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Sample records for dworshak reservoir final

  1. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Planning Phase II, Dworshak Reservoir, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, H. Jerome; Martin, Robert C.

    1989-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 directed that measures be implemented to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by development and operation of hydropower projects on the Columbia River System. This Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council, which in turn developed the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This program established a four-part process: wildlife mitigation status reports; wildlife impact assessments; wildlife protection, mitigation, and enhancement plans; and implementation of protection, mitigation, and enhancement projects. This mitigation plan for the Dworshak Reservoir Hydroelectric Facility was developed to fulfill requirements of Sections 1003(b)(2) and (3) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of wildlife protection, mitigation, and enhancement planning for Dworshak Reservoir included: quantify net impacts to target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation of Dworshak Dam and Reservoir; develop protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals and objectives for the target wildlife species; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement actions for the target wildlife species; and coordination of project activities. 46 refs., 4 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Planning Phase I, Dworshak Reservoir, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, H. Jerome

    1988-02-01

    Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, impacts to wildlife due to the development and operation of the US Army Corps of Engineers Dworshak Project have been examined. Using existing information, it has been determined that the project has resulted in the loss of 15,316 acres of elk habitat, 15,286 acres of white-tailed deer habitat, 16,986 acres of black bear habitat, 14,776 acres of ruffed grouse habitat, 13,616 acres of pileated woodpecker habitat, and 66 acres of yellow warbler habitat (scrub-shrub/red alder). Acreages of mallard, Canada goose, river otter, and beaver habitat could not be determined from existing information. The interagency work group has recommended that a HEP (Habitat Evaluation Procedure) be used to determine changes in the quantity and quality of target species habitat in the study area, due to the development and operation of Dworshak Reservoir. 60 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Dworshak Reservoir Kokanee Population Monitoring, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo; Stark, Eric

    2003-03-01

    Onsite testing of strobe lights was conducted to determine if they repelled kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from the turbine intakes at Dworshak Dam. We tested a set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min placed near the intake of a 90 mW turbine. A split-beam echo sounder was used to determine the effect of strobe light operation on fish density (thought to be mostly kokanee) in front of the turbine intakes. On five nights between December 2001 and January 2002, fish density averaged 110 fish/ha when no lights were flashing. Mean density dropped to 13 fish/ha when the strobe lights were turned on during five additional nights of sampling. This 88% decline in density was significant at the P = 0.009 level of significance based on a paired Student's t test. There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicate that a single set of nine lights may be sufficient to repel kokanee from a turbine intake during the night. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2001. Estimated abundance of kokanee has continued to increase since the spring of 1996 when high entrainment losses occurred. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,276,000 kokanee in Dworshak Reservoir in early July 2001. This included 2,069,000 age-0 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 16.4%), 801,000 age-1 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 17.8%), and 406,000 age-2 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 20.5%). Entrainment sampling was also conducted with split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of one continuous 24 h period per month. The highest entrainment rates occurred at night with lower discharges and shallower intake depths. Fish movement patterns suggested that they swam 'at will' in front of the intakes and may have chosen to move into the turbine intakes. Based on monthly hydroacoustic sampling in the forebay, we found that kokanee density was low in July and August during a period of high discharge

  4. Dworshak Reservoir Kokanee Population Monitoring: Project Progress Report, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Harryman, Bill

    2001-08-01

    We used split-beam hydroacoustics and trawling to monitor the kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka population in Dworshak Reservoir during 1999. Estimated abundance of kokanee has continued to increase since the high entrainment losses in the spring of 1996. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 1,545,000 kokanee and rainbow trout O. mykiss in Dworshak Reservoir during July 1999. This included 1,144,000 age-0 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 42%), 212,000 age-1 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15%), and 189,000 age-2 kokanee and stocked rainbow trout (90% CI {+-} 39%). Rainbow trout could not be distinguished from the age-2 kokanee in the echograms since they were of similar size. Age-0 kokanee ranged in length from 40 mm to 90 mm, age-1 from 193 mm to 212 mm, and age-2 kokanee from 219 mm to 336 mm. These sizes indicated kokanee are still growing well. Discharge of water from Dworshak Dam during 1999 did not stop the expansion of the kokanee population based on these results. Counts of spawning kokanee in four tributary streams exceeded 11,000 fish. This index also showed a marked increase from last year's 660 spawning kokanee or the 1997 total of 144 spawning kokanee.

  5. Resident Fish Planning: Dworshak Reservoir, Lake Roosevelt and Lake Pend Oreille.

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, Duane H.; Geist, David R.

    1994-01-01

    Research projects are presently being conducted to reduce the amount of uncertainty in how reservoir operations within the Columbia River federal power system affect resident fish. Many of these research projects are being conducted to better define operation strategies being proposed under the Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR). This project provides a basis for understanding the potential effects of different operating strategies being considered under the SOR in reservoir fisheries at Lake Roosevelt, Dworshak Reservoir, and Lake Pend Oreille. The methodological framework used here was adapted from the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP), a project framework used for evaluating supplementation strategies for anadromous fish. RASP attempts to diagnose the factors that limit production of fishes and outlines a process that can be followed to systematically reduce uncertainty while achieving the objective. In all three reservoirs concerns exist about protecting sensitive species, particularly bull trout and cutthroat trout. In all three reservoirs a need exists for additional baseline information to provide an adequate understanding of the populations of interest.

  6. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Statler, David P.

    1988-05-01

    Dworshak Dam and Reservoir is a Corps of Engineers facility located on the North Fork Clearwater River 3.2 km upstream from the Mainstem Clearwater confluence. Since initial filling in 1971, conversion of 87 km of river habitat to a 6644 hectare impoundment has had a profound influence on resident fisheries. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) entered into separate intergovernmental agreements with the Bonneville Power Administration in a cooperative effort to study these impacts. The kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka assessment is included in the IDFG agreement, and is not addressed in this report. This project pertains primarily to rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), and forage species. For the period November 1987 through February 1988, an estimated 4339 angler-hours were expended to catch 430 rainbow trout. An estimated 20 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, 4 smallmouth bass, and 4 suckers Catostomus spp. were also caught. Catch rates were generally poor through the period, at .091 fish per hour for all species combined (excluding kokanee). Shasta strain hatchery rainbow trout were dominant in the creel, comprising 53.9 percent of the catch, although this strain was last planted in the reservoir in June 1986. Bank anglers caught a higher percentage (93.5 percent) of the total catch of Shasta strain rainbows than Kamloops strain rainbows (33.3 percent). 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Statler, David P.

    1990-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) entered into separate intergovernmental agreements with the Bonneville Power Administration in a cooperative four-year effort to study impacts of Dworshak Dam operation on resident fisheries. This third annual report focuses on rainbow trout, smallmouth bass, and forage species. 22 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation: Kokanee Depth Distribution in Dworshak Reservoir and Implications Toward Minimizing Entrainment, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo; Elam, Steve

    1996-10-01

    The authors measured the day and night depth distribution of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi directly upstream of Dworshak Dam from October 1993 to December 1994 using split-beam hydroacoustics. At night most kokanee (70%) were distributed in a diffuse layer about 10 m thick. The depth of the layer varied with the season and ranged from 30 to 40 m deep during winter and from 15 to 25 m deep during summer. Nighttime depth of the kokanee layer during summer roughly corresponded to a zone where water temperatures ranged from 7 C to 12 C. Daytime kokanee distribution was much different with kokanee located in dense schools. Most kokanee (70%) were found in a 5--15 m thick layer during summer. Daytime depth distribution was also shallowest during fall and deepest during winter. Dworshak Dam has structures which can be used for selective water withdrawal and can function in depth ranges that will avoid the kokanee layer. Temperature constraints limit the use of selective withdrawal during the spring, summer, and fall, but in the winter, water is nearly isothermal and the full range of selector gate depths may be utilized. From October 1993 to February 1994, selector gates were positioned to withdraw water from above the kokanee layer. The discharge pattern also changed with more water being released during May and July, and less water being released during fall and winter. A combination of these two changes is thought to have increased kokanee densities to a record high of 69 adults/ha.

  9. Early Limnology of Dworshak Reservoir. Part 1. Limnology. Part 2. Impact of Log Leachates on Phytoplankton. Part 3. Fate of Phytoplankton and Zooplankton Dynamics. Part 4. Bacteriology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    forms were Bosmina and Ceriodaphnia (Table 18). Overall reservoir mean concentrations of zooplankton were 27,300/m3 in 1972, 18,500/m3 in 31973, and...RM 3 in Dworshak Reservoir, 1972-1974. Numbers at Date Peak (per m3) Genera July 19, 1972 9.96 x 104’ Bosmina Ceriodaphnia Oct. 3, 1972 1.49 x 104... Ceriodaphnia Daphn ia April 22, 1973 3.53 x 104 Copepods Bosm ina May 24, 1973 6.00 x 14Daphnia Copepods July 12, 1973 4.22 x 104 Copepods Daphn ia Aug

  10. Dworshak Dam Impact Assessment and Fishery Investigation and Trout, Bass and Forage Species: Combined Project Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo; Statler, David P.; Elam, Steve

    1992-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) entered into separate intergovernmental agreements with the Bonneville Power Administration in a cooperative four-year effort to study impacts of Dworshak Dam operation on resident fisheries. The NPT Department of Fisheries Management focused on rainbow trout, smallmouth bass and forage fish. The IDFG's segment of the project was to document kokanee population dynamics, relate it to the changing nutrient status of the reservoir, evaluate kokanee losses through Dworshak Dam, and make kokanee management recommendations. This final report includes findings for 1990 and 1991 and relates these data to information previously presented in annual reports for 1987, 1988 and 1989.

  11. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  12. Dworshak Dam Impact Assessment and Fishery Investigation, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mauser, Gregg; Cannamela, David; Downing, Richard

    1990-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded two 4-year research projects to develop recommendations for improving the sport fishery on Dworshak Reservoir. Research began during 1987 as a cooperative effort between the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The Nez Perce Tribe examined smallmouth bass and rainbow trout fisheries. The IDFG evaluated kokanee population dynamics and documented changes in reservoir productivity. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Dworshak Dam Impact (Impacts) Assessment and Fishery Investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Mauser, Gregg

    1989-05-01

    Kokanee abundance, estimated from July trawl data, was 1.2 million fish in 1988, including 553,000 fry, 501,000 yearlings and 156,000 subadults. Spawning trend data indicated escapement was up threefold compared to 1987, despite a sport harvest of 207,000 kokanee averaging 258 mm caught at a rate of 1.5 fish per hour. An estimated 40,000 kokanee were counted during the September peak of spawning in five tributaries of the reservoir. Size of adult fish was below average at 293 mm. Zooplankton densities averaged 10.3 organisms/L in 1988 and ranged from 0.3 organisms/L during April at the Little North Fork station to 26.2 organisms/L in November at the Elk Creek station. Densities were similar to values obtained prior to the development of the primary kokanee fishery; however, cladocerans made up only 34.9% of the zooplankton sampled. Daphnia and Cyclops were the most important food items; Daphnia became the prime food organism as its seasonal abundance increased. Concentrations of ortho-phosphate and nitrate, lower than in the 1970s, indicated Dworshak may have become more oligotrophic. 13 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Bradley B.

    1984-07-01

    The first six months of the fishery investigations in Libby Reservoir were aimed at developing suitable methodology for sampling physical-chemical limnology, fish food availability, fish food habits, and seasonal distribution and abundance of fish populations. Appropriate methods have been developed for all aspects with minor modification of original proposed methodologies. Purse seining has yet to be tested. Physical-chemical limnologic sampling could be reduced or subcontracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to allow for more intensive sampling of fish food or fish distribution portions of the investigation. Final sample design will be determined during 1983-84. Future directions of the study revolve around two central issues, the potential for flexibility in reservoir operation and determination of how reservoir operation affects fish populations. Simulated maximum drawdown levels during a 40-year period were controlled by power in seven out of eight years. Drawdowns were generally within 10 feet of the flood control rule curve, however. There may be more flexibility with regards to timing of refill and evacuation. This aspect needs to be evaluated further. Production and availability of fish food, suitability of reservoir habitat, and accessibility of off-reservoir spawning and rearing habitat were identified as components of fish ecology which reservoir operation could potentially impact. Two models based on trophic dynamics and habitat suitabilities were suggested as a framework for exploring the relationship of reservoir operation on the fish community.

  15. Dworshak Kokanee Population and Engrainment Assessment : 2006 Annual Report, March 1, 2006 - February 28, 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Eric J.

    2008-12-18

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. Strobe light tests were conducted on four nights from April 24-27, 2006, in front of the middle reservoir outlet (RO) 2. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On two nights, April 25 and 27, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near RO 2 averaged 12.4 fish and densities averaged 31.0 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during the nights of April 24 and 26, mean counts dropped to 4.7 fish and densities dropped to 0.5 fish/ha. The decline in counts (62%) and densities (99%) was statistically significant (p = 0.009 and 0.002, respectively). Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of a discharging reservoir outlet, which would be sufficient to improve sport fish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2006. Estimated abundance of kokanee increased from the 2005 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated approximately 5,815,000 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) in Dworshak Reservoir in August 2006. This included 2,183,000 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 24.2%), 1,509,000 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 29.0%), and 2,124,000 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) kokanee. This resulted in a density of age-2 kokanee above the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site, split-beam hydroacoustics from May through September for a continuous 24 h period when dam operations permitted. The highest fish detection rates from entrainment assessments were found during dawn periods, unlike previous year's results, which

  16. Reservoir simulation studies: Wairakei Geothermal Field, New Zealand. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, J.W.; Rice, L.F.; Garg, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Numerical reservoir simulation techniques were used to perform a history-match of the Wairakei geothermal system in New Zealand. First, a one-dimensional (vertical) model was chosen; realistic stratigraphy was incorporated and the known production history was imposed. The effects of surface and deep recharge were included. Good matches were obtained, both for the reservoir pressure decline history and changes in average discharge enthalpy with time. Next, multidimensional effects were incorporated by treating with a two-dimensional vertical section. Again, good history matches were obtained, although computed late-time discharge enthalpies were slightly high. It is believed that this disparity arises from inherently three-dimensional effects. Predictive calculations using the two-dimensional model suggest that continued future production will cause little additional reservoir pressure drop, but that thermal degradation will occur. Finally, ground subsidence data at Wairakei was examined. It was concluded that traditional elastic pore-collapse models based on classical soil-mechanics concepts are inadequate to explain the observed surface deformation. It is speculated that the measured subsidence may be due to structural effects such as aseismic slippage of a buried reservoir boundary fault.

  17. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  18. Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fishery Investigation: Annual Report FY 1987.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo

    1988-05-01

    A total of 7,071 kokanee spawners were counted during the peak of the spawning run in five tributaries to Dworshak Reservoir during 1987. Both size and numbers of fish were fairly average. During years when numbers of fish were large, total length of age 3+ kokanee was as low as 25 cm. Conversely, small numbers of kokanee resulted in an average length of 37 cm. Zooplankton densities during November of 1987 averaged 17.92 organisms/L, but decreased to 3.96 organism/L during December. These densities are similar to values obtained during 1972, although the percentage of cladocerans in the samples may have declined. Kokanee preferred Daphnia over 1 mm in length. Concentrations of orthophosphate and nitrate appear to have declined since the reservoir filled. Kokanee catch rates for boat anglers changed from 1.4 fish/h during November to 2.7 fish/h during December to 0.0 fish/h during January. This declining trend may have been temperature related. Harvest for these 3 months was an estimated 1,612 kokanee. 10 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Eric J.

    2008-11-06

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. We tested one set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min in front of turbine 3 while operating at higher discharges than previously tested. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On five nights between January 31 and February 28, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near turbine 3 averaged eight fish and densities averaged 91 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during five adjacent nights during the same period, mean counts dropped to four fish and densities dropped to 35 fish/ha. The decline in counts (49%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.182), but decline in densities (62%) was significant (p = 0.049). There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of turbines operating at higher discharges, which would be sufficient to improve sportfish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2005. Estimated abundance of kokanee decreased from the 2004 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,011,626 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15.2%) in Dworshak Reservoir, July 2005. This included 2,135,986 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 15.9%), 769,175 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 16.0%), and 107,465 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 15.2%). Poor survival of kokanee from age-1 to age-2 continued to keep age-2 densities below the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of two days

  20. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a ``heterogeneity matrix`` based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  1. New Heat Flow Models in Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, John

    2001-03-31

    This study developed new analytical models for predicting the temperature distribution within a geothermal reservoir following reinjection of water having a temperature different from that of the reservoir. The study consisted of two parts: developing new analytical models for the heat conduction rate into multi-dimensional, parallelepiped matrix blocks and developing new analytical models for the advance of the thermal front through the geothermal reservoir. In the first part of the study, a number of semi-empirical models for the multi-dimensional heat conduction were developed to overcome the limitations to the exact solutions. The exact solution based on a similarity solution to the heat diffusion equation is the best model for the early-time period, but fails when thermal conduction fronts from opposing sides of the matrix block merge. The exact solution based on an infinite series solution was found not to be useful because it required tens of thousands of terms to be include d for accuracy. The best overall model for the entire conduction time was a semi-empirical model based on an exponential conduction rate. In the second part of the study, the early-time period exact solution based on similarity methods and the semi-empirical exponential model were used to develop new analytical models for the location of the thermal front within the reservoir during injection. These equations were based on an energy balance on the water in the fractured network. These convective models allowed for both dual and triple porosity reservoirs, i.e., one or two independent matrix domains. A method for incorporating measured fracture spacing distributions into these convective models was developed. It was found that there were only minor differences in the predicted areal extent of the heated zone between the dual and triple porosity models. Because of its simplicity, the dual porosity model is recommended. These new models can be used for preliminary reservoir studies

  2. Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: FY1 Final Report

    DOE Data Explorer

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  3. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-19

    This DOE-funded research into seismic detection of natural fractures is one of six projects within the DOE`s Detection and Analysis of Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs Program, a multidisciplinary research initiative to develop technology for prediction, detection, and mapping of naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The demonstration of successful seismic techniques to locate subsurface zones of high fracture density and to guide drilling orientation for enhanced fracture permeability will enable better returns on investments in the development of the vast gas reserves held in tight formations beneath the Rocky Mountains. The seismic techniques used in this project were designed to capture the azimuthal anisotropy within the seismic response. This seismic anisotropy is the result of the symmetry in the rock fabric created by aligned fractures and/or unequal horizontal stresses. These results may be compared and related to other lines of evidence to provide cross-validation. The authors undertook investigations along the following lines: Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-wave seismic data; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in a nine-component (P- and S-sources, three-component receivers) vertical seismic profile; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-to-S converted wave seismic data (P-wave source, three-component receivers); and Description of geological and reservoir-engineering data that corroborate the anisotropy: natural fractures observed at the target level and at the surface, estimation of the maximum horizontal stress in situ, and examination of the flow characteristics of the reservoir.

  4. Geothermal reservoir well stimulation program. Final program summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Eight field experiments and the associated theoretical and laboratory work performed to develop the stimulation technology are described. A discussion of the pre-stimulation and post-stimulation data and their evaluation is provided for each experiment. Overall results have shown that stimulation is viable where adequate reservoirs are penetrated by wells encountering formation damage or locally tight formation zones. Seven of the eight stimulation experiments were at least technically successful in stimulating the wells. The two fracture treatments in East Mesa 58-30 more than doubled the producing rate of the previously marginal producer. The two fracture treatments at Raft River and the two at Baca were all successful in obtaining significant production from previously nonproductive intervals. However, these treatments failed to establish commercial production due to deficiencies in either fluid temperature or reservoir transmissivity. The Beowawe chemical stimulation treatment appears to have significantly improved the well's injectivity, but production data were not obtained because of well mechanical problems. The acid etching treatment in the well at the Geysers did not have any material effect on producing rate. Evaluations of the field experiments to date have suggested improvements in treatment design and treatment interval selection which offer substantial encouragement for future stimulation work.

  5. Interdisciplinary study of reservoir compartments and heterogeneity. Final report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, C.

    1998-01-01

    A case study approach using Terry Sandstone production from the Hambert-Aristocrat Field, Weld County, Colorado was used to document the process of integration. One specific project goal is to demonstrate how a multidisciplinary approach can be used to detect reservoir compartmentalization and improve reserve estimates. The final project goal is to derive a general strategy for integration for independent operators. Teamwork is the norm for the petroleum industry where teams of geologists, geophysicists, and petroleum engineers work together to improve profits through a better understanding of reservoir size, compartmentalization, and orientation as well as reservoir flow characteristics. In this manner, integration of data narrows the uncertainty in reserve estimates and enhances reservoir management decisions. The process of integration has proven to be iterative. Integration has helped identify reservoir compartmentalization and reduce the uncertainty in the reserve estimates. This research report documents specific examples of integration and the economic benefits of integration.

  6. Innovative techniques for the description of reservoir heterogeneity using tracers. Final report, October 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Delshad, M.; Ferreira, L.; Gupta, A.; Maroongroge, V.

    1994-11-01

    This is the final report of a three year research project on the use of tracers for reservoir characterization. The objective of this research was to develop advanced, innovative techniques for the description of reservoir characteristics using both single-well backflow and interwell tracer tests. (1) The authors implemented and validated tracer modeling features in a compositional simulator (UTCOMP). (2) They developed and applied a new single well tracer test for estimating reservoir heterogeneity. (3) They developed and applied a new single well tracer test for estimating reservoir wettability in-situ. (4) They developed a new, simple and efficient method to analyze two well tracer tests based upon type curve matching and illustrated its use with actual field tracer data. (5) They developed a new method for deriving an integrated reservoir description based upon combinatorial optimization schemes. (6) They developed a new, interwell tracer test for reservoir heterogeneity called vertical tracer profiling (VTP) and demonstrated its advantages over conventional interwell tracer testing. (7) They developed a simple and easy analytical method to estimate swept pore volume from interwell tracer data and showed both the theoretical basis for this method and its practical utility. (8) They made numerous enhancements to our compositional reservoir simulator such as including the full permeability tensor, adding faster solvers, improving its speed and robustness and making it easier to use (better I/0) for tracer simulation problems. (9) They applied the enhanced version of UTCOMP to the analysis of interwell tracer data using perfluorocarbons at Elks Hill Naval Petroleum Reserve. All of these accomplishments taken together have significantly improved the state of reservoir tracer technology and have demonstrated that it is a far more powerful and useful tool for quantitative reservoir characterization than previously realized or practiced by the industry.

  7. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-04-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  8. Reservoir heterogeneity in carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-06-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  9. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity; Final report, November 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope comprises one of the Nation`s and the world`s most prolific oil province. Original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at nearly 70 BBL (Kamath and Sharma, 1986). Generalized reservoir descriptions have been completed by the University of Alaska`s Petroleum Development Laboratory over North Slope`s major fields. These fields include West Sak (20 BBL OOIP), Ugnu (15 BBL OOIP), Prudhoe Bay (23 BBL OOIP), Kuparuk (5.5 BBL OOIP), Milne Point (3 BBL OOIP), and Endicott (1 BBL OOIP). Reservoir description has included the acquisition of open hole log data from the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (AOGCC), computerized well log analysis using state-of-the-art computers, and integration of geologic and logging data. The studies pertaining to fluid characterization described in this report include: experimental study of asphaltene precipitation for enriched gases, CO{sup 2} and West Sak crude system, modeling of asphaltene equilibria including homogeneous as well as polydispersed thermodynamic models, effect of asphaltene deposition on rock-fluid properties, fluid properties of some Alaskan north slope reservoirs. Finally, the last chapter summarizes the reservoir heterogeneity classification system for TORIS and TORIS database.

  10. Geothermal reservoir assessment based on slim hole drilling. Volume 1, Analytical Method: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.J.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Observation Hole (SOH) program was supplied by the State of Hawaii to drill six, 4,000 foot scientific observation holes on Maui and the Big Island of Hawaii to confirm and stimulate geothermal, resource development in Hawaii. After a lengthy permitting process, three SOHs, totaling 18,890 feet of mostly core drilling were finally drilled along the Kilauea East Rift Zone (KERZ) in the Puna district on the Big Island. The SOH program was highly successful in meeting the highly restrictive permitting conditions imposed on the program, and in developing slim hole drilling techniques, establishing subsurface geological conditions, and initiating an assessment and characterization of the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii - even though permitting specifically prohibited pumping or flowing the holes to obtain data of subsurface fluid conditions. The first hole, SOH-4, reached a depth of 2,000 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 306.1 C, and established subsurface thermal continuity along the KERZ between the HGP-A and the True/Mid-Pacific Geothermal Venture wells. Although evidence of fossil reservoir conditions were encountered, no zones with obvious reservoir potential were found. The second hole SOH-1, was drilled to a depth of 1,684 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 206.1 C, effectively doubled the size of the Hawaii Geothermal Project -- Abbott/Puna Geothermal Venture (HGP-A/PGV) proven/probable reservoir, and defined the northern limit of the HGP-A/PGV reservoir. The final hole, SOH-2, was drilled to a depth of 2,073 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 350.5 C, and has sufficient indicated permeability to be designated as a potential ''discovery.''

  11. Research program on fractured petroleum reservoirs. Final report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, A.

    1997-05-01

    Multiphase flow in fractured porous media is a complex problem. While the study of single phase flow in a fractured or a layered medium can be pursued by some kind of averaging process, there is no meaning to averaging two-phase flow when capillarity is an active force. For a two-layer system comprised of high and low permeable layers, the performance of gas-oil gravity can be less efficient than the homogeneous low permeable medium. On the other hand, heterogeneity may enhance water imbibition due to capillarity. Due to the above and various other complexities, current tools for predicting the performance of fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs are not reliable. Based on the research work carried out at the Reservoir Engineering Research Institute, and some other Institutions, a good deal of progress has been made in recent years. But still we are a long way from good predictive reservoir models. In this final report, we summarize some of our achievements in the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured media. Since some of the features of two-phase flow in fractured and layered many are similar due to the capillary forces, the work includes progress in both types of media. There are some basic issues of flow in both fractured and unfractured media that are currently unresolved. These issues include: (1) new phase formation such as the formation of liquid phase in gas condensate reservoirs, and gas phase formation in solution gas drive process and (2) composition variation due to thermal convection and diffusion processes. In the following, a brief summary of our findings in the last three years during the course of the project is presented.

  12. Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Bruce

    1984-10-01

    This report reviews activities of the Hungry Horse Reservoir fisheries study from May 16-October 14, 1983. The first six months of the project were concerned with testing of equipment and developing methodologies for sampling physical-chemical limnology, fish food availability, fish food habits, seasonal distribution and abundance of fish, migration patterns of westslope cutthroat trout and habitat quality in tributary streams. Suitable methods have been developed for most aspects of the study, but problems remain with determining the vertical distribution of fish. Catch rates of fish in vertical nets were insufficient to determine depth distribution during the fall. If catches remain low during the spring and summer of 1984, experimental netting will be conducted using gang sets of standard gill nets. Purse seining techniques also need to be refined in the spring of 1984, Sample design should be completed in 1984. A major activity for the report period was preparation of a prospectus which reviewed: (1) environmental factors limiting gamefish production; (2) flexibility in reservoir operation; (3) effects of reservoir operation on fish populations and (4) model development. Production of westslope cutthroat trout may be limited by spawning and rearing habitat in tributary streams, reservoir habitat suitability, predation during the first year of reservoir residence and fish food availability. Reservoir operation affects fish production by altering fish habitat and food production through changes in reservoir morphometrics such as surface area, volume, littoral area and shoreline length. The instability in the fish habitat caused by reservoir operation may produce an environment which is suitable for fish which can utilize several habitat types and feed upon a wide variety of food organisms. Analysis of factors governing reservoir operation indicated that some flexibility exists in Hungry Horse operation. Changes in operation to benefit gamefish populations would

  13. The influence of Dworshak Dam on epilithic community metabolism in the Clearwater River, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, M.D.; Brusven, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Epilithic community metabolism was determined on a seasonal basis over two years in nonregulated and regulated reaches of the Clearwater River in northern Idaho, U.S.A. Metabolism was estimated using three, 12-liter recirculating chambers and the dissolved oxygen method, with parameters expressed as g O2 m−2 d−1. In the nonregulated reach above the reservoir, gross community productivity (GCP) ranged from 0.8 to 3.2, community respiration (CR24) from 0.3 to 1.2, and production/respiration (P/R) ratios from 1.2 to 3.3. Epilithic metabolism in the regulated reach immediately below the dam increased sharply; GCP ranged from 4.2 to 25.5, CR24 from 1.9 to 9.7, and P/R ratios from 1.4 to 5.7. Increased primary production and respiration in the regulated reach was a result of extensive growth of an aquatic moss (Fontanalis neo-mexicanus). The influence of the dam on epilithic community metabolism was mitigated 2.5 km downstream of the dam due to the regulated North Fork of the Clearwater River (NFCR) merging with the larger, nonregulated Clearwater River. While the regulated Clearwater River below the confluence was somewhat affected by the regulated NFCR flows upstream, metabolism was similar to that found above the reservoir (GCP = 1.2 – 2.6, CR24 = 0.6 – 1.3, and P/R = 1.4 – 2.2). This study demonstrates that while Dworshak Dam has altered both primary production and respiration directly below the dam, the placement of the dam only 2.5 km upstream from a nonregulated reach greatly mitigates its effects on stream metabolism downstream.

  14. The 2006 Project Progress Report for 1987-099-00 Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment (contract # 26850) is attached to project 2007-003-00, contract #31598. [POINTER

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-18

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. Strobe light tests were conducted on four nights from April 24-27, 2006, in front of the middle reservoir outlet (RO) 2. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On two nights, April 25 and 27, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near RO 2 averaged 12.4 fish and densities averaged 31.0 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during the nights of April 24 and 26, mean counts dropped to 4.7 fish and densities dropped to 0.5 fish/ha. The decline in counts (62%) and densities (99%) was statistically significant (p = 0.009 and 0.002, respectively). Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of a discharging reservoir outlet, which would be sufficient to improve sport fish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2006. Estimated abundance of kokanee increased from the 2005 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated approximately 5,815,000 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) in Dworshak Reservoir in August 2006. This included 2,183,000 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 24.2%), 1,509,000 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 29.0%), and 2,124,000 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) kokanee. This resulted in a density of age-2 kokanee above the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site, split-beam hydroacoustics from May through September for a continuous 24 h period when dam operations permitted. The highest fish detection rates from entrainment assessments were found during dawn periods, unlike previous year's results, which

  15. Fractured reservoir discrete feature network technologies. Final report, March 7, 1996 to September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Dershowitz, William S.; Einstein, Herbert H.; LaPoint, Paul R.; Eiben, Thorsten; Wadleigh, Eugene; Ivanova, Violeta

    1998-12-01

    This report summarizes research conducted for the Fractured Reservoir Discrete Feature Network Technologies Project. The five areas studied are development of hierarchical fracture models; fractured reservoir compartmentalization, block size, and tributary volume analysis; development and demonstration of fractured reservoir discrete feature data analysis tools; development of tools for data integration and reservoir simulation through application of discrete feature network technologies for tertiary oil production; quantitative evaluation of the economic value of this analysis approach.

  16. Dworshak Reservoir Investigations: Trout, Bass and Forage Species, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Statler, David P.

    1989-07-01

    For the period March 1988 through February 1989, an estimated 154,558 angler-hours were expended to catch 20,037 rainbow trout, 3,933 smallmouth bass, and 14 bull trout. Estimated catch of other species, including cutthroat trout, whitefish, suckers, and squawfish totalled 84. Subcatchable rainbow trout (135 to 185mm) caught and released by boat anglers comprised 53% (12,770) of the total catch. An estimated 88.6% of the smallmouth bass caught were under the minimum legal size limit of 305mm and were released. Estimated harvest of smallmouth bass was 450. The highest monthly catch rate documented for all species excluding kokanee was 1.81 fish per hour during October. Severe weather conditions during February reduced effort and no fish were documented in the creel. Cumulative catch rates through the survey period for rainbow trout and smallmouth bass were .13 and .02, respectively. The lowest monthly catch rates generally occurred when fishing pressure was the highest, with fishing effort targeting on kokanee during the May through July high use periods. The Arlee strain rainbow trout was somewhat more vulnerable to boat anglers than the Shasta strain during the early post-release period. 20 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Cultural Resource Investigation of the Dworshak Reservoir Project, North Fork Clearwater River, Northern Idaho.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    to Lapwai, the Lapwai group, the Potlatch and Cottonwood creeks group, and the bands from Ahsahka upstream, including the groups at Kamiah and...location of a trade depot for a steamship service which was to connect the railhead of the Clearwater River at Potlatch Creek, with points on the upper...Company, formed in 1900, and the Potlatch Timber Company soon controlled much of the 23 Fig. 6. View of Dent homestead, ca. 1905, compass direction not

  18. Evaluation of Planning for Fish and Wildlife, Dworshak Reservoir Project, Idaho.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    Walls Walla District, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walls, Washington. February 12, 1973. 43. Greenley , Joseph C. 1973. Letter from Director...Washington. March 9, 1973. 44. Greenley , Joseph C. 1973. Letter from Director Idaho Department of Fish and Game to District Manager, Bureau of Land...Sport Fisheries and Wildlife for General Accounting Office. August, 1973. 47. Greenley , Joseph C. 1973. Letter from Director, Idaho Department of Fish and

  19. Kokanee Impacts Assessment and Monitoring of Lake Pend Oreille and Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredericks, James P.; Elam, Steve; Maiolie, Melo A.

    1995-06-01

    In an effort to recover the declining kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi population in Lake Pend Oreille, a study was proposed to evaluate the benefits of a higher winter elevation, thus providing more spawning gravel for kokanee. This project was designed to collect and compile baseline information on the kokanee population and potential spawning gravel in Lake Pend Oreille that can be used to help evaluate the effectiveness of future changes in lake level management. We estimated the area of suitable quality spawning gravel at the current winter elevation (625.1 m) and at the proposed winter elevation (626.7 m). Gravels beneath the current winter elevation were generally characterized by a high percentage of fine sediments and a high degree of embeddedness. Of the total gravel available below the proposed elevation of 626.7 m, only 15% was available at current winter elevations. Kokanee population estimates were made with a midwater trawl and hydroacoustic surveys in August and September. September population estimates were 6,760,000 age O, 380,000 age 1 +, 700,000 age 2 +, 990,000 age 3 +, 760,000 age 4 +, and 70,000 age 5 + kokanee. Hydroacoustic surveys run alongside the trawl indicated that hydroacoustics can effectively estimate abundance of kokanee, with the exception of fry, which are too small to be completely distinguishable from opossum shrimp Mysis relicta. Historic estimates of wild kokanee fry indicate that winter elevations higher than 625 m and a stable elevation throughout the winter are positively correlated with kokanee fry abundance and survival.

  20. Cesium reservoir and interconnective components. Final test report: TFE Verification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir.

  1. Using microstructure observations to quantify fracture properties and improve reservoir simulations. Final report, September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Laubach, S.E.; Marrett, R.; Rossen, W.; Olson, J.; Lake, L.; Ortega, O.; Gu, Y.; Reed, R.

    1999-01-01

    The research for this project provides new technology to understand and successfully characterize, predict, and simulate reservoir-scale fractures. Such fractures have worldwide importance because of their influence on successful extraction of resources. The scope of this project includes creation and testing of new methods to measure, interpret, and simulate reservoir fractures that overcome the challenge of inadequate sampling. The key to these methods is the use of microstructures as guides to the attributes of the large fractures that control reservoir behavior. One accomplishment of the project research is a demonstration that these microstructures can be reliably and inexpensively sampled. Specific goals of this project were to: create and test new methods of measuring attributes of reservoir-scale fractures, particularly as fluid conduits, and test the methods on samples from reservoirs; extrapolate structural attributes to the reservoir scale through rigorous mathematical techniques and help build accurate and useful 3-D models of the interwell region; and design new ways to incorporate geological and geophysical information into reservoir simulation and verify the accuracy by comparison with production data. New analytical methods developed in the project are leading to a more realistic characterization of fractured reservoir rocks. Testing diagnostic and predictive approaches was an integral part of the research, and several tests were successfully completed.

  2. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations : Final Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Voeller, Amy C.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that will predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review Program. This study worked in conjunction with Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Project which investigated the effectiveness of two kokanee salmon hatcheries. This report summarized the data collected from Lake Roosevelt from 1993 and includes limnological, reservoir operation, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, experimental trawling, and net-pen rainbow trout tagging data. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model include quantification of impacts to zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times.

  3. Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

    1995-05-01

    Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

  4. Characterization of facies and permeability patterns in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.; Lucia, F.J.; Senger, R.K.; Fogg, G.E.; Nance, H.S.; Hovorka, S.D.

    1993-07-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop methods for better describing the three-dimensional geometry of carbonate reservoir flow units as related to conventional or enhanced recovery of oil. San Andres and Grayburg reservoirs were selected for study because of the 13 Bbbl of remaining mobile oil and 17 Bbbl of residual oil in these reservoirs. The key data base is provided by detailed characterization of geologic facies and rock permeability in reservior-scale outcrops of the Permian San Andres Formation in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico. Emphasis is placed on developing an outcrop analog for San Andres strata that can be used as (1) a guide to interpreting the regional and local geologic framework of the subsurface reservoirs (2) a data source illustrating the scales and patterns of variability of rock-fabric facies and petrophysical properties, particularly in lateral dimension, and on scales that cannot be studied during subsurface reservoir characterization. The research approach taken to achieve these objectives utilizes the integration of geologic description, geostatistical techniques, and reservoir flow simulation experiments. Results from this research show that the spatial distribution of facies relative to the waterflood direction can significantly affect how the reservoir produces. Bypassing of unswept oil occurs due to cross flow of injected water from high permeability zones into lower permeability zones were high permeability zones terminate. An area of unswept oil develops because of the slower advance of the water-injection front in the lower permeability zones. When the injection pattern is reversed, the cross-flow effect changes due to the different arrangements of rock-fabric flow units relative to the flow of injected water, and the sweep efficiency is significantly different. Flow across low-permeability mudstones occurs showing that these layers do not necessarily represent flow barriers.

  5. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  6. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in Geothermal Reservoirs: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell A. Plummer; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson; Laurence C. Hull; George D. Redden

    2011-07-01

    The injection of cold fluids into engineered geothermal system (EGS) and conventional geothermal reservoirs may be done to help extract heat from the subsurface or to maintain pressures within the reservoir (e.g., Rose et al., 2001). As these injected fluids move along fractures, they acquire heat from the rock matrix and remove it from the reservoir as they are extracted to the surface. A consequence of such injection is the migration of a cold-fluid front through the reservoir (Figure 1) that could eventually reach the production well and result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). Efficient operation of an EGS as well as conventional geothermal systems involving cold-fluid injection requires accurate and timely information about thermal depletion of the reservoir in response to operation. In particular, accurate predictions of the time to thermal breakthrough and subsequent rate of thermal drawdown are necessary for reservoir management, design of fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting of economic return. A potential method for estimating migration of a cold front between an injection well and a production well is through application of reactive tracer tests, using chemical whose rate of degradation is dependent on the reservoir temperature between the two wells (e.g., Robinson 1985). With repeated tests, the rate of migration of the thermal front can be determined, and the time to thermal breakthrough calculated. While the basic theory behind the concept of thermal tracers has been understood for some time, effective application of the method has yet to be demonstrated. This report describes results of a study that used several methods to investigate application of reactive tracers to monitoring the thermal evolution of a geothermal reservoir. These methods included (1) mathematical investigation of the sensitivity of known and hypothetical reactive tracers, (2) laboratory testing of novel

  7. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management: Phase 2. Final report, June 1, 1995--March 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Gas storage operators are facing increased and more complex responsibilities for managing storage operations under Order 636 which requires unbundling of storage from other pipeline services. Low cost methods that improve the accuracy of inventory verification are needed to optimally manage this stored natural gas. Migration of injected gas out of the storage reservoir has not been well documented by industry. The first portion of this study addressed the scope of unaccounted for gas which may have been due to migration. The volume range was estimated from available databases and reported on an aggregate basis. Information on working gas, base gas, operating capacity, injection and withdrawal volumes, current and non-current revenues, gas losses, storage field demographics and reservoir types is contained among the FERC Form 2, EIA Form 191, AGA and FERC Jurisdictional databases. The key elements of this study show that gas migration can result if reservoir limits have not been properly identified, gas migration can occur in formation with extremely low permeability (0.001 md), horizontal wellbores can reduce gas migration losses and over-pressuring (unintentionally) storage reservoirs by reinjecting working gas over a shorter time period may increase gas migration effects.

  8. Dispersion measurement as a method of quantifying geologic characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Menzie, D.E.

    1995-05-01

    The main objective of this research project is to investigate dispersion as a method of quantifying geological characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity in order to enhance crude oil recovery. The dispersion of flow of a reservoir rock (dispersion coefficient and dispersivity) was identified as one of the physical properties of a reservoir rock by measuring the mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. A rock was 100% saturated with a resident fluid and displaced by a miscible fluid of equal viscosity and equal density. Some specific experiments were performed with unequal densities. Produced fluid was analyzed by refractometer, nuclear reaction, electrical conductivity and X-ray scan. Several physical and flow characteristics were measured on the sand rock sample in order to establish correlations with the measured dispersion property. Absolute permeability, effective porosity, relative permeability, capillary pressure, the heterogeneity factor and electrical conductivity were used to better understand the flow system. Linear, transverse, 2-D and 3-D dispersions were measured and used to characterize the rock heterogeneity of the flow system. A new system of measuring dispersion was developed using a gas displacing gas system in a porous medium. An attempt was also made to determine the dispersion property of an actual reservoir from present day well log data on a producing well. 275 refs., 102 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of release improvement techniques for J. Percy Priest reservoir. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.E.

    1988-08-01

    The J. Percy Priest Water Reservoir Project has experienced problems with the water quality of hydropower releases. During the annual stratification season (approximately May to November), the hypolimnion becomes devoid of oxygen creating a chemically reduced environment in which iron, manganese, and hydrogen sulfide become soluble. Upon hydropower generation, the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide creates a 'rotten egg' smell downstream. The methodology selected for improving the quality of the release was to install a localized mixing system in the reservoir in front of the hydropower intakes. The purpose of this report is to document results of field tests and the validity of the original design formulas (Holland 1984), and to better determine the number and location of pumps required to meet the desired release DO of 5.0 mg/1.

