-surface gravity dwarfs are significantly red-ward and underluminous of predictions and a handful of late-type T dwarfs may require thicker clouds to account for their scatter.

  8. Etiology, pathogenesis and epizootiology of hematopoietic neoplasia in the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the etiology of hematopoietic neoplasia (HN) in soft-shell clams, Mya arenaria, have been inconclusive. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons, polychlorinated-biphenyls and a virus have all been implicated as causative agents. The isolation of 100 nm virus-like particles from neoplastic clams proved conclusively that the causative agent is a retrovirus. The virus can induce a neoplasia in non-neoplastic clams and similar virus particles can be re-isolated and induce neoplasia. The activities of the RT are temperature dependent, found at 6[degrees]C, but not at 25[degrees]C and 37[degrees]C. The incidence rate for neoplasia in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island was 7.7% and for combined other locations, 3.7% (26/699). HN was present in clams throughout the year at varying levels. The highest incidence occurred in October (11.5%); the lowest incidence in April (1.2%) and June (2.5%). The outcome of the disease depends on the water temperature and degree of severity of neoplasia in the clams. Death rate was greatest when water temperature was at 15[degrees]C (100%). High severity clams had the highest death rate (100%). Chronicity of persistent neoplasia occurred more at 10[degrees]C (19%) than at 6[degrees]C (15%) or 15[degrees]C (0%). Remission occurred only in low severity juvenile clams at either 6[degrees]C or 10[degrees]C. Neoplasia causes metabolic alteration in clams. Remission occurred only in low severity juvenile clams at either 6[degrees]C or 10[degrees]C. The time to remission was longer at 6[degrees]C than 10[degrees]C. Neoplasia causes metabolic alteration in clams. This shown by a significant increase in uric acid, asparatate transminase and triglycerides and a decrease in urea in the hemolymph. The cell membrane of neoplastic hemocytes also shows differences in their binding pattern to lectin than the normal hemocytes, indicating a change in cell surface glycoprotein probably induced by the retrovirus.

  9. Magnetic Field of Strange Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdasaryan, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    The generation of a magnetic field in a strange quark star owing to differential rotation of the superfluid and superconducting quark core relative to the normal electron-nuclear crust of the star is examined. The maximum possible magnetic field on the surface is estimated for various models of strange dwarfs. Depending on the configuration parameters, i.e., the mass M and radius R of the star, a range of 103-105 G is found. These values of the magnetic field may be an additional condition for identification of strange dwarfs among the extensive class of observed white dwarfs.

  10. PHL 5038: a spatially resolved white dwarf + brown dwarf binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, P. R.; Burleigh, M. R.; Farihi, J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Jameson, R. F.; Dobbie, P. D.; Barstow, M. A.

    2009-06-01

    A near-infrared excess is detected at the white dwarf PHL 5038 in UKIDSS photometry, consistent with the presence of a cool, substellar companion. We have obtained H- and K-grism spectra and images of PHL 5038 using NIRI on Gemini North. The target is spatially and spectrally resolved into two components: an 8000 K DA white dwarf, and a likely L8 brown dwarf companion, separated by 0.94 arcsec. The spectral type of the secondary was determined using standard spectral indices for late L and T dwarfs. The projected orbital separation of the binary is 55 AU, so it becomes only the second known wide WD+dL binary to be found after GD 165AB. This object could potentially be used as a benchmark for testing substellar evolutionary models at intermediate to older ages.

  11. Performance differences between sexes in the pop-up phase of surfing.

    PubMed

    Eurich, Alea D; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Noffal, Guillermo J; Nguyen, Diamond; Khamoui, Andy V; Uribe, Brandon P

    2010-10-01

    Surfing is a dynamic sport that is multidirectional in nature and requires peak performance in variable ocean conditions. Its growing popularity among the female population has stirred curiosity as to whether women can and will 1 day face their male counterparts in head-to-head competition at the top levels. The purpose of this study was to examine male and female differences in performance of a simulated surfing pop-up movement. Forty recreationally trained surfers (20 men and 20 women) were instructed to lie prone on a force plate, in the pop-up position (similar to a push-up), with only their hands in contact with the plate. A velocity transducer was attached to their back via an adjustable strap around their upper trunk. They completed 3 pop-ups as explosively as possible by pushing forcefully with their hands and jumping to their feet. Absolute and relative force and power were measured. Results demonstrated that men exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) greater relative force (M = 9.56 ± 1.25 N·kg⁻¹, W = 8.15 ± 0.98) and relative power (M = 16.39 ± 4.22 W·kg⁻¹, W = 9.98 ± 2.58) when compared to women. These findings demonstrate that men produce greater force and power than do women even relative to body weight when performing a simulated surfing pop-up movement. It appears that women may be at a disadvantage in regards to peak performance when compared to their male counterparts in the surfing pop-up movement. Therefore, women should train for both maximum and explosive upper-body strength in addition to their time spent surfing.

  12. Structure of Manila Clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) Microbiota at the Organ Scale in Contrasting Sets of Individuals.

    PubMed

    Meisterhans, Guillaume; Raymond, Natalie; Girault, Emilie; Lambert, Christophe; Bourrasseau, Line; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Garabetian, Frédéric; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrate microbiota has a key function in host physiology and health. To date, knowledge about bivalve microbiota is poorly documented except public health concerns. This study used a molecular approach to characterize the microbiota associated with the bivalve Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) by determining (1) the difference among organs either or not under the influence of host habitat, (2) small-scale variability of microbiota, and (3) the experimental response of the Manila clam microbiota submitted to different lateral transmissions. These questions were investigated by sampling two groups of individuals living in contrasting habitats and carrying out a transplant experiment. Manila clam microbiota (i.e., bacterial community structure) was determined at organ-scale (gills, gut, and a pool of remaining tissues) by capillary electrophoresis DNA fingerprinting (CE fingerprinting). The Manila clam microbiota structure differed among organs indicating a selection of Manila clam microbiota at organ scale. Habitat strongly influenced gill and gut microbiota. In contrast, microbiota associated with remaining tissues was similar between group individuals suggesting that these communities are mostly autochthonous, i.e., Manila clam specific. Transplant experiment showed that improving living condition did not induce any change in microbiota associated with remaining tissues. In contrast, the reduction in individual habitat quality led to individuals in declining health as strongly suggested by the increase in phagocytosis activity and decrease in condition index together with the change in internal organ microbiota. This study provides a first description of the Manila clam holobiont which can withstand disturbance and respond opportunistically to improved environmental conditions.

  13. Neuroendocrine disruption in Mya arenaria clams during gametogenesis at sites under pollution stress.

    PubMed

    Gagné, F; Blaise, C; Pellerin, J; André, C

    2007-08-01

    This study examined the neuroendocrine status of clams on intertidal mud flats in the St. Lawrence Estuary and Saguenay Fjord areas during late gametogenesis. The impact of pollution was determined by a test battery of early stress markers (metallothioneins, heme levels, glutathione S-transferase activity), tissue damage (lipid peroxidation and DNA damage) and morphologic characteristics (age, soft-tissue weight ratio and growth index). Neuroendocrinal status was examined by tracking serotonin and dopamine metabolism, monoamine adenylate cyclase activity in synaptosomes, monoamine oxidase and arachidonate cyclooxygenase activities in relation to gametogenetic activity: pyrimidine synthesis, (aspartate transcarbamoylase activity or ATC), vitellogenin-like proteins and gonado-somatic index. The results show that clam soft tissue weights were reduced at sites close to harbours and higher at sites near domestic wastewater outfalls. The age-to-length ratio of clams was generally higher at impacted sites, suggesting reduced growth. The biomarkers of stress or damage confirmed that oxidative stress, DNA damage, metallothioneins and glutathione S-transferase activity were significantly increased at varying degrees, at the polluted sites. Vitellogenin-like proteins and gametogenetic activity were significantly increased at sites influenced by domestic wastewaters. Furthermore, the clams were still in active gametogenesis and not ready for spawning, as indicated by the concordance of the serotonin/dopamine ratio with vitellogenin-like proteins and pyrimidine synthesis. However, gonadal cyclooxygenase activity was increased at polluted sites and significantly correlated with most of the stress biomarkers, suggesting that the clams were in a state of inflammation rather than at the spawning stage. Finally, a multivariate analysis revealed that the sites were readily discriminated with high efficiency (>71%) and that both neuroendocrine physiological markers and stress

  14. Anaerobic methanotrophic community of a 5346-m-deep vesicomyid clam colony in the Japan Trench.

    PubMed

    Felden, J; Ruff, S E; Ertefai, T; Inagaki, F; Hinrichs, K-U; Wenzhöfer, F

    2014-05-01

    Vesicomyidae clams harbor sulfide-oxidizing endosymbionts and are typical members of cold seep communities where active venting of fluids and gases takes place. We investigated the central biogeochemical processes that supported a vesicomyid clam colony as part of a locally restricted seep community in the Japan Trench at 5346 m water depth, one of the deepest seep settings studied to date. An integrated approach of biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques was used combining in situ and ex situ measurements. In sediment of the clam colony, low sulfate reduction rates (maximum 128 nmol mL(-1) day(-1)) were coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane. They were observed over a depth range of 15 cm, caused by active transport of sulfate due to bioturbation of the vesicomyid clams. A distinct separation between the seep and the surrounding seafloor was shown by steep horizontal geochemical gradients and pronounced microbial community shifts. The sediment below the clam colony was dominated by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2c) and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae (SEEP-SRB-3, SEEP-SRB-4). Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria were not detected in the sediment, and the oxidation of sulfide seemed to be carried out chemolithoautotrophically by Sulfurovum species. Thus, major redox processes were mediated by distinct subgroups of seep-related microorganisms that might have been selected by this specific abyssal seep environment. Fluid flow and microbial activity were low but sufficient to support the clam community over decades and to build up high biomasses. Hence, the clams and their microbial communities adapted successfully to a low-energy regime and may represent widespread chemosynthetic communities in the Japan Trench. In this regard, they contributed to the restricted deep-sea trench biodiversity as well as to the organic carbon availability, also for non-seep organisms, in such oligotrophic benthic environment of the dark deep ocean.

  15. Anaerobic methanotrophic community of a 5346-m-deep vesicomyid clam colony in the Japan Trench

    PubMed Central

    Felden, J; Ruff, S E; Ertefai, T; Inagaki, F; Hinrichs, K-U; Wenzhöfer, F

    2014-01-01

    Vesicomyidae clams harbor sulfide-oxidizing endosymbionts and are typical members of cold seep communities where active venting of fluids and gases takes place. We investigated the central biogeochemical processes that supported a vesicomyid clam colony as part of a locally restricted seep community in the Japan Trench at 5346 m water depth, one of the deepest seep settings studied to date. An integrated approach of biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques was used combining in situ and ex situ measurements. In sediment of the clam colony, low sulfate reduction rates (maximum 128 nmol mL−1 day−1) were coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane. They were observed over a depth range of 15 cm, caused by active transport of sulfate due to bioturbation of the vesicomyid clams. A distinct separation between the seep and the surrounding seafloor was shown by steep horizontal geochemical gradients and pronounced microbial community shifts. The sediment below the clam colony was dominated by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2c) and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae (SEEP-SRB-3, SEEP-SRB-4). Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria were not detected in the sediment, and the oxidation of sulfide seemed to be carried out chemolithoautotrophically by Sulfurovum species. Thus, major redox processes were mediated by distinct subgroups of seep-related microorganisms that might have been selected by this specific abyssal seep environment. Fluid flow and microbial activity were low but sufficient to support the clam community over decades and to build up high biomasses. Hence, the clams and their microbial communities adapted successfully to a low-energy regime and may represent widespread chemosynthetic communities in the Japan Trench. In this regard, they contributed to the restricted deep-sea trench biodiversity as well as to the organic carbon availability, also for non-seep organisms, in such oligotrophic benthic environment of the dark deep ocean. PMID

  16. Rotation Velocities of White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Heber, U.; Dreizler, S.; Koester, D.; Reid, I. N.

    White dwarfs are the compact remnants of low and intermediate mass stars (M < 8Msolar). Due to the conservation of angular momentum white dwarfs should be very fast rotators, if a significant fraction of the angular momentum of the progenitor stars were preserved. The existence of sharp NLTE cores of the hydrogen Hα line in high resolution spectra (obtained at the Keck observatory) of DA white dwarfs allowed us to determine (projected) rotational velocities v sin i for white dwarfs. Among those of our targets lying close to the ZZ Ceti instability many show evidence for extra broadening similar to rotation, whereas stars at higher temperatures (and therefore younger ones) rotate more slowly or not at all. Our result based on a large sample is in accordance with previous results presented by Koester et al. (1998). We discuss possible explanations for this astonishing result.

  17. White Dwarfs in Astrometric Binaries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliversen, N. A.; Evans, N. R.; Feibelman, W. A.; Kamper, K. W.

    1993-12-01

    Lippincott (1978, Space Sci Rev, 22, 153) compiled a list of astrometric binaries with unseen companions typically within 20 pc of the sun. Red companions have been observed in a number of these systems (e.g. McCarthy, D. W. 1983, IAU Coll. # 76, p. 107). Unseen, low mass companions could also be white dwarfs. We have obtained IUE observations of stars on the list which have primaries with spectral types M1 or earlier (white dwarf companions of cooler primaries could be detected from the ground), and are brighter than 10 mag, which do not have known red companions. Preliminary reductions (comparison with standard stars of appropriate spectral types) indicate that there are no white dwarfs in the sample. Further processing is being done to determine limits on possible white dwarf temperatures.

  18. Seasonal variation of metals in seawater, sediment, and Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum from China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Yuan; Huo, Zhongming; Yan, Xiwu

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As) were determined for the first time in seawater, sediment, and Manila clam from Deer Island, Liaoning Province, China. The seawater, sediment, and clam samples were collected seasonally at three clam farming sites around Deer Island during 2010-2011. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in the seawater samples were 4.16, 0.72, 5.88, 0.45, 2.51, 0.03, and 1.02 μg/l, respectively. The seasonal variations of trace metals in seawater showed a significant difference in the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg, and As among seasons. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in the sediment samples were 6.43, 13.80, 53.08, 1.10, 36.40, 0.05, and 4.78 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Trace metal concentrations in sediment seasonally varied significantly except for Cd and Hg. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg, and As in the clam samples were 11.28, 0.61, 92.50, 0.58, 3.98, 0.03, and 1.98 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, and As in Manila clam showed marked seasonal fluctuations with significant difference. Cu and Zn were the metals with the highest mean biosediment accumulation factor values in Manila clam. Besides, significant correlations for the concentrations of Cu and Zn relative to their concentrations in sediment were also found. Such differences in regression analyzes may be explained by differential bioaccumulation of essential and xenobiotic metals. Concentrations of trace metals in Manila clam did not exceed the maximum established regulatory concentrations for human consumption. Moreover, the calculations revealed that the estimated daily intake values for the examined clam samples were below the internationally accepted dietary guidelines and the calculated hazard quotient values were well less than 1, thus strongly indicating that health risk associated with the intake studied metals through the consumption

  19. Drones at the Beach - Surf Zone Monitoring Using Rotary Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynne, P.; Brouwer, R.; de Schipper, M. A.; Graham, F.; Reniers, A.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential of rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to monitor the surf zone. In recent years, the arrival of lightweight, high-capacity batteries, low-power electronics and compact high-definition cameras has driven the development of commercially available UAVs for hobbyists. Moreover, the low operation costs have increased their potential for scientific research as these UAVs are extremely flexible surveying platforms. The UAVs can fly for ~12 min with a mean loiter radius of 1 - 3.5 m and a mean loiter error of 0.75 - 4.5 m, depending on the environmental conditions, flying style, battery type and vehicle type. Our experiments using multiple, alternating UAVs show that it is possible to have near continuous imagery data with similar Fields Of View. The images obtained from the UAVs (Fig. 1a), and in combination with surveyed Ground Control Points (GCPs) (Fig. 1b, red squares and white circles), can be geo-rectified (Fig. 1c) to pixel resolution between 0.01 - 1 m and a reprojection error, i.e. the difference between the surveyed GPS location of a GCP and the location of the GCP obtained from the geo-rectified image, of O(1 m). These geo-rectified images provide data on a variety of coastal aspects, such as beach width (Wb(x,t)), surf zone width (Wsf(x,t)), wave breaking location (rectangle B), beach usage (circle C) and location of dune vegegation (rectangle D), amongst others. Additionally, the possibility to have consecutive, high frequency (up to 2 Hz) rectified images makes the UAVs a great data instrument for spatially and temporally variable systems, such as the surf zone. Our first observations with the UAVs reveal the potential to quickly obtain surf zone and beach characteristics in response to storms or for day to day beach information, as well as the scientific pursuits of surf zone kinematics on different spatial and temporal scales, and dispersion and advection estimates of pollutants/dye. A selection of findings from

  20. Depletion of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts from Contaminated Sewage by Using Freshwater Benthic Pearl Clams (Hyriopsis schlegeli)

    PubMed Central

    Yagita, Kenji; Izumiyama, Shinji; Endo, Takuro; Itoh, Yasoo

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater benthic pearl clam, Hyriopsis schlegeli, was experimentally exposed to Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, and it was verified that the oocysts were eliminated predominantly via the fecal route, retaining their ability to infect cultured cells (HCT-8). The total fecal oocyst elimination rate was more than 90% within 5 days after exposure to the oocysts. H. schlegeli was able to survive in the final settling pond of a sewage plant for long periods, as confirmed by its pearl production. In the light of these findings, the clam was placed in the final settling pond in a trial to test its long-term efficacy in depleting oocysts contaminating the pond water. The number of clams placed was set to ensure a theoretical oocyst removal rate of around 50%, and the turbidity and the density of feed microbes in the overflow trough water of the pond were about 35% and 40 to 60% lower, respectively, than in the control water throughout the year. It was found that the clam feces containing oocysts were sufficiently heavy for them to settle to the bottom of the pond, despite the upward water flow. From these results, we concluded that efficient depletion of oocysts in the sewage water of small or midscale sewage treatment plants can be achieved by appropriate placement of H. schlegeli clams. PMID:22904053

  1. Quantitative modeling for risk assessment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in bloody clams in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akio; Iwahori, Jun'ichiro; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Charernjiratragul, Wilawan; Vose, David; Osaka, Ken; Shigematsu, Mika; Toyofuku, Hajime; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    2008-05-10

    A risk assessment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in bloody clams (Anadara granosa) consumed in southern Thailand was conducted. This study estimated the prevalence and concentration of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in bloody clams at harvest and retail stages; and during this process, methods to detect the total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were investigated. Consumption of bloody clams and cooking efficiency were studied using interviews and on-site observation of consumers. A beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate probability of illness applying estimation methods for the most likely parameter values presented by USFDA. Microbial and behavioral data were analyzed by developing a stochastic model and the simulation gave a mean number of times a person would get ill with V. parahaemolyticus by consuming bloody clams at 5.6 x 10(-4)/person/year. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated the fraction of people who did not boil the clams properly was the primary factor in increasing risk. This study serves as an example of how a microbiological risk assessment with limited data collection and international cooperation leads to valuable local insight.

  2. Impediment to symbiosis establishment between giant clams and Symbiodinium algae due to sterilization of seawater.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Takeo; Yamada, Hideaki; Inoue, Ken; Iwai, Kenji; Hatta, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    To survive the juvenile stage, giant clam juveniles need to establish a symbiotic relationship with the microalgae Symbiodinium occurring in the environment. The percentage of giant clam juveniles succeeding in symbiosis establishment ("symbiosis rate") is often low, which is problematic for seed producers. We investigated how and why symbiosis rates vary, depending on whether giant clam seeds are continuously reared in UV treated or non treated seawater. Results repeatedly demonstrated that symbiosis rates were lower for UV treated seawater than for non treated seawater. Symbiosis rates were also lower for autoclaved seawater and 0.2-µm filtered seawater than for non treated seawater. The decreased symbiosis rates in various sterilized seawater suggest the possibility that some factors helping symbiosis establishment in natural seawater are weakened owing to sterilization. The possible factors include vitality of giant clam seeds, since additional experiments revealed that survival rates of seeds reared alone without Symbiodinium were lower in sterilized seawater than in non treated seawater. In conclusion, UV treatment of seawater was found to lead to decreased symbiosis rates, which is due possibly to some adverse effects common to the various sterilization techniques and relates to the vitality of the giant clam seeds.

  3. Infection by gymnophallid metacercariae enhances predation mortality of SW Atlantic stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addino, Mariana; Lomovasky, Betina J.; Cremonte, Florencia; Iribarne, Oscar

    2010-02-01

    Parasite life cycles are frequently completed in different hosts, thus the parasites have its life cycle overlapped to natural trophic webs. The family Gymnophallidae (Class: Trematoda; Subclass: Digenea) includes digenetic parasites whose larval stages occur on bivalves and may affect bivalve predation by the final host of these parasites. In this work we evaluated: (a) if individuals of the razor clam Tagelus plebeius with higher parasite intensity suffer higher predation by the oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus and, (b) if there is any effect of parasite intensity on burrowing and escape behaviours of these razor clams which may enhance exposure to predators. Field experiments (oystercatcher exclusion vs. open access) showed that clams with higher parasite intensity support higher predation by oystercatchers, which suggests a higher consumption of more parasitized clams and thus, a more successful reproduction of parasites linked to the intensity of infection. However, clam burrowing and escape behaviours did not show differences related to different parasite intensity, suggesting that the commonly believed mechanisms are not responsible in this case.

  4. Impediment to Symbiosis Establishment between Giant Clams and Symbiodinium Algae Due to Sterilization of Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Takeo; Yamada, Hideaki; Inoue, Ken; Iwai, Kenji; Hatta, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    To survive the juvenile stage, giant clam juveniles need to establish a symbiotic relationship with the microalgae Symbiodinium occurring in the environment. The percentage of giant clam juveniles succeeding in symbiosis establishment (“symbiosis rate”) is often low, which is problematic for seed producers. We investigated how and why symbiosis rates vary, depending on whether giant clam seeds are continuously reared in UV treated or non treated seawater. Results repeatedly demonstrated that symbiosis rates were lower for UV treated seawater than for non treated seawater. Symbiosis rates were also lower for autoclaved seawater and 0.2-µm filtered seawater than for non treated seawater. The decreased symbiosis rates in various sterilized seawater suggest the possibility that some factors helping symbiosis establishment in natural seawater are weakened owing to sterilization. The possible factors include vitality of giant clam seeds, since additional experiments revealed that survival rates of seeds reared alone without Symbiodinium were lower in sterilized seawater than in non treated seawater. In conclusion, UV treatment of seawater was found to lead to decreased symbiosis rates, which is due possibly to some adverse effects common to the various sterilization techniques and relates to the vitality of the giant clam seeds. PMID:23613802

  5. Transcriptomic responses to low temperature stress in the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hongtao; Jiang, Liwen; Huo, Zhongming; Liu, Lianhui; Yang, Feng; Yan, Xiwu

    2016-08-01

    The Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, is an economically important shellfish in marine aquaculture, with a broad thermal tolerance. The ability to cope with cold stress is quite important for the survival of aquatic species under natural conditions. A cold-tolerant clam that can survive the winter at temperatures below 0 °C might extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of the Manila clam to cold stress (-1 °C) was characterized using RNA sequencing. The transcriptomes of a cold-treatment (O) group of clams, which survived under cold stress, and the control group (OC2), which was not subjected to cold stress, were sequenced with the Illumina HiSeq platform. In all, 148,593 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 1760 unigenes were up regulated and 2147 unigenes were down regulated in the O group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, mitochondrial metabolism, cellular component organization or biogenesis, and energy production processes were the most highly enriched pathways among the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following biological functions in the cold-tolerant Manila clam: signal response to cold stress, antioxidant response, cell proliferation, and energy production.

  6. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments and clams (Rangia cuneata) in Laguna de Pom, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez-Legorreta, T.; Gold-Bouchot, G.; Zapata-Perez, O.

    1994-01-01

    Laguna de Pom is a coastal lagoon within the Laguna de Terminos system in southern Gulf of Mexico. It belongs to the Grijalva-Usumacinta basin, and is located between 18{degrees} 33{prime} and 18{degrees} 38{prime} north latitude and 92{degrees} 01{prime} and 92{degrees} 14{prime} west longitude, in the Coastal Plain physiographic Province of the Gulf. It is ellipsoidal and approximately 10 km long, with a surface area of 5,200 ha and a mean depth of 1.5 m. Water salinity and temperature ranges are 0 to 13 {per_thousand} and 25{degrees} to 31{degrees}C, respectively. Benthic macrofauna is dominated by bivalves such as the clams Rangia cuneata, R. flexuosa, and Polymesoda carolineana. These clams provide the basis of an artisanal fishery, which is the main economic activity in the region. The presence of several oil-processing facilities around the lagoon is very conspicuous, which together with decreasing yields has created social conflicts, with the fishermen blaming the mexican state oil company (PEMEX) for the decrease in the clam population. This work aims to determine if the concentration of hydrocarbons in the clams (R. cuneata) and sediments of Laguna de Pom are responsible for the declining clam fishery. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Effects of copper on adult and early life stages of the freshwater clam, Corbicula manilensis

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Knezovich, J.P.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    The copper sensitivity of adult and larval stages of the freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis was evaluated. In addition, copper concentrations in adult clams exposed for 4 to 10 wks to copper in a high-volume, flow-through bioassay are determined. The response of these clams to copper depended on life stage. Copper sensitivity of larvae decreased markedly in successive developmental stages. The LC50/sub 24/s of veliger and juvenile larve were 28 and 600 ..mu..g Cu/L, respectively. The mortality of trochophore larvae exposed to 10 ..mu..g Cu/L for 1 h was 91.5%. The sensitivity to copper decreased with the amount of larval shell deposition. Adult clams were resistant to copper; the LC50/sub 96/ was greater than 2600 ..mu..g Cu/L. By comparison the incipient concentration (ILC) was low - less than 10 ..mu..g Cu/L. Adult clams accumulated more copper as copper concentrations in the water increased. Evidence for copper loss near or at death was obtained.

  8. Dynamics and control of the Asiatic clam in the New River, Virginia. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, D.S.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.; Graney, R.L.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, has invaded the New River at the rate of 9 miles a year from the Kanawha River, which enters downstream from the Glen Lyn coal-powered generating plant in Virginia. During the period of investigation, October 1976-September 1978, clams were more numerous in the vicinity of the thermal discharge of the plant than they were in unheated waters, and their population fell sharply during the winter months, when the water temperature dropped to approximately 2C. The temperature (35C) of the heated discharge water in late summer did not adversely affect the clam. High mortality occurred at temperatures greater or equal to 36C in laboratory thermal tolerance studies. The clam proved to be highly resistant to the conventional biocidal practice of intermittent chlorination and to exposure to heavy metals in both static and artificial stream bioassays. Copper was more toxic than either zinc or a combination of zinc and copper. Potassium was not an effective biocidal agent at low concentrations (less than 100 mg/l). Measurements of 42 elements in water, sediment, clam shell, and visceral tissue revealed that Corbicula was an efficient accumulator of many elements.

  9. Microcystin accumulation and biochemical responses in the edible clam Corbiculaleana P. exposed to cyanobacterial crude extract.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thanh-Luu; Shimizu, Kazuya; Kanazawa, Ayako; Gao, Yu; Dao, Thanh-Son; Utsumi, Motoo

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation and effects of cyanobacterial crude extract (CCE) containing microcystins (MCs) on the edible clam Corbiculaleana P. Toxic effects were evaluated through the activity of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) from gills, foot, mantle and remaining soft tissues. Clams were exposed to CCE containing 400μg MC-LReq/L for 10days and were then kept in toxin-free water for 5days. Clam accumulated MCs (up to 3.41±0.63μg/g dry weight (DW) of unbound MC and 0.31±0.013μg/g DW of covalently bound MC). Detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in different organs responded differently to CCE during the experiment. The activity of SOD, CAT, and GST in the gills and mantle increased in MC-treated clams. In contrast, CAT and GST activity was significantly inhibited in the foot and mostly only slightly changed in the remaining tissues. The responses of biotransformation, antioxidant enzyme activity to CCE and the fast elimination of MCs during depuration help to explain how the clam can survive for long periods (over a week) during the decay of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in nature.

  10. SURF's Up: An Outline of an Innovative Framework for Teaching Mental Computation to Students in the Early Years of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article James Russo presents the Strategies, Understanding, Reading and Fast Facts Framework (SURF) for mental computation. He explains how this framework can be used to deepen mathematical understanding and build mental flexibility.

  11. Influence of atmospheric parameters on vertical profiles and horizontal transport of aerosols generated in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Tedeschi, G.; Van Eijk, A. M. J.; Piazzola, J.

