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Sample records for dye removal extracellular

  1. Dye removal by immobilised fungi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Couto, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Dyes are widely used within the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, printing, textile and leather industries. This has resulted in the discharge of highly coloured effluents that affect water transparency and gas solubility in water bodies. Furthermore, they pose a problem because of their carcinogenicity and toxicity. Therefore, removal of such dyes before discharging them into natural water streams is essential. For this, appropriate treatment technologies are required. The treatment of recalcitrant and toxic dyes with traditional technologies is not always effective or may not be environmentally friendly. This has impelled the search for alternative technologies such as biodegradation with fungi. In particular, ligninolytic fungi and their non-specific oxidative enzymes have been reported to be responsible for the decolouration of different synthetic dyes. Thus, the use of such fungi is becoming a promising alternative to replace or complement the current technologies for dye removal. Processes using immobilised growing cells seem to be more promising than those with free cells, since the immobilisation allows using the microbial cells repeatedly and continuously. This paper reviews the application of fungal immobilisation to dye removal.

  2. Removal of triphenylmethane dyes by bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Cheriaa, Jihane; Khaireddine, Monia; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2012-01-01

    A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila)-(CM-4) was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L) and malachite green (50 mg/L) dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes.

  3. Removal of Triphenylmethane Dyes by Bacterial Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cheriaa, Jihane; Khaireddine, Monia; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2012-01-01

    A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila)-(CM-4) was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L) and malachite green (50 mg/L) dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes. PMID:22623907

  4. Electrochemical removal of dyes from textile wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrich, K.D. )

    1988-09-01

    There are many technologies available for treating wastewater from the textile industry. Included are (1) biological treatment, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) carbon absorption, (4) ultrafiltration, and (5) oxidation with ozone. The main drawback of these technologies is that they generally lack the broad scope of treatment efficiency required to reduce all types of pollutants present in textile wastewater. However, when one approach does look promising, its capital costs or operating costs often become prohibitive when applied to the large water needs common to this industry. It has recently been shown that an electrochemical technology developed in the 1970s by Andco Environmental Processes, Inc. effectively removes many of the contaminants including toxic dye species and heavy metals along with significant BOD and COD reduction across many types of textile wastewater and dye species. The removal of dyes and other pollutants in textile wastewater can be accomplished very efficiently with the electrochemical process. Actual operating data, along with actual water samples, will be presented along with economics and operating characteristics of this type of a system. Additional considerations such as removal of other components such as BOD and COD, theoretical interpretations, and the possibility of water reuse will also be discussed.

  5. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  6. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.L.

    2000-07-25

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  7. Dye removal using modified copper ferrite nanoparticle and RSM analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Soltani-Gordefaramarzi, Sajjad; Sadeghi-Kiakhani, Moosa

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, copper ferrite nanoparticle (CFN) was synthesized, modified by cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, and characterized. Dye removal ability of the surface modified copper ferrite nanoparticle (SMCFN) from single system was investigated. The physical characteristics of SMCFN were studied using Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Acid Blue 92, Direct Green 6, Direct Red 23, and Direct Red 80 were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters (surfactant concentration, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and pH) on dye removal was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the analysis of the dye removal data. The experimental checking in these optimal conditions confirms good agreements with RSM results. The results showed that the SMCFN being a magnetic adsorbent might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

  8. Verifying Removal Of Red Penetrant Dye From Inspected Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torkelson, Jan R.

    1996-01-01

    Clean surface assured for more sensitive inspection with fluorescent penetrant dye. Simple procedure devised to ensure visible (red) penetrant dye used to identify flaws in welded surface completely removed from surface. Consists in applying reversible penetrant developer to surface to be inspected.

  9. Color removal from dye-containing wastewater by magnesium chloride.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bao-Yu; Yue, Qin-Yan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Wei-Zhi

    2007-01-01

    Color removal by MgCl(2) when treating synthetic waste containing pure dyes was studied. The color removal efficiency of MgCl(2)/Ca(OH)(2) was compared with that of Al(2)(SO(4))(3), polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and FeSO(4)/Ca(OH)(2). The mechanism of color removal by MgCl(2) was also investigated. The experimental results show that the color removal efficiency of MgCl(2) is related to the type of dye and depends on the pH of the waste and the dosage of the coagulants used. Treatment of waste containing reactive dye or dispersed dye with MgCl(2) yielded an optimum color removal ratio when the pH of the solution was equal to or above 12.0. For both the reactive and dispersed dye waste, MgCl(2)/Ca(OH)(2) was shown to be superior to MgCl(2)/NaOH, Al(2)(SO(4))(3), PAC and FeSO(4)/Ca(OH)(2) for color removal. A magnesium hydroxide precipitate formed at pH values greater than 12.0, which provided a large adsorptive surface area and a positive electrostatic surface charge, enabling it to remove the dyes through charge neutralization and an adsorptive coagulating mechanism. So, the MgCl(2)/Ca(OH)(2) system is a viable alternative to some of the more conventional forms of chemical treatment, especially for treating actual textile waste with high natural pH.

  10. Direct dyes removal using modified magnetic ferrite nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic adsorbent nanoparticle was modified using cationic surface active agent. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide were used as an adsorbent and a surface active agent, respectively. Dye removal ability of the surface modified nanoparticle as an adsorbent was investigated. Direct Green 6 (DG6), Direct Red 31 (DR31) and Direct Red 23 (DR23) were used. The characteristics of the adsorbent were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and salt was evaluated. In ternary system, dye removal of the adsorbent at 90, 120, 150 and 200 mg/L dye concentration was 63, 45, 30 and 23% for DR23, 97, 90, 78 and 45% for DR31 and 51, 48, 42 and 37% for DG6, respectively. It was found that dye adsorption onto the adsorbent followed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. PMID:24991427

  11. Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical dyes by adsorption onto papaya seeds.

    PubMed

    Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds were used as adsorbent to remove toxic pharmaceutical dyes (tartrazine and amaranth) from aqueous solutions, in order to extend application range. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The kinetic data were evaluated by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models. The equilibrium was evaluated by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. It was found that adsorption favored a pH of 2.5, temperature of 298 K and equilibrium was attained at 180-200 min. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium was well represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 51.0 and 37.4 mg g(-1) for tartrazine and amaranth, respectively. These results revealed that papaya seeds can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions.

  12. Alkali, thermo and halo tolerant fungal isolate for the removal of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

    2010-11-01

    In the present study potential of a fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulusFJ172995, was investigated for the removal of textile dyes. The removal percentages of dyes such as Acid Navy Blue, Orange-HF, Fast Red A, Acid Sulphone Blue and Acid Magenta were determined as 99.43, 98.82, 98.75, 97.67 and 69.98, respectively. None of the dyes inhibited the growth of A. lentulus. Detailed studies on growth kinetics, mechanism of dye removal and effect of different parameters on dye removal were conducted using Acid Navy Blue dye. It was observed that A. lentulus could completely remove Acid Navy Blue even at high initial dye concentrations, up to 900 mg/L. Highest uptake capacity of 212.92 mg/g was observed at an initial dye concentration of 900 mg/L. Dye removing efficiency was not altered with the variation of pH; and biomass production as well as dye removal was favored at higher temperatures. Dye removal was also efficient even at high salt concentration. Through growth kinetics studies it was observed that the initial exponential growth phase coincided with the phase of maximal dye removal. Microscopic studies suggest that bioaccumulation along with biosorption is the principle mechanism involved in dye removal by A. lentulus. Thus, it is concluded that being alkali, thermo and halo tolerant, A. lentulus isolate has a great potential to be utilized for the treatment of dye bearing effluents which are usually alkaline, hot and saline.

  13. COD and Color Removal from Real Dyeing Wastewater by Ozonation.

    PubMed

    Yang, De-min; Yuan, Jian-mei

    2016-05-01

    Ozonation of real dye wastewater for removal of color and COD reduction covering a wide range in operating parameters forms the scope of the present work. The influence of parameters such as influent pH, ozone flow rate and initial effluent concentration on ozonation efficiency has been critically examined. It has been observed from the present investigation that a maximum of COD removal efficiency of 92.5% has been achieved under optimum operating conditions (pH=11; ozone flow rate: 6×10(-3) m(3)/minute). Further the biodegradability index of the dye effluent has increased from an initial value of 0.18 to 0.49 during ozonation indicating favorable adaptation of ozonation as a primer to the biochemical technique to enhance the efficiency of biochemical treatment.

  14. [Adsorption of a dye by sludges and the roles of extracellular polymeric substances].

    PubMed

    Kong, Wang-sheng; Liu, Yan

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigated the adsorption of a dye, acid turquoise blue A, by four kinds of sludges including activated sludge, anaerobic sludge, dried activated sludge, and dried anaerobic sludge, respectively. The roles of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) including the soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) for the biosorption of activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were further studied. Results show that the relation between four kinds of sludge adsorption amount and remained concentration of the dye fitted well both Freundlich model (R2: 0.921-0.995) and Langmuir model (R2: 0.958-0.993), but not quite fitted BET model (R2: 0.07-0.863). The adsorption capability of dried anaerobic sludge ranked the highest, and dried activated sludge was the lowest. According to Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption amount of dried anaerobic, anaerobic, activated, and dried activated sludge was 104 mg/g, 86 mg/g, 65 mg/g, 20 mg/g, respectively. The amount of the dye found in EPS for both activated sludge and anaerobic sludge were over 50%, illustrating that EPS adsorption was predominant in adsorption of the dye by sludge. The amount of adsorbed dye by BEPS was greater than that by SEPS for anaerobic sludge, but for activated sludge the result was quite opposite. The amount of adsorbed dye by unit mass SEPS was much higher than the corresponding values of BEPS for both sludges. The average amount of adsorbed dye by unit mass SEPS was 52 times of the corresponding value of BEPS for activated sludge, and 10 times for anaerobic sludge. The relation between adsorption amount of dye by BEPS from anaerobic sludge and remained concentration of the dye in mixed liquor was best fitted to Langmuir model (R2: 0.9986).

  15. Adsorptive removal of textile dyes from aqueous solutions by dead fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Asma, Dilek; Kahraman, Sibel; Cing, Seval; Yesilada, Ozfer

    2006-01-01

    Dead fungal biomass prepared from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Funalia trogii was tested for their efficiency in removal of textile dyes. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, amount of dead biomass and agitation rate on dye removal have been determined. Removal of all dyes required a very short time (60 min). Experimental results show that, P. chrysosporium was more effective than F. trogii . An increase in the amount of dead biomass positively affected of the dye removal. The removal efficiency of different amount of biomass was in order 1 g > 0.5 g > 0.2 g > 0.1 g. The highest removal was obtained at 150-200 rpm. Slightly lower removing activities were found at lower agitation rates. This study showed that it was possible to remove textile dyes by dead biomass of P. chrysosporium .

  16. Comparative performance evaluation of Aspergillus lentulus for dye removal through bioaccumulation and biosorption.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prachi; Malik, Anushree

    2013-05-01

    Dyes used in various industries are discharged into the environment and pose major environmental concern. In the present study, fungal isolate Aspergillus lentulus was utilized for the treatment of various dyes, dye mixtures and dye containing effluent in dual modes, bioaccumulation (employing growing biomass) and biosorption (employing pre-cultivated biomass). The effect of dye toxicity on the growth of the fungal isolate was studied through phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Dye biosorption was studied using first and second-order kinetic models. Effects of factors influencing adsorption and isotherm studies were also conducted. During bioaccumulation, good removal was obtained for anionic dyes (100 mg/l), viz. Acid Navy Blue, Fast Red A and Orange-HF dye (99.4 %, 98.8 % and 98.7 %, respectively) in 48 h. Cationic dyes (10 mg/l), viz. Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue, had low removal efficiency (80.3 % [48 h] and 92.7 % [144 h], respectively) as compared to anionic dyes. In addition to this, fungal isolate showed toxicity response towards Methylene Blue by producing larger aggregates of fungal pellets. To overcome the limitations of bioaccumulation, dye removal in biosorption mode was studied. In this mode, significant removal was observed for anionic (96.7-94.3 %) and cationic (35.4-90.9 %) dyes in 24 h. The removal of three anionic dyes and Rhodamine B followed first-order kinetic model whereas removal of Methylene Blue followed second-order kinetic model. Overall, fungal isolate could remove more than 90 % dye from different dye mixtures in bioaccumulation mode and more than 70 % dye in biosorption mode. Moreover, significant color removal from handmade paper unit effluent in bioaccumulation mode (86.4 %) as well as in biosorption mode (77.1 %) was obtained within 24 h. This study validates the potential of fungal isolate, A. lentulus, to be used as the primary organism for treating dye containing wastewater.

  17. Emulsion liquid membrane for textile dye removal: Stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumastuti, Adhi; Syamwil, Rodia; Anis, Samsudin

    2017-03-01

    Although textile dyes is basically available in very low concentration; it should be removed due to the toxicity to human body and environment. Among the existing methods, emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) is a promising method by providing high interfacial area and the ability to remove a very low concentration of the solute. The optimal emulsions were produced using commercially supplied homogeniser. The drop size was measured by the aid of microscope and image J software. Initially, methylene blue in simulated wastewater was extracted using a stirrer. Methylene blue concentration was determined using spectrophotometer. The research obtained optimal emulsion at surfactant concentration of 4 wt. %, kerosene as diluent, emulsification time of 30 min, emulsification speed of 2000 rpm. The lowest membrane breakage and the longest stability time were about 0.11% and 150 min, respectively.

  18. Electrochemical removal of synthetic textile dyes from aqueous solutions using Ti/Pt anode: role of dye structure.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cynthia K C; Oliveira, Gustavo R; Fernandes, Nedja S; Zanta, Carmem L P S; Castro, Suely Souza Leal; da Silva, Djalma R; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the efficiency of electrochemical oxidation (EO) was investigated for removing a dye mixture containing Novacron Yellow (NY) and Remazol Red (RR) in aqueous solutions using platinum supported on titanium (Ti/Pt) as anode. Different current densities (20, 40 and 60 mA cm(-2)) and temperatures (25, 40 and 60 °C) were studied during electrochemical treatment. After that, the EO of each of these dyes was separately investigated. The EO of each of these dyes was performed, varying only the current density and keeping the same temperature (25 °C). The elimination of colour was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, and the degradation of organic compounds was analysed by means of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Data obtained from the analysis of the dye mixture showed that the EO process was effective in colour removal, in which more than 90% was removed. In the case of COD removal, the application of a current density greater than 40 mA cm(-2) favoured the oxygen evolution reaction, and no complete oxidation was achieved. Regarding the analysis of individual anodic oxidation dyes, it was appreciated that the data for the NY were very close to the results obtained for the oxidation of the dye mixture while the RR dye achieved higher colour removal but lower COD elimination. These results suggest that the oxidation efficiency is dependent on the nature of the organic molecule, and it was confirmed by the intermediates identified.