  10. Eutrophication and watershed study of Stoneville reservoir for the town of Auburn, Massachusetts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Outlines point-source pollution from Leicester liquid-waste disposal area that is degrading water-quality in Stoneville Reservoir, MA. Turbidity is the major water quality problem and is due to iron from a liquid waste site and landfill. Recommends settling pond to filter iron and manganese. The report was prepared in partial fulfillment of the requirements of an EPA Clean Lakes Program grant.

  11. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Final report, September 25, 1992--July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1997-06-01

    The objectives of the research program were to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems--KUSP1 systems that contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethyl phthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to supercritical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  12. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.

    1998-12-01

    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  13. Minimum Pool and Bull Trout Prey Base Investigations at Beulah Reservoir - Final Report for 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    Beulah Reservoir in southeastern Oregon provides irrigation water to nearby farms and supports an adfluvial population of threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Summer drawdowns in the reservoir could affect forage fish production and overwintering bull trout. To assess the impacts of drawdown, we sampled fish, invertebrates, and water-quality variables seasonally during 2006-08. In 2006, the summer drawdown was about 68 percent of full pool, which was less than a typical drawdown of 85 percent. We detected few changes in pelagic invertebrate densities, and catch rates, abundance, and sizes of fish when comparing values from spring to values from fall. We did note that densities of benthic insects in areas that were dewatered annually were lower than those from areas that were not dewatered annually. In 2007, the drawdown was 100 percent (to run-of-river level) and resulted in decreases in abundance of invertebrates as much as 96 percent, decreases in catch rates of fish as much as 80 percent, decreases in abundance of redside shiners (Richardsonius balteatus) and northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) as much as 93 percent, and decreased numbers of small fish in catches. In the fall 2007, we estimated the total biomass of forage fish to be 76 kilograms, or about one-quarter of total biomass of forage fish in 2006. Bioenergetics modeling suggested that ample forage for about 1,000 bull trout would exist after a moderate drawdown, but that forage remaining after a complete dewatering would not be sufficient for a population one-fifth the size. Our results indicate that drawdowns in Beulah Reservoir affect the aquatic community and perhaps the health and well-being of bull trout. The severity of effects depends on the extent of drawdown, population size of bull trout, and perhaps other factors.

  14. Reservoir characterization by cross-hole seismic imaging. Final report, September 15, 1989--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Turpening, R.M.; Matarese, J.R.; Toksoez, M.N.

    1995-07-01

    Better characterization of reservoirs requires better images of those reservoirs. This report documents the research undertaken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) to improve seismic tomographic images. In addition, the new imaging method was applied to a data set collected in a producing oil field. The method developed is nonlinear travel time tomography. This technique uses the travel time of the first arriving energy at a receiver and distributes that time back along realistic ray paths. This is an important distinction between this method and previous methods that used either straight ray paths from source to receiver or fixed ray paths (ray paths fixed by an a priori model). The nonlinearity arises during each iteration in the matching of observed travel times with those determined from a model. In this technique the model is updated during each iteration (the velocity structure is changed) and new ray paths are computed in that update model. Thus the resulting image is based on physically realistic ray paths. Tomography resolution is not merely a simple function of the wavelength of the seismic energy used but also involves a measure of how well a given region has been sampled by ray paths. Moreover, the ray paths must represent a wide variation in inclination as they pass through a given spatial cell. This imaging technique was applied to a compressional wave data set collected at ERL`s Michigan Test Site located in the Northern Reef Trend of MI. It consists of two deep boreholes that straddle a producing reef. Two hundred source positions and two hundred receiver positions were used to obtain 40,000 ray paths. Although ERL`s boreholes are 2,000 ft apart, kilohertz data was obtained. The resulting image of the reservoir showed a low velocity zone inside the reef and a thin layer of low velocity that intersected one of the boreholes. The presence of this thin layer was confirmed by logs and borehole engineering.

  15. Stress, seismicity and structure of shallow oil reservoirs of Clinton County, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Smith, T.

    1995-12-12

    Between 1993 and 1995 geophysicists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in a project funded by the US Department of Energy, conducted extensive microseismic monitoring of oil production in the recently discovered High Bridge pools of Clinton County and were able to acquire abundant, high-quality data in the northern of the two pools. This investigation provided both three-dimensional spatial and kinetic data relating to the High Bridge fracture system that previously had not been available. Funded in part by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kentucky Geological Survey committed to develop a geological interpretation of these geophysical results, that would be of practical benefit to future oils exploration. This publication is a summary of the results of that project. Contents include the following: introduction; discovery and development; regional geology; fractured reservoir geology; oil migration and entrapment; subsurface stress; induced seismicity; structural geology; references; and appendices.

  16. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging investigation of the scaling of gas injection processes are reported. The research examines how the physical mechanisms at work during a gas injection project interact to determine process performance. In particular, the authors examine: the interactions of equilibrium phase behavior and two-phase flow that determine local displacement efficiency and minimum miscibility pressure, the combined effects of viscous fingering, gravity segregation and heterogeneity that control sweep efficiency in 2- and 3-dimensional porous media, the use of streamtube/streamline methods to create very efficient simulation technique for multiphase compositional displacements, the scaling of viscous, capillary and gravity forces for heterogeneous reservoirs, and the effects of the thin films and spreading behavior on three-phase flow. The following key results are documented: rigorous procedures for determination of minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) or minimum miscibility enrichment (MME) for miscibility have been developed for multicomponent systems; the complex dependence of MMP`s for nitrogen/methane floods on oil and injection gas composition observed experimentally is explained for the first time; the presence of layer-like heterogeneities strongly influences the interplay of gravity segregation and viscous fingering, as viscous fingers adapt to preferential flow paths and low permeability layers restrict vertical flow; streamtube/streamline simulation techniques are demonstrated for a variety of injection processes in 2 and 3 dimensions; quantitative scaling estimates for the transitions from capillary-dominated to gravity-dominated to viscous-dominated flows are reported; experimental results are given that demonstrate that high pressure CO{sub 2} can be used to generate low IFT gravity drainage in fractured reservoirs if fractures are suitably connected; and the effect of wetting and spreading behavior on three-phase flow is described. 209 refs.

  17. Strobe Light Testing and Kokanee Population Monitoring : Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation Project, 87-99 : Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Ament, Willaim J.

    1999-11-01

    We tested the response of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to strobe lights. Testing was conducted on wild, free-ranging fish in their natural environment (i.e., the pelagic region of two large Idaho lakes). Split-beam hydroacoustics were used to record the distance kokanee moved away from the lights, as well as the density of kokanee in the area near the lights. In control tests, where strobe lights were lowered into the lake but kept turned off, kokanee remained within a few meters of the lights. Once the lights began flashing, kokanee quickly moved away from the light source. Kokanee moved 20 to 40 m away from the lights in waters with Secchi transparencies from 3 to 5 m. Kokanee densities near the lights were significantly lower (p=0.07 to p=0.00) when the lights were turned on than in control samples with no lights flashing. Flash rates of 300, 360, and 450 flashes/min elicited strong avoidance responses from the fish. Kokanee remained at least 24 m from the lights during our longest test that lasted for 5 h 50 min. We also continued annual monitoring of the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir. Spawner counts in four tributary streams that were used as an index of the adult population reached a record low of 144 spawners. No age-1 or age-2 kokanee were caught in 15 trawl hauls used to make population estimates. The population estimate of fry was 65,000 fish, {+-} 76% (90% C.I.). Flooding during the spring of 1996 was responsible for the low kokanee population.

  18. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Final report, August 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1998-03-01

    The primary goal of the project is to develop a user-friendly computer program to integrate geological and engineering information using Artificial Intelligence (AI) methodology. The project is restricted to fluvially dominated deltaic environments. The static information used in constructing the reservoir description includes well core and log data. Using the well core and the log data, the program identifies the marker beds, and the type of sand facies, and in turn, develops correlations between wells. Using the correlations and sand facies, the program is able to generate multiple realizations of sand facies and petrophysical properties at interwell locations using geostatistical techniques. The generated petrophysical properties are used as input in the next step where the production data are honored. By adjusting the petrophysical properties, the match between the simulated and the observed production rates is obtained. Although all the components within the overall system are functioning, the integration of dynamic data may not be practical due to the single-phase flow limitations and the computationally intensive algorithms. The future work needs to concentrate on making the dynamic data integration computationally efficient.

  19. The 2005 Project Progress Report for 1987-099-00 Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment (contract # 16791) is attached to project 1987-099-00, contract # 26850. [POINTER

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-18

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. We tested one set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min in front of turbine 3 while operating at higher discharges than previously tested. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On five nights between January 31 and February 28, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near turbine 3 averaged eight fish and densities averaged 91 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during five adjacent nights during the same period, mean counts dropped to four fish and densities dropped to 35 fish/ha. The decline in counts (49%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.182), but decline in densities (62%) was significant (p = 0.049). There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of turbines operating at higher discharges, which would be sufficient to improve sportfish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2005. Estimated abundance of kokanee decreased from the 2004 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,011,626 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15.2%) in Dworshak Reservoir, July 2005. This included 2,135,986 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 15.9%), 769,175 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 16.0%), and 107,465 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 15.2%). Poor survival of kokanee from age-1 to age-2 continued to keep age-2 densities below the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of two days

  20. Final report of the Department of Energy Reservoir Definition Review Team for the Baca Geothermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.; Holman, W.R.; Molloy, M.W.

    1982-06-01

    The Baca project was terminated due to inability to find sufficient steam production to support the power plant. The following aspects of the project are discussed: regional geology; structure, stratigraphy, and permeability in the Redondo Creek; geophysics; geochemical indicators of reservoir conditions; drilling problems; fracture stimulation experiments; reservoir definition and conceptual model; and prediction of reservoir performance.

  1. Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of fractured reservoirs; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howrie, I.; Dauben, D.

    1994-03-01

    A three-year research program to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas from naturally fractured reservoirs has been completed. The overall objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate the reservoir conditions for which fracture closure is significant, and (2) evaluate innovative fluid injection techniques capable of maintaining pressure within the reservoir. The evaluations of reservoir performance were made by a modern dual porosity simulator, TETRAD. This simulator treats both porosity and permeability as functions of pore pressure. The Austin Chalk in the Pearsall Field in of South Texas was selected as the prototype fractured reservoir for this work. During the first year, simulations of vertical and horizontal well performance were made assuming that fracture permeability was insensitive to pressure change. Sensitivity runs indicated that the simulator was predicting the effects of critical reservoir parameters in a logical and consistent manner. The results confirmed that horizontal wells could increase both rate of oil recovery and total oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. In the second year, the performance of the same vertical and horizontal wells was reevaluated with fracture permeability treated as a function of reservoir pressure. To investigate sensitivity to in situ stress, differing loading conditions were assumed. Simulated natural depletions confirm that pressure sensitive fractures degrade well performance. The severity of degradation worsens when the initial reservoir pressure approaches the average stress condition of the reservoir, such as occurs in over pressured reservoirs. Simulations with water injection indicate that degradation of permeability can be counteracted when reservoir pressure is maintained and oil recovery can be increased when reservoir properties are favorable.

  2. Fracture detection, mapping, and analysis of naturally fractured gas reservoirs using seismic technology. Final report, November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Many basins in the Rocky Mountains contain naturally fractured gas reservoirs. Production from these reservoirs is controlled primarily by the shape, orientation and concentration of the natural fractures. The detection of gas filled fractures prior to drilling can, therefore, greatly benefit the field development of the reservoirs. The objective of this project was to test and verify specific seismic methods to detect and characterize fractures in a naturally fractured reservoir. The Upper Green River tight gas reservoir in the Uinta Basin, Northeast Utah was chosen for the project as a suitable reservoir to test the seismic technologies. Knowledge of the structural and stratigraphic geologic setting, the fracture azimuths, and estimates of the local in-situ stress field, were used to guide the acquisition and processing of approximately ten miles of nine-component seismic reflection data and a nine-component Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP). Three sources (compressional P-wave, inline shear S-wave, and cross-line, shear S-wave) were each recorded by 3-component (3C) geophones, to yield a nine-component data set. Evidence of fractures from cores, borehole image logs, outcrop studies, and production data, were integrated with the geophysical data to develop an understanding of how the seismic data relate to the fracture network, individual well production, and ultimately the preferred flow direction in the reservoir. The multi-disciplinary approach employed in this project is viewed as essential to the overall reservoir characterization, due to the interdependency of the above factors.

  3. Predation by Resident Fish on Juvenile Salmonids in John Day Reservoir: Final Report, 1983-1986: Volume 1, Final Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.; Rieman, Bruce E.

    1988-07-01

    In 1982 the NPPC included in its Fish and Wildlife Program a measure that called for studies ''... to investigate juvenile salmon and steelhead losses to predators while these fish are migrating through Columbia and Snake River reservoirs.'' In the same year the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded ODFW and FWS to conduct collaborative studies to estimate the number of juvenile salmonids lost to predators in John Day Reservoir. Also included as study objectives were: (1) a description of the importance of predation losses relative to mortality at the dam and total reservoir mortality; (2) a description of how predation losses might vary (spatially and temporally); and (3) recommendations of measures to control predation on smolts. We studied four species of predator: northern squawfish, walleye, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish. We selected John Day Reservoir as the study site because the following factors led us to believe if predation was a problem in any reservoir, it would be most obvious there because: (1) the reservoir is an important subyearling chinook rearing area; (2) passage and residualism of juvenile salmonids were considered a problem there; and (3) substantial populations of predators were known to reside in the reservoir. Individual reports were processed separately for the data base.

  4. Geology, reservoir engineering and methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa Gas Field, North Slope, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, R.K.; Allen, W.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Walakpa Gas Field, located near the city of Barrow on Alaska`s North Slope, has been proven to be methane-bearing at depths of 2000--2550 feet below sea level. The producing formation is a laterally continuous, south-dipping, Lower Cretaceous shelf sandstone. The updip extent of the reservoir has not been determined by drilling, but probably extends to at least 1900 feet below sea level. Reservoir temperatures in the updip portion of the reservoir may be low enough to allow the presence of in situ methane hydrates. Reservoir net pay however, decreases to the north. Depths to the base of permafrost in the area average 940 feet. Drilling techniques and production configuration in the Walakpa field were designed to minimize formation damage to the reservoir sandstone and to eliminate methane hydrates formed during production. Drilling development of the Walakpa field was a sequential updip and lateral stepout from a previously drilled, structurally lower confirmation well. Reservoir temperature, pressure, and gas chemistry data from the development wells confirm that they have been drilled in the free-methane portion of the reservoir. Future studies in the Walakpa field are planned to determine whether or not a component of the methane production is due to the dissociation of updip in situ hydrates.

  5. Deliverable 3.1.4 -- Final reservoir report and field-scale models Bluebell Field, Utah, Class 1

    SciTech Connect

    Deo, Milind D.

    2000-07-12

    The objective of this project were to: (1) Simulate parts of the reservoir using the conventional dual-porosity, dual-permeability approach, generate progressively complex reservoir models and use the production history match results to quantify formation damage; (2) Examine the effect of the numerical aspects such as grid sizes and fracture properties on the simulations results; (3) Evaluate the effect of fluid thermodynamic properties on production; and (4) Study effect of inclusion of fractures on variability in production from stochastically generated reservoir models.

  6. Characterization and simulation of an exhumed fractured petroleum reservoir. Final report, March 18, 1996--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, C.B.; Nielson, D.L.; Deo, M.

    1998-12-01

    An exhumed fractured reservoir located near Alligator Ridge in central Nevada provides the basis for developing and testing different approaches for simulating fractured petroleum reservoirs. The fractured analog reservoir comprises a 90 m thickness of silty limestone and shaly interbeds within the Devonian Pilot Shale. A period of regional compression followed by ongoing basin and range extension has created faults and fractures that, in tern, have controlled the migration of both oil and gold ore-forming fluids. Open pit gold mines provide access for observing oil seepage, collecting the detailed fracture data needed to map variations in fracture intensity near faults, build discrete fracture network models and create equivalent permeability structures. Fault trace patterns mapped at the ground surface provide a foundation for creating synthetic fault trace maps using a stochastic procedure conditioned by the outcrop data. Conventional simulations of petroleum production from a 900 by 900 m sub-domain within the reservoir analog illustrate the possible influence of faults and fractures on production. The consequences of incorporating the impact of different stress states (e.g., extension, compression or lithostatic) are also explored. Simulating multiphase fluid flow using a discrete fracture, finite element simulator illustrates how faults acting as conduits might be poorly represented by the upscaling procedures used to assign equivalent permeability values within reservoir models. The parallelized reservoir simulators developed during this project provide a vehicle to evaluate when it might be necessary to incorporate very fine scale grid networks in conventional reservoir simulators or to use finely gridded discrete fracture reservoir simulators.

  7. Final environmental assessment: Demonstration of use of grass carp in management of aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) plans to introduce triploid (sterile) grass carp into Guntersville Reservoir to test their usefulness in managing aquatic vegetation in a reservoir system. This demonstration is compatible with the long-range management plan for Guntersville Reservoir being developed jointly by TVA and the US Army Corps of Engineers at the request of several members of Congress. TVA is not at this time proposing to include grass carp as a routine component if its ongoing aquatic plant management program for Guntersville Reservoir or the TVA reservoir system. TVA's present program consists of water level fluctuations supplemented by herbicides. This environmental assessment evaluates several alternatives to use of grass carp, including use of water level fluctuations (drawdowns), herbicides, and mechanical harvesters. The overall target for this demonstration is to reduce aquatic vegetation in Guntersville Reservoir to about 7,000 acres. The results of this initial stocking will be closely monitored. The proposed monitoring will serve to evaluate the effectiveness of the grass carp demonstration. Because only triploid grass carp will be stocked and phased stocking will be done, any undesirable effects that monitoring might reveal should be reversible within a few years following termination of stocking. 88 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Volume and accessibility of entrained (solution) methane in deep geopressured reservoirs - tertiary formations of the Texas Gulf Coast. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, A.R.; Dodge, M.M.; Posey, J.S.; Morton, R.A.

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this project was to appraise the total volume of in-place methane dissolved in formation waters of deep sandstone reservoirs of the onshore Texas Gulf Coast within the stratigraphic section extending from the base of significant hydrocarbon production (8000 ft)* to the deepest significant sandstone occurrence. The area of investigation is about 50,000 mi/sup 2/. Factors that determine the total methane resource are reservoir bulk volume, porosity, and methane solubility; the latter is controlled by the temperature, pressure, and salinity of formation waters. Regional assessment of the volume and the distribution of potential sandstone reservoirs was made from a data base of 880 electrical well logs, from which a grid of 24 dip cross sections and 4 strike cross sections was constructed. Solution methane content in each of nine formations or divisions of formations was determined for each subdivision. The distribution of solution methane in the Gulf Coast was described on the basis of five reservoir models. Each model was characterized by depositional environment, reservoir continuity, porosity, permeability, and methane solubility.

  9. Model Development to Establish Integrated Operational Rule Curves for Hungry Horse and Libby Reservoirs - Montana, 1996 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marotz, Brian; Althen, Craig; Gustafson, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Hungry Horse and Libby dams have profoundly affected the aquatic ecosystems in two major tributaries of the Columbia River by altering habitat and water quality, and by imposing barriers to fish migration. In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, designed in part to balance hydropower development with other natural resources in the Columbia System. The Act formed the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) who developed a program to protect, mitigate and enhance fish and wildlife on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Pursuant to the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program for the Columbia River System (1987), we constructed computer models to simulate the trophic dynamics of the reservoir biota as related to dam operation. Results were used to develop strategies to minimize impacts and enhance the reservoir and riverine fisheries, following program measures 903(a)(1-4) and 903(b)(1-5). Two FORTRAN simulation models were developed for Hungry Horse and Libby reservoirs located in northwestern Montana. The models were designed to generate accurate, short-term predictions specific to two reservoirs and are not directly applicable to other waters. The modeling strategy, however, is portable to other reservoir systems where sufficient data are available. Reservoir operation guidelines were developed to balance fisheries concerns in the headwaters with anadromous species recovery actions in the lower Columbia (Biological Rule Curves). These BRCs were then integrated with power production and flood control to reduce the economic impact of basin-wide fisheries recovery actions. These Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) were developed simultaneously in the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR), the Council`s phase IV amendment process and recovery actions associated with endangered Columbia Basin fish species.

  10. Use of satellite data in runoff forecasting in the heavily forested, cloud-covered Pacific Northwest. [Upper Snake, Boise, Dworshak, Libby and Hungry Horse River Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, J. P.; Orwig, C. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite-derived snow cover data improves forecasts of stream flow but not at a statistically significant amount and should not be used exclusively because of persistent cloud cover. Based upon reconstruction runs, satellite data can be used to augment snow-flight data in the Upper Snake, Boise, Dworshak, and Hungry Horse basins. Satellite data does not compare well with aerial snow-flight data in the Libby basin.

  11. Identification and evaluation of fluvial-dominated deltaic (Class I oil) reservoirs in Oklahoma. Final report, August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Banken, M.K.

    1998-11-01

    The Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS), the Geo Information Systems department, and the School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma have engaged in a five-year program to identify and address Oklahoma`s oil recovery opportunities in fluvial-dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoirs. This program included a systematic and comprehensive collection and evaluation of information on all FDD oil reservoirs in Oklahoma and the recovery technologies that have been (or could be) applied to those reservoirs with commercial success. The execution of this project was approached in phases. The first phase began in January, 1993 and consisted of planning, play identification and analysis, data acquisition, database development, and computer systems design. By the middle of 1994, many of these tasks were completed or nearly finished including the identification of all FDD reservoirs in Oklahoma, data collection, and defining play boundaries. By early 1995, a preliminary workshop schedule had been developed for project implementation and technology transfer activities. Later in 1995, the play workshop and publication series was initiated with the Morrow and the Booch plays. Concurrent with the initiation of the workshop series was the opening of a computer user lab that was developed for use by the petroleum industry. Industry response to the facility initially was slow, but after the first year lab usage began to increase and is sustaining. The remaining six play workshops were completed through 1996 and 1997, with the project ending on December 31, 1997.

  12. Petroleum reservoir engineering support for the Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    In accordance with the ''Procedures for the Determination and Approval of Maximum Efficient Rates of Production from the Naval Petroleum Reserves'' issued by the Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, US Department of Energy, dated January 1985, the proposed MER for the NWS A4-A6 reservoirs is herewith submitted. The subject Task Assignment was explicit as to certain operational restraints within which the MER determinations were to be made. In the case of the NWS A4-A6 reservoirs, these restraints were limited to a specification of the water injection rates, i.e., gradually building up to and maintaining an injection rate of 22,000 barrels water per day. Accordingly, the proposed MER results in an average of 8575 BOA/D for the six-month period ending March 31, 1987, and 8662 BOA/D for the nine-month period ending mid-year 1987. We believe that these rates will be both attainable and sustainable, and will be a reasonable target which is justified in terms of both maximizing ultimate recovery and providing a suitable economic return. The study was performed in the manner prescribed by the Department of Energy. It was based on the reservoir study which was made by Evans, Carey and Crozier, and which had an effective date of May 1, 1986. The proposed MER differs from that in the study only as a result of injection rates which vary slightly from those assumed in the latter. Each of the sections of this MER proposal contains a discussion, if appropriate, plus such graphical or tabular presentations as are necessary to explain and/or support the conclusions contained therein.

  13. Evaluation of Management of Water Releases for Painted Rocks Reservoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1983-1986, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Spoon, Ronald L.

    1987-06-01

    This study was initiated in July, 1983 to develop a water management plan for the release of water purchased from Painted Rocks Reservoir. Releases were designed to provide optimum benefits to the Bitterroot River fishery. Fisheries, habitat, and stream flow information was gathered to evaluate the effectiveness of these supplemental releases in improving trout populations in the Bitterroot River. The study was part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program and was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration. This report presents data collected from 1983 through 1986.

  14. The use of predictive lithostratigraphy to significantly improve the ability to forecast reservoir and source rocks? Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R. D.; Moore, T. L.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-29

    The purpose of this CRADA, which ended in 2003, was to make reservoir and source rock distribution significantly more predictable by quantifying the fundamental controls on stratigraphic heterogeneity. To do this, the relationships among insolation, climate, sediment supply, glacioeustasy, and reservoir and source rock occurrence were investigated in detail. Work current at the inception of the CRADA had uncovered previously unrecognized associations among these processes and properties that produce a phenomenon that, when properly analyzed, will make lithostratigraphic variability (including texture, porosity, and permeability) substantially more understandable. Computer climate simulations of selected time periods, compared with the global distribution of paleoclimatic indicators, documented spatial and temporal climate changes as a function of insolation and provided quantitative changes in runoff, lake level, and glacioeustasy. The effect of elevation and climate on sediment yield was assessed numerically by analyzing digital terrain and climate data. The phase relationships of climate, yield, and glacioeustatic cycles from the Gulf of Mexico and/or other sedimentary basins were assessed by using lacunarity, a statistical technique.

  15. Geophysical and transport properties of reservoir rocks. Final report for task 4: Measurements and analysis of seismic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of research on the seismic properties of reservoir rocks is to develop a basic understanding of the effects of rock microstructure and its contained pore fluids on seismic velocities and attenuation. Ultimately, this knowledge would be used to extract reservoir properties information such as the porosity, permeability, clay content, fluid saturation, and fluid type from borehole, cross-borehole, and surface seismic measurements to improve the planning and control of oil and gas recovery. This thesis presents laboratory ultrasonic measurements for three granular materials and attempts to relate the microstructural properties and the properties of the pore fluids to P- and S-wave velocities and attenuation. These experimental results show that artificial porous materials with sintered grains and a sandstone with partially cemented grains exhibit complexities in P- and S-wave attenuation that cannot be adequately explained by existing micromechanical theories. It is likely that some of the complexity observed in the seismic attenuation is controlled by details of the rock microstructure, such as the grain contact area and grain shape, and by the arrangement of the grain packing. To examine these effects, a numerical method was developed for analyzing wave propagation in a grain packing. The method is based on a dynamic boundary integral equation and incorporates generalized stiffness boundary conditions between individual grains to account for viscous losses and grain contact scattering.

  16. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations; 1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.; Scholz, Allan T.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model included: quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times. This report summarized the data collected on Lake Roosevelt for 1991 and includes limnological, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, fishery, and reservoir operation data. Discussions cover reservoir operation affect upon zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Reservoir operations brought reservoir elevations to a low of 1,221.7 in April, the result of power operations and a flood control shift from Dworshak Dam, in Idaho, to Grand Coulee Dam. Water retention times were correspondingly low reaching a minimum of 14.7 days on April 27th.

  17. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Wells of Opportunity Program final contract report, 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The geopressured-geothermal candidates for the Wells of Opportunity program were located by the screening of published information on oil industry activity and through direct contact with the oil and gas operators. This process resulted in the recommendation to the DOE of 33 candidate wells for the program. Seven of the 33 recommended wells were accepted for testing. Of these seven wells, six were actually tested. The first well, the No. 1 Kennedy, was acquired but not tested. The seventh well, the No. 1 Godchaux, was abandoned due to mechanical problems during re-entry. The well search activities, which culminated in the acceptance by the DOE of 7 recommended wells, were substantial. A total of 90,270 well reports were reviewed, leading to 1990 wells selected for thorough geological analysis. All of the reservoirs tested in this program have been restricted by one or more faults or permeability barriers. A comprehensive discussion of test results is presented.

  18. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico - petrophysical characterization of the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.

    1997-06-01

    Reservoir performance of the South Cowden Grayburg field suggests that only 21 percent of the original oil in place has been recovered. The purpose of this study is to construct a realistic reservoir model to be used to predict the location of the remaining mobile oil. Construction of reservoir models for fluid-flow simulation of carbonate reservoirs is difficult because they typically have complicated and unpredictable permeability patterns. Much of the difficulty results from the degree to which diagenetic overprinting masks depositional textures and patterns. For example, the task of constructing a reservoir model of a limestone reservoir that has undergone only cementation and compaction is easier than constructing a model of a karsted reservoir that has undergone cavern formation and collapse as well as cementation and compaction. The Permian-age carbonate-ramp reservoirs in the Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico, are typically anhydritic dolomitized limestone. Because the dolomitization occurred soon after deposition, depositional fabrics and patterns are often retained, and a reservoir model can be constructed using depositional concepts. Recent studies of the San Andres outcrop in the Guadalupe Mountains and the Seminole San Andres reservoir in the Permian Basin illustrate how depositional fabrics and patterns can be used to construct a reservoir model when depositional features are retained.

  19. Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.

    1995-08-01

    Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.

  20. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the project. Preconstruction, post-construction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Dexter Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 445 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Dexter Project included the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, red fox, mink, beaver, western gray squirrel, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, wood duck and nongame species. Bald eagle, osprey, and greater scaup were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Dexter Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  1. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    The Pioneer Anticline, 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, California, which has yielded oil since 1926, was the subject of a three-year study aimed at recovering more oil. A team from Michigan Technological University of Houghton, Michigan (MTU), and Digital Petrophysics, Inc. of Bakersfield, California (DPI), undertook the study as part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Extraction and Process Technology Program. The program provides support for projects which cross-cut geoscience and engineering research in order to develop innovative technologies for increasing the recovery of some of the estimated 340 billion barrels of in-place oil remaining in U.S. reservoirs. In recent years, low prices and declining production have increased the likelihood that oil fields will be prematurely abandoned, locking away large volumes of unrecovered oil. The major companies have sold many of their fields to smaller operators in an attempt to concentrate their efforts on fewer {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} properties and on overseas exploration. As a result, small companies with fewer resources at their disposal are becoming responsible for an ever-increasing share of U.S. production. The goal of the MTU-DPI project was to make small independent producers who are inheriting old fields from the majors aware that high technology computer software is now available at relatively low cost. In this project, a suite of relatively inexpensive, PC-based software packages, including a commercial database, a multimedia presentation manager, several well-log analysis program, a mapping and cross-section program, and 2-D and 3-D visualization programs, were tested and evaluated on Pioneer Anticline in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. These relatively inexpensive, commercially available PC-based programs can be assembled into a compatible package for a fraction of the cost of a workstation program with similar capabilities.

  2. Integration of advanced geoscience and engineering techniques to quantify interwell heterogeneity in reservoir models. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W.W.; Buckley, J.S.; Ouenes, A.

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this three-year project was to provide a quantitative definition of reservoir heterogeneity. This objective was accomplished through the integration of geologic, geophysical, and engineering databases into a multi-disciplinary understanding of reservoir architecture and associated fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. This interdisciplinary effort integrated geological and geophysical data with engineering and petrophysical results through reservoir simulation to quantify reservoir architecture and the dynamics of fluid-rock and fluid-fluid interactions. An improved reservoir description allows greater accuracy and confidence during simulation and modeling as steps toward gaining greater recovery efficiency from existing reservoirs. A field laboratory, the Sulimar Queen Unit, was available for the field research. Several members of the PRRC staff participated in the development of improved reservoir description by integration of the field and laboratory data as well as in the development of quantitative reservoir models to aid performance predictions. Subcontractors from Stanford University and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) collaborated in the research and participated in the design and interpretation of field tests. The three-year project was initiated in September 1993 and led to the development and application of various reservoir description methodologies. A new approach for visualizing production data graphically was developed and implemented on the Internet. Using production data and old gamma rays logs, a black oil reservoir model that honors both primary and secondary performance was developed. The old gamma ray logs were used after applying a resealing technique, which was crucial for the success of the project. In addition to the gamma ray logs, the development of the reservoir model benefitted from an inverse Drill Stem Test (DST) technique which provided initial estimates of the reservoir permeability at different wells.

  3. Naturally fractured reservoirs: Optimized E and P strategies using a reaction-transport-mechanical simulator in an integrated approach. Summary of project accomplishments; Final report, September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Ortoleva, P.J.; Sundberg, K.R.; Hoak, T.E.

    1998-12-01

    Major accomplishments of this project occurred in three primary categories: (1) fractured reservoir location and characteristics prediction for exploration and production planning; (2) implications of geologic data analysis and synthesis for exploration and development programs; and (3) fractured reservoir production modeling. The results in each category will be discussed in turn. Seven detailed reports have been processed separately.

  4. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Final report P. R. Girouard Well No. 1, Lafayette Parish, Louisiana. Volume II. Well test data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The following data from the reopening of an abandoned well are presented: reservoir pressure drawdown and buildup data, Institute of Gas Technology test data, Insitute of Gas Technology sample log, reservoir fluid analysis, produced gas/water ratio, chemical analysis procedures, surface flow data, third party sampling and reports, sand detectors charts, and Horner-type buildup data. (MHR)

  5. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Volume III (of 4): Characterization and simulation of representative resources. Final report, February 14, 1995--October 13, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1997-01-13

    Significant innovations have been made in seismic processing and reservoir simulation. In addition, significant advances have been made in deviated and horizontal drilling technologies. Effective application of these technologies along with improved integrated resource management methods offer opportunities to significantly increase Gulf of Mexico production, delay platform abandonments, and preserve access to a substantial remaining oil target for both exploratory drilling and advanced recovery processes. In an effort to illustrate the impact that these new technologies and sources of information can have upon the estimates of recoverable oil in the Gulf of Mexico, additional and detailed data was collected for two previously studied reservoirs: a South March Island reservoir operated by Taylor Energy and Gulf of Mexico reservoir operated by Mobil, whose exact location has been blind-coded at their request, and an additional third representative reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico, the KEKF-1 reservoir in West Delta Block 84 Field. The new data includes reprocessed 2-D seismic data, newly acquired 3-D data, fluid data, fluid samples, pressure data, well test data, well logs, and core data/samples. The new data was used to refine reservoir and geologic characterization of these reservoirs. Further laboratory investigation also provided additional simulation input data in the form of PVT properties, relative permeabilities, capillary pressures, and water compatibility. Geologic investigations were also conducted to refine the models of mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysts and reservoir engineers. These results were also used, in part, to assist in the recharacterization of these reservoirs.

  6. Measuring and predicting reservoir heterogeneity in complex deposystems. The fluvial-deltaic Big Injun Sandstone in West Virginia. Final report, September 20, 1991--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hohn, M.E.; Patchen, D.G.; Heald, M.; Aminian, K.; Donaldson, A.; Shumaker, R.; Wilson, T.

    1994-05-01

    Non-uniform composition and permeability of a reservoir, commonly referred to as reservoir heterogeneity, is recognized as a major factor in the efficient recovery of oil during primary production and enhanced recovery operations. Heterogeneities are present at various scales and are caused by various factors, including folding and faulting, fractures, diagenesis and depositional environments. Thus, a reservoir consists of a complex flow system, or series of flow systems, dependent on lithology, sandstone genesis, and structural and thermal history. Ultimately, however, fundamental flow units are controlled by the distribution and type of depositional environments. Reservoir heterogeneity is difficult to measure and predict, especially in more complex reservoirs such as fluvial-deltaic sandstones. The Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC), a partnership of Appalachian basin state geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, and West Virginia University, studied the Lower Mississippian Big Injun sandstone in West Virginia. The Big Injun research was multidisciplinary and designed to measure and map heterogeneity in existing fields and undrilled areas. The main goal was to develop an understanding of the reservoir sufficient to predict, in a given reservoir, optimum drilling locations versus high-risk locations for infill, outpost, or deeper-pool tests.

  7. Predation by Resident Fish on Juvenile Salmonids in John Day Reservoir: Final Report, 1983-1986: Volume 2: Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.; Rieman, Bruce E.

    1988-07-01

    In 1982 the NPPC included in its Fish and Wildlife Program measure that called for studies ''... to investigate juvenile salmon and steelhead losses to predators while these fish are migrating through Columbia and Snake River reservoirs.'' In the same year the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded ODFW and FWS to conduct collaborative studies to estimate the number of juvenile salmoids lost to predators in John Day Reservoir. Also included as study objectives were: (1) a description of the importance of predation losses relative to mortality at the dam and total reservoir mortality; (2) a description of how predation losses might vary (spatially and temporally); and (3) recommendations of measures to control predation on smolts. We studied four species of predator; northern squawfish, walleye, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish. We selected John Day Reservoir as the study site because the following factors led us to believe if predation was a problem in any reservoir, it would be most obvious there because: (1) the reservoir is an important subyearling chinook rearing area; (2) passage and residualism of juvenile salmonids were considered a problem there; and (3) substantial populations of predators were known to reside in the reservoir. Individual reports were processed separately for the data base.

  8. Improved efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhanced prospects for CO2 flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. Final report, April 17, 1991--May 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, R.B.; Schechter, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    From 1986 to 1996, oil recovery in the US by gas injection increased almost threefold, to 300,000 bbl/day. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection projects make up three-quarters of the 191,139 bbl/day production increase. This document reports experimental and modeling research in three areas that is increasing the number of reservoirs in which CO{sub 2} can profitably enhance oil recovery: (1) foams for selective mobility reduction (SMR) in heterogeneous reservoirs, (2) reduction of the amount of CO{sub 2} required in CO{sub 2} floods, and (3) low interfacial tension (97) processes and the possibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in naturally fractured reservoirs. CO{sub 2} injection under miscible conditions can effectively displace oil, but due to differences in density and viscosity the mobility of CO{sub 2} is higher than either oil or water. High CO{sub 2} mobility causes injection gas to finger through a reservoir, causing such problems as early gas breakthrough, high gas production rates, excessive injection gas recycling, and bypassing of much of the reservoir oil. These adverse effects are exacerbated by increased reservoir heterogeneity, reaching an extreme in naturally fractured reservoirs. Thus, many highly heterogeneous reservoirs have not been considered for CO{sub 2} injection or have had disappointing recoveries. One example is the heterogeneous Spraberry trend in west Texas, where only 10% of its ten billion barrels of original oil in place (OOIP) are recoverable by conventional methods. CO{sub 2} mobility can be reduced by injecting water (brine) alternated with CO{sub 2} (WAG) and then further reduced by adding foaming agents-surfactants. In Task 1, we studied a unique foam property, selective mobility reduction (SMR), that effectively reduces the effects of reservoir heterogeneity. Selective mobility reduction creates a more uniform displacement by decreasing CO{sub 2} mobility in higher permeability zones more than in lower permeability zones.

  9. Final Report: Development of a Chemical Model to Predict the Interactions between Supercritical CO2, Fluid and Rock in EGS Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, Brian J.; Pan, Feng

    2014-09-24

    This report summarizes development of a coupled-process reservoir model for simulating enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) that utilize supercritical carbon dioxide as a working fluid. Specifically, the project team developed an advanced chemical kinetic model for evaluating important processes in EGS reservoirs, such as mineral precipitation and dissolution at elevated temperature and pressure, and for evaluating potential impacts on EGS surface facilities by related chemical processes. We assembled a new database for better-calibrated simulation of water/brine/ rock/CO2 interactions in EGS reservoirs. This database utilizes existing kinetic and other chemical data, and we updated those data to reflect corrections for elevated temperature and pressure conditions of EGS reservoirs.

  10. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico--waterflood performance analysis for the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    A reservoir engineering study was conducted of waterflood performance in the South Cowden field, an Upper Permian Grayburg reservoir on the Central Basin Platform in West Texas. The study was undertaken to understand the historically poor waterflood performance, evaluate three techniques for incorporating petrophysical measurements and geological interpretation into heterogeneous reservoir models, and identify issues in heterogeneity modeling and fluid-flow scaleup that require further research. The approach included analysis of relative permeability data, analysis of injection and production data, heterogeneity modeling, and waterflood simulation. The poor South Cowden waterflood recovery is due, in part, to completion of wells in only the top half of the formation. Recompletion of wells through the entire formation is estimated to improve recovery in ten years by 6 percent of the original oil in place in some areas of the field. A direct three-dimensional stochastic approach to heterogeneity modeling produced the best fit to waterflood performance and injectivity, but a more conventional model based on smooth mapping of layer-averaged properties was almost as good. The results reaffirm the importance of large-scale heterogeneities in waterflood modeling but demonstrate only a slight advantage for stochastic modeling at this scale. All the flow simulations required a reduction to the measured whole-core k{sub v}/k{sub h} to explain waterflood behavior, suggesting the presence of barriers to vertical flow not explicitly accounted for in any of the heterogeneity models. They also required modifications to the measured steady-state relative permeabilities, suggesting the importance of small-scale heterogeneities and scaleup. Vertical flow barriers, small-scale heterogeneity modeling, and relative permeability scaleup require additional research for waterflood performance prediction in reservoirs like South Cowden.

  11. G. M. Koelemay well No. 1, Jefferson County, Texas. Volume II. Well test data: testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The following are included in the appendices: field test data, combined and edited raw data, time/pressure data, sample log, reservoir fluid study, gas data, sample collection and analysis procedure, scale monitoring and water analysis, sand detector and strip charts, and Horner-type plot data. (MHR)

  12. Assist in the recovery of bypassed oil from reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico. Quarterly status report (final), July 1--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schenewerk, P.A.

    1994-11-30

    The objective of this research is to assist the recovery of non contacted oil from known reservoirs on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. Mature offshore reservoirs, declining oil reserves, declining production, and other natural forces are accelerating the abandonment of offshore oil resources and production platforms. As these offshore wells are plugged and the platforms are abandoned, an enormous volume of remaining oil will be permanently abandoned. Significant quantities of this oil could be recovered using advanced technologies now available if the resource can be identified. This project will proceed under three broad phases: (1) Analysis -- TORIS level data will be collected on the major fields located in the piercement salt dome province of the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf. Representative reservoirs will be studied in detail in order to evaluate undeveloped and attic oil reserve potential. These detailed investigations will be used to calibrate the TORIS level predictive models. The recovery potential of advanced secondary and enhanced oil recovery processes and the exploitation of undeveloped and attic oil zones for salt dome reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico will be assessed. (2) Supporting Research -- Supporting research will focus on the modification of public domain reservoir simulation models to accurately simulate the conditions encountered in the piercement salt dome province of the Gulf of Mexico. Laboratory research will focus on the development of fluid relationships that will be used in the simulation of miscible and immiscible processes in the project area. (3) Technology Transfer -- A significant effort is planned to transfer the results of this project to potential users of the technology. Technology transfer activities will also provide feedback channels that will help keep the analysis and supporting research focused on the most important problems associated with this project.

  13. Mercury-free PVT apparatus for thermophysical property analyses of hydrocarbon reservoir fluids. Final report, August 16, 1990--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lansangan, R.M.; Lievois, J.S.