    2013-10-01

    The vertical and horizontal transport of aerosols generated over the surf zone is discussed. Experimental data were collected during the second campaign of the Surf Zone Aerosol Experiment that took place in Duck NC (USA) in November 2007. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method was used to analyze the vertical concentration gradients, and allowed separating the surf aerosols from aerosols advected from elsewhere. The numerical Marine Aerosol Concentration Model (MACMod) supported the analysis by confirming that the concentration gradients are more pronounced under stable conditions and that aerosol plumes are then more confined to the surface. The model also confirmed the experimental observations made during two boat runs along the offshore wind vector that surf-generated aerosols are efficiently advected out to sea over several tens of kilometers.

  12. Modelling the Polar Summer Tropopause with CLaMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, G.; Roiger, A.; Schiller, C.; Schlager, H.; Mueller, R.; Grooss, J.

    2009-12-01

    In the frame of the International Polar Year 2008 the field campaign POLARCAT-GRACE (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport: Greenland Aerosol and Chemistry Experiment) has been carried out from Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. The main focus of this campaign was on surveying the Arctic summer tropopause as well as on detecting and probing forest fire plumes from Siberia and Canada. During the campaign observations of several atmospheric components like ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide and aerosol were obtained. Model simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) are used for interpretation of observational data. Utilization of a suite of inert tracers initialized with origins of air masses with respect to Potential Vorticity and geographical position as well as tracers marking forest fire and pollution plumes give insight into the influence of transport processes on the Arctic upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Model results show a mixing layer below the thermally defined tropopause, consisting of shallow structures of mixed-in formerly stratospheric air, possibly being remnants of stratospheric intrusions, as well as upper level isentropic transport of tropospheric air of subtropical origin into the stratosphere. Additionally tropospheric influence from East Asian pollution on the lowermost stratosphere triggered by special meteorological conditions is visible in the model results, in good agreement with observations.

  13. Pollution-tolerant allele in fingernail clams (Musculium transversum).

    PubMed

    Sloss, B L; Romano, M A; Anderson, R V

    1998-08-01

    For nearly 50 years, the fingernail clam (Musculium transversum) was believed to be virtually eliminated from the Illinois River. In 1991, workers began finding substantial populations of M. transversum in the Illinois River including several beds in and around the highly polluted Chicago Sanitary District. In order to determine if populations of M. transversum from polluted sites exhibited any genetic response to the high levels of toxins and to examine the genetic structure of several populations of M. transversum for any changes due to the population crash, starch-gel electrophoresis was performed on M. transversum from three Illinois River localities and four Mississippi River basin locations. The sampled populations produced an inbreeding coefficient (FIS) of 0.929, indicating that the populations were highly inbred. The results of a suspected founder effect due to a bottleneck was suggested by an FST = 0.442. The isozyme Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase-2 (Gpi-2) produced allelic frequency patterns that were consistent with expected patterns of a pollution-tolerant allele. Polluted sites exhibited elevated frequencies of Gpi-2(100) whereas nonpolluted sites exhibited elevated frequencies of Gpi-2(74). This frequency pattern suggested that natural selection was occurring in populations under severe toxic pressures, leading to an increase in the frequency of the allele Gpi-2(100). Therefore, Gpi-2(100) is a possible pollution-tolerant mutation in M. transversum.

  14. Modelling the Polar Summer Tropopause with CLaMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Gebhard; Roiger, Anke; Schiller, Cornelius; Schlager, Hans; Vogel, Bärbel; Grooss, Jens-Uwe

    2010-05-01

    In the frame of the International Polar Year 2008 the POLARCAT-GRACE (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport: Greenland Aerosol and Chemistry Experiment) has been carried out from Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. The main focus of this campaign was on surveying the Arctic summer tropopause as well as on detecting and probing forest fire plumes from Siberia and Canada. During the campaign observations of several atmospheric components like ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide and aerosol were obtained. Model simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) are used for interpretation of observational data. Utilization of a suite of inert tracers initialized with origins of air masses with respect to Potential Vorticity and geographical position as well as tracers marking forest fire and pollution plumes give insight into the influence of transport processes on the Arctic upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Model results show a mixing layer below the thermally defined tropopause, consisting of shallow structures of mixed-in formerly stratospheric air, possibly being remnants of stratospheric intrusions, as well as upper level isentropic transport of tropospheric air of subtropical origin into the stratosphere. Additionally tropospheric influence from East Asian pollution on the lowermost stratosphere triggered by special meteorological conditions is visible in the model results, in good agreement with observations.

  15. Toxicological evaluation of two pedigrees of clam Ruditapes philippinarum as bioindicators of heavy metal contaminants using metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Cao, Lulu; Li, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution has been of great concern in the Bohai marine environment. Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum has been used as a bioindicator in marine toxicology. In this study, NMR-based metabolomics was used to ascertain whether there were significant biological differences between two dominant pedigrees (White and Zebra) of clam and evaluate the suitability of two pedigrees for marine environmental toxicology, together with antioxidant enzymatic analysis. Our results indicated that there were significant biological differences between White and Zebra clams based on the metabolic profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities. In details, the metabolic profiles showed higher levels of amino acids and succinate in Zebra clam digestive glands and higher levels of ATP in White clam digestive glands, respectively. The superoxide dismutase activities in control White and Zebra clam samples were significantly different. Additionally, White clam was more sensitive to Cd based on the significant accumulation of Cd, antioxidant enzymatic alterations and sensitive metabolic changes. Overall, we concluded that White clam could be a preferable bioindicator for marine environmental toxicology.

  16. Geographic Variations and Genetic Distance of Three Geographic Cyclina Clam (Cyclina sinensis Gmelin) Populations from the Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong-Man

    2012-12-01

    The gDNA isolated from Cyclina sinensis from Gochang (GOCHANG), Incheon (INCHEON) and a Chinese site (CHINESE), were amplified by PCR. Here, the seven oligonucleotide decamer primers (BION-66, BION-68, BION-72, BION-73, BION-74, BION-76, and BION-80) were used to generate the unique shared loci to each population and shared loci by the three cyclina clam populations. As regards multiple comparisons of average bandsharing value results, cyclina clam population from Chinese (0.763) exhibited higher bandsharing values than did clam from Incheon (0.681). In this study, the dendrogram obtained by the seven decamer primers indicates three genetic clusters: cluster 1 (GOCHANG 01~ GOCHANG 07), cluster 2 (INCHEON 08~INCHEON 14), cluster 3 (CHINESE 15~CHINESE 21). The shortest genetic distance that displayed significant molecular differences was between individuals 15 and 17 from the Chinese cyclina clam (0.049), while the longest genetic distance among the twenty-one cyclina clams that displayed significant molecular differences was between individuals GOCHANG no. 03 and INCHEON no. 12 (0.575). Individuals of Incheon cyclina clam population was somewhat closely related to that of Chinese cyclina clam population. In conclusion, our PCR analysis revealed a significant genetic distance among the three cyclina clam populations.

  17. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Pacific Geoduck Clam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Pycnopodia helianthoides ), method is to geoduck clams in nature is lean basket-whelk (Nassarius mendicus), unknown. coonstripe shrimp (Pandalus...and lPvcnopdtia helianthoides can dig days, during July and August in warm years. up and eat geoduck clams that are unable to penetrate the substrate

  18. EFFECTS OF RECREATIONAL CLAM HARVESTING ON EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) AND ASSOCIATED INFAUNAL INVERTEBRATES: IN SITU MANIPULATIVE EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of recreational clam harvesting on eelgrass (Zostera marina) was experimentally tested by raking or digging for clams in experimental 1-m2 plots located in a Yaquina Bay (Newport, OR) eelgrass meadow. After three monthly treatments, eelgrass measures of biomass, prima...

  19. Locating sources of surf zone pollution: a mass budget analysis of fecal indicator bacteria at Huntington Beach, California.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Ha; Grant, Stanley B; McGee, Charles D; Sanders, Brett F; Largier, John L

    2004-05-01

    The surf zone is the unique environment where ocean meets land and a place of critical ecological, economic, and recreational importance. In the United States, this natural resource is increasingly off-limits to the public due to elevated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and other contaminants, the sources of which are often unknown. In this paper, we describe an approach for calculating mass budgets of pollutants in the surf zone from shoreline monitoring data. The analysis reveals that fecal indicator bacteria pollution in the surf zone at several contiguous beaches in Orange County, California, originates from well-defined locations along the shore, including the tidal outlets of the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh. Fecal pollution flows into the ocean from the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh outlets during ebb tides and from there is transported parallel to the shoreline by wave-driven surf zone currents and/or offshore tidal currents, frequently contaminating >5 km of the surf zone. The methodology developed here for locating and quantifying sources of surf zone pollution should be applicable to a wide array of contaminants and coastal settings.

  20. Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Pulliam, Daniel A; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Halloran, Jonathan J; Hussong, Stacy A; Burbank, Raquel R; Bresnen, Andrew; Liu, Yuhong; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Soundararajan, Anuradha; Muir, Eric; Duong, Timothy Q; Bokov, Alex F; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Richardson, Arlan G; Van Remmen, Holly; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders.

  1. Characterization of breeding habitats for black and surf scoters in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.; Altmann, S.H.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of wetland habitats used by breeding black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (M. perspicillata) in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada based on satellite telemetry data collected in the spring and summer. During 2002 and 2004, nine black scoters (four males, five females) were tracked to breeding areas in Quebec, Manitoba, and Northwest Territories. In addition, in 2001?04, seven surf scoters (three males, four females) were tracked to breeding areas in Labrador, Quebec, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Based on satellite telemetry data, locations of black and surf scoters in breeding areas were not significantly different in regard to latitude and longitude. Presumed breeding areas were manually plotted on topographic maps and percent cover type and water were estimated. Breeding habitat of black scoters was significantly different than that for surf scoters, with black scoters mainly using open (tundra) areas (44%) and surf scoters using mainly forest areas (66%). Surf scoters presumed breeding areas were at significantly higher elevations than areas used by black scoters. Some breeding areas were associated with islands, but the role of islands for breeding areas is equivocal. These results aid in the identification of potentially critical breeding areas and provide a baseline classification of breeding habitats used by these two species.

  2. The positive impact of structured surfing courses on the wellbeing of vulnerable young people.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Cath; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Taylor, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Involvement in positive leisure activities is a key way for young people to develop resilience and social and emotional skills. This paper outlines the evaluation of a six-week surfing intervention, the Wave Project, which aimed to boost wellbeing and confidence among 84 young people aged eight to 18, all of whom faced mental health issues or social exclusion. The intervention resulted in a significant and sustained increase in wellbeing. One year later, 70% of clients regularly attend a surf club and many have become trained as session volunteers. Parents and referrers noticed an increase in positive attitude and better communication, as well as improved self-management and behaviour at both home and school It is concluded that the Wave Project provides a demonstrable and cost-effective way to deliver mental health care, mentoring and social integration of young people. Further service evaluation of accessibility and long-term outcomes is also recommended.

  3. SurfKin: an ab initio kinetic code for modeling surface reactions.

    PubMed

    Le, Thong Nguyen-Minh; Liu, Bin; Huynh, Lam K

    2014-10-05

    In this article, we describe a C/C++ program called SurfKin (Surface Kinetics) to construct microkinetic mechanisms for modeling gas-surface reactions. Thermodynamic properties of reaction species are estimated based on density functional theory calculations and statistical mechanics. Rate constants for elementary steps (including adsorption, desorption, and chemical reactions on surfaces) are calculated using the classical collision theory and transition state theory. Methane decomposition and water-gas shift reaction on Ni(111) surface were chosen as test cases to validate the code implementations. The good agreement with literature data suggests this is a powerful tool to facilitate the analysis of complex reactions on surfaces, and thus it helps to effectively construct detailed microkinetic mechanisms for such surface reactions. SurfKin also opens a possibility for designing nanoscale model catalysts.

  4. Dwarf elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Henry C.; Binggeli, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies, with blue absolute magnitudes typically fainter than M(sub B) = -16, are the most numerous type of galaxy in the nearby universe. Tremendous advances have been made over the past several years in delineating the properties of both Local Group satellite dE's and the large dE populations of nearby clusters. We review some of these advances, with particular attention to how well currently availiable data can constrain (a) models for the formation of dE's, (b) the physical and evolutionary connections between different types of galaxies that overlap in the same portion of the mass-spectrum of galaxies, (c) the contribution of dE's to the galaxy luminosity functions in clusters and the field, (d) the star-forming histories of dE's and their possible contribution to faint galaxy counts, and (e) the clustering properties of dE's. In addressing these issues, we highlight the extent to which selection effects temper these constraints, and outline areas where new data would be particularly valuable.

  5. Prevalence of neoplasia in 10 New England populations of the soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria).

    PubMed

    Brown, R S; Wolke, R E; Saila, S B; Brown, C W

    1978-09-29

    Neoplasia was a prevalent disease of the soft-shell clam and was found in widely geographically distinct sites in New England. Two types of neoplasms were recognized. Most were of hematopoietic origin, except in clams from Maine, which also had gonadal neoplasms. Both types were apparently malignant neoplasms, based on their characteristic anaplastic appearance, invasiveness, metastasis, mitotic activity, associated tissue necrosis, and mortality. Diagnosis of neoplasia in the living mollusk was achieved rapidly and accurately by cytologic examination of circulating blood. The etiology of the neoplasms was not identified. In general, nonneoplastic lesions, such as epithelial hyperplasia and accumulations of a orange-brown bodies, were more common in clams from polluted areas.

  6. A health status survey of clams, Mya arenaria and Ensis siliqua, in the Irish Sea.

    PubMed

    Cross, M E; Lynch, S; O'Riordan, R M; Culloty, S C

    2014-11-10

    The soft shell clam, Mya arenaria, and the razor clam, Ensis siliqua, are widely distributed in Irish waters. Though the reproductive biology and other aspects of the physiology of these species has been previously investigated, little or no data are currently available on their health status. As this knowledge is essential for correct management of a species, M. arenaria and E. siliqua were examined to assess their current health status using histological and molecular methods, over a period of sixteen months. No pathogens or disease were observed in M. arenaria, and low incidences of Prokaryote inclusions, trematode parasites, Nematopsis spp. and eosinophilic bodies were recorded in razor clams for the first time in Northern European waters.

  7. Effect of irradiation temperature on void swelling of China Low Activation Martensitic steel (CLAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Fei; Qiao Jiansheng; Huang Yina; Wan Farong Ohnuki, Soumei

    2008-03-15

    CLAM is one composition of a Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic steel (RAFM), which is being studied in a number of institutes and universities in China. The effect of electron-beam irradiation temperature on irradiation swelling of CLAM was investigated by using a 1250 kV High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM). In-situ microstructural observations indicated that voids formed at each experimental temperature - 723 K, 773 K and 823 K. The size and number density of voids increased with increasing irradiation dose at each temperature. The results show that CLAM has good swelling resistance. The maximum void swelling was produced at 723 K; the swelling was about 0.3% when the irradiation damage was 13.8 dpa.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of two clam species: Chamelea gallina and Tapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Vincenzetti, Silvia; Felici, Alberto; Ciarrocchi, Giorgio; Pucciarelli, Stefania; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Ariani, Ambra; Polzonetti, Valeria; Polidori, Paolo

    2017-03-15

    Clams have long been a fisheries and aquaculture sector of great importance in Italy, the main resource of fisheries is the Chamelea gallina of indigenous origin, whereas clams breeding is supported almost entirely by the Tapes philippinarum, a species of Indo-Pacific origin. Bivalve molluscs quality depends mainly on the water quality, and then by a series of factors such as water temperature and salinity, gametogenic cycle, food availability, and environmental conditions, that affect the Condition Index. In this work crude extracts obtained from the edible part of Chamelea gallina and Tapes philippinarum were analyzed by a proteomic approach based on a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, in order to detect biomarkers useful for identification of the two kinds of clams and to assess their nutritional characteristics. As a result, four differentially expressed spots were found and identified, namely enolase, cyclophilin-A, ribosomal protein L13 and actin-1.

  9. Past daily light cycle recorded in the strontium/calcium ratios of giant clam shells.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuji; Kobayashi, Sayumi; Shirai, Kotaro; Takahata, Naoto; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Sowa, Kohki; Iwai, Kenji

    2012-03-27

    The historical record of daily light cycle in tropical and subtropical regions is short. Moreover, it remains difficult to extract this cycle in the past from natural archives such as biogenic marine carbonates. Here we describe the precise analysis of Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios in a cultivated giant clam shell, using a laterally high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer with 2 μm resolution. The Sr/Ca ratio exhibits striking diurnal variations, reflecting the daily light cycle. A clear seasonal variation in Sr/Ca is also observed in another longer set of measurements with 50 μm resolution. Light-enhanced calcification and elemental transportation processes, in giant clam and symbiotic algae, may explain these diurnal and annual variations. This opens the possibility to develop the Sr/Ca ratio from a giant clam shell as an effective proxy for parameters of the daily light cycle.

  10. Review on the Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Malaysian Clams.

    PubMed

    Hossen, Md Faruk; Hamdan, Sinin; Rahman, Md Rezaur

    2015-01-01

    The current review discusses the levels of six heavy metals in different clam species from 34 sites of Malaysian coasts. The concentrations (µg/g dry weight) of these heavy metals ranged around 0.18-8.51, 0.13-17.20, 2.17-7.80, 0.84-36.00, 24.13-368.00, and 177.82-1912.00 for Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Fe, respectively. It was observed that the concentrations of metals slightly depend on different clam species but mostly depend on site locations. According to Malaysian Food Regulation (1985), about 30% and more than 50% sites are safe from Cd and Pb contamination, respectively, and also the clam species from the other populations studied were safe for consumption.

  11. Review on the Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Malaysian Clams

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Sinin; Rahman, Md. Rezaur

    2015-01-01

    The current review discusses the levels of six heavy metals in different clam species from 34 sites of Malaysian coasts. The concentrations (µg/g dry weight) of these heavy metals ranged around 0.18–8.51, 0.13–17.20, 2.17–7.80, 0.84–36.00, 24.13–368.00, and 177.82–1912.00 for Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Fe, respectively. It was observed that the concentrations of metals slightly depend on different clam species but mostly depend on site locations. According to Malaysian Food Regulation (1985), about 30% and more than 50% sites are safe from Cd and Pb contamination, respectively, and also the clam species from the other populations studied were safe for consumption. PMID:26060840

  12. 50 CFR 648.77 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.77 Framework adjustments to... add or adjust management measures within the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog FMP if it finds...

  13. 50 CFR 648.12 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Atlantic surf clam and ocean quahog), F (NE multispecies and monkfish), G (summer flounder), H (scup), I...) Experimental fishing for surf clams or ocean quahogs will not require an allocation permit. (d)...

  14. 50 CFR 648.77 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.77 Framework adjustments to... the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog FMP if it finds that action is necessary to meet or...

  15. 50 CFR 648.76 - Maine mahogany quahog zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.76 Maine mahogany quahog zone. (a) Landing requirements... Advisory Panel shall make recommendations, through the Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Committee of the...

  16. 50 CFR 648.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Salmon FMP); the Atlantic sea scallop fishery (Scallop FMP); the Atlantic surf clam and ocean quahog fisheries (Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog FMP); the NE multispecies and monkfish fisheries...

  17. 50 CFR 648.76 - Maine mahogany quahog zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.76 Maine mahogany quahog zone. Link to... Advisory Panel shall make recommendations, through the Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Committee of the...

  18. Direct contribution of clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) to benthic fluxes, nitrification, denitrification and nitrous oxide emission in a farmed sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, David T.; Nizzoli, Daniele; Fano, Elisa A.; Viaroli, Pierluigi

    2015-03-01

    The influence of the manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) on N-cycle processes, and oxygen and nutrient fluxes in a farmed sediment was investigated using a multiple core incubation approach and parallel incubations of individual clams. Clam population/biomass density varied ∼8-fold between cores and all sediment-water column solute (O2. N2, N2O, NH4+, NOX and DIN) fluxes and benthic process (N-regeneration, nitrification and denitrification) rates were strongly and significantly correlated with clam density/biomass. Isolated clams exhibited high rates of respiration, N-excretion, nitrification and denitrification of 2050 ± 70, 395 ± 49, 201 ± 42 and 235 ± 40 nmol individual-1 h-1, respectively. The direct contribution of the clams and their associated microbiota to benthic processes was estimated by multiplying the per individual rates by the number of clams in each incubated core. The clams on average directly accounted for 64-133% of total rates of sediment oxygen demand, N-regeneration, nitrification and denitrification, indicating that they regulated processes primarily through their own metabolic activity and that of bacteria that colonise them. Clams and the farmed sediments were significant sources of the greenhouse gas N2O, but this was primarily due to their high nitrification and denitrification rates, rather than high specific N2O yields, as N2O emissions represented <1% of total N2O + N2 production. The clam-farmed sediments had a high denitrification efficiency of 67 ± 10%, but this ecosystem service came at the environmental cost of increased N-regeneration and N2O emission rates. The measured N2O emissions indicate that bivalve aquaculture may be a significant source of N2O. It is therefore recommended that N2O emissions should be included in the impact assessments of current and future bivalve-farming projects.

  19. Evaluation of short-term exposure to heated water and chlorine for control of the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea)

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S.; McLean, R.B.; Burch, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Based on the need for development of efficient procedures for prevention or control of fouling by the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, the response of these clams to chlorine in combination with rapid increases in water temperature was examined. Small clams were acclimated to 10 and 25/sup 0/C, and large clams were acclimated to 25/sup 0/C. Experiments with each of these acclimation groups consisted of variables of total residual chlorine concentration (0, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/L) and test temperature (ambient and 3 test temperatures ranging from 35 to 46/sup 0/C). The periods of exposure to increased temperature and chlorine were 40 and 30 min respectively. Clam mortalities were related to water temperature but not to chlorine exposure. At high temperatures at least 50% of the clams remained open through the entire chlorine exposure period. At higher temperatures all of the clams remained open. Even when clams remained open for the entire 30-min chlorine exposure period, all clams were not killed. However, virtually all clams exposed to 41 to 43/sup 0/C water temperatures were killed whether open or closed during the exposure period. Death due to temperature shock is the logical conclusion from these data. Combined application of heated water and chlorine at the concentrations used is not more effective in killing Corbicula than is heated water alone. Current regulations on the concentration of chlorine in power plant effluents indicate that further studies of control of Corbicula using chlorine offer little likelihood for success. (ERB)

  20. Accumulation of trace elements and organochlorines by surf scoters wintering in the Pacific northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Grove, R.A.; Thompson, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Selenium, cadmium, mercury, copper, manganese, zinc, aluminum, lead, PCBs and DDE were accumulated by segments of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) population that winters in the Pacific Northwest, but whether the uptake occurred on breeding and/or wintering grounds was uncertain for some contaminants. Surf scoters collected in Puget Sound and San Francisco Bay (in another study) during the same period (January 1985) contained similar concentrations of cadmium, but Alsea Bay scoters contained more. Cadmium was inversely related to both liver and body weights of Northwest scoters in January; similar weight losses were reported in experimental laboratory studies. Northwest and north San Francisco Bay scoters contained similar mercury concentrations, but those in south San Francisco Bay contained higher concentrations. San Francisco Bay scoters contained higher arsenic and selenium concentrations than those in the Northwest; however, the 43.4 ppm (geometric mean, dry wt) selenium in livers at Commencement Bay in January was above levels associated with the reproductive problems in aquatic birds at Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge. Even higher concentrations of some elements may be found in surf scoters in March, because a later collection (March) at San Francisco Bay yielded higher concentrations than found there in January. Trace element concentrations in birds at a given wintering location are variable among species and may be influenced by diet, breeding grounds, and physiology (e.g., at Commencement Bay surf scoters with a sediment-associated diet contained 50X more cadmium in their kidneys than did fish-eating western grebes [Aechmophorus occidentalis]). The numerous wildlife species that live on estuaries require further attention.

  1. "Sub-Surf Rocks"! An A-Level Resource Developed through an Industry-Education Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    A free internet resource called "Sub-Surf Rocks"! was launched in 2010. Its aim is to use seismic data obtained by the oil industry for enhancing the teaching of structural and economic geology at A-level (ages 16-18) in the UK. Seismic data gives a unique insight into the sub-surface and the many high-quality images coupled with…

  2. Brown dwarfs as close companions to white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bodenheimer, Peter; Black, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of the radiation flux emitted by a white dwarf primary on the evolution of a closely orbiting brown dwarf (BD) companion is investigated. Full stellar evolutionary calculations are presented for both isolated and thermal bath cases, including effects of large variations in the atmospheric grain opacities. High grain opacities significantly increase the radii of the BDs, but the thermal bath does not. The major influence of the thermal bath is to increase substantially the surface temperature and luminosity of the BD at a given age. These results are compared with the observational properties of the possible BD companion of the white dwarf G29-38. Inclusion of both physical effects, high grain opacities and thermal bath, increases the mass range (0.034-0.063 solar masses) of viable models significantly, yet the final determination of whether the object is indeed a BD requires improvements in the observations of the system's properties.

  3. Transcriptional changes in Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) in response to Brown Ring Disease.

    PubMed

    Allam, Bassem; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Tanguy, Arnaud; Jeffroy, Fanny; Le Bris, Cedric; Paillard, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Brown Ring Disease (BRD) is a bacterial infection affecting the economically-important clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The disease is caused by a bacterium, Vibrio tapetis, that colonizes the edge of the mantle, altering the biomineralization process and normal shell growth. Altered organic shell matrices accumulate on the inner face of the shell leading to the formation of the typical brown ring in the extrapallial space (between the mantle and the shell). Even though structural and functional changes have been described in solid (mantle) and fluid (hemolymph and extrapallial fluids) tissues from infected clams, the underlying molecular alterations and responses remain largely unknown. This study was designed to gather information on clam molecular responses to the disease and to compare focal responses at the site of the infection (mantle and extrapallial fluid) with systemic (hemolymph) responses. To do so, we designed and produced a Manila clam expression oligoarray (15K Agilent) using transcriptomic data available in public databases and used this platform to comparatively assess transcriptomic changes in mantle, hemolymph and extrapallial fluid of infected clams. Results showed significant regulation in diseased clams of molecules involved in pathogen recognition (e.g. lectins, C1q domain-containing proteins) and killing (defensin), apoptosis regulation (death-associated protein, bcl-2) and in biomineralization (shell matrix proteins, perlucin, galaxin, chitin- and calcium-binding proteins). While most changes in response to the disease were tissue-specific, systemic alterations included co-regulation in all 3 tested tissues of molecules involved in microbe recognition and killing (complement-related factors, defensin). These results provide a first glance at molecular alterations and responses caused by BRD and identify targets for future functional investigations.

  4. Microstructure and nanoindentation of the CLAM steel with nanocrystalline grains under Xe irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yongqin; Zhang, Jing; Li, Xiaolin; Guo, Qiang; Wan, Farong; Long, Yi

    2014-12-01

    This work presents an early look at irradiation effects on China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel with nanocrystalline grains (NC-CLAM steels) under 500 keV Xe-ion bombardment at room temperature to doses up to 5.3 displacements per atom (dpa). The microstructure in the topmost region of the steel is composed of nanocrystalline grains with an average diameter of 13 nm. As the samples were implanted at low dose, the nanocrystalline grains had martensite lath structure, and many dislocations and high density bubbles were introduced into the NC-CLAM steels. As the irradiation dose up to 5.3 dpa, a tangled dislocation network exists in the lath region, and the size of the bubbles increases. X-ray diffraction results show that the crystal quality decreases after irradiation, although the nanocrystals obviously coarsen. Grain growth under irradiation may be ascribed to the direct impact of the thermal spike on grain boundaries in the NC-CLAM steels. In irradiated samples, a compressive stress exists in the surface layer because of grain growth and irradiation-introduced defects, while the irradiation introduced grain-size coarsening and defects gradients from the surface to matrix result in a tensile stress in the irradiated NC-CLAM steels. Nanoindentation was used to estimate changes in mechanical properties during irradiation, and the results show that the hardness of the NC-CLAM steels increases with increasing irradiation dose, which was ascribed to the competition between the grain boundaries and the irradiation-introduced defects.

  5. Trace metal concentrations in suspended particles, sediments and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) from Jiaozhou Bay of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Mu, Qinglin

    2006-10-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM), sediments and clams were collected at three sites in Jiaozhou Bay to assess the magnitude of trace metal pollution in the area. Metal concentrations in SPM (Cu: 40.11-203; Zn: 118-447; Pb: 50.1-132; Cd: 0.55-4.39; Cr: 147.6-288; Mn: 762-1670 microg/g), sediments (Cu: 17.64-34.26; Zn: 80.79-110; Pb: 24.57-49.59; Cd: 0.099-0.324; Cr: 41.6-88.1; Mn: 343-520 microg/g) and bivalves (Cu: 6.41-19.76; Zn: 35.5-85.5; Pb: 0.31-1.01; Cd: 0.51-0.67; Mn: 27.45-67.6 microg/g) are comparable to those reported for other moderately polluted world environments. SPM showed a less clear pattern. Metal concentrations in sediments displayed a clear geographical trend with values increasing with proximity to major urban centers. The clams (on dry weight) showed a complex pattern due to the variability introduced by age-related factors. Cd showed an apparent reverse industrial trend with higher concentrations in clams collected at distant stations. Zn, Pb and Mn showed no clear geographical pattern, whereas Cu increased in the clams collected in the most industrialized area. In addition, the bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were calculated. The result indicated that the studied Ruditapes philippinarum in Jiaozhou Bay possessed different bioaccumulation capacities for Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb and Mn, and Cd, Zn had a relatively high assimilation of those metals from sediment particles. A significant relationship with clam age was observed for Zn (positive) and Cu (negative) suggesting different physiological requirements for both metals with age. Trace metal concentrations measured in the tissue of the investigated clam were in the range considered safe by the WHO for human use.