  19. Study on the removal of acid dyes using chitosan as a natural coagulant/coagulant aid.

    PubMed

    Zonoozi, M H; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Arami, M

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan was selected as a natural coagulating agent for the removal of acid dyes (Acid Blue 292; AB292, and Acid Red 398; AR398) from dye-containing solutions. The study was organised in two phases. In phase 1, chitosan was used alone as a natural coagulant for the removal of the dyes. For this purpose, the effect of different parameters including pH, chitosan dosage and initial dye concentration on the dye removal efficiency was examined. In phase 2 of the study, the application of chitosan as a natural coagulant aid in conjunction with polyaluminium chloride (PAC) was assessed. According to the results of phase 1, the best removal efficiencies occurred in an acidic pH range (less than 6) for both of the dyes. Also, excellent dye removal results (about 90%) were achieved with relatively low dosages of chitosan (30-35 mg L(-1) for AB292 and 50-60 mg L(-1) for AR398). However, the initial concentration of the dyes severely influenced the coagulation performance of chitosan, which can constrain the performance of chitosan as a natural coagulant. On the basis of the results of phase 2, chitosan, as a natural coagulant aid, noticeably enhanced the dye removal efficiency of PAC, especially in the case of AB292. Small amounts of chitosan (3 or 5 mg L(-1)) enhanced the dye removal efficiency of PAC up to 2.5 times for AB292.

  20. Phosphorus removal in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process: roles of extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ling; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Raymond J; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-10-15

    Phosphorus-accumulating organisms are considered to be the key microorganisms in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process. A large amount of phosphorus is found in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix of these microorganisms. However, the roles of EPS in phosphorus removal have not been fully understood. In this study, the phosphorus in the EBPR sludge was fractionated and further analyzed using quantitative (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The amounts and forms of phosphorus in EPS as well as their changes in an anaerobic-aerobic process were also investigated. EPS could act as a reservoir for phosphorus in the anaerobic-aerobic process. About 5-9% of phosphorus in sludge was reserved in the EPS at the end of the aerobic phase and might further contribute to the phosphorus removal. The chain length of the intracellular long-chain polyphosphate (polyP) decreased in the anaerobic phase and then recovered under aerobic conditions. However, the polyP in the EPS had a much shorter chain length than the intracellular polyP in the whole cycle. The migration and transformation of various forms of phosphorus among microbial cells, EPS, and bulk liquid were also explored. On the basis of these results, a model with a consideration of the roles of EPS was proposed, which is beneficial to elucidate the mechanism of phosphorus removal in the EBPR system.

  1. Removal of textile dyes and metallic ions using polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups.

    PubMed

    Caldera Villalobos, M; Peláez Cid, A A; Herrera González, Ana M

    2016-07-15

    This work reports the removal of textile dyes and metallic ions by means of adsorption and coagulation-flocculation using two polyelectrolytes and two macroelectrolytes containing sulfonic acid groups. The adsorption of textile dyes was studied in aqueous solutions containing cationic dyes and in wastewater containing a vat dye. Also, removal of vat and naphthol dyes was studied using the process of coagulation-flocculation. The results show these materials possess elevated adsorption capacity, and they accomplished removal rates above 97% in aqueous solutions. The removal of the vat dye improved the quality of the wastewater notably, and an uncolored effluent was obtained at the end of the treatment. The treatment using adsorption decreased the values for coloration, conductivity, suspended solids, and pH. The removal of vat and naphthol dyes by means of coagulation-flocculation was studied as well, and removal rates of 90% were obtained. The polyelectrolytes and macroelectrolytes also proved effective in the adsorption of metallic ions in wastewater. The treatment using adsorption accomplished high removal rates of metallic ions, and it showed greater selectivity towards Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Pb(2+). A decrease in the content of solids as well as the values for COD and conductivity was observed in the wastewater as well. The analyses of FT-IR indicated that cationic dyes and metallic ions were chemisorbed by means of ionic exchange.

  2. Using protein nanofibrils to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution by the coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Morshedi, Dina; Mohammadi, Zeinab; Akbar Boojar, Masoud Mashhadi; Aliakbari, Farhang

    2013-12-01

    The ever-increasing applications of hazardous azo dyes as industrialized coloring agents have led to serious remediation challenges. In this study, proteinaceous nanofibrils were examined as coagulants for decolorization of azo dyes in aqueous solutions. The results provided some insight regarding the mechanism of dye removal. The strength of nanofibrils to remove dyes from solution was evaluated by remediation of acid red 88, Bismarck brown R, direct violet 51, reactive black 5, and Congo red. However, the efficiency of nanofibrils to coagulate with different dyes was variable (60-98%) and dependent on the structures of dyes and the physicochemical conditions of the solutions. Increasing the temperature or ionic strength declined the coagulation time and induced the rate of dye removal. Changing pH had contradictory effects on the dye removal efficiency which was more affected by the chemical structure of the dye rather than the change in stability of the coagulant. The efficiency of nanofibrils to remove dyes was more than that of charcoal, which is considered as one of the most common substances used for azo dye remediation which may be due to its well dispersion in the aqueous solutions, and slower rates of the coagulation than that of the adsorption process. Furthermore, cytotoxicity was not detected after treating cell cultures with the decolorized solutions. Accordingly, by integrating biological and biophysicochemical processes, proteinaceous nanofibrils can be promising candidates for treatment of colored wastewaters. Ease of production, proper and quick dispersion in water, without the production of dangerous dye by-products and derivatives, are some of the main advantages of nanofibrils.

  3. Effects of dissolved oxygen on dye removal by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wei, Ming-Chi; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Li, Heng-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hua; Fang, Yung-Tai; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2010-10-15

    Effects of dissolved oxygen concentrations on dye removal by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) were investigated. The Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test was employed to evaluate toxicity of decolorized solution. Three dyes, Acid Orange 7 (AO7, monoazo), Reactive Red 120 (RR120, diazo), and Acid Blue 9 (AB9, triphenylmethane), were selected as model dyes. The dye concentration and Fe(0) dose used were 100 mg L(-1) and 30 g L(-1), respectively. Under anoxic condition, the order for dye decolorization was AO7>RR120>AB9. An increase in the dissolved oxygen concentrations enhanced decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of the three dyes. An increase in gas flow rates also improved dye and COD removals by Fe(0). At dissolved oxygen of 6 mg L(-1), more than 99% of each dye was decolorized within 12 min and high COD removals were obtained (97% for AO7, 87% for RR120, and 93% for AB9). The toxicity of decolorized dye solutions was low (I(5)<40%). An increase in DO concentrations obviously reduced the toxicity. When DO above 2 mg L(-1) was applied, low iron ion concentration (13.6 mg L(-1)) was obtained in the decolorized AO7 solution.

  4. The flocculation performance of Tamarindus mucilage in relation to removal of vat and direct dyes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anuradha; Bajpai, Malvika

    2006-05-01

    A food grade natural mucilage, extracted from the seeds of Tamarindus indica pods, is used as a flocculant for removal of solubilised vat (golden yellow) and direct dye (direct fast scarlet) in aqueous solutions. The maximum removal obtained was 60% for golden yellow after 2 h and was 25% for direct fast scarlet after 1 h. The optimum mucilage dose was 10 mg/l and 15 mg/l for golden yellow and direct fast scarlet, respectively. The pH values also seem to affect the percent removal of both the dyes significantly. In case of vat dye, the pH value of the test samples affected the percent removal significantly. The change was highly significant between neutral and alkaline pH. In case of direct dye, there was no significant change in percent removal at pH 7 and pH 4 whereas a significant change in percent removal was observed between pH 7 and pH 9.2. The plausible mucilage-dye interaction and flocculation mechanism has been discussed. This new flocculant works better in the case of vat dye removal compared with the direct dye.

  5. Hydrothermal conversion of urban food waste to chars for removal of textile dyes from contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Parshetti, Ganesh K; Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-06-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization of urban food waste was carried out to prepare hydrochars for removal of Acridine Orange and Rhodamine 6G dyes from contaminated water. The chemical composition and microstructure properties of the synthesized hydrochars were investigated in details. Batch adsorption experiments revealed that hydrochars with lower degree of carbonization were more efficient in adsorption of dyes. Operational parameters such as pH and temperature had a strong influence on the dye uptake process. The adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental kinetic data in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations suggested that dye adsorption onto hydrochars was spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of dye removal appears to be associated with physisorption. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based modelling was further carried out to predict the dye adsorption capacity of the hydrochars.

  6. Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, K. S.; Ramesh, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Color removal from wastewater has been a matter of concern, both in the aesthetic sense and health point of view. Color removal from textile effluents on a continuous industrial scale has been given much attention in the last few years, not only because of its potential toxicity, but also mainly due to its visibility problem. There have been various promising techniques for the removal of dyes from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewater has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review evaluates different agricultural waste materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. The review also outlines some of the fundamental principles of dye adsorption on to adsorbents.

  7. Removal of an anionic dye (Acid Blue 92) by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan.

    PubMed

    Szyguła, Agata; Guibal, Eric; Ariño Palacín, María; Ruiz, Montserrat; Sastre, Ana Maria

    2009-07-01

    Chitosan (a biopolymer) is an aminopolysaccharide that can be used for the treatment of colored solutions by coagulation-flocculation (as an alternative to more conventional processes such as sorption). Acid Blue 92 (a sulfonic dye) was selected as a model dye for verifying chitosan's ability to treat textile wastewater. A preliminary experiment demonstrated that chitosan was more efficient at color removal in tap water than in demineralized water, and that a substantially lower concentration of chitosan could be used with tap water. Dye removal reached up to 99% under optimum concentration; i.e., in terms of the acidic solutions and the stoichiometric ratio between the amine groups of the biopolymer and the sulfonic groups in the dye. The flocs were recovered and the dye was efficiently removed using alkaline solutions (0.001-1 M NaOH solutions) and the biopolymer, re-dissolved in acetic acid solution, was reused in a further treatment cycle.

  8. Removal of dyes from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from rice husk residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaxin; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Ruiguang; Li, Guiying; Hu, Changwei

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of dye wastewater by activated carbon (AC) prepared from rice husk residue wastes was studied. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to investigate the effects of contact time, initial concentration (50-450 mg/L), pH (3-11) and temperature (30-70 °C) on the removal of methylene blue (MB), neutral red, and methyl orange. Kinetic investigation revealed that the adsorption of dyes followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results suggested that AC was effective to remove dyes, especially MB, from aqueous solutions. Desorption studies found that chemisorption by the adsorbent might be the major mode of dye removal. Fourier transform infrared results suggested that dye molecules were likely to combine with the O-H and P=OOH groups of AC.

  9. Color removal of reactive dyes from water by clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Armağan, Bülent; Turan, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Orhan; Celik, Mehmet S

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of reactive dyes on Gordes (Turkey) clinoptilolite was investigated by a series of batch and column adsorption experiments. Three reactive dyes (Everzol Black, Everzol Red, Everzol Yellow) were used in laboratory studies. Synthetic wastewaters were used and the ability of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) and their modified form were examined. The adsorption results, in batch and column reactor, indicate that natural zeolite have limited adsorption capacities of the reactive dyes but are substantially improved upon modifying their surfaces with quaternary amines (HTAB). The degree of hydrophilicity is found to play an important role in the uptake of reactive dyes.

  10. Removal of Acid Black 194 dye from water by electrocoagulation with aluminum anode.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jorge; Villegas, Loreto; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M; Salazar González, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Application of an electrocoagulation process (EC) for the elimination of AB194 textile dye from synthetic and textile wastewater (effluent) contaminated with AB194 dye, was carried out using aluminum anodes at two different initial pH values. Tafel studies in the presence and absence of the dye were performed. The aluminum species formed during the electrolysis were quantified by atomic absorption, and the flocs formed in the process were analyzed by HPLC-MS. Complete removal of AB194 from 1.0 L of solution was achieved applying low densities current at initial pH values of 4.0 and 8.0. The removal of AB194 by EC was possible with a short electrolysis time, removing practically 100% of the total organic carbon content and chemical oxygen demand. The final result was completely discolored water lacking dye and organic matter. An effluent contaminated with 126 mg L(-1) AB194 dye from a Chilean textile industry was also treated by EC under optimized experimental conditions, yielding discolored water and considerably decreasing the presence of organic compounds (dye + dyeing additives), with very low concentrations of dissolved Al(3+). Analysis of flocs showed the presence of the original dye without changes in its chemical structure.

  11. Utilization of Corn Cob and TiO2 Photocatalyst Thin Films for Dyes Removal.

    PubMed

    Gan, Hui-Yee; Leow, Li-Eau; Ong, Siew-Teng

    The effectiveness of using TiO2 and corn cob films to remove Malachite Green oxalate (MG) and Acid Yellow 17 (AY 17) from binary dye solution was studied. The immobilization method in this study can avoid the filtration step which is not suited for practical applications. Batch studies were performed under different experimental conditions and the parameters studied involved initial pH of dye solution, initial dye concentration and contact time and reusability. The equilibrium data of MG and AY 17 conform to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The percentage removal of MG remained high after four sorption cycles, however for AY 17, a greater reduction was observed. The removal of both dyes were optimized and modeled via Plackett- Burman design (PB) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). IR spectrum and surface conditions analyses were carried out using fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively.

  12. Magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite beads for removing dye from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Hui; Shih, Ming-Cheng; Chiu, Han-Chen; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2014-06-18

    Dye pollution in wastewater is a severe environmental problem because treating water containing dyes using conventional physical, chemical, and biological treatments is difficult. A conventional process is used to adsorb dyes and filter wastewater. Magnetic filtration is an emerging technology. In this study, magnetic Pycnoporus sanguineus-loaded alginate composite beads were employed to remove a dye solution. A white rot fungus, P. sanguineus, immobilized in alginate beads were used as a biosorbent to remove the dye solution. An alginate polymer could protect P. sanguineus in acidic environments. Superparamagnetic nanomaterials, iron oxide nanoparticles, were combined with alginate gels to form magnetic alginate composites. The magnetic guidability of alginate composites and biocompatibility of iron oxide nanoparticles facilitated the magnetic filtration and separation processes. The fungus cells were immobilized in loaded alginate composites to study the influence of the initial dye concentration and pH on the biosorption capacity. The composite beads could be removed easily post-adsorption by using a magnetic filtration process. When the amount of composite beads was varied, the results of kinetic studies of malachite green adsorption by immobilized cells of P. sanguineus fitted well with the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that the magnetic composite beads effectively adsorbed the dye solution from wastewater and were environmentally friendly.