    1992-08-31

    Typical reservoir fluid analyses of complex, multicomponent hydrocarbon mixtures include the volumetric properties, isothermal compressibility, thermal expansivity, equilibrium ratios, saturation pressure, viscosities, etc. These parameters are collectively referred to as PVT properties, an acronym for the primary state variables; pressure, volume, and temperature. The reservoir engineer incorporates this information together with the porous media description in performing material balance calculations. These calculations lead to the determination (estimation) of the initial hydrocarbon in-place, the future reservoir performance, the optimal production scheme, and the ultimate hydrocarbon recovery. About four years ago, Ruska Instrument Corporation embarked on a project to develop an apparatus designed to measure PVT properties that operates free of mercury. The result of this endeavor is the 2370 Hg-Free PVT system which has been in the market for the last three years. The 2370 has evolved from the prototype unit to its present configuration which is described briefly in this report. The 2370 system, although developed as a system-engineered apparatus based on existing technology, has not been exempt from this burden-of-proof Namely, the performance of the apparatus under routine test conditions with real reservoir fluids. This report summarizes the results of the performance and applications testing of the 2370 Hg-Free PVT system. Density measurements were conducted on a pure fluid. The results were compared against literature values and the prediction of an equation of state. Routine reservoir fluid analyses were conducted with a black oil and a retrograde condensate gas mixtures. Limited comparison of the results were performed based on the same tests performed on a conventional mercury-based PVT apparatus. The results of these tests are included in this report.

  14. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  15. Tuscarora area, Nevada: geothermal reservoir assessment case history, northern basin and range. Final report, 1 October 1978-9 September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkington, H.D.

    1981-08-01

    The Tuscarora prospect is located at the north end of Independence Valley approximately 90 km north-northwest of Elko, Nevada. Geothermal exploration on the prospect consisted of an integrated program of geologic, hydrogeochemical and soil geochemistry studies. Geophysical exploration included heatflow studies, aeromagnetic, self-potential, gravity, dipole-dipole resistivity and magnetotelluric surveys. Exploration drilling includes thirty-two shallow thermal gradient holes, six intermediate depth temperature gradient wells and one 5454 foot test for discovery well. Shallow low-temperature reservoirs were encountered in the Tertiary rocks and in the Paleozoic rocks immediately beneath the Tertiary. Drilling problems forced the deep well to be stopped before the high-temperature reservoir was reached.

  16. Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Methods, applications and developments of ground-penetrating radar for determination of reservoir geometries in near-surface settings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMechan, G.A.; Soegaard, K.

    1998-05-25

    An integrated sedimentologic and GPR investigation has been carried out on a fluvial channel sandstone in the mid-Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone at Coyote Basin along the southwestern flank of the San Rafael Uplift in east-central Utah. This near-surface study, which covers a area of 40 {times} 16.5 meters to a depth of 15 meters, integrates detailed stratigraphic data from outcrop sections and facies maps with multi-frequency 3-D GPR surveys. The objectives of this investigation are two-fold: (1) to develop new ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology for imaging shallow subsurface sandstone bodies, and (2) to construct an empirical three-dimensional sandstone reservoir model suitable for hydrocarbon flow-simulation by imaging near-surface sandstone reservoir analogs with the use of GPR. The sedimentological data base consists of a geologic map of the survey area and a detailed facies map of the cliff face immediately adjacent to the survey area. Five vertical sections were measured along the cliff face adjacent to the survey area. In addition, four wells were cored within the survey area from which logs were recorded. In the sections and well logs primary sedimentary structures were documented along with textural information and permeability data. Gamma-ray profiles were also obtained for all sections and core logs. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic information serves as the basis from which much of the processing and interpretation of the GPR data was made. Three 3-D GPR data sets were collected over the survey area at frequencies of 50 MHZ, 100 MHZ, and 200 MHZ.

  17. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas: Barrier-bar tidal-channel reservoir facies architecture, Jackson Group, Prado field, South Texas; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Choh, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Jackson barrier/strandplain play are characterized by low recovery efficiencies and thus contain a large hydrocarbon resource target potentially amenable to advanced recovery techniques. Prado field, Jim Hogg County, South Texas, has produced over 23 million bbl of oil and over 32 million mcf gas from combination structural-stratigraphic traps in the Eocene lower Jackson Group. Hydrocarbon entrapment at Prado field is a result of anticlinal nosing by differential compaction and updip pinch-out of barrier bar sandstone. Relative base-level lowering resulted in forced regression that established lower Jackson shoreline sandstones in a relatively distal location in central Jim Hogg County. Reservoir sand bodies at Prado field comprise complex assemblages of barrier-bar, tidal-inlet fill, back-barrier bar, and shoreface environments. Subsequent progradation built the barrier-bar system seaward 1 to 2 mi. Within the barrier-bar system, favorable targets for hydrocarbon reexploration are concentrated in tidal-inlet facies because they possess the greatest degree of depositional heterogeneity. The purpose of this report is (1) to describe and analyze the sand-body architecture, depositional facies variations, and structure of Prado field, (2) to determine controls on distribution of hydrocarbons pertinent to reexploration for bypassed hydrocarbons, (3) to describe reservoir models at Prado field, and (4) to develop new data affecting the suitability of Jackson oil fields as possible candidates for thermally enhanced recovery of medium to heavy oil.

  18. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Final technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.

    1996-01-15

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO{sub 2}) flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meeting, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals. Five activities continued this quarter as part of the geological and reservoir characterization of carbonate mound buildups in the Paradox basin: (1) regional facies evaluation, (2) evaluation of outcrop analogues, (3) field-scale geologic analysis, (4) reservoir analysis, and (5) technology transfer.

  19. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Lower Snake River during Periods of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Migration, 2002-2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.; Dibrani, B.; Richmond, M.; Bleich, M.; Titzler, P..; Fu, T.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents a four-year study to assess hydraulic conditions in the lower Snake River. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Cold water released from the Dworshak Reservoir hypolimnion during mid- to late-summer months cools the Clearwater River far below equilibrium temperature. The volume of released cold water augments the Clearwater River, and the combined total discharge is on the order of the Snake River discharge when the two rivers meet at their confluence near the upstream edge of Lower Granite Reservoir. With typical temperature differences between the Clearwater and Snake rivers of 10 C or more during July and August, the density difference between the two rivers during summer flow augmentation periods is sufficient to stratify Lower Granite Reservoir as well as the other three reservoirs downstream. Because cooling of the river is desirable for migrating juvenile fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during this same time period, the amount of mixing and cold water entrained into Lower Granite Reservoir's epilimnion at the Clearwater/Snake River confluence is of key biological importance. Data collected during this project indicates the three reservoirs downstream of Lower Granite also stratify as direct result of flow augmentation from Dworshak Reservoir. These four reservoirs are also heavily influenced by wind forcing at the water's surface and during periods of low river discharge often behave like a two-layer lake. During these periods of stratification, lower river discharge, and wind forcing, the water in the upper layer of the reservoir is held in place or moves slightly upstream. This upper layer is also exposed to surface heating and may warm up to temperatures close to equilibrium temperature. The thickness (depth) of this upper warm layer and its direction of travel may be of key biological importance to juvenile fall Chinook

  20. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.

    1995-12-01

    This research studied the oil recovery potential of flooding light oil reservoirs by combining interfacial tension reducing agent(s) with a mobility control agent. The specific objectives were: To define the mechanisms and limitations of co-injecting interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent to recover incremental oil. Specifically, the study focused on the fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions. To evaluate the economics of the combination technology and investigate methods to make the process more profitable. Specific areas of study were to evaluate different chemical concentration tapers and the volume of chemical injection required to give optimal oil recovery.

  1. Techniques for mapping the types, volumes, and distribution of clays in petroleum reservoirs and for determining their effects on oil production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, B.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of correlation of log signatures with information on distribution of the types and volumes of clays in sandstone pore spaces determined from detailed CT-scan, XRD, SEM, and thin section analyses of core samples from three sandstone reservoirs. The log signatures are then analyzed to determine if suitable mathematical/statistical parameter(s) could be calculated from the logs to determine their effects on permeability and oil production. The variability measures obtained from power spectral analysis of permeability and wireline log data in clayey formations have been correlated with oil production from two oil fields. Compared with the conventional measures of permeability variations like the Dykstra-Parsons coefficients, the new measure appears to correlate better with oil production.

  2. Cascade Reservoirs Floodwater Resources Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A reasonable floodwater resources utilization method is put forward by dynamic controlling of cascade reservoirs flood control limited level in this paper. According to the probability distribution of the beginning time of the first flood and the ending time of the final flood from July to September, the Fuzzy Statistic Analysis was used to divide the main flood season. By fitting the flood season membership functions of each period, the cascade reservoirs flood control limited water level for each period were computed according to the characteristic data of reservoirs. In terms of the benefit maximization and risk minimum principle, the reasonable combination of flood control limited water level of cascade reservoirs was put forward.

  3. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  4. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, K.L.; Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Seventeen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Lookout Point Project extensively altered or affected 6790 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 724 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 118 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Lookout Point Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, western gray squirrel, red fox, mink, beaver, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Lookout Point Project. Loses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  5. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1964, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Hills Creek Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 2694 acres of old-growth forest and 207 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Hills Creek Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Hills Creek Project, losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  6. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project, South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project on the South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1953, 1965, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Cougar Project extensively altered or affected 3096 acres of land and river in the McKenzie River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1587 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 195 acres of riparian hardwoods. Impacts resulting from the Cougar Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the effected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Cougar Project. Loses or grains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  7. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project Final Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Jeremy; Baxter, James S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes the third and final year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. The fence and traps were operated from September 6th to October 11th 2002 in order to enumerate post-spawning bull trout. During the study period a total of 309 bull trout were captured at the fence. In total, 16 fish of undetermined sex, 114 males and 179 females were processed at the fence. Length and weight data, as well as recapture information, were collected for these fish. An additional 41 bull trout were enumerated upstream of the fence by snorkeling prior to fence removal. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during the project was 350 individuals. Several fish that were tagged in the lower Bull River were recaptured in 2002, as were repeat and alternate year spawners previously enumerated in past years at the fence. A total of 149 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in 2002, of which 143 were in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past six years. The results of the three year project are summarized, and population characteristics are discussed.

  8. Application of the HEC Prescriptive Reservoir Model in the Columbia River System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    Bonners Ferry Corra Unn C / Duncan Duncan S Duncan Corna LUM R ,/ Corra Unn Cows Linn S Cors Unn Coulee R Hungry Horse Hungry Horse S ,. Hungry Horse... f Dworshak Dworshak S , Dworshak Spakdg H S Spakedg Granite C S Browniee Brownlee S Brownlee Granite H S Granite Grarnte S , . , Granite McNary H S S...HYSSR & Alternatives The DuON"a U6000 3Mm ALU ~LU AIW LZSI A±L UL JLU L"W a±IU AiSLWimNS M1w Ddhst b. 6MWM ----- - -- -6 F b ~ . 6MWW 006MW 0IGA ALIM

  9. Reservoir modles

    SciTech Connect

    Malzahn, Mark

    1987-01-06

    The project to match the pressure response seen at EE-3A during the final shut-in of the ICFT initially began as an attempt to solve a mass-balance equation for an inflated, penny-shaped planar fracture during shut-in. Implicit assumptions include no flow along the fracture, no fracture extension after shut-in, constant fracture length and a homogenous rock mass with constant permeability surrounding the fracture. The resulting expression equates the fluid volume permeating into the rock to the change in volume of the fracture as it deflates during shut-in.

  10. Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Final technical report, September 15, 1993--October 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, T.L.

    1996-10-01

    This multidisciplinary study was designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal was accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, and depositional regional frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts were aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focused on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work establishes new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in wellbore scale damage. This task was accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends the at field scale; and chemical modeling of both the experimental and reservoir systems.

  11. Status of Norris Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Norris Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses, conditions that impair reservoir uses, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most up-to-date publications and data available, and from interviews with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies, and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Replacement of Water Reservoirs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-25

    Maximum 200 words ) This submittal provides the Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Replacement of Water ...Final Environmental Assessment for the Replacement of Water Reservoirs...IMPACT (FONSI) ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF WATER RESERVOIRS TRAVIS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA Introduction This Finding of No

  13. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1983-1984 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, Richard J.; Buettner, Edwin W.

    1985-12-01

    Hatcheries released 9.3 million chinook salmon and 6.3 million steelhead smolts and presmolts upriver from Lower Granite Reservoir for migration In spring, 1984. We operated smolt monitoring traps at Whitebird from March 14 to May 12, Snake River from March 22 to May 15 and Clearwater from March 29 to May 13. Peak passage of yearling chinook salmon occurred the third week In April at both Whitebird and Snake River traps. Passage of steelhead was still increasing when high water stopped trapping in mid-May. Median migration rates for branded chinook salmon between release sites and Whitebird were 3, 17 and 15 miles/day for Rapid River, South Fork Salmon and Decker Flat smolts, respectively, an average of 11.6 miles/day. Average migration rate for these three groups between Whitebird and Snake River trap was 28 miles/day. Average migration rate between release sites and Snake River (the head of Lower Granite Reservoir) was 13.2 miles/day and from that point on through the reservoir to the dam, 1.9 miles/day. Salmon River discharge, when considered along with other environmental factors, had the greatest effect on migration rate of smolts branded both at hatcheries and at the Whitebird trap and migrating to the head of Lower Granite Reservoir. Migration rate for steelhead released from Dworshak Hatchery and recaptured at the Clearwater trap was 34 miles/day. Survival rates to the Snake River trap of branded chinook salmon smolts released at Hells Canyon Dam, Rapid River, South Fork Salmon and Decker Flat were 52%, 65%, 68% and 35%, respectively. Classical descaling, where at least 40% of the scales are missing from at least two of five areas on the side of a smolt, ranged from 0 to 5.3% at hatcheries for chinook salmon and was less than 1% for steelhead. Descaling rate often Increased about 1% at release sites. Classical descaling at Whitebird, Clearwater and Snake River traps averaged 4.5, 2.5 and 1.5% for chinook salmon, 2.1, 0.4 and 1.4% for wild steelhead and 8

  16. Dolomite reservoirs: Porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.Q.

    1995-02-01

    Systematic analyses of the published record of dolomite reservoirs worldwide reveal that the majority of hydrocarbon-producing dolomite reservoirs occurs in (1) peritidal-dominated carbonate, (2) subtidal carbonate associated with evaporitic tidal flat/lagoon, (3) subtidal carbonate associated with basinal evaporite, and (4) nonevaporitic carbonate sequence associated with topographic high/unconformity, platform-margin buildup or fault/fracture. Reservoir characteristics vary greatly from one dolomite type to another depending upon the original sediment fabric, the mechanism by which dolomite was formed, and the extent to which early formed dolomite was modified by post-dolomitization diagenetic processes (e.g., karstification, fracturing, and burial corrosion). This paper discusses the origin of dolomite porosity and demonstrates the porosity evolution and reservoir characteristics of different dolomite types.

  17. Differences in survival and growth in hatchery and stream environments, and in maturation of residuls in a stream, between progeny of hatchery and wild steelhead (Study sites: Brushy Fork Creek and Dworshak Hatchery; Stocks:Dworshak hatchery and Fish Creek wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1993): Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater survival in hatchery and natural rearing environments was compared between progeny of hatchery (H) and wild (W) steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho. Adults from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild adults from Fish Creek fish were artificially spawned, and their progeny were genetically marked at the PEPA allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in production facilities at the hatchery and in Brushy Fork Creek, also in the Clearwater River drainage, in a common garden design. Survival was higher for H than for W progeny at the hatchery but lower for H than for W progeny in Brushy Fork, indicating reduced fitness of the hatchery population for natural rearing and suggesting domestication as the cause. Survival at the hatchery was lower than is typical due to disease outbreaks. Survival of the first year-class of experimental fish to smolt release was only 18%. Survival of H fish was 3.8 times that of W fish under these poor survival conditions. All fish from the second year-class died halfway through the scheduled 10 month rearing period. Survival of H fish was 5.2 times that of W fish to when 1% of the initial fry were still alive indicating that W fish succumbed to the epizootic sooner than did H fish. Emigrants from the Brushy Fork study reach were sampled for three years and fish residing in the study reach were sampled for six years following fry release. Most emigrants were one or two years old and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 93 mm). Survival in Brushy Fork was lower for H than for W fish of the first year-class. Survival of the second year-class was higher for H than for W fish during the first two months in the stream but was lower for H than for W fish thereafter, and net survival from release to ages 3 and older was also lower for H than for W fish if our emigrant samples were representative (periods of inoperative emigrant traps prevented certainty about this

  18. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  19. Predicted time from fertilization to maximum wet weight for steelhead alevins based on incubation temperature and egg size (Study site: Western Fishery Research Center, Seattle; Stock: Dworshak hatchery; Year class: 1996): Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Slatton, Stacey L.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of a model that predicts time between fertilization and maximum alevin wet weight (MAWW) from incubation temperature was tested for steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery on the Clearwater River, Idaho. MAWW corresponds to the button-up fry stage of development. Embryos were incubated at warm (mean=11.6°C) or cold (mean=7.3°C) temperatures and time between fertilization and MAWW was measured for each temperature. Model predictions of time to MAWW were within 1% of measured time to MAWW. Mean egg weight ranged from 0.101-0.136 g among females (mean = 0.116). Time to MAWW was positively related to egg size for each temperature, but the increase in time to MAWW with increasing egg size was greater for embryos reared at the warm than at the cold temperature. We developed equations accounting for the effect of egg size on time to MAWW for each temperature, and also for the mean of those temperatures (9.3°C).

  20. Parcperdue geopressure-geothermal project. Study a geopressured reservoir by drilling and producing a well in a limited geopressured water sand. Final technical report, September 28, 1979-December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.R.; Stanley, J.G.

    1984-01-15

    The behavior of geopressured reservoirs was investigated by drilling and producing a well in small, well defined, geopressured reservoir; and performing detailed pressure transient analysis together with geological, geophysical, chemical, and physical studies. The Dow-DOE L. R. Sweezy No. 1 well was drilled to a depth of 13,600 feet in Parcperdue field, just south of Lafayette, Louisiana, and began production in April, 1982. The production zone was a poorly consolidated sandstone which constantly produced sand into the well stream, causing damage to equipment and causing other problems. The amount of sand production was kept manageable by limiting the flow rate to below 10,000 barrels per day. Reservoir properties of size, thickness, depth, temperature, pressure, salinity, porosity, and permeability were close to predicted values. The reservoir brine was undersaturated with respect to gas, containing approximately 20 standard cubic feet of gas per barrel of brine. Shale dewatering either did not occur or was insignificant as a drive mechanism. Production terminated when the gravel-pack completion failed and the production well totally sanded in, February, 1983. Total production up to the sanding incident was 1.94 million barrels brine and 31.5 million standard cubic feet gas.

  1. 95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. BOUQUET RESERVOIR LOOKING UP VALLEY TO RESERVOIR LOOKING EAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Reservoir Inflation Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Ponden, Raymond F.

    1991-11-22

    Inflation of the reservoir is to begin on Friday afternoon, November 22 and continue through mid day on Monday, November 25. Inflation of the reservoir shall be accomplished by using only injection pump, HP-2. NOTE: Under no circumstances should injection pump, HP-1 be operated.

  3. Geothermal reservoir engineering research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, H. J., Jr.; Kruger, P.; Brigham, W. E.; London, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Stanford University research program on the study of stimulation and reservoir engineering of geothermal resources commenced as an interdisciplinary program in September, 1972. The broad objectives of this program have been: (1) the development of experimental and computational data to evaluate the optimum performance of fracture-stimulated geothermal reservoirs; (2) the development of a geothermal reservoir model to evaluate important thermophysical, hydrodynamic, and chemical parameters based on fluid-energy-volume balances as part of standard reservoir engineering practice; and (3) the construction of a laboratory model of an explosion-produced chimney to obtain experimental data on the processes of in-place boiling, moving flash fronts, and two-phase flow in porous and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs.

  4. Genetic differences between hatchery and wild steelhead for survival, growth, dispersal, and male maturation in a natural stream (Study site: Twenty-Mile Creek; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery and Selway River wild; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Baker, Bruce M.; Leonetti,; Stenberg, Karl D.; Slatton, Stacey L.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated in the early 1990s to provide managers with data comparing genetic fitness for natural rearing, as measured by survival of juveniles in freshwater, between steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild steelhead from the Clearwater River, Idaho. We artificially spawned hatchery steelhead and wild steelhead from the Selway River, a Clearwater River tributary, released the resulting genetically marked (at the PEPA allozyme locus) progeny (HxH, HxW from hatchery females and wild males, and WxW) as unfed fry in a second order tributary of the South Fork Clearwater River, and monitored fish residing in the stream or emigrating from it for five years. Barrier falls prevented access to the stream by naturally produced steelhead. Over 90% of the emigrants were one or two years of age and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 103 mm). Per fry released, the HxH cross produced 0.64-0.83 times as many emigrants as the WxW cross (P<0.05). The HxH cross produced 0.63 times as many age-4 residuals as the WxW cross for one year-class (P=0.051) and 0.68 times as many for the other (ns). Survival from age-1 to age-4 was lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of one year-class (P<0.05) and survival from age-2 to age-4 may have been lower for HxH than for WxW residuals of the other (P=0.062). Collectively, these results indicate lower survival for HxH than for WxW fish. Size was often greater for HxH than for WxW fish indicating faster growth for the former, and condition factor was also usually greater for HxH than for WxW fish. Dispersal of fry from release sites and emigration of one- and two-year olds from the study stream were greater for WxW than for HxH fish, and apparently neither was from competitive displacement of small by larger fish. Incidence of flowing milt was higher for HxH than for WxW fish at age-2. Peak incidence of flowing milt for older residuals was similar among crosses (about 50%), but the peak

  5. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Carl D.

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of the weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.

  6. Geysers reservoir studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Pruess, K. )

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is conducting several research projects related to issues of interest to The Geysers operators, including those that deal with understanding the nature of vapor-dominated systems, measuring or inferring reservoir processes and parameters, and studying the effects of liquid injection. All of these topics are directly or indirectly relevant to the development of reservoir strategies aimed at stabilizing or increasing production rates of non-corrosive steam, low in non-condensable gases. Three reservoir engineering studies are described in some detail, that is: (a) Modeling studies of heat transfer and phase distribution in two-phase geothermal reservoirs; (b) Numerical modeling studies of Geysers injection experiments; and (c) Development of a dual-porosity model to calculate mass flow between rock matrix blocks and neighboring fractures.

  7. Potential Mammalian Filovirus Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Johnson, Karl M.

    2004-01-01

    Ebola and Marburg viruses are maintained in unknown reservoir species; spillover into human populations results in occasional human cases or epidemics. We attempted to narrow the list of possibilities regarding the identity of those reservoir species. We made a series of explicit assumptions about the reservoir: it is a mammal; it supports persistent, largely asymptomatic filovirus infections; its range subsumes that of its associated filovirus; it has coevolved with the virus; it is of small body size; and it is not a species that is commensal with humans. Under these assumptions, we developed priority lists of mammal clades that coincide distributionally with filovirus outbreak distributions and compared these lists with those mammal taxa that have been tested for filovirus infection in previous epidemiologic studies. Studying the remainder of these taxa may be a fruitful avenue for pursuing the identity of natural reservoirs of filoviruses. PMID:15663841

  8. Geothermal reservoir simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. W., Jr.; Faust, C.; Pinder, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    The prediction of long-term geothermal reservoir performance and the environmental impact of exploiting this resource are two important problems associated with the utilization of geothermal energy for power production. Our research effort addresses these problems through numerical simulation. Computer codes based on the solution of partial-differential equations using finite-element techniques are being prepared to simulate multiphase energy transport, energy transport in fractured porous reservoirs, well bore phenomena, and subsidence.

  9. Session: Reservoir Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Joel L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Horne, Roland N.; Shook, G. Michael

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five papers: ''Reservoir Technology'' by Joel L. Renner; ''LBL Research on the Geysers: Conceptual Models, Simulation and Monitoring Studies'' by Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson; ''Geothermal Geophysical Research in Electrical Methods at UURI'' by Philip E. Wannamaker; ''Optimizing Reinjection Strategy at Palinpinon, Philippines Based on Chloride Data'' by Roland N. Horne; ''TETRAD Reservoir Simulation'' by G. Michael Shook

  10. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field`s relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  11. Andrew integrated reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Andrew field is an oil and gas accumulation in Palaeocene deep marine sands in the Central North Sea. It is currently being developed with mainly horizontal oil producers. Because of the field's relatively small reserves (mean 118 mmbbls), the performance of each of the 10 or so horizontal wells is highly important. Reservoir description work at sanction time concentrated on supporting the case that the field could be developed commercially with the minimum number of wells. The present Integrated Reservoir Description (IRD) is focussed on delivering the next level of detail that will impact the understanding of the local reservoir architecture and dynamic performance of each well. Highlights of Andrew IRD Include: (1) Use of a Reservoir Uncertainty Statement (RUS) developed at sanction time to focus the descriptive effort of both asset, support and contract petrotechnical staff, (2) High resolution biostratigraphic correlation to support confident zonation of the reservoir, (3) Detailed sedimentological analysis of the core including the use of dipmeter to interpret channel/sheet architecture to provide new insights into reservoir heterogeneity; (4) Integrated petrographical and petrophysical investigation of the controls on Sw-Height and relative permeability of water; (5) Fluids description using oil geochemistry and Residual Salt Analysis Sr isotope studies. Andrew IRD has highlighted several important risks to well performance, including the influence of more heterolithic intervals on gas breakthrough and the controls on water coning exerted by suppressed water relative permeability in the transition zone.

  12. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  14. Optoelectronic Reservoir Computing

    PubMed Central

    Paquot, Y.; Duport, F.; Smerieri, A.; Dambre, J.; Schrauwen, B.; Haelterman, M.; Massar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced, highly efficient bio-inspired approach for processing time dependent data. The basic scheme of reservoir computing consists of a non linear recurrent dynamical system coupled to a single input layer and a single output layer. Within these constraints many implementations are possible. Here we report an optoelectronic implementation of reservoir computing based on a recently proposed architecture consisting of a single non linear node and a delay line. Our implementation is sufficiently fast for real time information processing. We illustrate its performance on tasks of practical importance such as nonlinear channel equalization and speech recognition, and obtain results comparable to state of the art digital implementations. PMID:22371825

  15. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  16. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Volume I (of 4): Task 1, conduct research on mud-rich submarine fans. Final report, February 14, 1995--October 13, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1997-01-13

    The objective for this portion of the research involved conducting field studies and laboratory investigations to develop and refine models for mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysis and reservoir engineers. These research aspects have been presented in two papers as follows: (1) Bouma, A.H., {open_quotes}Review of Fine-Grained Submarine Fans and Turbidite Systems{close_quotes}; (2) Kirkova, J.T. and Lorenzo, J.M., {open_quotes}Synthetic Seismic Modeling of Measured Submarine Fans Sections, Case Study of the Tanqua Complex, Karoo, South Africa{close_quotes} The {open_quotes}Review of Fine-Grained Submarine Fans and Turbidite Systems{close_quotes} by Arnold Bouma discusses research targeted toward stimulating an increase in oil and gas recovery by developing new and improved geological understanding. The {open_quotes}Synthetic Seismic Modeling of Measured Submarine Fan Sections, Case Study of the Tanqua Complex, Karoo, South Africa{close_quotes} by J.T. Kirkova and J.M. Lorenso discusses the limitations of verticle resolution and how this affects the interpretation and characterization of submarine fan complexes.

  17. Reservoir stability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, T.J.

    1981-07-01

    The objective of the reservoir stability studies project is to develop stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock caverns, and porous rock structures for air storage in utility applications. Because reservoir stability was deemed crucial to commercialization of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems this project has received major emphasis in the early phases of the overall CAES program. A long term plan, including state-of-the-art assessment, numerical model development and experimental studies culminating in field research, as necessary, was formulated. This plan, initiated in 1977, has been completed during FY-1981 to the stage of specific experimental studies and field research. Activities within this project during FY-1981 have included completion of site specific geotechnical design evaluations using methodologies developed to assess hard rock cavern stability, implementation of in-mine research to evaluate numerical and laboratory study conclusions on the response of domal salt, and preparation of integrated laboratory and field study facilities to assess developed predictive methods and determine in situ response of a porous media reservoir to air injection. The major activity in the project has been the field study component of the porous media studies. Accomplishments there have included completion of exploration, permitting and leasing, operation contractor selection and negotiation, and initiation of procurement and construction for an FY-1982 test initiation. A major program milestone, drilling of the injection withdrawal well for this test, was completed ahead of schedule.

  18. Applying reservoir characterization technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.

    1994-12-31

    While reservoir characterization is an old discipline, only within the last 10 years have engineers and scientists been able to make quantitative descriptions, due mostly to improvements in high-resolution computational power, sophisticated graphics, and geostatistics. This paper summarizes what has been learned during the past decade by using these technologies.

  19. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  20. A priori data-driven multi-clustered reservoir generation algorithm for echo state network.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiumin; Zhong, Ling; Xue, Fangzheng; Zhang, Anguo

    2015-01-01

    Echo state networks (ESNs) with multi-clustered reservoir topology perform better in reservoir computing and robustness than those with random reservoir topology. However, these ESNs have a complex reservoir topology, which leads to difficulties in reservoir generation. This study focuses on the reservoir generation problem when ESN is used in environments with sufficient priori data available. Accordingly, a priori data-driven multi-cluster reservoir generation algorithm is proposed. The priori data in the proposed algorithm are used to evaluate reservoirs by calculating the precision and standard deviation of ESNs. The reservoirs are produced using the clustering method; only the reservoir with a better evaluation performance takes the place of a previous one. The final reservoir is obtained when its evaluation score reaches the preset requirement. The prediction experiment results obtained using the Mackey-Glass chaotic time series show that the proposed reservoir generation algorithm provides ESNs with extra prediction precision and increases the structure complexity of the network. Further experiments also reveal the appropriate values of the number of clusters and time window size to obtain optimal performance. The information entropy of the reservoir reaches the maximum when ESN gains the greatest precision.

  1. Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficken, W. H.; Schulien, H. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dynamic-reservoir lubricating device supplies controlled amounts of lubricating oil to ball bearings during operation of the bearings. The dynamic reservoir lubricating device includes a rotating reservoir nut, a hollow cylinder filled with lubricating oil, flow restrictors and a ball bearing retainer.

  2. Geothermal Reservoirs: Products of Cooling Plutons

    SciTech Connect

    Denis L. Norton

    2002-09-24

    The goals of this project were to develop an in depth understanding of how geothermal reservoirs form and elucidate those features that could potentially be useful in exploration and development of additional energy reserves. Collaboration with Jeff Hulen, EGI helped closely coordinate theoretical concepts and computational experiments with geologic reality in fulfillment of the tasks for this project. Initial reconnaissance computations with Tom Brikowski, University of Texas were critical in realizing the final products of this project. The products of this work contribute basic understanding of the dynamical conditions attendant to the formation of reservoirs in general and the Geysers reservoir in particular. The most exciting of the discoveries were a combination of mineralogical, computational, and geothermometric data sets that revealed a chaotic-like behavior of the processes is critical in the formation of reservoirs near cooling plutions. This discovery provides a fundamental basis for improving resource assessment and exploration methods for geothermal energy associated with very young magmas. Some of the main results are documented in scientific publications, and DOE progress reports. An additional publication is in preparation on the overall significance of fracture propagation and microseismic activity around young magmas.

  3. Multimodal reservoir porosity simulation: An application to a tight oil reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvageau, Mathieu; Gloaguen, Erwan; Claprood, Maxime; Lefebvre, René; Bêche, Martin

    2014-08-01

    At appraisal stage of a reservoir characterization, a key step is the inference of the reservoir static properties, such as porosity. In this study, we present a new nested workflow that optimally integrates 3D acoustic impedance and geophysical log data for the estimation of the spatial distribution of reservoir porosity, which is applied to a tight sandstone oil reservoir located in Quebec, Canada. In this workflow, 3D seismic is the main source of spatial information. First, the statistical petrophysical relationship between acoustic impedance and reservoir porosity is established using collocated geophysical log data. Second, a conventional least-squares post-stack inversion of the impedance is computed on the seismic grid. The fit between well log data and numerically computed traces was found to be inaccurate. This leads to the third step, involving a post-stack stochastic impedance inversion using the same seismic traces not only to improve well and trace fit but also to estimate the uncertainty on the inverted impedances. Finally, a Bayesian simulation algorithm adapted to the estimation of a multi-modal porosity distribution is used to simulate realizations of porosity over the entire seismic grid. Results show that the over-smoothing effect of least-squares inversion has a major impact on resource evaluation, especially by not reproducing the high-valued tail of the porosity distribution. The adapted Bayesian algorithm combined with stochastic impedance inversion thus allows a better reproduction of the porosity distribution and improves estimation of the geophysical and geological uncertainty.

  4. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Interactive reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Regtien, J.M.M. Por, G.J.A.; Stiphout, M.T. van; Vlugt, F.F. van der

    1995-12-31

    Shell`s new Modular Reservoir Simulator (MoReS) has been equipped with a comprehensive and versatile user interface called FrontEnd. Apart from providing a user-friendly environment for interactive reservoir simulation, FrontEnd serves a software platform for other dynamic simulation and reservoir-engineering applications. It offers to all supported applications a common user interface, enables the re-use of code and reduces overall maintenance and support costs associated with the embedded applications. Because of its features, FrontEnd facilitates the transfer of research results in the form of operational software to end users. When coupled with MoReS, FrontEnd can be used for pre- and post-processing and interactive simulation. The pre-processing options allow data to be inputted by means of various OSF/Motif widgets containing a spreadsheet, text editors, dialogues and graphical input. The display of the input data as well as the post-processing of all simulation results is made possible by a variety of user-defined plot of tabular (e.g. timestep summary) and array (simulation grid) data. During a simulation user-defined plots can be displayed and edited, allowing a close inspection of the results as they are being calculated. FrontEnd has been equipped with a powerful input command language, which gives the batch user as much flexibility and control over the input as the interactive user.

  6. Solving non-Markovian open quantum systems with multi-channel reservoir coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Curtis J.; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Eberly, Joseph H.

    2012-08-01

    We extend the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to open quantum systems which exhibit multi-channel coupling to a harmonic oscillator reservoir. Open quantum systems which have multi-channel reservoir coupling are those in which canonical transformation of reservoir modes cannot reduce the number of reservoir operators appearing in the interaction Hamiltonian to one. We show that the non-Markovian QSD equation for multi-channel reservoir coupling can, in some cases, lead to an exact master equation which we derive. We then derive the exact master equation for the three-level system in a vee-type configuration which has multi-channel reservoir coupling and give the analytical solution. Finally, we examine the evolution of the three-level vee-type system with generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck reservoir correlations numerically.

  7. Nonlinear Memory Capacity of Parallel Time-Delay Reservoir Computers in the Processing of Multidimensional Signals.

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo

    2016-07-01

    This letter addresses the reservoir design problem in the context of delay-based reservoir computers for multidimensional input signals, parallel architectures, and real-time multitasking. First, an approximating reservoir model is presented in those frameworks that provides an explicit functional link between the reservoir architecture and its performance in the execution of a specific task. Second, the inference properties of the ridge regression estimator in the multivariate context are used to assess the impact of finite sample training on the decrease of the reservoir capacity. Finally, an empirical study is conducted that shows the adequacy of the theoretical results with the empirical performances exhibited by various reservoir architectures in the execution of several nonlinear tasks with multidimensional inputs. Our results confirm the robustness properties of the parallel reservoir architecture with respect to task misspecification and parameter choice already documented in the literature.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from reservoir water surfaces: A ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Collectively, reservoirs created by dams are thought to be an important source ofgreenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. So far, efforts to quantify, model, andmanage these emissions have been limited by data availability and inconsistenciesin methodological approach. Here we synthesize worldwide reservoir methane,carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide emission data with three main objectives: (1) togenerate a global estimate of GHG emissions from reservoirs, (2) to identify the bestpredictors of these emissions, and (3) to consider the effect of methodology onemission estimates. We estimate that GHG emission from reservoir water surfacesaccount for 0.8 (0.5-1.2) Pg CO2-equivalents per year, equal to ~1.3 % of allanthropogenic GHG emissions, with the majority (79%) of this forcing due tomethane. We also discuss the potential for several alternative pathways such as damdegassing and downstream emissions to contribute significantly to overall GHGemissions. Although prior studies have linked reservoir GHG emissions to systemage and latitude, we find that factors related to reservoir productivity are betterpredictors of emission. Finally, as methane contributed the most to total reservoirGHG emissions, it is important that future monitoring campaigns incorporatemethane emission pathways, especially ebullition. To inform the public.

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  10. Geotechnology for low-permeability gas reservoirs, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Harstad, H.; Lorenz, J.; Warpinski, N.; Boneau, T.; Holcomb, D.; Teufel, L.; Young, C.

    1995-06-01

    The permeability, and thus the economics, of tight reservoirs are largely dependent on natural fractures, and on the in situ stresses that both originated fractures and control subsequent fracture permeability. Natural fracture permeability ultimately determines the gas (or oil) producibility from the rock matrix. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to predict, both prior to drilling and during reservoir production, (1) the natural fracture characteristics, (2) the mechanical and transport properties of fractures and the surrounding rock matrix, and (3) the present in situ stress magnitudes and orientations. The combination of activities described in this report extends the earlier work to other Rocky Mountain gas reservoirs. Additionally, it extends the fracture characterizations to attempts of crosswell geophysical fracture detection using shear wave birefringence and to obtaining detailed quantitative models of natural fracture systems for use in improved numerical reservoir simulations. Finally, the project continues collaborative efforts to evaluate and advance cost-effective methods for in situ stress measurements on core.

  11. Production decline analysis for a multi-fractured horizontal well considering elliptical reservoir stimulated volumes in shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mingqiang; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Zhang, Tiantian

    2016-06-01

    Multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs) are an effective technique for developing shale gas reservoirs. After fracturing, stimulated reservoir volumes (SRVs) invariably exist around the wellbore. In this paper, a composite elliptical SRV model for each hydraulic fracturing stage is established, based on micro-seismic events. Both the SRV and the outer regions are assumed as single-porosity media with different formation physical parameters. Based on unstructured perpendicular bisection (PEBI) grids, a mathematical model considering Darcy flow, diffusion and adsorption/desorption in shale gas reservoirs is presented. The numerical solution is obtained by combining the control volume finite element method with the fully implicit method. The model is verified by a simplified model solution. The MFHW Blasingame production decline curves, which consider elliptical SRVs in shale gas reservoirs, are plotted by computer programming. The flow regions can be divided into five flow regimes: early formation linear flow, radial flow in the SRV region, transient flow, pseudo radial flow and boundary dominated flow. Finally, the effect of six related parameters, including the SRV area size, outer region permeability, SRV region permeability, Langmuir pressure, Langmuir volume and diffusion coefficient, are analyzed on type curves. The model presented in this paper can expand our understanding of MFHW production decline behaviors in shale gas reservoirs and can be applied to estimate reservoir properties, the SRV area, and reserves in these types of reservoirs by type curve matching.

  12. Fractured petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, A.; Chang, E.; Tang, G.Q.

    2000-01-10

    Total compressibility in a fractured reservoir is estimated using the pressure response due to gravitational potential variations. Both the moon and the sun gravitational potentials are accounted for using the full expression by inclusion of longer-period components. The semi-diurnal and diurnal pressure data show substantial long-term variations. The gravitational potential also contains the same variation trend; the ratio between the potential and pressure has a fairly uniform value over successive cycles. The computed total compressibility is also fairly constant and independent of the cycle. Results show the effects of the time interval over which the pressure measurements are performed as well as the location.

  13. Calderas and magma reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, Katharine V.; Giordano, Guido

    2014-11-01

    Large caldera-forming eruptions have long been a focus of both petrological and volcanological studies; petrologists have used the eruptive products to probe conditions of magma storage (and thus processes that drive magma evolution), while volcanologists have used them to study the conditions under which large volumes of magma are transported to, and emplaced on, the Earth's surface. Traditionally, both groups have worked on the assumption that eruptible magma is stored within a single long-lived melt body. Over the past decade, however, advances in analytical techniques have provided new views of magma storage regions, many of which provide evidence of multiple melt lenses feeding a single eruption, and/or rapid pre-eruptive assembly of large volumes of melt. These new petrological views of magmatic systems have not yet been fully integrated into volcanological perspectives of caldera-forming eruptions. Here we explore the implications of complex magma reservoir configurations for eruption dynamics and caldera formation. We first examine mafic systems, where stacked-sill models have long been invoked but which rarely produce explosive eruptions. An exception is the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, where seismic and petrologic data show that multiple sills at different depths fed a multi-phase (explosive and effusive) eruption. Extension of this concept to larger mafic caldera-forming systems suggests a mechanism to explain many of their unusual features, including their protracted explosivity, spatially variable compositions and pronounced intra-eruptive pauses. We then review studies of more common intermediate and silicic caldera-forming systems to examine inferred conditions of magma storage, time scales of melt accumulation, eruption triggers, eruption dynamics and caldera collapse. By compiling data from large and small, and crystal-rich and crystal-poor, events, we compare eruptions that are well explained by simple evacuation of a zoned

  14. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  15. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  16. All-optical reservoir computing.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  17. Reservoir Modeling for Production Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.

    1989-03-21

    For both petroleum and geothermal resources, many of the reservoirs are fracture dominated--rather than matrix-permeability controlled. For such reservoirs, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent permeability of the interconnected system of natural joints (i.e., pre-existing fractures) is critical to the efficient exploitation of the resource through proper pressure management. Our experience and that reported by others indicates that a reduction in the reservoir pressure sometimes leads to an overall reduction in production rate due to the ''pinching off'' of the joint network, rather than the anticipated increase in production rate. This effect occurs not just in the vicinity of the wellbore, where proppants are sometimes employed, but throughout much of the reservoir region. This follows from the fact that under certain circumstances, the decline in fracture permeability (or conductivity) with decreasing reservoir pressure exceeds the far-field reservoir ''drainage'' flow rate increase due to the increased pressure gradient. Further, a knowledge of the pressure-dependent joint permeability could aid in designing more appropriate secondary recovery strategies in petroleum reservoirs or reinjection procedures for geothermal reservoirs.