  6. The late-M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessell, M. S.

    1991-02-01

    Far-red spectra and VRIJHK photometry have been obtained for a sample of late-M dwarfs selected on the basis of large reduced red magnitudes from the LHS Catalog. Half of the stars in the three faintest 1 mag bins are late-M stars, the other red stars are metallic-hydride subdwarfs. Relations between various colors for the late-M dwarfs are investigated. Of all the colors I - K most reliably correlates with spectral type. FeH bands near 9900 A are clearly seen in the spectra of all dwarf stars later than M5. Two stars cooler than VB10, and similar in temperature to LHS2924 have been identified; both have H-alpha in emission and appear variable in magnitude and R - I color; one is a flare star. The other stars are of earlier spectral type and resemble W359 and VB8. The observed MI, I - K main sequence is in good agreement with the IG theoretical main sequence of Stringfellow, and the faintest stars could be about 0.09 solar mass red dwarfs or lower mass brown dwarfs.

  7. Does human pressure affect the community structure of surf zone fish in sandy beaches?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Landmann, Júlia G.; Gaelzer, Luiz R.; Zalmon, Ilana R.

    2017-01-01

    Intense tourism and human activities have resulted in habitat destruction in sandy beach ecosystems with negative impacts on the associated communities. To investigate whether urbanized beaches affect surf zone fish communities, fish and their benthic macrofaunal prey were collected during periods of low and high human pressure at two beaches on the Southeastern Brazilian coast. A BACI experimental design (Before-After-Control-Impact) was adapted for comparisons of tourism impact on fish community composition and structure in urbanized, intermediate and non-urbanized sectors of each beach. At the end of the summer season, we observed a significant reduction in fish richness, abundance, and diversity in the high tourist pressure areas. The negative association between visitors' abundance and the macrofaunal density suggests that urbanized beaches are avoided by surf zone fish due to higher human pressure and the reduction of food availability. Our results indicate that surf zone fish should be included in environmental impact studies in sandy beaches, including commercial species, e.g., the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. The comparative results from the less urbanized areas suggest that environmental zoning and visitation limits should be used as effective management and preservation strategies on beaches with high conservation potential.

  8. Preventing shoulder-surfing attack with the concept of concealing the password objects' information.

    PubMed

    Ho, Peng Foong; Kam, Yvonne Hwei-Syn; Wee, Mee Chin; Chong, Yu Nam; Por, Lip Yee

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols) as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to "shoulder-surfing" attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user's actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set's input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user's actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack.

  9. ConSurf 2016: an improved methodology to estimate and visualize evolutionary conservation in macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazy, Haim; Abadi, Shiran; Martz, Eric; Chay, Ofer; Mayrose, Itay; Pupko, Tal; Ben-Tal, Nir

    2016-07-08

    The degree of evolutionary conservation of an amino acid in a protein or a nucleic acid in DNA/RNA reflects a balance between its natural tendency to mutate and the overall need to retain the structural integrity and function of the macromolecule. The ConSurf web server (http://consurf.tau.ac.il), established over 15 years ago, analyses the evolutionary pattern of the amino/nucleic acids of the macromolecule to reveal regions that are important for structure and/or function. Starting from a query sequence or structure, the server automatically collects homologues, infers their multiple sequence alignment and reconstructs a phylogenetic tree that reflects their evolutionary relations. These data are then used, within a probabilistic framework, to estimate the evolutionary rates of each sequence position. Here we introduce several new features into ConSurf, including automatic selection of the best evolutionary model used to infer the rates, the ability to homology-model query proteins, prediction of the secondary structure of query RNA molecules from sequence, the ability to view the biological assembly of a query (in addition to the single chain), mapping of the conservation grades onto 2D RNA models and an advanced view of the phylogenetic tree that enables interactively rerunning ConSurf with the taxa of a sub-tree.

  10. Human Action Poselets Estimation via Color G-Surf in Still Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favorskaya, M.; Novikov, D.; Savitskaya, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Human activity is a persistent subject of interest in the last decade. On the one hand, video sequences provide a huge volume of motion information in order to recognize the human active actions. On the other hand, the spatial information about static human poses is valuable for human action recognition. Poselets were introduced as latent variables representing a configuration for mutual locations of body parts and allowing different views of description. In current research, some modifications of Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) invariant to affine geometrical transforms and illumination changes were tested. First, a grid of rectangles is imposed on object of interest in a still image. Second, sparse descriptor based on Gauge-SURF (G-SURF) invariant to color/lighting changes is constructed for each rectangle separately. A common Spatial POselet Descriptor (SPOD) aggregates the SPODs of rectangles with following random forest classification in order to receive fast classification results. The proposed approach was tested on samples from PASCAL Visual Object Classes (VOC) Dataset and Challenge 2010 providing accuracy 61-68% for all possible 3D poses locations and 82-86% for front poses locations regarding to nine action categories.

  11. Rehabilitation and long-term course of nontraumatic myelopathy associated with surfing.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Masahiro; Moriizumi, Shigehiro; Toki, Megumi; Murakami, Takanori; Ishiai, Sumio

    2013-09-01

    A nontraumatic spinal cord injury related to surfing is called surfer's myelopathy. The case of a 26-yr-old man who became paraplegic after surfing without apparent traumatic events is described. Physical examination revealed a spinal cord injury at T12 according to the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A. The initial magnetic resonance image revealed a fusiform swelling of the spinal cord from T7-8 to the conus, which was hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After 6 mos of rehabilitation, the patient was followed for more than 1 yr after onset. He became able to walk with knee-ankle-foot-orthoses without assistance. A magnetic resonance image obtained 1 yr after the onset of paraplegia showed an atrophic spinal cord from T7-8 to the conus. The course of the neurologic findings and the imaging studies suggest that the pathogenesis of surfer's myelopathy may be ischemia of the anterior spinal artery territory induced by the abnormal trunk posture while surfing.

  12. Estimating wave energy dissipation in the surf zone using thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, Roxanne J.; Chickadel, C. Chris; Jessup, Andrew T.; Thomson, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Thermal infrared (IR) imagery is used to quantify the high spatial and temporal variability of dissipation due to wave breaking in the surf zone. The foam produced in an actively breaking crest, or wave roller, has a distinct signature in IR imagery. A retrieval algorithm is developed to detect breaking waves and extract wave roller length using measurements taken during the Surf Zone Optics 2010 experiment at Duck, NC. The remotely derived roller length and an in situ estimate of wave slope are used to estimate dissipation due to wave breaking by means of the wave-resolving model by Duncan (1981). The wave energy dissipation rate estimates show a pattern of increased breaking during low tide over a sand bar, consistent with in situ turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate estimates from fixed and drifting instruments over the bar. When integrated over the surf zone width, these dissipation rate estimates account for 40-69% of the incoming wave energy flux. The Duncan (1981) estimates agree with those from a dissipation parameterization by Janssen and Battjes (2007), a wave energy dissipation model commonly applied within nearshore circulation models.

  13. Alongshore momentum in the outer surf zone under hurricane wind and wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, R. P.; Hanson, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Wave breaking is the dominant physical process acting along beaches and coasts exposed to surface waves during storms, causing large gradients in wave momentum that generate strong currents in the nearshore zone. At the outer edge of the wave breaking region, strong horizontal current shear between the alongshore currents and alongshelf flows can develop and drive strong shear and mixing between these regions. Wave and current observations from a cross-shore array of six acoustic sensors in water depths of 2-11 m at Duck, NC, are used to elucidate the balance of momentum under storm wave conditions with wide surf zones, corresponding to offshore hurricanes. Offshore hurricanes that are distal (calm local wind) and proximal (local wind up to 25 m/s) generate large wave heights (3-5 m) and very strong alongshore currents (up to 2 m/s). We find that horizontal shear contributes strongly to momentum at the seaward limit of the surf zone and that radiation stress gradients, bottom stress, wind stress, mixing and advection play important roles at different times and locations in the cross-shore integrated momentum balance. The results provide insight into the cross-shore distribution of the alongshore current and the connection between alongshore flows inside the surf zone and outside it during major storms.

  14. Pedestrian Detection in Far-Infrared Daytime Images Using a Hierarchical Codebook of SURF

    PubMed Central

    Besbes, Bassem; Rogozan, Alexandrina; Rus, Adela-Maria; Bensrhair, Abdelaziz; Broggi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in intelligent vehicles concerns pedestrian detection for driving assistance. Recent experiments have showed that state-of-the-art descriptors provide better performances on the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum than on the visible one, even in daytime conditions, for pedestrian classification. In this paper, we propose a pedestrian detector with on-board FIR camera. Our main contribution is the exploitation of the specific characteristics of FIR images to design a fast, scale-invariant and robust pedestrian detector. Our system consists of three modules, each based on speeded-up robust feature (SURF) matching. The first module allows generating regions-of-interest (ROI), since in FIR images of the pedestrian shapes may vary in large scales, but heads appear usually as light regions. ROI are detected with a high recall rate with the hierarchical codebook of SURF features located in head regions. The second module consists of pedestrian full-body classification by using SVM. This module allows one to enhance the precision with low computational cost. In the third module, we combine the mean shift algorithm with inter-frame scale-invariant SURF feature tracking to enhance the robustness of our system. The experimental evaluation shows that our system outperforms, in the FIR domain, the state-of-the-art Haar-like Adaboost-cascade, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG)/linear SVM (linSVM) and MultiFtrpedestrian detectors, trained on the FIR images. PMID:25871724

  15. Vertical structure of mean cross-shore currents across a barred surf zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, John W.; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    1994-01-01

    Mean cross-shore currents observed across a barred surf zone are compared to model predictions. The model is based on a simplified momentum balance with a turbulent boundary layer at the bed. Turbulent exchange is parameterized by an eddy viscosity formulation, with the eddy viscosity Aυ independent of time and the vertical coordinate. Mean currents result from gradients due to wave breaking and shoaling, and the presence of a mean setup of the free surface. Descriptions of the wave field are provided by the wave transformation model of Thornton and Guza [1983]. The wave transformation model adequately reproduces the observed wave heights across the surf zone. The mean current model successfully reproduces the observed cross-shore flows. Both observations and predictions show predominantly offshore flow with onshore flow restricted to a relatively thin surface layer. Successful application of the mean flow model requires an eddy viscosity which varies horizontally across the surf zone. Attempts are made to parameterize this variation with some success. The data does not discriminate between alternative parameterizations proposed. The overall variability in eddy viscosity suggested by the model fitting should be resolvable by field measurements of the turbulent stresses. Consistent shortcomings of the parameterizations, and the overall modeling effort, suggest avenues for further development and data collection.

  16. Rotational surf zone modeling for O(μ4) Boussinesq-Green-Naghdi systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Kennedy, Andrew B.; Donahue, Aaron S.; Westerink, Joannes J.; Panda, Nishant; Dawson, Clint

    2014-07-01

    A surf zone model is developed and tested based on the O(μ4) Boussinesq-Green-Naghdi system of Zhang et al. (2013). Because the model is fundamentally rotational, it uses fewer ad hoc assumptions than are found in many Boussinesq breaking wave systems. Eddy viscosity is used to describe both breaking dissipation and bottom friction, with breaking viscosities derived from the turbulent kinetic energy equation coupled with an O(μ4) rotational wave model. In contrast, bottom friction is included by imposing the frictional coefficient-derived boundary stress as an equivalent eddy viscosity. Numerical tests for one horizontal dimension show good agreement with regular and irregular wave breaking tests, and for solitary wave runup. Surface elevation decay, setup, runup, interior orbital velocities, and depth-varying undertow velocities can all be modeled reasonably. Comparison with an O(μ2) system shows similar performance for water surface elevations in the surf zone, demonstrating that the dissipation model is the major controlling factor. However, the O(μ4) model shows significantly improved representations of the velocity profile in the surf zone, as expected.

  17. The effects of exposure in sandy beach surf zones on larval fishes.

    PubMed

    Pattrick, P; Strydom, N A

    2014-05-01

    The influence of wind and wave exposure on larval fish assemblages within a large bay system was investigated. Larval fishes were sampled from two areas with vastly different exposure to waves and wind, namely the windward and leeward sectors of Algoa Bay. In total, 5702 larval fishes were collected using a modified larval seine. Of these, 4391 were collected in the leeward and 1311 in the windward sector of the bay, representing a total of 23 families and 57 species. Dominant fish families included Clinidae, Engraulidae, Kyphosidae, Mugilidae, Soleidae and Sparidae, similar to the situation elsewhere, highlighting continuity in the composition of larval fish assemblages and the utilization of surf zones by a specific group of larval fishes. Nineteen estuary-associated marine species occurred within the surf zones of Algoa Bay and dominated catches (86·7%) in terms of abundance. Postflexion larvae comprised > 80% of the catch, indicating the importance of the seemingly inhospitable surf zone environment for the early life stages of many fish species. The greatest species diversity was observed within the windward sector of the bay. Distance-based linear modelling identified wave period as the environmental variable explaining the largest proportion of the significant variation in the larval fish assemblage. The physical disturbance generated by breaking waves could create a suitable environment for fish larvae, sheltered from predators and with an abundance of food resources.

  18. Accumulation and elimination of (9-/sup 14/C)phenanthrene in the calico clam (Macrocallista maculata)

    SciTech Connect

    Solbakken, J.E.; Jeffrey, F.M.H.; Knap, A.H.; Palmork, K.H.

    1982-05-01

    The accumulation and elimination of radoactivity is studied after exposure of (9-/sup 14/C) phenanthrene in various tissues in the calico clam (Macrocallista maculata). Results show that accumulation is highest in the lipid-rich hepatopancreas, and the elimination is very efficient compared to the horse mussel. The calico clam, which is a sand-dwelling organism, can easily come in contact with hydrocarbon contaminated sedments and might accumulate the hydrocarbons at different extents in various tissues. The efficient elimination, however, will prevent a lasting accumulation. (JMT)

  19. Observations of geese foraging for clam shells during spring on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Fowler, A.C.; Bottitta, G.E.; Schamber, J.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the behavior of geese on exposed river ice during spring on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. The predominant behavior while on the ice for both sexes was foraging; however, females foraged more than males. Visual inspection of the ice revealed no potential plant or animal food items. However, numerous small (<20 man) clam shells (Macoma balthica) and pieces of shell were noted. It appeared that geese were foraging on empty clam shells. This potential source of calcium was available to breeding geese just prior to egg formation and geese likely stored this calcium in the form of medullary bone for use during egg formation.

  20. The Dusty Accretion of Polluted White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsor, A.; Farihi, J.; Wyatt, M. C.; van Lieshout, R.

    2017-03-01

    Infrared observations of polluted white dwarfs provide key insights into the accretion processes in action. The standard model for the observed infrared excesses is a flat, opaque, dust disc. The infrared observations are inconsistent with the presence of such a disc around all polluted white dwarfs. We discuss potential explanations for the absence of an infrared excess for many polluted white dwarfs.

  1. Pluto: Dwarf planet 134340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, investigations of Pluto with up-to-date astronomical instruments yielded results that have been generally confirmed by the New Horizons mission. In 2006, in Prague, the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) reclassified Pluto as a member of the dwarf planet category according to the criteria defined by the IAU for the term "planet". At the same time, interest in studies of Pluto was increasing, while the space investigations of Pluto were delayed. In 2006, the New Horizons Pluto spacecraft started its journey to Pluto. On July 14, 2015, the spacecraft, being in fly-by mode, made its closest approach to Pluto. The heterogeneities and properties of the surface and rarified atmosphere were investigated thoroughly. Due to the extreme remoteness of the spacecraft and the energy limitations, it will take 18 months to transmit the whole data volume. Along with the preliminary results of the New Horizons Pluto mission, this paper reviews the basics on Pluto and its moons acquired from the ground-based observations and with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). There are only a few meteorite craters on the surfaces of Pluto and Charon, which distinctly marks them apart from such satellites of the giant planets as Ganymede and Callisto. The explanation is that the surface of Pluto is young: its age is estimated at less than 100 Myr. Ice glaciers of apparently a nitrogen nature were found. Nitrogen is also the main component of the atmosphere of Pluto. The planet demonstrates the signs of strong geologic activity, though the energy sources of these processes are unknown.

  2. How, Now, Brown Dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with colorful names for stars, from red giants to blue stragglers. Objects with masses between roughly .01 and .1 solar masses are called "brown dwarfs". Do they - could they - ever actually appear brown? Color is not a one-dimensional physical parameter like wavelength. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving not only three degrees of freedom - hue (often incorrectly equated with "color"), saturation and brightness - but also observational context. The perceptual nature of color has been known since Newton wrote in his "Opticks” in 1704: "For the Rays to speak properly are not coloured. In them there is nothing else than a certain Power and disposition to stir up a Sensation of this or that Colour.” To most observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the half dozen exceptions which look reddish/orange like Betelgeuse, Arcturus and Antares. But what color would Betelgeuse (effective temperature 3600 K) appear at a distance of, say, 100 times the Earth-Sun separation? Not red. In fact, it has a temperature about 40% higher than that of an ordinary incandescent light bulb. It would appear white (or yellowish)! Can a very cool radiating (emissive) object ever appear brown? What is brown anyway? It is not a primary or even secondary color. In this presentation, we will explore the nature and meaning of "brown” by the use of several physical and computer demonstrations developed as part of "Project LITE- Light Inquiry Through Experiments", an educational materials development project. These demonstrations show that an isolated thermally radiating object will never appear brown. Hence the term "Brown Dwarf” is as nonsensical as the phrase "How, Now, Brown Cow?". Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  3. Surf zone fauna of Ecuadorian sandy beaches: Spatial and temporal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Fockedey, N.; de Grunauer, M. del P. Cornejo R.; Dominguez-Granda, L.

    2017-02-01

    Sandy beaches and their surf zones are the most common open shoreline habitat; however, surf zone fauna in the tropics is one of the least studied communities in the world. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that Ecuadorian surf zone hyperbenthos (invertebrates and vertebrates 1-5 mm in length) and epibenthos (fish and macrocrustaceans > 5 mm in length) vary among beaches and seasons. Therefore, the fauna was described and related to environmental variables. In addition, indicator taxa were identified. The hyperbenthos was divided into holo- and mero-hyperbenthos depending on whether taxa were present during their entire life or only early life stages, respectively. Samples were collected at eight different beaches during the wet, dry and intermediate or transitional season during the low spring tide, from 1999 to 2000, using a hyperbenthic sledge and epibenthic trawl. A total of 447 hyperbenthic and 30 epibenthic taxa were collected, most of which were crustaceans and fish, respectively (52 and 60% of taxa). The mysid, Metamysidopsis sp., was the most abundant member of the hyperbenthos (average ± SD: 14,425 ± 40,039 ind. 100 m- 2, present in 92% of samples collected), and the swimming blue crab, Areneus mexicanus, was the most encountered species among the epibenthos (1 ± 1 ind. 100 m- 2, 97% of samples collected). All faunal groups varied among beaches, while the holo-hyperbenthos and less strongly the epibenthos varied among seasons. Variability in the three faunas among beaches, distance from the continental slope and the Guayas estuarine system, and beach water physical characteristics were all strongly correlated suggesting adjacent habitats can influence surf zone biological communities and water physical characteristics. Seasonal effects were related to changes in water physical characteristics among seasons potentially reflecting changes in oceanic currents. These results suggest that, similarly to other beaches around the world, Ecuadorian

  4. Characterization of Activity and Cardiovascular Responses During Surfing in Recreational Male Surfers Between the Ages of 18 and 75 Years Old.

    PubMed

    LaLanne, Christine L; Cannady, Michael S; Moon, Joseph F; Taylor, Danica L; Nessler, Jeff A; Crocker, George H; Newcomer, Sean C

    2016-09-06

    Participation in surfing has evolved to include all age groups. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether activity levels and cardiovascular responses to surfing change with age. Surfing time and heart rate (HR) were measured for the total surfing session and within each activity of surfing (paddling, sitting, wave-riding and miscellaneous). Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was also measured during a laboratory-based simulated surfboard paddling on a modified swim bench ergometer. VO2peak decreased with age during simulated paddling (r=-0.455, p<0.001, n=68). Total time surfing (p=0.837) and time spent within each activity of surfing did not differ with age (n=160). Mean HR during surfing significantly decreased with age (r=-0.231, p=0.004). However, surfing HR expressed as a percent of age-predicted maximum increased significantly with age. Therefore, recreational surfers across the age spectrum are achieving intensities and durations that are consistent with guidelines for cardiovascular health.

  5. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fish and invertebrates (North Atlantic): Softshell clam. [Mya arenaria

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, C.R.; Hidu, H.

    1986-06-01

    The softshell clam, Mya arenaria, is a commercially and recreationally important invertebrate that inhabits the bottom sediments of subtidal and intertidal waters of moderate to high salinity. Its range is limited by water temperatures too low for reproduction in the north and by lethal warm temperatures in the south. Clams feed by siphoning seawater and removing food particles, especially phytoplankton, with their gills. Clams are therefore sensitive to factors affecting water quality, including suspended sediments, salinity, water temperature, oxygen, and waterborne pollutants. The clam life cycle consists of mass spawning and external fertilization, the development of pelagic larvae, settlement and metamorphosis into spat, and rapid juvenile growth to maturity. Clam recruitment and the migration of spat are dependent upon inshore currents. High morality of eggs, larvae, and spat is largely offset by high reproductive potential. As the clam grows, it finds refuge from most predators deep in the sediments, but it also loses its ability to burrow and is subject to suffocation by siltation. Sediment types, currents, and tidal heights all affect clam growth rates.

  6. Metabolomic analysis revealed the differential responses in two pedigrees of clam Ruditapes philippinarum towards Vibrio harveyi challenge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Qing

    2013-12-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is an important marine aquaculture shellfish. This species has several pedigrees including White, Zebra, Liangdao Red and Marine Red distributing in the coastal areas in North China. In this work, we studied the metabolic differences induced by Vibrio harveyi in hepatopancreas from White and Zebra clams using NMR-based metabolomics. Metabolic responses (e.g., amino acids, glucose, glycogen, ATP and succinate) and altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (ATP synthase, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme) suggested that V. harveyi induced clear disruption in energy metabolism and immune stresses in both White and Zebra clam hepatopancreas. However, V. harveyi caused obvious osmotic stress in Zebra clam hepatopancreas, which was not observed in V. harveyi-challenged White clams samples. In addition, V. harveyi challenge induced more severe disruption in energy metabolism and immune stress in White clams than in Zebra clams. Overall, our results indicated that the biological differences between different pedigrees of R. philippinarum should be considered in immunity studies.

  7. FORMATION OF DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES VIA MERGERS OF DISKY DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Lokas, Ewa L.; Klimentowski, Jaroslaw; Mayer, Lucio; Knebe, Alexander

    2011-10-10

    We perform collisionless N-body simulations to investigate whether binary mergers between rotationally supported dwarfs can lead to the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). Our simulation campaign is based on a hybrid approach combining cosmological simulations and controlled numerical experiments. We select merger events from a Constrained Local Universe simulation of the Local Group (LG) and record the properties of the interacting dwarf-sized halos. This information is subsequently used to seed controlled experiments of binary encounters between dwarf galaxies consisting of exponential stellar disks embedded in cosmologically motivated dark matter halos. These simulations are designed to reproduce eight cosmological merger events, with initial masses of the interacting systems in the range {approx}(5-60) x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun}, occurring quite early in the history of the LG, more than 10 Gyr ago. We compute the properties of the merger remnants as a distant observer would and demonstrate that at least three of the simulated encounters produce systems with kinematic and structural properties akin to those of the classic dSphs in the LG. Tracing the history of the remnants in the cosmological simulation to z = 0, we find that two dSph-like objects remain isolated at distances {approx}> 800 kpc from either the Milky Way or M31. These systems constitute plausible counterparts of the remote dSphs Cetus and Tucana which reside in the LG outskirts, far from the tidal influence of the primary galaxies. We conclude that merging of rotationally supported dwarfs represents a viable mechanism for the formation of dSphs in the LG and similar environments.

  8. 50 CFR 648.75 - Cage identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.75 Cage identification. Link to an amendment published... requirements apply to all vessels issued a Federal fishing permit for surf clams and ocean quahogs: (a) Tagging... from the Regional Administrator. (g) Transfer. See § 648.70(b)(2). (h) Presumptions. Surf clams...

  9. 50 CFR 648.6 - Dealer/processor permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... deep-sea red crab, spiny dogfish, summer flounder, Atlantic surf clam, ocean quahog, Atlantic mackerel, squid, butterfish, scup, bluefish, tilefish, and black sea bass; Atlantic surf clam and ocean quahog... business if applying for a surf clam and ocean quahog permit), mailing address(es) and telephone...

  10. 50 CFR 648.7 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (if applicable). (ii) Surf clam and ocean quahog vessel owners and operators. The owner or operator of any vessel conducting any surf clam and ocean quahog fishing operations, except those conducted exclusively in waters of a state that requires cage tags or when he/she has surrendered the surf clam...

  11. Impacts of pollution in feral Mya arenaria populations: the effects of clam bed distance from the shore.

    PubMed

    Gagné, F; Blaise, C; Pellerin, J; Fournier, M; Gagnon, C; Sherry, J; Talbot, A

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the relationships between population characteristics and the expression of physiological biomarkers of stress in an intertidal clam population under pollution at sites differing in thermal history and coastline distance. The clam population metrics were age distribution, growth, condition factor, distance of the clam beds from the shore, and gonad development. Physiological biomarkers comprised biomarkers of defence such as superoxide dismutase, labile IIb metals in tissues, redox status of metallothioneins and glutathione S-transferase, of tissue damage such as lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks, of reproduction as determined by vitellogenin-like proteins and gonadosomatic index and immunocompetence such as phagocytosis and hemocyte viability. Age-related pigments were also examined to compare the physiological age of the clams with their chronological age. The results showed that all the above biomarkers were significantly affected at one of the two polluted sites at least. Distance from the shore was significantly correlated with most (81%) of the biomarkers examined. Clams collected at one polluted site were physiologically older than clams from the corresponding reference site. Canonical and adaptive regression (artificial neural networks) analyses found that the biomarkers measured in this study were able to predict the ecologically relevant endpoints. Biomarkers implicated in defense mechanisms, tissue damage and age-related pigments were most closely related to the clam population characteristics. Sensitivity analysis of the learning algorithm found that the following physiological and biochemical markers were the most predictive, in decreasing order, of clam population characteristics: glutathione S-transferase, phagocytosis, age pigments, lipid peroxidation in the gills, labile IIb metals and total MT levels. These biomarkers were affected by the distance of the clam beds from the shore, site quality (pollution) and reproduction

  12. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF.

  13. Oxygen, sulphide and nutrient uptake of the mangrove mud clam Anodontia edentula (Family: Lucinidae).

    PubMed

    Lebata, M J

    2001-11-01

    Oxygen, sulphide and nutrient (ammonia, nitrite and phosphate) uptake of Anodontia edentula was measured. Oxygen and sulphide were measured from sealed containers provided with 1 l fresh mangrove mud (sulphide source) and seawater (oxygen source) with two treatments (with and without clam) at 16 replicates each. Oxygen, sulphide and other parameters were measured at days 1 (initial), 3 and 5 (final). Nutrients were measured from containers filled with 1.5 l wastewater from a milkfish broodstock tank with two treatments (with and without clam) at eight replicates each. Ammonia, NO2 and P04 were measured at days 0 (initial) 3, 6, 9 and 12 (final). Results showed significantly decreasing oxygen and sulphide concentrations in treatment with clams (ANOVA, p < 0.001). A significantly higher ammonia concentration (ANOVA, p < 0.05) was observed in treatment with clams while no significant difference was observed in nitrite and phosphate between the two treatments. A decreasing ammonia and an increasing nitrite trend was also observed in both treatments starting at day 3.

  14. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Laser Welding Joint of a CLAM Steel with Revised Chemical Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuhai; Huang, Jihua; Lu, Qi; Zhao, Xingke

    2016-05-01

    To suppress the tendency to form delta ferrite in weld metal (WM) of China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel joint, a CLAM steel with revised chemical compositions was designed. Laser welding of the CLAM steel was investigated. The microstructures of the WM and heat-affected zone were analyzed. The impact toughness of the WM was evaluated by a Charpy impact test method with three V notches. The influence of temper temperature on mechanical properties was analyzed. It was found that the delta ferrite was eliminated almost completely in laser WM of CLAM steel with revised chemical compositions which has lower tendency to form delta ferrite than original chemical compositions. The joint has higher tensile strength than the parent metal. With increasing the heat input, the impact toughness of the joint is approximatively equal with that of parent metal first and then decreases obviously. Temper treatment could effectively improve mechanical property of the joint. When the temper temperature exceeds 600 °C, the impact toughness of the joint is higher than that of the parent metal.