  13. Removal of direct dyes by coagulation: the performance of preformed polymeric aluminum species.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoyou; Li, Guohong; Wang, Dongsheng; Feng, Chenghong; Tang, Hongxiao

    2007-05-08

    Removal of three direct dyes (Direct Black 19, Direct Red 28, and Direct Blue 86) by coagulation with three different Al based coagulants was investigated. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the coagulation features of polymeric aluminum coagulants in treatment of dye-polluted waters and the emphasis was placed on the roles of preformed Al species, particularly Al(13). The performance of Al(13) in coagulation of dyes was observed through jar tests by comparing traditional Al salt, polyaluminum chloride (PACl), and purified Al(13). The results showed that under most cases Al(13) had significantly higher efficiency in removal of direct dyes than traditional Al salt and commercial PACl with the exception of Direct Red 28 removal under high pH range. The coagulation of direct dyes could be greatly affected by pH. Reducing pH was favorable for preformed Al species in a broad pH range. For traditional Al coagulant, efficient dye removal only occurred in a relatively narrow pH range of near 6.0. The outstanding coagulation behavior of Al(13) could be ascribed to its high charge neutralization ability, relative stability and potential self-assembly tendency.

  14. Malachite green "a cationic dye" and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raval, Nirav P.; Shah, Prapti U.; Shah, Nisha K.

    2016-12-01

    Adsorption can be efficiently employed for the removal of various toxic dyes from water and wastewater. In this article, the authors reviewed variety of adsorbents used by various researchers for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from an aqueous environment. The main motto of this review article was to assemble the scattered available information of adsorbents used for the removal of MG to enlighten their wide potential. In addition to this, various optimal experimental conditions (solution pH, equilibrium contact time, amount of adsorbent and temperature) as well as adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics data of different adsorbents towards MG were also analyzed and tabulated. Finally, it was concluded that the agricultural solid wastes and biosorbents such as biopolymers and biomass adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding adsorption capabilities for removal of MG dye.

  15. Dye removal from textile industrial effluents by adsorption on exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Carvallho, Marilda N; da Silva, Karolyne S; Sales, Deivson C S; Freire, Eleonora M P L; Sobrinho, Maurício A M; Ghislandi, Marcos G

    2016-01-01

    The concept of physical adsorption was applied for the removal of direct and reactive blue textile dyes from industrial effluents. Commercial graphite nanoplatelets were used as substrate, and the quality of the material was characterized by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies. Dye/graphite nanoplatelets water solutions were prepared varying their pH and initial dye concentration. Exceptionally high values (beyond 100 mg/L) for adsorptive capacity of graphite nanoplatelets could be achieved without complicated chemical modifications, and equilibrium and kinetic experiments were performed. Our findings were compared with the state of the art, and compared with theoretical models. Agreement between them was satisfactory, and allowed us to propose novel considerations describing the interactions of the dyes and the graphene planar structure. The work highlights the important role of these interactions, which can govern the mobility of the dye molecules and the amount of layers that can be stacked on the graphite nanoplatelets surface.

  16. Functional metal sulfides and selenides for the removal of hazardous dyes from Water.

    PubMed

    Shamraiz, Umair; Hussain, Raja Azadar; Badshah, Amin; Raza, Bareera; Saba, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Water contamination by organic dyes, is among the most alarming threats to healthy green environment. Complete removal of organic dyes is necessary to make water healthy for drinking, cooking, and for other useful aspects. Recently use of nanotechnology for removing organic dyes, became fruitful because of high surface to volume ratio and adsorption properties. Among these materials, metal chalcogenides emerge as new class of active materials for water purification. In this review article, we gathered information related to sulfide and selenide based nanomaterials which include metal sulfides and selenides, their binary composites, and use of different capping agents and dopants for enhancing photocatalysis. We have discussed in detail, about adsorption power of different dyes, relative percentage degradation, reaction time and concentration.

  17. Application of zeolite MCM-22 for basic dye removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Li, Huiting; Xu, Longya

    2006-03-01

    MCM-22 was employed as an effective adsorbent for removal of basic dyes including methylene blue, crystal violet, and rhodamine B from aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were investigated. The adsorption capacity of MCM-22 for three dyes follows an order of MB > CV approximately RB. Kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption follows the pseudo second-order kinetics and the adsorption is a two-step diffusion process with film diffusion dominating the process. The adsorption isotherm can be well fitted by both the Langmuir and the Freundlich models. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the adsorption of basic dyes on MCM-22 is an endothermic reaction.

  18. Removing Trypan blue dye using nano-Zn modified Luffa sponge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Cicek, Semra; Gungor, Azize Alayli

    2017-02-01

    This study has presented specific features that are examined to remove the Trypan blue dye from the waste using Luffa sponge (LS) and modified Luffa sponge with zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs). Peroxidase enzyme was obtained from Euphorbia amygdaloides plant and it was used with the green synthesis of Zn nanoparticles. Luffa sponge was used to be a support material for immobilized nanoparticles and it also used in remediation work. The obtained membrane forms, fibrous materials, (LS, ZnNPs-LS) were characterized with SEM and XRD. LS and ZnNPs-LS were employed as adsorbent to be used for the removal of Trypan blue dye from aqueous via batch studies. Measurements were made for the equilibrium, pH, temperature, concentration of dye with UV-visible spectrometer (590 nm; for Trypan blue dye). The optimum removal of Trypan blue dye was found at pH 7, the equilibrium was attained within 30 min. The thermodynamic properties ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 showed that adsorption of Trypan blue dye onto LS and ZnNPs-LS were spontaneous and endothermic. The equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models and the sorption process was described by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 45.32 and 47.3 mg/g for LS and LS-ZnNPs at 303 ± 1 °K, respectively.

  19. Removal of basic dyes from aqueous medium using a novel polymer: Jalshakti.

    PubMed

    Dhodapkar, Rita; Rao, N N; Pande, S P; Kaul, S N

    2006-05-01

    Studies were carried out to remove basic dyes such as safranine T, methylene blue, crystal violet, light green, brilliant milling violet and patent blue VS from their aqueous solutions using biodegradable polymeric absorbent material, viz., Jalshakti (JS). Results showed that 93% safranine T, 98% methylene blue and 84% crystal violet were adsorbed on JS relative to their initial concentration (10 mg L(-1)). The optimum pH was found to be 6.0+/-0.5 and smaller size of particle of JS resulted better adsorptive removal of the dyes. IR spectroscopic and potassium ion release studies revealed that basic dyes were selectively removed through adsorption-ion-exchange mechanism involving carboxylic groups and K+ ions of JS.

  20. Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by adsorption on coir pith activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Santhy, K; Selvapathy, P

    2006-07-01

    The removal efficiency of activated carbon prepared from coir pith towards three highly used reactive dyes in textile industry was investigated. Batch experiments showed that the adsorption of dyes increased with an increase in contact time and carbon dose. Maximum de-colorisation of all the dyes was observed at acidic pH. Adsorption of dyes was found to follow the Freundlich model. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption followed first order and the values of the Lagergren rate constants of the dyes were in the range of 1.77 x 10(-2)-2.69 x 10(-2)min(-1). The column experiments using granular form of the carbon (obtained by agglomeration with polyvinyl acetate) showed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in bed depth and decrease of flow rate. The bed depth service time (BDST) analysis carried out for the dyes indicated a linear relationship between bed depth and service time. The exhausted carbon could be completely regenerated and put to repeated use by elution with 1.0M NaOH. The coir pith activated carbon was not only effective in removal of colour but also significantly reduced COD levels of the textile wastewater.

  1. Zinc peroxide nanomaterial as an adsorbent for removal of Congo red dye from waste water.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Sneha; Uppal, Himani; Yadav, Mohit; Bahadur, Nupur; Singh, Nahar

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, various natural byproducts, advanced metal oxide composites and photocatalysts have been reported for removal of dyes from water. Although these materials are useful for select applications, they have some limitations such as use at fixed temperature, ultra violet (UV) light and the need for sophisticated experimental set up. These materials can remove dyes up to a certain extent but require long time. To overcome these limitations, a promising adsorbent zinc peroxide (ZnO2) nanomaterial has been developed for the removal of Congo red (CR) dye from contaminated water. ZnO2 is highly efficient even in the absence of sunlight to remove CR from contaminated water upto the permissible limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States- Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). The adsorbent has a specific property to adjust the pH of the test solution within 6.5-7.5 range irrespective of acidic or basic nature of water. The adsorption capacity of the material for CR dye was 208mgg(-1) within 10min at 2-10pH range. The proposed material could be useful for the industries involved in water purification. The removal of CR has been confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The adsorption data followed a second order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm.

  2. Role of the surface chemistry of activated carbons in dye removal from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua-lei; Zhen, Wen-juan; Zhu, Qian; Wu, Xiao-bin; Chang, Zhi-dong; Li, Wen-jun

    2015-07-01

    Commercial activated carbons were modified by a series of chemical or physical treatments using H2O2, NH3, and heating under N2 flow without notably changing their pore structures. The resultant carbons were characterized by N2 adsorption and Bohem titration and then used to remove Ponceau 4R, methyl orange and brilliant blue from aqueous solutions. Surface chemistry was found to play a significantly different role in removing these three compounds. The removal of anionic Ponceau 4R increases with increasing carbon surface basicity due to the predominant dispersive interaction mechanism. In contrast, surface chemistry has little effect on the removal of anionic methyl orange, which can be explained by two parallel mechanisms involving electrostatic and dispersive interactions due to the basic amine group in a dye molecule. The influence of surface chemistry on the removal of amphoteric brilliant blue dye can also be ignored due to a weak interaction between the carbons and dye molecules, which is resulted from strong cohesive energy from electrostatic forces inside amphoteric dye molecules.

  3. Preparation of surface modified zinc oxide nanoparticle with high capacity dye removal ability

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Najafi, Farhood

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ► Amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) was synthesized. ► Isotherm and kinetics data followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, respectively. ► Q{sub 0} of ZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 20, 12 and 15 mg/g, respectively. ► Q{sub 0} of AFZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 1250, 1000 and 1429 mg/g, respectively. ► AFZON was regenerated at pH 12. -- Abstract: In this paper, the surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) by amine functionalization was studied to prepare high capacity adsorbent. Dye removal ability of amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) and zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) was also investigated. The physical characteristics of AFZON were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Acid Blue 25 (AB25), Direct Red 23 (DR23) and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters such as dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption were studied. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) was 20 mg/g AB25, 12 mg/g DR23 and 15 mg/g DR31 for ZON and 1250 mg/g AB25, 1000 mg/g DR23 and 1429 mg/g DR31 for AFZON. It was found that dye adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% AB25, 86% for DR23 and 90% for DR31 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. Based on the data of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the AFZON being an adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

  4. Optimization of Biosorptive Removal of Dye from Aqueous System by Cone Shell of Calabrian Pine

    PubMed Central

    Deniz, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The biosorption performance of raw cone shell of Calabrian pine for C.I. Basic Red 46 as a model azo dye from aqueous system was optimized using Taguchi experimental design methodology. L9 (33) orthogonal array was used to optimize the dye biosorption by the pine cone shell. The selected factors and their levels were biosorbent particle size, dye concentration, and contact time. The predicted dye biosorption capacity for the pine cone shell from Taguchi design was obtained as 71.770 mg g−1 under optimized biosorption conditions. This experimental design provided reasonable predictive performance of dye biosorption by the biosorbent (R 2: 0.9961). Langmuir model fitted better to the biosorption equilibrium data than Freundlich model. This displayed the monolayer coverage of dye molecules on the biosorbent surface. Dubinin-Radushkevich model and the standard Gibbs free energy change proposed physical biosorption for predominant mechanism. The logistic function presented the best fit to the data of biosorption kinetics. The kinetic parameters reflecting biosorption performance were also evaluated. The optimization study revealed that the pine cone shell can be an effective and economically feasible biosorbent for the removal of dye. PMID:25405213

  5. Optimization of biosorptive removal of dye from aqueous system by cone shell of Calabrian pine.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The biosorption performance of raw cone shell of Calabrian pine for C.I. Basic Red 46 as a model azo dye from aqueous system was optimized using Taguchi experimental design methodology. L9 (3(3)) orthogonal array was used to optimize the dye biosorption by the pine cone shell. The selected factors and their levels were biosorbent particle size, dye concentration, and contact time. The predicted dye biosorption capacity for the pine cone shell from Taguchi design was obtained as 71.770 mg g(-1) under optimized biosorption conditions. This experimental design provided reasonable predictive performance of dye biosorption by the biosorbent (R (2): 0.9961). Langmuir model fitted better to the biosorption equilibrium data than Freundlich model. This displayed the monolayer coverage of dye molecules on the biosorbent surface. Dubinin-Radushkevich model and the standard Gibbs free energy change proposed physical biosorption for predominant mechanism. The logistic function presented the best fit to the data of biosorption kinetics. The kinetic parameters reflecting biosorption performance were also evaluated. The optimization study revealed that the pine cone shell can be an effective and economically feasible biosorbent for the removal of dye.

  6. pH-sensitive Itaconic acid based polymeric hydrogels for dye removal applications.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, M; Franklin, D S; Guhanathan, S

    2016-12-01

    A series of Itaconic Acid (IA) based pH-sensitive polymeric hydrogels were synthesized by condensation polymerization of Itaconic Acid (IA) with Ethylene Glycol (EG) in the presence of an acid medium resulted into pre-polymer. Further, pre-polymer were co-polymerized with Acrylic Acid (AA) through free radical polymerization using Potassium persulphate (KPS). The structural and surface morphological characterizations of the synthesized hydrogels were studied using FT-IR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) respectively. The swelling and swelling equilibrium were performed at varies pH (4.0-10.0). Further, the effects of IA, EG and AA on swelling properties have also been investigated. Thermal stability of synthesized hydrogels have been investigated by TGA, DTA and DSC. The synthesized hydrogels have shown good ability to uptake a Cationic dye. The Methylene blue has been chosen as a model cationic dye. The results of dye removal using IA hydrogels found to have excellent dye removal capacity. Such kind of IA based hydrogels may be recommended for eco-friendly environmental application. viz., removal of dyes and metal ions and sewage water treatment, purification of water etc.

  7. Removal of disperse dyes from textile wastewater using bio-sludge.

    PubMed

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Srisornsak, Parawee

    2007-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) did not show any significant adsorption ability on the disperse dyes, while resting (living) bio-sludge of a domestic wastewater treatment plant showed high adsorption abilities on both disperse dyes and organic matter. The dye adsorption ability of bio-sludge increased by approximately 30% through acclimatization with disperse dyes, and it decreased by autoclaving. The deteriorated bio-sludge could be reused after being washed with 0.1N NaOH solution. Disperse Red 60 was more easily adsorbed onto the bio-sludge than Disperse Blue 60. The Disperse Red 60, COD, and BOD5 adsorption capacities of acclimatized, resting bio-sludge were 40.0+/-0.1, 450+/-12, and 300+/-10mg/g of bio-sludge, respectively. The GAC-SBR system could be applied to treat textile wastewater (TWW) containing disperse dyes with high dye, BOD5, COD, and TKN removal efficiencies of 93.0+/-1.1%, 88.0+/-3.1%, 92.2+/-2.7% and 51.5+/-7.0%, respectively without any excess bio-sludge production under an organic loading of 0.18 kg BOD5/m3-d. Furthermore, the removal efficiencies increased with the addition of glucose into the system. The dye, BOD5, COD, and TKN removal efficiencies of the GAC-SBR system with TWW containing 0.89 g/L glucose were 94.6+/-0.7%, 94.4+/-0.6%, 94.4+/-0.8% and 59.3+/-8.5%, respectively, under an SRT of 67+/-0.4 days.