  18. HEC Activities in Reservoir Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    June 1979. Now, HEC-5, "Simulation of Flood Con- trol and Conservation Systems," (9) is our primary reservoir simulation program. Since its June release...are being incorporated into the reservoir simulation model HEC-5. The objective is to provide a computer program and methodology for total water

  19. Tertiary carbonate reservoirs in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Nayoan, G.A.S.; Arpandi; Siregar, M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon production from Tertiary carbonate reservoirs accounted for ca. 10% of daily Indonesian production at the beginning of 1978. Environmentally, the reservoirs appear as parts of reef complexes and high-energy carbonate deposits within basinal areas situated mainly in the back arc of the archipelago. Good porosities of the reservoirs are represented by vugular/moldic and intergranular porosity types. The reservoirs are capable of producing prolific amounts of hydrocarbons: production tests in Salawati-Irian Jaya reaches maximum values of 32,000 bpd, and in Arun-North Sumatra tests recorded 200 MMCF gas/day. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are related to good reservoir rocks in carbonates deposited as patch reefs, pinnacle reefs, and platform complexes. Exploration efforts expand continuously within carbonate formations which are extensive horizontally as well as vertically in the Tertiary stratigraphic column.

  20. Stochastic thermodynamics with information reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2014-10-01

    We generalize stochastic thermodynamics to include information reservoirs. Such information reservoirs, which can be modeled as a sequence of bits, modify the second law. For example, work extraction from a system in contact with a single heat bath becomes possible if the system also interacts with an information reservoir. We obtain an inequality, and the corresponding fluctuation theorem, generalizing the standard entropy production of stochastic thermodynamics. From this inequality we can derive an information processing entropy production, which gives the second law in the presence of information reservoirs. We also develop a systematic linear response theory for information processing machines. For a unicyclic machine powered by an information reservoir, the efficiency at maximum power can deviate from the standard value of 1 /2 . For the case where energy is consumed to erase the tape, the efficiency at maximum erasure rate is found to be 1 /2 .

  1. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  2. Meandering stream reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.G.; Sangree, J.B.; Sneider, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Braided stream deposits, described in a previous article in this series, and meandering stream deposits commonly are excellent reservoirs. Meandering high-sinuousity channels are found on flat alluvial plains with slopes less than 1 1/2/sup 0/ (0.026 rad). These rivers have wide ranges of discharges from low-water flow to flood stage. Two main processes are responsible for development of sand bodies. These are point-bar deposits left by channel migration, and oxbow-lake deposits left in loops of the river course abandoned when the stream cuts a new course during flooding. Extremely high floods spill over the banks and deposit sheets of very fine sand, silt, and clay onto the flood plain.

  3. Optimal Hedging Rule for Reservoir Refill Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, W.; Zhao, J.; Lund, J. R.; Zhao, T.; Lei, X.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper develops an optimal reservoir Refill Hedging Rule (RHR) for combined water supply and flood operation using mathematical analysis. A two-stage model is developed to formulate the trade-off between operations for conservation benefit and flood damage in the reservoir refill season. Based on the probability distribution of the maximum refill water availability at the end of the second stage, three zones are characterized according to the relationship among storage capacity, expected storage buffer (ESB), and maximum safety excess discharge (MSED). The Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions of the model show that the optimality of the refill operation involves making the expected marginal loss of conservation benefit from unfilling (i.e., ending storage of refill period less than storage capacity) as nearly equal to the expected marginal flood damage from levee overtopping downstream as possible while maintaining all constraints. This principle follows and combines the hedging rules for water supply and flood management. A RHR curve is drawn analogously to water supply hedging and flood hedging rules, showing the trade-off between the two objectives. The release decision result has a linear relationship with the current water availability, implying the linearity of RHR for a wide range of water conservation functions (linear, concave, or convex). A demonstration case shows the impacts of factors. Larger downstream flood conveyance capacity and empty reservoir capacity allow a smaller current release and more water can be conserved. Economic indicators of conservation benefit and flood damage compete with each other on release, the greater economic importance of flood damage is, the more water should be released in the current stage, and vice versa. Below a critical value, improving forecasts yields less water release, but an opposing effect occurs beyond this critical value. Finally, the Danjiangkou Reservoir case study shows that the RHR together with a rolling

  4. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  5. Collapsible sheath fluid reservoirs for flow cytometers

    DOEpatents

    Mark, Graham A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a container in the form of a single housing for holding fluid, including a first collapsible reservoir having a first valve. The first reservoir initially contains a volume of fluid. The container also includes a second reservoir, initially empty (or substantially empty), expandable to a second volume. The second reservoir has a second valve. As the volume of said first reservoir decreases, the volume of the second reservoir proportionally increases.

  6. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto reservoirs under exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; Puente, H.G.

    1997-07-01

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal field of Baja California (Mexico) has been under commercial production to generate electricity since 1973. Over the years, the large amount of Geothermal fluids extracted (at present about 12,000 tons per hour) to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in a reduction of pressures, changes in reservoir processes, and increased flow of cooler groundwater into the geothermal system. The groundwater recharging the reservoir moves horizontally through permeable layers, as well as vertically through permeable fault zones. In addition, the supply of deep hot waters has continued unabated, and perhaps has increased as reservoir pressure decreased. Since 1989, this natural fluid recharge has been supplemented by injection which presently amounts to about 20% of the fluid produced. Changes in the chemical and physical characteristics of the reservoir fluids due to the drop in pressures and the inflow of cooler groundwaters and injectate have been detected on the basis of wellhead data. These changes point to reservoir processes like local boiling, phase segregation, steam condensation, mixing and dilution. Finally, the study identified areas where fluids are entering the reservoir, as well as indicated their source (i.e. natural Groundwater recharge versus injectate) and established the controlling geologic structures.

  7. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  8. Data requirements and acquisition for reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.; Chang, Ming Ming; Tham, Min.

    1993-03-01

    This report outlines the types of data, data sources and measurement tools required for effective reservoir characterization, the data required for specific enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, and a discussion on the determination of the optimum data density for reservoir characterization and reservoir modeling. The two basic sources of data for reservoir characterization are data from the specific reservoir and data from analog reservoirs, outcrops, and modern environments. Reservoir data can be divided into three broad categories: (1) rock properties (the container) and (2) fluid properties (the contents) and (3)interaction between reservoir rock and fluid. Both static and dynamic measurements are required.

  9. REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION PROCEDURES

    SciTech Connect

    George Scott III

    2002-08-01

    Ongoing Phase 2 work comprises the development and field-testing of a real-time reservoir stimulation diagnostic system. Phase 3 work commenced in June 2001, and involved conducting research, development and field-testing of real-time enhanced dual-fluid stimulation processes. Experimental field-testing to date includes three well tests. Application of these real-time stimulation processes and diagnostic technologies has been technically successful with commercial production from the ''marginal'' reservoirs in the first two well tests. The third well test proved downhole-mixing is an efficient process for acid stimulation of a carbonate reservoir that produced oil and gas with 2200 psi bottomhole reservoir pressure, however, subsequent shut-in pressure testing indicated the reservoir was characterized by low-permeability. Realtimezone continues to seek patent protection in foreign markets to the benefit of both RTZ and NETL. Realtimezone and the NETL have licensed the United States patented to Halliburton Energy Services (HES). Ongoing Phase 2 and Phase 3 field-testing continues to confirm applications of both real-time technologies, from well testing conducted over the last 12-month work period and including well test scheduled for year-end of 2002. Technical data transfer to industry is ongoing via Internet tech-transfer, public presentations and industry publications. Final Phase 3 test work will be focused on further field-testing the innovational process of blending stimulation fluids downhole. This system provides a number of advantages in comparison to older industry fracturing techniques and allows the operator to control reservoir fracture propagation and concentrations of proppant placed in the reservoir, in real-time. Another observed advantage is that lower friction pressures result, which results in lower pump treating pressures and safer reservoir hydraulic fracturing jobs.

  10. GPFA-AB_Phase1GeologicReservoirsContentModel10_26_2015.xls

    SciTech Connect

    Teresa E. Jordan

    2015-09-30

    This dataset conforms to the Tier 3 Content Model for Geologic Reservoirs Version 1.0. It contains the known hydrocarbon reservoirs within the study area of the GPFA-AB Phase 1 Task 2, Natural Reservoirs Quality Analysis (Project DE-EE0006726). The final values for Reservoir Productivity Index (RPI) and uncertainty (in terms of coefficient of variation, CV) are included. RPI is in units of liters per MegaPascal-second (L/MPa-s), quantified using permeability, thickness of formation, and depth. A higher RPI is more optimal. Coefficient of Variation (CV) is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean RPI for each reservoir. A lower CV is more optimal. Details on these metrics can be found in the Reservoirs_Methodology_Memo.pdf uploaded to the Geothermal Data Repository Node of the NGDS in October of 2015.

  11. Cost Distribution of Environmental Flow Demands in a Large Scale Multi-Reservoir System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, G.; Tilmant, A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the recovery of a prescribed flow regime through reservoir system reoperation, focusing on the associated costs and losses imposed on different power plants depending on flows, power plant and reservoir characteristics and systems topology. In large-scale reservoir systems such cost distribution is not trivial, and it should be properly evaluated to identify coordinated operating solutions that avoid penalizing a single reservoir. The methods combine an efficient stochastic dual dynamic programming algorithm for reservoir optimization subject to environmental flow targets with specific magnitude, duration and return period, which effects on fish recruitment are already known. Results indicate that the distribution of the effect of meeting the environmental flow demands throughout the reservoir cascade differs largely, and in some reservoirs power production and revenue are increased, while in others it is reduced. Most importantly, for the example system modeled here (10 reservoirs in the Parana River basin, Brazil) meeting the target environmental flows was possible without reducing the total energy produced in the year, at a cost of $25 Million/year in foregone hydropower revenues (3% reduction). Finally, the results and methods are useful in (a) quantifying the foregone hydropower and revenues resulting from meeting a specific environmental flow demand, (b) identifying the distribution and reallocation of the foregone hydropower and revenue across a large scale system, and (c) identifying optimal reservoir operating strategies to meet environmental flow demands in a large scale multi-reservoir system.

  12. Characterization of fluid flow in naturally fractured reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.

    1981-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a four month study of the characteristics of multiphase flow in naturally fractured porous media. An assessment and evaluation of the literature was carried out and a comprehensive list of references compiled on the subject. Mathematical models presented in the various references cited were evaluated along with the stated assumptions or those inherent in the equations. Particular attention was focused upon identifying unique approaches which would lead to the formulation of a general mathematical model of multiphase/multi-component flow in fractured porous media. A model is presented which may be used to more accurately predict the movement of multi-phase fluids through such type formations. Equations of motion are derived for a multiphase/multicomponent fluid which is flowing through a double porosity, double permeability medium consisting of isotropic primary rock matrix blocks and an anisotropic fracture matrix system. The fractures are assumed to have a general statistical distribution in space and orientation. A general distribution function, called the fracture matrix function is introduced to represent the statistical nature of the fractures.

  13. Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity for Depleted Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yen Ting; Shen, Chien-Hao; Tseng, Chi-Chung; Fan, Chen-Hui; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2015-04-01

    A depleted gas reservoir is one of the best options for CO2 storage for many reasons. First of all, the storage safety or the caprock integrity has been proven because the natural gas was trapped in the formation for a very long period of time. Also the formation properties and fluid flow characteristics for the reservoir have been well studied since the discovery of the gas reservoir. Finally the surface constructions and facilities are very useful and relatively easy to convert for the use of CO2 storage. The purpose of this study was to apply an analytical approach to estimate CO2 storage capacity in a depleted gas reservoir. The analytical method we used is the material balance equation (MBE), which have been widely used in natural gas storage. We proposed a modified MBE for CO2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir by introducing the z-factors of gas, CO2 and the mixture of the two. The MBE can be derived to a linear relationship between the ratio of pressure to gas z-factor (p/z) and the cumulative term (Gp-Ginj, where Gp is the cumulative gas production and Ginj is the cumulative CO2 injection). The CO2 storage capacity can be calculated when constraints of reservoir recovery pressure are adopted. The numerical simulation was also used for the validation of the theoretical estimation of CO2 storage capacity from the MBE. We found that the quantity of CO2 stored is more than that of gas produced when the reservoir pressure is recovered from the abandon pressure to the initial pressure. This result was basically from the fact that the gas- CO2 mixture z-factors are lower than the natural gas z-factors in reservoir conditions. We also established a useful p/z plot to easily observe the pressure behavior of CO2 storage and efficiently calculate the CO2 storage capacity. The application of the MBE we proposed was demonstrated by a case study of a depleted gas reservoir in northwestern Taiwan. The estimated CO2 storage capacities from conducting reservoir simulation

  14. Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, Randall S.; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Schrader, Richard; Hagstrom II, John; Wang, Ying; Kumar, Ananad; Wavrik, Kathryn

    2001-10-29

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs. This research project had three objectives. The first objective was to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas. The second objective was to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems. The third objective was to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs.

  15. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-03-03

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers.

  16. Reservoir evaporation in Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Ayala, Rolando A.

    2014-03-01

    The role of reservoir surface evaporation in river/reservoir water budgets and water management is explored using a modeling system that combines historical natural hydrology with current conditions of water resources development and management. The long-term mean evaporation from the 3415 reservoirs in the Texas water rights permit system is estimated to be 7.53 billion m3/year, which is equivalent to 61% of total agricultural or 126% of total municipal water use in the state during the year 2010. Evaporation varies with the hydrologic conditions governing reservoir surface areas and evaporation rates. Annual statewide total evaporation volumes associated with exceedance probabilities of 75%, 50%, and 25% are 7.07, 7.47, and 7.95 billion m3/year, respectively. Impacts of evaporation are greatest during extended severe droughts that govern water supply capabilities.

  17. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  18. Functional wettability in carbonate reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Patrick V.; Thyne, Geoffrey

    2016-10-11

    Oil adsorbs to carbonate reservoirs indirectly through a relatively thick separating water layer, and directly to the surface through a relatively thin intervening water layer. Whereas directly sorbed oil desorbs slowly and incompletely in response to changes in reservoir conditions, indirectly sorbed oil can be rapidly desorbed by changing the chemistry of the separating water layer. The additional recovery might be as much as 30% original oil in place (OOIP) above the ~30% OOIP recovered from carbonates through reservoir depressurization (primary production) and viscous displacement (waterflooding). Electrostatic adhesive forces are the dominant control over carbonate reservoir wettability. A surface complexationmore » model that quantifies electrostatic adhesion accurately predicts oil recovery trends for carbonates. Furthermore, the approach should therefore be useful for estimating initial wettability and designing fluids that improve oil recovery.« less

  19. Functional wettability in carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick V.; Thyne, Geoffrey

    2016-10-11

    Oil adsorbs to carbonate reservoirs indirectly through a relatively thick separating water layer, and directly to the surface through a relatively thin intervening water layer. Whereas directly sorbed oil desorbs slowly and incompletely in response to changes in reservoir conditions, indirectly sorbed oil can be rapidly desorbed by changing the chemistry of the separating water layer. The additional recovery might be as much as 30% original oil in place (OOIP) above the ~30% OOIP recovered from carbonates through reservoir depressurization (primary production) and viscous displacement (waterflooding). Electrostatic adhesive forces are the dominant control over carbonate reservoir wettability. A surface complexation model that quantifies electrostatic adhesion accurately predicts oil recovery trends for carbonates. Furthermore, the approach should therefore be useful for estimating initial wettability and designing fluids that improve oil recovery.

  20. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  1. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  2. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  3. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... McClellan-Kerr Navigation Project in Oklahoma, to Former Owners Authority: Secs. 211.101 to 211.111... to: (a) Fort Gibson Reservoir Area, Oklahoma. (b) Lake Texoma and the Denison Reservoir Area..., Nebraska. (e) Fort Randall Reservoir Area, South Dakota. (f) Garrison Reservoir Area, North Dakota....

  4. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoirs required. 393.50 Section 393.50... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.50 Reservoirs required. (a) Reservoir capacity for air-braked... trailers manufactured on or after January 1, 1975, must meet the reservoir requirements of FMVSS No....

  5. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  6. SMALL, GEOLOGICALLY COMPLEX RESERVOIRS CAN BENEFIT FROM RESERVOIR SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Bennett

    2002-06-24

    The Cascade Sand zone of the Mission-Visco Lease in the Cascade Oil field of Los Angeles County, California, has been under water flood since 1970. Increasing water injection to increase oil production rates was being considered as an opportunity to improve oil recovery. However, a secondary gas cap had formed in the up-dip portion of the reservoir with very low gas cap pressures, creating concern that oil could be displaced into the gas cap resulting in the loss of recoverable oil. Therefore, injecting gas into the gas cap to keep the gas cap pressurized and restrict the influx of oil during water injection was also being considered. Further, it was recognized that the reservoir geology in the gas cap area is very complex with numerous folding and faulting and thus there are potential pressure barriers in several locations throughout the reservoir. With these conditions in mind, there were concerns regarding well to well continuity in the gas cap, which could interfere with the intended repressurization impact. Concerns about the pattern of gas flow from well to well, the possibilities of cycling gas without the desired increased pressure, and the possible loss of oil displaced into the gas cap resulted in the decision to conduct a gas tracer survey in an attempt to better define inter-well communication. Following the gas tracer survey, a reservoir model would be developed to integrate the findings of the gas tracer survey, known geologic and reservoir data, and historic production data. The reservoir model would be used to better define the reservoir characteristics and provide information that could help optimize the waterflood-gas injection project under consideration for efficient water and gas injection management to increase oil production. However, due to inadequate gas sampling procedures in the field and insufficiently developed laboratory analytical techniques, the laboratory was unable to detect the tracer in the gas samples taken. At that point, focus

  7. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  8. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  9. Seismic and Rockphysics Diagnostics of Multiscale Reservoir Textures

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mavko

    2005-07-01

    This final technical report summarizes the results of the work done in this project. The main objective was to quantify rock microstructures and their effects in terms of elastic impedances in order to quantify the seismic signatures of microstructures. Acoustic microscopy and ultrasonic measurements were used to quantify microstructures and their effects on elastic impedances in sands and shales. The project led to the development of technologies for quantitatively interpreting rock microstructure images, understanding the effects of sorting, compaction and stratification in sediments, and linking elastic data with geologic models to estimate reservoir properties. For the public, ultimately, better technologies for reservoir characterization translates to better reservoir development, reduced risks, and hence reduced energy costs.

  10. TVA sediment-disturbing activities within the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of Task 5 were to review: (1) the extent of dredging, construction, and other sediment-disturbing activities conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in potentially contaminated areas of Watts Bar Reservoir; and (2) the disposition of the materials from these activities. This memorandum is the final report for Task 5. This memorandum describes major activities in the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River that possibly resulted in significant disturbance of potentially contaminated sediments. TVA records from the construction of Watts Bar Dam, Kingston Fossil Plant, and Melton Hill Dam were reviewed to facilitate qualitative description of the effect of these activities in disturbing potentially contaminated sediments. The critical period for these activities in disturbing contaminated sediments was during or after 1956 when the peak releases of radioactive contaminants occurred from the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  11. The Ogden Valley artesian reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1945-01-01

    Ogden Valley, in Weber County, Utah, contains an artesian reservoir from which the city of Ogden obtains all except a small part of its municipal water supply. A detailed investigation of the ground-water resources of Ogden Valley, and particularly of this artesian reservoir, was made by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, in cooperation with the city of Ogden between 1932 and 1934, and the results of this investigation have been reported by Leggette and Taylor.1 The present paper, which might be termed a sequel to that report, is based on data collected during those years, augmented by records that have been obtained (1935-1940) by the Geological Survey as part of a State-wide project in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer. The conclusions drawn from the study of these records and presented in detail in the following pages are as follows: (1) The artesian reservoir is filled to capacity nearly every year during the spring run-off from melting snow; (2) after the annual freshet, the recharge to the reservoir is insufficient to balance the discharge from artesian wells, which ordinarily is at a maximum during the summer; the reservoir is depleted and is not filled again until the following spring; (3) during the periods when the artesian reservoir is not full the rate of recharge is more or less proportional to the inflow to the valley by streams, except that rain on the recharge area may be of sufficient intensity to contribute some water by infiltration and deep penetration; and (4) the artesian reservoir thus serves to store water that would otherwise be lost to Great Salt Lake in the excess spring overflow, and available records indicate that water used by increased draft from wells would be replenished in normal years by increased recharge during the spring freshet.

  12. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  13. Application of Integrated Reservoir management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    B. Pregger; D. Davies; D. Moore; G. Freeman; J. Callard; J.W. Nevans; L. Doublet; R. Vessell; T. Blasingame

    1997-08-31

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  14. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-12

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  15. Landslide study at Sacele reservoir in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Ambrosi, Christian; Spataro, Alessio; Martin, James; Olgun, Guney

    2010-05-01

    Sacele reservoir is locate on the river Tàrlung, about 3 Km upstream from Sacele and about 12 Km from Brasov (Romania). It represents the main drinking water source for Brasov. The Sacele reservoir is recognized as a dam of exceptional importance and therefore it requires special surveillance. In the East side of the basin, in proximity of the barrage, the slope shows evidences of instability; for this reason stabilization works, mainly consisting in re-profiling the slope, and drainage installation, has been conducted without success. This study, financed by the World Bank, aims to provide important information for the estabilishment of an authomatic monitoring system able to reduce the existing risk. Conducted studies includes: - analysis of existing informations - data acquisition by mean of field survey (geodetical and gelogical) and in situ investigation (boreholes, geophisical, sample test) - developement of GIS based geological model - developement of landslide models based on FLAC and FLAC3D Finally the model results leading to the identification of the triggering factors are discussed. The conducted work is a comprehensive study (from data to models) that highligth some interesting conclusions showing how the "stabilization" works increased total displacements and shear strain, and produced a new deeper cinematic.

  16. Application of Integrated Reservoir Management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    P. K. Pande

    1998-10-29

    Initial drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to reservoir performance and characterization, must become a process of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir development as they fail to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: o Large, discontinuous pay intervals o Vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties o Low reservoir energy o High residual oil saturation o Low recovery efficiency

  17. Quantification of geologic descriptions for reservoir characterization in carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.; Vander Stoep, G.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Recognition that a large volume of oil remains in carbonate reservoirs at the end of primary depletion and waterflooding has prompted the reevaluation of the reserve-growth potential of many existing carbonate reservoirs. Types of numerical data required include porosity, absolute permeability, relative permeability, fluid saturation, and capillary pressure, all of which are related to the size and distribution of pore space. Rock fabrics control the size and distribution of pore space and define facies that best characterize carbonate reservoirs. Thus, the link between facies descriptions and numerical engineering data is the relationship between pore-size distribution and present carbonate rock fabric. The most effective way to convert facies descriptions into engineering parameters is by considering three basic rock-fabric categories. The first category is interparticle pore space (both intergranular and intercrystalline pore types) with pore-size distribution controlled primarily by the size and shape of grains or crystals. Grain or crystal size is the key geologic measurement and, along with porosity, provides the basis for converting geologic descriptions into values for permeability, saturation, and capillarity. The second category is separate-vug pore space, such as moldic or intraparticle pore space. Separate-vug pore space adds porosity but little permeability to the reservoir rock. The contribution to saturation and capillarity depends upon the size of the separate-vug pore space. For example, moldic separate vugs will be saturated with oil, whereas microporous grains will be saturated with water. The third category is touching-vug pore space, which is vuggy pore space that is interconnected on a reservoir scale. The engineering parameters for this category are related to three diagenetic and tectonic factors.

  18. Using surface deformation to infer reservoir dilation induced by injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanayakkara, Asanga Sanjeewee

    Reservoir dilations occur due to variety of subsurface injection operations including waste disposal, waterflooding, steam injection, CO 2 sequestration and aquifer storage recovery. These reservoir dilations propagate to the surrounding formations and extend up to the ground surface resulting in surface deformations. The surface deformations can be measured by using various technologies such as tiltmeters and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and they can be inverted to infer reservoir dilations by solving an ill-posed inverse problem. This concept forms the basis of the research work presented in this thesis. Initially, the characteristics of the surface and subsurface deformations (induced by the injection operations) and correlations between them were investigated in detail by applying both analytical (based on center of dilatation approach) and numerical methods (fully coupled finite element method). Then, a simple set of guidelines to obtain quick estimates for the surface heave characteristics were proposed. The guidelines are in the form of simple analytical equations or charts and thereby they could be very useful in obtaining preliminary assessment for the surface deformation characteristics induced by the subsurface injection operations. Next, the mathematical aspects of the inverse problem were discussed in detail and the factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution were investigated through an extensive parametric study including both two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems. Then, a method was developed to infer reservoir dilation (with high accuracy and high spatial resolution) using a limited number of surface deformation measurements. The proposed method was applied to infer the reservoir dilation induced by a waste disposal operation conducted at Frog Lake, Alberta and the practical issues pertaining to the proposed method were discussed. Finally, guidelines for tiltmeter array design were proposed and

  19. Multi-objective Optimization of the Mississippi Headwaters Reservoir System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, B. A.; Harou, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is participating in a re- operation study of the Mississippi Headwaters reservoir system. The study, termed ROPE (Reservoir Operation Plan Evaluation), will develop a new operation policy for the reservoir system in a Shared Vision Planning effort. The current operating plan is 40 years old and does not account for the diverse objectives of the system altered by increased development and resource awareness. Functions of the six-reservoir system include flood damage reduction, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat considerations, tribal resources, water quality, water supply, erosion and sedimentation control, and hydropower production. Experience has shown that a modeling approach using both optimization, which makes decisions based on their value to objectives, and simulation, which makes decisions that follow operating instructions or rules, is an effective way to improve or develop new operating policies. HEC's role in this study was to develop a multi- objective optimization model of the system using HEC-PRM (Prescriptive Reservoir Model), a generalized computer program that performs multi-period deterministic network-flow optimization of reservoir systems. The optimization model's purpose is to enable stakeholders and decision makers to select appropriate tradeoffs between objectives, and have these tradeoffs reflected in proposed rules. Initial single-objective optimizations allow stakeholders to verify that the penalty functions developed by experts accurately represent their interests. Once penalty functions are confirmed, trade-off curves between pairs of system objectives are developed, and stakeholders and decision makers choose a desired balance between the two objectives. These chosen balance points are maintained in optimizations that consider all objectives. Finally, optimal system decisions are studied to infer operating patterns that embody the chosen tradeoffs. The

  20. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  1. Prevention of Reservoir Interior Discoloration

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, K.F.

    2001-04-03

    Contamination is anathema in reservoir production. Some of the contamination is a result of welding and some appears after welding but existed before. Oxygen was documented to be a major contributor to discoloration in welding. This study demonstrates that it can be controlled and that some of the informal cleaning processes contribute to contamination.

  2. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY IN MISSISSIPPIAN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS OF KANSAS - NEAR TERM - CLASS 2

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. Carr; Don W. Green; G. Paul Willhite

    2000-04-30

    This annual report describes progress during the final year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of the project was development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. As part of the project, tools and techniques for reservoir description and management were developed, modified and demonstrated, including PfEFFER spreadsheet log analysis software. The world-wide-web was used to provide rapid and flexible dissemination of the project results through the Internet. A summary of demonstration phase at the Schaben and Ness City North sites demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed reservoir management strategies and technologies. At the Schaben Field, a total of 22 additional locations were evaluated based on the reservoir characterization and simulation studies and resulted in a significant incremental production increase. At Ness City North Field, a horizontal infill well (Mull Ummel No.4H) was planned and drilled based on the results of reservoir characterization and simulation studies to optimize the location and length. The well produced excellent and predicted oil rates for the first two months. Unexpected presence of vertical shale intervals in the lateral resulted in loss of the hole. While the horizontal well was not economically successful, the technology was demonstrated to have potential to recover significant additional reserves in Kansas and the Midcontinent. Several low-cost approaches were developed to evaluate candidate reservoirs for potential horizontal well applications at the field scale, lease level, and well level, and enable the small independent producer to identify

  3. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    Active Management of Integrated Geothermal–CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations: An Approach to Improve Energy Recovery and Mitigate Risk: FY1 Final Report The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  4. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Active Management of Integrated Geothermal–CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations: An Approach to Improve Energy Recovery and Mitigate Risk : FY1 Final Report The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  5. ERTS-1 study of reservoirs in Kansas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Coiner, J. C.; Mccauley, J. R.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Single pass coverage over Cedar Bluff, Webster, Tuttle Creek, Milford, and Council Groves reservoirs is analyzed. The long-range goal of the study is to test the feasibility of monitoring reservoirs by satellite. It is hoped that results may eventually help to optimize reservoir management for use in flood control, agriculture, urban areas, and recreation. ERTS-1 imagery promises to be a very useful tool for studying reservoir turbidity patterns. Initial coverage indicates a strong qualitative correlation between film density and turbidity.

  6. Reservoir System Analysis for Water Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    reservoirs on flows and damages in the system. The program should also be useful In selecting the 2 PHASE Z- 1979 SINGLE RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER...TEMPERATURE PHASE H- 1980 TWO RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE AND SEVEN CONSTITUENTS 1981 FIELD TESTING AND MINOR MODIFICATIONS PHASE M- 1982...TEN RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE AND . TAB SEVEN CONSTITUENTS 1P.IX Ot1Oun4 ___ ___ __ __ ___ __ ___ __ ___ _ .zt ltl@a’tlo@ . 113

  7. Upper Almond and Lewis reservoir geometries, southwestern Wyoming and northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    Upper Almond marine sandstones are major petroleum reservoirs in southwestern Wyoming. These sandstones were deposited as part of a transgressive systems tract which capped fluvial and coastal plain sediments of the upper Ericson and lower Almond formations. Marine sandstone reservoirs were deposited in shoreface and tidal channel environments. Shoreface environments in the Echo Springs-Standard Draw trend are extensive and constitute major gas reserves in Carbon County. Shoreface and tidal channel deposits are major oil and gas reservoirs at Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County. Major gas resources in upper Almond marine sandstones are yet to be exploited in the deeper portions of the Great Divide, Washakie, and Sand Wash basins. Tapping this basin centered gas resource will require careful reservoir modeling and fracture treatments that significantly increase permeability and reservoir flow. Lewis sandstones are also petroleum reservoirs in the Great Divide, Washakie, and Sand Wash basins. The sandstones are part of the final Cretaceous regressive systems tract in southwestern Wyoming and northwestern Colorado. Well developed clinoforms accompany Lewis and Fox Hills progradation and basin fill. Associated with these progradational systems are correlative density flow and turbidite deposits that locally form reservoirs. These reservoirs commonly occur near the toe of prograding clinoforms and are trapped by rapid facies changes to impermeable siltstones and basinal shales.

  8. A data mining approach to finding relationships between reservoir properties and oil production for CHOPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yongxiang; Wang, Xin; Hu, Kezhen; Dong, Mingzhe

    2014-12-01

    Cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) is a primary oil extraction process for heavy crude oil and reservoir properties are key factors that contribute to the effectiveness of CHOPS. However, identification of the key reservoir properties and quantification of the relationships between the reservoir properties and the oil production are still challenging tasks. In this paper, we propose the use of a data mining approach for finding quantitative relationships between various reservoir properties and oil production for CHOPS. The approach includes four steps: firstly, a set of reservoir properties are identified to describe reservoir characteristics through a petrophysical analysis. In addition to common parameters, such as porosity and permeability, two new parameters - a fluid mobility factor and the maximum inscribed rectangular of net pay (MIRNP) - are proposed. Secondly, three new parameters to describe the production performance of wells are proposed: the peak value, effective life cycle and effective yield. Next, the fuzzy ranking method is used to rank the importance of the identified reservoir properties in terms of oil production. Finally, association rule mining is used to obtain quantitative relationships between reservoir property variables and the production performance of wells. The proposed methods have been applied for 118 wells in the Sparky Formation of the Lloydminster heavy oil field in Alberta. The result shows that the production performance of wells in the area could be described and predicted by using the found quantitative relations.

  9. Analysis of Three Cobble Ring Sites at Abiquiu Reservoir, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    STAIOANOS -(963- ANALYSIS OF THREE COBBLE RING SITES AT ABIQUIU RESERVOIR, RIO ARRIBA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...Albuquerque District Albuquerque, New Mexico Prepared by Mariah Associates, Inc. Albuquerque, New Mexico Amy C. Earls, Ph.D. Christopher R. Lintz, Ph.D...Abiquiu Reservoir, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico Final 6- PERFORMING GO. ~R 7.A-HCRs CONTRACT OR GRAN I .<- Amy C. Earls, Ph.D. Christopher R. Lintz

  10. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B. E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com; Susilowati E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  11. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  12. Reservoir System Regulation for Water Quality Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Davis, California 95616. [PHASE I!- 1979 SINGLE RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE PHASE 31- 1980 TWO RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE...AND SEVEN CONSTITUENTS 1981 FIELD TESTING AND MINOR MODIFICATIONS ’IFI PHASE 3nm- 1982 TEN RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE AND SEVEN

  13. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  14. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  15. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  16. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  17. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reservoir, equalizing. 236.792 Section 236.792 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of...

  18. Ekofisk reservoir voidage and seabed subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Field data describing the time lag between Ekofisk subsidence and reservoir voidage are given. A method to discriminate between real subsidence variations and random-data errors and a procedure to derive a contemporary relationship between reservoir voidage and seabed subsidence are presented. At Ekofisk, most subsidence lags reservoir voidage by 2 to 3 months.

  19. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the.... Each service reservoir system on a motor vehicle shall be protected against a loss of air pressure or vacuum due to a failure or leakage in the system between the service reservoir and the source of...

  20. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the.... Each service reservoir system on a motor vehicle shall be protected against a loss of air pressure or vacuum due to a failure or leakage in the system between the service reservoir and the source of...

  1. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the.... Each service reservoir system on a motor vehicle shall be protected against a loss of air pressure or vacuum due to a failure or leakage in the system between the service reservoir and the source of...

  2. 49 CFR 393.50 - Reservoirs required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... using air or vacuum braking must have either reserve capacity, or a reservoir, that would enable the.... Each service reservoir system on a motor vehicle shall be protected against a loss of air pressure or vacuum due to a failure or leakage in the system between the service reservoir and the source of...

  3. Different pressure grids for reservoir simulation in heterogeneous reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Guerillot, D.R.; Verdiere, S.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum reservoirs are made of highly heterogeneous rocks. These reservoirs could be described by geostatistical models composed of millions of cells. Currently, fluid flow simulations performed within these media need upscaling (or averaging) techniques. Hence, their results are given by averaging on cells which are much larger than the geological model cells. To overcome this problem, the Dual Mesh Method is proposed here, whose purpose is to solve the pressure equation on a low resolution grid, and then to interpolate pressure over the fine mesh by taking into account small scale heterogeneities of the mediums. The aim of this paper is the interpolation step; its implementation is presented and illustrated in a five-spot pattern for three different rock characteristics.

  4. Improved oil recovery in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs of Kansas -- near term -- Class 2. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, T.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Schoeling, L.; Reynolds, R.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate incremental reserves from Osagian and Meramecian (Mississippian) dolomite reservoirs in western Kansas through application of reservoir characterization to identify areas of unrecovered mobile oil. The project addresses producibility problems in two fields: specific reservoirs target the Schaben Field in Ness County, Kansas, and the Bindley Field in Hodgeman County, Kansas. The producibility problems to be addressed include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, non-optimum recovery efficiency. The results of this project will be disseminated through various technology transfer activities. General overview--progress is reported for the period from 1 April 1995 to 30 June 1995. Work in this quarter has concentrated on reservoir characterization with the initiation of technology transfer. Difficulties still remain in the drilling of the final two wells. Some preliminary work on reservoir characterization has been completed, and related technology transfer has been initiated.

  5. Reservoir-induced seismicity in Karun III dam (Southwestern Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangi, Abas; Heidari, Nematollah

    2008-10-01

    Statistical analyses of the Karun III reservoir seismicity reveal a remarkable correlation between seismicity rate and water-level harmonic changes. It seems that seismicity in this dam depends on rapid water-level changes. The three biggest earthquakes of Karun III, measuring 4, 4.1, and 4.3 on the Richter scale (ML), occurred after two stages of rapid filling of the dam on March 22, 2005 and May 12, 2006. These earthquakes happened when the water reached the maximum operational level. Since the beginning of filling the reservoir on November 8, 2004 until March, 2006, most reservoir-induced seismicity has been localized in three main clusters. The majority of the earthquakes occurred in the frontal anticline of Keyf Malek; the second and third clusters happened near Karun Blind Fault (KBF) and Mountain Front Fault (MFF), respectively. Filling Karun III reservoir immediately led to an increase in the occurrence of earthquakes. Further, following abrupt water-level changes, a considerable increase in the number of earthquakes is observed. Finally, in terms of seismicity rate, vertical and horizontal migration, magnitude, and distance, the earthquakes of Karun III behave differently.

  6. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan Kelkar

    2005-02-01

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has displayed some unique production characteristics. These include high initial water-oil and gas-oil ratios, decline in those ratios over time and temporary increase in gas-oil ratio during pressure build up. The formation also displays highly complex geology, but surprising hydrodynamic continuity. This report addresses three key issues related specifically to West Carney Hunton field and, in general, to any other Hunton formation exhibiting similar behavior: (1) What is the primary mechanism by which oil and gas is produced from the field? (2) How can the knowledge gained from studying the existing fields can be extended to other fields which have the potential to produce? (3) What can be done to improve the performance of this reservoir? We have developed a comprehensive model to explain the behavior of the reservoir. By using available production, geological, core and log data, we are able to develop a reservoir model which explains the production behavior in the reservoir. Using easily available information, such as log data, we have established the parameters needed for a field to be economically successful. We provide guidelines in terms of what to look for in a new field and how to develop it. Finally, through laboratory experiments, we show that surfactants can be used to improve the hydrocarbons recovery from the field. In addition, injection of CO{sub 2} or natural gas also will help us recover additional oil from the field.

  7. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  8. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  9. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  10. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  11. 49 CFR 229.31 - Main reservoir tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main reservoir tests. 229.31 Section 229.31... reservoir tests. (a) Before it is placed in service, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir... intervals that do not exceed 736 calendar days, each main reservoir other than an aluminum reservoir...

  12. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  13. Reservoir microseismicity at the Ekofisk Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Albright, J.N.; Boade, R.R.; Dangerfield, J.; Landa, G.H.

    1994-07-01

    A triaxial, downhole geophone was deployed within the Ekofisk oil reservoir for monitoring ambient microseismicity as a test to determine if microearthquake signals generated from discrete shear failure of the reservoir rock could be detected. The results of the test were positive. During 104 hours of monitoring, 572 discrete events were recorded which have been identified as shear-failure microearthquakes. Reservoir microseismicity was detected at large distances (1000 m) from the monitor borehole and at rates (> 5 events per hour) which may allow practical characterization of the reservoir rock and overburden deformation induced by reservoir pressure changes.

  14. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, M.L.; Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P.

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  15. Trophic status evaluation of TVA reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Placke, J.F.

    1983-10-01

    TVA tributary and mainstem reservoirs show generalized differences in morphometry, hydraulics, nutrient loads, and response to nutrient concentrations. Neither type of reservoir is strictly comparable to the natural lakes on which classical eutrophication studies have been based. The majority of published trophic state indices and standards (e.g., hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen depletion, Secchi depth, areas nutrient loading rates, in-reservoir phosphorus concentrations) are inappropriate for evaluation of some or all TVA reservoirs. No single trophic potential or trophic response variable summarizes the mechanisms and manifestations of eutrophication sufficiently to be used as a sole criterion for judging or regulating TVA reservoir water quality. Relative multivariate trophic state indices were developed for mainstem and tributary reservoirs. Ranking of the mainstem reservoirs is based on chlorophyll, macrophyte coverage, hydraulic retention time, reservoir area less than five feet deep, annual pool elevation drawdown, and Secchi depth. Based on available data, the rank from least eutrophic to most eutrophic is: Pickwick, Kentucky, Chickamauga, Nickajack, Wilson, Fort Loudoun, Watts Bar, Wheeler, and Guntersville Reservoirs. Ranking of the tributary reservoirs is based on chlorophyll, total phosphorus and total nitrogen weighted by the N:P ratio, and bio-available inorganic carbon levels. The rank from least eutrophic to most eutrophic is: Hiwassee, Blue Ridge, Chatuge, Norris and Fontana, Watauga, South Holston, Tims Ford, Cherokee, Douglas, and Boone Reservoirs. 130 references, 18 figures, 30 tables.

  16. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Geostatistics applied to gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, G.; Coulomb, C.; Laille, J.P. )

    1989-09-01

    The spatial distribution of many of the physical parameters connected with a gas reservoir is of primary interest to both engineers and geologists throughout the study, development, and operation of a field. It is therefore desirable for the distribution to be capable of statistical interpretation, to have a simple graphical representation, and to allow data to be entered from either two- or three-dimensional grids. To satisfy these needs while dealing with the geographical variables, new methods have been developed under the name geostatistics. This paper describes briefly the theory of geostatistics and its most recent improvements for the specific problem of subsurface description. The external-drift technique has been emphasized in particular, and in addition, four case studies related to gas reservoirs are presented.

  18. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  19. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  20. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    DeTar, Carleton

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  1. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our

  2. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-06-01

    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  3. Performance prediction using geostatistics and window reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Fontanilla, J.P.; Al-Khalawi, A.A.; Johnson, S.G.

    1995-11-01

    This paper is the first window model study in the northern area of a large carbonate reservoir in Saudi Arabia. It describes window reservoir simulation with geostatistics to model uneven water encroachment in the southwest producing area of the northern portion of the reservoir. In addition, this paper describes performance predictions that investigate the sweep efficiency of the current peripheral waterflood. A 50 x 50 x 549 (240 m. x 260 m. x 0.15 m. average grid block size) geological model was constructed with geostatistics software. Conditional simulation was used to obtain spatial distributions of porosity and volume of dolomite. Core data transforms were used to obtain horizontal and vertical permeability distributions. Simple averaging techniques were used to convert the 549-layer geological model to a 50 x 50 x 10 (240 m. x 260 m. x 8 m. average grid block size) window reservoir simulation model. Flux injectors and flux producers were assigned to the outermost grid blocks. Historical boundary flux rates were obtained from a coarsely-ridded full-field model. Pressure distribution, water cuts, GORs, and recent flowmeter data were history matched. Permeability correction factors and numerous parameter adjustments were required to obtain the final history match. The permeability correction factors were based on pressure transient permeability-thickness analyses. The prediction phase of the study evaluated the effects of infill drilling, the use of artificial lifts, workovers, horizontal wells, producing rate constraints, and tight zone development to formulate depletion strategies for the development of this area. The window model will also be used to investigate day-to-day reservoir management problems in this area.