  15. Allozyme electrophoresis as a tool for distinguishing different zooxanthellae symbiotic with giant clams

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, B. K.; Monje, V.; Silvestre, V.; Sison, M.; Belda-Baillie, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The taxonomy of zooxanthellae in marine invertebrate symbioses is not well understood owing mainly to their lack of reliable morphological differences. Nevertheless, previous work using protein and DNA electrophoreses has set the stage for advancing our taxonomic understanding of cnidarian zooxanthellae. Here we present the use of allozymes as genetic markers for distinguishing algal isolates from tridacnid hosts. Zooxanthellae from seven Tridacna and Hippopus species were isolated and maintained in axenic clonal cultures over many generations. Of 16 enzyme systems, α- and β-esterase (EST), esterase-F (EST-F), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were found suitable polymorphic markers of genetic differences among clonal cultures. Of 39 clonal isolates, 97% were found to be genetically distinguishable. This high extent of genetic variation in zooxanthellae within and between clam species was unexpected, and is difficult to explain based solely on the general notion of asexual reproduction in symbiotic zooxanthellae. Our results are also consistent with the occurrence of sexual reproduction in clam zooxanthellae. The close genetic similarity of the symbionts of Tridacna gigas, the largest and fastest-growing clam species, and the difficulty of initiating their clonal cultures in the given nutrient medium, compared with the symbionts of other clam species, are further indicative of possibly distinct algal symbionts in T. gigas. These findings are discussed in light of current taxonomic understanding of these organisms.

  16. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (North Atlantic): Softshell Clam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    on (Rathbun). J. rp. Mar.BRiol.Fo-Tc molluscan coelomic fluid. Effect of 65: 67-81. change in environment on the carbon dioxide content of the... coelomic Rourne, J. 1967. Digging efficiency fluid. Anaerobic respiration in Mya" trials with a hydraulic clam rake. arenaria. J. Biol. Chem. 45: 23-3.- Fish

  17. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots induce oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in the marine clam Scrobicularia plana.

    PubMed

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Poirier, Laurence; Lopes, Christelle; Risso-de-Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Gilliland, Douglas; Perrein-Ettajani, Hanane; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots have a number of current applications in electronics and solar cells and significant future potential in medicine. The aim of the present study was to examine the toxic effects of CdS quantum dots on the marine clam Scrobicularia plana exposed for 14 d to these nanomaterials (10 µg Cd L(-1) ) in natural seawater and to compare them with soluble Cd. Measurement of labile Cd released from CdS quantum dots showed that 52% of CdS quantum dots remained in the nanoparticulate form. Clams accumulated the same levels of Cd regardless of the form in which it was delivered (soluble Cd vs CdS quantum dots). However, significant changes in biochemical responses were observed in clams exposed to CdS quantum dots compared with soluble Cd. Increased activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly higher in clams exposed in seawater to Cd as the nanoparticulate versus the soluble form, suggesting a specific nano effect. The behavior of S. plana in sediment showed impairments of foot movements only in the case of exposure to CdS quantum dots. The results show that oxidative stress and behavior biomarkers are sensitive predictors of CdS quantum dots toxicity in S. plana. Such responses, appearing well before changes might occur at the population level, demonstrate the usefulness of this model species and type of biomarker in the assessment of nanoparticle contamination in estuarine ecosystems.

  18. Use of Polymerase Chain Reaction for Bivalve Pathogen Surveillance in the Yellow Clam Mesodesma mactroides.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Yuri Bovi Morais; da Silva Santos, Juan Jethro; Raibenberg, Fernando C; Poersch, Luis Henrique; Romano, Luis Alberto

    2016-06-01

    The yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides is a valuable shellfish occurring from the southeastern coast of Brazil to the northern coast of Argentina. Populations of yellow clams are disappearing from their entire range, and the cause is still unknown. The objective of this paper was to search for World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-listed pathogens and their relatives in the genera Marteilia, Bonamia, and Perkinsus as well as Mikrocytos mackini and the virus OsHV-1 μ var the yellow clam population in southern Brazil using molecular techniques and classic histology protocols. A total of 180 clams were manually collected in the intertidal region at six sampling points covering the entire coast of Rio Grande do Sul State (length, 622 km) in 2013. Tissue samples were tested by OIE-recommended single-step conventional polymerase chain reaction assays. The screening showed no evidence of the specific sequences of the protistan parasites and viral pathogens at any site within the six zones under study. We recommend continuous monitoring of the mollusks in the region. Received July 3, 2015; accepted February 3, 2016.

  19. The Quiet Clam Is Quite Calm: Transposed-Letter Neighborhood Effects on Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    In responses time tasks, inhibitory neighborhood effects have been found for word pairs that differ in a transposition of two adjacent letters (e.g., "clam/calm"). Here, the author describes two eye-tracking experiments conducted to explore transposed-letter (TL) neighborhood effects within the context of normal silent reading. In…

  20. Uptake of trace metals by the clam Macoma inquinata from clean and oil-contaminated detritus

    SciTech Connect

    Crecelius, E.A.; Augenfeld, J.M.; Woodruff, D.L.; Anderson, J.W.

    1980-09-01

    In recent years there has been increasing concern about the entry of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) into the marine environment and the effects of such entry on the composition and functioning of the marine ecosystem. Few reports have been published on the possible effect of oil on the uptake of metals from water or sediments by animals. The possibility of such effects is indicated by the work of Fletcher et al. (1979), who showed that crude oil causes a reduction in blood plasma copper concentrations in fish, and Payne et al. (1978) who reported that petroleum affected chloride regulation in fish. Luoma and Jenne (1977) have shown that the availability of sediment-bound metals to a deposit-feeding clam depended on the metal-sediment associated and sediment-to-water desorption rate. We exposed a detritivorous clam, Macoma inquinata, to clean and oil-contaminated detritus to determine the effects of the oil on metal accumulation. To measure the uptake of metals, clams were exposed to neutron activated detritus and the uptake of several isotopes (/sup 51/Cr, /sup 60/Co, /sup 152/Eu, /sup 59/Fe, /sup 46/Sc, and /sup 65/Zn) measured in the clams.

  1. Metabolic responses of clam Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to its pathogen Vibrio tapetis in relation to diet.

    PubMed

    Richard, Gaëlle; Guérard, Fabienne; Corporeau, Charlotte; Lambert, Christophe; Paillard, Christine; Pernet, Fabrice

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effect of brown ring disease (BRD) development and algal diet on energy reserves and activity of enzymes related to energy metabolism, antioxidant system and immunity in Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. We found that algal diet did not impact the metabolic response of clams exposed to Vibrio tapetis. At two days post-injection (dpi), activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased whereas activities of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and catalase increased in infected clams, although no clinical signs were visible (BRD-). At 7 dpi, activities of several antioxidant and immune-related enzymes were markedly increased in BRD-likely indicating an efficient reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging compared to animals which developed clinical signs of BRD (BRD+). Therefore, resistance to BRD clinical signs appearance was associated with higher detoxification of ROS and enhancement of immune response. This study provides new biochemical indicators of disease resistance and a more comprehensive view of the global antioxidant response of clam to BRD development.

  2. Multidrug-resistant and epidemic clones of Escherichia coli from natural beds of Venus clam.

    PubMed

    Vignaroli, C; Di Sante, L; Leoni, F; Chierichetti, S; Ottaviani, D; Citterio, B; Biavasco, F

    2016-10-01

    Epidemic Escherichia coli clones have been recovered in marine sediment along the coast of Marche, an Adriatic region in central Italy. In the present study, E. coli strains from the clam Chamelea gallina, sampled from seven natural beds in the same area, were detected. Selected E. coli isolates from all sampling sites were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, genetic diversity and correlation. The majority (60%) belonged to phylogroups A or B1, 31% to the other groups (B2, C, D, E, F), 8% to cryptic clades, and 1% were untypable. Moreover, 33.3% of isolates were resistant to at least one drug and 11% were multidrug resistant (MDR). The most common resistance was to tetracycline, ampicillin, and streptomycin. No clonality was detected, but the strains' high genetic heterogeneity pointed at multiple sources of microbiological contamination. MLST analysis found potentially pathogenic and even epidemic MDR strains in clams collected in class A (ST746 and ST46) and class B (ST393, ST58 and ST131) areas, indicating that strains of clinical origin are detectable in clams. These data highlight that eating raw or lightly cooked clams may pose a health risk if purification is not performed or is ineffective.

  3. Effect of epinephrine on the settlement and metamorphosis of Manila clam larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sumin; Bao, Zhenmin; Liu, Hui; Fang, Jianguang

    2006-04-01

    Chemical inducement and DDRT-PCR (differential display reverse transcription PCR) are adopted to investigate the effect of epinephrine (EPI) on the settlement and metamorphosis of Manila clam larvae. Chemical inducement shows that EPI has an effect to some extent on the metamorphosis of Manila clam larvae at all concentrations and in all treatments designed. The most significant result of inducement is obtained at the concentration of 10-6 mol L-1 and for 4h. DDRT-PCR using six primer pairs shows that the gene expression pattern is quite different between EPI treatment and the control. Three hundred and forty-three amplification bands are obtained in total, among which, 67 (19.53%) are differentially appeared. Therefore, EPI has an effect on the gene expression of the eye spot larval Manila clam. It can be hypothesized that EPI is a settlement and metamorphosis inducer for Manila clam. EPI may lead to larvae settlement and metamorphosis by binding to the receptors on the membrane and then changing the gene expression of larvae cells.

  4. Lagrangian Simulations of polar ozone loss: from box model to 3-d CTM CLaMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooss, J.; Konopka, P.; Gunther, G.; Walter, R.; Müller, R.

    2005-12-01

    Since the discovery of the ozone hole in 1985, simulations of polar ozone loss improved persistently over the years. Especially using the Lagrangian view in which chemical processes are simulated for air parcels that move in location has been demonstrated to be a successful method. We describe the development of Lagrangian simulations of polar ozone loss starting with chemical box model simulations along particular trajectories up to the 3-dimensional version of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). Besides chemistry and Lagrangian advection CLaMS contains sophisticated modules for mixing and denitrification. We show CLaMS simulations for the Arctic winters 2002/03, 2004/05 and for the Antarctic winter 2003. The focus will be on chemical ozone loss and denitrification. The processes involved in denitrification, especially the nucleation of NAT particles are not fully understood. From comparisons of the simulated denitrification with observations we conclude that the sensitivity of denitrification on key assumptions is largest at the time of onset of the denitrification. Further we show that besides possible inconsistencies in the ozone loss rates in early winter the ozone depletion over the winter is simulated in agreement with the observations. Overall, CLaMS simulations reproduce the inhomogeneity of chemical ozone loss within the polar vortex well.

  5. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  6. The Physics of White Dwarfs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Hugh M.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the current understanding of the structure and evolution of the white dwarf stars that was gained as a result of the increasingly sensitive and detailed astronomical observations coupled with calculations of the properties of matter under extreme conditions. (Author/GA)

  7. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Common littleneck clam. [Protothaca staminea

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.N.

    1986-04-01

    Common littleneck clam (Protothaca staminea) supports an important sport fishery in the Pacific Southwest Region, but has no commercial importance. The species is distributed from Alaska to Baja, California. The egg develops into the trochophore stage 12 h after fertilization, and the planktonic larval stage lasts about 3 weeks. Adults usually mature in the second or third year of life. Mortality is greatest early in life. Intraspecific competition among adults is more evident in mud than in sand. Most littleneck clams live in the lower intertidal zone. Littleneck clams concentrate heavy metals and are highly sensitive to copper.

  8. Shell-armored wood cobbles as a potential criterion for detrital coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarco, M.J.; Nummedal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Shell-armored wood cobbles occur on detrital-peat beaches along the seaward edge of the Mississippi Delta. Shell material consists exclusively of Mulinia lateralis, a dwarf surf clam. Soft, heavy, waterlogged wood fragments are abraded and become armored by hard shells in response to wave activity on the beach. Although their preservation potential is suspect, fossilized shell-armored wood clasts would probably be recognized as a type of coal ball and might indicate an allochthonous origin for the host coal.

  9. THREE NEW ECLIPSING WHITE-DWARF-M-DWARF BINARIES DISCOVERED IN A SEARCH FOR TRANSITING PLANETS AROUND M-DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Nicholas M.; Kraus, Adam L.; Street, Rachel; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Lister, Tim; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Baranec, Christoph; Bui, Khanh; Davis, Jack T. C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, Eran O.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nugent, Peter; and others

    2012-10-01

    We present three new eclipsing white-dwarf/M-dwarf binary systems discovered during a search for transiting planets around M-dwarfs. Unlike most known eclipsing systems of this type, the optical and infrared emission is dominated by the M-dwarf components, and the systems have optical colors and discovery light curves consistent with being Jupiter-radius transiting planets around early M-dwarfs. We detail the PTF/M-dwarf transiting planet survey, part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based box-least-squares search for transits that runs approximately 8 Multiplication-Sign faster than similar algorithms implemented on general purpose systems. For the discovered systems, we decompose low-resolution spectra of the systems into white-dwarf and M-dwarf components, and use radial velocity measurements and cooling models to estimate masses and radii for the white dwarfs. The systems are compact, with periods between 0.35 and 0.45 days and semimajor axes of approximately 2 R{sub Sun} (0.01 AU). The M-dwarfs have masses of approximately 0.35 M{sub Sun }, and the white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich atmospheres with temperatures of around 8000 K and have masses of approximately 0.5 M{sub Sun }. We use the Robo-AO laser guide star adaptive optics system to tentatively identify one of the objects as a triple system. We also use high-cadence photometry to put an upper limit on the white-dwarf radius of 0.025 R{sub Sun} (95% confidence) in one of the systems. Accounting for our detection efficiency and geometric factors, we estimate that 0.08%{sub -0.05%}{sup +0.10%} (90% confidence) of M-dwarfs are in these short-period, post-common-envelope white-dwarf/M-dwarf binaries where the optical light is dominated by the M-dwarf. The lack of detections at shorter periods, despite near-100% detection efficiency for such systems, suggests that binaries including these relatively low-temperature white dwarfs are preferentially found at

  10. Three New Eclipsing White-dwarf-M-dwarf Binaries Discovered in a Search for Transiting Planets around M-dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Kraus, Adam L.; Street, Rachel; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Shporer, Avi; Lister, Tim; Baranec, Christoph; Bloom, Joshua S.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Das, H. K.; Davis, Jack. T. C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, Peter; Ofek, Eran O.; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Riddle, Reed; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.

    2012-10-01

    We present three new eclipsing white-dwarf/M-dwarf binary systems discovered during a search for transiting planets around M-dwarfs. Unlike most known eclipsing systems of this type, the optical and infrared emission is dominated by the M-dwarf components, and the systems have optical colors and discovery light curves consistent with being Jupiter-radius transiting planets around early M-dwarfs. We detail the PTF/M-dwarf transiting planet survey, part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based box-least-squares search for transits that runs approximately 8 × faster than similar algorithms implemented on general purpose systems. For the discovered systems, we decompose low-resolution spectra of the systems into white-dwarf and M-dwarf components, and use radial velocity measurements and cooling models to estimate masses and radii for the white dwarfs. The systems are compact, with periods between 0.35 and 0.45 days and semimajor axes of approximately 2 R ⊙ (0.01 AU). The M-dwarfs have masses of approximately 0.35 M ⊙, and the white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich atmospheres with temperatures of around 8000 K and have masses of approximately 0.5 M ⊙. We use the Robo-AO laser guide star adaptive optics system to tentatively identify one of the objects as a triple system. We also use high-cadence photometry to put an upper limit on the white-dwarf radius of 0.025 R ⊙ (95% confidence) in one of the systems. Accounting for our detection efficiency and geometric factors, we estimate that 0.08%^{+0.10%}_{-0.05%} (90% confidence) of M-dwarfs are in these short-period, post-common-envelope white-dwarf/M-dwarf binaries where the optical light is dominated by the M-dwarf. The lack of detections at shorter periods, despite near-100% detection efficiency for such systems, suggests that binaries including these relatively low-temperature white dwarfs are preferentially found at relatively large orbital radii. Similar eclipsing

  11. Airborne Spectral Measurements of Ocean Anisotropy during CLAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; King, M. D.; Arnold, G. T.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) aboard the University of Washington Convair CV-580 research aircraft obtained bidirectional reflectance-distribution function (BRDF) of Atlantic Ocean and Dismal Swamp between July 10 and August 2, 2001. The BRDF measurements (15 in total, 8 uncontaminated by clouds) obtained under a variety of sun angles and wind conditions, will be used to characterize ocean anisotropy in support of Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) science objectives principally to validate products from NASA's EOS satellites, and to parameterize and validate BRDF models of the ocean. In this paper we present results of BRDF of the Ocean under different sun angles and wind conditions. The CAR is capable of measuring scattered light in fourteen spectral bands. The scan mirror, rotating at 100 rpm, directs the light into a Dall-Kirkham telescope where the beam is split into nine paths. Eight light beams pass through beam splitters, dichroics, and lenses to individual detectors (0.34-1.27 micron), and finally are registered by eight data channels. They are sampled simultaneously and continuously. The ninth beam passes through a spinning filter wheel to an InSb detector cooled by a Stirling cycle cooler. Signals registered by the ninth data channel are selected from among six spectral channels (1.55-2.30 micron). The filter wheel can either cycle through all six spectral bands at a prescribed interval (usually changing filter every fifth scan line), or lock onto any one of the six spectral bands and sample it continuously. To measure the BRF of the surface-atmosphere system, the University of Washington CV-580 had to fly in a circle about 3 km in diameter above the surface for roughly two minutes. Replicated observations (multiple circular orbits) were acquired over selected surfaces so that average BRF smooth out small-scale surface and atmospheric inhomogeneities. At an altitude of 600 m above the targeted surface area and

  12. Faint dwarfs in nearby groups

    SciTech Connect

    Speller, Ryan; Taylor, James E. E-mail: taylor@uwaterloo.ca

    2014-06-20

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to Δm{sub r} ≡ (m{sub r,} {sub sat} – m{sub r,} {sub main}) ∼ 6-8, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead, we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down to Δm{sub r} = 12, 4 mag fainter than most recent studies. We detect an overdensity of objects at separations <400 kpc, corresponding to about 4.6 ± 0.5 satellites per central galaxy, consistent with the satellite abundance expected from the Local Group, given our selection function. Although the sample of satellites detected is incomplete by construction, since it excludes the least and most compact dwarfs, this detection provides a lower bound on the average satellite luminosity function, down to luminosities corresponding to the faintest ''classical'' dwarfs of the Local Group.

  13. Exploring the effects of seasonality and chemical pollution on the hepatopancreas transcriptome of the Manila clam.

    PubMed

    Milan, Massimo; Ferraresso, Serena; Ciofi, Claudio; Chelazzi, Guido; Carrer, Claudio; Ferrari, Giorgio; Pavan, Lino; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of marine environmental health is a complex but fundamental task both for ecosystem conservation and food safety related to the human consumption of marine products. Manila clams inhabiting the Venice Lagoon constitute an excellent case study for evaluating the effects of complex mixtures of industrial and urban effluents on aquatic organisms. Clams were collected in different seasons at four locations within the Venice Lagoon. The sampling sites were characterized by a range of pollutant concentrations and included Porto Marghera, a highly polluted industrial area where clam harvesting for human consumption is strictly forbidden. Pooled soft tissues were subjected to mass spectroscopy analysis to measure the concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/PCBs-DL, PCBs, PBDEs, HCB and PAHs, and pooled digestive gland samples were used for gene expression profiling. While seasonal variation was found to be responsible for the largest proportion of transcriptional changes, significance analysis of microarrays quantitative correlation analysis identified 162 transcripts that were correlated with at least one class of chemicals measured in the samples from the four different sampling sites. Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM) identified a minimal set of seven genes that correctly assigned samples collected in the restricted polluted area (Porto Marghera), independent of the season in which they were collected. An integrated approach combining transcriptomics and chemical analyses of the Manila clam provided a global picture of how Manila clams respond to complex mixtures of xenobiotics and their interplay with other biotic and abiotic factors. We were also able to identify gene expression signatures for different classes of chemicals and a set of robust biomarkers of exposure to these chemicals.

  14. Germinomas and teratoid siphon anomalies in softshell clams, Mya arenaria, environmentally exposed to herbicides.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, G R; Yevich, P P; Hurst, J; Thayer, P; Benyi, S; Harshbarger, J C; Pruell, R J

    1991-01-01

    Seminomas and dysgerminomas are epizootic in softshell clams, Mya arenaria, from three Maine estuaries contaminated with herbicides. The first epizootic was discovered in 22% of clams collected as Searsport near Long Cove Brook and three culverts that conveyed heating oil and jet fuel spilled from a tank farm in 1971. Data from subsequent epizootiological studies and a series of long-term experimental exposures of softshell clams to no. 2 fuel oil, JP-4, and JP-5 jet fuel at the U.S. EPA, Environmental Research Laboratory in Narragansett, Rhode Island, and in the field did not support an etiology by these petroleum products. In the two recent epizootics reported here, the germinomas have been observed in 3% of the softshell clams collected from Roque Bluffs near Machiasport and from 35% of softshell clams collected from Dennysville. Mya collected at Dennysville had pericardial mesotheliomas and teratoid siphon anomalies in addition to gonadal neoplasms. Estuaries at Dennysville had been contaminated by herbicides in a 1979 accidental spray overdrift during aerial application of Tordon 101 to adjacent forests. Further investigation determined widespread use of the herbicides Tordon 101, 2,4-D,2,4,5-T, and other agrochemicals in an extensive forestry and blueberry industry in both the Roque Bluffs and the Dennysville areas. Herbicide applications at Searsport were confirmed for railroad property bordering Long Cove estuary and for Long Cove Brook adjacent to the estuary where a highway department reportedly cleans its spray equipment. Herbicide contamination is the only common denominator identified at all three sites where Mya have been found with gonadal neoplasms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. PMID:2050082

  15. Characterization of a domoic acid binding site from Pacific razor clam.

    PubMed

    Trainer, Vera L; Bill, Brian D

    2004-08-10

    The Pacific razor clam, Siliqua patula, is known to retain domoic acid, a water-soluble glutamate receptor agonist produced by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. The mechanism by which razor clams tolerate high levels of the toxin, domoic acid, in their tissues while still retaining normal nerve function is unknown. In our study, a domoic acid binding site was solubilized from razor clam siphon using a combination of Triton X-100 and digitonin. In a Scatchard analysis using [3H]kainic acid, the partially-purified membrane showed two distinct receptor sites, a high affinity, low capacity site with a KD (mean +/- S.E.) of 28 +/- 9.4 nM and a maximal binding capacity of 12 +/- 3.8 pmol/mg protein and a low affinity, high capacity site with a mM affinity for radiolabeled kainic acid, the latter site which was lost upon solubilization. Competition experiments showed that the rank order potency for competitive ligands in displacing [3H]kainate binding from the membrane-bound receptors was quisqualate > ibotenate > iodowillardiine = AMPA = fluorowillardiine > domoate > kainate > L-glutamate. At high micromolar concentrations, NBQX, NMDA and ATPA showed little or no ability to displace [3H]kainate. In contrast, Scatchard analysis using [3H]glutamate showed linearity, indicating the presence of a single binding site with a KD and Bmax of 500 +/- 50 nM and 14 +/- 0.8 pmol/mg protein, respectively. These results suggest that razor clam siphon contains both a high and low affinity receptor site for kainic acid and may contain more than one subtype of glutamate receptor, thereby allowing the clam to function normally in a marine environment that often contains high concentrations of domoic acid.

  16. Burrowing responses of the short-neck clam Ruditapes philippinarum to sediment contaminants.

    PubMed

    Shin, P K S; Ng, A W M; Cheung, R Y H

    2002-01-01

    The burrowing responses of a common tropical bivalve, the short-neck clam Ruditapes philippinarum, to cadmium (Cd)-spiked sediment, variations of sediment grain size and natural sediments collected from 15 locations in Hong Kong's inshore waters were investigated through a series of laboratory tests. Results showed that the burrowing response exhibited a negative relationship with an increase in Cd concentration in the spiked sediments. The level of Cd was also found to be directly proportional to the percent mortality of the clam. However, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the time elapsed for the clam to burrow into sediments with different grain size composition. The elapsed time for 50% of the test clams to burrow into the sediment (ET50) over a period of 48 h was calculated for the sediment samples collected from the 15 locations. Results of ANOVA showed significant difference (p < 0.05) among the sediment samples. Tukey's multiple comparison test revealed two groups of sediments: group 1 containing 3 sediment samples collected from Victoria Harbour and group 2 containing 12 samples obtained from other coastal areas of Hong Kong. The ET50 value for group 1 sediments was found to be greater than 2,880 min whilst the ET50 for group 2 sediments had a mean of 173.9 min. Agglomerative classification of the sediment samples, based on metal content (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), also showed two similar groups, suggesting that the ET50 values were correlated with the metal level of the sediment samples. Group 1 sediments collected from Victoria Harbour had greater concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn as compared to that in group 2. The present study demonstrated that high metal content in the sediment tends to inhibit the burrowing responses of the clam and that there is potential to develop the burrowing responses of R philippinarum as a sublethal sediment toxicity test.

  17. Germinomas and teratoid siphon anomalies in softshell clams, Mya arenaria, environmentally exposed to herbicides.

    PubMed

    Gardner, G R; Yevich, P P; Hurst, J; Thayer, P; Benyi, S; Harshbarger, J C; Pruell, R J

    1991-01-01

    Seminomas and dysgerminomas are epizootic in softshell clams, Mya arenaria, from three Maine estuaries contaminated with herbicides. The first epizootic was discovered in 22% of clams collected as Searsport near Long Cove Brook and three culverts that conveyed heating oil and jet fuel spilled from a tank farm in 1971. Data from subsequent epizootiological studies and a series of long-term experimental exposures of softshell clams to no. 2 fuel oil, JP-4, and JP-5 jet fuel at the U.S. EPA, Environmental Research Laboratory in Narragansett, Rhode Island, and in the field did not support an etiology by these petroleum products. In the two recent epizootics reported here, the germinomas have been observed in 3% of the softshell clams collected from Roque Bluffs near Machiasport and from 35% of softshell clams collected from Dennysville. Mya collected at Dennysville had pericardial mesotheliomas and teratoid siphon anomalies in addition to gonadal neoplasms. Estuaries at Dennysville had been contaminated by herbicides in a 1979 accidental spray overdrift during aerial application of Tordon 101 to adjacent forests. Further investigation determined widespread use of the herbicides Tordon 101, 2,4-D,2,4,5-T, and other agrochemicals in an extensive forestry and blueberry industry in both the Roque Bluffs and the Dennysville areas. Herbicide applications at Searsport were confirmed for railroad property bordering Long Cove estuary and for Long Cove Brook adjacent to the estuary where a highway department reportedly cleans its spray equipment. Herbicide contamination is the only common denominator identified at all three sites where Mya have been found with gonadal neoplasms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The imbalanced surfing-life of humanity to survival in the global changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    We have written many times about the imbalance of Nature as the cause of the global change. Here, we offer some method for the humanity survival in the face of global change of the imbalanced anisotropic real Nature. There are two logics of understanding the real Nature: the traditional balanced, and the new imbalanced. The balanced logic presupposes that Nature is balanced, isotropic, etc. The imbalanced logic presupposes opposite that Nature is imbalanced, anisotropic, etc. Respectively can be two styles of the people life: balanced and imbalanced. The image of the flat earth corresponds well with the balanced lifestyle of people. On the balanced life people spend activities to achieve the balance by reducing the change, stabilization, leveling any level changes, etc. If there is a mountain on the road, it must be align the track or make the tunnel. If there is a ravine on the road, then it need backfilled or to build a bridge. If someone is in restless, it must be calm, etc. As example of the happiness in the balanced life is the stability, balance, and therefore the global changes of Nature are perceived as a catastrophe. In the balanced lifestyle people can easily decide to use force, especially if there is not enough knowledge. But Nature has power which in billions times greater than the forces of humanity. Therefore, humanity will beaten in struggle with Nature and disappear. The imbalanced lifestyle is the fundamentally different. The imbalanced lifestyle complies with the surface of the ocean, which always changes, but sometimes can be and flat. But the flat calm ocean surface is inconvenient for the imbalanced life. You need to pull boat yourself because is no wind in the sails. The anisotropic imbalanced Nature has gradients in all parameters. At a certain level of knowledge and experience, people can use this multi-dimensional gradient essence of the real Nature for human's discretion. The imbalanced life is like a surfing. If properly understood

  19. New polymorphic microsatellite markers derived from hemocyte cDNA library of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Kyung-Il; Cho, Moonjae; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-02-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important benthic animals in the coastal north Pacific region, where clam populations have been mixed genetically through trade and aquaculture activities. Accordingly, identification of the genetically different clam populations has become one of the most important issues to manage interbreeding of the local and introduced clam populations. To identify genetically different populations of clam populations, we developed 11 expressed sequence tag (EST)-microsatellite loci (i.e., simple sequence repeat, SSR) from 1,128 clam hemocyte cDNA clones challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni. Genotype analysis using the markers developed in this study demonstrated that clams from a tidal flat on the west coast contained 6 to 19 alleles per locus, and a population from Jeju Island had 4 to 20 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity of the 2 clam populations ranged from 0.472 to 0.919 for clams from the west coast, and 0.494 to 0.919 for clams from Jeju Island, respectively. Among the 11 loci discovered in this study, 7 loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The 5 loci developed in this study also successfully amplified the SSRs of R. variegatus, a clam species taxonomically very close to R. philippinarum, from Hong Kong and Jeju Island. We believe that the 11 novel polymorphic SSR developed in this study can be utilized successfully in Manila clam genetic diversity analysis, as well as in genetic discrimination of different clam populations.