  8. Thermoresponsive cellulose ether and its flocculation behavior for organic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Ju, Benzhi; Zhang, Shufen; Hou, Linan

    2016-01-20

    A thermoresponsive polymer, 2-hydroxy-3-butoxypropyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (HBPEC), was prepared by grafting butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) onto hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC). The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and critical flocculation temperature (CFT) of HBPEC were varied by changing the molar substitution (MS) and salt concentrations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that HBPEC can assemble into micelles. Additionally, using Nile Red as a model dye, the performance of HBPEC for the removing Nile Red from aqueous solutions via cloud point extraction procedures was investigated in detail. The encapsulation behavior of dye in the aqueous solution of HBPEC was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscope. The experimental results indicated that 99.4% of dye was removed from the aqueous solutions, and the HBPEC was recycled and reused easily, Furthermore, the recycle efficiency (RE) and maximum loading capacity portrayed little loss with the number of cycles.

  9. Effect of silver and palladium on dye-removal characteristics of anatase-titania nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Harsha, N; Ranya, R; Shukla, S; Biju, S; Reddy, M L P; Warrier, K G K

    2011-03-01

    Anatase-titania nanotubes have been synthesized via hydrothermal and surface-modified by depositing silver and palladium via ultraviolet-reduction method. The pure and surface-modified anatase-titania nanotubes have been characterized using the transmission electron microscope, selected-area electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance, photoluminescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope to reveal their average size, structure, and surface-chemistry. The nanotubes have been utilized for the dye-removal application involving the surface-adsorption mechanism under the dark-condition and photocatalytic degradation mechanism under the ultraviolet-radiation exposure. The variation in the dye-concentration during the dye-adsorption and photocatalysis processes has been determined using the ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometer with methylene blue as a model catalytic dye-agent. It has been shown that silver-deposited anatase-titania nanotubes are more effective in enhancing the kinetics of the dye-removal via surface-adsorption and photocatalytic degradation mechanisms relative to the palladium-deposited anatase-titania nanotubes, which has been attributed to the differences in the surface-chemistry of anatase-titania nanotubes induced by the respective metal-deposition.

  10. Pulsed 532 nm laser wirestripping: Removal of dye-doped polyurethane insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannon, J.; Snyder, C.

    1994-07-01

    Removal of rhodamine 6G doped polyurethane insulation coated onto 50 μm diameter wire is shown to proceed efficiently and cleanly by irradiation with 532 nm Q-switched pulses from a Nd:YAG laser. The stripping action produced by this method is similar in quality to excimer laser wirestripping. Several experimental parameters were explored including fluence, pulse duration, dye concentration, and the number of incident pulses. Acceptable stripping conditions were obtained for a 3 5 s exposure at 10 Hz, using a dye concentration of 10% by weight, and 12 n pulses at 650 mJ/cm2. Nearly 0.5 μm/pulse is removed at this fluence, which exceeds the threshold fluence of ≈600 mJ/cm2 by only 50 mJ/cm2. The measured 532 nm absorption coefficient of the 10% dye-doped polyurethane was ≈4×104 cm-1. Lower fluences and/or dye concentrations produced inadequate stripping, while shorter duration pulses caused unacceptable melting of the thin gold layer which covered the copper core of the wire. Pulse-by-pulse photographs of the stripping action clearly show melting of the dye/polymer insulation, and thermal “rollback” of the insulation near the stripped end. Regardless, excellent edge definition is obtained by this method.

  11. Modified durian seed as adsorbent for the removal of methyl red dye from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mohd Azmier; Ahmad, Norhidayah; Bello, Olugbenga Solomon

    2015-12-01

    Mesoporous-activated carbon from durian seed (DSAC) was prepared; it was used as adsorbent for the removal of methyl red (MR) dye from aqueous solution. Textural and adsorptive characteristics of activated carbon prepared from raw durian seed (DS), char durian seed (char DS) and activated durian seed (DSAC) were studied using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, proximate analysis and adsorption of nitrogen techniques, respectively. Acidic condition favors the adsorption of MR dye molecule by electrostatic attraction. The maximum dye removal was 92.52 % at pH 6. Experimental data were analyzed by eight model equations: Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Radke-Prausnitz, Sips, Vieth-Sladek and Brouers-Sotolongo isotherms and it was found that the Freundlich isotherm model fitted the adsorption data most. Adsorption rate constants were determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion and Avrami kinetic model equations. The results clearly showed that the adsorption of MR dye onto DSAC followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Both intraparticle and film diffusion were involved in the adsorption process. The mean energy of adsorption calculated from D-R isotherm confirmed the involvement of physical adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters were obtained and it was found that the adsorption of MR dye onto DSAC was an endothermic and spontaneous process at the temperatures under investigation.

  12. COD and color removal of reactive orange 16 dye solution by electrochemical oxidation and adsorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Zuhailie; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2015-09-01

    Degradation of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) dye was investigated using electrochemical oxidation and adsorption (batch method) using mixture of coconut trunk charcoal-graphite-tin-polyvinyl chloride(PVC). In batch studies for adsorbents pellet and powder form of the charcoal mixture were used. RO16 was chosen as the model dye because of its high resistance towards conventional treatment methods. NaCl and RO16 concentration, treatment duration, weight of electrode and adsorbent and volume of solution were kept constant for both methods. The effectiveness of the treatments were compared and evaluated by percentage of RO16 decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and results indicated that electrochemical oxidation method ables to decolorized RO16 dye up to 98.5% after 20 minutes electrolysis time while pellet and powder in batch method only removed 17.1 and 33.6% of RO16 color respectively. However, only 45.6% of COD can be removed using electrochemical oxidation method while pellet and powder in batch method removed 47.8 and 49.6% of COD respectively. The decolorization and COD removal of RO16 was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer (by the changes of absorption spectrum intensity of azo chromophore (-N=N-) at λ=388 and 492.50 nm and Hach spectrophotometer respectively. FTIR was used to determine functional groups present in the coconut trunk charcoal.

  13. Potential of immobilized bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidases in the decolorization and removal of textile dyes from polluted wastewater and dyeing effluent.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Suhail; Khan, Amjad Ali; Husain, Qayyum

    2005-07-01

    Immobilized peroxidases from Momordica charantia were highly effective in decolorizing reactive textile dyes compared to its soluble counterpart. Dye solutions, 50-200 mg/l, were treated with soluble and immobilized bitter gourd peroxidases (specific activity of 99.0 EU per mg protein). The decolorization of dyes with soluble and immobilized enzyme was maximum in the range of pH 3.0-4.0. The effect of different temperatures on the dye decolorization was monitored and it was observed that all the dyes were maximally decolorized at 40 degrees C. In order to examine the operational stability of the immobilized preparation, the enzyme was repeatedly exploited for the decolorization of the dyes from fresh batch of dye solutions. Even after 10 cycles in each case the immobilized preparation retained nearly 50% of the initial enzyme activity. The immobilized enzyme exhibited more than 90% of the original activity while the soluble enzyme lost 33% of the initial activity when stored for 40 d at room temperature. Mixtures of three, four and eight dyes were prepared and treated with soluble and immobilized bitter gourd peroxidase. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with immobilized enzyme. Dyeing effluent collected from local dyers was treated with both types of enzyme preparations. Immobilized enzyme was capable of removing remarkably high concentration of color from the effluent. TOC content of soluble and immobilized enzyme treated individual dyes, mixture of dyes and dyeing effluent was determined and it was observed that higher TOC was removed after treatment with immobilized enzyme.

  14. Batch and bulk removal of hazardous dye, indigo carmine from wastewater through adsorption.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha

    2006-09-01

    An inexpensive adsorption method has been developed for the removal of indigo carmine, a highly toxic indigoid class of dye from wastewater. Waste materials--bottom ash, a power plant waste and de-oiled soya, an agricultural waste--have been used as adsorbents. Attempts have been made through batch and bulk removal of the dye and both the adsorbents have been found to exhibit good efficiency to adsorb indigo carmine. Under batch technique effect of temperature, pH, concentration, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc. have been observed. The dye uptake on to both the adsorbents is found to validate Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms models. Different thermodynamic parameters, like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy of the on-going adsorption process have also been evaluated. Batch technique has also been employed for the kinetic measurements and the adsorption follows a first order rate kinetics for both the adsorbents. The kinetic investigations also reveal for both the adsorbents film diffusion and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative in the lower and higher concentration ranges, respectively. Under the bulk removal, indigo carmine has been adsorbed through the column beds of bottom ash and de-oiled soya and more than 90% of the dye material has been recovered by eluting dilute NaOH solution through exhausted columns.

  15. Magnetic chitosan/clay beads: A magsorbent for the removal of cationic dye from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bée, Agnès; Obeid, Layaly; Mbolantenaina, Rakotomalala; Welschbillig, Mathias; Talbot, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    A magnetic composite material composed of magnetic nanoparticles and clay encapsulated in cross-linked chitosan beads was prepared, characterized and used as a magsorbent for the removal of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. The magnetic properties of these beads represent an advantage to recover them at the end of the depollution process. The optimal weight ratio R=clay:chitosan for the removal of MB in a large range of pH was determined. For beads without clay, the maximal adsorption capacity of MB occurs in the pH range [9-12], while for beads with clay, the pH range extends by increasing the amount of clay to reach [3-12] for R>0.5. Adsorption isotherms show that the adsorption capacity of magnetic beads is equal to 82 mg/g. Moreover, the kinetics of dye adsorption is relatively fast since 50% of the dye is removed in the first 13 min for an initial MB concentration equal to 100 mg/L. The estimation of the number of adsorption sites at a given pH shows that the main driving force for adsorption of MB in a large range of pH is the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged dye and the permanent negative charges of clay.

  16. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) microgel-based assemblies for organic dye removal from water.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Deepika; Serpe, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylic acid (pNIPAm-co-AAc) microgel assemblies (aggregates) were synthesized via polymerization of the cross-linker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) in the presence of microgels in solution. In this case, the microgels were entrapped in the polymerized cross-linker network. The aggregates were investigated for their ability to remove the organic, azo dye molecule 4-(2-hydroxy-1-napthylazo) benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (Orange II) from water at both room and elevated temperatures. These results were compared with unaggregated microgels that were previously reported (Parasuraman, D.; Serpe, M. J. ACS. Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2011, 3, 2732.). It was found that the removal efficiency increased at elevated temperature, most likely due to the thermoresponsive nature of the pNIPAm-based aggregates, which expel water of solvation and deswell at higher temperature and reswell when they are cooled back to room temperature. Furthermore, increasing the number of cycles the aggregates are heated and cooled enhanced the percent removal of the dye from water. We also evaluated the effect of increasing cross-linker concentration on the removal efficiency, where we found the removal efficiency to increase with increasing cross-linker concentration in the aggregates. The maximum removal efficiency reached by the microgel aggregates at elevated temperatures was calculated to be 73.1%. This enhanced uptake is due to the presence of larger internal volume between the microgels in the aggregates, which the individual microgels lack. Control studies reveal that the structure and hydrophobicity of the aggregates lead to the enhanced uptake efficiencies and is not due to the presence of BIS alone. We determined that aggregates leak 75.6% of the dye that was originally removed from solution. The removal of Orange II by the aggregates at room temperature was fit by a Langmuir sorption isotherm.

  17. Removal of methylene blue from dye effluent using ageratum conyzoide leaf powder (ACLP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman bin Mohamed; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Aminu, Nasiru; Salihi, Ibrahim Umar

    2015-07-01

    Methylene blue (MB), a common environmental pollutant discharged from dye effluents were removed from synthetic effluents in this study using ageratum conyzoide leaf powder. Effects of operating parameters such as pH, initial Methylene blue concentration, adsorbent weight and contact time were examined on methylene blue removal whereas stirring speed was constant at 100 rpm. Results show that low pH (3-4) had more Methylene blue removal than high pH. Methylene blue removal decreased when initial concentration was increased but increased when adsorbent weight was increased. Removal of Methylene blue by Ageratum conyzoide leaf powder was rapid and significantly above 80% in all initial concentrations examined. At optimum conditions of pH 3, 20 minutes contact time and adsorbent weight of 60 mg for Methylene blue initial concentration of 20 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 60 mg/L, Methylene blue removal of 84.7%, 83.9% and 81.2% were obtained respectively. Results suggest that Ageratum conyzoide leaf powder could be potential adsorbents for Methylene blue removal from dye effluents.

  18. Graphene oxide supported copper oxide nanoneedles: An efficient hybrid material for removal of toxic azo dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Rajendiran; Iyer, Sahithya S.; Ezhilan, Jayabal; Kumar, S. Senthil; Venkatesan, Rengarajan

    2016-09-01

    Herein, we report a simple, one step synthesis of hybrid copper oxide nanoneedles on graphene oxide sheets (GO-CuONNs) through sonochemical method. The present method affords a facile mean for controlling effective concentration of the active CuO nanoneedles on the graphene oxide sheets, and also offers the necessary stability to the resulting GO-CuONNs structure for adsorption transformations.Furthermore, this hybrid GO-CuONNs is successfully employed in the removal of a series of hazardous ionic organic dyes namely coomassie brilliant blue, methylene blue, congo red and amidoblack 10B. Through careful investigation of the material, we found that the synergetic effect between CuONNs and GO play a significant role in the adsorption of all the dyes studied. The prepared hybrid material contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic environment which is expected to enhance the electrostatic interaction between the adsorbent and the dye molecules, consequently favouring the adsorption process.

  19. Equilibrium and kinetics of color removal from dye solutions with bentonite and polyaluminum hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Kacha, S; Derriche, Z; Elmaleh, S

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater from the textile industry contains soluble dyes that are toxic and particularly difficult to remove. A promising low-cost treatment, however, is use of polyaluminum hydroxide associated with bentonite. At suitable conditions, this process is able to efficiently remove color from solutions containing mixtures of soluble acid azo dyes and produce easily settleable sludge. The removal mechanism, which is believed to involve adsorption or precipitation and weak pH variations, is not well understood. With the overall reaction being second order, two elementary first-order reactions could be assumed. The equilibrium removal is a decreasing function of the temperature. However, this effect is weak and decreases when the dye concentration increases. At usual values of concentration in textile wastewater, this effect can be neglected. The resulting solid compound is particularly resistant to mechanical stress. Moreover, color was significantly released at pH greater than 8. Sodium ions have no influence on the compound stability, which reinforces the assumption of the involvement of an adsorption process.