  4. Modern Reservoir Sedimentation Management Techniques with Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annandale, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of reservoir sedimentation management approaches results in a win-win scenario, it assists in enhancing the environment by preserving river function downstream of dams while concurrently providing opportunities to sustainably manage water resource infrastructure. This paper summarizes the most often used reservoir sedimentation management techniques with examples of where they have been implemented. Three categories can be used to classify these technologies, i.e. catchment management, sediment routing and sediment removal. The objective of catchment management techniques is to minimize the amount of sediment that may discharge into a reservoir, thereby reducing the loss of storage space due to sedimentation. Reservoir routing is a set of techniques that aim at minimizing the amount of sediment that may deposit in a reservoir, thereby maximizing the amount of sediment that may be passed downstream. The third group consists of techniques that may be used to remove previously deposited sediment from reservoirs. The selection of reservoir sedimentation management approaches is site specific and depends on various factors, including dam height, reservoir volume, reservoir length, valley shape, valley slope, sediment type and hydrology. Description of the different reservoir sedimentation management techniques that are used in practice will be accompanied by case studies, including video, illustrating criteria that may be used to determine the potential success of implementing the techniques.

  5. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  6. Longitudinal gradients along a reservoir cascade

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Habrat, M.D.; Miyazono, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoirs have traditionally been regarded as spatially independent entities rather than as longitudinal segments of a river system that are connected upstream and downstream to the river and other reservoirs. This view has frustrated advancement in reservoir science by impeding adequate organization of available information and by hindering interchanges with allied disciplines that often consider impounded rivers at the basin scale. We analyzed reservoir morphology, water quality, and fish assemblage data collected in 24 reservoirs of the Tennessee River; we wanted to describe longitudinal changes occurring at the scale of the entire reservoir series (i.e., cascade) and to test the hypothesis that fish communities and environmental factors display predictable gradients like those recognized for unimpounded rivers. We used a data set collected over a 7-year period; over 3 million fish representing 94 species were included in the data set. Characteristics such as reservoir mean depth, relative size of the limnetic zone, water retention time, oxygen stratification, thermal stratification, substrate size, and water level fluctuations increased in upstream reservoirs. Conversely, reservoir area, extent of riverine and littoral zones, access to floodplains and associated wetlands, habitat diversity, and nutrient and sediment inputs increased in downstream reservoirs. Upstream reservoirs included few, largely lacustrine, ubiquitous fish taxa that were characteristic of the lentic upper reaches of the basin. Fish species richness increased in a downstream direction from 12 to 67 species/ reservoir as riverine species became more common. Considering impoundments at a basin scale by viewing them as sections in a river or links in a chain may generate insight that is not always available when the impoundments are viewed as isolated entities. Basin-scale variables are rarely controllable but constrain the expression of processes at smaller scales and can facilitate the

  7. Natural Vertical Flow in the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, E.R.; Arellano, V.M.; Ortiz-Ramirez, J.

    1986-01-21

    This work focuses on estimating the mass (M) and energy (E) flow rates, the permeability k, and the relative permeability functions R{sub L} and R{sub V} associated with the natural vertical flow in the reservoir. To estimate M and E we used the standard 1-D vertical equations for two-phase flow, complemented with boundary conditions at the boiling and dew interfaces. These boundary conditions were derived in an earlier stage of this study that established an approximate 1-D vertical model of the reservoir. The estimated values of M and E were then used together with the previously established liquid saturation vertical profile of the reservoir, and the differential equation expressing the pressure gradient, to fit, by trial and error, the observed natural pressure profile. The accuracy of the fit depends on the assumed value for the vertical permeability and on the chosen forms for the relative permeability functions. They estimated M {approx} 6.9 x 10{sup -8} kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and E {approx} 0.2 W m{sup -2}. These results lie well within the ample ranges of mass and energy flowrates per unit area found in geothermal fields worldwide. The estimated values of M and E support the previous inference that there is an extensive caprock in the reservoir. The best fit to the natural pressure gradient implies a vertical permeability of about 0.08 mD, residual water- and steam-saturations of about 0.04 and 0.00 respectively, and ''fracture relative permeabilities'' (i.e., R{sub L} + R{sub V} = 1). This work addresses a major obstacle for a successful analysis of the Los Azufres geothermal reservoir, which is characterized by an extensive two-phase region: the former unavailability of reasonably reliable relative permeability functions. Furthermore, the present characterization of the vertical natural flow provides important constraints for both lumped- and distributed-parameter models of the reservoir. Finally, this work gives information on reservoir properties that

  8. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2004-07-20

    Our analysis and imaging of reservoir properties at the Fullerton Clear Fork field (Figure 1) is in its final stages. Major accomplishments during the past 6 months include: (1) characterization of facies and cyclicity in cores, (2) correlation of cycles and sequences using core-calibrated wireline logs, (3) calculation and modeling of wireline porosity, (4) analysis of new cores for conventional and special core analysis data, (5) construction of full-field reservoir model, and (6) revision of 3D seismic inversion of reservoir porosity and permeability. One activity has been eliminated from the originally proposed tasks. Task 3 (Characterization and Modeling of Rock Mechanics and Fractures) has been deleted because we have determined that fractures are not significant contributing in the reservoir under study. A second project extension has been asked for to extend the project until 7/31/04. Remaining project activities are: (1) interpretation and synthesis of fieldwide data, (2) preparation of 3D virtual reality demonstrations of reservoir model and attributes, (3) transfer of working data sets to the operator for reservoir implementation and decision-making, and (4) preparation and distribution of final reports.

  9. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a

  10. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a

  11. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-07-08

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Schechter

    2005-04-27

    This report describes the work performed during the fourth year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificially fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT scanner to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in hydraulically fractured reservoirs (HFR) and naturally fractured reservoirs (NFR) that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. In Chapter 1, we worked with DOE-RMOTC to investigate fracture properties in the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome Naval Reserve as part of their CO{sub 2} sequestration project. In Chapter 2, we continue our investigation to determine the primary oil recovery mechanism in a short vertically fractured core. Finally in Chapter 3, we report our numerical modeling efforts to develop compositional simulator with irregular grid blocks.

  13. Data mining and well logging interpretation: application to a conglomerate reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ning; Li, Hong-Qi; Luo, Wei-Ping

    2015-06-01

    Data mining is the process of extracting implicit but potentially useful information from incomplete, noisy, and fuzzy data. Data mining offers excellent nonlinear modeling and self-organized learning, and it can play a vital role in the interpretation of well logging data of complex reservoirs. We used data mining to identify the lithologies in a complex reservoir. The reservoir lithologies served as the classification task target and were identified using feature extraction, feature selection, and modeling of data streams. We used independent component analysis to extract information from well curves. We then used the branch-and-bound algorithm to look for the optimal feature subsets and eliminate redundant information. Finally, we used the C5.0 decision-tree algorithm to set up disaggregated models of the well logging curves. The modeling and actual logging data were in good agreement, showing the usefulness of data mining methods in complex reservoirs.

  14. Appraisal of transport and deformation in shale reservoirs using natural noble gas tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, Jason E.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Robinson, David G.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, William Payton

    2015-09-01

    This report presents efforts to develop the use of in situ naturally-occurring noble gas tracers to evaluate transport mechanisms and deformation in shale hydrocarbon reservoirs. Noble gases are promising as shale reservoir diagnostic tools due to their sensitivity of transport to: shale pore structure; phase partitioning between groundwater, liquid, and gaseous hydrocarbons; and deformation from hydraulic fracturing. Approximately 1.5-year time-series of wellhead fluid samples were collected from two hydraulically-fractured wells. The noble gas compositions and isotopes suggest a strong signature of atmospheric contribution to the noble gases that mix with deep, old reservoir fluids. Complex mixing and transport of fracturing fluid and reservoir fluids occurs during production. Real-time laboratory measurements were performed on triaxially-deforming shale samples to link deformation behavior, transport, and gas tracer signatures. Finally, we present improved methods for production forecasts that borrow statistical strength from production data of nearby wells to reduce uncertainty in the forecasts.

  15. Uncertainty analysis for water supply reservoir yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuria, Faith; Vogel, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the variability of water supply reservoir yields is central for planning purposes. The basis of this study is an empirical global relationship between reservoir storage capacity, water supply yield and reliability based on a global database of 729 rivers. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the coefficient of variation of estimates of water supply reservoir yields depend only on the length of streamflows record and the coefficient of variation of the streamflows used to estimate the yield. We compare the results of those Monte Carlo experiments with an analytical uncertainty method First Order Variance Approximation (FOVA). FOVA is shown to produce a general, accurate and useful expression for estimating the coefficient of variation of water supply reservoir yield estimates. We also document how the FOVA analytical model can be used to determine the minimum length of streamflow record required during the design of water supply reservoirs so as to ensure that the yield delivered from reservoir falls within a prespecified margin of error.

  16. Skimming' a reservoir for trash

    SciTech Connect

    Shenman, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Several hydropower facilities are using a new technology for removing floating trash in reservoirs. Representatives from the facilities say the boat, called a trashskimmer, is efficient, easy to maneuver, and transportable. Designed by United Marine International, Inc., the pontoon boat features an operators cab that straddles an open hull between the skis of the pontoon, and uses dual propellers to maneuver through the water. The Marineskimmer allows the operator to approach the trash from the water side upstream of the plant. The Tennessee Valley Authority has used the boat since 1990.

  17. A virtual company concept for reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes how reservoir management problems were pursued with a virtual company concept via the Internet and World Wide Web. The focus of the paper is on the implementation of virtual asset management teams that were assembled with small independent oil companies. The paper highlights the mechanics of how the virtual team transferred data and interpretations, evaluated geological models of complex reservoirs, and used results of simulation studies to analyze various reservoir management strategies.

  18. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  19. Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

  20. Flow Characterization in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alajmi, A.; Gharbi, R.

    2008-12-01

    Most hydrocarbon reservoirs are fractured in nature with various degrees of fracture intensities. With the current oil prices and growing demand for oil, a great interest is built in the petroleum industry to characterize partially fractured reservoirs and to develop an increased understanding of the physics of fluid flow in these types of reservoirs. This is due to the fact that fractured reservoirs have different performance behavior and high potential for oil recovery than conventional reservoirs. Therefore, prediction and understanding of fluid displacement in these reservoirs is very much critical in the decision on the applicability of oil recovery methods. Using a finite difference numerical simulator, this study investigated the effect of reservoir fracture intensities on the displacement behavior. Several heterogeneous permeable media, each with different probability of fracture intensity, were generated stochastically. The fracture intensity covers reservoirs with no fracture (zero fracture intensity) to fully fractured reservoirs (fracture intensity of 1). In order to better describe and model fractured reservoirs, a dual porosity-dual permeability model was built. Extensive simulations of water displacing oil were then performed in each of the generated fractured models for different well configurations. The objective was to determine the functional relationships between the displacement performance, fracture intensities, and well configurations. The study has resulted in significant new insights into the flow characterization in naturally fractured reservoirs. Results show that the reservoir fracture intensity has considerable effects on the efficiency of fluid displacement in naturally fractured reservoirs. A critical value of reservoir fracture intensity appears to sort favorable from unfavorable displacement, causing the displacement to be either fracture-dominated or matrix-dominated. The conditions under which fluid displacement may yield better

  1. PrimeEnergy/DOE/GRI slant well. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Drimal, C.E.; Muncey, G.; Carden, R.

    1991-12-01

    This report presents final results of the Sterling Boggs 1240 slant well. Objectives of the project were (1) to test the potential for improved recovery efficiency in a fractured Devonian Shale reservoir from a directionally drilled well, (2) to perform detailed tests of reservoir properties and completion methods, and (3) to provide technology to industry which may ultimately improve the economics of drilling in the Devonian Shale and thereby stimulate development of its resources.

  2. Deriving multiple near-optimal solutions to deterministic reservoir operation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pan; Cai, Ximing; Guo, Shenglian

    2011-08-01

    Even deterministic reservoir operation problems with a single objective function may have multiple near-optimal solutions (MNOS) whose objective values are equal or sufficiently close to the optimum. MNOS is valuable for practical reservoir operation decisions because having a set of alternatives from which to choose allows reservoir operators to explore multiple options whereas the traditional algorithm that produces a single optimum does not offer them this flexibility. This paper presents three methods: the near-shortest paths (NSP) method, the genetic algorithm (GA) method, and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, to explore the MNOS. These methods, all of which require a long computation time, find MNOS using different approaches. To reduce the computation time, a narrower subspace, namely a near-optimal space (NOSP, described by the maximum and minimum bounds of MNOS) is derived. By confining the MNOS search within the NOSP, the computation time of the three methods is reduced. The proposed methods are validated with a test function before they are examined with case studies of both a single reservoir (the Three Gorges Reservoir in China) and a multireservoir system (the Qing River Cascade Reservoirs in China). It is found that MNOS exists for the deterministic reservoir operation problems. When comparing the three methods, the NSP method is unsuitable for large-scale problems but provides a benchmark to which solutions of small- and medium-scale problems can be compared. The GA method can produce some MNOS but is not very efficient in terms of the computation time. Finally, the MCMC method performs best in terms of goodness-of-fit to the benchmark and computation time, since it yields a wide variety of MNOS based on all retained intermediate results as potential MNOS. Two case studies demonstrate that the MNOS identified in this study are useful for real-world reservoir operation, such as the identification of important operation time periods and

  3. Detection of new hydrocarbon reservoir using hydrocarbon microtremor combined attribute analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhan, Dimmas; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Afnimar, Akbar, Muhammad Fadhillah; Mulyanagara, Guntur

    2013-09-01

    An increasing demand for oil and gas production undoubtedly triggered innovation in exploration studies to find new hydrocarbon reservoir. Low-frequency passive seismic method named Hy MAS (Hydrocarbon Microtremor Analysis) is a new method invented and developed recently by Spectraseis which provide a quick look to find new hydrocarbon reservoir prospect area. This method based on empirical study which investigated an increasing of spectra anomaly between 2 - 4 Hz above reservoir but missing from the measurement distant from the reservoir. This method is quite promising because it has been used as another DHI (Direct Hydrocarbon Indicator) instead of active seismic survey which has some problem when applied in sensitive biomes. Another advantage is this method is completely passive and does not require seismic artificial excitation sources. In this study, by utilizing many attributes mentioned in the latest publication of this method, we try to localize new hydrocarbon prospect area outside from the proven production field. We deployed 63 stations of measurement with two of them are located above the known reservoir production site. We measured every single attribute for each data acquired from all station and mapped it spatially for better understanding and interpretation. The analysis has been made by considering noise identification from the measurement location and controlled by the attribute values from the data acquired by two stations above the reservoir. As the result, we combined each attribute analysis and mapped it in weighted-scoring map which provide the level of consistency for every single attribute calculated in each station. Finally, the new reservoir location can be suggested by the station which has a weighted-score around the values from the two production reservoir stations. We successfully identified 5 new stations which expected to have good prospect of hydrocarbon reservoir.

  4. CROW{trademark} process modeling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The Western Research Institute (WRI) has patented a technology (CROW{trademark}) for the recovery of oily contaminants from water-saturated formations. The CROW process uses either hot water or low-pressure steam to flush contaminants to the surface by means of production wells. CROW is typically applied to highly permeable aquifers that have been invaded by organics such as coal tars or chemical solvents. In conceptualizing a model of the CROW process, we draw an analogy between flushing organics from an organic-contaminated aquifer and producing oil from a petroleum reservoir. The organic-contaminated aquifer can be represented as a petroleum reservoir. The injection of water or steam and production of water/organic admixtures can be described by standard reservoir well equations. Finally, the movement of organic and water within the aquifer can be represented by Darcy flow of the individual phases. Thus, in modeling the CROW process, it is reasonable to assume that a petroleum reservoir simulator would accurately portray the recovery of organics from a contaminated aquifer. Of course, the reservoir simulator would need to incorporate thermal aspects of Darcy flow to accurately represent recovery during CROW processing.

  5. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  6. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  7. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  8. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  9. 49 CFR 229.49 - Main reservoir system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main reservoir system. 229.49 Section 229.49... Main reservoir system. (a)(1) The main reservoir system of each locomotive shall be equipped with at... reservoir of air under pressure to be used for operating those power controls. The reservoir shall...

  10. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, Gary E.

    2013-04-23

    This is the final report of a two year project entitled "Governing Nanotechnology Risks and Benefits in the Transition to Regulation: Innovative Public and Private Approaches." This project examined the role of new governance or "soft law" mechanisms such as codes of conduct, voluntary programs and partnership agreements to manage the risks of emerging technologies such as nanotechnology. A series of published or in publication papers and book chapters are attached.

  11. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Paul Drake

    2001-11-30

    This final report describes work involving 22 investigators from 11 institutions to explore the dynamics present in supernova explosions by means of experiments on the Omega laser. The specific experiments emphasized involved the unstable expansion of a spherical capsule and the coupling of perturbations at a first interface to a second interface by means of a strong shock. Both effects are present in supernovae. The experiments were performed at Omega and the computer simulations were undertaken at several institutions. B139

  12. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stinis, Panos

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  13. National Dam Safety Program. Cobbs Hill Reservoir Dam (Inventory Number NY 1448), Lake Ontario Basin, Monroe County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    Reservoir are hori- zontally lying dolostones of the Lockport Group of Upper Silurian age. Depth to bedrock is unknown. The reservoir is sited on Cobbs Hill...providing a supply from Upland sources that would be adequate for any lengthy period of time in the future. Finally, construction began in 1952 on a

  14. Results from probability-based, simplified, off-shore Louisiana CSEM hydrocarbon reservoir modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalnaker, J. L.; Tinley, M.; Gueho, B.

    2009-12-01

    power we present the result finally as an a posteriori pdf. Along the way, we compute the variability in the response itself (for a uniform set of receivers) in order to characterize how distinct responses are in the presence of a reservoir likely to occur in the off-shore Louisiana region of the Gulf of Mexico. From this we hypothesize the likelihood of discriminating reservoir size and shape from real data using the Cramer-Rao lower bound and sensitivity analysis. Finally, we use the computed parameter pdfs to constrain maximum a posteriori (Bayesian) inversion, increasing accuracy and efficiency.

  15. Carbonate reservoirs at the Mesozoic-Tertiary unconformity, northeast Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban, M.

    1988-08-01

    Carbonates at the Mesozoic-Tertiary unconformity in northeast Spain show four types/stages of evolution of reservoir properties: karstification, coastal reworking, Miocene organic buildups, and Pliocene burial. Subaerial exposure during Paleogene-early Miocene rifting developed a complex fracture-controlled paleokrast facies, showing up to three evolution levels with well-developed cavern and vuggy porosity (1). During the Miocene, the paleokrast profile was intensively reworked into a variety of breccias, conglomerates, and calcarenites in both alluvial and coastal depositional settings. Gravitational displacement of largely karstified hillsides was common. These reworked paleokarst deposits (2) present excellent reservoir properties. The Miocene formations onlap the karstified Mesozoic and the reworked facies; these formations include coral reefs and foramalgal buildups (3) with primary and secondary porosity. Finally, a late fracture event (attributed to the Pliocene) affected the buried and lithified paleokarst deposits and lower-middle Miocene formations (4). This fracture event is associated with vuggy corrosion, dolomitization, ore mineralization, and leaching of Mesozoic to middle Miocene carbonates. Several horizons with chalky microporosity are also tentatively related to this Pliocene event. These four phases of reservoir evolution are also recognized in northern Morocco and southern Italy.

  16. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF HYDROCARBON SATURATION IN DEEP-WATER RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James

    2005-08-12

    We are now entering the final stages of our ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342). We have now developed several techniques to help distinguish economic hydrocarbon deposits from false ''Fizz'' gas signatures. These methods include using the proper in situ rock and fluid properties, evaluating interference effects on data, and doing better constrained inversions for saturations. We are testing these techniques now on seismic data from several locations in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we are examining the use of seismic attenuation as indicated by frequency shifts below potential reservoirs. During this quarter we have: Began our evaluation of our latest data set over the Neptune Field; Developed software for computing composite reflection coefficients; Designed and implemented stochastic turbidite reservoir models; Produced software & work flow to improve frequency-dependent AVO analysis; Developed improved AVO analysis for data with low signal-to-noise ratio; and Examined feasibility of detecting fizz gas using frequency attenuation. Our focus on technology transfer continues, both by generating numerous presentations for the upcoming SEG annual meeting, and by beginning our planning for our next DHI minisymposium next spring.

  17. PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Martin J. Blunt; Franklin M. Orr Jr

    2000-06-01

    This final report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1996--May 2000 under a three-year grant from the Department of Energy on the ''Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. The advances from the research include: new tools for streamline-based simulation including the effects of gravity, changing well conditions, and compositional displacements; analytical solutions to 1D compositional displacements which can speed-up gas injection simulation still further; and modeling and experiments that delineate the physics that is unique to three-phase flow.

  18. Temperature and oxygen in Missouri reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John R.; Knowlton, Matthew F.; Obrecht, Daniel V.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Vertical profiles of water temperature (n = 7193) and dissolved oxygen (n = 6516) were collected from 235 Missouri reservoirs during 1989–2007; most data were collected during May–August and provide a regional summary of summer conditions. Collectively, surface water temperature ranged from a mean of ~22 C in May to 28 C in July, and individual summer maxima typically were 28–32 C. Most (~95%) reservoirs stably stratify by mid-May, but few are deep enough to have hypolimnia with near-uniform temperatures. Among stratified reservoirs, maximum effective length and maximum depth accounted for 75% of the variation in mixed depth and thermocline depth. Ephemeral, near-surface thermoclines occurred in 39% of summer profiles and were most frequent in small, turbid reservoirs. Isotherms below the mixed layer deepen during stratification, and the water column is >20 C by August in all but the deepest reservoirs. Most reservoirs showed incipient dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion by mid-May, and by August, 80% of profiles had DO minima of 50% of variation in DO below the mixed layer during summer. Warm summer temperatures and widespread low DO often limit available fish habitat in Missouri reservoirs and compress warm-water fish communities into subsurface layers that exceed their thermal preferences. This study provides a regional baseline of reservoir temperature and oxygen conditions useful for future evaluations of eutrophication and the effects of a warming climate.

  19. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  20. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  1. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-01-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii. PMID:25988670

  2. Carbon emission from global hydroelectric reservoirs revisited.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-12-01

    Substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from hydropower reservoirs have been of great concerns recently, yet the significant carbon emitters of drawdown area and reservoir downstream (including spillways and turbines as well as river reaches below dams) have not been included in global carbon budget. Here, we revisit GHG emission from hydropower reservoirs by considering reservoir surface area, drawdown zone and reservoir downstream. Our estimates demonstrate around 301.3 Tg carbon dioxide (CO2)/year and 18.7 Tg methane (CH4)/year from global hydroelectric reservoirs, which are much higher than recent observations. The sum of drawdown and downstream emission, which is generally overlooked, represents 42 % CO2 and 67 % CH4 of the total emissions from hydropower reservoirs. Accordingly, the global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 92 g CO2/kWh and 5.7 g CH4/kWh. Nonetheless, global hydroelectricity could currently reduce approximate 2,351 Tg CO2eq/year with respect to fuel fossil plant alternative. The new findings show a substantial revision of carbon emission from the global hydropower reservoirs.

  3. Mycobacterium bovis: characteristics of wildlife reservoir hosts.

    PubMed

    Palmer, M V

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in animals and sometimes humans. Many developed nations have long-standing programmes to eradicate tuberculosis in livestock, principally cattle. As disease prevalence in cattle decreases these efforts are sometimes impeded by passage of M. bovis from wildlife to cattle. In epidemiological terms, disease can persist in some wildlife species, creating disease reservoirs, if the basic reproduction rate (R0) and critical community size (CCS) thresholds are achieved. Recognized wildlife reservoir hosts of M. bovis include the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, European badger (Meles meles) in Great Britain and Ireland, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in South Africa, wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Iberian Peninsula and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA. The epidemiological concepts of R0 and CCS are related to more tangible disease/pathogen characteristics such as prevalence, pathogen-induced pathology, host behaviour and ecology. An understanding of both epidemiological and disease/pathogen characteristics is necessary to identify wildlife reservoirs of M. bovis. In some cases, there is a single wildlife reservoir host involved in transmission of M. bovis to cattle. Complexity increases, however, in multihost systems where multiple potential reservoir hosts exist. Bovine tuberculosis eradication efforts require elimination of M. bovis transmission between wildlife reservoirs and cattle. For successful eradication identification of true wildlife reservoirs is critical, as disease control efforts are most effective when directed towards true reservoirs.

  4. Prestack seismic inversion and reservoir property prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xingang

    In this dissertation, I have applied the method of prestack seismic inversion with uncertainty analysis. Also, I have developed the methods of the rock physics template analysis, the fluid modulus inversion and the reservoir property inversion from AVO attributes with and without constraint to improve the technique of reservoir characterization. I use the prestack seismic inversion to invert the elastic properties and use the statistical method to derive the posterior probability of the inverted elastic properties for the uncertainty analysis. I use the rock physics template drawn in the cross-plot of the inverted elastic properties to analyze the lithology and fluid property in the target reservoir. I develop the fluid modulus inversion method based on the simplified Gassmann's equation and the empirical rock physics relationship. Using the inverted fluid modulus, I estimate the gas saturation of the target reservoir before drilling. The reservoir property inversion is to predict the porosity, shale volume and water saturation of the reservoir from AVO attributes to enhance the reservoir interpretation and characterization. I apply this method with the statistical analysis together to execute the uncertainty analysis for the inversion results. Two methods of reservoir property inversion from AVO attributes are attempted in this dissertation: one is performed without constraint and the other is performed with the constrained relationship of the porosity and shale volume.

  5. Carbon content of sediments of small reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Carbon content was measured in sediments deposited in 58 small reservoirs across the US. Reservoirs varied from 0.2 to 4,000 km{sup 2} in surface area. The carbon content of sediment ranged from 0.3 to 5.6 percent, with a mean of 1.9 {plus minus} 1.1 percent. No significant differences between the soil and sediment carbon content were found using a paired t-test or ANOVA. The carbon content of sediments in reservoirs was similar to the carbon content of surface soils in the watershed, except in watersheds with shrub or steppe (desert) vegetation. Based on the sediment accumulation rates measured in each reservoir, the calculated organic carbon accumulation rates among reservoirs ranged from 26 to 3,700 gC m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}, with a mean of 675 {plus minus} 739 gC m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}. The carbon content and accumulation rates were highest in sediments from grassland watersheds. High variability was found in carbon content, carbon accumulation, and sediment accumulation rates due to individual watershed and reservoir characteristics rather than to any broad physiographic patterns. The carbon accumulation rates in these reservoir sediments indicate that reservoir sediments could be a significant sink of organic carbon.

  6. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  7. Climate variations, soil conservation and reservoir sedimentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integrated effects of soil conservation and a wetter climate on reservoir sedimentation were investigated for the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in west-central Oklahoma. A 12% wetter climate since the mid-1980s led to an increase in soil erosion and downstream sediment yield that offset the redu...

  8. Seismic determination of saturation in fractured reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.L.; Wiggins, M.L.; Gupta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detecting the saturation of a fractured reservoir using shear waves is possible when the fractures have a geometry that induces a component of movement perpendicular to the fractures. When such geometry is present, vertically traveling shear waves can be used to examine the saturation of the fractured reservoir. Tilted, corrugated, and saw-tooth fracture models are potential examples.

  9. Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, A.; Kumar, M.; Knapp, R.B.

    2000-05-01

    The most widely used method of thermal oil recovery is by injecting steam into the reservoir. A well-designed steam injection project is very efficient in recovering oil, however its applicability is limited in many situations. Simulation studies and field experience has shown that for low injectivity reservoirs, small thickness of the oil-bearing zone, and reservoir heterogeneity limits the performance of steam injection. This paper discusses alternative methods of transferring heat to heavy oil reservoirs, based on electromagnetic energy. They present a detailed analysis of low frequency electric resistive (ohmic) heating and higher frequency electromagnetic heating (radio and microwave frequency). They show the applicability of electromagnetic heating in two example reservoirs. The first reservoir model has thin sand zones separated by impermeable shale layers, and very viscous oil. They model preheating the reservoir with low frequency current using two horizontal electrodes, before injecting steam. The second reservoir model has very low permeability and moderately viscous oil. In this case they use a high frequency microwave antenna located near the producing well as the heat source. Simulation results presented in this paper show that in some cases, electromagnetic heating may be a good alternative to steam injection or maybe used in combination with steam to improve heavy oil production. They identify the parameters which are critical in electromagnetic heating. They also discuss past field applications of electromagnetic heating including technical challenges and limitations.

  10. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Faruk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2003-02-11

    This research was directed toward developing a systematic reservoir characterization methodology which can be used by the petroleum industry to implement infill drilling programs and/or enhanced oil recovery projects in naturally fractured reservoir systems in an environmentally safe and cost effective manner. It was anticipated that the results of this research program will provide geoscientists and engineers with a systematic procedure for properly characterizing a fractured reservoir system and a reservoir/horizontal wellbore simulator model which can be used to select well locations and an effective EOR process to optimize the recovery of the oil and gas reserves from such complex reservoir systems.

  11. Nineteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1994-01-20

    PREFACE The Nineteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 18-20, 1994. This workshop opened on a sad note because of the death of Prof. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. on November 19, 1993. Hank had been fighting leukemia for a long time and finally lost the battle. Many of the workshop participants were present for the celebration of his life on January 21 at Stanford's Memorial Church. Hank was one of the founders of the Stanford Geothermal Program and the Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Workshop. His energy, kindness, quick wit, and knowledge will long be missed at future workshops. Following the Preface we have included a copy of the Memorial Resolution passed by the Stanford University Senate. There were one hundred and four registered participants. Participants were from ten foreign countries: Costa Rica, England, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines and Turkey. Workshop papers described the performance of fourteen geothermal fields outside the United States. Roland N. Home opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a presentation about the future of geothermal development. The banquet speaker was Jesus Rivera and he spoke about Energy Sources of Central American Countries. Forty two papers were presented at the Workshop. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: sciences, injection, production, modeling, and adsorption. Session chairmen are an important part of the workshop and our thanks go to: John Counsil, Mark Walters, Dave Duchane, David Faulder, Gudmundur Bodvarsson, Jim Lovekin, Joel Renner, and Iraj Ershaghi. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual

  12. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this cooperative research project is to characterize Alaskan petroleum reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration in relation to lithofacies and structure, and development potential. The project has two tasks: Task 1 is a geological description of the reservoirs including petrophysical properties, i.e., porosity, permeability, permeability variation, formation depth, temperature, and net pay, facies changes and reservoir structures as drawn from cores, well logs, and other geological data. Task 2 is reservoir fluid characterization-determination of physical properties of reservoir fluids including density, viscosity, phase distributions and composition as well as petrogenesis-source rock identification; and the study of asphaltene precipitation for Alaskan crude oils. Results are discussed.

  13. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this cooperative research project is to characterize Alaskan petroleum reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration in relation to lithofacies and structure, and development potential. The project has two tasks: Task 1 is a geological description of the reservoirs including petrophysical properties, i.e., porosity, permeability, permeability variation, formation depth, temperature, and net pay, facies changes and reservoir structures as drawn from cores, well logs, and other geological data. Task 2 is reservoir fluid characterization -- determination of physical properties of reservoir fluids including density, viscosity, phase distributions and composition as well as petrogenesis -- source rock identification; and the study of asphaltene precipitation for Alaskan crude oils.

  14. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Barbara A; Schmidt, John Paul; Bowden, Sarah E; Drake, John M

    2015-06-02

    The increasing frequency of zoonotic disease events underscores a need to develop forecasting tools toward a more preemptive approach to outbreak investigation. We apply machine learning to data describing the traits and zoonotic pathogen diversity of the most speciose group of mammals, the rodents, which also comprise a disproportionate number of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Our models predict reservoir status in this group with over 90% accuracy, identifying species with high probabilities of harboring undiscovered zoonotic pathogens based on trait profiles that may serve as rules of thumb to distinguish reservoirs from nonreservoir species. Key predictors of zoonotic reservoirs include biogeographical properties, such as range size, as well as intrinsic host traits associated with lifetime reproductive output. Predicted hotspots of novel rodent reservoir diversity occur in the Middle East and Central Asia and the Midwestern United States.

  15. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate oojective of this cooperative research project is to characterize Alaskan petroleum reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration in relation to lithofacies and structure, and development potential. The project has two tasks: Task 1 is a geological description of the reservoirs including petrophysical properties, i.e., porosity, permeability, permeability variation, formation depth, temperature, and net pay, facies changes and reservoir structures as drawn from cores, well logs, and other geological data. Task 2 is reservoir fluid characterization--determination of physical properties of reservoir fluids including density, viscosity, phase distributions and composition as well as petrogenesis--source rock identification; and the study of asphaltene precipitation for Alaskan crude oils. This report presents a summary of technical progress of the well log analysis of Kuparuk Field, Northslope, Alaska.

  16. Next generation oil reservoir simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, W.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a collaborative effort between Amoco Production Company, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Cray Research Inc. to develop a next-generation massively parallel oil reservoir simulation code. The simulator, code-named Falcon, enables highly detailed simulations to be performed on a range of platforms such as the Cray T3D and T3E. The code is currently being used by Amoco to perform a sophisticated field study using multiple geostatistical realizations on a scale of 2-5 million grid blocks and 1000-2000 wells. In this paper we discuss the nature of this collaborative effort, the software design and engineering aspects of the code, parallelization experiences, and performance studies. The code will be marketed to the oil industry by a third-party independent software vendor in mid-1996.

  17. 13. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING EAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING EAST FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF RESERVOIR. POST OF ORIGINAL FENCE IS IN FOREGROUND - Portland Reservoir No. 2, 6007 Southeast Division Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  18. 9. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF PORTLAND RESERVOIR NO. 2, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING CHAIN-LINK FENCE IN FOREGROUND AND FOUNDATION STRUCTURE IN THE MIDDLE OF RESERVOIR BASIN - Portland Reservoir No. 2, 6007 Southeast Division Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 10. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM PICACHO RESERVOIR INLET CHANNEL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  20. The Obtaining of Oil from an Oil Reservoir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the mechanics of how an actual oil reservoir works and provides some technical background in physics. An experiment which simulates an oil reservoir and demonstrates quantitatively all the basic concepts of oil reservoir rock properties is also presented. (HM)

  1. The Potosi Reservoir Model 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Adushita, Yasmin; Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    As a part of a larger project co-funded by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambro-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon as potential targets for carbon sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins, the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) requested Schlumberger to evaluate the potential injectivity and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume size of the Cambrian Potosi Formation. The evaluation of this formation was accomplished using wireline data, core data, pressure data, and seismic data from the US DOE-funded Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) being conducted by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium in Macon County, Illinois. In 2010, technical performance evaluations on the Cambrian Potosi Formation were performed through reservoir modeling. The data included formation tops from mud logs, well logs from the VW1 and the CCS1 wells, structural and stratigraphic formation from three dimensional (3D) seismic data, and field data from several waste water injection wells for Potosi Formation. Intention was for two million tons per annum (MTPA) of CO2 to be injected for 20 years. In the preceding, the 2010 Potosi heterogeneous model (referred to as the "Potosi Dynamic Model 2010" in this topical report) was re-run using a new injection scenario; 3.2 MTPA for 30 years. The extent of the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010, however, appeared too small for the new injection target. It was not sufficiently large enough to accommodate the evolution of the plume. The new model, Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a, was built by extending the Potosi Dynamic Model 2010 grid to 30 miles x 30 miles (48.3km x48.3km), while preserving all property modeling workflows and layering. This model was retained as the base case of Potosi Dynamic Model 2013a. The Potosi reservoir model was updated to take into account the new data from the verification well VW2 which was drilled in 2012. The new porosity and permeability modeling was

  2. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  3. Extracting maximum petrophysical and geological information from a limited reservoir database

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M.; Chawathe, A.; Ouenes, A.

    1997-08-01

    The characterization of old fields lacking sufficient core and log data is a challenging task. This paper describes a methodology that uses new and conventional tools to build a reliable reservoir model for the Sulimar Queen field. At the fine scale, permeability measured on a fine grid with a minipermeameter was used in conjunction with the petrographic data collected on multiple thin sections. The use of regression analysis and a newly developed fuzzy logic algorithm led to the identification of key petrographic elements which control permeability. At the log scale, old gamma ray logs were first rescaled/calibrated throughout the entire field for consistency and reliability using only four modem logs. Using data from one cored well and the rescaled gamma ray logs, correlations between core porosity, permeability, total water content and gamma ray were developed to complete the small scale characterization. At the reservoir scale, outcrop data and the rescaled gamma logs were used to define the reservoir structure over an area of ten square miles where only 36 wells were available. Given the structure, the rescaled gamma ray logs were used to build the reservoir volume by identifying the flow units and their continuity. Finally, history-matching results constrained to the primary production were used to estimate the dynamic reservoir properties such as relative permeabilities to complete the characterization. The obtained reservoir model was tested by forecasting the waterflood performance and which was in good agreement with the actual performance.

  4. a Mixed-Fractal Flow Model for Stimulated Fractured Vertical Wells in Tight Oil Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuliang; Sheng, Guanglong; Wang, Wendong; Zhang, Qi; Lu, Mingjing; Ren, Long

    2016-02-01

    Stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) with large fracture networks can be generated near hydraulic fractured vertical wells (HFVWs) in tight oil reservoirs. Statistics show that natural microfractures and fracture networks stimulated by SRV were self-similar in statistical sense. Currently, various analytical models have been presented to study pressure behaviors of HFVWs in tight oil reservoirs. However, most of the existing models did not take the distribution and self-similarity of fractures into consideration. To account for stimulated characteristic and self-similarity of fractures in tight oil reservoirs, a mixed-fractal flow model was presented. In this model, there are two distinct regions, stimulated region and unstimulated region. Dual-porosity model and single porosity model were used to model stimulated and unstimulated regions, respectively. Fractal geometry is employed to describe fractal permeability and porosity relationship (FPPR) in tight oil reservoirs. Solutions for the mixed-fractal flow model were derived in the Laplace domain and were validated among range of the reservoir parameters. The pressure transient behavior and production rate derivative were used to analyze flow regimes. The type curves show that the fluid flow in HFVWs can be divided into six main flow periods. Finally, effect of fractal parameters and SRV size on flow periods were also discussed. The results show that the SRV size and fractal parameters of fracture network have great effect on the former periods and fractal parameters of matrix mainly influence the later flow periods.

  5. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. [Quarterly report], January 1--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, B.G.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1995-07-01

    This basis search is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir description begins by initially developing an AI-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an AI-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data. The final task will be technology transfer. With this plan, we have carefully allocated and sequenced the activities involved in each of the tasks to promote concurrent progress towards the research objectives. The results of the integration are not merely limited to obtaining better characterizations of individual reservoirs. They have the potential to significantly impact and advance the discipline of reservoir characterization itself.

  6. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. [Quarterly progress report], January 1--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, B.G.; Gamble, R.F.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1994-06-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an Al-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an Al-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data. The final task will be technology transfer. With this plan, we have carefully allocated and sequenced the activities involved in each of the tasks to promote concurrent progress towards the research objectives. Moreover, the project duties are divided among the faculty member participants. Graduate students will work in teams with faculty members. The results of the integration are not merely limited to obtaining better characterizations of individual reservoirs. They have the potential to significantly impact and advance the discipline of reservoir characterization itself.

  7. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. [Quarterly report], April 1--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, B.G.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G.; Shenoi, S.

    1994-09-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an AI-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an AI-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data. The final task will be technology transfer. With this plan, we have carefully allocated and sequenced the activities involved in each of the tasks to promote concurrent progress towards the research objectives. Moreover, the project duties are divided among the faculty and graduate students. The results of the integration are not merely limited to obtaining better characterizations of individual reservoirs. They have the potential to significantly impact and advance the discipline of reservoir characterization itself.

  8. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  9. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  10. Effects of Reservoir Filling on Sediment and Nutrient Removal in the Lower Susquehanna River Reservoir: An Input-Output Analysis Based on Long-Term Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, W. P.; Zhang, Q.; Hirsch, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Reduction of suspended sediment (SS), total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen is an important focus for Chesapeake Bay watershed management. Susquehanna River, the bay's largest tributary, has drawn attention because SS load from behind Conowingo Dam (near the river fall-line) has risen dramatically recently. To better understand these changes, we evaluated decadal-scale (1986-2013) history of concentrations and fluxes using data from sites above and below the reservoir. First, observed concentration-discharge relationships show declined SS and TP concentrations at the reservoir inlet under most discharges in recent years, but such changes have not been propagated to emerge at the outlet, implying recently diminished reservoir trapping. Second, best estimates of loadings show declined net depositions of SS and TP in recent decades, which occurred under a range of discharges, with the 75th~99.5th percentile of Conowingo discharge dominating such changes and carrying most sediment/nutrient loadings. Finally, stationary models that better accommodate effects of riverflow variability also show diminished reservoir trapping of SS and TP, which occurred under a range of flows including those well below the literature-documented scour threshold. These findings have significant implications in regard to our understanding and management of this major reservoir and illustrate the value of long-term monitoring programs.

  11. Application of artificial intelligence to reservoir characterization: An interdisciplinary approach. Annual report, October 1994--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, D.; Thompson, L.; Shenoi, S.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of this research is to apply novel techniques from Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in capturing, integrating and articulating key knowledge from geology, geostatistics, and petroleum engineering to develop accurate descriptions of petroleum reservoirs. The ultimate goal is to design and implement a single powerful expert system for use by small producers and independents to efficiently exploit reservoirs. The main challenge of the proposed research is to automate the generation of detailed reservoir descriptions honoring all the available soft and hard data that ranges from qualitative and semi-quantitative geological interpretations to numeric data obtained from cores, well tests, well logs and production statistics. Additional challenges are the verification and validation of the expert system, since much of the interpretation of the experts is based on extended experience in reservoir characterization. The overall project plan to design the system to create integrated reservoir descriptions begins by initially developing an AI-based methodology for producing large-scale reservoir descriptions generated interactively from geology and well test data. Parallel to this task is a second task that develops an AI-based methodology that uses facies-biased information to generate small-scale descriptions of reservoir properties such as permeability and porosity. The third task involves consolidation and integration of the large-scale and small-scale methodologies to produce reservoir descriptions honoring all the available data. The final task will be technology transfer. With this plan, the authors have carefully allocated and sequenced the activities involved in each of the tasks to promote concurrent progress towards the research objectives. Moreover, the project duties are divided among the faculty member participants. Graduate students will work in terms with faculty members.