  20. New polymorphic microsatellite markers derived from hemocyte cDNA library of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Kyung-Il; Cho, Moonjae; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-03-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important benthic animals in the coastal north Pacific region, where clam populations have been mixed genetically through trade and aquaculture activities. Accordingly, identification of the genetically different clam populations has become one of the most important issues to manage interbreeding of the local and introduced clam populations. To identify genetically different populations of clam populations, we developed 11 expressed sequence tag (EST)-microsatellite loci (i.e., simple sequence repeat, SSR) from 1,128 clam hemocyte cDNA clones challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni. Genotype analysis using the markers developed in this study demonstrated that clams from a tidal flat on the west coast contained 6 to 19 alleles per locus, and a population from Jeju Island had 4 to 20 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity of the 2 clam populations ranged from 0.472 to 0.919 for clams from the west coast, and 0.494 to 0.919 for clams from Jeju Island, respectively. Among the 11 loci discovered in this study, 7 loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The 5 loci developed in this study also successfully amplified the SSRs of R. variegatus, a clam species taxonomically very close to R. philippinarum, from Hong Kong and Jeju Island. We believe that the 11 novel polymorphic SSR developed in this study can be utilized successfully in Manila clam genetic diversity analysis, as well as in genetic discrimination of different clam populations.

  1. RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF A BROWN DWARF BINARY AT THE T DWARF/Y DWARF TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cushing, Michael C.

    2012-01-20

    We report resolved near-infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of the T8.5 binary WISEP J045853.90+643452.6AB obtained with Keck/NIRC2, Keck/OSIRIS, and the Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system. These data confirm common proper and radial motion for the two components, and we see the first indications of orbital motion (mostly radial) for this system. H-band spectroscopy identifies both components as very late type brown dwarfs with strong H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} absorption. The spectrum of WISE J0458+6434B also exhibits a compelling signature of NH{sub 3} absorption over 1.52-1.54 {mu}m when compared to the T9 dwarf UGPS J072227.51-054031.2. Comparison to T8-Y0 spectral standards and H-band spectral indices indicate classifications of T8.5 and T9.5 for these two components, approaching the boundary between the T dwarf and Y dwarf spectral classes.

  2. Spatial and temporal variability in surf zone fish assemblages on the coast of northern New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, D. H.; Clarke, D. G.; Burlas, M. H.; Ruben, H.; Will, R. J.

    2003-02-01

    The surf zone fish community along 15 km of northern New Jersey shoreline was sampled every 2 weeks by beach seine in the late summers and early falls of 1995-1999 in conjunction with monitoring of a beach nourishment project. Fifty-seven species representing 30 families were collected during the course of the study. Over 90% of each sampling period's catch was composed of five taxa or less. These taxa included Atlantic and rough silversides, Menidia menidia and Membras martinica, bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, and bay and striped anchovies, Anchoa mitchilli and Anchoa hepsetus, with the relative contributions of these taxa varying among years. Both bluefish and anchovy abundances varied by an order of magnitude among years. Size-frequency distributions indicate summer-spawned bluefish recruit to the surf zone habitat as two cohorts in August and October, respectively. Fish abundance and richness were greater at substations closest to rock groins. Taxonomic richness declined along with decreasing water temperature in the fall, but was not correlated with turbidity or tide stage (measured as minutes before or after low tide). The extensive sampling effort undertaken in this study, 2190 seine hauls that captured 295 868 fish, was examined in relation to the number and relative proportions of taxa collected. Species accumulation curves and percent similarity calculations were used to investigate the adequacy of a reduced sampling protocol in characterizing the taxonomic composition of the surf zone fish community. Calculations from eight complete sampling periods (84 seine hauls each) indicate that a reduction in sampling effort by one-half would have yielded on average 75% of the total number of species captured with approximately 85% similarity in relative species composition.

  3. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part I: Forward models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of coastal processes, including waves, currents, and sediment transport, can be obtained from a variety of detailed geophysical-process models with many simulations showing significant skill. This capability supports a wide range of research and applied efforts that can benefit from accurate numerical predictions. However, the predictions are only as accurate as the data used to drive the models and, given the large temporal and spatial variability of the surf zone, inaccuracies in data are unavoidable such that useful predictions require corresponding estimates of uncertainty. We demonstrate how a Bayesian-network model can be used to provide accurate predictions of wave-height evolution in the surf zone given very sparse and/or inaccurate boundary-condition data. The approach is based on a formal treatment of a data-assimilation problem that takes advantage of significant reduction of the dimensionality of the model system. We demonstrate that predictions of a detailed geophysical model of the wave evolution are reproduced accurately using a Bayesian approach. In this surf-zone application, forward prediction skill was 83%, and uncertainties in the model inputs were accurately transferred to uncertainty in output variables. We also demonstrate that if modeling uncertainties were not conveyed to the Bayesian network (i.e., perfect data or model were assumed), then overly optimistic prediction uncertainties were computed. More consistent predictions and uncertainties were obtained by including model-parameter errors as a source of input uncertainty. Improved predictions (skill of 90%) were achieved because the Bayesian network simultaneously estimated optimal parameters while predicting wave heights.

  4. Inflatable rescue boat-related injuries in Queensland surf lifesavers: the epidemiology - biomechanics interface.

    PubMed

    Yorkston, Emily; Arthur, Christopher; Barker, Timothy; Purdie, David; McClure, Rod

    2005-03-01

    The objective was to describe the relationship between epidemiological and biomechanical factors in the causal pathway of inflatable rescue boat (IRB)-related injuries in Australian surf lifesavers; to develop epidemiological and biomechanical methodologies and measurement instruments that identify and measure the risk factors, for use in future epidemiological studies. Epidemiological and biomechanical models of injury causation were combined. Host, agent and environmental factors that influenced total available force for transfer to host were specified. Measurement instruments for each of the specified risk factors were developed. Instruments were piloted in a volunteer sample of surf lifesavers. Participant characteristics were recorded using demographic questionnaires; IRB operating techniques were recorded using a custom-made on-board camera (Grand RF-Guard) and images of operating techniques were coded by two independent observers. Ground reaction forces transmitted to the host through the lifesaver's feet at the time of wave impact were measured using a custom-built piezoelectric force platform. The demographic questionnaire was found practical; the on-board camera functioned successfully within the target environment. Agreement between independent coders of IRB operating technique images was significant (p < 0.001) with Kappa values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7. Biomechanical instruments performed successfully in the target environment. Peak biomechanical forces were 415.6N (left foot) and 252.9N (right foot). This study defines the relationship between epidemiological and biomechanical factors in modifying the risk of IRB-related injury in a population of surf lifesavers. Preliminary feasibility of combining epidemiological and biomechanical information has been demonstrated. Further testing of the proposed model and measurement instruments is required.

  5. Assessment of surf zone environmental variables in a southwestern Atlantic sandy beach (Monte Hermoso, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Menéndez, M Clara; Fernández Severini, Melisa D; Buzzi, Natalia S; Piccolo, M Cintia; Perillo, Gerardo M E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal dynamics (monthly/tidal) of water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a (chlo-a), suspended particulate matter (SPM), particulate organic carbon (POC), and dissolved nutrients in the surf zone of Monte Hermoso sandy beach, Argentina. We also aimed to understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed variability. Sampling was carried out approximately monthly (September 2009-November 2010), and all samples were collected in a fixed station during high and low tide. Water temperature showed a clear seasonal variability (July: 9 °C-December: 26.5 °C) and a thermal amplitude of 17.5 °C. Salinity ranged from 33 to 37, without a pronounced seasonality. SPM (10-223 mg L(-1)) and POC concentrations (399-6445 mg C m(-3)) were high in surf zone waters. Chlo-a (0.05-9.16 μg L(-1)) was low and did not evidence the occurrence of surf diatom accumulations. Dissolved nutrient concentration was quite fluctuating. None of the variables seemed to be affected by tidal stage. The results showed how fluctuating the physico-chemical and biological variables can be in this particular system. The observed variability can be related with local beach conditions but also with regional processes. The study area is highly influenced by a neighbor estuary and as a consequence, could be vulnerable to their seasonal and inter-annual dynamics. All of these characteristics must be considered for further studies and planning of the uses of natural resources and should be taken into account in any environmental monitoring program conducted in a similar beach system.

  6. RADIAL VELOCITY VARIABILITY OF FIELD BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-07-20

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ∼2 km s{sup −1}, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  7. Relationships between intertidal clam population and health status of the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria in the St. Lawrence Estuary and Saguenay Fjord (Québec, Canada).

    PubMed

    Gagné, F; Blaise, C; Pellerin, J; Fournier, M; Durand, M J; Talbot, A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of anthropogenic activity on the health status of intertidal clam populations of the Saguenay Fjord and the St. Lawrence Estuary (Québec, Canada). Clams were collected during low tide at sites subject to direct contamination and at sites far from human activity. Clams were analyzed for tributyltin and dibutyltin total levels and toxic stress (glutathione S-transferase, gonadal lipid peroxidation and DNA strand breaks), immunocompetence (phagocytic activity, hemocyte count and viability), reproduction (gonado-somatic index, gamete maturation, and vitellogenin-like proteins), energy status (temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport, and gonad lipids), and individual status (age, condition factor, and growth index). These responses were compared against population characteristics such as live clam density, number of empty shells, and sex ratio. The results show that clam density decreased with distance from the estuary (high salinity level) to upstream of the fjord (low salinity). There was no clear relationship between the number of empty shells and distance or site quality. Clam density values corrected against distance were significantly correlated with hemocyte viability, phagocytic activity, mitochondrial electron transport (MET), DNA damage in gonad, and temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport activity. A canonical analysis of the various groups of biomarkers revealed that population metrics were more strongly related with immunocompetence, followed by energy status and temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport activity. However, toxic stress biomarkers were strongly associated with energy status and reproduction. This was further confirmed by non-linear modeling using adaptive artificial neural networks (genetic selection and back propagation learning paradigms), where the following parameters were able to predict population parameters with <20% error: gonad

  8. Maximum Wave Heights and Critical Water Depths for Irregular Waves in the Surf Zone.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    GO W N SEELIG UNCAIFIEDECEC- CETA -80-1NL EN L311111.6 I~I ŕ L WO 112. 11111L2 11 . 112L6 WCROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NAY10NAI BUREAU Of STAND) L...8217 ( 9 A C CETA 80-1 Maximum Wave Heights and Critical Water Depths for Irregular Waves in the Surf Zone William N. Seelig COASTAL ENGINEERING TECHNICAL...BEFORE C s’JENFORM . REPORT HUMMER I2. GOVT ACCESSION NO 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER CETA 80-1 TCAbAoq 4. TITLE( (adS CTRO VERED dosa Subnern ReeaL

  9. QSAR study and VolSurf characterization of anti-HIV quinolone library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipponi, Enrica; Cruciani, Gabriele; Tabarrini, Oriana; Cecchetti, Violetta; Fravolini, Arnaldo

    2001-03-01

    Antiviral quinolones are promising compounds in the search for new therapeutically effective agents for the treatment of AIDS. To rationalize the SAR for this new interesting class of anti-HIV derivatives, we performed a 3D-QSAR study on a library of 101 6-fluoro and 6-desfluoroquinolones, taken either from the literature or synthesized by us. The chemometric procedure involved a fully semiempirical minimization of the molecular structures by the AMSOL program, which takes into account the solvatation effect, and their 3D characterization by the VolSurf/GRID program. The QSAR analysis, based on PCA and PLS methods, shows the key structural features responsible for the antiviral activity.

  10. Internal waves and surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H.; Santoro, A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Hench, J. L.; Boehm, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterized diurnal, semi-diurnal, and high-frequency internal wave field at Huntington Beach, California, USA and the connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 meter depths offshore of the beach to observe internal waves and cross-shore exchange. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) with measurements of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria, and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. Spectral analysis of water temperature shows well-defined spectral peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of observed currents reveals that the baroclinic component (summation of second to fifth principal components) accounted for 30% of the total variance in the currents in both years, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. The major axis of the first principal component was oriented alongshore, whereas that of the second and third principal components made an angle of 25 to 55 degree with the cross-shore direction. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very near shore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, indicative of shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the

  11. Performance of Ion Surfing Rf-carpets for High-Energy RI Beam Gas Catcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Fumiya; Ito, Yuta; Katayama, Ichiro; Schury, Peter; Sonoda, Tetsu; Wada, Michiharu; Wollnik, Hermann

    A new concept for the transport of ions in gas by means of a traveling potential wave super-imposed on an rf-carpet (RFC), known as ion surfing, has recently been proposed. We demonstrated, for the first time, the transport and extraction of K+ and Cs+ ions using a circular rf-carpet in high pressure He gas. An efficiency of nearly 100% was obtained . In addition, we compared an RFC of a fine pitch (0.16 mm) and the one of a rough pitch (0.32 mm). For higher pressure, the fine RFC was found to be better than the rough RFC.

  12. Generation of enterococci bacteria in a coastal saltwater marsh and its impact on surf zone water quality.

    PubMed

    Grant, S B; Sanders, B F; Boehm, A B; Redman, J A; Kim, J H; Mrse, R D; Chu, A K; Gouldin, M; McGee, C D; Gardiner, N A; Jones, B H; Svejkovsky, J; Leipzig, G V; Brown, A

    2001-06-15

    Elevated levels of enterococci bacteria, an indicator of fecal pollution, are routinely detected in the surf zone at Huntington State and City Beaches in southern California. A multidisciplinary study was carried out to identify sources of enterococci bacteria landward of the coastline. We find that enterococci bacteria are present at high concentrations in urban runoff, bird feces, marsh sediments, and on marine vegetation. Surprisingly, urban runoff appears to have relatively little impact on surf zone water quality because of the long time required for this water to travel from its source to the ocean. On the other hand, enterococci bacteria generated in a tidal saltwater marsh located near the beach significantly impact surf zone water quality. This study identifies a potential tradeoff between restoring coastal wetlands and protecting beach water quality and calls into question the use of ocean bathing water standards based on enterococci at locations near coastal wetlands.

  13. Cohort life tables for a population of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria L., in the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, Alexandra V.; Maximovich, Nikolay V.; Filippova, Nadezhda A.

    2015-06-01

    The Mya arenaria generation in the White Sea was observed for almost the whole life cycle (around 25 years). Using the data on this generation dynamics, the cohort life table was built. The main purpose of the research is analysis of age-specific mortality in this soft-shell clam population. The mortality rate was found to change more than tenfold throughout the study period. No regular changes in its value were observed. Periods of low mortality alternated with periods of much higher mortality. Several reasons for the increase in M. arenaria mortality rate during its life cycle are proposed: (a) living in the surface sediment layer at early stages of life cycle (unstable environment, high mortality of non-viable clams, predator impact); (b) intense intraspecific relationships in dense aggregations of young clams; (c) increased intraspecific competition during periods of the rapid individual growth; (d) ageing (clam mortality increases with older age—achievement of an average and a maximum lifespan).

  14. A comparison of heavy metal concentrations and health assessment in Asian clams Corbicula fluminea from Florida and North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lewbart, Gregory A; Christian, Larry S; Harms, Craig A; Van Wettere, Arnaud J

    2010-06-01

    The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea was introduced into the United States in 1938 and has since become established in much of the country. This invasive species can compete with native bivalves and compromise industrial water supply systems and power plants. Numerous studies have examined bivalves as bioindicators. The purpose of this study was to compare the heavy metal concentrations of the hard and soft tissues of specimens from Florida and North Carolina and to assess the clams' health by microscopic examination of their soft tissues. Although the sample size was small, this study suggests that the Asian clams from the watersheds examined are healthy and that they accumulate lower levels of heavy metals than have been reported for clams from other, more polluted aquatic environments.

  15. Bioaccumulation of hydrocarbons derived from terrestrial and anthropogenic sources in the Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, in San Francisco Bay estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, Wilfred E.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rapp, John B.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment was made in Suisun Bay, California, of the distributions of hydrocarbons in estuarine bed and suspended sediments and in the recently introduced asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis. Sediments and clams were contaminated with hydrocarbons derived from petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Distributions of alkanes and of hopane and sterane biomarkers in sediments and clams were similar, indicating that petroleum hydrocarbons associated with sediments are bioavailable to Potamocorbula amurensis. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments and clams were derived mainly from combustion sources. Potamocorbula amurensis is therefore a useful bioindicator of hydrocarbon contamination, and may be used as a biomonitor of hydrocarbon pollution in San Francisco Bay.

  16. Mimicking a SURF1 allele reveals uncoupling of cytochrome c oxidase assembly from translational regulation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Robert; Bareth, Bettina; Balleininger, Martina; Wissel, Mirjam; Rehling, Peter; Mick, David U

    2011-06-15

    Defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism lead to severe human disorders, mainly affecting tissues especially dependent on oxidative phosphorylation, such as muscle and brain. Leigh Syndrome describes a severe encephalomyopathy in infancy, frequently caused by mutations in SURF1. SURF1, termed Shy1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a conserved assembly factor for the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase. Although the molecular function of SURF1/Shy1 is still enigmatic, loss of function leads to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency and reduced expression of the central subunit Cox1 in yeast. Here, we provide insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to disease through missense mutations in codons of the most conserved amino acids in SURF1. Mutations affecting G(124) do not compromise import of the SURF1 precursor protein but lead to fast turnover of the mature protein within the mitochondria. Interestingly, an Y(274)D exchange neither affects stability nor localization of the protein. Instead, SURF1(Y274D) accumulates in a 200 kDa cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate. Using yeast as a model, we demonstrate that the corresponding Shy1(Y344D) is able to overcome the stage where cytochrome c oxidase assembly links to the feedback regulation of mitochondrial Cox1 expression. However, Shy1(Y344D) impairs the assembly at later steps, most apparent at low temperature and exhibits a dominant-negative phenotype upon overexpression. Thus, exchanging the conserved tyrosine (Y(344)) with aspartate in yeast uncouples translational regulation of Cox1 from cytochrome c oxidase assembly and provides evidence for the dual functionality of Shy1.

  17. Annual variations of biogenic element contents of manila clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum) bottom-cultivated in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zan, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Binduo; Zhang, Chongliang; Ren, Yiping

    2014-08-01

    Manila clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum) was monthly sampled from its benthic aquaculture area in Jiaozhou Bay from May 2009 to June 2010. The annual variations of major elemental composition, organic content, fatness and element ratio of Manila clam were examined. The element removal effect of clam farming in Jiaozhou Bay was analyzed based on natural mortality and clam harvest. The results indicated that the variation trend of carbon content in shell ( C shell) was similar to that in clam ( C clam). Such a variation was higher in summer and autumn than in other seasons, which ranged from 9.10 ± 0.13 to 10.38 ± 0.09 mmol g-1 and from 11.28 ± 0.29 to 12.36 ± 0.06 mmol g-1, respectively. Carbon content of flesh ( C flesh) showed an opposite variation trend to that of shell in most months, varying from 29.42 ± 0.05 to 33.64 ± 0.62 mmol g-1. Nitrogen content of shell ( N shell) and flesh ( N flesh) changed seasonally, which was relatively low in spring and summer. N shell and N flesh varied from 0.07 ± 0.009 to 0.14 ± 0.009 mmol g-1 and from 5.46 ± 0.12 to 7.39 ± 0.43 mmol g-1, respectively. Total nitrogen content of clam ranged from 0.50 ± 0.003 to 0.76 ± 0.10 mmol g-1 with a falling tend except for a high value in March 2010. Phosphorus content of clam ( N clam) fluctuated largely, while phosphorus content of shell ( P shell) was less varied than that of flesh ( P flesh). P shell varied from 0.006 ± 0.001 to 0.016 ± 0.001 mmol g-1; while P flesh fluctuated between 0.058 ± 0.017 and 0.293 ± 0.029 mmol g-1. P clam ranged from 0.015 ± 0.002 to 0.041 ± 0.006 mmol g-1. Carbon and nitrogen content were slightly affected by shell length, width or height. Elemental contents were closely related to the reproduction cycle. The removal amounts of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from clam harvest and natural death in Jiaozhou Bay were 2.92×104t, 1420 t and 145 t, respectively. The nutrient removal may aid to reduce the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus

  18. Enzymatic and histopathologic biomarkers as indicators of contaminant exposure and effect in Asian clam (Potamocorbula amurensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teh, S.J.; Clark, S.L.; Brown, C.L.; Luoma, S.N.; Hinton, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Enzymatic and histopathologic alterations of the digestive gland, gill, gonad, and kidney were studied in Asian clam (Potamocorbula amurensis) in April, 1997 from each of four United States Geological Survey (USGS) stations in the San Francisco Estuary. Stations were selected based on differing body burdens of metallic contaminants in clams (Stn 4.1>6.1>8.1>12.5) observed over 7 years. Because no pristine sites are known within the estuary and because no laboratory-reared stocks of P. amurensis were available, clams from station 12.5 served as reference animals. Histopathologic analysis revealed no lesions in clams collected from station 12.5. Mild digestive gland atrophy and moderate distal kidney tubular vacuolation were seen in clams collected from station 8.1. Mild digestive gland atrophy, moderate kidney tubular atrophy, and moderate gill inflammation were seen in clams collected from station 6.1. Lesions found only in clams from station 4.1 were: (1) severe inflammation and moderate atrophy of primary ducts and diverticula, and decreased numbers of heterophagosomes and heterolysosomes in diverticula of the digestive gland; (2) severe gill inflammation; (3) severe kidney tubular atrophy; (4) severe ovarian and testicular inflammation and necrosis (5) decreased numbers of mature ova; and (6) decreased number of glycogen storage cells in the ovary and testis. Localization of specific enzymes including adenosine triphosphatase (ATP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was performed and correlated, in serial sections with glycogen (PAS) and haematoxylin and eosin stains. Enzymatic analysis revealed: (1) increased digestive diverticula ATP in stations 6.1 and 4.1; (2) decreased digestive diverticula ACP in stations 6.1 and 4.1 and proximal kidney tubular ACP deficiency in station 4.1; (3) no ALKP differences among stations; (4) increased distal kidney tubular GGT at

  19. Pathologic survey on the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve 1850) from Haeju off the western coastal Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Park, Kwang-Jae; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-06-01

    Pathologic condition of Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum collected from Haeju off the west coast of North Korea in February and March 2007 was investigated in this study. The diagnostics included a protozoan parasite, Perkinsus olseni, the brown ring disease (BRD) caused by bacteria Vibrio tapetis and metazoan parasites Trematod and Cestod. P. olseni infection was examined using histology and Ray’s fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) assay along with Choi’s NaOH digestion technique. Trematode and cestode infection was also examined from the histology. A total of 140 clams with 35-45 mm in shell length (2-3 years old) were analyzed. Condition factor (CF), a ratio of the wet tissue weight to the shell dry weight, ranged from 0.445±0.074 (February) to 0.544±0.132 (March). Total body burden of P. olseni (i.e. infection intensity) ranged from 18,644±37,755 (February) to 26,933±80,611 cells/g wet tissue (March) with the prevalence of 76.7-43.3% (March) respectively. Prevalence of trematode and cestode infection in February and March varied 22.5-25.0 and 15.0-22.5% respectively. Infection intensity of V. tapetis ranged 1-2 and the prevalence was 1.4 (February) and 5.7% (March). Prevalence and infection intensity of P. olseni in clams from Haeju was comparatively lower than those of clams reported on the west coast of Korea. BRD and the other metazoan parasite infection were also relatively lower or similar to the condition of the clams reported previously. CF of Haeju clams was also relatively higher than the clams in Gyeonggi Bay and Taean, suggesting that Haeju clams had relatively better pathologic and health condition.

  20. Effect of fluctuating low-level chlorine concentrations on valve-movement behavior of the asiatic clam (corbicula fluminea)

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, K.D. . Graduate Program in Ecology); Peterson, M.J. )

    1994-03-01

    Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea) exposed to water from the upstream section of East Fork Popular Creek (Oak Ridge, TN), a stream receiving chlorine-containing industrial discharges, were monitored for changes in valve movement patterns. Individual clams were attached to an automated valve-movement monitoring apparatus and suspended in flow-through tanks located streamside. Valve-closure behavior of two clams exposed to untreated water was compared to that of two clams exposed to dechlorinated water for two 18-d periods. Chlorine concentrations in untreated water exhibited a pronounced diurnal cycle, fluctuating between a mean daily minimum of 0.02 mg/L total residual chlorine (TRC) during the day and a mean daily maximum of 0.07 mg/L TRC at night during the second monitoring period. In over 2,300 fifteen-minute intervals, clams closed for 0.70 of the intervals while exposed to untreated water, but closed for only 0.22 of the intervals while exposed to dechlorinated water. Treatment differences in valve closure were tested by repeated-measures ANOVA. A significant treatment effect on valve closure was found in the first monitoring period. Graphical analysis of valve-closure records revealed duel cycles that differed between treatments. Clams in untreated water usually opened only near midday, when TRC concentrations were lowest. Clams in dechlorinated water opened more often, for longer periods, and appeared to respond to dawn and dusk changes in light. The valve-closure behavior of clams in untreated water effectively minimized tissue exposure to waterborne TRC, presumably reducing toxic effects. Valve-closure monitoring in conjunction with other studies may help estimate the effect of tissue isolation on the toxicity or bioaccumulation of waterborne chemicals. Such estimates could improve prediction of toxicological or ecological consequences of stressful conditions on bivalves.

  1. Physiological responses of Manila clams Venerupis (=Ruditapes) philippinarum with varying parasite Perkinsus olseni burden to toxic algal Alexandrium ostenfeldii exposure.

    PubMed

    Lassudrie, Malwenn; Soudant, Philippe; Richard, Gaëlle; Henry, Nicolas; Medhioub, Walid; da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Donval, Anne; Bunel, Mélanie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Lambert, Christophe; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Fabioux, Caroline; Hégaret, Hélène

    2014-09-01

    Manila clam stock from Arcachon Bay, France, is declining, as is commercial harvest. To understand the role of environmental biotic interactions in this decrease, effects of a toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, which blooms regularly in Arcachon bay, and the interaction with perkinsosis on clam physiology were investigated. Manila clams from Arcachon Bay, with variable natural levels of perkinsosis, were exposed for seven days to a mix of the nutritious microalga T-Iso and the toxic dinoflagellate A. ostenfeldii, a producer of spirolides, followed by seven days of depuration fed only T-Iso. Following sacrifice and quantification of protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni burden, clams were divided into two groups according to intensity of the infection ("Light-Moderate" and "Moderate-Heavy"). Hemocyte and plasma responses, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant enzyme activities in gills, and histopathological responses were analyzed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes and catalase (CAT) activity in gills increased with P. olseni intensity of infection in control clams fed T-Iso, but did not vary among A. ostenfeldii-exposed clams. Exposure to A. ostenfeldii caused tissue alterations associated with an inflammatory response and modifications in hemocyte morphology. In the gills, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased, and an increase in brown cell occurrence was seen, suggesting oxidative stress. Observations of hemocytes and brown cells in tissues during exposure and depuration suggest involvement of both cell types in detoxication processes. Results suggest that exposure to A. ostenfeldii disrupted the pro-/anti-oxidant response of clams to heavy P. olseni intensity. In addition, depressed mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in hemocytes of clams exposed to A. ostenfeldii suggests that mitochondrial functions are regulated to maintain homeostasis of digestive enzyme activity and condition index.

  2. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Softshell Clam.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    was achieved in 40 days. to the substrate to become a juvenile Shaw (1965) also reported a spring clam. A byssus (sticky thread) is spawning failure...for locomotion (Green 1975). Although The fertilized egg takes about usually attached to the substrate by 12 h to develop into the planktonic the byssus ...clams per square foot; it is highest at depths of 3-4 Eventually the byssus is shed and m, temperatures less than 28 °C and the adult lifestyle

  3. Flow cytometric characterization of hemocytes of the sunray venus clam Macrocallista nimbosa and influence of salinity variation.