  20. Computation of adsorption parameters for the removal of dye from wastewater by microwave assisted sawdust: Theoretical and experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    S, Suganya; P, Senthil Kumar; A, Saravanan; P, Sundar Rajan; C, Ravikumar

    2017-03-01

    In this research, the microwave assistance has been employed for the preparation of novel material from agro/natural bio-waste i.e. sawdust, for the effective removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solution. The characterization of the newly prepared microwave assisted sawdust (MASD) material was performed by using FTIR, SEM and XRD analyses. In order to obtain the maximum removal of MB dye from wastewater, the adsorption experimental parameters such as initial dye concentration, contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dosage were optimized by trial and error approach. The obtained experimental results were applied to the different theoretical models to predict the system behaviour. The optimum conditions for the maximum removal MB dye from aqueous solution for an initial MB dye concentration of 25mg/L was calculated as: adsorbent dose of 3g/L, contact time of 90min, solution pH of 7.0 and at the temperature of 30°C. Freundlich and pseudo-second order models was best obeyed with the studied experimental data. Langmuir maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of MASD for MB dye removal was calculated as 58.14mg of MB dye/g of MASD. Adsorption diffusion model stated that the present adsorption system was controlled by intraparticle diffusion model. The obtained results proposed that, novel MASD was considered to be an effective and low-cost adsorbent material for the removal of dye from wastewater.

  1. Potential use of cotton plant wastes for the removal of Remazol Black B reactive dye.

    PubMed

    Tunç, Ozlem; Tanaci, Hacer; Aksu, Zümriye

    2009-04-15

    In this study, the potential use of cotton plant wastes - stalk (CS) and hull (CH) - as sorbents for the removal of Remazol Black B (RB5), a vinyl sulfone type reactive dye, was investigated. The results indicated that adsorption was strongly pH-dependent but slightly temperature-dependent for each sorbent-dye system. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of adsorption equilibrium and isotherm constants were evaluated at 25 degrees C. All models except the Freundlich model were applicable for the description of dye adsorption by both sorbents in the concentration range studied. According to the Langmuir model, CS and CH sorbents exhibited the highest RB5 dye uptake capacities of 35.7 and 50.9 mg g(-1), respectively, at an initial pH value of 1.0. Simple mass transfer and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of adsorption and potential rate-controlling steps. It was found that both external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion played an important role in the adsorption mechanisms of dye, and adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order type kinetic model for each sorbent. Using the Langmuir model parameters, thermodynamic constant DeltaG degrees was also evaluated for each sorption system.

  2. Roles of extracellular polymeric substances in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is known to mainly rely on the ability of phosphorus-accumulating organisms to take up, transform and store excess amount of phosphorus (P) inside the cells. However, recent studies have revealed considerable accumulation of P also in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of sludge, implying a non-negligible role of EPS in P removal by EBPR sludge. However, the contribution of EPS to P uptake and the forms of accumulated extracellular P vary substantially in different studies, and the underlying mechanism of P transformation and transportation in EPS remains poorly understood. This review provides a new recognition into the P removal process in EBPR system by incorporating the role of EPS. It overviews on the characteristics of P accumulation in EPS, explores the mechanism of P transformation and transportation in EBPR sludge and EPS, summarizes the main influential factors for the P-accumulation properties of EPS, and discusses the remaining knowledge gaps and needed future efforts that may lead to better understanding and use of such an EPS role for maximizing P recovery from wastewater.

  3. Gum karaya based hydrogel nanocomposites for the effective removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Hemant; Maity, Arjun; Ray, Suprakas Sinha

    2016-02-01

    Biodegradable hydrogel nanocomposites (HNC) of gum karaya (GK) grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) incorporated silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC NPs) were synthesized using the in situ graft copolymerization method and tested for the adsorption of cationic dyes from aqueous solution. The structure and morphology of the HNC were characterized using different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that the surface area and porosity of the hydrogel polymer significantly increased after nanocomposite formation with SiC NPs. The HNC was employed for the removal of cationic dyes, i.e., malachite green (MG) and rhodamine B (RhB) from the aqueous solution. The HNC was found to remove 91% (MG) and 86% (RhB) of dyes with a polymer dose of 0.5 and 0.6 g l-1 in neutral medium, respectively. The adsorption process was found to be highly pH dependent and followed the pseudo-second-order rate model. The adsorption isotherm data fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 757.57 and 497.51 mg g-1 for MG and RhB, respectively. Furthermore, the HNC was demonstrated as a versatile adsorbent for the removal of both cationic and anionic dyes from the simulated wastewater. The HNC showed excellent regeneration capacity and was successfully used for the three cycles of adsorption-desorption. In summary, the HNC has shown its potential as an environment friendly and efficient adsorbent for the adsorption of cationic dyes from contaminated water.

  4. The potential application of activated carbon from sewage sludge to organic dyes removal.

    PubMed

    Graham, N; Chen, X G; Jayaseelan, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research work was to study the potential application of activated carbon from sewage sludge to organic dye removal. Methylene blue and crystal violet were the two dyes investigated in the present study. Three activated carbons were produced from the exclusive sewage sludge (referred to as DS), the sludge with the additive of coconut husk (DC) and sludge with the additive of peanut shell (DP) respectively. They were characterized by their surface area and porosity and their surface chemistry structure. Adsorption studies were performed by the batch technique to obtain kinetic and equilibrium data. The results show that the three sludge-derived activated carbons had a developed porosity and marked content of surface functional groups. They exhibited a rapid three-stage adsorption process for both methylene blue and crystal violet. Their adsorption capacities for the two dyes were high, the carbon DP performed best in the adsorption whereas the carbon DC performed worst. It is therefore concluded that the activated carbons made from sewage sludge and its mixtures are promising for dye removal from aqueous streams.

  5. Adsorptive removal of anionic dyes by modified nanoporous silica SBA-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbia, Mansoor; Hariri, Saba Asl; Ashrafizadeh, S. N.

    2010-03-01

    Batch sorption experiments were carried out to remove dyes, methyl orange (MO), orange G (OG) and brilliant red X-3B (X-3B), from their aqueous solutions using a mesoporous silica SBA-3 as an adsorbent. The effect of surfactant template in SBA-3 on the removal of OG, MO and X-3B was investigated. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of contact time, initial concentration, pH, and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption performance. The adsorption results of anionic dyes on the uncalcined SBA-3 (noted as SBA-3) were compared with those of the calcined SBA-3 (noted as C-SBA-3). The uncalcined SBA-3 adsorbent has a large adsorption capacity and a strong affinity for the anionic dyes. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were employed to model the experimental results, from which the Freundlich isotherm exhibited the most appropriate to predict the same. Freundlich isotherm exhibited the most appropriate to predict the experimental results. The kinetic data were also analyzed through pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model well depicted the kinetics of dyes adsorption on mesoporous SBA-3.

  6. Assessment of the banana pseudostem as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of reactive blue 5G dye.

    PubMed

    Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Geraldi, Claudinéia A Q; Manenti, Diego R; Trigueros, Daniela E G; Oliveira, Ana Paula de; Borba, Carlos E; Kroumov, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the removal of reactive blue 5G (RB5G) dye using the drying biomass of banana pseudostem (BPS) was investigated. The characterization of BPS particles was performed. Improvement in the RB5G dye removal performance at the following sorption conditions was evidenced: pH 1, 30°C sorption temperature and 40 rpm shaking, regardless of the particle size range. Kinetic RB5G dye sorption data obtained at better conditions fit well in an Elovich model. A combined Langmuir-BET isotherm model provides a good representation of the RB5G dye equilibrium sorption data, which shows the evidence of a physical sorption process on the BPS surface. Based on the results, the removal of RB5G dye molecules by BPS is based on a physical sorption process.

  7. Sawdust Derivative for Environmental Application: Chemistry, Functionalization and Removal of textile dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Thais F; Bezerra, Cícero W B; Silva, Domingos S A; Silva, Edson C DA; Vieira, Adriana P; Airoldi, Claudio; Melo, Júlio C P DE; Silva, Hildo A S; Santana, Sirlane A A

    2016-09-01

    The adsorption of Violet Remazol 5R (VR 5) on wood sawdust modified with succinic anhydride (SSA) as a function of contact time, pH, and initial dye concentrations was investigated using a batch technique under ambient conditions. The SSA obtained was confirmed by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and 13C NMR, and degrees of substitution (DS) were calculated. A study on the effect of the pH on the adsorption of VR 5 showed that the optimum pH was 2.0. The interactions were assayed with respect to the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models, and were found to follow closely the pseudo-second-order. The isotherm was adjusted to the Langmuir, the Freundlich and the Temkin sorption models. SSA is a promising material for the removal of dye textile from aqueous solutions, and under conditions studied the removal percentage achieved was 51.7%.

  8. Adsorption and photocatalyst assisted dye removal and bactericidal performance of ZnO/chitosan coating layer.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Tahseen; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2015-11-01

    Pure chitosan and its zinc oxide composite coatings were applied on microfibriller cellulose mat (MCM) to prepare chitosan coated microfibriller cellulose (Chi-MCM) and zinc oxide/chitosan coated microfibriller cellulose (ZnO/Chi-MCM), respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were used to characterize the samples in this study. SEM images showed that dense chitosan solutions (3 and 5wt%) made a thick layer over MCM while diluted solution (1wt%) resulted in wrapping of the chitosan over the individual microfibers and avoided the thick layer formation. Removal of an azo dye methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solution using adsorption and combined adsorption with photodegradation activity of the Chi-MCM and ZnO/Chi-MCM were evaluated, respectively. Compared in the absence of UV light, ZnO/Chi-MCM showed faster and higher degree of dye removal by photocatalytic dissociation and adsorption under ultraviolet irradiation. Various parameters including pH of MO solution and its initial concentration were tested for the removal of MO dye. ZnO/Chi-MCM showed maximum adsorption capacity of 42.8mg/g. Antibacterial activities were also evaluated where ZnO/Chi-MCM displayed a remarkable performance inhibiting the Escherichia coli growth.

  9. Enhanced azo dye removal through anode biofilm acclimation to toxicity in single-chamber biocatalyzed electrolysis system.

    PubMed

    Wang, You-Zhao; Wang, Ai-Jie; Liu, Wen-Zong; Sun, Qian

    2013-08-01

    Azo dye is widely used in printing and dyeing process as one of refractory wastewaters for its high chroma, stable chemical property and toxicity for aquatic organism. Biocatalyzed electrolysis system (BES) is a new developed technology to degrade organic waste in bioanode and recover recalcitrant contaminants in cathode with effective decoloration. The ion exchange membrane (IEM) separate anode and cathode for biofilm formation protection. Azo removal efficiency was up to 60.8%, but decreased to 20.5% when IEM was removed. However, expensive ion exchange membrane (IEM) not suitable for further practical application, bioelectrochemical activity of bioanode is sensitive to the toxicity of azo dye. A gradient increase of azo dye concentration was used to acclimate anode biofilm to pollutant toxicity. The azo removal efficiency can be enhanced to 73.3% in 10h reaction period after acclimation. The highest removal efficiency reached 83.7% and removal rates were increased to 8.37 from 3.04 g/h/L of dual-chamber. That indicated the feasibility for azo dye removal by single-chamber BES. The IEM cancellation not only decreased the internal resistance, but increased the current density and azo dye removal.

  10. Graphene oxide caged in cellulose microbeads for removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Yu, Hongwen; Yang, Hongjun; Wan, Yuchun; Hu, Hong; Zhai, Zhuang; Qin, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    A simple sol-gel method using non-toxic and cost-effective precursors has been developed to prepare graphene oxide (GO)/cellulose bead (GOCB) composites for removal of dye pollutants. Taking advantage of the combined benefits of GO and cellulose, the prepared GOCB composites exhibit excellent removal efficiency towards malachite green (>96%) and can be reused for over 5 times through simple filtration method. The high-decontamination performance of the GOCB system is strongly dependent on encapsulation amount of GO, temperature and pH value. In addition, the adsorption behavior of this new adsorbent fits well with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  11. Carboxymethyl cellulose-g-poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) hydrogel as adsorbent for dye removal.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed; Shukry, Nadia; El-Sakhawy, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    A novel adsorbent was prepared via crosslinking graft copolymerization of 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) backbone. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and potassium persulphate were used as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. CMC-g-PDMAEMA hydrogel was used to remove methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were found to follow Pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir model, respectively. The high maximum adsorption capacity (1825 mg/g) implied that CMC-g-PDMAEMA can be used as promising adsorbent for the synthetic dyes removal from wastewater.

  12. Effect of isosmotic removal of extracellular Na+ on cell volume and membrane potential in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rasgado, C; Summers, J C; McGruder, K D; DeSantiago, J; Rasgado-Flores, H

    1994-09-01

    Isosmotic removal of extracellular Na+ (Nao) is a frequently performed manipulation. With the use of isolated voltage-clamped barnacle muscle cells, the effect of this manipulation on isosmotic cell volume was studied. Replacement of Nao by tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane produced membrane depolarization (approximately 20 mV) and cell volume loss (approximately 14%). The membrane depolarization was verapamil insensitive but depended on extracellular Ca2+ (Cao) and was probably due to activation of intracellular Ca2+ (Cai)-dependent nonselective cation channels. The cell volume loss did not require membrane depolarization but depended on Cao. This was probably due to an increase in Cai, mediated by activation of Ca2+ influx via Na+/Ca2+ exchange. Nao replacement by Li+ also promoted membrane depolarization (approximately 20 mV) and cell volume loss (20%). Both effects were reduced (approximately 73%) but were not abolished by Cao removal. Under this condition, the remaining membrane depolarization was probably due to a higher membrane permeability of Li+ over Na+. The remaining cell volume loss was due to membrane depolarization, which probably induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores.

  13. Enhanced cognitive flexibility in reversal learning induced by removal of the extracellular matrix in auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Happel, Max F K; Niekisch, Hartmut; Castiblanco Rivera, Laura L; Ohl, Frank W; Deliano, Matthias; Frischknecht, Renato

    2014-02-18

    During brain maturation, the occurrence of the extracellular matrix (ECM) terminates juvenile plasticity by mediating structural stability. Interestingly, enzymatic removal of the ECM restores juvenile forms of plasticity, as for instance demonstrated by topographical reconnectivity in sensory pathways. However, to which degree the mature ECM is a compromise between stability and flexibility in the adult brain impacting synaptic plasticity as a fundamental basis for learning, lifelong memory formation, and higher cognitive functions is largely unknown. In this study, we removed the ECM in the auditory cortex of adult Mongolian gerbils during specific phases of cortex-dependent auditory relearning, which was induced by the contingency reversal of a frequency-modulated tone discrimination, a task requiring high behavioral flexibility. We found that ECM removal promoted a significant increase in relearning performance, without erasing already established-that is, learned-capacities when continuing discrimination training. The cognitive flexibility required for reversal learning of previously acquired behavioral habits, commonly understood to mainly rely on frontostriatal circuits, was enhanced by promoting synaptic plasticity via ECM removal within the sensory cortex. Our findings further suggest experimental modulation of the cortical ECM as a tool to open short-term windows of enhanced activity-dependent reorganization allowing for guided neuroplasticity.