  12. An experimental unification of reservoir computing methods.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B; D'Haene, M; Stroobandt, D

    2007-04-01

    Three different uses of a recurrent neural network (RNN) as a reservoir that is not trained but instead read out by a simple external classification layer have been described in the literature: Liquid State Machines (LSMs), Echo State Networks (ESNs) and the Backpropagation Decorrelation (BPDC) learning rule. Individual descriptions of these techniques exist, but a overview is still lacking. Here, we present a series of experimental results that compares all three implementations, and draw conclusions about the relation between a broad range of reservoir parameters and network dynamics, memory, node complexity and performance on a variety of benchmark tests with different characteristics. Next, we introduce a new measure for the reservoir dynamics based on Lyapunov exponents. Unlike previous measures in the literature, this measure is dependent on the dynamics of the reservoir in response to the inputs, and in the cases we tried, it indicates an optimal value for the global scaling of the weight matrix, irrespective of the standard measures. We also describe the Reservoir Computing Toolbox that was used for these experiments, which implements all the types of Reservoir Computing and allows the easy simulation of a wide range of reservoir topologies for a number of benchmarks.

  13. Basic gas storage reservoir operations and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nowaczewski, S.F. )

    1994-08-01

    Operation and performance analysis of gas storage reservoirs is described in very basic and general terms. Reservoir selection criteria (capacity, deliverability, location, field type, trap type) are reviewed. Well construction considerations and practices (casing sizing, placement, and cementing) are highlighted with regard to the need for long-lived safe operation. Deliverability estimation and prediction and gas inventory methodologies are described. The benefits of high density, high quality data on gas pressure and composition, production rates and volumes, and geologic information to reservoir performance evaluation and prediction are demonstrated.

  14. Production-induced changes in reservoir geomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoyedo, Sunday O.

    Sand production remains a source of concern in both conventional and heavy oil production. Porosity increase and changes in local stress magnitude, which often enhance permeability, have been associated with severe sanding. On the other hand, sand production has been linked to a large number of field incidences involving loss of well integrity, casing collapse and corrosion of down-hole systems. It also poses problems for separators and transport facilities. Numerous factors such as reservoir consolidation, well deviation angle through the reservoir, perforation size, grain size, capillary forces associated with water cut, flow rate and most importantly reservoir strain resulting from pore pressure depletion contribute to reservoir sanding. Understanding field-specific sand production patterns in mature fields and poorly consolidated reservoirs is vital in identifying sand-prone wells and guiding remedial activities. Reservoir strain analysis of Forties Field, located in the UK sector of the North Sea, shows that the magnitude of the production-induced strain, part of which is propagated to the base of the reservoir, is of the order of 0.2 %, which is significant enough to impact the geomechanical properties of the reservoir. Sand production analysis in the field shows that in addition to poor reservoir consolidation, a combined effect of repeated perforation, high well deviation, reservoir strain and high fluid flow rate have contributed significantly to reservoir sanding. Knowledge of reservoir saturation variation is vital for in-fill well drilling, while information on reservoir stress variation provides a useful guide for sand production management, casing design, injector placement and production management. Interpreting time-lapse difference is enhanced by decomposing time-lapse difference into saturation, pressure effects and changes in rock properties (e.g. porosity) especially in highly compacting reservoirs. Analyzing the stress and saturation

  15. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  16. Dispersivity as an oil reservoir rock characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Menzie, D.E.; Dutta, S.

    1989-12-01

    The main objective of this research project is to establish dispersivity, {alpha}{sub d}, as an oil reservoir rock characteristic and to use this reservoir rock property to enhance crude oil recovery. A second objective is to compare the dispersion coefficient and the dispersivity of various reservoir rocks with other rock characteristics such as: porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. The dispersivity of a rock was identified by measuring the physical mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. 119 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  18. Atlas of major Texas gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Kosters, E.C.; Bebout, D.G.; Seni, S.J.; Garret, C.M.; Brown, L.F.; Hamlin, H.S.; Dutton, S.P.; Ruppel, S.C.; Finley, R.J.; Tyler, N.

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains information on more than 1,828 reservoirs, with emphasis on 868 reservoirs that have cumulative gas production of greater than 30 billion cubic feet of natural gas. Texas gas reservoirs are classified into 73 plays, each of which is described in terms of its principal geologic and engineering production characteristics. This assessment of the similarities of gas occurrence within each play will assist in defining controls on gas accumulation, in identifying resources affected by new technology, and in expanding technology to maximize recovery through improved field development and production practices.

  19. Outer boundary effects in a petroleum reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Rhodri; Crowdy, Darren; Kropf, Everett; Zuo, Lihua; Weijermars, Ruud

    2016-11-01

    A new toolkit for potential theory based on the Schottky-Klein prime function is first introduced. This potential theory toolkit is then applied to study the fluid flow structures in bounded 2D petroleum reservoirs. In the model, reservoirs are assumed to be heterogeneous and isotropic porous medium and can thus be modelled using Darcy's equation. First, computations of flow contours are carried out on some 'test' domains and benchmarked against results from the ECLIPSE reservoir simulator. Following this, a case study of the Quitman oil field in Texas is presented.

  20. Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, Jerry F.; Kerans, Charles

    1997-05-29

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study. Subsurface Activities - We continue to prepare two final reports that summarize research results of the South Cowden Field study. One report summarizes results of the petrophysical characterization research, and one summarizes results of the fluid-flow modeling research. Outcrop Activities - We also continue to prepare the final report, which summarizes the research results of the Grayburg outcrop reservoir study.

  1. Geoscience/Engineering Characterization of the Interwell Environment in Carbonate Reservoirs Based on Outcrop Analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, Jerry F.; Kerans, Charles

    1997-05-19

    The objective of this project is to investigate styles of reservoir heterogeneity found in low permeability pelleted wackestone/packstone facies and mixed carbonate/clastic facies found in Permian Basin reservoirs by studying similar facies exposed in the Guadalupe Mountains. Specific objectives for the outcrop study include construction of a stratigraphic framework, petrophysical quantification of the framework, and testing the outcrop reservoir model for effects of reservoir heterogeneity on production performance. Specific objectives for the subsurface study parallel objectives for the outcrop study. Subsurface Activities - We continue to prepare two final reports that summarize research results of the South Cowden Field study. One report summarizes results of the petrophysical characterization research, and one summarizes results of the fluid-flow modeling research. Outcrop Activities - We also continue to prepare the final report, which summarizes the research results of the Grayburg outcrop reservoir study.

  2. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Robert C.; Kamon, Teruki; Toback, David; Safonov, Alexei; Dutta, Bhaskar; Dimitri, Nanopoulos; Pope, Christopher; White, James

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  3. Optomechanical entanglement via reservoir engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingdan

    2014-03-01

    A mechanical resonator could serve as an ideal system for transferring quantum states and mediating interactions between very different kinds of photons. To this end, recent experiments have realized three-mode optomechanical systems, where a single mechanical resonator simultaneously interacts with both an optical and a microwave cavity. In this talk I will discuss different strategies which use reservoir engineering in such a system as a powerful tool to generate robust, stationary entanglement between the two cavity fields. By manipulating the mechanical resonator to effectively cool delocalized Bogoliubov modes, we find that large intracavity entanglement can be achieved, at a level which is well above the maximum achievable via a coherent two-mode interaction. We have also analyzed the entanglement of the output fields of the two cavities. While there are significant differences from the intra-cavity fields, we again find that with proper parameter choices, large amounts of entanglement can be achieved. While the emphasis is on optomechanics, our results can also be applied directly to other 3-mode bosonic systems (e.g., as could be realized with superconducting microwave circuits).

  4. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-07-01

    In fully-saturated rock and at ultrasonic frequencies, the microscopic squirt flow induced between the stiff and soft parts of the pore space by an elastic wave is responsible for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation. In the seismic frequency range, it is the macroscopic cross-flow between the stiffer and softer parts of the rock. We use the latter hypothesis to introduce simple approximate equations for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation in a fully water saturated reservoir. The equations are based on the assumption that in heterogeneous rock and at a very low frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the fully-saturated rock can be estimated by applying a fluid substitution procedure to the averaged (upscaled) dry frame whose effective porosity is the mean porosity and the effective elastic modulus is the Backus-average (geometric mean) of the individual dry-frame elastic moduli of parts of the rock. At a higher frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the saturated rock is the Backus-average of the individual fully-saturated-rock elastic moduli of parts of the rock. The difference between the effective elastic modulus calculated separately by these two methods determines the velocity-frequency dispersion. The corresponding attenuation is calculated from this dispersion by using (e.g.) the standard linear solid attenuation model.

  5. The Potential of the CNS as a Reservoir for HIV-1 Infection: Implications for HIV Eradication.

    PubMed

    Fois, Alessandro F; Brew, Bruce J

    2015-06-01

    The ability of HIV-1 to establish latent infection is a key obstacle to its eradication despite the existence of effective antiretroviral drugs. The brain has been postulated as a reservoir for latent infection, but its role in HIV persistence remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding the role of the central nervous system (CNS) as a viral reservoir and the potential challenges this might present in eradicating HIV. The strategies for eradication of HIV and their application to latent CNS infection are explored. Finally, we outline new developments in drug delivery and new therapeutic modalities designed to target HIV infection in the CNS.

  6. Volume 4: Characterization of representative reservoirs -- Gulf of Mexico field, U-8 reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Koperna, G.J. Jr.; Johnson, H.R.; Salamy, S.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Sawyer, W.K.; Kimbrell, W.C.; Schenewerk, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    A reservoir study was performed using a publicly available black oil simulator to history match and predict the performance of a Gulf of Mexico reservoir. The first objective of this simulation study was to validate the Black Oil Applied Simulation Tool version three for personal computers (BOAST3-PC) model to ensure the integrity of the simulation runs. Once validation was completed, a field history match for the Gulf of Mexico U-8 oil reservoir was attempted. A verbal agreement was reached with the operator of this reservoir to blindcode the name and location of the reservoir. In return, the operator supplied data and assistance in regards to the technical aspects of the research. On the basis of the best history match, different secondary recovery techniques were simulated as a predictive study for enhancing the reservoir productivity.

  7. Overview of the Hijiori shallow reservoir circulation tests and reservoir fluid storage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Takahiro Shiga; Masami Hyodo; Shinji Takasugi; Wright, C.A.; Conant, R.A.

    1996-01-24

    Since 1985, NEDO has advanced a]Hot Dry Rock project in Hijiori, Japan. Circulation tests have been performed in FY1991 (in a shallow reservoir), and in FY1995 (in both shallow and deep reservoirs). In 1991 circulation test, the result was that 78% fluid recovery at an injection rate of 60 tons/hour and production temperatures of 150 °C - 190 °C . However no detailed analysis of flow conditions was given. Therefore, a simplified HDR model has been proposed to understand the Hijion HDR reservoir. We have analyzed the 1991 circulation test using the model. This study is very important for analyzing the circulation test in both of shallow and deep reservoir which was conducted in 1995. This paper summarizes the 1991 circulation test at the Hijiori HDR test site, and estimation of the reservoir fluid storage by using "unrecovered" flow from the new conceptual idea of HDR reservoir model.

  8. Destratification of an impounding reservoir using compressed air??case of Mudi reservoir, Blantyre, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipofya, V. H.; Matapa, E. J.

    This paper reviews the operational and cost effectiveness of a compressed air destratification system that was installed in the Mudi reservoir for destratifying the reservoir. Mudi reservoir is a raw water source for the Blantyre Water Board. It has a capacity of 1,400,000 cubic metres. The reservoir is 15.3 m deep at top water level. In the absence of any artificial circulation of air, the reservoir stratifies into two layers. There is a warm epilimnion in the top 3 m of the reservoir, with temperatures ranging from 23 to 26 °C. There is prolific algal growth in this layer. The bottom layer has much lower temperatures, and is oxygen deficient. Under such anaerobic conditions, ammonia, sulphides, iron and manganese are released from the sediments of the reservoir. As a result of nutrient inflow from the catchments, coupled with tropical ambient temperatures, the reservoir is most times infested with blue-green algae. This results into water treatment problems in respect of taste and odour and iron and manganese soluble salts. To abate such problems, air is artificially circulated in the reservoir, near the intake tower, through a perforated pipe that is connected to an electrically driven compressor. This causes artificial circulation of water in the hypolimnion region of the reservoir. As a result of this circulation, a hostile environment that inhibits the propagation of algae is created. Dissolved oxygen and temperature profiles are practically uniform from top to bottom of reservoir. Concentrations of iron and manganese soluble salts are much reduced at any of the draw-off points available for the water treatment process. The paper concludes by highlighting the significant cost savings in water treatment that are accrued from the use of compressed air destratification in impounding water storage reservoirs for the control of algae and other chemical pollutants.

  9. Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and acquisition of reservoir property measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1991-09-01

    In October, a contract was awarded for the Installation of a Devonian Shale Reservoir Testing Facility and Acquisition of Reservoir Property measurements from wells in the Michigan, Illinois, and Appalachian Basins. Geologic and engineering data collected through this project will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and conditions controlling shale gas production. This report summarizes the results obtained from the various testing procedures used at each wellsite and the activities conducted at the Reservoir Testing Facility.

  10. Analyzing a hydrocarbon reservoir by determining the response of that reservoir to tidal forces

    SciTech Connect

    Graebner, P.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a method for determining a component of the response of a hydrocarbons reservoir to tidal forces. It comprises measuring a variable responsive to tidal forces within the reservoir over a measurement time period; determining a theoretical earth-tide for the reservoir over the measurement time period; and determining the component of the response to tidal forces by comparing the variable measurements and the theoretical earth-tide determinations.

  11. Tensor Inversion of Intrinsic Permeabilities for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    An inverse method has been developed using hybrid formulations and coordinate transform techniques to simultaneously estimate multiple intrinsic permeability tensors (k), flow field, and boundary conditions for a heterogeneous reservoir under non-pumping or pumping conditions [Jiao & Zhang, 2013]. Unlike the objective-function-based approaches, the inverse method does not require forward flow simulations to assess the data-model misfits; thus the knowledge of reservoir boundary conditions is not needed. The method directly incorporates noisy observed data (i.e., fluid heads, Darcy fluxes, or well rates) at the measurement locations, without solving a boundary value problem. Given sufficient measurement data, it yields well-posed systems of equations that can be solved efficiently with coarse inverse grids and nonlinear optimization. When pumping and injection are active, the well rates can be used as measurements and subsurface flux sampling is not needed. Also, local grid refinement at the well locations is not needed for the inversion to succeed. The method is successfully tested for reservoir problems with regular and irregular geometries, different petrofacies patterns, and permeability anisotropy ratios. All problems yield stable solutions under increasing measurement errors. For a given set of the observation data, inversion accuracy is most affected by the permeability anisotropy ratio. Accuracy in estimating k is also affected by the flow pattern: within a given petrofacies, when the Darcy flux component is extremely small, the corresponding directional permeability perpendicular to streamlines becomes less identifiable. Finally, inversion is successful even if the location of the reservoir boundaries is unknown. In this case, the problem domain for inversion is defined by the location of the measurement data. Select problems are presented below in a set of figures and a table (the relevant quantities have a consistent set of units and are thus not labeled

  12. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  13. Development of heavy-oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, P.J.; Baron, R.P.; Fulleylove, R.J.; Wright, M.S.

    1988-02-01

    Although complex categorizations are in vogue, ''heavy oils'' can be defined simply in terms of their flow properties in the reservoir-e.g., a 100-cp (100-mPa.s) or greater viscosity. Such heavy oils are major world hydrocarbon resource that is exploited where indigenous demand exists. Efficient methods of production require enthalpy input to the reservoir by hot-fluid injection or by creation of heat in the reservoir. Heat losses must be minimized to achieve maximum production efficiency. The widely used cyclic-steam-injection process is examined analytically to indicate which parameters govern successful exploitation. Steamflood and in-situ combustion techniques are discussed with reference to recent developments. Heavy-oil recovery from the more difficult carbonate reservoirs, such as those of the Middle East, is reviewed and potential production mechanism are examined. Production techniques are described together with export handling schemes.

  14. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection.

    PubMed

    Viana, Mafalda; Mancy, Rebecca; Biek, Roman; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cross, Paul C; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Haydon, Daniel T

    2014-05-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems.

  15. Improved energy recovery from geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedvarsson, G. S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.; Bjoernsson, S.

    1981-06-01

    Numerical simulation methods are used to study how the exploitation of different horizons affects the behavior of a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir. The reservoir model is a schematic representation of the Olkaria field in Kenya. The model consists of a two phase vapor dominated zone overlying the main liquid dominated reservoir. Four different cases were studied, with fluid produced from: (1) the vapor zone only, (2) the liquid zone only, (3) both zones and (4) both zones, but assuming lower values for vertical permeability and porosity. The results indicate that production from the shallow two phase zone, although resulting in higher enthalpy fluids, may not be advantageous in the long run. Shallow production gives rise to a rather localized depletion of the reservoir, whereas production from deeper horizons may yield a more uniform depletion process, if vertical permeability is sufficiently large.

  16. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5320 - Reservoir bag.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... device, usually made of conductive rubber, intended for use in a breathing circuit as a reservoir for breathing gas and to assist, control, or monitor a patient's ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  1. Modeling the Entrepeñas Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Bernd U; Palancar, María C; Aragón, José M; Sánchez, Fernando; Gil, Roberto

    2006-08-01

    The Entrepeñas Reservoir is a monomictic reservoir located in River Tagus (Spain). The aim of this work is to establish a feasible model to predict the depth of the thermocline that is developed in the reservoir during the period of natural thermal stratification. Entrainment, eddy diffusion, inflow of external energy, and other factors are considered to calibrate the parameters of the model. The methodology involves the measure of actual temperature and electrical conductivity profiles, use of meteorological data and reservoir parameters, and selection and application of several models from the literature. The calculations and predictions are integrated to a software packet that is able to predict thermocline depth and water temperature profile during a 1-year period on a day-by-day basis. In the thermocline depth, the prediction error, on the basis of real data, is less than 6% and, in the water temperature, it is 2 degrees C.

  2. Heat deliverability of homogeneous geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, Eduardo R.; Moya, Sara L.

    1991-01-01

    For the last two decades, the petroleum industry has been successfully using simple inflow performance relationships (IPR's) to predict oil deliverability. In contrast, the geothermal industry lacked a simple and reliable method to estimate geothermal wells' heat deliverability. To address this gap in the standard geothermal-reservoir-assessment arsenal, we developed generalized dimensionless geothermal inflow performance relationships (GIPR's). These ''reference curves'' may be regarded as an approximate general solution of the equations describing the practically important case of radial 2-phase inflow. Based on this approximate solution, we outline a straightforward approach to estimate the reservoir contribution to geothermal wells heat and mass deliverability for 2-phase reservoirs. This approach is far less costly and in most cases as reliable as numerically modeling the reservoir, which is the alternative for 2-phase inflow.

  3. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zinchenko, A. V.

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  4. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Mafalda; Mancy, Rebecca; Biek, Roman; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cross, Paul C.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Haydon, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems. PMID:24726345

  5. Reservoir response to tidal and barometric effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J.M.

    1980-05-29

    Solid earth tidal strain and surface loading due to fluctuations in barometric pressure have the effect, although extremely minute, of dilating or contracting the effective pore volume in a porous reservoir. If a well intersects the formation, the change in pore pressure can be measured with sensitive quartz pressure gauges. Mathematical models of the relevant fluid dynamics of the well-reservoir system have been generated and tested against conventional well pumping results or core data at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), California and at the Raft River, Geothermal Field (RRGF), Idaho. Porosity-total compressibility product evaluation based on tidal strain response compares favorably with results based on conventional pumping techniques. Analysis of reservoir response to barometric loading using Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) stochastic modeling appears also to have potential use for the evaluation of reservoir parameters.

  6. Ecological assessment of a southeastern Brazil reservoir

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Reservoirs are artificial ecosystems with multiple functions having direct and indirect benefits to humans; however, they also cause ecological changes and influence the composition and structure of aquatic biota. Our objectives were to: (1) assess the environmen...

  7. Assembling evidence for identifying reservoirs of infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mafalda, Viana; Rebecca, Mancy; Roman, Biek; Sarah, Cleaveland; Cross, Paul C.; James O, Lloyd-Smith; Daniel T, Haydon

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogens persist in multihost systems, making the identification of infection reservoirs crucial for devising effective interventions. Here, we present a conceptual framework for classifying patterns of incidence and prevalence, and review recent scientific advances that allow us to study and manage reservoirs simultaneously. We argue that interventions can have a crucial role in enriching our mechanistic understanding of how reservoirs function and should be embedded as quasi-experimental studies in adaptive management frameworks. Single approaches to the study of reservoirs are unlikely to generate conclusive insights whereas the formal integration of data and methodologies, involving interventions, pathogen genetics, and contemporary surveillance techniques, promises to open up new opportunities to advance understanding of complex multihost systems.

  8. Models for naturally fractured, carbonate reservoir simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncay, K.; Park, A.; Ozkan, G.; Zhan, X.; Ortoleva, P.; Hoak, T.; Sundberg, K.

    1998-12-31

    This report outlines the need for new tools for the simulation of fractured carbonate reservoirs. Several problems are identified that call for the development of new reservoir simulation physical models and numerical techniques. These include: karst and vuggy media wherein Darcy`s and traditional multi-phase flow laws do not apply; the need for predicting the preproduction state of fracturing and stress so that the later response of effective stress-dependent reservoirs can be predicted; and methods for predicting the fracturing and collapse of vuggy and karst reservoirs in response to draw-down pressure created during production. Specific research directions for addressing each problem are outlined and preliminary results are noted.

  9. Integration of reservoir simulation and geomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nan

    Fluid production from tight and shale gas formations has increased significantly, and this unconventional portfolio of low-permeability reservoirs accounts for more than half of the gas produced in the United States. Stimulation and hydraulic fracturing are critical in making these systems productive, and hence it is important to understand the mechanics of the reservoir. When modeling fractured reservoirs using discrete-fracture network representation, the geomechanical effects are expected to have a significant impact on important reservoir characteristics. It has become more accepted that fracture growth, particularly in naturally fractured reservoirs with extremely low permeability, cannot be reliably represented by conventional planar representations. Characterizing the evolution of multiple, nonplanar, interconnected and possibly nonvertical hydraulic fractures requires hydraulic and mechanical characterization of the matrix, as well as existing latent or healed fracture networks. To solve these challenging problems, a reservoir simulator (Advanced Reactive Transport Simulator (ARTS)) capable of performing unconventional reservoir simulation is developed in this research work. A geomechanical model has been incorporated into the simulation framework with various coupling schemes and this model is used to understand the geomechanical effects in unconventional oil and gas recovery. This development allows ARTS to accept geomechanical information from external geomechanical simulators (soft coupling) or the solution of the geomechanical coupled problem (hard coupling). An iterative solution method of the flow and geomechanical equations has been used in implementing the hard coupling scheme. The hard coupling schemes were verified using one-dimensional and two-dimensional analytical solutions. The new reservoir simulator is applied to learn the influence of geomechanical impact on unconventional oil and gas production in a number of practical recovery scenarios

  10. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock-fabric flow layers

  11. Oil reservoir properties estimation using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Toomarian, N.B.; Barhen, J.; Glover, C.W.; Aminzadeh, F.

    1997-02-01

    This paper investigates the applicability as well as the accuracy of artificial neural networks for estimating specific parameters that describe reservoir properties based on seismic data. This approach relies on JPL`s adjoint operators general purpose neural network code to determine the best suited architecture. The authors believe that results presented in this work demonstrate that artificial neural networks produce surprisingly accurate estimates of the reservoir parameters.

  12. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  13. Results of the geothermal reservoir insurance study

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, D.M.

    1982-10-01

    On June 30, 1980, Public Law 96-294, referred to as the Energy Security Act, was enacted by the Congress of the United States. Subtitle B of Title VI (Geothermal Energy) of the Act required that a reservoir insurance program study be conducted. The objective of the study was to provide an analysis of the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. In conjunction with the analysis, the appropriate level of federal support, if any, was to be determined.

  14. Origins of acid fluids in geothermal reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, Alfred

    1991-01-01

    Acid fluids in geothermal reservoirs are rare. Their occurrence in geothermal systems associated with recent volcanism (Tatun, Sumikawa, Miravalles) probably indicates that the geothermal reservoir fluid was derived from volcanic fluid incompletely neutralized by reaction with feldspars and micas. Superheated steam containing HCl (Larderello, The Geysers) forms acid where it condenses or mixes with liquid at moderate temperatures (325??C). Cryptoacidity occurs at Los Humeros where HCl acidity is formed and neutralized without reaching the surface.

  15. Reservoir engineering of Wairakei geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Malcom A.

    1988-01-01

    Wairakei was the first liquid dominated geothermal field exploited for major power production. As such many decisions were taken on an ad-hoc or experimental basis. In retrospect the choice of Wairakei was fortunate : with extensive shallow high permeability and major recharge it is an easy field to exploit. This lecture describes the history of the field and the contribution of reservoir engineering to field management, and describes the reservoir as it is now understood.

  16. Integrated management of multiple reservoir field developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, S.L.; Chan, H.M.; Harper, J.L.; Boyett, B.A.; Dowson, P.R.; Bette, S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper consists of two sections. The authors first describe the coupling of a pipeline network model to a reservoir simulator and then the application of this new simulator to optimize the production strategy of two Mobil field developments. Mobil`s PEGASUS simulator is an integrated all purpose reservoir simulator that handles black-oil, compositional, faulted and naturally fractured reservoirs. The authors have extended the simulator to simultaneously model multiple reservoirs coupled with surface pipeline networks and processes. This allows them to account for the effects of geology, well placement, and surface production facilities on well deliverability in a fully integrated fashion. They have also developed a gas contract allocation system that takes the user-specified constraints, target rates and swing factors and automatically assigns rates to the individual wells of each reservoir. This algorithm calculates the overall deliverability and automatically reduces the user-specified target rates to meet the deliverability constraints. The algorithm and solution technique are described. This enhanced simulator has been applied to model a Mobil field development in the Southern Gas Basin, offshore United Kingdom, which consists of three separate gas reservoirs connected via a pipeline network. The simulator allowed the authors to accurately determine the impact on individual reservoir and total field performance by varying the development timing of these reservoirs. Several development scenarios are shown to illustrate the capabilities of PEGASUS. Another application of this technology is in the field developments in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Here the objective is to economically optimize the development of multiple fields to feed the PT Arun LNG facility. Consideration of a range of gas compositions, well productivity`s, and facilities constraints in an integrated fashion results in improved management of these assets. Model specifics are discussed.

  17. 13. Symposium on reservoir simulation: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This is a conference proceedings which deals with the latest developments and trends in reservoir simulation techniques and modeling. It includes papers dealing with multiphase flow in oil and gas wells; flow calculation methods in deviated and horizontal wells; fluid flow in fractured reservoirs; and simulation techniques for enhanced recovery and well stimulation processes. Most papers provide case studies using the various computer models or computer systems, including numerous studies on parallel processing equipment.

  18. Horizontal sidetrack taps reservoir sweet spots''

    SciTech Connect

    Wible, J.R. )

    1994-02-21

    Cutting a window at 85[degree] deviation allowed a sidetrack to pass through the high-resistivity sections in a Gulf of Mexico reservoir. Results from logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools indicated the original horizontal bore dropped too low in the reservoir, possibly leading to a low productivity well. The subsequent sidetrack successfully delivered the desired well bore, and the increased productivity justified the efforts in cutting a window in the horizontal section.

  19. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  20. Massachusetts reservoir simulation tool—User’s manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey developed the Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool to examine the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflows in Massachusetts by simulating the daily water balance of reservoirs. The simulation tool was developed to assist environmental managers to better manage water withdrawals in reservoirs and to preserve downstream aquatic habitats.

  1. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in... circulation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards), except that a reservoir that contains...

  5. Parallel reservoir computing using optical amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Reservoir computing (RC), a computational paradigm inspired on neural systems, has become increasingly popular in recent years for solving a variety of complex recognition and classification problems. Thus far, most implementations have been software-based, limiting their speed and power efficiency. Integrated photonics offers the potential for a fast, power efficient and massively parallel hardware implementation. We have previously proposed a network of coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers as an interesting test case for such a hardware implementation. In this paper, we investigate the important design parameters and the consequences of process variations through simulations. We use an isolated word recognition task with babble noise to evaluate the performance of the photonic reservoirs with respect to traditional software reservoir implementations, which are based on leaky hyperbolic tangent functions. Our results show that the use of coherent light in a well-tuned reservoir architecture offers significant performance benefits. The most important design parameters are the delay and the phase shift in the system's physical connections. With optimized values for these parameters, coherent semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) reservoirs can achieve better results than traditional simulated reservoirs. We also show that process variations hardly degrade the performance, but amplifier noise can be detrimental. This effect must therefore be taken into account when designing SOA-based RC implementations.

  6. Reservoir assessment of The Geysers Geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Dykstra, H.

    1981-01-01

    Big Sulphur Creek fault zone, in The Geysers Geothermal field, may be part of a deep-seated, wrench-style fault system. Hydrothermal fluid in the field reservoir may rise through conduits beneath the five main anomalies associated with the Big Sulphur Creek wrench trend. Some geophysical anomalies (electrical resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric) evidently are caused by the hot water geothermal field or zones of altered rocks; others (gravity, P-wave delays, and possibly electrical resistivity) probably respresent the underlying heat source, a possible magma chamber; and others (microearthquake activity) may be related to the steam reservoir. A large negative gravity anomaly and a few low-resistivity anomalies suggest areas generally favorable for the presence of steam zones, but these anomalies apparently do not directly indicate the known steam reservoir. At the current generating capacity of 930 MWe, the estimated life of The Geysers Geothermal field reservoir is 129 years. The estimated reservoir life is 60 years for the anticipated maximum generating capacity of 2000 MWe as of 1990. Wells at The Geysers are drilled with conventional drilling fluid (mud) until the top of the steam reservoir is reached; then, they are drilled with air. Usually, mud, temperature, caliper, dual induction, and cement bond logs are run on the wells.

  7. Assessment of reservoir system variable forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenmacher, Martin; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2015-05-01

    Forecast ensembles are a convenient means to model water resources uncertainties and to inform planning and management processes. For multipurpose reservoir systems, forecast types include (i) forecasts of upcoming inflows and (ii) forecasts of system variables and outputs such as reservoir levels, releases, flood damage risks, hydropower production, water supply withdrawals, water quality conditions, navigation opportunities, and environmental flows, among others. Forecasts of system variables and outputs are conditional on forecasted inflows as well as on specific management policies and can provide useful information for decision-making processes. Unlike inflow forecasts (in ensemble or other forms), which have been the subject of many previous studies, reservoir system variable and output forecasts are not formally assessed in water resources management theory or practice. This article addresses this gap and develops methods to rectify potential reservoir system forecast inconsistencies and improve the quality of management-relevant information provided to stakeholders and managers. The overarching conclusion is that system variable and output forecast consistency is critical for robust reservoir management and needs to be routinely assessed for any management model used to inform planning and management processes. The above are demonstrated through an application from the Sacramento-American-San Joaquin reservoir system in northern California.

  8. Bathymetric contours of Breckenridge Reservoir, Quantico, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, S.M.; Lotspeich, R.R.; Banks, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Breckenridge Reservoir, built in 1938, is fed by Chopawamsic Creek and South Branch Chopawamsic Creek. The Reservoir is a main source of drinking water for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Base in Quantico, Virginia. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USMC, conducted a bathymetric survey of Breckenridge Reservoir in March 2009. The survey was conducted to provide the USMC Natural Resources and Environmental Affairs (NREA) with information regarding reservoir storage capacity and general bathymetric properties. The bathymetric survey can provide a baseline for future work on sediment loads and deposition rates for the reservoir. Bathymetric data were collected using a boat-mounted Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) differential global positioning system (DGPS), echo depth-sounding equipment, and computer software. Data were exported into a geographic information system (GIS) for mapping and calculating area and volume. Reservoir storage volume at the time of the survey was about 22,500,000 cubic feet (517 acre-feet) with a surface area of about 1,820,000 square feet (41.9 acres).

  9. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage.

  10. Redistribution of filtration flows by thermogel at boundary water flooding of oil reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakova, N. K.; Penkovsky, V. I.; Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    The results of physical simulation by a two-dimensional reservoir model and numerical calculation by a finite element method for the GALKA-NT thermogel influence on the redistribution of filtration flows of injected water in the oil production by boundary water flooding are presented. The reserve development by this method, especially in the case of viscose oil pools, occurs with an unstable displacement front that causes growing water fingers, which finally transform into the network of water-conducting channels in the direction of the least filtration resistance between well rows. Here the most amount of oil remains in the nonmobile capillary-locked state, which is in dynamic equilibrium with the flow of displacing water. The injection of thermogel into the reservoir area between the wells is shown to widen the displacement front and to increase the reservoir coverage by water flooding at a later stage in order to enhance oil recovery.

  11. Decommissioning strategy for liquid low-level radioactive waste surface storage water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Utkin, S S; Linge, I I

    2016-11-22

    The Techa Cascade of water reservoirs (TCR) is one of the most environmentally challenging facilities resulted from FSUE "PA "Mayak" operations. Its reservoirs hold over 360 mln m(3) of liquid radioactive waste with a total activity of some 5 × 10(15) Bq. A set of actions implemented under a special State program involving the development of a strategic plan aimed at complete elimination of TCR challenges (Strategic Master-Plan for the Techa Cascade of water reservoirs) resulted in considerable reduction of potential hazards associated with this facility. The paper summarizes the key elements of this master-plan: defining TCR final state, feasibility study of the main strategies aimed at its attainment, evaluation of relevant long-term decommissioning strategy, development of computational tools enabling the long-term forecast of TCR behavior depending on various engineering solutions and different weather conditions.

  12. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research. Annual report, September 1988--August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  13. THMC Modeling of EGS Reservoirs -- Continuum through Discontinuum Representations. Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, Derek; Izadi, Ghazal; Gan, Quan; Fang, Yi; Taron, Josh; Sonnenthal, Eric

    2015-07-28

    This work has investigated the roles of effective stress induced by changes in fluid pressure, temperature and chemistry in contributing to the evolution of permeability and induced seismicity in geothermal reservoirs. This work has developed continuum models [1] to represent the progress or seismicity during both stimulation [2] and production [3]. These methods have been used to resolve anomalous observations of induced seismicity at the Newberry Volcano demonstration project [4] through the application of modeling and experimentation. Later work then focuses on the occurrence of late stage seismicity induced by thermal stresses [5] including the codifying of the timing and severity of such responses [6]. Furthermore, mechanistic linkages between observed seismicity and the evolution of permeability have been developed using data from the Newberry project [7] and benchmarked against field injection experiments. Finally, discontinuum models [8] incorporating the roles of discrete fracture networks have been applied to represent stimulation and then thermal recovery for new arrangements of geothermal wells incorporating the development of flow manifolds [9] in order to increase thermal output and longevity in EGS systems.

  14. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, Fred C.

    2003-01-15

    species of flagellates, Spumella sp. and Bodo sp. (identifications are tentative) were isolated from South Oyster sediments by repetitive serial dilution/extinction method. Protistan cells were cultured with Cereal leaf Prescott medium and pelleted by centrifugation. Protistan DNAs were extracted with a DNA extraction kit (Sigma Co.) and the sequencing of their SSrDNA is underway. Finally, to follow up on our collaboration of Dr. Bill Johnson (Univ. of Utah), one of the co-PIs under the same NABIR umbrella, we are pleased to report we have successfully tested antibody-ferrographic capture of protists (See previous year's report for more background). Polyclonal FITC-conjugated antibody specific for a flagellate, Spumella sp., was produced by Rockland Inc., and we now are able to enumerate that species using ferrographic capture. There are, however, some issues of non-specific staining that remain to be resolved.

  15. Online interactive U.S. Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.B.; Bernard, J.M.; Schwarz, G.E.; Stewart, D.W.; Ray, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (prior to 1994, the Soil Conservation Service) created the Reservoir Sedimentation Survey Database (RESSED) and Web site, the most comprehensive compilation of data from reservoir bathymetric and dry basin surveys in the United States. RESSED data can be useful for a number of purposes, including calculating changes in reservoir storage characteristics, quantifying rates of sediment delivery to reservoirs, and estimating erosion rates in a reservoir's watershed.

  16. Sedimentology and diagenesis of misoa C-2 reservoir, VLE-305/326 area, block V, Lamar Field, Maracaibe Lake, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera de Casas, L.; Chacartegui, F. )

    1993-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to characterize the Upper Eocene C-2 reservoir using sedimentological, petrophysical and biostratigraphic parameters. The reservoir quality was evaluated by defining its physical attributes, geometry, areal distribution and orientation, from facies analysis of sedimentary units identified in core samples. In evaluating the sedimentary features of the Misoa C-2 reservoir in VLE 305/326 area, Block V, Lamar Field, Maracaibo Lake, 2,000' of cores from five wells (named VLe-339, VLE-720, VLE -723, VLe-754, LPG-1211) were analyzed. The sedimentary sequence studied represents upper-middle deltaic plain deposits with no marine influence. These deposits were identified as interdistributary channels, crevasse splays and interdistributary bays deposited in a northward prograding system. Seven sedimentary facies were defined from the physical, chemical and biological features observed in all cores. These facies were petrophysically and petrographically characterized then grouped in six sedimentary units which were then correlated over the entire area. One hundred well logs were correlated using sedimentological criteria. Finally, four flow units were identified in the reservoir using the sedimentological parameters, petrophysical data and production behavior. A surface trend analysis program utilizing thickness values resulted in contours, trends, residuals and isometry maps of each unit with a generalized southwest-northeast trend orientation. It was determined that facies distribution in the units controls the reservoir quality. These results are the main input into reservoir simulation. An accurate reservoir modeling is needed to prepare for optimizing secondary oil recovery.

  17. Lead Isotope Compositions of Acid Residues from Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for Heterogeneous Shergottite Source Reservoirs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions and trace element abundances. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible- element-enriched reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there is ongoing debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former requires the ancient Martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires isolation of a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and trace element concentration analyses of sequential acid-leaching fractions (leachates and the final residues) from the geochemically depleted olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint. The results suggest that the Tissint magma is not isotopically uniform and sampled at least two geochemical source reservoirs, implying that either crustal assimilation or magma mixing would have played a role in the Tissint petrogenesis.

  18. Optimisation of decision making under uncertainty throughout field lifetime: A fractured reservoir example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Dan; Demyanov, Vasily; Christie, Mike; Bakay, Alexander; Gopa, Konstantin

    2016-10-01

    Assessing the change in uncertainty in reservoir production forecasts over field lifetime is rarely undertaken because of the complexity of joining together the individual workflows. This becomes particularly important in complex fields such as naturally fractured reservoirs. The impact of this problem has been identified in previous and many solutions have been proposed but never implemented on complex reservoir problems due to the computational cost of quantifying uncertainty and optimising the reservoir development, specifically knowing how many and what kind of simulations to run. This paper demonstrates a workflow that propagates uncertainty throughout field lifetime, and into the decision making process by a combination of a metric-based approach, multi-objective optimisation and Bayesian estimation of uncertainty. The workflow propagates uncertainty estimates from appraisal into initial development optimisation, then updates uncertainty through history matching and finally propagates it into late-life optimisation. The combination of techniques applied, namely the metric approach and multi-objective optimisation, help evaluate development options under uncertainty. This was achieved with a significantly reduced number of flow simulations, such that the combined workflow is computationally feasible to run for a real-field problem. This workflow is applied to two synthetic naturally fractured reservoir (NFR) case studies in appraisal, field development, history matching and mid-life EOR stages. The first is a simple sector model, while the second is a more complex full field example based on a real life analogue. This study infers geological uncertainty from an ensemble of models that are based on the carbonate Brazilian outcrop which are propagated through the field lifetime, before and after the start of production, with the inclusion of production data significantly collapsing the spread of P10-P90 in reservoir forecasts. The workflow links uncertainty

  19. Efficient operation of a multi-purpose reservoir in Chile: Tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to

  20. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Active Management of Integrated Geothermal–CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations: An Approach to Improve Energy Recovery and Mitigate Risk: FY1 Final Report The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. Based on a range of well schemes, techno-economic analyses of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are conducted to determine the economic benefits of integrating GCS with geothermal energy production. In addition to considering CO2 injection, reservoir analyses are conducted for nitrogen (N2) injection to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating N2 injection with integrated geothermal-GCS, as well as the use of N2 injection as a potential pressure-support and working-fluid option. Phase 1 includes preliminary environmental risk assessments of integrated geothermal-GCS, with the focus on managing reservoir overpressure. Phase 1 also includes an economic survey of pipeline costs, which will be applied in Phase 2 to the analysis of CO2 conveyance costs for techno-economics analyses of integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites. Phase 1 also includes a geospatial GIS survey of potential integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites, which will be used in Phase 2 to conduct sweet-spot analyses that determine where promising geothermal resources are co-located in sedimentary settings conducive to safe CO2 storage, as well as being in adequate proximity to large stationary CO2 sources.

  1. Comparison of Gross Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Hydroelectric Reservoirs in Brazil with Thermopower Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogerio, J. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.; Matvienko, B.; dos Santos, E.; Rocha, C. H.; Sikar, E.; Junior, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    shown a large variation in the data on greenhouse gas emissions, which would suggest that more care, should be taken in the choice of future projects by the Brazilian electrical sector. The emission of CH4 by hydroelectric reservoirs is always unfavorable, since even if the carbon has originated with natural sources, it is part of a gas with higher GWP in the final calculation. Emissions of CO2 can be attributed in part to the natural carbon cycle between the atmosphere and the water of the reservoir. Another part could be attributed to the decomposition of organic material, caused by the hydroelectric dam.