    PubMed

    Jauzein, Cécile; Donaghy, Ludovic; Volety, Aswani K

    2013-09-01

    Sunray venus clam Macrocallista nimbosa is a native bivalve mollusc of Florida, USA, currently evaluated as a potential new aquaculture species. Very little is known about the physiology and hemocyte characteristics of this species. Bivalve hemocytes are generally involved in various physiological functions including nutrition, tissue repair, detoxification and immune defense. Understanding hemocytes of M. nimbosa and their response to environmental variations is crucial. In estuarine Florida areas, salinity is probably the most important factor potentially affecting clams physiology since wide variations can occur within few days. In the present work, using flow cytometry, hemocyte types and cellular parameters (oxidative activity, lysosomal content, phagocytosis capacity) were first characterized in sunray venus clams, in relation with endogenous variables (i.e., size, body weight, gender). Clams were then transferred from salinity 30 psu to 18, 21, 25, 30, 35 and 38 psu. After 7 days, impact of salinity variations was determined on hemocyte parameters, along with estimation of physiological status of clams (mortality, valve closure, filtration activity). Hemocytes of sunray venus clam appeared as a unique population, both in terms of morphology (FSC vs. SSC) and intracellular parameters, but displayed high inter-individual variability. Allometric relationship was only described for intracellular oxidative activity. Transfer of clams to 18 psu and, at lower extent, 21 psu resulted in valve closure, mortality and decreased filtration activity. Low salinities resulted in reduction of the number of circulating hemocytes, potentially reflecting infiltration in tissues as part of an inflammatory response or to optimize nutrient distribution. Low salinities also highly impacted hemocytes as depicted by increased cell and lysosomal compartment volumes, decreased phagocytosis capacity as well as increased oxidative stress and mortality. Salinity drops depress physiology

  4. Differential immune response in the hard clam (mercenaria mercenaria) against bacteria and the protistan pathogen QPX (quahog parasite unknown).

    PubMed

    Perrigault, Mickael; Allam, Bassem

    2012-06-01

    The immune response of the hard clam (quahog) Mercenaria mercenaria following challenge with live bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus) and the protist QPX (Quahog Parasite Unknown) was investigated. The study also compared immune responses following QPX challenge in two different hard clam broodstocks exhibiting different degrees of susceptibility toward this parasite. Different immune and stress-related cellular and humoral factors were assessed including general hemocyte parameters (total and differential hemocyte counts, percentage of dead cells, reactive oxygen production, phagocytosis), parameters geared toward QPX (anti-QPX activity in plasma and hemocyte resistance to the cytotoxicity of QPX extracellular products). Two genes (ferritin and metallothionein) previously shown to be modulated following QPX exposure were molecularly characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and their transcription levels were determined in resistant and susceptible clams in response to QPX and bacterial challenge. Results indicated that both V. alginolyticus and QPX challenge triggered significant immune responses in clams with similar trends for most measured parameters. However, specific responses were observed for anti-QPX activity in plasma and hemocyte resistance to QPX products as well as ferritin and metallothionein expression according to each inoculum. Similarly, different response patterns were detected following QPX challenge in susceptible and resistant clam stocks. Resistant clams were able to elicit effective response against the parasite leading to the elimination of QPX and the restoration of constitutive immune status whereas QPX-susceptible clams triggered a strong immune modulation characterized by an acute phase response and associated acute phase protein but appeared to be less active in eliminating the parasite. These results suggest that different signaling pathways are triggered during V. alginolyticus and QPX challenge. Moreover, differences in

  5. Genotoxic stress-induced expression of p53 and apoptosis in leukemic clam hemocytes with cytoplasmically sequestered p53.

    PubMed

    Böttger, Stefanie; Jerszyk, Emily; Low, Ben; Walker, Charles

    2008-02-01

    In nature, the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria, develops a fatal blood cancer in which a highly conserved homologue for wild-type human p53 protein is rendered nonfunctional by cytoplasmic sequestration. In untreated leukemic clam hemocytes, p53 is complexed throughout the cytoplasm with overexpressed variants for both clam homologues (full-length variant, 1,200-fold and truncated variant, 620-fold above normal clam hemocytes) of human mortalin, an Hsp70 family protein. In vitro treatment with etoposide only and in vivo treatment with either etoposide or mitoxantrone induces DNA damage, elevates expression (600-fold) and promotes nuclear translocation of p53, and results in apoptosis of leukemic clam hemocytes. Pretreatment with wheat germ agglutinin followed by etoposide treatment induces DNA damage and elevates p53 expression (893-fold) but does not overcome cytoplasmic sequestration of p53 or induce apoptosis. We show that leukemic clam hemocytes have an intact p53 pathway, and that maintenance of this tumor phenotype requires nuclear absence of p53, resulting from its localization in the cytoplasm of leukemic clam hemocytes. The effects of these topoisomerase II poisons may result as mortalin-based cytoplasmic tethering is overwhelmed by de novo expression of p53 protein after DNA damage induced by genotoxic stress. Soft shell clam leukemia provides excellent in vivo and in vitro models for developing genotoxic and nongenotoxic cancer therapies for reactivating p53 transcription in human and other animal cancers displaying mortalin-based cytoplasmic sequestration of the p53 tumor suppressor, such as colorectal cancers and primary and secondary glioblastomas, though not apparently leukemias or lymphomas.

  6. Archive and Analysis of Data Collected Aboard the University of Washington's Convair-580 Research Aircraft in CLAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2004-01-01

    Work under this grant has been concerned with: (a) quality-assurance (QA) checking of the data collected on the University of Washington s (UW) Convair- 580 in the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) field study in the Summer of 2001, (b) providing these data to the Langley DAAC, (c) providing specific data to users as requested, (d) analysis of portions of the data and publication of results, and (e) presentation of CLAMS results at workshop and conferences.

  7. Effect of "heat shock" treatments on QPX disease and stress response in the hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kailai; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Allam, Bassem

    2016-07-01

    The hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, is one of the most valuable commercial mollusk species along the eastern coast of the United States. Throughout the past 2 decades, the hard clam industry in the Northeast was significantly impacted by disease outbreaks caused by a lethal protistan parasite known as Quahog Parasite Unknown (QPX). QPX is an opportunistic pathogen and the infection has been shown to be a cold water disease, where warmer conditions (above 21°C) lead to disease reduction and clam healing. In vitro studies also showed a sharp reduction in parasite growth and survivorship at temperatures exceeding 27°C. In this study, we evaluated the effect of short-term exposures to high temperatures on QPX disease dynamic and clam recovery. Infected clams were collected from an enzootic site and subsequently submitted to one of ten "heat shock" treatments involving a gradient of temperatures and exposure times. QPX prevalence was compared before and 10weeks after heat shock to assess the effect of each treatment on disease progress. Expression of several stress-related genes was measured 1 and 7days after heat shock using qPCR to evaluate the effect of each treatment on clam physiology. Anti-QPX activity in clam plasma was also measured in an attempt to link changes in defense factors to thermal stress and disease progress. Our results suggest that brief exposures to moderate high temperatures promote the greatest remission while imposing the mildest stress to clams. These results are discussed with the aim of providing the industry with possible strategies to mitigate QPX disease.

  8. Length-weight relationship of the freshwater clam, Galatea paradoxa (born 1778) from the Volta Estuary, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obirikorang, K A; Adjei-Boateng, D; Madkour, H A; Amisah, S; Otchere, F A

    2013-02-15

    The length-weight relationship of the threatened freshwater clam, Galatea paradoxa (Born 1778) from the Volta Estuary, Ghana was studied over a two-year period, from March 2008 to February 2010, to aid in the development of stock assessment models for the sustainable management of the remaining clam stock. Data reported in this study were collected at monthly intervals and covered varying depths of the Estuary ranging from 0.5 to about 10 m. Overall, a total of 5276 clams with shell lengths ranging from 3.40 to 89.24 mm and total weight from 0.10 to 154.00 g were sampled during the study period. The length-weight relationships were highly significant (p < 0.0001) for all the months and the b-values ranged from 2.023 (January 2010) to 3.874 (June 2009). The calculated b-values indicated that clams exhibited different growth patterns at different periods but overall, the pooled samples of 5276 individuals exhibited an isometric growth pattern (b = 3.003). The observed monthly growth patterns exhibited by G. paradoxa appeared to be largely influenced by the reproductive cycle of the organism. During the periods leading to spawning, the clams generally exhibited positive allometric growth patterns (weight increasing faster than length) which appeared to be strongly linked to the build-up of proteins and carbohydrates in their tissues. Successive negative allometric growth patterns (length increasing faster relative to weight) were, however, observed from March to June 2008 and from December 2009 to February 2010, which are possibly indicative of the loss in tissue weight that occurs as a direct result of the spawning process. It will thus be suitable to institute a close season to coincide with the spawning period of the clams to avoid the harvesting of clams during the spawning period which will enhance future recruitment of the clam stock.

  9. Habitats used by black and surf scoters in eastern North America as determined by satellite radio telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Olsen, G.H.; Osenton, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite radio telemetry was used to determine the movements and habitats of black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) in eastern North America. A total of 21 surf scoters were instrumented during five years (2001-05) and 32 black scoters were instrumented during three years (2002-04) with implanted PTT 100 satellite transmitters (39 g) with external antenna. Nesting habitat of black scoters was more open than surf scoters (44% vs. 11%), whereas nesting habitat for surf scoters was located in more forested areas (66% vs. 20%). Locations of black scoters in breeding areas on average were at significantly higher latitude and lower elevations than sites used by surf scoters. Satellite telemetry determined that James Bay was the major molting area for male black and surf scoters, although some males molted along the coast of Labrador-Newfoundland. Black scoters instrumented on the Restigouche River, which is a major staging area, were widely distributed along the Atlantic Coast from Cape Cod to Georgia during winter. Major wintering areas for black scoters were Cape Cod (Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island), Long Island, and New Jersey. In these northern marine wintering areas, black scoters were located farther from shore (4.2 km) and in deeper water (8.3 m) than black scoters in more southern estuarine areas, where distance from shore was 3.1 km and water depth was 5.2 m. Surf scoters instrumented in Chesapeake Bay in late winter showed a strong tendency to return to the Bay the following winter after they had migrated to and from breeding areas. In Chesapeake Bay, black scoters and surf scoters were located mostly in mesohaline areas that had similar water depths (5.1 m vs. 7.5 m) and distances from shore (3.0 km vs. 2.9 km). Distance from shore and depth of water increased over time during the winter for both species. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on

  10. Mass Modelling of dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimentowski, Jarosław; Łokas, Ewa L.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Prada, Francisco; Mayer, Lucio; Mamon, Gary A.

    2008-05-01

    We study the origin and properties of unbound stars in the kinematic samples of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. For this purpose we have run a high resolution N-body simulation of a two-component dwarf galaxy orbiting in a Milky Way potential. We create mock kinematic data sets by observing the dwarf in different directions. When the dwarf is observed along the tidal tails the kinematic samples are strongly contaminated by unbound stars from the tails. However, most of the unbound stars can be removed by the method of interloper rejection proposed by den Hartog & Katgert. We model the velocity dispersion profiles of the cleaned-up kinematic samples using solutions of the Jeans equation. We show that even for such a strongly stripped dwarf the Jeans analysis, when applied to cleaned samples, allows us to reproduce the mass and mass-to-light ratio of the dwarf with accuracy typically better than 25%.

  11. Discovery of an Ultracool White Dwarf Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farihi, J.

    2004-08-01

    The discovery of a low-luminosity common proper-motion companion to the white dwarf GD 392 at a wide separation of 46" is reported. BVRI photometry suggests a low temperature (Teff~4000 K), while JHK data strongly indicate suppressed flux at all near-infrared wavelengths. Thus, GD 392B is one of the few white dwarfs to show significant collision-induced absorption due to the presence of photospheric H2 and the first ultracool white dwarf detected as a companion to another star. Models fail to explain GD 392B as a normal-mass white dwarf. If correct, the cool companion may be explained as a low-mass white dwarf or unresolved double degenerate. The similarities of GD 392B to known ultracool degenerates are discussed, including some possible implications for the faint end of the white dwarf luminosity function.

  12. The physics of white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarida; Mochkovitch, Robert

    1998-12-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for 0953-8984/10/49/015/img6 and allows one to obtain information about the age of the Galaxy as well as about the past stellar formation rate in the solar neighbourhood. Therefore, it is important to identify all of the relevant sources of energy as well as the mechanisms that control its flow to the space. We show in this paper that the inclusion of a detailed treatment of phase transitions in Coulomb plasmas made up of a mixture of different chemical species is crucial, since their redistribution can keep the white dwarf warm for 0.5 to 9 Ga depending on the chemical composition and physical assumptions adopted.

  13. Long-Term Acclimation to Different Thermal Regimes Affects Molecular Responses to Heat Stress in a Freshwater Clam Corbicula Fluminea

    PubMed Central

    Falfushynska, Halina I.; Phan, Tuan; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) can negatively affect freshwater ecosystems. However, the degree to which freshwater populations can acclimate to long-term warming and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We used the cooling water discharge (CWD) area of a power plant as a model for long-term warming. Survival and molecular stress responses (expression of molecular chaperones, antioxidants, bioenergetic and protein synthesis biomarkers) to experimental warming (20–41 °C, +1.5 °C per day) were assessed in invasive clams Corbicula fluminea from two pristine populations and a CWD population. CWD clams had considerably higher (by ~8–12 °C) lethal temperature thresholds than clams from the pristine areas. High thermal tolerance of CWD clams was associated with overexpression of heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90 and HSP60 and activation of protein synthesis at 38 °C. Heat shock response was prioritized over the oxidative stress response resulting in accumulation of oxidative lesions and ubiquitinated proteins during heat stress in CWD clams. Future studies should determine whether the increase in thermal tolerance in CWD clams are due to genetic adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity. Overall, our findings indicate that C. fluminea has potential to survive and increase its invasive range during warming such as expected during GCC. PMID:27995990

  14. Occurrence and Seasonal Variations of Lipophilic Marine Toxins in Commercial Clam Species along the Coast of Jiangsu, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-Zhi; Cheng, Ying; Li, Na; Wen, Hong-Mei; Liu, Rui; Shan, Chen-Xiao; Chai, Chuan; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have examined lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs) in shellfish and toxic algae worldwide, but the occurrence and seasonal variations of LMTs in commercial clams (including Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Meretrix meretrix, and Cyclina sinensis) at their major culturing area in Jiangsu, China, remain largely unexplored. In this study, a new solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with an ultra-fast liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UFLC-TQ-MS) method was developed to determine the presence of 10 typical LMTs (okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxins (YTXs), azaspiracids (AZA1-3), pectenotoxins (PTX2), gymnodimine (GYM), dinophysistoxins (DTX1&2), and spirolides (SPX1)) in the aforementioned four clam matrices. After confirmation of its sensitivity and precision, this method was used to evaluate the amounts of LMTs in clam samples harvested in five aquaculture zones of the Jiangsu coastal area. Monthly variations of GYM, PTX2, OA, and DTX1&2 in 400 clam samples from the sample areas were determined from January 2014 through August 2015. Peak values were observed during May and August. This is the first systematic report of LMTs detected in clam samples harvested in Jiangsu. Follow-up research and the implementation of protective measures are needed to ensure the safety of clams harvested in this area. PMID:26712791

  15. Comparative study on differential accumulation of PSP toxins between cockle (Acanthocardia tuberculatum) and sweet clam (Callista chione).

    PubMed

    Sagou, Reqia; Amanhir, Rachid; Taleb, Hamid; Vale, Paulo; Blaghen, Mohamed; Loutfi, Mohamed

    2005-11-01

    At the western Mediterranean coast of Morocco, the cockle (Acanthocardia tuberculatum) contained persistent high levels of paralytic shellfish toxins for several years, while other bivalve molluscs such as sweet clam (Callista chione) from the same vicinity were contaminated seasonally to a much lesser extent. In order to understand the causes of this prolonged contamination, a comparative study on PSP decontamination between sweet clam and cockle was conducted from November 2001 until June 2002. PSP toxicity was analysed by automated pre-column oxidation (Prechromatographic oxidation and LC-FD) in several organs of both species, namely digestive gland, foot, gill, mantle, muscle and siphon for sweet clams. The results showed that cockle sequester PSP toxins preferably in non-visceral organs (Foot, gill and mantle) contrary to sweet clam that sequester them in visceral tissues (digestive gland). The toxin profile of cockle organs indicated dominance of dcSTX, whereas sweet clam tissues contained especially C-toxins. Substantial differences in toxin profile between cockle and sweet clam, from the same area as well as from the composition of PSP toxin producer, Gymnodinium catenatum, confirm the bioconversion of PSP toxins in cockle.

  16. Distribution, burrowing, and growth rates of the clam Tridacna crocea on interior reef flats : Formation of structures resembling micro atolls.

    PubMed

    Hamner, W M; Jones, M S

    1976-09-01

    Larvae of the burrowing clam Tridacna crocea (Tridacnidae) settle preferentially on top of detached coral heads lying on the surface of the interior reef flat in the Great Barrier Reef province. This species burrows as it grows, eroding the central top surfaces of coral boulders, producing structures that superficially resemble micro-atolls. Storm surges roll these coral heads onto the now flattened surface, killing the live population of clams, and exposing the fresh underside for unimpeded larval settlement. As these clams grow and burrow into the substratum, the coral head becomes progressively flattened and finally breaks apart. Field observations and growthring data documented growth rate; growth rates plus burrow volumes were converted to annual sediment production. At average population densities approximately 140 gm/m(2)/yr of coral are eroded. Concomitant with erosion is a calcium carbonate increase in the shell of these clams amounting to 60gm/m(2)/yr. Assuming a stable population structure, with annual mortality equal to annual estimated growth, total sediment production is 200 gm/m(2)/yr. Clams are usually aggregated at higher densities, however, with numbers regularly exceeding 100 clams/m(2). Consequently maximum sediment production rate locally is often 4,500 gm/m(2)/yr.

  17. Occurrence and Seasonal Variations of Lipophilic Marine Toxins in Commercial Clam Species along the Coast of Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Zhi; Cheng, Ying; Li, Na; Wen, Hong-Mei; Liu, Rui; Shan, Chen-Xiao; Chai, Chuan; Wu, Hao

    2015-12-25

    Recent studies have examined lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs) in shellfish and toxic algae worldwide, but the occurrence and seasonal variations of LMTs in commercial clams (including Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Meretrix meretrix, and Cyclina sinensis) at their major culturing area in Jiangsu, China, remain largely unexplored. In this study, a new solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with an ultra-fast liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UFLC-TQ-MS) method was developed to determine the presence of 10 typical LMTs (okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxins (YTXs), azaspiracids (AZA1-3), pectenotoxins (PTX2), gymnodimine (GYM), dinophysistoxins (DTX1&2), and spirolides (SPX1)) in the aforementioned four clam matrices. After confirmation of its sensitivity and precision, this method was used to evaluate the amounts of LMTs in clam samples harvested in five aquaculture zones of the Jiangsu coastal area. Monthly variations of GYM, PTX2, OA, and DTX1&2 in 400 clam samples from the sample areas were determined from January 2014 through August 2015. Peak values were observed during May and August. This is the first systematic report of LMTs detected in clam samples harvested in Jiangsu. Follow-up research and the implementation of protective measures are needed to ensure the safety of clams harvested in this area.

  18. De novo RNA-Seq analysis of the venus clam, Cyclina sinensis, and the identification of immune-related genes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Baoping; Ren, Yipeng; Gao, Jing; Gao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The Venus clam, Cyclina sinensis, is one of the most important bivalves in China. In recent years, increasing expansive morbidity has occurred in breeding areas, imposing significant losses on the national economy. To understand the molecular mechanisms of immune-related genes, we analyzed and sequenced hemolymph samples that were injected with two pathogenic microorganisms using the Illumina Miseq system. After trimming, more than 12 M PE reads with an average length greater than 410 bp were assembled into 70,079 transcripts with a mean length of 980 bp. Using a homology analysis, 102 (135 transcripts) potentially immune-related genes were identified, and most of them exhibited a similar pattern in both samples. These data indicated that the response of the clam to both types of bacterial infection might follow a similar molecular mechanism. Using the TreeFam method, 9,904 gene families and 1,031 unique families of the clam were preliminarily classified in comparison to five related species. A significant number of SSRs were identified, which could facilitate the identification of polymorphisms in Venus clam populations. These datasets will improve our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms driving the immune response to bacterial infection in clam populations and will provide basic data about clam breeding and disease control.

  19. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on differentially expressed genes and haemocyte parameters of the clam Venerupis philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Pan, Luqing; Gong, XiaoLi; Tao, Yanxia; Hu, Yanyan; Miao, Jingjing

    2014-03-01

    In this study a suppression subtractive hybridisation method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes of the clam Venerupis philippinarum exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Nineteen known transcripts and seven predicted proteins were found from the subtractive cDNA library of the clam, which could provide more sequence information for further study. Seven of the differentially expressed genes were selected for mRNA expression analysis. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of the selected cDNAs of clams was up-regulated to varying degrees by different concentration of BaP. They are suggested as potential molecular biomarkers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. In addition, haemocyte parameters were also measured, and a decrease of total haemocyte counts and suppression of antibacterial and bacteriolytic activities were detected in BaP-stressed clams. We suggest that the modulation of the expression of the selected genes caused by PAHs probably leads to the disturbance of the immune defense of the clam. Meanwhile, the adverse effects of PAHs on haemocyte parameters caused the suppression of the immune defense and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Therefore, it is inferred that PAHs pollutants could interact with components of the immune system and interferes with defense functions of the clam V. philippinarum.

  20. Protein expression profiling in haemocytes and plasma of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in response to infection with Perkinsus olseni.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Boo, S; Villalba, A; Cao, A

    2016-11-01

    The protein expression profiling in clam haemocytes and plasma in response to Perkinsus olseni was addressed. Adult Manila clams from a P. olseni-free bed were experimentally challenged with parasite zoospores to analyse immune response. In another experiment, the effects of longer term infection were assessed in adult clams collected from a P. olseni-affected bed, by comparing moderate to very heavily infected clams with non-infected ones. Haemocyte and plasma proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis; spot patterns were qualitatively compared between treatments within each experiment and the spots indicating differential protein expression associated with P. olseni challenge or with field infection were processed for protein identification. Fifteen clam proteins (four in haemocytes and eleven in plasma) of which expression was markedly affected by P. olseni were identified. Some of the identified proteins have a well-known role in clam immune response against the parasite, such as lysozyme and lectins. Rho GTPase-activating protein 6 could be a marker of resistance against P. olseni, which should be further studied.

  1. Long-Term Acclimation to Different Thermal Regimes Affects Molecular Responses to Heat Stress in a Freshwater Clam Corbicula Fluminea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falfushynska, Halina I.; Phan, Tuan; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2016-12-01

    Global climate change (GCC) can negatively affect freshwater ecosystems. However, the degree to which freshwater populations can acclimate to long-term warming and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We used the cooling water discharge (CWD) area of a power plant as a model for long-term warming. Survival and molecular stress responses (expression of molecular chaperones, antioxidants, bioenergetic and protein synthesis biomarkers) to experimental warming (20–41 °C, +1.5 °C per day) were assessed in invasive clams Corbicula fluminea from two pristine populations and a CWD population. CWD clams had considerably higher (by ~8–12 °C) lethal temperature thresholds than clams from the pristine areas. High thermal tolerance of CWD clams was associated with overexpression of heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90 and HSP60 and activation of protein synthesis at 38 °C. Heat shock response was prioritized over the oxidative stress response resulting in accumulation of oxidative lesions and ubiquitinated proteins during heat stress in CWD clams. Future studies should determine whether the increase in thermal tolerance in CWD clams are due to genetic adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity. Overall, our findings indicate that C. fluminea has potential to survive and increase its invasive range during warming such as expected during GCC.

  2. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies and resonant orbital coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, J. R.; Miller, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    The structural properties of the dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way may be strongly affected by their time-dependent interactions with the 'tidal' field of the Milky Way. A low Q resonance of the tidal driving force with collective oscillation modes of the dwarf system can produce many of the observed properties of the Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies, including large velocity dispersions that would normally be interpreted as indicating large dynamical masses.

  3. Are All Magnetic White Dwarf Stars Massive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, A.; Kepler, S. O.; Kulebi, B.; Koester, D.; Kleinman, S. J.; Winget, D. E.; Castanheira, B. G.; Corsico, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    We obtained follow-up spectra on 25 white dwarf stars identified in our white dwarf catalog of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) as massive or magnetic. We identified over 300 magnetic white dwarf stars from SDSS with some uncertainties due to the low S/N of the spectra. With much higher S/N Gemini data, our sample should be able to help us confirm accuracy of our determinations. We present here our results so far from the follow up observations.

  4. Characterizing Accreting White Dwarf Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the population, mass distribution, and evolution of accreting white dwarfs impacts the entire realm of binary interaction, including the creation of Type Ia supernovae. We are concentrating on accreting white dwarf pulsators, as the pulsation properties allow us a view of how the accretion affects the interior of the star. Our ground- based photometry on 11 accreting pulsators with corresponding temperatures from HST UV spectra suggest a broad instability strip in the range of 10500 to 16000K. Additionally, tracking a post-outburst heated white dwarf as it cools and crosses the blue edge and resumes pulsation provides an independent method to locate the empirical instability strip. Determining a post-outburst cooling curve yields an estimate of the amount of heating and the accreted mass during the outburst. We request additional photometry of 2 objects that present unique properties: GW Lib which has not yet returned to its pre-outburst pulsation spectrum after 6 yrs, and EQ Lyn which returned to its pre- outburst pulsation after 3 yrs but is now turning on and off without ongoing outbursts. Following the pulsation spectrum changes over stretches of several nights in a row will provide specific knowledge of the stability of the observed modes.

  5. Verification Test of the SURF and SURFplus Models in xRage: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2016-06-20

    The previous study used an underdriven detonation wave (steady ZND reaction zone profile followed by a scale invariant rarefaction wave) for PBX 9502 as a validation test of the implementation of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code. Even with a fairly fine uniform mesh (12,800 cells for 100mm) the detonation wave profile had limited resolution due to the thin reaction zone width (0.18mm) for the fast SURF burn rate. Here we study the effect of finer resolution by comparing results of simulations with cell sizes of 8, 2 and 1 μm, which corresponds to 25, 100 and 200 points within the reaction zone. With finer resolution the lead shock pressure is closer to the von Neumann spike pressure, and there is less noise in the rarefaction wave due to fluctuations within the reaction zone. As a result the average error decreases. The pointwise error is still dominated by the smearing the pressure kink in the vicinity of the sonic point which occurs at the end of the reaction zone.

  6. Longitudinal instability studies at the SURF II storage ring at NIST.

    SciTech Connect

    Harkay, K.C.; Sereno, N.S.

    1998-08-27

    Measurements of the longitudinal instability observed in the storage ring at the Synchrotrons Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF II) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NET) were performed to understand the mechanism driving the instability. The instability, studied in depth by Ralcowsky and others, manifests itself in broad resonance features in the horizontal and vertical motion spectrum of the synchrotrons light from DC to a few kHz. Also observed are multiple synchrotrons harmonics that modulate the revolution harmonics; these are characteristic of longitudinal phase oscillations. These spectral features of the motion are found to be correlated with the periodic lengthening and shortening of the bunch length on time scales from {approximately}0.1 ms to 20 ms, depending on machine and radio-frequency (rf) system parameters. In this report, the growth rate of the instability is determined from measurements using an rf pickup electrode. The measured growth rates are compared to computed growth rates from an analytical model. Recommendations are made regarding options to control or mitigate the instability. In light of upgrade plans for SURF III, a few comments are presented about the beam lifetime.

  7. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load.

  8. A model for the generation of two-dimensional surf beat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    List, Jeffrey H.

    1992-01-01

    A finite difference model predicting group-forced long waves in the nearshore is constructed with two interacting parts: an incident wave model providing time-varying radiation stress gradients across the nearshore, and a long-wave model which solves the equations of motion for the forcing imposed by the incident waves. Both shallow water group-bound long waves and long waves generated by a time-varying breakpoint are simulated. Model-generated time series are used to calculate the cross correlation between wave groups and long waves through the surf zone. The cross-correlation signal first observed by Tucker (1950) is well predicted. For the first time, this signal is decomposed into the contributions from the two mechanisms of leaky mode forcing. Results show that the cross-correlation signal can be explained by bound long waves which are amplified, though strongly modified, through the surf zone before reflection from the shoreline. The breakpoint-forced long waves are added to the bound long waves at a phase of pi/2 and are a secondary contribution owing to their relatively small size.