  14. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles for the efficient removal (degradation) of dye from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-12-01

    The present work reports the utilization of a common household waste material (fish scales of Labeo rohita) for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles. The method so developed was found to be green, environment-friendly, and economic. The fish scale extracts were acting as a stabilizing and reducing agents. This method avoids the use of external reducing and stabilizing agents, templates, and solvents. The compositional abundance of gelatin may be envisaged for the effective reductive as well as stabilizing potency. The mechanisms for the formation of nanoparticles have also been presented. The synthesized copper nanoparticles formed were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of nanoparticles in the range of 25-37 nm. The copper nanoparticles showed characteristic Bragg's reflection planes of fcc which was supported by both selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction pattern and showed surface plasmon resonance at 580 nm. Moreover, the energy dispersive spectroscopy pattern also revealed the presence of only elemental copper in the copper nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles were used for the remediation of a carcinogenic and noxious textile dye, Methylene blue, from aqueous solution. Approximately, 96 % degradation of Methylene blue dye was observed within 135 min using copper nanoparticles. The probable mechanism for the degradation of the dye has been presented, and the degraded intermediates have been identified using the liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. The high efficiency of nanoparticles as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dye from industrial effluents contributing indirectly to environmental cleanup process.

  15. Response surface optimization for efficient dye removal by isolated strain Pseudomonas sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Shanmugam; Perumalsamy, Muthiah; Prabhuy, Harinarayan Janardhana; AhmedBasha, Chiya; Anantharaman, Narayan

    2012-09-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) involving the central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize three important process variables for the decolourization of synthetic dye solutions containing Remazol Turquoise Blue (RTB) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) with isolated bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. The interaction between three variables i.e. Initial concentration of dye, carbon source and nitrogen source were studied and modeled. According to the Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results the predicted results were found to be in good agreement with experimental results ( R 2: 0.9726; Adj R 2: 0.9480 for RTB and R 2: 0.9789; Adj R 2: 0.9750 for RB5) which indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data from the second order polynomial regression model. Mathematical models were developed by the proposed system, for each process variable showed the effect of each factor and their interactions on biodecolourization process. The optimum concentrations of Dye, Carbon source, and Nitrogen source were found to be 20 mgL-1, 1.5 g/L and 1.5 g/L, respectively for RTB and RB5 to obtain maximum dye removing capacity. Predicted values were validated with experimental results, which indicated appropriateness of the employed model and the success of RSM.

  16. Response surface optimization for efficient dye removal by isolated strain Pseudomonas sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, Shanmugam; Perumalsamy, Muthiah; Prabhuy, Harinarayan; AhmedBasha, Chiya; Anantharaman, Narayan

    2012-09-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) involving the central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize three important process variables for the decolourization of synthetic dye solutions containing Remazol Turquoise Blue (RTB) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) with isolated bacterial strain Pseudomonas sp. The interaction between three variables i.e. Initial concentration of dye, carbon source and nitrogen source were studied and modeled. According to the Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results the predicted results were found to be in good agreement with experimental results (R 2: 0.9726; Adj R 2: 0.9480 for RTB and R 2: 0.9789; Adj R 2: 0.9750 for RB5) which indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data from the second order polynomial regression model. Mathematical models were developed by the proposed system, for each process variable showed the effect of each factor and their interactions on biodecolourization process. The optimum concentrations of Dye, Carbon source, and Nitrogen source were found to be 20 mgL-1, 1.5 g/L and 1.5 g/L, respectively for RTB and RB5 to obtain maximum dye removing capacity. Predicted values were validated with experimental results, which indicated appropriateness of the employed model and the success of RSM.

  17. Optimization of process variables by response surface methodology for malachite green dye removal using lime peel activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mohd Azmier; Afandi, Nur Syahidah; Bello, Olugbenga Solomon

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the adsorptive removal of malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solutions using chemically modified lime-peel-based activated carbon (LPAC). The adsorbent prepared was characterized using FTIR, SEM, Proximate analysis and BET techniques, respectively. Central composite design (CCD) in response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the adsorption process. The effects of three variables: activation temperature, activation time and chemical impregnation ratio (IR) using KOH and their effects on percentage of dye removal and LPAC yield were investigated. Based on CCD design, quadratic models and two factor interactions (2FI) were developed correlating the adsorption variables to the two responses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to judge the adequacy of the model. The optimum conditions of MG dye removal using LPAC are: activation temperature (796 °C), activation time (1.0 h) and impregnation ratio (2.6), respectively. The percentage of MG dye removal obtained was 94.68 % resulting in 17.88 % LPAC yield. The percentage of error between predicted and experimental results for the removal of MG dye is 0.4 %. Model prediction was in good agreement with experimental results and LPAC was found to be effective in removing MG dye from aqueous solution.

  18. Effective removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution using modified xanthan gum/silica hybrid nanocomposite as adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Panda, A B; Pal, Sagar

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of XG-g-PAM/SiO2 nanocomposite towards its potential application as high performance adsorbent for removal of Congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The surface area, average pore size and total pore volume of the developed nanocomposite has been determined. The efficiency of CR dye adsorption depends on various factors like pH, temperature of the solution, equilibrium time of adsorption, agitation speed, initial concentration of dye and adsorbent dosage. It has been observed that the nanocomposite is having excellent CR dye adsorption capacity (Q0=209.205 mg g(-1)), which is considerably high. The dye adsorption process is controlled by pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The adsorption equilibrium data correlates well with Langmuir isotherm. Desorption study indicates the efficient regeneration ability of the dye loaded nanocomposite.

  19. Room temperature synthesis of a Zn(II) metal-organic coordination polymer for dye removal

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, Alireza; Gharib, Maniya; Najafi, Mahnaz; Janczak, Jan

    2016-03-15

    A new one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymer, [Zn(4,4′-bpy)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}](ADC)·4H{sub 2}O (1) (4,4′-bpy=4,4′-bipyridine and H{sub 2}ADC=acetylenedicarboxylic acid), was synthesized at room temperature. The crystal structure of the coordination polymer was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 was also characterized by FT-IR, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic activity of 1 was evaluated in the color removal of Bismarck brown as a representative of dye pollutant in water under mild conditions. Coordination polymer 1 exhibited good catalytic activity and stability in the decolorization of Bismarck brown and could be easily recovered and reused for at least three cycles. - Graphical abstract: A new 1D coordination polymer as catalyst for the degradation of Bismarck brown aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A 1D coordination polymer has been synthesized at room temperature. • The prepared compound was utilized for color removal of Bismarck brown dye. • Good catalytic activity and stability in the dye decolorization has been found.

  20. A potential low cost adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Md. Tamez; Rahman, Md. Arifur; Rukanuzzaman, Md.; Islam, Md. Akhtarul

    2017-03-01

    This study was aimed at using mango leaf powder (MLP) as a potential adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the adsorbent was carried out with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The pH at the point of zero charge of the adsorbent was determined by titration method and was found a value to be 5.6 ± 0.2. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the influence of various experimental parameters like initial solution pH, contact time, initial concentration of dye and adsorbent dosage on the removal of MB. An adsorption-desorption study was carried out resulting the mechanism of adsorption was carried out by electrostatic force of attraction. The adsorption equilibrium time required for the adsorption of MB on MLP was almost 2 h and 85 ± 5% of the total amount of dye uptake was found to occur in the first rapid phase (30 min). The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used for modeling the adsorption equilibrium. The experimental equilibrium data could be well interpreted by Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity of 156 mg/g. To state the sorption kinetics, the fits of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were investigated. It was obtained that the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. The above findings suggest that MLP can be effectively used for decontamination of dye containing wastewater.

  1. Hydrothermally modified fly ash for heavy metals and dyes removal in advanced wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visa, Maria; Chelaru, Andreea-Maria

    2014-06-01

    Fly ash resulted from coal burning is a waste that can be used in wastewater treatment for removal of dyes and heavy metals by adsorption. Class "F" fly ash (FA), collected from the Central Heat and Power (CHP) Plant Brasov (Romania), with oxides composition SiO2/Al2O3 over 2.4 was used for obtaining a new substrate with good adsorption capacity for dyes and heavy metals from wastewater. A new material was obtained from modified fly ash with NaOH and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) a cationic surfactant. Contact time, optimum amount of substrate and the pH corresponding to 50 mL solution of pollutants were the parameters optimized for obtaining the maximum efficiency in the adsorption process. The optimized adsorption parameters were further used in thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the adsorption processes. The adsorption kinetic mechanisms, and the substrate capacities are further discussed correlated with the surface structure (XRD), composition (EDS, FTIR), and morphology (SEM, AFM). The results indicate that the novel nano-substrate composite with fly ash modified can be used as an efficient and low cost adsorbent for simultaneous removal of dyes and heavy metals, the resulted water respects the discharge regulations.

  2. Integration of photocatalysis and biological treatment for azo dye removal--application to AR183.

    PubMed

    Chebli, Derradji; Fourcade, Florence; Brosillon, Stephan; Nacef, Saci; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2011-04-01

    The feasibility of coupling photocatalysis with biological treatment to treat effluents containing azo dyes was examined in this work. With this aim, the degradation of Acid Red 183 was investigated. The very low biodegradability of AR183 was confirmed beforehand by measuring the biological oxygen demand (BOD5). Photocatalysis experiments were carried out in a closed-loop step photoreactor. The reactor walls were covered by TiO2 catalyst coated on non-woven paper, and the effluent flowed over the photocatalyst as a thin falling film. The removal of the dye was 82.7% after 4 h, and a quasi-complete decolorization (98.5%) was obtained for 10 h of irradiation (initial concentration 100 mg L(-1)). The decrease in concentration followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, with a constant k of 0.47 h(-1). Mineralization and oxidation yields were 80% and 75%, respectively, after 10 h of pretreatment. Therefore, even if target compound oxidation occurs (COD removal), indicating a modification to the chemical structure, the concomitant high mineralization was not in favour of subsequent microbial growth. The BOD5 measurement confirmed the non-biodegradability of the irradiated solution, which remained toxic since the EC50 decreased from 35 to 3 mg L(-1). The proposed integrated process appeared, therefore, to be not relevant for the treatment of AR183. However, this result should be confirmed for other azo dyes.

  3. Removal of methylene blue dye from water by a spent bleaching earth biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Belhaine, Ali; Ghezzar, Mouffok Redouane; Abdelmalek, Fatiha; Tayebi, Kamel; Ghomari, Abdelhamid; Addou, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    This work is about the valorization of spent bleaching earth (SBE) at low cost from the AFIA oil refinery in Algeria's western region. The biowaste has been burned to eliminate the oil traces, then it has been valorized in two ways: (i) chemically, using phosphoric acid to obtain SBEC and (ii) thermally at 750 °C to create SBEH. The obtained materials were used for the first time as biosorbents in the wastewater treatment field. The three biomaterials show very interesting adsorption properties, with specific surfaces of 194.2, 784.6 and 888.5 m(2) g(-1) for SBE, SBEC and SBEH, respectively. The analysis has revealed that the obtained materials are alumino-silicates. The three biowastes have been used to remove methylene blue dye from water. The dye was totally eliminated by a physisorption mechanism in the presence of 1 g L(-1) of each biowaste after 8, 10, 20 min of contact time. The highest correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.99) was related to the Langmuir isotherm, indicating a good fit with this model, and explaining the biosorption as a monolayer process. According to this model, the adsorption capacities were 123.3, 185.2 and 188.7 mg g(-1) for SBE, SBEH and SBEC, respectively. This study shows that SBE can be used as an alternative to commercial adsorbents for dye removal from water.

  4. Low-cost adsorbents from bio-waste for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Manoj Kumar Reddy, P; Mahammadunnisa, Sk; Ramaraju, B; Sreedhar, B; Subrahmanyam, Ch

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) were developed from bio-waste materials like rice husk and peanut shell (PS) by various physicochemical activation methods. PS char digested in nitric acid followed by treatment at 673 K resulted in high surface area up to ∼585 m(2)/g. The novelty of the present study is the identification of oxygen functional groups formed on the surface of activated carbons by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quantification by using temperature programmed decomposition (TPD). Typical TPD data indicated that each activation method may lead to varying amounts of acidic and basic functional groups on the surface of the adsorbent, which may be a crucial factor in determining the adsorption capacity. It was shown that ACs developed during the present study are good adsorbents, especially for the removal of a model textile dye methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. As MB is a basic dye, H(2)O(2)-treated rice husk showed the best adsorption capacity, which is in agreement with the acidic groups present on the surface. Removal of the dye followed Langmuir isotherm model, whereas MB adsorption on ACs followed pseudo-second-order kinetics.

  5. Experimental and kinetic studies for phycoremediation and dye removal by Chlorella pyrenoidosa from textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Vinayak V; Kothari, Richa; Chopra, A K; Singh, D P

    2015-11-01

    Potential of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was experimentally investigated for phycoremediation and dye removal from textile wastewater (TWW) in batch cultures. Growth of alga was observed at various concentration of textile wastewater (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and was found in a range of 8.1-14 μg ml(-1) day(-1). Growth study revealed that alga potentially grows up to 75% concentrated textile wastewater and reduces phosphate, nitrate and BOD by 87%, 82% and 63% respectively. Methylene blue dye (MB) removal was also observed by using dry and wet algal biomass harvested after phycoremediation. Adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and kinetic models (pseudo first and second order) were applied on adsorption process. Dry algal biomass (DAB) was found more efficient biosorbent with large surface area and showed high binding affinity for MB dye in compare to wet algal biomass (WAB). The RL value for both biosorbent showed feasible adsorption process as the obtained value was between 0 and 1. Pseudo second order kinetic model with high degree of correlation coefficient and low sum of error squares (SSE %) value was found more suitable for representation of adsorption process in case of both biosorbents, however pseudo first order also showed high degree of correlation for both biosorbents.

  6. Textile dye removal from aqueous solutions by malt bagasse: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Klaiani B; Chaves, Eduardo S; Sanchez, Jefferson D S; Watanabe, Erica R L R; Pietrobelli, Juliana M T A; Lenzi, Giane G

    2016-02-01

    The biosorption of orange solimax TGL 182% (OS-TGL) textile dye onto new and low cost biossorbent (malt bagasse) in aqueous solutions was investigated. The malt bagasse was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area (BET method).Batch biosorption experiments were conducted in order to determine the following parameters: particles size, pH, agitation speed, temperature, contact time, biomass dosage, influence of the ionic strength and, finally, the influence of other textile dye on the OS-TGL biosorption. The optimum conditions for OS-TGL removal were obtained at pH 1.5, agitation speed of 150rpm, contact time of 180min and biomass dosage 2, 8gL(-1). The results show that the kinetics of biosorption followed a pseudo-second-order model and by increasing the temperature from 293 up to 313K, the biosorption capacity was improved. The Langmuir model showed better fit and the estimated biosorption capacity was 23.2mgg(-1). The negative values of Gibbs free energy, ΔG°, and positive value of enthalpy, ΔH°, confirm the spontaneous nature and endothermic character of the biosorption process. The results of the ionic strength effect indicated that the biosorption process under study had a strong tolerance in high salt concentrations. The removal capacity (>95%) was not affected with the presence of other textile dyes.