  2. Geologic aspects of horizontal drilling in self-sourcing reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Illich, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Horizontal drilling techniques provide a way to exploit hydrocarbon reserves that are either noneconomic or only marginally economic using vertical drilling techniques. A significant fraction of these reserves is contained in reservoirs that are self-sourcing or in reservoirs that are closely associated with their resources. Most formations drilled as horizontal targets are self-sourcing. The Austin Chalk, Niobrara, Mesaverde, and Bakken are examples of horizontally drilled, self-sourcing reservoir systems. In formations like the Bakken or Austin Chalk, the close relationship between reservoir and source makes risks associated with migration and accumulation less important. Reservoirs of this kind can contain oil or gas and often have little or no associated water. They can be matrix-dominated reservoirs, dual-porosity reservoirs (Mesaverde), or fractured reservoirs (Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara). Fractured, self-sourcing reservoirs also can possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess highly heterogeneous reservoir systems. Characterization of the style of reservoir heterogeneity in self-sourcing systems is important if the favorable properties of horizontally oriented bore holes are to be realized. Production data and rock mechanics considerations are important in horizontal drilling ventures. Examples of the use of these data for the purpose of defining reservoir characteristics are discussed. Knowledge of lateral changes in reservoir properties is essential if we are to recover known reserves efficiently.

  3. Architecture of collapsed-paleocave reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G. ); Mescher, P. )

    1996-01-01

    It is important to investigate the architecture of collapsed-paleocave reservoirs at interwell scales in outcrops because reservoir heterogeneities cannot be adequately characterized by cores and log correlation sections. A 3000-foot long quarry wall of Ellenburger strata in central Texas displays the lithologic and pore network heterogeneities at typical well spacings (1300 to 2600 feet). The quarry wall exposes the transition from stratified host rock into a complex collapsed-paleocave system showing several developmental episodes. This paleocave system has over 2600 feet of laterally continuous chaotic breccias. The dimensions of these breccias are similar as to what is imaged by 3-D seismic over paleocave reservoirs. Collapsed-paleocave reservoirs are not single collapsed passages of tens of feet across, but are homogenized collapsed-cave systems hundreds to several thousand feet across. This concept of scale is very important because collapsed-paleocave systems offer larger exploration targets than individual cave passages. Collapsed-paleocave systems are complex because they are the homogenization of chaotic breccias and cave-sediment fill from passages, chambers, and shafts and of crackle breccias from roof- and wall-rock and pillars. Pore networks are associated with chaotic breakdown breccias, cave roof- and wall-crackle breccias, and/or clastic sediment fill. Strong heterogeneity within a collapsed paleocave system should be expected. Lateral and vertical changes in collapsed-paleocave-related facies have the strongest effect on reservoir heterogeneity and quality. Within individual facies there can be distinct reservoir quality variation, such as between the cave-sediment fill and associated blocks. Tectonic fractures, however, can interconnect the highly variable pore networks within a collapsed-paleocave reservoir.

  4. Architecture of collapsed-paleocave reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Mescher, P.

    1996-12-31

    It is important to investigate the architecture of collapsed-paleocave reservoirs at interwell scales in outcrops because reservoir heterogeneities cannot be adequately characterized by cores and log correlation sections. A 3000-foot long quarry wall of Ellenburger strata in central Texas displays the lithologic and pore network heterogeneities at typical well spacings (1300 to 2600 feet). The quarry wall exposes the transition from stratified host rock into a complex collapsed-paleocave system showing several developmental episodes. This paleocave system has over 2600 feet of laterally continuous chaotic breccias. The dimensions of these breccias are similar as to what is imaged by 3-D seismic over paleocave reservoirs. Collapsed-paleocave reservoirs are not single collapsed passages of tens of feet across, but are homogenized collapsed-cave systems hundreds to several thousand feet across. This concept of scale is very important because collapsed-paleocave systems offer larger exploration targets than individual cave passages. Collapsed-paleocave systems are complex because they are the homogenization of chaotic breccias and cave-sediment fill from passages, chambers, and shafts and of crackle breccias from roof- and wall-rock and pillars. Pore networks are associated with chaotic breakdown breccias, cave roof- and wall-crackle breccias, and/or clastic sediment fill. Strong heterogeneity within a collapsed paleocave system should be expected. Lateral and vertical changes in collapsed-paleocave-related facies have the strongest effect on reservoir heterogeneity and quality. Within individual facies there can be distinct reservoir quality variation, such as between the cave-sediment fill and associated blocks. Tectonic fractures, however, can interconnect the highly variable pore networks within a collapsed-paleocave reservoir.

  5. Integrated reservoir characterization: Improvement in heterogeneities stochastic modelling by integration of additional external constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Doligez, B.; Eschard, R.; Geffroy, F.

    1997-08-01

    The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.

  6. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carter Sandstone, North Blowhorn Creek oil unit and vicinity, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    This report presents accomplishments made in completing Task 3 of this project which involves development of criteria for recognizing reservoir heterogeneity in the Black Warrior basin. The report focuses on characterization of the Upper Mississippian Carter sandstone reservoir in North Blowhorn Creek and adjacent oil units in Lamar County, Alabama. This oil unit has produced more than 60 percent of total oil extracted from the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The Carter sandstone in North Blowhorn Creek oil unit is typical of the most productive Carter oil reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report synthesizes data derived from geophysical well logs and cores from North Blowhorn Creek oil unit to develop a depositional model for the Carter sandstone reservoir. The second part of the report describes the detrital and diagenetic character of Carter sandstone utilizing data from petrographic and scanning electron microscopes and the electron microprobe. The third part synthesizes porosity and pore-throat-size-distribution data determined by high-pressure mercury porosimetry and commercial core analyses with results of the sedimentologic and petrographic studies. The final section of the report discusses reservoir heterogeneity within the context of the five-fold classification of Moore and Kugler (1990).

  7. MeProRisk - a Joint Venture for Minimizing Risk in Geothermal Reservoir Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauser, C.; Marquart, G.

    2009-12-01

    Exploration and development of geothermal reservoirs for the generation of electric energy involves high engineering and economic risks due to the need for 3-D geophysical surface surveys and deep boreholes. The MeProRisk project provides a strategy guideline for reducing these risks by combining cross-disciplinary information from different specialists: Scientists from three German universities and two private companies contribute with new methods in seismic modeling and interpretation, numerical reservoir simulation, estimation of petrophysical parameters, and 3-D visualization. The approach chosen in MeProRisk consists in considering prospecting and developing of geothermal reservoirs as an iterative process. A first conceptual model for fluid flow and heat transport simulation can be developed based on limited available initial information on geology and rock properties. In the next step, additional data is incorporated which is based on (a) new seismic interpretation methods designed for delineating fracture systems, (b) statistical studies on large numbers of rock samples for estimating reliable rock parameters, (c) in situ estimates of the hydraulic conductivity tensor. This results in a continuous refinement of the reservoir model where inverse modelling of fluid flow and heat transport allows infering the uncertainty and resolution of the model at each iteration step. This finally yields a calibrated reservoir model which may be used to direct further exploration by optimizing additional borehole locations, estimate the uncertainty of key operational and economic parameters, and optimize the long-term operation of a geothermal resrvoir.

  8. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, V.; Asael, D.; Baland, R. M.; Baludikay, B. K.; Beghin, J.; Belza, J.; Beuthe, M.; Breuer, D.; Chernonozhkin, S.; Claeys, Ph.; Cornet, Y.; Cornet, L.; Coyette, A.; Debaille, V.; Delvigne, C.; Deproost, M. H.; De WInter, N.; Duchemin, C.; El Atrassi, F.; François, C.; De Keyser, J.; Gillmann, C.; Gloesener, E.; Goderis, S.; Hidaka, Y.; Höning, D.; Huber, M.; Hublet, G.; Javaux, E. J.; Karatekin, Ö.; Kodolanyi, J.; Revilla, L. Lobo; Maes, L.; Maggiolo, R.; Mattielli, N.; Maurice, M.; McKibbin, S.; Morschhauser, A.; Neumann, W.; Noack, L.; Pham, L. B. S.; Pittarello, L.; Plesa, A. C.; Rivoldini, A.; Robert, S.; Rosenblatt, P.; Spohn, T.; Storme, J.-Y.; Tosi, N.; Trinh, A.; Valdes, M.; Vandaele, A. C.; Vanhaecke, F.; Van Hoolst, T.; Van Roosbroek, N.; Wilquet, V.; Yseboodt, M.

    2016-11-01

    The Interuniversity Attraction Pole (IAP) `PLANET TOPERS' (Planets: Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their Reservoirs) addresses the fundamental understanding of the thermal and compositional evolution of the different reservoirs of planetary bodies (core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and space) considering interactions and feedback mechanisms. Here we present the first results after 2 years of project work.

  9. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  10. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  11. PLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS.

    PubMed

    Dehant, V; Asael, D; Baland, R M; Baludikay, B K; Beghin, J; Belza, J; Beuthe, M; Breuer, D; Chernonozhkin, S; Claeys, Ph; Cornet, Y; Cornet, L; Coyette, A; Debaille, V; Delvigne, C; Deproost, M H; De WInter, N; Duchemin, C; El Atrassi, F; François, C; De Keyser, J; Gillmann, C; Gloesener, E; Goderis, S; Hidaka, Y; Höning, D; Huber, M; Hublet, G; Javaux, E J; Karatekin, Ö; Kodolanyi, J; Revilla, L Lobo; Maes, L; Maggiolo, R; Mattielli, N; Maurice, M; McKibbin, S; Morschhauser, A; Neumann, W; Noack, L; Pham, L B S; Pittarello, L; Plesa, A C; Rivoldini, A; Robert, S; Rosenblatt, P; Spohn, T; Storme, J -Y; Tosi, N; Trinh, A; Valdes, M; Vandaele, A C; Vanhaecke, F; Van Hoolst, T; Van Roosbroek, N; Wilquet, V; Yseboodt, M

    2016-11-01

    The Interuniversity Attraction Pole (IAP) 'PLANET TOPERS' (Planets: Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their Reservoirs) addresses the fundamental understanding of the thermal and compositional evolution of the different reservoirs of planetary bodies (core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and space) considering interactions and feedback mechanisms. Here we present the first results after 2 years of project work.

  12. SEISMIC EVALUATION OF HYDROCARBON SATURATION IN DEEP-WATER RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James

    2005-01-22

    During this last quarter of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we have moved forward on several fronts, including data acquisition as well as analysis and application. During this quarter we have: (1) Completed our site selection (finally); (2) Measured fluid effects in Troika deep water sand sample; (3) Applied the result to Ursa ''fizz gas'' zone; (4) Compared thin layer property averaging on AVO response; (5) Developed target oriented NMO stretch correction; (6) Examined thin bed effects on A-B crossplots; and (7) Begun incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models. Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Reservoirs composed of thin bed effects will broaden the reflection amplitude distribution with incident angle. Normal move out (NMO) stretch corrections based on frequency shifts can be applied to offset this effect. Tuning will also disturb the location of extracted amplitudes on AVO intercept and gradient (A-B) plots. Many deep water reservoirs fall this tuning thickness range. Our goal for the remaining project period is to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration.

  13. Seismic Evaluation of Hydorcarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Batzle; D-h Han; R. Gibson; Huw James

    2005-10-31

    During this last quarter of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we have moved forward on several fronts, including data acquisition as well as analysis and application. During this quarter we have: (1) Completed our site selection (finally); (2) Measured fluid effects in Troika deep water sand sample; (3) Applied the result to Ursa ''fizz gas'' zone; (4) Compared thin layer property averaging on AVO response; (5) Developed target oriented NMO stretch correction; (6) Examined thin bed effects on A-B crossplots; and (7) Begun incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models. Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Reservoirs composed of thin bed effects will broaden the reflection amplitude distribution with incident angle. Normal move out (NMO) stretch corrections based on frequency shifts can be applied to offset this effect. Tuning will also disturb the location of extracted amplitudes on AVO intercept and gradient (A-B) plots. Many deep water reservoirs fall this tuning thickness range. Our goal for the remaining project period is to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration.

  14. A microchip-based endothelium mimic utilizing open reservoirs for cell immobilization and integrated carbon ink microelectrodes for detection.

    PubMed

    Hulvey, Matthew K; Martin, R Scott

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of a microfluidic device that utilizes a reservoir-based approach for endothelial cell immobilization and integrated embedded carbon ink microelectrodes for the amperometric detection of extracellular nitric oxide (NO) release. The design utilizes a buffer channel to continuously introduce buffer or a plug of stimulant to the reservoir as well as a separate sampling channel that constantly withdraws buffer from the reservoir and over the microelectrode. A steel pin is used for both the fluidic connection to the sampling channel and to provide a quasi-reference electrode for the carbon ink microelectrode. Characterization of the device was performed using NO standards produced from a NONOate salt. Finally, NO release from a layer of immobilized endothelial cells was monitored and quantified using the system. This system holds promise as a means to electrochemically detect extracellular NO release from endothelial cells in either an array of reservoirs or concurrently with fluorescence-based intracellular NO measurements.

  15. Examination of Critical Factors Related to Summer Chlorophyll a Concentration in the Sueo Dam Reservoir, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Heekyung; Park, Sangjun; Yum, Kyungtaek

    2012-06-01

    This study examined critical factors related to the short-term variation of algae growth in reservoirs during the summer. To this end, statistical tests were carried out at a small dam reservoir to determine how chemical factors (e.g., nutrient concentrations) and physical factors (e.g., theoretical and relative residence times, temperature) influenced the chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration. Statistical tests revealed that, although phosphorus (P) concentration was significant for Chl-a, residence time had much stronger relationship to Chl-a concentration than chemical factors. In addition, the study verified that relative residence time (RRT) best explained the relation of water status to algae growth. RRT was found to be useful in identifying water status related to the summer algae bloom. Finally, this study raised the possibility of inhibiting summer algae growth by operating dam reservoirs moderately. These findings need to be seriously considered when reservoir operators establish effective strategies for water quality management in summer.

  16. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling. Quarterly progress report, June 13, 1995--September 12, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, P.K.

    1995-09-12

    At this stage of the reservoir characterization research, the main emphasis is on the geostatistics and reservoir simulation. Progress is reported on geological analysis, reservoir simulation, and reservoir management.

  17. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  18. Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Resolving waterinflux and reservoir permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.; Keers, Henk

    2006-11-27

    Methods for geophysical model assessment, in particuale thecomputation of model parameter resolution, indicate the value and thelimitations of time-lapse data in estimating reservoir flow properties. Atrajectory-based method for computing sensitivities provides an effectivemeans to compute model parameter resolutions. We examine the commonsituation in which water encroaches into a resrvoir from below, as due tothe upward movement of an oil-water contact. Using straight-forwardtechniques we find that, by inclusing reflections off the top and bottomof a reservoir tens of meters thick, we can infer reservoir permeabilitybased upon time-lapse data. We find that, for the caseof water influxfrom below, using multiple time-lapse 'snapshots' does not necessarilyimprove the resolution of reservoir permeability. An application totime-lapse data from the Norne field illustrates that we can resolve thepermeability near a producing well using reflections from threeinterfaces associated with the reservoir.

  19. Wavelet based Simulation of Reservoir Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, A. H.; Verma, A. K.; Noor-E-Zahra, Noor-E.-Zahra; Chandiok, Ashish; Hasan, A.

    2009-07-01

    Petroleum reservoirs consist of hydrocarbons and other chemicals trapped in the pores of a rock. The exploration and production of hydrocarbon reservoirs is still the most important technology to develop natural energy resources. Therefore, fluid flow simulators play a key role in order to help oil companies. In fact, simulation is the most important tool to model changes in a reservoir over the time. The main problem in petroleum reservoir simulation is to model the displacement of one fluid by another within a porous medium. A typical problem is characterized by the injection of a wetting fluid, for example water into the reservoir at a particular location displacing to the non wetting fluid, for example oil, which is extracted or produced at another location. Buckley-Leverett equation [1] models this process and its numerical simulation and visualization is of paramount importance. There are several numerical methods applied for numerical solution of partial differential equations modeling real world problems. We review in this paper the numerical solution of Buckley-Leverett equation for flat and non flat structures with special focus on wavelet method. We also indicate a few new avenues for further research.

  20. Integrated reservoir management doubles Nigerian field reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Akinlawon, Y.; Nwosu, T.; Satter, A.; Jespersen, R.

    1996-10-01

    An integrated alliance across disciplines, companies and countries enabled Texaco to conduct a comprehensive reservoir analysis of the North Apoi/Funiwa field in Nigeria. Recommendations implemented in 3 months doubled the book reserves of this mature field. The paper discusses the objectives, the integration of organizations, reservoir analysis, and conclusions. The conclusions made from the integrated study are: (1) 3-D seismic data dramatically improved reservoir description. (2) OOIP is considerably more than the booked values and reserves additions are substantial. (3) Significant value has been added to TOPCON`s assets as a result of teamwork and a multidisciplinary approach to evaluating the reservoirs and optimizing the scenarios for reservoir management. (4) Teamwork and integration of professionals, data, technology and tools was critical to the projects success. (5) The study set an example for effective and expeditious technology transfer and applications. (6) Partnering of TOPCON, DPR, NAPIMS, EPTD and SSI resulted in a quick cycle time and set an excellent example of integration and alliance.

  1. Tracing fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    A family of fluorescent compounds, the polycyclic aromatic sulfonates, were evaluated for application in intermediate- and high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Whereas the naphthalene sulfonates were found to be very thermally stable and reasonably detectable, the amino-substituted naphthalene sulfonates were found to be somewhat less thermally stable, but much more detectable. A tracer test was conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir using one of the substituted naphthalene sulfonates, amino G, and fluorescein. Four of 9 production wells showed tracer breakthrough during the first 200 days of the test. Reconstructed tracer return curves are presented that correct for the thermal decay of tracer assuming an average reservoir temperature of 227{degrees}C. In order to examine the feasibility of using numerical simulation to model tracer flow, we developed simple, two-dimensional models of the geothermal reservoir using the numerical simulation programs TETRAD and TOUGH2. By fitting model outputs to measured return curves, we show that numerical reservoir simulations can be calibrated with the tracer data. Both models predict the same order of elution, approximate tracer concentrations, and return curve shapes. Using these results, we propose a method for using numerical models to design a tracer test.

  2. Experience in operating the Bratsk Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, A.V.

    1984-04-01

    The Bratsk reservoir is the largest in the USSR and second largest in the world. Initially, the reservoir was expected to be filled by the end of 1966. However, the actual filling was not completed until September of 1967. During filling and in the first years of operation it was constantly necessary to deal with floating timber in order to ensure normal operation of the hydrostation, navigation safety, conditions for fishery, and fulfillment of the sanitary requirements. During seasonal variations of the reservoir level about 160 sq km of the shore zone was subjected to variable flooding and waterlogging. Maximum erosion occurred on expanded stretches, and within their limits on slopes composed of loam and sand deposits. Within the narrows, where the banks are composed mainly of hard and soft rocks and wave action is weak, erosion is negligible. Wind setup and setdown cause maximum denivellation of the water surface. The maximum increase of the level during setup reaches 232 cm and the maximum decrease during setdown is 24 cm. Seiche oscillations with various amplitudes and periods are observed on the reservoir surface. The main uses of the complex are hydropower, water transport, timber floating, water supply, and fishery. For the successful development of the shores of reservoirs it is necessary to select the construction sites with consideration of possible occurrence of karstic and landslide processes; the construction of heavy structures requires special karst-control measures. 3 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  3. Assessing water reservoirs management and development in Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Pianosi, F.; Quach, X.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-01-01

    In many developing countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production and support food security in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. To cope with undergoing changes, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and adopting effective tools to analyze current and projected infrastructure potential and operation strategies. In this paper we use multi-objective deterministic and stochastic optimization to assess the current reservoir operation and planned capacity expansion in the Red River Basin (Northern Vietnam), and to evaluate the potential improvement by the adoption of a more sophisticated information system. To reach this goal we analyze the historical operation of the major controllable infrastructure in the basin, the HoaBinh reservoir on the Da River, explore re-operation options corresponding to different tradeoffs among the three main objectives (hydropower production, flood control and water supply), using multi-objective optimization techniques, namely Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. Finally, we assess the structural system potential and the need for capacity expansion by application of Deterministic Dynamic Programming. Results show that the current operation can only be relatively improved by advanced optimization techniques, while investment should be put into enlarging the system storage capacity and exploiting additional information to inform the operation.

  4. Development of luminescent bacteria as tracers for geological reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.W.

    1991-10-01

    Bioluminescent cultures were acquired and tested for use as biological tracers for reservoir characterization by small independent oil companies. Initially these bacterial cultures were fastidious to work with, but when we finally determined their critical growth parameters simple test variations were developed that could be routinely accomplished. The intensity of their luminescence is easily distinguished by the human eye and requires no sophisticated technical knowledge or instrumentation. Cultures were received from culture banks and collected from marine environments. In our laboratory they were screened using the criteria of optimum growth and luminescence. Three stock cultures proved to grow profusely even when variations were made in nutrient additions, salts, and temperature. These three selected cultures were not inhibited when introduced to formations and formation waters and were not overgrown by other bacteria. Cultures isolated from the Gulf of Mexico were overgrown by indigenous bacteria and therefore, they were eliminated from further screening and adaption. Experiments were performed according to three major task descriptions: 1. Establish growth and luminescencing limitations of selected bacteria in various media, varying salt concentration and temperature. 2. Adapt cultures to formation waters. 3. Determine transport limitations of bioluminescent bacteria through representative reservoir cores. 19 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Evaluation on an original resistivity inversion method of water flooding a conglomerate reservoir based on petrophysical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Renqiang; Duan, Yonggang; Tan, Fengqi; Wang, Guochang; Qin, Jianhua; Neupane, Bhupati

    2015-10-01

    An accurate inversion of original reservoir resistivity is an important problem for waterflood development in oilfields in the middle-late development period. This paper describes the theoretical model of original resistivity recovery for a conglomerate reservoir established by petrophysical models, based on the stratigraphic model of reservoir vertical invasion of the conglomerate reservoir of an oilfield. Likewise two influencing factors of the resistivity change with a water-flooded reservoir were analyzed. The first one is the clay volume decrease due to an injected water wash argillaceous particle and the reservoir resistivity changes are influenced by it, and the other is to inject water to displace crude oil in the pore space leading to the increase of the water-bearing volume. Moreover the conductive ions of the injected water and the original formation water exchange and balance because of their salinity difference, and the reservoir resistivity changes are also influenced by them. Through the analysis of the above influential factors based on the fine identification of conglomerate lithologies the inversion models of three variables, including changes in the amount of clay, the resistivity of the irreducible water and the increase of the water bearing volume, were established by core analysis data, production performance and well logging curves information, and accurately recovered the original reservoir resistivity of the conglomerate. The original oil saturation of the reservoir was calculated according to multiple linear regression models. Finally, the produced index is defined as the difference of the original oil saturation and current oil saturation to the original oil saturation ratio, and it eliminates the effects of conglomerate lithologies and heterogeneity for the quantitative evaluation of flooded layers by the use of the principle of relative value. Compared with traditional flooding sensitive parameters which are oil saturation and water

  6. Bathymetry and Sediment-Storage Capacity Change in Three Reservoirs on the Lower Susquehanna River, 1996-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The Susquehanna River transports a substantial amount of the sediment and nutrient load to the Chesapeake Bay. Upstream of the bay, three large dams and their associated reservoirs trap a large amount of the transported sediment and associated nutrients. During the fall of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection completed bathymetric surveys of three reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna River to provide an estimate of the remaining sediment-storage capacity. Previous studies indicated the upper two reservoirs were in equilibrium with long-term sediment storage; only the most downstream reservoir retained capacity to trap sediments. A differential global positioning system (DGPS) instrument was used to provide the corresponding coordinate position. Bathymetry data were collected using a single beam 210 kHz (kilohertz) echo sounder at pre-defined transects that matched previous surveys. Final horizontal (X and Y) and vertical (Z) coordinates of the geographic positions and depth to bottom were used to create bathymetric maps of the reservoirs. Results indicated that from 1996 to 2008 about 14,700,000 tons of sediment were deposited in the three reservoirs with the majority (12,000,000 tons) being deposited in Conowingo Reservoir. Approximately 20,000 acre-feet or 30,000,000 tons of remaining storage capacity is available in Conowingo Reservoir. At current transport (3,000,000 tons per year) and deposition (2,000,000 tons per year) rates and with no occurrence of major scour events due to floods, the remaining capacity may be filled in 15 to 20 years. Once the remaining sediment-storage capacity in the reservoirs is filled, sediment and associated phosphorus loads entering the Chesapeake Bay are expected to increase.

  7. Comparisons of Simulated Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Projected Demands in 2046, Pueblo Reservoir, Southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Roderick F.; Galloway, Joel M.; Miller, Lisa D.; Mau, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Pueblo Reservoir is one of southeastern Colorado's most valuable water resources. The reservoir provides irrigation, municipal, and industrial water to various entities throughout the region. The reservoir also provides flood control, recreational activities, sport fishing, and wildlife enhancement to the region. The Bureau of Reclamation is working to meet its goal to issue a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Southern Delivery System project (SDS). SDS is a regional water-delivery project that has been proposed to provide a safe, reliable, and sustainable water supply through the foreseeable future (2046) for Colorado Springs, Fountain, Security, and Pueblo West. Discussions with the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey led to a cooperative agreement to simulate the hydrodynamics and water quality of Pueblo Reservoir. This work has been completed and described in a previously published report, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5056. Additionally, there was a need to make comparisons of simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands associated with the various EIS alternatives and plans by Pueblo West to discharge treated water into the reservoir. Plans by Pueblo West are fully independent of the SDS project. This report compares simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands in Pueblo Reservoir resulting from changes in inflow and water quality entering the reservoir, and from changes to withdrawals from the reservoir as projected for the year 2046. Four of the seven EIS alternatives were selected for scenario simulations. The four U.S. Geological Survey simulation scenarios were the No Action scenario (EIS Alternative 1), the Downstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 2), the Upstream Return-Flow scenario (EIS Alternative 4), and the Upstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 7). Additionally, the results of an Existing Conditions scenario (water years 2000 through

  8. Fracturing high-permeability reservoirs increases productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Dusterhoft, R.G. ); Chapman, B.J. )

    1994-06-20

    Hydraulic fracturing of high-permeability reservoirs has increased long-term hydrocarbon production and reduced sand production in many areas of the world. A key element is the reduction of near well bore drawdown during production. Drawdown, the difference between reservoir and production pressures, is the driving force for flow into the well bore. As drawdown increases because of higher production rates or depletion, formation instability may cause fines and sand to migrate into the well bore region. A greater well bore radius reduces both radial velocity and drawdown. Fracturing beyond the well bore region effectively bypasses the damaged zone, increasing the effective radius of the well bore and enabling higher flow rates with lower drawdown pressures. In essence, the reservoir energy is used more efficiently because the conductive proppant bed bypasses the near well bore restrictions. The paper discusses candidate well selection; proppant selection; sand control; minifrac procedures; spurt losses; fracture design; equipment; case histories in West Africa and offshore Louisiana.

  9. CNS reservoirs for HIV: implications for eradication.

    PubMed

    Hellmuth, Joanna; Valcour, Victor; Spudich, Serena

    2015-04-01

    Controversy exists as to whether the central nervous system (CNS) serves as a reservoir site for HIV, in part reflecting the varying perspectives on what constitutes a 'reservoir' versus a mere site of latent viral integration. However, if the CNS proves to be a site of HIV persistence capable of replicating and reseeding the periphery, leading to failure of virological control, this privileged anatomical site would need dedicated consideration during the development of HIV cure strategies. In this review we discuss the current literature focused on the question of the CNS as a reservoir for HIV, covering the clinical evidence for continued CNS involvement despite suppressive therapy, the theorised dynamics of HIV integration into the CNS, as well as studies indicating that HIV can replicate independently and compartmentalise in the CNS. The unique cellular and anatomical sites of HIV integration in the CNS are also reviewed, as are the potential implications for HIV cure strategies.

  10. An integrated data model for reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Aydelotte, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the capability of the Epicenter data model to manage reservoir-simulation information, including the spatial model used to describe the properties of the earth and the product-flow network mode used to describe production performance. In addition to data values, the data model describes data creation and quality and provides a reliable means of understanding the source. To use the data model, reservoir-simulation applications need to be rewritten to conform to the data-model nomenclature and conventions. While this is a significant task, the benefit to reservoir simulation practitioners and vendors includes integration of technical applications (such as mapping, well logging, and geophysical interpretation systems), data portability (allowing Vendor A's simulator to use data prepared by Vendor B's preprocessor), and interpretability such as using a third-party optimization package to conduct a series of simulations.

  11. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  12. Valuing hydrological alteration in Multi-Objective reservoir management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, S.; Pianosi, F.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation for agricultural production, and flood risk mitigation. Advances in multi-objectives (MO) optimization techniques and ever growing computing power make it possible to design reservoir operating policies that represent Pareto-optimal tradeoffs between the multiple interests analysed. These progresses if on one hand are likely to enhance performances of commonly targeted objectives (such as hydropower production or water supply), on the other risk to strongly penalize all the interests not directly (i.e. mathematically) optimized within the MO algorithm. Alteration of hydrological regime, although is a well established cause of ecological degradation and its evaluation and rehabilitation are commonly required by recent legislation (as the Water Framework Directive in Europe), is rarely embedded as an objective in MO planning of optimal releases from reservoirs. Moreover, even when it is explicitly considered, the criteria adopted for its evaluation are doubted and not commonly trusted, undermining the possibility of real implementation of environmentally friendly policies. The main challenges in defining and assessing hydrological alterations are: how to define a reference state (referencing); how to define criteria upon which to build mathematical indicators of alteration (measuring); and finally how to aggregate the indicators in a single evaluation index that can be embedded in a MO optimization problem (valuing). This paper aims to address these issues by: i) discussing benefits and constrains of different approaches to referencing, measuring and valuing hydrological alteration; ii) testing two alternative indices of hydrological alteration in the context of MO problems, one based on the established framework of Indices of Hydrological Alteration (IHA, Richter et al., 1996), and a novel satisfying the

  13. An Intelligent Systems Approach to Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Jaime Toro; Thomas H. Wilson; Emre Artun; Alejandro Sanchez; Sandeep Pyakurel

    2005-08-01

    Today, the major challenge in reservoir characterization is integrating data coming from different sources in varying scales, in order to obtain an accurate and high-resolution reservoir model. The role of seismic data in this integration is often limited to providing a structural model for the reservoir. Its relatively low resolution usually limits its further use. However, its areal coverage and availability suggest that it has the potential of providing valuable data for more detailed reservoir characterization studies through the process of seismic inversion. In this paper, a novel intelligent seismic inversion methodology is presented to achieve a desirable correlation between relatively low-frequency seismic signals, and the much higher frequency wireline-log data. Vertical seismic profile (VSP) is used as an intermediate step between the well logs and the surface seismic. A synthetic seismic model is developed by using real data and seismic interpretation. In the example presented here, the model represents the Atoka and Morrow formations, and the overlying Pennsylvanian sequence of the Buffalo Valley Field in New Mexico. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) is used to build two independent correlation models between; (1) Surface seismic and VSP, (2) VSP and well logs. After generating virtual VSP's from the surface seismic, well logs are predicted by using the correlation between VSP and well logs. The values of the density log, which is a surrogate for reservoir porosity, are predicted for each seismic trace through the seismic line with a classification approach having a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The same methodology is then applied to real data taken from the Buffalo Valley Field, to predict inter-well gamma ray and neutron porosity logs through the seismic line of interest. The same procedure can be applied to a complete 3D seismic block to obtain 3D distributions of reservoir properties with less uncertainty than the geostatistical

  14. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  15. Joint inversion of seismic and flow data for reservoir parameter assessment using particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suman, A.; Mukerji, T.; Fernandez Martinez, J.

    2010-12-01

    Time lapse seismic data has begun to play an important role in reservoir characterization, management and monitoring. It can provide information on the dynamics of fluids in the reservoir based on the relation between variations of seismic signals and movement of hydrocarbons and changes in formation pressure. Reservoir monitoring by repeated seismic or time lapse surveys can help in reducing the uncertainties attached to reservoir models. In combination with geological and flow modeling as a part of history matching process it can provide better description of the reservoir and thus better reservoir forecasting. However joint inversion of seismic and flow data for reservoir parameter is highly non-linear and complex. Stochastic optimization based inversion has shown very good results in integration of time-lapse seismic and production data in reservoir history matching. In this paper we have used a family of particle swarm optimizers for inversion of semi-synthetic Norne field data set. We analyze the performance of the different PSO optimizers, both in terms of exploration and convergence rate. Finally we also show some promising and preliminary results of the application of differential evolution. All of the versions of PSO provide an acceptable match with the original synthetic model. The advantage of using global optimization method is that uncertainty can be assessed near the optimum point. To assess uncertainty near the optimum point we keep track of all particles over all iterations that have an objective function value below a selected cutoff. With these particles we plot the best, E-type and IQR (Inter quartile range) of porosity and permeability for each version of PSO. To compute uncertainty measures using a stochastic optimizer algorithm care has to be taken not to oversample the optimal point. We keep track of the evolution of the median distance between the global best in each of the iterations and the particles of the swarm. When this distance is

  16. Sediment transport capacity as an objective of reservoir operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.; ,

    1998-01-01

    A sediment transport capacity index was developed as a part of a program to develop methods of flushing flow analysis. The index can be used to develop reservoir operation strategies that consider the movement of sediment as one of the reservoir management goals. The sedimentation transport capacity index determines the instream flow for the maintenance of the substrate below a reservoir in a condition needed by a desirable ecosystem. It can also be used in investigating the impacts of reservoir on the river channel downstream of the reservoir. The method allows a reservoir operator the flexibility of meeting the streamflow needs with a mix of streamflows.

  17. Pesticide use in Kentucky reservoir watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.

    1988-06-01

    This report summarizes information on the types, uses, and amounts of pesticides applied to Kentucky Reservoir and its immediate watershed. Estimates for the quantities and types of the various pesticides used are based primarily on the land uses in the watershed. A listing of commonly used pesticides is included describing their uses, mode of action, and potential toxicological effects. This report will inform the the public and the Kentucky Reservoir Water Resources Task Force of the general extent of pesticide usage and is not an assessment of pesticide impacts. 10 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF THE THERMAL SHALLOW RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, G.D.

    1985-01-22

    The Geysers was discovered in 1847, and its therapeutic mineral baths were widely recognized by 1880. It was not until 1921, however, that the first steam well at The Geysers was drilled. Between 1922 and 1925, eight additional wells were drilled and tested as reported by Allen and Day. Development activity ceased until 1955 when Magma Power Company drilled the first ''commercial'' well. This success led to additional drilling in the Thermal Shallow Reservoir and the commissioning of a 12 MW power plant in September 1960, followed by a 14 MW power plant in February, 1963. This completed the commercial development of the Thermal shallow Reservoir.

  19. Petroleum reservoir simulation in a virtual environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Bethel, E.W.; Datta-Gupta, A.; Holland, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the authors describe an approach to combining a reservoir simulation with 3-D visualization and virtual reality technology. Their prototype VR/visualization system minimizes human-machine interface barriers and provides enhanced control over the simulation, thereby maximizing scientific judgment and use of intuition. They illustrate the practical advantage of using the VR/visualization prototype system in reservoir engineering by visualizing the results of a waterflood in an oil field with a three-dimensional, spatially correlated heterogeneous permeability field.

  20. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  1. Integrated reservoir studies enhance well completions

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.S.; Aud, W.W.; Burns, R.

    1998-03-16

    Integrated reservoir studies, together with modern completion and stimulation techniques, enhance well productivity while lowering completion costs. Results from different areas show that this approach increased productivity from 40% to 100% over previous applied methods. These approaches incorporate detailed production response characterization with a technical examination of past completion and stimulation practices to: Quantify the effectiveness of prior completion methods; Customize completions by specifically tailoring stimulation procedures to match the individual reservoir with its specific producing and fracturing idiosyncrasies. Two case histories, the Deep Red Fork (oil) formation of Oklahoma and the Haynesville (natural gas) formation of Louisiana, are used to illustrate the method.

  2. The aging of America's reservoirs: In-reservoir and downstream physical changes and habitat implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are important for various purposes including flood control, water supply, power generation, and recreation. The aging of America's reservoirs and progressive loss of water storage capacity resulting from ongoing sedimentation, coupled with increasing societal needs, will cause the social, economic, environmental, and political importance of reservoirs to continually increase. The short- and medium-term (<50 years) environmental consequences of reservoir construction and operation are well known and include an altered flow regime, lost connectivity (longitudinal, floodplain), an altered sediment regime, substrate compositional change, and downstream channel degradation. In general, reservoir-related changes have had adverse consequences for the natural ecosystem. Longer term (>50 years) environmental changes as reservoirs enter “old” age are less understood. Additional research is needed to help guide the future management of aging reservoir systems and support the difficult decisions that will have to be made. Important research directions include assessment of climate change effects on aging and determination of ecosystem response to ongoing aging and various management actions that may be taken with the intent of minimizing or reversing the physical effects of aging.

  3. Reservoir Modeling and Prediction at Pleasant Bayou Geopressured-Geothermal Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, Mike

    1992-03-24

    Modeling and prediction of geopressured-geothermal reservoirs is an excellent example of an engineering problem that can be solved through many different means. The problem may be approached from a purely numerical viewpoint, where a successful history match ''demonstrates'' the validity of the reservoir model, or from an analytical point of view. Each method has its own inherent limitations and weaknesses. Such limitations can be minimized by using some combination of both numerical and analytical methods, taking advantage of the strengths of each without the attendant weaknesses. This paper describes a combined numerical/analytical approach to reservoir engineering at the Pleasant Bayou geopressured-geothermal reservoir. A reservoir description had previously been developed, through which a successful history match was performed. Certain details of the reservoir can also be obtained through analysis of pressure and flow transients; these can then be used to constrain the numerical model. Methods for extracting such reservoir data are discussed, and the manner in which they can be used as constraints in the numerical models are presented.

  4. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Jill S. Buckley

    1998-04-13

    This project has three main goals. The first is to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces. The second goal is to apply the results of surface studies to improved predictions of oil production in laboratory experiments. Finally, we aim to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. In order to achieve these goals, the mechanisms of wetting alteration must be explained. We propose a methodology for studying those mechanisms on mineral surfaces, then applying the results to prediction and observation of wetting alteration in porous media. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms will show when and how wettability in the reservoir can be altered and under what circumstances that alteration would be beneficial in terms of increased production of oil.

  5. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, Jill S.

    1999-11-09

    This project has three main goals. The first is to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces. The second goal is to apply the results of surface studies to improved predictions of oil production in laboratory experiments. Finally, we aim to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding. In order to achieve these goals, the mechanisms of wetting alteration must be explained. We propose a methodology for studying those mechanisms on mineral surfaces, then applying the results to prediction and observation of wetting alteration in porous media. Improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms will show when and how wettability in the reservoir can be altered and under what circumstances that alteration would be beneficial in terms of increased production of oil.

  6. Evaluating Bangestan reservoirs and targeting productive zones in Dezful embayment of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, Aynur; Jafar Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad; HashemTabatabaee, Seyyed

    2016-12-01

    A progressive stepwise procedure was adopted to evaluate the main reservoirs of the Bangestan group in a southwestern oil field of Iran. In order to identify productive zones, the results of lithofacies and well tops correlation were assessed using well log and core data. Accordingly the resulting zonation based on lithofacies revealed inaccurate results. Therefore, in order to limit the uncertainty of zonation, well tops correlations were considered. For this purpose, boundaries of reservoirs were precisely defined and well logs correlation was carried out based on geological information and full set logs. The resulting well tops correlation indicates the presence of several reservoirs such as Ilam and Sarvak formations, and each of these has several zones. Among them, the Ilam formation is recognized as the best reservoir in the field and the Sarvak formation in the second priority for oil production. Due to changes in the facies trend of the Sarvak formation, more than Ilam, the Sarvak formation was mostly considered in this study. Subsequently the Ilam formation was divided into four zones, among them (Ilam-Upper, Ilam- Main, Ilam-Poor) were identified as the oil reservoir units. Similarly, the Sarvak formation was also divided into 11 units, where the Sarvak-L2b unit was identified as the oil-bearing reservoir in the formation. Furthermore, in order to contribute for better analysis of the depositional environment and to improve the understanding of its lateral and vertical variations, 3D modeling of reservoir units was established, which lead to limit the uncertainty in evaluation. Based on the well correlation results, deep and thickness maps, porosity, water saturation and the hydrocarbon column assessments were prepared, in addition the distribution of petrophysical parameters was also evaluated. Finally, an oil reserve estimation was carried out based on volumetric estimation and its corresponding distribution maps in different reservoir units of the

  7. Transit losses and traveltimes of reservoir releases along the Arkansas River from Pueblo Reservoir to John Martin Reservoir, southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Livingston, Russell K.

    1978-01-01

    The volumes of reservoir releases are decreased or delayed during transit by bank storage, channel storage, and evaporation. Results from a computer model, calibrated by a controlled test release from Pueblo Reservoir, Colo., indicate that transit losses are greatest for small releases of a short duration when made during periods of low Antecedent streamflow. For equivalent releases, transit losses during the winter are about 7 percent less than losses during the summer. Based on available streamflow records, the velocity of reservoir releases ranges from about 0.6 miles per hour at the downstream end of the study reach, when antecedent streamflow is 10 cubic feet per second, to about 6.8 miles per hour at the upstream end of the study reach, when antecedent streamflow is 3,000 cubic feet per second. Consequently, the traveltime of a release increases as antecedent streamflow diminishes. Management practices that may be used to benefit water users in the study area include selection of the optimum time, rate, and duration of a reservoir release to minimize the transit losses, determination of an accurate traveltime, and diversion at several incremental rates. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K.; Doublet, L.E.

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  9. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  10. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, Appendices, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Bradley B.