  9. The Web-Surf Task: A Translational Model of Human Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Samantha V.; Breton, Yannick-André; Schmidt, Brandy; Redish, A. David; MacDonald, Angus W.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of decision-making are some of the most highly regarded psychological process models; however, there remains a disconnection between how these models are used for pre-clinical applications and the resulting treatment outcomes. This may be due to untested assumptions that different species recruit the same neural or psychological mechanisms. We propose a novel human foraging paradigm (Web-Surf Task) that we translated from a rat foraging paradigm (Restaurant Row) to evaluate cross-species decision-making similarities. We examined behavioral parallels in human and nonhuman animals using the respective tasks. We also compared two variants of the human task, one using videos and the other using photos as rewards, by correlating revealed and stated preferences. We demonstrate similarities in choice behaviors and decision reaction times in human and rat subjects. Findings also indicate that videos yielded more reliable and valid results. The joint use of the Web-Surf Task and Restaurant Row is therefore a promising approach for functional translational research, aiming to bridge pre-clinical and clinical lines of research using analogous tasks. PMID:26377334

  10. Preventing Shoulder-Surfing Attack with the Concept of Concealing the Password Objects' Information

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Peng Foong; Kam, Yvonne Hwei-Syn; Wee, Mee Chin

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols) as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to “shoulder-surfing” attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user's actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set's input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user's actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack. PMID:24991649

  11. Verification test of the SURF and SURFplus models in xRage

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2016-05-18

    As a verification test of the SURF and SURFplus models in the xRage code we use a propagating underdriven detonation wave in 1-D. This is about the only test cases for which an accurate solution can be determined based on the theoretical structure of the solution. The solution consists of a steady ZND reaction zone profile joined with a scale invariant rarefaction or Taylor wave and followed by a constant state. The end of the reaction profile and the head of the rarefaction coincide with the sonic CJ state of the detonation wave. The constant state is required to match a rigid wall boundary condition. For a test case, we use PBX 9502 with the same EOS and burn rate as previously used to test the shock detector algorithm utilized by the SURF model. The detonation wave is propagated for 10 μs (slightly under 80mm). As expected, the pointwise errors are largest in the neighborhood of discontinuities; pressure discontinuity at the lead shock front and pressure derivative discontinuities at the head and tail of the rarefaction. As a quantitative measure of the overall accuracy, the L2 norm of the difference of the numerical pressure and the exact solution is used. Results are presented for simulations using both a uniform grid and an adaptive grid that refines the reaction zone.

  12. Turbulent stresses in the surf-zone: Which way is up?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, John W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Edge, B.L

    1997-01-01

    Velocity observations from a vertical stack of three-component Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) within the energetic surf-zone are presented. Rapid temporal sampling and small sampling volume provide observations suitable for investigation of the role of turbulent fluctuations in surf-zone dynamics. While sensor performance was good, failure to recover reliable measures of tilt from the vertical compromise the data value. We will present some cursory observations supporting the ADV performance, and examine the sensitivity of stress estimates to uncertainty in the sensor orientation. It is well known that turbulent stress estimates are highly sensitive to orientation relative to vertical when wave motions are dominant. Analyses presented examine the potential to use observed flow-field characteristics to constrain sensor orientation. Results show that such an approach may provide a consistent orientation to a fraction of a degree, but the inherent sensitivity of stress estimates requires a still more restrictive constraint. Regardless, the observations indicate the degree to which stress estimates are dependent on orientation, and provide some indication of the temporal variability in time-averaged stress estimates.

  13. Active depinning of bacterial droplets: the collective surfing of Bacillus subtilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennes, Marc; Tailleur, Julien; Daerr, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    How systems are endowed with migration capacity is a fascinating question with implications ranging from the design of novel active systems to the control of microbial populations. Bacteria, which can be found in a variety of environments, have developed among the richest set of locomotion mechanisms both at the microscopic and collective levels. Here, we uncover experimentally a new mode of collective bacterial motility in humid environment through the depinning of bacterial droplets. While capillary forces are notoriously enormous at the bacterial scale, even capable of pinning water droplets of millimetric size on inclined surfaces, we show that bacteria are able to harness a variety of mechanisms to unpin contact lines, hence inducing a collective sliding of the colony. Contrary to flagella-dependent migration modes like swarming we show that this much faster colony surfing still occurs in mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis lacking flagella. The diversity of mechanisms involved in the active unpinning seen in our experiments suggests that collective surfing should be a generic mode of migration of microorganisms in humid environments. Bacttern Grant.

  14. A polydisperse two-fluid model for surf zone bubble simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.

    2011-05-01

    Wave breaking in the surf zone entrains large volumes of air bubbles into the water column, forming a two-phase bubbly flow field. Numerical study of bubbly flow is largely restricted by the lack of robust and comprehensive bubble entrainment models. In this paper, we propose a new model that connects bubble entrainment with turbulent dissipation rate at the air-water interface. The entrainment model as well as a polydisperse two-fluid model are incorporated into a 3-D volume of fluid code TRUCHAS. The bubbly flow model is first tested against laboratory experimental data for an oscillatory bubble plume. The calculated time-averaged liquid velocities and their fluctuations agree well with measurements, indicating that the model correctly reproduces dynamic interactions between the liquid phase and the continuum representation of the gas phase. Then, it is employed to study the bubbly flow under a laboratory surf zone breaking wave. Through the comparisons with experimental data, it is demonstrated that the model describes bubble entrainment and void fraction evolution reasonably well. The exponential decay of void fraction observed in the laboratory experiments is captured by the model. The kinematics of bubble plume as well as the vertical evolution of bubble size spectrum at any depth are investigated. Studies of bubble effects on liquid phase turbulence show that the presence of bubbles could suppress a large amount of turbulence under breaking waves.

  15. Wave Transformation in a Multi-Bar Surf Zone: Case Study of Lubiatowo (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yuan-Jyh; Hsu, Tai-Wen; Ostrowski, Rafał; Szmytkiewicz, Marek

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents results of field and theoretical investigations of wave transformation in the surf zone near the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (Poland, the south Baltic Sea). The study site displays multi-bar cross-shore profiles that intensively dissipate wave energy, mostly induced by breaking. The main field data comprise wave heights and cross-shore bathymetric profiles.Wave transformation is modelled theoretically by two approaches, namely the IBW PAN phase-averaged wave transformation model and the approach based on the hydraulic jump model, developed by Hsu & Lai (2009) for hydrological situations encountered under the actual conditions of two field campaigns - in 1987 and 1996. Discrepancies between the measured data and the model results are discussed. In general, the model results are in good agreement with the in-situ observations. The comparison of the field data with the computational results concerns a part of the surf zone between about 5 m water depth and the first nearshore stable bar, where the depth amounts to ca. 1.2 m.

  16. White Dwarf Critical Tests for Modified Gravity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2016-04-15

    Scalar-tensor theories of gravity can lead to modifications of the gravitational force inside astrophysical objects. We exhibit that compact stars such as white dwarfs provide a unique setup to test beyond Horndeski theories of G^{3} type. We obtain stringent and independent constraints on the parameter ϒ characterizing the deviations from Newtonian gravity using the mass-radius relation, the Chandrasekhar mass limit, and the maximal rotational frequency of white dwarfs. We find that white dwarfs impose stronger constraints on ϒ than red and brown dwarfs.

  17. Brown dwarfs in young stellar clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.

    1991-01-01

    The present calculations of the early evolution of brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (LMSs) yield isochrones spanning 0.01-0.2 solar masses for ages in the 1 to 300 million year range. Since the brown dwarfs remain sharply segregated in T(eff) from LMSs for ages of less than 100 million years, it follows that for coeval populations of known age, a domain exists in the H-R diagram in which only brown dwarfs exist. These theoretical results are compared with recent observations of the Pleiades brown dwarf candidates, using two new sets of color-T(eff) transformations. Both sets yield consistent interpretations.

  18. Dynamical Masses of Accreting White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, A. F.; Gänsckie, B. T.

    2017-03-01

    The mass retention efficiency is a key question in both the theoretical and observational study of accreting white dwarfs in interacting binaries, with important implications for their potential as progenitors for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Canonical wisdom is that classical nova eruptions erode the white dwarf mass, and consequently, cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been excluded from the SN Ia progenitor discussion. However the average mass of white dwarfs in CVs is substantially higher (≃ 0.83 M⊙) than that of single white dwarfs (≃ 0.64 M ⊙), in stark contrast to expectations based on current classical nova models. This finding is based on a sample of ≃ 30 CV white dwarfs with accurate mass measurements, most of them in eclipsing systems. Given the fundamental importance of the mass evolution of accreting white dwarfs, it is necessary to enlarge this sample and to diversify the methods used for measuring masses. We have begun a systematic study of 27 CVs to almost double the number of CV white dwarfs with an accurate mass measurement. Using VLT/X-shooter phase-resolved observations, we can measure the white dwarf masses to a few percent, and will be able to answer the question whether accreting CV white dwarfs grow in mass.

  19. Effects of clam size, food type, sediment characteristic, and seawater carbonate chemistry on grazing capacity of Venus clam Cyclina sinensis (Gmelin, 1791)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhou, Kai; Liu, Xin; Lai, Qifang; Zhang, Dong; Shi, Liyan

    2016-10-01

    Aquaculture in saline-alkaline water has a major problem: microalgal blooming causes the pH of water to increase dramatically, thereby causing damage to the reared organisms. To solve this problem, we set out to find a candidate filter-feeding bivalve species suitable for saline-alkaline water to graze on microalgae and to control the pH. In the current study, we investigated the effect of carbonate alkalinity (CA, 2.5, 10.0, and 20.0 meq/L) and pH (8.0, 8.5, and 9.0) on the grazing capacity (GC) of the clam Cyclina sinensis. Additionally, the effect of clam size (small, medium, and large) and microalgae species (Nannochloropsis oculata, Chaetoceros müelleri, and Isochrysis galbana), and the effect of bottom sediment characteristic (mud, sandy mud, and muddy sand) and thickness (3 and 6 cm) were analyzed as well. The results show that the GC on I. galbana was the highest and small size had the maximum GC/W (W: wet weight including body and shells). No significant differences were observed between sediment type and thickness. Regarding CA and pH, a significant decrease in GC by the pH or by their interaction was found. The GC of C. sinensis was not greatly reduced in the treatments of pH≤8.5 and CA≤20.0, and also not affected by bottom sediment type, indicating that this clam is capable to manage microalgal concentrations and might be a candidate species for pH reduction in saline-alkaline water ponds.

  20. Differential toxicological effects induced by mercury in gills from three pedigrees of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum by NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Linbao; You, Liping; Yu, Junbao; Zhao, Jianmin; Li, Lianzhen; Wang, Qing; Li, Fei; Li, Chenghua; Liu, Dongyan; Wu, Huifeng

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is a hazardous pollutant in the Bohai marine environments due to its high toxicity to the marine organisms and subsequent ecological risk. Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of important sentinel organisms in 'Mussel Watch Program' launched in China and therefore used as a bioindicator in marine and coastal ecotoxicology. There are dominantly distributed three pedigrees of clam (White, Liangdao Red and Zebra) in Yantai population endowed with different tolerances to environmental stressors. In this study, gill tissues were collected from both untreated and mercury exposed White, Liangdao Red and Zebra clams, and the extracts were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics to compare the original metabolomes and the toxicological effects induced by mercury exposure in three pedigrees. The major abundant metabolites in White clam sample were branched-chain amino acids, lactate, alanine, arginine, acetoacetate, glutamate, succinate, citrate, malonate and taurine, while the metabolite profile of Liangdao Red clam sample comprises relative high levels of alanine, arginine, glutamate, succinate and glycogen. For Zebra clam sample, the metabolite profile exhibited relatively high amount of aspartate, acetylcholine and homarine. After 48 h exposure of 20 μg l(-1) Hg(2+), the metabolic profiles from all the three pedigrees of clams commonly showed significant increases in alanine, arginine, glutamate, aspartate, α-ketoglutarate, glycine and ATP/ADP, and decreases in citrate, taurine and homarine. The unique metabolic differences between the metabolomes of gill tissues from Hg(2+)-exposed White, Liangdao Red and Zebra clams were found, including elevated acetylcholine and branched-chain amino acids in White clams, and the declined succinate in both White and Liangdao Red samples as well as the declined betaine in Zebra and White clams. Overall, our findings showed the differential toxicological responses to mercury exposure and that White clams could be a

  1. Identification of Marteilia refringens infecting the razor clam Solen marginatus by PCR and in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    López-Flores, Inmaculada; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A; de la Herran, Roberto; Ruiz-Rejón, Carmelo; Ruiz-Rejón, Manuel; Navas, José I

    2008-06-01

    Marteilia refringens is a protozoan parasite recognized as a significant pathogen of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis. It is believed to have a complex life-cycle involving several hosts. In this study, we applied molecular approaches to identify this parasite in samples of the razor clam Solen marginatus from the south west coast of Spain. We used a PCR assay to amplify a fragment of the IGS rDNA region. PCR products were sequenced and the phylogenetic affinity of the sequences was determined. In situ hybridization analysis showed tissue distribution and presence of different developmental stages of the parasite in the digestive diverticula epithelium, which suggested a true parasitism in these individuals. This is the first report of the occurrence of M. refringens in the razor clam S. marginatus in the south Atlantic. The methodology described herein may be useful for accurate identification of the parasite strain in different hosts and thus provide valuable information for marteiliosis control programmes.

  2. Creep deformation and rupture behavior of CLAM steel at 823 K and 873 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Boyu; Huang, Bo; Li, Chunjing; Liu, Shaojun; Xu, Gang; Zhao, Yanyun; Huang, Qunying

    2014-12-01

    China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is selected as the candidate structural material in Fusion Design Study (FDS) series fusion reactor conceptual designs. The creep property of CLAM steel has been studied in this paper. Creep tests have been carried out at 823 K and 873 K over a stress range of 150-230 MPa. The creep curves showed three creep regimes, primary creep, steady-state creep and tertiary creep. The relationship between minimum creep rate (ε˙min) and the applied stress (σ) could be described by Norton power law, and the stress exponent n was decreased with the increase of the creep temperature. The creep mechanism was analyzed with the fractographes of the rupture specimens which were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coarsening of precipitates observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated the microstructural degradation after creep test.

  3. Tensile properties of CLAM steel irradiated up to 20.1 dpa in STIP-V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hongen; Peng, Lei; Dai, Yong; Huang, Qunying; Ye, Minyou

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of China low activation martensitic steel (CLAM) were irradiated in the fifth experiment of SINQ Target Irradiation Program (STIP-V) up to 20.1 dpa/1499 appm He/440 °C. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature (R.T) and irradiation temperatures (Tirr) in the range of 25-450 °C. The tensile results demonstrated strong effect of irradiation dose and irradiation temperature on hardening and embrittlement. With Tirr below ˜314 °C, CLAM steel specimens tested at R.T and Tirr showed similar evolution trend with irradiation dose, compared to other reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels in similar irradiation conditions. At higher Tirr above ˜314 °C, it is interesting that the hardening effect decreases and the ductility seems to recover, probably due to a strong effect of high irradiation temperature.

  4. He and H irradiation effects on the nanoindentation hardness of CLAM steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Siben; Peng, Lei; Ge, Hongen; Huang, Qunying; Xin, Jingping; Zhao, Ziqiang

    2014-12-01

    In this study, He and H ion irradiation induced hardening behavior of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel was investigated, and the influence of Si on irradiation hardening was also examined. CLAM steel with different Si contents, Heat 0912 and Heat 0408D, were irradiated with single He (He concentration range from 0 to 2150 appm) ion beam and He/H dual ion beams. Then nanoindentation tests were applied to evaluate the ion irradiation induced hardening effect. The result of Heat 0912 showed hardening effect would be more serious with higher He concentration, and the trend saturated when He concentration reach 1000 appm. Comparing the result of Heat 0912 and Heat 0408D, higher Si content might improve the resistance to hardening.

  5. Cooling water canal improvements to correct structural failures and control Asian clams

    SciTech Connect

    England, W.; Snow, R.E.; Palmer, E.C.

    1995-10-01

    Expansive soils destroyed the floor and impacted the roof support columns of a 600-foot-long concrete cooling water intake canal at the two unit, 700-MW Decker Creek Power Plant in Austin, Texas. These movements exposed clay and silt soils in the canal bottom and provided a habitat for a thriving Asian Clam community which caused operational problems in the plant including unplanned outages. Evaluations were performed to address the structural damages, characterize the clam habitat, and identify concepts to remediate the problem conditions. The various concepts evaluated to eliminate the difficulties are discussed in this paper as well as the basis for selection of the remedial concept. The selected remedial concept consisted of replacing the concrete canal structure with large diameter concrete pipes. The paper also discusses the construction sequence to accomplish the work within a limited outage period.

  6. Illinois River fingernail clam toxicity study. Final report, 1 July 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, R.E.; Dillon, F.S.

    1998-12-31

    A filtering performance bioassay was developed for the fingernail clam, Musculium transversum, a dominant bottom-dwelling organism in many waters of the midwestern United States, and a key in food chains leading from organic matter in water and sediment to fish and ducks valued by humans. The bioassay was used with a battery of standard bioassays to assess the toxicity of porewaters obtained from sediments of the Illinois River and its associated canal (known collectively as the Illinois Waterway), where fingernail clams and other benthic macroinvertebrates died out in 1955--1958 and have not recolonized, despite the availability of seed populations in tributaries and isolated refugia within the river. Inhibition of filtering performance was easily measured with relatively simple equipment available in most laboratories and proved be directly related to the concentration of a reference toxicant, sodium cyanide.

  7. In vivo exposure of the marine clam Ruditapes philippinarum to zinc oxide nanoparticles: responses in gills, digestive gland and haemolymph.

    PubMed

    Marisa, Ilaria; Matozzo, Valerio; Munari, Marco; Binelli, Andrea; Parolini, Marco; Martucci, Alessandro; Franceschinis, Erica; Brianese, Nicola; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    Potential nanoparticle (NP) toxicity poses a growing concern in marine coastal environments. Among NPs, zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) are widely used in many common products that ultimately become deposited in coastal habitats from multiple non-point sources. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo effects of nZnO in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Animals were exposed to nZnO (1 and 10 μg/L) and ZnCl2 (10 μg/L) for 7 days. ZnCl2 was used to compare the effects of the NPs to those of Zn(2+) and to ascertain whether nZnO toxicity is attributable to the release of ions into the aquatic medium. At differing time intervals during the exposure, several biochemical and cellular responses were evaluated in the clam gills, digestive gland, and haemolymph. The results showed that nZnO, at concentrations close to the predicted environmental levels, significantly affected various parameters in clam tissues. Significant increases in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and a decreasing trend of glutathione S-transferase activity indicated the involvement of oxidative stress in nZnO toxicity. In clams exposed to ZnCl2, slight variations in antioxidant enzyme activities were detected with respect to nZnO-treated clams. However, no damage to lipids, proteins or DNA was revealed in all exposure conditions, suggesting a protection of antioxidant enzymes in the tissues. Of the various haemolymph parameters measured, haemocyte proliferation increased significantly, in ZnCl2-treated clams in particular. Under nZnO (10 μg/L) and ZnCl2 exposure, DNA damage in haemocytes was also revealed, but it was lower in clams exposed to ZnCl2. A decreasing trend in gill AChE activity of treated clams proposed a possible role of zinc ions in nZnO toxicity. However, the dissimilar modulation of the responses in the nZnO- and ZnCl2-exposed clams suggested different mechanisms of action, with nZnO toxicity possibly depending not only on the release of zinc ions but also on NP

  8. Changes in bioturbation of iron biogeochemistry and in molecular response of the clam Ruditapes decussates upon Perkinsus olseni infection.

    PubMed

    Simão, Márcio F; Leite, Ricardo B; Rocha, Carlos; Cancela, M Leonor

    2010-10-01

    A series of artificial microcosms was used to test the effect of clam density on benthic iron biogeochemistry and, subsequently, if the response of clam Ruditapes decussatus to infection with Perkinsus olseni, a common opportunistic parasite known to be iron dependent, was correlated with the dynamics of iron sediment pore waters within the chambers. Three series of benthic microcosms were used in the experiment, comparing similar densities of clams (none, one, two, three, or four individuals/chamber) between a control set (no deliberate infection) and two parallel sets of clams that were deliberately infected with the parasite after 10 days of incubation. Fifteen chambers were used simultaneously and the experiment was conducted for 35 days. In order to avoid spurious effects of differential organic loading and clam feeding efficiency on the oxidative state of the sediment, the iron balance was tentatively shifted during incubation toward decreased dissolved iron in pore water. This was done by applying a constant flow of air to all chambers and refraining from supplying extra organic matter during the experimental run, which led to the reduction of benthic oxygen demand as the experiment progressed. Results showed that microcosms bearing both higher clam densities and lower infection levels were able to exert a quantitative influence in iron biogeochemistry through bioturbation activity. This effect was significantly depressed in chambers hosting clams with high infection levels. In addition, analysis of molecular markers responsive to iron and parasite stress revealed an upper regulation of HSP70 and ferritin in infected clams, thus suggesting a role of those molecules on both host protection and response to parasite presence by limiting iron availability. Together, these findings suggest a correlation between the expression of clam molecular iron/stress markers and iron bioavailability, which can be modified by the presence or absence of Perkinsus infection. In

  9. Impacts of stage-specific acute pesticide exposure on predicted population structure of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, S.; Chasse, J.; Butler, R.A.; Morrill, W.; Van Beneden, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    A combined laboratory and modeling approach was used to assess the impact of selected pesticides on early life stages of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria. Clams were exposed for 24 h as veligers or pediveligers to the broad-spectrum herbicide hexazinone [3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4 (1h,3h)-dione; (Velpar®)], the phenoxyacetic acid herbicide, 2,4-D (2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; Agway® Super BK 32), or phosmet (Imidan®). In addition, juvenile clams were exposed for 24 h to 2,4-D and their growth monitored for 21 months. Laboratory experiments indicated veligers were more sensitive to acute pesticide exposure than pediveligers, with 2,4-D exposed veligers exhibiting the lowest survival among all treatments. Relative to controls, juvenile clams exposed to 0.5 ppm 2,4-D had enhanced survival following the initial 3 months of grow out. Juveniles exposed to 0.5 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm 2,4-D showed an initial growth delay relative to control clams, but at 21 months post exposure these clams were significantly larger than control clams. Data from the larval and juvenile exposures were used to generate a stage-specific matrix model to predict the effect of pesticide exposure on clam populations. Impacts on simulated clam populations varied with the pesticide and stage exposed. For example, 2,4-D exposure of veligers and pediveligers significantly reduced predicted recruitment as well as population growth rate compared to controls, but juvenile exposure to 2,4-D did not significantly reduce population growth rate. With the exception of veligers exposed to 10 ppm, hexazinone exposure at the both veliger and pediveliger stages significantly reduced predicted recruitment success compared to 0 ppm controls. Hexazinone exposure also reduced modeled population growth rates, but these reductions were only slight in the pediveliger exposure simulations. Veliger and pediveliger exposure to phosmet reduced modeled population growth rate in a dose

  10. An unsuccessful search for brown dwarf companions to white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a survey to detect excess infrared emission from white dwarf stars which would be attributable to a low mass companion are reviewed. Neither a simple comparison of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars with the IRAS Point Source Catalog nor the coadding of IRAS survey data resulted in a detection of a brown dwarf. The seven nearest stars where the most stringent limits to the presence of a brown dwarf were obtained are listed, and an effort to detect brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is discussed.

  11. Heavy metals in oysters and clams of St. Louis Bay, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, T.F.; Lytle, J.S.

    1982-07-01

    Because of their ability to concentrate pollutants of various kinds from their environment, the clam, Rangia cuneata and the oyster, Crassostrea virginica were analyzed to compare metal uptake and to see whether their microphageous behavior is reflected in the relationship of body weight burden of trace metal to levels in the sediments and water column. The metals chosen for analysis were arsenic, antimony, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, titanium, vanadium and zinc. (JMT)

  12. Composting clam processing wastes in a laboratory- and pilot-scale in-vessel system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenhu; Lane, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-01-01

    Waste materials from the clam processing industry (offal, shells) have several special characteristics such as a high salinity level, a high nitrogen content, and a low C/N ratio. The traditional disposal of clam waste through landfilling is facing the challenges of limited land available, increasing tipping fees, and strict environmental and regulatory scrutiny. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of in-vessel composting as an alternative for landfill application of these materials. Experiments were performed in both laboratory-scale (5L) and pilot-scale (120L) reactors, with woodchips as the bulking agent. In the laboratory-scale composting test, the clam waste and woodchips were mixed in ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:3 (w/w, wet weight). The high ratios resulted in a better temperature performance, a higher electrical conductivity, and a higher ash content than the low-ratio composting. The C/N ratio of the composts was in the range of 9:1-18:1. In the pilot-scale composting test, a 1:1 ratio of clam waste to woodchips was used. The temperature profile during the composting process met the US Environmental Protection Agency sanitary requirement. The final cured compost had a C/N ratio of 14.6, with an ash content of 167.0+/-14.1g/kg dry matter. In addition to the major nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and sodium), the compost also contained trace amounts of zinc, manganese, copper, and boron, indicating that the material can be used as a good resource for plant nutrients.

  13. Multi-species generalist predation on the stochastic harvested clam Tivela mactroides (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turra, Alexander; Fernandez, Wellington S.; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flavia B.; Denadai, Márcia R.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down control is an important force modulating the abundance of prey and structuring marine communities. The harvested trigonal clam Tivela mactroides is hypothesized to be part of the diet of a variety of marine organisms, with its stock influencing predator abundance and being influenced by them. Here we analyzed the diet of potential predators of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay, northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil, to identify the main consumers of this marine resource, and also to address the importance of this clam in the diet of each predator. Samples were taken year-round by trawls; all specimens collected were identified and measured and the food items identified and quantified. Twenty-one species consumed T. mactroides, whose importance in the diet varied greatly in both the volume ingested and the frequency of occurrence (pompano Trachinotus carolinus > blue crab Callinectes danae > starfish Astropecten marginatus). Top-down influence on T. mactroides was also dependent on the abundance of consumers (yellow catfish Cathorops spixii > rake stardrum Stellifer rastrifer > barred grunt Conodon nobilis > A. marginatus). Considering the mean volume ingested, the frequency of occurrence of T. mactroides in the diet, and the relative abundance of consumers, the predators that most influenced T. mactroides were T. carolinus, A. marginatus, and C. danae, in decreasing order. Large numbers of small-sized individuals of T. mactroides (<10 mm) were generally preyed upon by A. marginatus, which may have a stronger effect on clam abundance in comparison to C. danae and T. carolinus, which preyed upon larger clams. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that predators' consumption of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay can influence its stocks, mainly due to the type and/or abundance of predator species, the volume and number of individuals of T. mactroides preyed upon, and the temporal variations in the abundance of predators.

  14. Water and sediment toxicity of freshwater mussels from population crashes of Asiatic clams

    SciTech Connect

    Scheller, J.L.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Lynde, S.R.; Shepard, N.D.

    1994-12-31

    The Clinch River watershed in Virginia contains one of the most diverse communities of freshwater bivalves or unionids in North America. These communities are becoming depleted over the past few decades due to various point (industrial, municipal) and nonpoint (roadside and agricultural runoff) discharges. By the latter 1980`s, the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) had invaded most reaches of this system and may be becoming a contributing factor to the demise of native mussels by the natural release of toxic ammonia from dense population crashes during late summer, low flow conditions. When densities surpassed 1,500 clams/m{sup 2}, crashes resulting in >99% mortality have been observed in various areas of the river. Total ammonia release from dying clams reached and sustained 70 mg/L for several days in laboratory artificial stream experiments. These ammonia levels resulted in acute toxicity and reproductive chronic impairment to Daphnia magna in 10-day sediment toxicity tests. Pediveliger larvae of Corbicula were acutely sensitive (48 hr LC{sub 50}) to 1.72 mg/L total ammonia (O.05 mg/L unionized), mortality was 100% to juvenile and adult clams in 9 to 13 days at 16.1 mg/L total (0.74 mg/L unionized ammonia). Mussel glochidia were sensitive to 24-hr ammonia exposures (LC{sub 50} = 3.29 and 0.11 mg/L as total and unionized ammonia, respectively). Juvenile and adult mussels are predicted to be less sensitive members of the unionid life cycle as observed from earlier studies involving copper toxicity in the Clinch River.