  7. Removal of Disperse Red dye by bamboo-based activated carbon: optimisation, kinetics and equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianggui

    2013-07-01

    This research involved the use of response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate the adsorption of Disperse Red 167 dye onto the bamboo-based activated carbon activated with H3PO4 (PBAC) in a batch process. F400, a commercially available activated carbon, was used in parallel for comparison. Analysis of variance showed that input variables such as the contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and the interaction between the temperature and the contact time had a significant effect on the dye removal for both adsorbents. RSM results show that the optimal contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage for both adsorbents were found to be 15.4 h, 50 °C, 50.0 mg L(-1) and 12.0 g L(-1), respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the removal efficiencies reached 90.23% and 92.13% for PBAC and F400, respectively, with a desirability of 0.937. The validation of the experimental results confirmed the prediction of the models derived from RSM. The adsorption followed a nonlinear pseudo-first-order model and agreed well with the Freundlich and Temkin isotherm as judged by the levels of the AICc and the Akaike weight. Furthermore, the thermodynamics analysis indicated that, for both adsorbents, the adsorption was a physical process that was spontaneous, entropy-increasing and endothermic.

  8. PES mixed matrix nanofiltration membrane embedded with polymer wrapped MWCNT: Fabrication and performance optimization in dye removal by RSM.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi, Negin; Madaeni, Sayed S; Daraei, Parisa; Rajabi, Hamid; Shojaeimehr, Tahereh; Rahimpour, Farshad; Shirvani, Bita

    2015-11-15

    MWCNTs were wrapped by poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), and different amounts of raw and polymer wrapped MWCNTs were implemented to fabricate PES mixed matrix membranes by phase inversion method. Success of wrapping was probed by FTIR spectroscopy, and prepared membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, porosity, and water contact angle measurements. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the permeate flux and dye removal efficiency of membranes with three variables of concentration, pH of dye solution, and membrane composition. A response surface (RS) with a D-optimal design was defined to build the mathematical model, minimize the number of experiments, and investigate the effect of parameters on the response. Adequacy of the obtained model was confirmed by means of variance analysis and additional experiments. Based on observed and predicted results, wrapping CNTs by PSS improved permeation flux and dye removal efficiency of MMMs. Validity of model was verified according to the good agreement between predicted and experimental results. Membrane mixed with 0.1 wt.% polymer wrapped MWCNTs offered the highest permeation flux as well as dye removal efficiency. According to the model response, in order to achieve a higher dye removal, an acidic pH and a moderate dye solution concentration are recommended. Additionally, basic solution pH (9.0) and a dilute dye solution are suggested to reach a higher permeation flux.

  9. Optimisation of Reactive Black 5 dye removal by electrocoagulation process using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Mook, W T; Aroua, M K; Szlachta, M; Lee, C S

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a regression model obtained from response surface methodology (RSM) was proposed for the electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of textile wastewater. The Reactive Black 5 dye (RB5) was used as a model dye to evaluate the performance of the model design. The effect of initial solution pH, applied current and treatment time on RB5 removal was investigated. The total number of experiments designed by RSM amounted to 27 runs, including three repeated experimental runs at the central point. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by the F-test, coefficient of determination (R(2)), adjusted R(2) and standard deviation. The optimum conditions for RB5 removal were as follows: initial pH of 6.63, current of 0.075 A, electrolyte dose of 0.11 g/L and EC time of 50.3 min. The predicted RB5 removal was 83.3% and the percentage error between experimental and predicted results was only 3-5%. The obtained data confirm that the proposed model can be used for accurate prediction of RB5 removal. The value of the zeta potential increased with treatment time, and the X-ray diffraction pattern shows that iron complexes were found in the sludge.

  10. Effects of compound bioflocculant on coagulation performance and floc properties for dye removal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Bo, Xiaowen; Zhao, Yanxia; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Yan; Sun, Shenglei; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian

    2014-08-01

    A series of jar tests was conducted to investigate the coagulation performance of using compound bioflocculant (CBF) as a coagulant aid with aluminum sulfate (AS) and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) in synthetic dyeing wastewater treatment. Floc size, growth, breakage, re-growth and sedimentation natural were investigated by PDA2000. The results showed that the corresponding dual-coagulants of AS and PAC enhanced the color removal efficiency, especially at low aluminum dosage. Results also indicated that the floc generated by aluminum salts and CBF had larger size and higher growth rate. In addition, for both AS and PAC the floc recoverability was improved by addition of CBF. The adsorption and bridging effect of CBF performed a positive role in dye wastewater treatment.

  11. Magnetite decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes for removal of toxic dyes from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkez, Özge; Bayazit, Şahika Sena

    2014-06-01

    The removal of malachite green (MG) and rhodamine B (RB) from aqueous solutions was studied by batch adsorption technique using Fe3O4/MWCNT. Fe3O4/MWCNT adsorbent was synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA. 94 % MG removal and 98 % RB removal were achieved in 80 min using 10 mg adsorbent, at pH 6 and 298 K. The effects of adsorbent amount, pH, initial dye concentration, contact time, and temperature were investigated. Equilibrium data were well fitted by Langmuir adsorption model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. MG adsorption on Fe3O4/MWCNT is exothermic and RB adsorption is endothermic in nature.

  12. Removal of the hazardous dye rhodamine B through photocatalytic and adsorption treatments.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajeev; Mathur, Megha; Sikarwar, Shalini; Mittal, Alok

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports on photocatalytic and adsorptive treatment of a hazardous xanthene dye, Rohdamine B, in wastewater. The photocatalytic degradation was carried out in the presence of the catalyst TiO(2) and the effects of pH, concentration of the dye, amount of TiO(2), temperature and electron acceptor H(2)O(2) on the degradation process were observed. It was found that photocatalytic degradation by TiO(2) is an effective, economical and faster mode of removing Rohdamine B from aqueous solutions. Attempts were also made to utilize activated carbon and rice husk as potential adsorbents to remove Rhodamine B from wastewater. The adsorption studies were carried out at 40, 50 and 60 degrees C, and the effects of pH, temperature, amount of adsorbents, concentration of adsorbate, etc., on the adsorption were measured. On the basis of adsorption data the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were also confirmed. The adsorption isotherm constants thus obtained were employed to calculate thermodynamic parameters like Gibb's free energy, change in enthalpy and entropy. In order to observe the quality of wastewater COD measurements were also carried out before and after the treatments. A significant decrease in the COD values was observed, which clearly indicates that both photocatalytic and adsorption methods offer good potential to remove Rhodamine B from industrial effluents.

  13. Removal of dye by carboxymethyl cellulose, acrylamide and graphene oxide via a free radical polymerization process.

    PubMed

    Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Sadiku, Emmanuel Rotimi

    2017-05-15

    Carboxymethyl cellulose has been used for the design of novel engineered hydrogels in order to obtain effective three-dimensional structures for industrial applications. In this work, dye removal carboxymethyl cellulose-acrylamide-graphene oxide (CMC-AM-GO) hydrogels were prepared by a free-radical polymerization method. The GO was developed by the modified Hummers method. The CMC-AM-GO and GO were characterized by FTIR, XRD and SEM. The swelling and swelling kinetics were calculated using gravimetric process. The kinetic parameter, swelling exponent values [n=0.59-0.7507] explained the fact that the CMC-AM-GO hydrogles have super Case II diffusion transport mechanism. CMCx-AM-GO (x=1-4) and CMC-AM hydrogels were used for removal of Acid Blue-133. The result explains that composite hydrogels significantly removed the acid blue when compared to the neat hydrogel. The maximum AB absorption (185.45mg/g) capacity was found in the case of CMC2-AM-GO hydrogel. Therefore, cellulose-based GO hydrogels can be termed as smart systems for the abstraction of dye in water purification applications.

  14. Chitosan-based hydrogel for dye removal from aqueous solutions: Optimization of the preparation procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioiella, Lucia; Altobelli, Rosaria; de Luna, Martina Salzano; Filippone, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of chitosan-based hydrogels in the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions has been investigated as a function of different parameters. Hydrogels were obtained by gelation of chitosan with a non-toxic gelling agent based on an aqueous basic solution. The preparation procedure has been optimized in terms of chitosan concentration in the starting solution, gelling agent concentration and chitosan-to-gelling agent ratio. The goal is to properly select the material- and process-related parameters in order to optimize the performances of the chitosan-based dye adsorbent. First, the influence of such factors on the gelling process has been studied from a kinetic point of view. Then, the effects on the adsorption capacity and kinetics of the chitosan hydrogels obtained in different conditions have been investigated. A common food dye (Indigo Carmine) has been used for this purpose. Noticeably, although the disk-shaped hydrogels are in the bulk form, their adsorption capacity is comparable to that reported in the literature for films and beads. In addition, the bulk samples can be easily separated from the liquid phase after the adsorption process, which is highly attractive from a practical point of view. Compression tests reveal that the samples do not breakup even after relatively large compressive strains. The obtained results suggest that the fine tuning of the process parameters allows the production of mechanical resistant and highly adsorbing chitosan-based hydrogels.

  15. Study of extracellular polymeric substances in the biofilms of a suspended biofilter for nitric oxide removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Huang, Shaobin; Zhou, Shaofeng; Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Yongqing

    2016-11-01

    The extraction and quantitative analysis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have been frequently reported in studies of activated sludge. However, little is currently known about the EPS in the biofilms of biofilter systems. This study investigates the EPS in biofilms of Chelatococcus daeguensis TAD1 established in a suspended biofilter for nitric oxide (NO) removal under thermophilic conditions. Polysaccharide was the main EPS component under all experimental operation conditions of the aerobic biofilter, although the EPS contents and components varied under different operating conditions. As the concentration of the inlet NO varied from 200 to 2000 mg/m(3), the EPS and protein contents generally increased. At the highest inlet concentration (2000 mg/m(3)), the EPS and protein contents reached 0.118 and 0.055 mg/g, respectively (representing increases of 7.3 and 35 %, respectively, over the inlet concentration of 200 mg/m(3)). In contrast, the polysaccharide content was quite stable against inlet NO concentration. Decreasing the empty bed residence time increased the EPS and polysaccharide contents, but exerted little effect on the protein content. Varying the pH of the circulating fluid from 4 to 8 changed the EPS and its components in complex ways. We also found a strong correlation between the total EPS content and the NO removal efficiency. Therefore, it is possible to take EPS into consideration for biofilter control.

  16. Competitive removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous solution by MIL-68(Al): Derivative spectrophotometric method and response surface methodology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehrani, Mahnaz Saghanejhad; Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah

    2016-05-01

    MIL-68(Al) as a metal-organic framework (MOF) was synthesized and characterized by different techniques such as SEM, BET, FTIR, and XRD analysis. This material was then applied for simulations removal of malachite green (MG) and methylene blue (MB) dyes from aqueous solutions using second order derivative spectrophotometric method (SODS) which was applied to resolve the overlap between the spectra of these dyes. The dependency of dyes removal efficiency in binary solutions was examined and optimized toward various parameters including initial dye concentration, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and ultrasonic contact time using central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The optimized experimental conditions were set as pH 7.78, contact time 5 min, initial MB concentration 22 mg L- 1, initial MG concentration 12 mg L- 1 and adsorbent dosage 0.0055 g. The equilibrium data was fitted to isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin and the results revealed the suitability of the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of 666.67 and 153.85 mg g- 1 was obtained for MB and MG removal respectively. Kinetics data fitting to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich models confirmed the applicability of pseudo-second order kinetic model for description of the mechanism and adsorption rate. Dye-loaded MIL-68(Al) can be easily regenerated using methanol and applied for three frequent sorption/desorption cycles with high performance. The impact of ionic strength on removal percentage of both dyes in binary mixture was studied by using NaCl and KCl soluble salts at different concentrations. According to our findings, only small dosage of the proposed MOF is considerably capable to remove large amounts of dyes at room temperature and in very short time that is a big advantage of MIL-68(Al) as a promising adsorbent for adsorptive removal processes.

  17. Magnetic removal of dyes from aqueous solution using multi-walled carbon nanotubes filled with Fe2O3 particles.

    PubMed

    Qu, Song; Huang, Fei; Yu, Shaoning; Chen, Gang; Kong, Jilie

    2008-12-30

    The Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been introduced into the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via wet chemical method. The resulting products are characterized by TEM, EDX, XRD and VSM. The magnetic MWCNTs have been employed as adsorbent for the magnetic separation of dye contaminants from water. The adsorption test of dyes (Methylene Blue and Neutral Red) demonstrates that it only takes 60min to attain equilibrium and the adsorption capacities for Methylene Blue and Neutral Red in the concentration range studied are 42.3 and 77.5mg/g, respectively. The magnetic MWCNTs can be easily manipulated in magnetic field for desired separation, leading to the removal of dyes from polluted water. The integration of MWCNTs with Fe2O3 nanoparticles has great potential application to remove organic dyes from polluted water.

  18. Colour removal from aqueous solutions of metal-complex azo dyes using bacterial cells of Shewanella strain J18 143.

    PubMed

    Li, Tie; Guthrie, James Thomas

    2010-06-01

    The decoloration treatment of textile dye effluents through biodegradation, using bacterial cells, has been studied as a possible means of solving some of the problems that are associated with the pollution of water sources by colorants. In this paper, the use of whole bacterial cells of Shewanella J18 143 for the reduction of aqueous solutions of selected mono-azo, metal-complex dyes, namely Irgalan Grey GLN, Irgalan Black RBLN and Irgalan Blue 3GL, was investigated. The effects of temperature, pH and dye concentration on colour removal were also investigated and shown to be important. The operative conditions for the removal of colour were 30 degrees C, at pH 6.8, with a final dye concentration of 0.12 g/L in the colour reduction system. This study provides an extension to the application of Shewanella strain J18 143 bacterial cells in the decoloration of textile wastewaters.

  19. Investigation of citric acid-glycerol based pH-sensitive biopolymeric hydrogels for dye removal applications: A green approach.

    PubMed

    Franklin, D S; Guhanathan, S

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogels are three dimensional polymeric structure with segments of hydrophilic groups. The special structure of hydrogels facilitates the diffusion of solutes into the interior network and possess numerous ionic and non-ionic functional groups, which can absorb or trap ionic dyes from waste water. The present investigation was devoted to the synthesis of a series of citric acid and glycerol based pH sensitive biopolymeric hydrogels using a solventless green approach via condensation polymerization in the presence of acidic medium. The formations of hydrogels were confirmed using various spectral investigations viz., FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR. The thermal properties of various hydrogels have been studied using TGA, DTA and DSC analysis. The rationalized relationship was noticed with increasing of pH from 4.0 to 10.0. The surface morphologies of hydrogels were analyzed using SEM technique which was well supported from the results of swelling studies. Methylene blue has been selected as a cationic dye for its removal from various environmental sources using pH-sensitive biopolymeric hydrogels. The results of dye removal revealed that glycerol based biopolymeric hydrogels have shown an excellent dye removal capacity. Hence, the synthesized pH sensitive biopolymeric hydrogels have an adaptability with pH tuned properties might have greater potential opening in various environmental applications viz., metal ion removal, agrochemical release, purification of water, dye removal etc.