    1985-06-01

    The appendices include: (1) stream habitat inventory procedures; (2) lengths and volumes across hydroacoustic transects in Libby Reservoir; (3) temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity profiles in Libby Reservoir; (4) habitat survey information by reach; (5) gill net catches by species; (6) annual catches of fish in floating gill nets; (7) vertical distributions of fish and zooplankton; (8) timing of juvenile and adult movement through traps; (9) food habits information for collected fish; (10) estimated densities and composition of zooplankton by genera; (11) seasonal catch of macroinvertebrates; and (12) initial modeling effort on the Libby Reservoir fishery. (ACR)

  11. Fractal distributions of reservoir properties and their use in reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, D.; Hardy, H.H.; Beier, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Geostatistics has become a popular way to distribute reservoir properties between wells. One of the geostatistical methods being used is fractal geostatistics. Most porosity well logs have been found to have a fractal character. An analysis of vertical and horizontal logs, core photos, and outcrop photos has led to a rather simple model to describe porosity and permeability distributions. This representation has been tested in reservoir simulation of a mature waterflood and found to match production history with very little history matching. Fractal distributions were found to require much less history matching than classical layer cake models. Conoco is now actively applying this new technology to a number of its reservoirs.

  12. Optimization of the Infrastructure of Reinforced Concrete Reservoirs by a Particle Swarm Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kia, Saeed; Sebt, Mohammad Hassan; Shahhosseini, Vahid

    2015-03-01

    Optimization techniques may be effective in finding the best modeling and shapes for reinforced concrete reservoirs (RCR) to improve their durability and mechanical behavior, particularly for avoiding or reducing the bending moments in these structures. RCRs are one of the major structures applied for reserving fluids to be used in drinking water networks. Usually, these structures have fixed shapes which are designed and calculated based on input discharges, the conditions of the structure's topology, and geotechnical locations with various combinations of static and dynamic loads. In this research, the elements of reservoir walls are first typed according to the performance analyzed; then the range of the membrane based on the thickness and the minimum and maximum cross sections of the bar used are determined in each element. This is done by considering the variable constraints, which are estimated by the maximum stress capacity. In the next phase, based on the reservoir analysis and using the algorithm of the PARIS connector, the related information is combined with the code for the PSO algorithm, i.e., an algorithm for a swarming search, to determine the optimum thickness of the cross sections for the reservoir membrane's elements and the optimum cross section of the bar used. Based on very complex mathematical linear models for the correct embedding and angles related to achain of peripheral strengthening membranes, which optimize the vibration of the structure, a mutual relation is selected between the modeling software and the code for a particle swarm optimization algorithm. Finally, the comparative weight of the concrete reservoir optimized by the peripheral strengthening membrane is analyzed using common methods. This analysis shows a 19% decrease in the bar's weight, a 20% decrease in the concrete's weight, and a minimum 13% saving in construction costs according to the items of a checklist for a concrete reservoir at 10,000 m3.

  13. Experimental Investigation on Dilation Mechanisms of Land-Facies Karamay Oil Sand Reservoirs under Water Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Botao; Jin, Yan; Pang, Huiwen; Cerato, Amy B.

    2016-04-01

    The success of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is strongly dependent on the formation of a homogeneous and highly permeable zone in the land-facies Karamay oil sand reservoirs. To accomplish this, hydraulic fracturing is applied through controlled water injection to a pair of horizontal wells to create a dilation zone between the dual wells. The mechanical response of the reservoirs during this injection process, however, has remained unclear for the land-facies oil sand that has a loosely packed structure. This research conducted triaxial, permeability and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests on the field-collected oil sand samples. The tests evaluated the influences of the field temperature, confining stress and injection pressure on the dilation mechanisms as shear dilation and tensile parting during injection. To account for petrophysical heterogeneity, five reservoir rocks including regular oil sand, mud-rich oil sand, bitumen-rich oil sand, mudstone and sandstone were investigated. It was found that the permeability evolution in the oil sand samples subjected to shear dilation closely followed the porosity and microcrack evolutions in the shear bands. In contrast, the mudstone and sandstone samples developed distinct shear planes, which formed preferred permeation paths. Tensile parting expanded the pore space and increased the permeability of all the samples in various degrees. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the range of injection propagation in the pay zone determines the overall quality of hydraulic fracturing, while the injection pressure must be carefully controlled. A region in a reservoir has little dilation upon injection if it remains unsaturated. Moreover, a cooling of the injected water can strengthen the dilation potential of a reservoir. Finally, it is suggested that the numerical modeling of water injection in the Karamay oil sand reservoirs must take into account the volumetric plastic strain in hydrostatic loading.

  14. Fluid Drainage from Porous Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhong; Soh, Beatrice; Huppert, Herbert; Stone, Howard; Stone Group Team

    2012-11-01

    We report theoretical and experimental studies to describe buoyancy-driven fluid drainage from a porous medium. We first study homogeneous porous systems. To investigate the influence of heterogeneities, we consider the case where the permeability varies transverse to the flow direction, exemplified by a V-shaped Hele-Shaw cell. Finally, we analyze a model where both the permeability and the porosity vary transverse to the flow direction. In each case, a self-similar solution for the shape of the gravity current is found and a power-law behavior in time is derived for the mass remaining in the system. Laboratory experiments are conducted in homogeneous and V-shaped Hele-Shaw cells, and the measured profile shapes and the mass remaining in the cells agree well with our model predictions. Our study provides new insights into drainage processes such as may occur in a variety of natural and industrial activities including the geological storage of carbon dioxide. This work is supported by a grant from Carbon Mitigation Initiative at Princeton University.

  15. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  16. Incorporating routing into reservoir planning optimization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijewski, Nicholas; Wörman, Anders; Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    To achieve the best overall operation result in a reservoir network, optimization models are used. For larger reservoir networks the computational cost increases, making simplification of the hydrodynamic description necessary. In-accuracy in flow prediction can be related to an incurred sub-optimality in production planning. Flow behavior in a management optimization model is often described using a constant time-lag model. A simplified hydraulic model was used, describing the stream flow in a reservoir network for short term production planning of a case-study reservoir network (Dalälven River). In this study, the importance of incorporating hydrodynamic wave diffusion for optimized hydropower production planning in a regulated water system was examined, comparing the kinematic-wave model to the constant time-lag. The receding horizon optimization procedure was applied, emulating the data-assimilation procedure present in modern operations. Power production was shown to deviate from the planned production while considering a single time-lag, as a function of the stream description. The simplification of using a constant time-lag could be considered acceptable for streams characterized by high Peclet number. Examining the effect of the effect of the length of the decision time-step demonstrated the importance of high frequency data assimilation for streams characterized by low Peclet numbers. Further, it was shown that the variability in flow becomes more ordered as a result of management and that the Peclet number contributes to that goal.

  17. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  18. Using surface deformation to image reservoir dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.; Karasaki, K.; Doughty, C.

    2000-02-01

    The inversion of surface deformation data such as tilt, displacement, or strain provides a noninvasive method for monitoring subsurface volume change. Reservoir volume change is related directly to processes such as pressure variations induced by injection and withdrawal. The inversion procedure is illustrated by an application to tiltmeter data from the Hijiori test site in Japan. An inversion of surface tilt data allows one to image flow processes in a fractured granodiorite. Approximately 650 barrels of water, injected 2 km below the surface, produces a peak surface tilt of the order of 0.8 microradians. The authors find that the pattern of volume change in the granodiorite is very asymmetrical, elongated in a north-northwesterly direction, and the maximum volume change is offset by more than 0.7 km to the east of the pumping well. The inversion of a suite of leveling data from the Wilmington oil field in Long Beach, California, images large-scale reservoir volume changes in 12 one- to two-year increments from 1976 to 1996. The influence of various production strategies is seen in the reservoir volume changes. In particular, a steam flood in fault block 2 in the northwest portion of the field produced a sudden decrease in reservoir volume.

  19. Phosphorous control in a eutrophied reservoir.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Pacheco, H; Hansen, A M; Falcón-Rojas, A

    2013-12-01

    Water in lakes and reservoirs accumulate phosphorous (P) from both internal and external loads. The external P load (EPL) coming from the watershed is considered to be the main cause of eutrophication of water bodies, and control strategies therefore focus on its reduction. However, algae blooms and anoxic conditions often continue even after EPL have been controlled, being the internal P load (IPL) originating from the sediment the main sources of P. To assess the efficiency of the adsorbent Phoslock (a modified bentonite) in controlling P concentrations in water and immobilize releasable P in sediments, mesocosm trials were carried out in a eutrophied reservoir and a model was described and applied that determines the amount of adsorbent and the application frequency necessary to control P concentrations in a eutrophied reservoir. The mesocosm trials confirm that Phoslock reduced P concentrations to or below the limits that define water in mesotrophic state, in approximately 2 weeks. The modeling results suggest that periodic reapplications of the adsorbent are required, unless EPL is reduced by 36 %, which allows the P concentrations in the water column to be constant. Such reduction in EPL would allow future applications of the adsorbent to be required only for control of IPL. The developed model allows planning remediation actions by determining quantities and frequencies for application of adsorbents for P control in eutrophied lakes and reservoirs.

  20. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  1. Seismic imaging of fractures in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoez, N.M.; Li, Y.; Lee, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The fracture systems that act as conduits for fluids play an important role in the extraction of geothermal energy in both liquid- and vapor-dominated fields. Hydraulic fracturing is a common engineering practice used to enhance fluid production from reservoirs with low permeability. In hot dry rock (HDR) and in vapor-dominated reservoirs that are being depleted, it is necessary to inject water to produce steam. This process generally requires hydraulic fracturing in advance to enhance the recovery. Therefore, fracture imaging and characterization are important in obtaining a better understanding of geothermal reservoirs. In this paper the authors present two new techniques for seismic characterization of fracture systems. The first technique involves the detection and characterization of existing fractures with a seismic source at the surface and a hydrophone array in a borehole, i.e., the hydrophone vertical seismic profiling (VSP). P- and S-waves impinging on an open fracture induce fluid flow from the fracture into the borehole and generate tube waves in the borehole. Orientations of fractures can be determined by using the ratios of an S-wave generated tube wave to a P-wave generated tube wave. The second technique is the high-precision location of induced earthquakes during hydrofracturing for imaging the fracture. These approaches provide the means to obtain much more detailed information about fracture systems within geothermal reservoirs.

  2. Evolution of analyzing reservoir simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, R.E.; Huang, A.Y.

    1994-12-31

    Numerical Reservoir Simulation is routinely used by the petroleum producing companies world-wide as an engineering tool to efficiently manage their hydrocarbon reservoirs. The task of building models with a large number of grid-blocks is not easy, and to analyze the voluminous results produced by such models is even more difficult. This paper discusses the historical evolution of techniques used to analyze reservoir simulation data over the past decade. It outlines how the advancement of workstation technology and the introduction of X-Window System opened up an entirely new way of utilizing mainframe computing power and workstation graphical display capabilities, simultaneously. The paper also discusses Saudi Aramco`s experience in the development of sophisticated reservoir simulation post-processing packages. The need for direct communication between the programmer and end-users to facilitate a user-friendly package is emphasized. A practical example illustrating the benefit of these post-processing packages in the construction and history matching of a large model with approximately 52,000 cells is presented. Savings in manpower and computer resources using current technology are estimated.

  3. Evolution of analyzing reservoir simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, R.E.; Huang, A.Y.

    1995-12-01

    Petroleum-producing companies world-wide routinely use numerical reservoir simulation as an engineering tool to manage their hydrocarbon reservoirs efficiently. The task of building models with a large number of gridblocks is not easy, and analyzing the voluminous results produced by such models is even more difficult. This paper discusses the historical evolution of techniques used to analyze reservoir simulation data over the past decade. It outlines how the advancement of workstation technology and the introduction of an X-Window system opened up an entirely new way of using mainframe computing power and workstation graphical display capabilities simultaneously. The paper also discusses Saudi Aramco`s experience in the development of sophisticated reservoir simulation postprocessing packages. The authors emphasize the need for direct communication between the programmer and end users to facilitate a user-friendly package. They present a practical example illustrating the benefit of these postprocessing packages in the construction and history matching of a large model with approximately 52,000 cells. They estimate savings in manpower and computer resources using current technology.

  4. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hitzman, D.O.; stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  5. Geodetic imaging: Reservoir monitoring using satellite interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vasco, D.W.; Wicks, C.; Karasaki, K.; Marques, O.

    2002-01-01

    Fluid fluxes within subsurface reservoirs give rise to surface displacements, particularly over periods of a year or more. Observations of such deformation provide a powerful tool for mapping fluid migration within the Earth, providing new insights into reservoir dynamics. In this paper we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) range changes to infer subsurface fluid volume strain at the Coso geothermal field. Furthermore, we conduct a complete model assessment, using an iterative approach to compute model parameter resolution and covariance matrices. The method is a generalization of a Lanczos-based technique which allows us to include fairly general regularization, such as roughness penalties. We find that we can resolve quite detailed lateral variations in volume strain both within the reservoir depth range (0.4-2.5 km) and below the geothermal production zone (2.5-5.0 km). The fractional volume change in all three layers of the model exceeds the estimated model parameter uncertainly by a factor of two or more. In the reservoir depth interval (0.4-2.5 km), the predominant volume change is associated with northerly and westerly oriented faults and their intersections. However, below the geothermal production zone proper [the depth range 2.5-5.0 km], there is the suggestion that both north- and northeast-trending faults may act as conduits for fluid flow.

  6. Reconnaissance Report on Papillion Creek Reservoirs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    reservoirs. Preimpoundment limnological investigations should include stream water quality, algal assays of the eutrophication potential of the water, and...provisional algal assay procedures established by the Joint Industry/Government Task Force on Eutrophication 3 could be used to evaluate the eutrophication... Kjeldahl nitrogen and conductivity. Phosphorus was used as a criterion because it is generally considered to be the most important nutrient

  7. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  8. Case Study of Reservoir Operation with SSSLP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    by Charles D. D. Howard, Member AGU Senior Advisor, CddHoward Consulting Ltd Victoria, BC, Canada. For a continuous period of eight years a conceptual hydrologic model was coupled with a stochastic optimization model during operation of two hydroelectric reservoirs in mountain watersheds of coastal British Columbia. The results in terms of increased actual energy generation may provide insight into a simple methodology suitable for other similar situations. The optimization model was updated each week with current reservoir levels, operating criteria (such as unit outages) and stochastic inflow forecasts covering a 52 week time horizon. The weekly operating decisions were based on a stochastic linear programming model of the time horizon but recommended the optimal releases in only the first week. Implementation and management of the method was expedited by not considering the full multi-stage decision tree. This method is called SSLP, Single Stage Stochastic Linear Programming. The paper provides two comparisons for how well this methodology can perform. The first shows comparisons of actual energy generation, generation that could have been achieved if the model recommendations had been more strictly adopted, and generation that would have occurred if the previous rule curve had been followed. The second is an academic study that explored how much detail is actually needed in reservoir operations optimization. For this a single stage stochastic linear programming model of a hypothetical reservoir was compared with a stochastic dynamic programming application that modeled the full decision tree.

  9. Predicting reservoir wettability via well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Cheng; Fu, Jinhua; Shi, Yujiang; Li, Gaoren; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Wettability is an important factor in controlling the distribution of oil and water. However, its evaluation has so far been a difficult problem because no log data can directly indicate it. In this paper, a new method is proposed for quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability via well log analysis. Specifically, based on the J function, diagenetic facies classification and the piecewise power functions, capillary pressure curves are constructed from conventional logs and a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log respectively. Under the influence of wettability, the latter is distorted while the former remains unaffected. Therefore, the ratio of the median radius obtained from the two kinds of capillary pressure curve is calculated to reflect wettability, a quantitative relationship between the ratio and reservoir wettability is then established. According to the low-permeability core sample capillary pressure curve, NMR {{T}2} spectrum and contact angle experimental data from the bottom of the Upper Triassic reservoirs in western Ordos Basin, China, two kinds of constructing capillary pressure curve models and a predictive wettability model are calibrated. The wettability model is verified through the Amott wettability index and saturation exponent from resistivity measurement and their determined wettability levels are comparable, indicating that the proposed model is quite reliable. In addition, the model’s good application effect is exhibited in the field study. Thus, the quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability model proposed in this paper provides an effective tool for formation evaluation, field development and the improvement of oil recovery.

  10. VIEW OF SEGMENT OF DIKE CREATING UPPER TUMALO RESERVOIR FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SEGMENT OF DIKE CREATING UPPER TUMALO RESERVOIR FROM TUMALO RESERVOIR. LOOKING EAST/SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  11. 2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR UNDER CONSTRUCTION LOOKING WEST WITH EAST DAM IN MIDDLE GROUND, WEST DAM IN DISTANCE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  12. 78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO SHOWING POOL ARRANGEMENT FOR TEMPORARILY UTILIZING WATER WITHOUT FILLING THE RESERVOIR, Print No. 232, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  13. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR FLOW MEASUREMENTS FROM MARIOTTE RESERVOIRS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, Jim; Murphy, Fred

    1987-01-01

    The mariotte reservoir supplies water at a constant hydraulic pressure by self-regulation of its internal gas pressure. Automated outflow measurements from mariotte reservoirs are generally difficult because of the reservoir's self-regulation mechanism. This paper describes an automated flow meter specifically designed for use with mariotte reservoirs. The flow meter monitors changes in the mariotte reservoir's gas pressure during outflow to determine changes in the reservoir's water level. The flow measurement is performed by attaching a pressure transducer to the top of a mariotte reservoir and monitoring gas pressure changes during outflow with a programmable data logger. The advantages of the new automated flow measurement techniques include: (i) the ability to rapidly record a large range of fluxes without restricting outflow, and (ii) the ability to accurately average the pulsing flow, which commonly occurs during outflow from the mariotte reservoir.

  14. South side of reservoir with buildings 20 and 21 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side of reservoir with buildings 20 and 21 in background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Water Reservoir, West Bushnell Avenue, South side, 150 feet West of intersection of West Bushnell Avenue & South First Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. 40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST Los Angeles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. PLEASANT VALLEY RESERVOIR DAM LOOKING NORTHWEST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Roof of reservoir from southeast corner with buildings 20 and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof of reservoir from southeast corner with buildings 20 and 21 in background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Water Reservoir, West Bushnell Avenue, South side, 150 feet West of intersection of West Bushnell Avenue & South First Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. 11. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM MAIN CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  19. 14. VIEW OF AREA TO BE INUNDATED FOR EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF AREA TO BE INUNDATED FOR EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM OBSERVATORY HILL AT NORTH END OF WEST DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  20. The Spatial Dimension: A New Reservoir and Recreational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecock, Richard D.

    1974-01-01

    An initial effort to estimate the nature and extent of a new reservoir's impact upon the recreational behavior of a sample population living in the surrounding area (Keystone Reservoir, Oklahoma) is described. (NQ)

  1. 2. VIEW OF MAIN STORAGE RESERVOIR, SHOWING UPSTREAM SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF MAIN STORAGE RESERVOIR, SHOWING UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND DISCHARGE GATE (LEFT), LOOKING SOUTHWEST (October 1991) - Bonanza Hydraulic Mining Site, Main Storage Reservoir, Swamp Gulch, Salmon, Lemhi County, ID

  2. Numerical Simulation for Natural State of Two-Phase Liquid Dominated Geothermal Reservoir with Steam Cap Underlying Brine Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratama, Heru Berian; Miryani Saptadji, Nenny

    2016-09-01

    Hydrothermal reservoir which liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoir is a type of geothermal reservoir that most widely used for power plant. The exploitation of mass and heat from the geothermal fluid will decrease the pressure in the reservoir over time. Therefore the pressure drop in the reservoir will have an impact on the formation of boiling zones or boiling will increase. The impacts are an increase in the fraction of steam, dryness, in the reservoir and with good vertical permeability will form a steam cap underlying the brine reservoir. The two- phase liquid dominated reservoir is sensitive to the porosity and difficult to assign average properties of the entire reservoir when there is boiling zone in some area of the reservoir. These paper showed successful development of two-phase liquid dominated geothermal reservoir and discussed the formation of steam cap above brine reservoir through numerical simulation for state natural conditions. The natural state modeling in steam cap shows a match with the conceptual model of the vapor-dominated developed. These paper also proofed the presence of transition zone, boiling zone, between steam cap and brine reservoir.

  3. Reservoir management -- as conceived and applied on the Palinpinon reservoir, Phillipines

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, Zosimo F.; Amistoso, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The present exploitation of Palinpinon reservoir has revealed valuable information on the subsurface characteristics of the reservoir under large scale production. The initial behavior of the field has given signals that there is a need to implement appropriate strategies to optimise its capacity without jeopardizing the supply of adequate steam to the power plant. Some of the problems encountered such as reinjection returns, mineral deposition, ingress of acid fluid and other phenomena indicated the need to pursue an aggressive monitoring capability and timely appraisal of the field response to design an approach which will best suit the optimum management of the reservoir. The results of reservoir monitoring are discussed as well as the policies applied in operating the field.

  4. Seismic Determination of Reservoir Heterogeneity: Application to the Characterization of Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Imhof, Matthias G.; Castle, James W.

    2003-03-12

    The objective of the project was to examine how seismic and geologic data could be used to improve characterization of small-scale heterogeneity and their parameterization in reservoir models. The study was performed at West Coalinga Field in California.

  5. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    Progress is reported for a comprehensive investigation of the scaling behavior of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs. The interplay of phase behavior, viscous fingering, gravity segregation, capillary imbibition and drainage, and reservoir heterogeneity is examined in a series of simulations and experiments. Use of streamtube to model multiphase flow is demonstrated to be a fast and accurate approach for displacements that are dominated by reservoir heterogeneity. The streamtube technique is particularly powerful for multiphase compositional displacements because it represents the effects of phase behavior with a one-dimensional flow and represents the effects of heterogeneity through the locations of streamtubes. A new approach for fast calculations of critical tie-lines directly from criticality conditions is reported. A global triangular structure solution for four-component flow systems, whose tie-lies meet at the edge of a quaternary phase diagram or lie in planes is presented. Also demonstrated is the extension of this solution to multicomponent systems under the same assumptions. The interplay of gravity, capillary and viscous forces on final residual oil saturation is examined experimentally and theoretically. The analysis of vertical equilibrium conditions for three-phase gravity drainage shows that almost all oil can be recovered from the top part of a reservoir. The prediction of spreading and stability of thin film is performed to investigate three-phase gravity drainage mechanisms. Finally, experimental results from gravity drainage of crude oil in the presence of CO{sub 2} suggest that gravity drainage could be an efficient oil recovery process for vertically fractured reservoirs.

  6. Paired quantitative and qualitative assessment of the replication-competent HIV-1 reservoir and comparison with integrated proviral DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzi, Julio C. C.; Cohen, Yehuda Z.; Cohn, Lillian B.; Kreider, Edward F.; Oliveira, Thiago; Lavine, Christy L.; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Settler, Allison; Jankovic, Mila; Seaman, Michael S.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Caskey, Marina; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1–infected individuals harbor a latent reservoir of infected CD4+ T cells that is not eradicated by antiretroviral therapy (ART). This reservoir presents the greatest barrier to an HIV-1 cure and has remained difficult to characterize, in part, because the vast majority of integrated sequences are defective and incapable of reactivation. To characterize the replication-competent reservoir, we have combined two techniques, quantitative viral outgrowth and qualitative sequence analysis of clonal outgrowth viruses. Leukapheresis samples from four fully ART-suppressed, chronically infected individuals were assayed at two time points separated by a 4- to 6-mo interval. Overall, 54% of the viruses emerging from the latent reservoir showed gp160 env sequences that were identical to at least one other virus. Moreover, 43% of the env sequences from viruses emerging from the reservoir were part of identical groups at the two time points. Groups of identical expanded sequences made up 54% of proviral DNA, and, as might be expected, the sequences of replication-competent viruses in the active reservoir showed limited overlap with integrated proviral DNA, most of which is known to represent defective viruses. Finally, there was an inverse correlation between proviral DNA clone size and the probability of reactivation, suggesting that replication-competent viruses are less likely to be found among highly expanded provirus-containing cell clones. PMID:27872306

  7. Computer simulation of reservoir depletion and oil flow from the Macondo well following the Deepwater Horizon blowout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsieh, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the application of a computer model to simulate reservoir depletion and oil flow from the Macondo well following the Deepwater Horizon blowout. Reservoir and fluid data used for model development are based on (1) information released in BP's investigation report of the incident, (2) information provided by BP personnel during meetings in Houston, Texas, and (3) calibration by history matching to shut-in pressures measured in the capping stack during the Well Integrity Test. The model is able to closely match the measured shut-in pressures. In the simulation of the 86-day period from the blowout to shut in, the simulated reservoir pressure at the well face declines from the initial reservoir pressure of 11,850 pounds per square inch (psi) to 9,400 psi. After shut in, the simulated reservoir pressure recovers to a final value of 10,300 psi. The pressure does not recover back to the initial pressure owing to reservoir depletion caused by 86 days of oil discharge. The simulated oil flow rate declines from 63,600 stock tank barrels per day just after the Deepwater Horizon blowout to 52,600 stock tank barrels per day just prior to shut in. The simulated total volume of oil discharged is 4.92 million stock tank barrels. The overall uncertainty in the simulated flow rates and total volume of oil discharged is estimated to be + or - 10 percent.

  8. Paired quantitative and qualitative assessment of the replication-competent HIV-1 reservoir and comparison with integrated proviral DNA.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Julio C C; Cohen, Yehuda Z; Cohn, Lillian B; Kreider, Edward F; Barton, John P; Learn, Gerald H; Oliveira, Thiago; Lavine, Christy L; Horwitz, Joshua A; Settler, Allison; Jankovic, Mila; Seaman, Michael S; Chakraborty, Arup K; Hahn, Beatrice H; Caskey, Marina; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-12-06

    HIV-1-infected individuals harbor a latent reservoir of infected CD4(+) T cells that is not eradicated by antiretroviral therapy (ART). This reservoir presents the greatest barrier to an HIV-1 cure and has remained difficult to characterize, in part, because the vast majority of integrated sequences are defective and incapable of reactivation. To characterize the replication-competent reservoir, we have combined two techniques, quantitative viral outgrowth and qualitative sequence analysis of clonal outgrowth viruses. Leukapheresis samples from four fully ART-suppressed, chronically infected individuals were assayed at two time points separated by a 4- to 6-mo interval. Overall, 54% of the viruses emerging from the latent reservoir showed gp160 env sequences that were identical to at least one other virus. Moreover, 43% of the env sequences from viruses emerging from the reservoir were part of identical groups at the two time points. Groups of identical expanded sequences made up 54% of proviral DNA, and, as might be expected, the sequences of replication-competent viruses in the active reservoir showed limited overlap with integrated proviral DNA, most of which is known to represent defective viruses. Finally, there was an inverse correlation between proviral DNA clone size and the probability of reactivation, suggesting that replication-competent viruses are less likely to be found among highly expanded provirus-containing cell clones.

  9. Magnetic susceptibility of petroleum reservoir fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Oleksandr P.; Potter, David K.

    A knowledge of the magnetic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids may provide new techniques for improved reservoir characterisation, petroleum exploration and production. However, magnetic information is currently scarce for the vast majority of reservoir fluids. For instance, there is little in the literature concerning basic magnetic susceptibility values of crude oils or formation waters. We have therefore measured the mass magnetic susceptibility ( χm) of several crude oils, refined oil fractions, and formation waters from local and world-wide sites. All the fluids measured were diamagnetic, however there were distinct differences in magnitude between the different fluid types. In particular, χm for the crude oils was more negative than for the formation waters of the same locality. The magnetic susceptibility of the oils appears to be related to their main physical and chemical properties. The results correlated with the density, residue content, API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity, viscosity, sulphur content and metal concentration of the fluids. Light fractions of crude oil were the most diamagnetic. The magnetic measurements potentially allow physical and chemical differences between the fluids to be rapidly characterised. The results suggest other possible applications, such as passive in situ magnetic susceptibility sensors for fluid monitoring (for example, the onset of water breakthrough, or the detection of migrating fines) in reservoirs, which would provide an environmentally friendly alternative to radioactive tracers. The mass magnetic susceptibilities of the fluids in relation to typical reservoir minerals may also play a role in fluid-rock interactions, such as studies of wettability. The χm of crude oil from the various world-wide oil provinces that were tested also showed some differences, possibly reflecting broad physical and chemical features of the geological history of each province.

  10. Biological souring and mitigation in oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gieg, Lisa M; Jack, Tom R; Foght, Julia M

    2011-10-01

    Souring in oil field systems is most commonly due to the action of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes, a diverse group of anaerobic microorganisms that respire sulfate and produce sulfide (the key souring agent) while oxidizing diverse electron donors. Such biological sulfide production is a detrimental, widespread phenomenon in the petroleum industry, occurring within oil reservoirs or in topside processing facilities, under low- and high-temperature conditions, and in onshore or offshore operations. Sulfate reducers can exist either indigenously in deep subsurface reservoirs or can be "inoculated" into a reservoir system during oil field development (e.g., via drilling operations) or during the oil production phase. In the latter, souring most commonly occurs during water flooding, a secondary recovery strategy wherein water is injected to re-pressurize the reservoir and sweep the oil towards production wells to extend the production life of an oil field. The water source and type of production operation can provide multiple components such as sulfate, labile carbon sources, and sulfate-reducing communities that influence whether oil field souring occurs. Souring can be controlled by biocides, which can non-specifically suppress microbial populations, and by the addition of nitrate (and/or nitrite) that directly impacts the sulfate-reducing population by numerous competitive or inhibitory mechanisms. In this review, we report on the diversity of sulfate reducers associated with oil reservoirs, approaches for determining their presence and effects, the factors that control souring, and the approaches (along with the current understanding of their underlying mechanisms) that may be used to successfully mitigate souring in low-temperature and high-temperature oil field operations.

  11. Authorized and Operating Purposes of Corps of Engineers Reservoirs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Puerto Rico CERRILLOS DAM AND RESERVOIR Jacksonville E-9O PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Jacksonville E-92 South Carolina HARTWELL DAM AND LAKE Savannah E...LAKE Missouri Kansas City E-12 POMONA LAKE Kansas Kansas City E-12 PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Puerto Rico Jacksonville E-92 PRADO DAM (SANTA ANA...PROJECT Florida Jacksonville E-92 PORTUGUES DAM AND RESERVOIR Puerto Rico Jacksonville E-92 RODMAN LOCK AND DAM (CROSS FLORIDA BARGE CANAL Florida

  12. Incorporating reservoir heterogeneity with geostatistics to investigate waterflood recoveries

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, D.S. ); Chopra, A.K. )

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents an investigation of infill drilling performance and reservoir continuity with geostatistics and a reservoir simulator. The geostatistical technique provides many possible realizations and realistic descriptions of reservoir heterogeneity. Correlation between recovery efficiency and thickness of individual sand subunits is shown. Additional recovery from infill drilling results from thin, discontinuous subunits. The technique may be applied to variations in continuity for other sandstone reservoirs.

  13. Geophysical Surveys of the San Andreas and Crystal Springs Reservoir System Including Seismic-Reflection Profiles and Swath Bathymetry, San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finlayson, David P.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes geophysical data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in San Andreas Reservoir and Upper and Lower Crystal Springs Reservoirs, San Mateo County, California, as part of an effort to refine knowledge of the location of traces of the San Andreas Fault within the reservoir system and to provide improved reservoir bathymetry for estimates of reservoir water volume. The surveys were conducted by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the USGS for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC). The data were acquired in three separate surveys: (1) in June 2007, personnel from WCMG completed a three-day survey of San Andreas Reservoir, collecting approximately 50 km of high-resolution Chirp subbottom seismic-reflection data; (2) in November 2007, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of San Andreas reservoir; and finally (3) in April 2008, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of both the upper and lower Crystal Springs Reservoir system. Top of PageFor more information, contact David Finlayson.

  14. Determination of porosity and facies trends in a complex carbonate reservoir, by using 3-D seismic, borehole tools, and outcrop geology

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharakis, T.G. Jr.; Comet, J.N.; Murillo, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    Mesozoic carbonate reservoirs are found in the Mediterranean Sea, off the east coast of Spain. A wide variation of porosities are found in the core samples and logs: vuggy, breccia, fractures, and cavern porosity. In addition, complex Tertiary carbonate geometries include olistostromes, breccia bodies, and reef buildups, which are found on top of Mesozoic carbonates. Predicting the porosity trends within these oil productive reservoirs requires an understanding of how primary porosity was further enhanced by secondary processes, including fractures, karstification, and dolomitization in burial conditions. Through an extensive investigation of field histories, outcrop geology, and seismic data, a series of basic reservoir styles have been identified and characterized by well log signature and seismic response. The distribution pattern of the different reservoirs styles is highly heterogeneous, but by integrating subsurface data and outcrop analogs, it is possible to distinguish field-scale and local patterns of both vertical and local variations in reservoir properties. Finally, it is important to quantify these reservoir properties through the study of seismic attributes, such as amplitude variations, and log responses at the reservoir interval. By incorporating 3-D seismic data, through the use of seismic inversion, it is possible to predict porosity trends. Further, the use of geostatistics can lead to the prediction of reservoir development within the carbonate facies.

  15. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO(2) Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, David

    1996-12-01

    Progress has been made in the area of laboratory analysis of Spraberry oil/brine/rock interactions during this quarter. Water imbibition experiments were conducted under ambient conditions, using cleaned Spraberry cores, synthetic Spraberry reservoir brine, and Spraberry oil. It has been concluded that the Spraberry reservoir cores are weakly water-wet. The average Amott wettability index to water is about 0.55. The average oil recovery due to spontaneous water imbibition is about 50% of original oil in place.

  16. Reservoir simulation of a high viscous crude and strong water drive reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Ramli, A.

    1995-10-01

    The Bokor field is located offshore Sarawak, Malaysia and is one of the largest fields in the Baram Delta Province. The A3/6 group of reservoirs is the largest among the Bokor reservoir groups. The reservoir comprises a series of multiple, stacked, well-developed, fluviomarine sandstones connected to a large aquifer. Production from this reservoir started in 1983 and since then some 15 MMstb of oil have been produced. To better understand the production performance, displacement mechanism and further development opportunities in this high viscous crude (10 cP) and strong water drive reservoir, a 3D sector reservoir simulation has been carried out. The model comprises 8640 active grid blocks, with 14 strings completed on four reservoir units with separate fluid contacts. The layering system and grid dimensions were found to be critical in the history matching process, which was supported by a X-sectional study carried out prior to embarking on the 3D model. Based on the history match, remaining oil was identified on the eastern flank, at the top of each sand unit (due to water under-running) and in the downdip area due to the existing crestal oriented development. The history matched model was subsequently used to aid further development planning and to formulate a cost-effective reservoir management strategy. Various development scenarios were tested in this 3D model, which include infill drilling, horizontal wells and pressure maintenance by water injection. This paper describes the various steps taken to obtain a good history match over the 10 years of production history and discusses the findings of the prediction runs.

  17. Activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria under simulated reservoir conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosnes, J.T.; Graue, A.; Lien, T. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that have been isolated from hot oilfield waters from subsea oil reservoirs in the North Sea. Experiments with these bacteria in a reservoir simulator indicate that SRB may maintain their activity in the conditions found in most North Sea reservoirs and, if precautions are not taken, may contribute to souring of the oil and gas.

  18. Enhanced gas recovery from a moderately strong water drive reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Chesney, T.P.; Lewis, R.C.; Trice, M.L. Jr.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    Blowdown performance of several South Texas water drive gas reservoirs indicated a substantial quantity of gas was trapped in water invaded regions. Depressuring of the reservoir by withdrawing large volumes of water in order to recover trapped gas was evaluated. The evaluation, implementation, and results of this enhanced gas recovery technique are discussed for one of these reservoirs.

  19. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  20. Developing and Managing a Comprehensive Reservoir Analysis Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    a flood control only, single event reservoir simulation model to a generalized hydrologic and economic reservoir simulation model with capabilities...The first release of HEC-5, May 1973, gave the Corps of Engineers a mainframe based, reservoir simulation model which automated the traditional manual

  1. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0,...

  2. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0,...

  3. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0,...

  4. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0,...

  5. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0,...

  6. VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE NORTH WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE NORTH WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS AT THE LEFT. THE BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE IS SEEN AT THE UPPER LEFT AND SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 4 IS SEEN BEYOND THE EAST WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  7. VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE SOUTH END OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE SOUTH END OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 AND JONES STREET ARE AT THE LEFT. SETTLING RESERVOIRS NO. 1 AND NO. 2 ARE AT THE FAR CENTER. THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS AT THE BOTTOM. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  8. 33 CFR 110.77 - Amistad Reservoir, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amistad Reservoir, Tex. 110.77... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex. (a) Diablo East, Tex. That portion of the Amistad Reservoir enclosed by a line connecting the following points, excluding a...

  9. 33 CFR 110.77 - Amistad Reservoir, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amistad Reservoir, Tex. 110.77... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex. (a) Diablo East, Tex. That portion of the Amistad Reservoir enclosed by a line connecting the following points, excluding a...

  10. 49 CFR 230.72 - Testing main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Testing main reservoirs. 230.72 Section 230.72... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.72 Testing main reservoirs. (a) Hammer and hydrostatic testing. Except as described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, every main reservoir, except...

  11. 33 CFR 110.77 - Amistad Reservoir, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amistad Reservoir, Tex. 110.77... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex. (a) Diablo East, Tex. That portion of the Amistad Reservoir enclosed by a line connecting the following points, excluding a...

  12. 49 CFR 230.72 - Testing main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing main reservoirs. 230.72 Section 230.72... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.72 Testing main reservoirs. (a) Hammer and hydrostatic testing. Except as described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, every main reservoir, except...

  13. 33 CFR 110.77 - Amistad Reservoir, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amistad Reservoir, Tex. 110.77... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex. (a) Diablo East, Tex. That portion of the Amistad Reservoir enclosed by a line connecting the following points, excluding a...

  14. 49 CFR 230.72 - Testing main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Testing main reservoirs. 230.72 Section 230.72... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.72 Testing main reservoirs. (a) Hammer and hydrostatic testing. Except as described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, every main reservoir, except...

  15. 33 CFR 110.77 - Amistad Reservoir, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amistad Reservoir, Tex. 110.77... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77 Amistad Reservoir, Tex. (a) Diablo East, Tex. That portion of the Amistad Reservoir enclosed by a line connecting the following points, excluding a...

  16. 49 CFR 230.72 - Testing main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Testing main reservoirs. 230.72 Section 230.72... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.72 Testing main reservoirs. (a) Hammer and hydrostatic testing. Except as described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, every main reservoir, except...

  17. 49 CFR 230.72 - Testing main reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Testing main reservoirs. 230.72 Section 230.72... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.72 Testing main reservoirs. (a) Hammer and hydrostatic testing. Except as described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, every main reservoir, except...

  18. Sudden Water Pollution Accidents and Reservoir Emergency Operations: Impact Analysis at Danjiangkou Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hezhen; Shang, Yizi; Duan, Yang; Lei, Xiaohui; Kong, Lingzhong; Wang, Hao

    2017-03-29

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is the source reservoir of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (MRP). Any sudden water pollution accident in the reservoir would threaten the water supply of the MRP. We established a 3-D hydrodynamic and water quality model for Danjiangkou Reservoir, and proposed scientific suggestions on the prevention and emergency management for sudden water pollution accidents based on simulated results. Simulations were performed on 20 hypothetical pollutant discharge locations and 3 assumed amounts, in order to model the effect of pollutant spreading under different reservoir operation types. The results showed that both the location and mass of pollution affected water quality; however, different reservoir operation types had little effect. Five joint regulation scenarios, which altered the hydrodynamic processes of water conveyance for the Danjiangkou and Taocha Dams, were considered for controlling pollution dispersion. The results showed that the spread of a pollutant could be effectively controlled through the joint regulation of the two dams and that the collaborative operation of the Danjiangkou and Taocha Dams is critical for ensuring the security of water quality along the MRP.

  19. Life in the slow lane; biogeochemistry of biodegraded petroleum containing reservoirs and implications for energy recovery and carbon management

    PubMed Central

    Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.; Larter, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes underlying the formation of heavy oil has been transformed in the last decade. The process was once thought to be driven by oxygen delivered to deep petroleum reservoirs by meteoric water. This paradigm has been replaced by a view that the process is anaerobic and frequently associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation. The thermal history of a reservoir exerts a fundamental control on the occurrence of biodegraded petroleum, and microbial activity is focused at the base of the oil column in the oil water transition zone, that represents a hotspot in the petroleum reservoir biome. Here we present a synthesis of new and existing microbiological, geochemical, and biogeochemical data that expands our view of the processes that regulate deep life in petroleum reservoir ecosystems and highlights interactions of a range of biotic and abiotic factors that determine whether petroleum is likely to be biodegraded in situ, with important consequences for oil exploration and production. Specifically we propose that the salinity of reservoir formation waters exerts a key control on the occurrence of biodegraded heavy oil reservoirs and introduce the concept of palaeopickling. We also evaluate the interaction between temperature and salinity to explain the occurrence of non-degraded oil in reservoirs where the temperature has not reached the 80–90°C required for palaeopasteurization. In addition we evaluate several hypotheses that might explain the occurrence of organisms conventionally considered to be aerobic, in nominally anoxic petroleum reservoir habitats. Finally we discuss the role of microbial processes for energy recovery as we make the transition from fossil fuel reliance, and how these fit within the broader socioeconomic landscape of energy futures. PMID:25426105

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hara

    2001-05-07

    The project involves using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies to improve thermal recovery techniques and lower operating and capital costs in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., CA. Through September 2000, project work has been completed on the following activities: data preparation; basic reservoir engineering; developing a deterministic three dimensional (3-D) geologic model, a 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model and a rock-log model; well drilling and completions; and surface facilities on the Fault Block II-A Tar Zone (Tar II-A). Work is continuing on improving core analysis techniques, final reservoir tracer work, operational work and research studies to prevent thermal-related formation compaction in the Tar II-A steamflood area, and operational work on the Tar V steamflood pilot and Tar II-A post steamflood projects. Work was discontinued on the stochastic geologic model and developing a 3-D stochastic thermal reservoir simulation model of the Tar II-A Zone so the project team could use the 3-D deterministic reservoir simulation model to provide alternatives for the Tar II-A post steamflood operations and shale compaction studies. The project team spent the fourth quarter 2000 performing well work and reservoir surveillance on the Tar II-A post-steamflood project and the Tar V horizontal well steamflood pilot. Expanding thermal recovery operations to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, including the Tar V horizontal well pilot steamflood project, is a critical part of the City of Long Beach and Tidelands Oil Production Company's development strategy for the field. The current steamflood operations in the Tar V pilot are economical, but recent performance is below projections because of wellbore mechanical limitations that are being evaluated.