  15. Structure and immune expression analysis of hemoglobin genes from the blood clam Tegillarca granosa.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y B; Wang, Q; Guo, X M; Lin, Z H

    2013-02-28

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is the major protein component of erythrocytes in animals with red blood, although it can serve additional functions beyond the transport of oxygen. The blood clam (Tegillarca granosa) is one of the few mollusks that has Hb, although the structure and function of molluskan Hbs remain unclear. We characterized two unique and highly compartmentalized blood clam hemoglobin genes, Tg-HbIIA and Tg-HbIIB, at the molecular level. The full-length cDNA of Tg-HbIIA was 731 bp with a 450-bp open reading frame encoding 150 amino acids; that of Tg-HbIIB was 698 bp, with a 456-bp open reading frame encoding 152 amino acids. Their intronic regions were amplified by PCR. The two genes showed the typical 2 intron/3 exon organization found in T. granosa. The 3-D structures of the three blood clam Tg-Hbs were predicted using the SWISS-MODEL Protein Modeling Server, and a phylogenetic analysis was conducted to investigate its evolution. As quantified by qRT-PCR, the expression levels of Tg-HbIIA and Tg-HbIIB were significantly upregulated upon challenge by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, lipopolysaccharides, and peptidoglycans. Three Hb isoforms, Tg-HbI, Tg-HbIIA, and Tg-HbIIB, were found. Specific structures and evolutionary features were found in these molluskan Hb genes. Challenge experiments indicated that Tg-Hbs are involved in immune defense responses against bacterial infection and bacterial pathogenic factors. As this is the first functional research on Hb genes in the blood clam, our findings provide new insight into the innate immune defense mechanisms of T. granosa.

  16. Energy metabolism and valve closure behaviour in the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Christian; Grieshaber, Manfred K

    2003-11-01

    Since its invasion of Europe in the early 1980s, the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea has become very abundant in nearly all western river systems. Today this species is one of the most important biomass producers in the River Rhine. Monitoring the valve movements of C. fluminea over a period of 2 years revealed a circadian rhythm in summer, with extended periods (10-12 h) of valve closure, predominantly in the morning hours. Altogether valve movements were very scarce, frequently fewer than four movements per individual per day. Simultaneous measurements of heat dissipation and oxygen consumption (calorespirometry) revealed an intermittent metabolism in the clam. With the onset of valve closure, C. fluminea reduced its metabolic rate to 10% of the standard metabolic rate (SMR) measured when the valves were open. Nevertheless, this depressed metabolism remained aerobic for several hours, enabling the clam to save energy and substrates compared to the requirements of the tenfold higher SMR. Only during long-lasting periods of valve closure (more than 5-10 h) did the clams become anaerobic and accumulate succinate within their tissues (2 micromol g(-1) fresh mass). Succinate is transported into the mantle cavity fluid, where it reaches concentrations of 4-6 mmol l(-1). Because this succinate-enriched fluid must pass the gills when the valves open again, we suggest that this anaerobic end product is at least partly reabsorbed, thus reducing the loss of valuable substrates during anaerobiosis. Propionate was also produced, but only during experimental N2-incubation, under near-anoxic conditions. The intermittent metabolism of C. fluminea is discussed as an adaption to efficiently exploit the rare food supply, saving substrates by the pronounced metabolic depression during valve closure.

  17. Trends and Challenges in Sport Science and Engineering Related Technology Education at Surf Science and Technology: Researching Surfboard Making Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audy, Jaromir

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained from teaching, learning and research associated with Surf Science and Technology (SST) course taught at the South West Campus of Edith Cowan University. The main topic discussed is Teaching and Learning with the Surfboard Making. It looks at a group of recent second year SST students who, after acquiring the…

  18. 76 FR 55566 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays and Surfing Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY...) Long Island Sound Zone for a surfing event and fireworks displays. This action is necessary to provide... anchoring within this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound. DATES:...

  19. Natural weathering of oil in marine sediments: tissue contamination and growth of the clam, Protothaca staminea

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.W.; Riley, R.G.; Kiesser, S.L.; Thomas, B.L.; Fellingham, G.W.

    1981-10-01

    Three groups (80 per group) of small (<30 mm) clams, Protothaca staminea, were placed in the intertidal environment of Sequim Bay, Washington for one year to measure the effects of oiled sediment on growth and tissue contamination. Detailed glass capillary gas chromatographic analysis of initial and final sediment samples and tissues were used to describe the fate of specific oil components in the sediment, with depth, and the uptake by the clams. Concentrations of sediment receiving a top layer (3 cm) of highly contaminated sediment reached background levels after one year, while sediment mixed to depth (10 cm) with oil still contained measurable contamination at the 5 to 10 cm depth. The pattern of specific hydrocarbon loss is in agreement with results of spill studies, molecular weight relationships and biodegradation data. The ratios for tissue concentrations to final sediment concentrations for phenanthrenes, alkylnaphthalenes and dibenzothiophenes were all between 0.16 and 0.18. This would indicate that the sulfur-containing compounds were not preferentially retained in tissues. Statistical analyses of 31 to 48 individually measured and marked clams (per group) showed that growth in oil-treated sediment was significantly (0.001 level) slower than in clean sediment. In addition, oil mixed into sediment (10 cm) produced greater tissue contamination and more reduction in growth (0.01 level) than a layer (3 cm) of oiled sediment.

  20. Histopathology and stress biomarkers in the clam Venerupis philippinarum from the Venice Lagoon (Italy).

    PubMed

    Boscolo Papo, Michele; Bertotto, Daniela; Quaglio, Francesco; Vascellari, Marta; Pascoli, Francesco; Negrato, Elena; Binato, Giovanni; Radaelli, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the histomorphology and the stress response in the bivalve Venerupis philippinarum sampled in four differently polluted sites of the Venice Lagoon (Palude del Monte, Marghera, Ca' Roman and Val di Brenta). This species is often used as bioindicator of environmental pollution since it can bioaccumulate a large variety of pollutants because of its filter feeding. Chemical analyses for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed on whole soft tissues of V. philippinarum. The histological evaluation of clams revealed the presence of Perkinsus sp. infection in animals from all sites, although a very high prevalence of parasites was evidenced in clams from Ca' Roman. Perkinsus sp. were systemically distributed in the mantle, in the intestine and digestive gland, in gonads and gills. The trophozoites of Perkinsus sp. were found isolated or in cluster surrounded by a heavy hemocitical response. Haemocytes always exhibited an immunopositivity to cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and nitrotyrosine (NT) antibodies. The digestive gland of animals from Palude del Monte showed the highest malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, whereas clams from Ca' Roman exhibited the highest quantity of metallothioneins.

  1. Influence of thermal aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of CLAM steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lixin; Hu, Xue; Yang, Chunguang; Yan, Wei; Xiao, Furen; Shan, Yiyin; Yang, Ke

    2013-11-01

    In order to investigate the influence of thermal aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of CLAM (China low activation martensitic) steel, a comparison study was made on the as-tempered and the aged steels. The tempered CLAM steels were subjected to aging treatment at 600 °C for 1100 h and 3000 h, and at 650 °C for 1100 h, respectively. The changes of microstructure were characterized by both transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mechanical properties were evaluated by Charpy impact, tensile and Vickers hardness tests. The upper shelf energy (USE) of the thermal aged CLAM steel decreased with the extension of aging time, while the yield strength changed slightly. After long-term thermal aging, the MX type precipitates remained stable. The coarsening of M23C6 and the formation of Laves phase were confirmed by scanning/transmission electron microscopes. The Laves phase was the main factor leading to the increase of DBTT.

  2. The association between razor clam consumption and memory in the CoASTAL Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Boushey, Carol; Tracy, Kate; Trainer, Vera; Roberts, Sparkle M.; Schluterman, Nicolas; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    This study represents a preliminary effort to examine the possible impacts of chronic, low level Domoic Acid (DA) exposure on memory in the CoASTAL cohort. Five hundred thirteen men and women representing three Native American Tribes were studied with standard measures of cognition and razor clam consumption (a known vector of DA exposure) over a four year period. In addition, a pilot metric of DA concentration exposure was used which took into consideration average DA concentration levels in source beaches as well as consumption. Based upon GEE analysis, controlling for age, sex, race, year, education level, tribe, and employment status, findings indicated that high razor clam consumers (15 or more per month) had isolated decrements on some measures of memory (p=.02 to .03), with other cognitive functions unaffected. The relatively lower memory scores were still within normal limits, thus not clinically significant. The pilot DA exposure metric had no association with any aspect of cognition or behavior. There is a possible association between long term, low level exposure to DA through heavy razor clam consumption and memory. The availability of a reliable biological marker for human exposure to DA is needed. PMID:27746706

  3. A histopathological survey of the razor clam Ensis macha (Pharidae) along the Patagonian Argentina coast.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Nuria; Bruno, Elizabeth Perez; Márquez, Federico; Van der Molen, Silvina; Gilardoni, Carmen; Cremonte, Florencia

    2013-03-01

    This is the first study performed to determine the health status of the razor clam, Ensis macha, including six different populations along Argentina Patagonian coast and one of Chile. The parasites and pathologies affecting E. macha were analyzed and their prevalence and mean intensity values were calculated. To establish which factors affect the presence and intensity of infection, Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were applied. Basophilic inclusions, ciliates, coccidians protozoans and turbellarians were found. We report an Aporocotylidae digenean and hemocyte infiltrations. None of the parasites is OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) notifiable, and none seemed to be pathogenic, with the exception of the digenean. The prevalence of the parasites was affected mainly by environmental factors (such as site of sampling and season) instead of intrinsic conditions of the clam (such as size, condition index, sex and gonadal stage). On the other hand, the maximum intensity of parasites was not only related with cold seasons but also with the partially spawned gonadal stage of E. macha. During this stage, the clams would need to store energy for the next gametogenesis cycle, might be more susceptible to infection by the parasites.

  4. Changes in fatty acid composition in the giant clam Tridacna maxima in response to thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Dubousquet, Vaimiti; Gros, Emmanuelle; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Viguier, Bruno; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Bertrand, Cédric; Lecellier, Gaël J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Temperature can modify membrane fluidity and thus affects cellular functions and physiological activities. This study examines lipid remodelling in the marine symbiotic organism, Tridacna maxima, during a time series of induced thermal stress, with an emphasis on the morphology of their symbiont Symbiodinium. First, we show that the French Polynesian giant clams harbour an important proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA), which reflects their tropical location. Second, in contrast to most marine organisms, the total lipid content in giant clams remained constant under stress, though some changes in their composition were shown. Third, the stress-induced changes in fatty acid (FA) diversity were accompanied by an upregulation of genes involved in lipids and ROS pathways. Finally, our microscopic analysis revealed that for the giant clam's symbiont, Symbiodinium, thermal stress led to two sequential cell death processes. Our data suggests that the degradation of Symbiodinium cells could provide an additional source of energy to T. maxima in response to heat stress. PMID:27543058

  5. The association between razor clam consumption and memory in the CoASTAL Cohort.

    PubMed

    Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol; Tracy, Kate; Trainer, Vera; Roberts, Sparkle M; Schluterman, Nicolas; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    This study represents a preliminary effort to examine the possible impacts of chronic, low level Domoic Acid (DA) exposure on memory in the CoASTAL cohort. Five hundred thirteen men and women representing three Native American Tribes were studied with standard measures of cognition and razor clam consumption (a known vector of DA exposure) over a four year period. In addition, a pilot metric of DA concentration exposure was used which took into consideration average DA concentration levels in source beaches as well as consumption. Based upon GEE analysis, controlling for age, sex, race, year, education level, tribe, and employment status, findings indicated that high razor clam consumers (15 or more per month) had isolated decrements on some measures of memory (p=.02 to .03), with other cognitive functions unaffected. The relatively lower memory scores were still within normal limits, thus not clinically significant. The pilot DA exposure metric had no association with any aspect of cognition or behavior. There is a possible association between long term, low level exposure to DA through heavy razor clam consumption and memory. The availability of a reliable biological marker for human exposure to DA is needed.

  6. Molecular diversity and evolution of defensins in the manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Linbao; Yang, Dinglong; Yu, Qian; Li, Fei; Cong, Ming; Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Zhao, Jianmin

    2015-11-01

    Four types of defensins were identified in Manila clam and designated as Rpdef1, Rpdef2, Rpdef3 and Rpdef4, which encoded a polypeptide of 49, 46, 45 and 42 amino acids, respectively. Sequence alignments indicated that Rpdef1 shared 46.9% identity with Rpdef2, 40.8% with Rpdef3, and 34.7% with Rpdef4. Analysis of transcript polymorphism showed that Rpdef3 accounted for about 60% frequency of Rpdefs occurrence in clams from three geographic origins (Dalian, Qingdao and Hangzhou). By quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, the transcripts of Rpdefs were mainly detected in hemocytes and they responded sensitively to bacterial challenge in hemocytes. Evolutionary analysis indicated that all Rpdefs were under positive selection with positively selected basic amino acid residues detected in the C-terminal regions, which perhaps have a functional relevance by modifying the charge distribution of Rpdefs. The results also showed some lineages with dN/dS > 1, suggesting positive selection pressures existed in some lineages of phylogeny tree constructed by mollusk defensins. Overall, our results suggest that Rpdefs perhaps played important roles in host defense and positive selection is the major driving force in generating high diversity of defensins in the Manila clam.

  7. A theoretical study of burrowing in dry soil using razor clam-inspired kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Amos; Isava, Monica

    2015-11-01

    This work investigates whether the digging kinematics of Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam, could be utilized in dry soil. In wet soil, E. directus uses contractions of its valves to relieve stress on the surrounding soil, and then draw water towards its body to create a pocket of fluidized substrate. This locally fluidized zone requires much less force to move through than static soil, resulting in burrowing energy that scales linearly with depth, rather than depth squared. In dry soil, if the valves of a clam-like device are contracted fast enough, the horizontal stress in the soil could be brought to a zero-stress state. This would correspondingly reduce the local vertical stresses to zero, which could drastically lower the forces required to burrow compared to moving through static dry soil. Using analytical models of soil failure mechanics, we investigated the critical timescales for inducing a zero-stress state in soil surrounding an E. directus-like device with contracting valves. This device was modeled as a similar size to a real razor clam (15 mm wide). It was found that for most dry soils, the device would have to contract its valves in 0.02 seconds, a speed within the realm of possibility for a mechanical system. These results suggest that the burrowing method used by E. directus could feasibly be adapted for digging in dry soil.

  8. University of Washington Airborne Studies in Support of the CLAMS-2001 Field Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    The main activity under this grant was participation in the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) field study from 10 July through 2 August 2001. The Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) from the University of Washington (UW) flew its Convair-580 research aircraft on thirteen occasions, for a total of 45 research flight hours, in support of CLAMS. Some of the main accomplishments of these flights were: 1) Aerosol and trace gas measurements and sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and column water vapor and ozone from close to Ocean surface to approx. 10,000 ft off Delmarva Peninsula on various occasions; 2) Measurements of aerosol properties on seven occasions beneath the Terra satellite, once beneath AVHRR, and five times beneath the ER-2 aircraft; 3) Measurements of aerosol properties in the vicinity of the (CERES instrumented) Chesapeake Bay lighthouse (COVE) on nine occasions; 4) Use of the NASA Goddard Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) to obtain measurements of BRDF of the ocean surface on fifteen occasions and over Great Dismal Swamp on two occasions; 5) Measurements of aerosol properties over instrumented buoys 44014, 44004, and 41001. 6) On July 17 (a CLAMS 'Golden Day') six aircraft, including the Convair-580 and ER-2, were stacked above the Chesapeake Bay lighthouse under clear skies at the time of the Terra overpass.

  9. Modeling habitat suitability of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a Neotropical shallow lagoon, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, T C L; Gama, A M S; Alves, T P; Fontoura, N F

    2016-04-19

    This study aimed to model the habitat suitability for an invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a coastal shallow lagoon in the southern Neotropical region (-30.22, -50.55). The lagoon (19km2, maximum deep 2.5m) was sampled with an Ekman dredge in an orthogonal matrix comprising 84 points. At each sampling point, were obtained environmental descriptors as depth, organic matter content (OMC), average granulometry (Avgran), and the percentage of sand (Pcsand). Prediction performance of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), Generalized Additive Models (GAM) and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) were compared. Also, niche overlapping with other native clam species (Castalia martensi, Neocorbicula limosa and Anodontites trapesialis) was examined. A BRT model with 1400 trees was selected as the best model, with cross-validated correlation of 0.82. The relative contributions of predictors were Pcsand-42.6%, OMC-35.8%, Avgran-10.9% and Depth-10.8%. Were identified that C. fluminea occur mainly in sandy sediments with few organic matter, in shallow areas nor by the shore. The PCA showed a wide niche overlap with the native clam species C. martensi, N. limosa and A. trapesialis.

  10. Effect of okadaic acid on cultured clam heart cells: involvement of MAPkinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Hanana, Houda; Talarmin, Hélène; Pennec, Jean-Pierre; Droguet, Mickael; Morel, Julie; Dorange, Germaine

    2012-12-15

    Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the main diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins and a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A. The downstream signal transduction pathways following the protein phosphatase inhibition are still unknown and the results of most of the previous studies are often conflicting. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of OA on heart clam cells and to analyse its possible mechanisms of action by investigating the signal transduction pathways involved in OA cytotoxicity. We showed that OA at 1 µM after 24 h of treatment induces disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, rounding and detachment of fibroblastic cells. Moreover, treatment of heart cells revealed a sequential activation of MAPK proteins depending on the OA concentration. We suggest that the duration of p38 and JNK activation is a critical factor in determining cell apoptosis in clam cardiomyocytes. In the opposite, ERK activation could be involved in cell survival. The cell death induced by OA is a MAPK modulated pathway, mediated by caspase 3-dependent mechanism. OA was found to induce no significant effect on spontaneous beating rate or inward L-type calcium current in clam cardiomyocytes, suggesting that PP1 was not inhibited even by the highest dose of OA.

  11. Lethal and sublethal responses in the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed to different CO2-acidic sediments.

    PubMed

    Conradi, M; Riba, I; Almagro-Pastor, V; DelValls, T A

    2016-11-01

    One of the main impacts expected in CO2 leakage scenarios from carbon capture and storage in sub-seabed geological structures is the acidification of the environment. In the present work, laboratory-scale experiments were performed to investigate the effects of seawater acidification (pH 7.0, 6.5, 6.0, and control) in native clams (Scrobicularia plana) over 21 days of exposure. For this purpose, a battery of biomarkers (GSI, EROD, GST, GPX, LPO, and DNA damage) were analysed in the digestive glands of individuals collected on days 7, 14 and 21. Seawater acidification significantly affected the average life span of S. plana, and both the biomarkers analysed and the multivariate analysis approach demonstrated that seawater acidification induced a strong oxidative stress response in the clam. Oxidative stress overwhelmed the capacity of S. plana to defend its cells against it, resulting in DNA damage. Furthermore, the decline in the population of S. plana in their natural habitat could lead to a reduction in available food resources for avifauna, ichthyofauna, and for the local economy because this clam is a commercial species in the south of Europe.

  12. Population genetics of the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) introduced in North America and Europe.

    PubMed

    Cordero, David; Delgado, Marina; Liu, Baozhong; Ruesink, Jennifer; Saavedra, Carlos

    2017-01-03

    Globally, the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) stands as the second most important bivalve species in fisheries and aquaculture. Native to the Pacific coast of Asia, it is now well-established in North America and Europe, where its on-going management reflects local economic interests. The historic record of transfers spans the 20(th) century and suggests sequential movement from Japan to North America, as a hitch-hiker on oysters, and then intentional introduction in Europe, but global genetic data are missing. We have studied mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers in nine populations from Asia, North America and Europe. The results from the two types of markers indicated a good concordance of present-day genetic structure with the reported history of clam transfers across continents, and no evidence of relevant concealed introductions from continental Asia in Europe and North America. However, European populations showed a loss of genetic variability and significant genetic differentiation as compared to their American counterparts. Our study shows that in spite of the increasing ease for species to spread out of their native range, in the case of the Manila clam this has not resulted in new invasion waves in the two studied continents.

  13. Population genetics of the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) introduced in North America and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, David; Delgado, Marina; Liu, Baozhong; Ruesink, Jennifer; Saavedra, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) stands as the second most important bivalve species in fisheries and aquaculture. Native to the Pacific coast of Asia, it is now well-established in North America and Europe, where its on-going management reflects local economic interests. The historic record of transfers spans the 20th century and suggests sequential movement from Japan to North America, as a hitch-hiker on oysters, and then intentional introduction in Europe, but global genetic data are missing. We have studied mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers in nine populations from Asia, North America and Europe. The results from the two types of markers indicated a good concordance of present-day genetic structure with the reported history of clam transfers across continents, and no evidence of relevant concealed introductions from continental Asia in Europe and North America. However, European populations showed a loss of genetic variability and significant genetic differentiation as compared to their American counterparts. Our study shows that in spite of the increasing ease for species to spread out of their native range, in the case of the Manila clam this has not resulted in new invasion waves in the two studied continents. PMID:28045054

  14. Genetic responses to metal contamination in two clams: Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Moraga, D; Mdelgi-Lasram, E; Romdhane, M S; El Abed, A; Boutet, I; Tanguy, A; Auffret, M

    2002-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are subjected to a wide variety of disturbances, including those due to xenobiotics of agricultural and industrial origin. These pollutants as heavy metals can modify the genetic diversity of populations by favouring or counter-selecting certain alleles or genotypes by differential mortality. In the present study, two genetic markers (phosphoglucomutase and glucosephosphate isomerase) and a protein marker (metallothionein) were monitored in order to determine the impact of heavy metals in different clam populations. Analysis of the genetic structure of the clam populations examined reveals that those inhabiting environments contaminated by heavy metals exhibit a higher allelic diversity and possess alleles at PGM loci that could be selected by the presence of heavy metals. The evaluation of metallothionein levels using a specific polyclonal antibody developed in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) demonstrated the existence of a relationship between metallothionein concentrations and the level of metal pollution for clam populations sampled from different sites. An inter-specific difference was also detected between Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum living in sympatry at the same site, suggesting a differential response of these two species upon exposure to an identical heavy metal concentration.

  15. Occurrence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in clams (Ruditapes decussatus) from Tunis north lagoon.

    PubMed

    Armi, Zina; Turki, Souad; Trabelsi, Elbahri; Ceredi, Alfiero; Riccardi, Elena; Milandri, Anna

    2012-08-01

    The main diarrhetic shellfish toxins, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1, 2 (DTX-2, 2) were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as pyrenacyl esters in clams (Ruditapes decussatus) collected in Tunis north lagoon from January 2007 to June 2008. Sample analyses by LC-MS/MS displayed OA and related congeners (DTX-2, 2) with a highest detected level of 21 μg OA eq/kg shellfish meat for the samples of January 2007. Nevertheless, all samples were MBA negative. During the study period, potentially toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis sacculus was recorded all year, blooming at different times. Highest concentrations were recorded during January 2007 with 4.6 × 10(4) cells per liter and 4.10(4) cells per liter in the northern and southern districts, respectively. Results show that there is no significant correlation between D. sacculus densities in water column and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins concentrations unregistered in clams. These data reveal that DSP toxicity in clams of Tunis north lagoon is low according to European regulatory limit (160 μg OA eq/kg shellfish meat). However, a potential threat, in this area, is represented by DSP toxic species as D. sacculus and provides grounds for widen and reinforcing sanitary control of the phycotoxin measures in the region.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in clams, sediments, and seawater from the Great Barrier Reef region, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Bagg, J.; Smith, J.D. )

    1988-09-01

    On the Great Barrier Reef actively growing organisms occur mainly in shallow water, between the low-water mark and about 5m depth. The effects of hydrocarbon pollution either from discharge into the sea or run-off from the shore might be expected to be most significantly at air/water or solid/water interfaces and so the earliest indications of contamination are likely to be found in species that live in this vulnerable zone. For this reason the clam Tridacna maxima which is found in the intertidal region was chosen to be analyzed for PAH content. This clam occurs in adequate numbers along the entire length of the Great Barrier Reef and yields enough tissue to permit detection of PAH at very low concentrations. In addition during collection their shells close so that the chance of significant contamination during transport is very small. Clams were taken from a number of sites including isolated reefs such as John Brewer Reef, the research stations, Heron and Lizard Islands, and a tourist resort, Green Island. At all these sites sediments were analyzed for PAH and at Green Island, in addition, seawater was analyzed.

  17. Physiological and biochemical responses of three Veneridae clams exposed to salinity changes.

    PubMed

    Carregosa, Vanessa; Velez, Cátia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Given their global importance, coastal marine environments are a major focus of concern regarding the potential impacts of climate change, namely due to alterations in seawater salinity. It is known that environmental characteristics, such as salinity, affect immune and physiological parameters of bivalves. Nevertheless, scarce information is available concerning the biochemical alterations associated with salinity changes. For this reason, the present work aimed to evaluate the biochemical responses of three venerid clam species (Venerupis decussata, Venerupis corrugata, Venerupis philippinarum) submitted to salinity changes. The effects on the native (V. decussata and V. corrugata) and invasive (V. philippinarum) species collected from the same sampling site and submitted to the same salinity gradient (0 to 42g/L) were compared. The results obtained demonstrated that V. corrugata is the most sensitive species to salinity changes and V. decussata is the species that can tolerate a wider range of salinities. Furthermore, our work showed that clams under salinity associated stress can alter their biochemical mechanisms, such as increasing their antioxidant defenses, to cope with the higher oxidative stress resulting from hypo and hypersaline conditions. Among the physiological and biochemical parameters analyzed (glycogen and protein content; lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzymes activity; total, reduced and oxidized glutathione) Catalase (CAT) and especially superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed to be useful biomarkers to assess salinity impacts in clams.

  18. Mixing and bottom friction: parametrization and application to the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennis, A.-C.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Blanke, B.; Lepesqueur, J.

    2012-04-01

    Wave breaking has been observed to impact the bottom boundary layer in surf zones, with potential impacts on bottom friction. Observations in the inner surf zone have also shown a tendency to an underestimation of the wave-induced set-up when using usual model parameterizations. The present study investigates the possible impact of wave breaking on bottom friction and set-up using a recently proposed parameterization of the wave-induced turbulent kinetic energy in the vertical mixing parameterization of the wave-averaged flow. This parametrization proposed by Mellor (2002) allows us to take account the oscillations of the bottom boundary layer with the wave phases thanks to some additional turbulent source terms. First, the behavior of this parameterization, is investigated by comparing phase-resolving and phase-averaged solutions. The hydrodynamical model MARS (Lazure et Dumas, 2008) is used for this, using a modified k-epsilon model to take account the Mellor (2002) parametrization. It is shown that the phase averaged solution strongly overestimates the turbulent kinetic energy, which is similar to the situation of the air flow over waves (Miles 1996). The waves inhibits the turbulence and the wave-averaged parametrization is not able to reproduce correctly this phenomenom. Cases with wave breaking at the surface are simulated in order to study the influence of surface wave breaking on the bottom boundary layer. This parametrization is applied in the surf zone for two differents cases, one for a planar beach and one other for a barred beach with rip currents. The coupled model MARS-WAVEWATCH III is used for this (Bennis et al, 2011) and for a realistic planar beach, the mixing parameterization has only a limited impact on the bottom friction and the wave set-up, unless the bottom roughness is greatly enhanced in very shallow water, or for a spatially varying roughness. The use of the mixing parametrization requires an adjustement of the bottom roughness to fit

  19. Estimating Energy Dissipation Due to Wave Breaking in the Surf Zone Using Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, Roxanne J.

    Wave breaking is the largest forcing mechanism in the surf zone. Therefore, quantifying energy dissipation due to wave breaking is important for improving models that seek to predict nearshore circulation, wave-current interactions, air-sea gas exchange, erosion and accretion of sediment, and storm surge. Wave energy dissipation is difficult to measure with in situ instruments, and even the most reliable estimates are limited to point measurements. Using remote sensing technologies, specifically infrared (IR) imagery, the high spatial and temporal variability of wave breaking may be sampled. Duncan (1981) proposed a model (D81) for dissipation on a wave-by-wave basis, based on wave slope and roller length, the crest-perpendicular length of the aerated region of a breaking wave. The wave roller is composed of active foam, which, in thermal IR images, appears brighter than the surrounding water and the residual foam, the foam left behind in the wake of a breaking wave. Using IR imagery taken during the Surf Zone Optics 2010 experiment at Duck, NC, and exploiting the distinct signature of active foam, a retrieval algorithm was developed to identify and extract breaking wave roller length. Roller length was then used to estimate dissipation rate via the D81 formulation. The D81 dissipation rate estimates compare reasonably to in situ dissipation estimates at a point. When the D81 estimates are compared to the bulk energy flux into the surf zone, it is found that wave breaking dissipates approximately 25-36% of the incoming wave energy. The D81 dissipation rate estimates also agree closely with those from a dissipation parameterization proposed by Janssen and Battjes (2007) (JB07) and commonly applied within larger nearshore circulation models. The JB07 formulation, however, requires additional physical parameters (wave height and water depth) that are often sparsely sampled and are difficult to attain from remote sensing alone. The power of the D81 formulation lies in

  20. Magnetic White Dwarfs with Heavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, F.; Dufour, P.; Jordan, S.

    2017-03-01

    Using our newly developed model atmosphere code appropriate for magnetic white dwarfs with metal lines in the Paschen-Back regime, we study various magnetic white dwarfs and explore the effects of various parameters such as the field geometry and the convective efficiency.