  20. An extracellular yellow laccase with potent dye decolorizing ability from the fungus Leucoagaricus naucinus LAC-04.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ying-Jie; Wang, Shan-Shan; Chen, Qing-Jun; Ling, Zhuo-Ren; Wang, Shou-Nan; Wang, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhu, Meng-Juan

    2016-12-01

    A novel laccase was isolated from fermentation broth of the mycorrhizal fungus Leucoagaricus naucinus LAC-04 by using a protocol that comprising ion-exchange chromatography steps on DEAE-cellulose, SP-Sepharose, and Q-Sepharose, and finally gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The laccase (LNL) was purified with a purification fold of 21.19 and a recovery rate of 19.8%. It is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 56kDa. LNL lacks absorption around 600nm, which indicates that the purified laccase is a yellow laccases. LNL demonstrates an optimal pH of 2.2 and an optimal temperature range of 30-60°C using ABTS as the substrate. It is inhibited in the presence of EDTA and metal ions including Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+). The Km of the laccase towards ABTS is estimated to 50.12μM at pH 2.2 and 30°C. Moreover, the purified laccase manifests effective decolorizing activity towards azo, heterocyclic, and aromatic dyes including Bromothymol Blue, Eriochrome Black T, Evans Bue, Fuchsin Basic, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R.

  1. An extracellular laccase with potent dye decolorizing ability from white rot fungus Trametes sp. LAC-01.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhuo-Ren; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Meng-Juan; Ning, Ying-Jie; Wang, Shou-Nan; Li, Bing; Yang, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Meng

    2015-11-01

    A novel laccase was purified from fermentation broth of white rot fungus Trametes sp. LAC-01 using an isolation procedure involving three ion-exchange chromatography steps on DEAE-cellulose, SP-Sepharose, and Q-Sepharose, and one gel-filtration step. The purified enzyme (TSL) was proved as a monomeric protein with a Mr of 59kDa based on SDS-PAGE and FPLC. Partial amino acid sequences were obtained by LC-MS/MS sharing considerably high sequence similarity with that of other laccases. It possessed optimal pH of 2.6 and temperature of 60°C using ABTS as the substrate. The Km of the laccase toward ABTS was estimated to 30.28μM at pH 2.6 and 40°C. TSL manifested considerably high oxidizing activity toward ABTS, but was avoid of degradative activity toward benzidine, caftaric acid, etc. It was effective in the decolorization of phenolic dyes - Bromothymol Blue and Malachite Green with decolorization rate higher than 60% after 24h of incubation. Adjunction of Cu(2+) with the final concentration of 2.0mmol/L significantly activated laccase production with a steady high level of 275.8-282.2U/mL in 96-144h. The high yield and short production period makes Trametes sp. LAC-01 and TSL potentially useful for industrial and environmental application and commercialization.

  2. Preparation of magnetic Ni@graphene nanocomposites and efficient removal organic dye under assistance of ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chuang; Guo, Jianhui; Yang, Qing; Tong, Lei; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Jiwei; Gong, Chunhong; Zhou, Jingfang; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we report a facile one-step synthesis of Ni@graphene nanocomposite microspheres (NGs) in hydrazine hydrate solution under ultrasound conditions. During the ultrasonic process, graphene oxide (GO) was reduced effectively under mild conditions and Ni nanoparticles were simultaneously formed and anchored on graphene sheets, which act as spacers to keep the neighboring sheets separated. The target products exhibit excellent performance for fast and efficient removal of dye contaminants, rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution, under assistance of ultrasound. Finally, the nanocomposites can be easily separated from solution by a magnet. Furthermore, higher content of graphene can be produced under sonication, which facilitates faster and more efficient removal of organic contaminates in the solution. The nanocomposites were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis.

  3. Development of organovermiculite-based adsorbent for removing anionic dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xubiao; Wei, Chaohai; Ke, Lin; Hu, Yun; Xie, Xiaoqi; Wu, Haizhen

    2010-08-15

    This paper reports on the development of organovermiculite-based adsorbent for removing Congo Red (CR), a model anionic dye, from aqueous solution. The organovermiculite was prepared using hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB) with variations in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and was then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results from the adsorption experiments showed that with the organic modification of 50, 100, and 200% CEC, the adsorption capacity of vermiculite towards CR was greatly improved from 2.6 to 74.07, 175.44 and 192.31 mg/g, respectively, at 298 K. The adsorption isotherm experiment was conducted at different temperatures (298, 308 and 318 K), and it was found that the uptake of CR increased with increasing temperature. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied and the Langmuir model was found to fit the equilibrium data better. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order model. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, entropy, and the Gibbs free energy were calculated, showing adsorption to be an endothermic yet spontaneous process. The results indicated that the organovermiculite may be an effective adsorbent for the removal of anionic dyes from wastewater.

  4. Dye removal from aqueous solution by magnetic alginate beads crosslinked with epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Vincent; Bee, Agnès; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Cabuil, Valérie

    2010-06-15

    Innovative magnetic alginate beads are used to remove organic pollutants from aqueous solution under different experimental conditions. These alginate beads (EpiMAB) are prepared by an extrusion technique and crosslinked with epichlorohydrin. They contain both magnetic nanoparticles and activated carbon (AC). With the addition of magnetic properties, the beads can be easily recovered or manipulated with an external magnetic field. Their capacity to adsorb pollutants is linked to encapsulated AC and to active sites coming from both magnetic nanoparticles and alginate. The efficiency of the beads as biosorbent for the removal of dyes is assessed using methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) as model molecules. The dye uptake is found to vary with the initial concentration and the charge of the adsorbed molecule. The Langmuir equation fits well the adsorption data with maximum adsorption capacities of 0.02 mmol/g for MO and 0.7 mmol/g for MB. Kinetics experiments are performed to evaluate the equilibrium time; the pseudo-second-order kinetic model adequately describes the experimental data. The influence of the pH of the solution on adsorption is also investigated and a comparison with alginate beads crosslinked by calcium ions is made.

  5. A study of effects of acid activated saw dust on the removal of different dissolved tannery dyes (acid dye) from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Dhar, N R; Khoda, A K M B; Khan, A H; Bala, P; Karim, M F

    2005-04-01

    The effectiveness of acid activated sawdust in absorbing D-Brown EGP and Lurazol Brown PM dyes from aqueous solutions was studied as a function of agitation time and initial dye concentration. The experimental data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm and found that adsorption process follows both the isotherms. The values of Langmuir and Freundlich constants indicate favorable and beneficial adsorption. Saw dust is an excellent low cost adsorbent of colored organic anions and may have significant potential as a color removal from tannery wastewater.

  6. Prevention of Biofilm Formation and Removal of Existing Biofilms by Extracellular DNases of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Helen L.; Reuter, Mark; Hanman, Kate; Betts, Roy P.; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The fastidious nature of the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contrasts with its ability to survive in the food chain. The formation of biofilms, or the integration into existing biofilms by C. jejuni, is thought to contribute to food chain survival. As extracellular DNA (eDNA) has previously been proposed to play a role in C. jejuni biofilms, we have investigated the role of extracellular DNases (eDNases) produced by C. jejuni in biofilm formation. A search of 2791 C. jejuni genomes highlighted that almost half of C. jejuni genomes contains at least one eDNase gene, but only a minority of isolates contains two or three of these eDNase genes, such as C. jejuni strain RM1221 which contains the cje0256, cje0566 and cje1441 eDNase genes. Strain RM1221 did not form biofilms, whereas the eDNase-negative strains NCTC 11168 and 81116 did. Incubation of pre-formed biofilms of NCTC 11168 with live C. jejuni RM1221 or with spent medium from a RM1221 culture resulted in removal of the biofilm. Inactivation of the cje1441 eDNase gene in strain RM1221 restored biofilm formation, and made the mutant unable to degrade biofilms of strain NCTC 11168. Finally, C. jejuni strain RM1221 was able to degrade genomic DNA from C. jejuni NCTC 11168, 81116 and RM1221, whereas strain NCTC 11168 and the RM1221 cje1441 mutant were unable to do so. This was mirrored by an absence of eDNA in overnight cultures of C. jejuni RM1221. This suggests that the activity of eDNases in C. jejuni affects biofilm formation and is not conducive to a biofilm lifestyle. These eDNases do however have a potential role in controlling biofilm formation by C. jejuni strains in food chain relevant environments. PMID:25803828

  7. Prevention of biofilm formation and removal of existing biofilms by extracellular DNases of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen L; Reuter, Mark; Hanman, Kate; Betts, Roy P; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2015-01-01

    The fastidious nature of the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contrasts with its ability to survive in the food chain. The formation of biofilms, or the integration into existing biofilms by C. jejuni, is thought to contribute to food chain survival. As extracellular DNA (eDNA) has previously been proposed to play a role in C. jejuni biofilms, we have investigated the role of extracellular DNases (eDNases) produced by C. jejuni in biofilm formation. A search of 2791 C. jejuni genomes highlighted that almost half of C. jejuni genomes contains at least one eDNase gene, but only a minority of isolates contains two or three of these eDNase genes, such as C. jejuni strain RM1221 which contains the cje0256, cje0566 and cje1441 eDNase genes. Strain RM1221 did not form biofilms, whereas the eDNase-negative strains NCTC 11168 and 81116 did. Incubation of pre-formed biofilms of NCTC 11168 with live C. jejuni RM1221 or with spent medium from a RM1221 culture resulted in removal of the biofilm. Inactivation of the cje1441 eDNase gene in strain RM1221 restored biofilm formation, and made the mutant unable to degrade biofilms of strain NCTC 11168. Finally, C. jejuni strain RM1221 was able to degrade genomic DNA from C. jejuni NCTC 11168, 81116 and RM1221, whereas strain NCTC 11168 and the RM1221 cje1441 mutant were unable to do so. This was mirrored by an absence of eDNA in overnight cultures of C. jejuni RM1221. This suggests that the activity of eDNases in C. jejuni affects biofilm formation and is not conducive to a biofilm lifestyle. These eDNases do however have a potential role in controlling biofilm formation by C. jejuni strains in food chain relevant environments.

  8. Adsorption Properties of Low-Cost Biomaterial Derived from Prunus amygdalus L. for Dye Removal from Water

    PubMed Central

    Deniz, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    The capability of Prunus amygdalus L. (almond) shell for dye removal from aqueous solutions was investigated and methyl orange was used as a model compound. The effects of operational parameters including pH, ionic strength, adsorbent concentration and mesh size, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature on the removal of dye were evaluated. The adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data pointed out excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 41.34 mg g−1 at 293 K. Thermodynamic analysis proved a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It can be concluded that almond shell might be a potential low-cost adsorbent for methyl orange removal from aqueous media. PMID:23935442

  9. Understanding the role of extracellular polymeric substances in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal granular sludge system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Randeng; Peng, Yongzhen; Cheng, Zhanli; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-10-01

    The role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process was investigated in a P-accumulating granular sludge system by analyzing the distribution and transfer of P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) in the sludge phase, EPS, and the bulk liquid. In the sludge phase, about 30% P, 44.7% K(+), 27.7% Mg(2+), 28% Ca(2+) accumulated in the EPS at the end of aeration. The rate of P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) released from the EPS matrix into the bulk liquid in the anaerobic phase was faster than the rate they were adsorbed from the bulk liquid into the EPS in the aerobic phase. P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were retained in EPS before transferring into the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs). These results suggest that EPS play a critical role in facilitating the accumulation and transfer of P, K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) between PAO cells and bulk liquid.

  10. A dipeptide-based superhydrogel: Removal of toxic dyes and heavy metal ions from waste water.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Nibedita; Baral, Abhishek; Basu, Kingshuk; Roy, Subhasish; Banerjee, Arindam

    2017-01-01

    A short peptide-based molecule has been found to form a strong hydrogel at phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.46. The hydrogel has been characterized thoroughly using various techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), wide angle powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and rheological analysis. It has been observed from FE-SEM images that entangled nanofiber network is responsible for gelation. Rheological investigation demonstrates that the self-assembly of this synthetic dipeptide results in the formation of mechanically strong hydrogel with storage modulus (G') around 10(4) Pa. This gel has been used for removing both cationic and anionic toxic organic dyes (Brilliant Blue, Congo red, Malachite Green, Rhodamine B) and metal ions (Co(2+) and Ni(2+) ) from waste water. Moreover, only a small amount of the gelator is required (less than 1 mg/mL) for preparation of this superhydrogel and even this hydrogel can be reused three times for dye/metal ion absorption. This signifies the importance of the hydrogel towards waste water management.

  11. Physical and chemical regeneration of zeolitic adsorbents for dye removal in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Li, Huiting; Xie, Sujuan; Liu, Shenglin; Xu, Longya

    2006-09-01

    Natural zeolite and synthetic zeolite, MCM-22, were employed as effective adsorbents for a basic dye, methylene blue, removal from wastewater. Two methods, Fenton oxidation and high temperature combustion, have been used for regeneration of used materials. It is found that MCM-22 exhibits equilibrium adsorption at 1.7 x 10(-4) mol g(-1), much higher than the adsorption of natural zeolite (5 x 10(-5) mol g(-1)) at initial dye concentration of 2.7 x 10(-5)M and 30 degrees C. Solution pH will affect the adsorption behaviour of MCM-22. Higher solution pH results in higher adsorption capacity. The regenerated adsorbents show different capacity depending on regeneration technique. Physical regeneration by high temperature combustion will be better than chemical regeneration using Fenton oxidation in producing effective adsorbents. Regeneration of MCM-22 by high temperature treatment can make the adsorbent exhibit comparable or superior adsorption capacity as compared to the fresh sample depending on the temperature and time. The optimal temperature and time will be 540 degrees C and 1h. The Fenton oxidation will recover 60% adsorption capacity. For natural zeolite, regeneration can not fully recover the adsorption capacity with the two techniques and the regenerated natural zeolites by the two techniques are similar, showing 60% adsorption capacity of fresh sample. Kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetics.

  12. Carrageenan-grafted magnetite nanoparticles as recyclable sorbents for dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel-da-Silva, Ana L.; Salgueiro, Ana M.; Creaney, Bianca; Oliveira-Silva, Rui; Silva, Nuno J. O.; Trindade, Tito

    2015-07-01

    The efforts dedicated to improving water decontamination procedures have prompted the interest in the development of efficient, inexpensive, and reusable sorbents for the uptake of dye pollutants. In this work, novel sorbents consisting of carrageenan polysaccharides grafted to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared. κ- and ι-carrageenan were first chemically modified by carboxymethylation and then covalently attached via amide bond to the surface of aminated silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles, both steps monitored using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The kinetics and the equilibrium behavior of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) adsorption onto the carrageenan sorbents were investigated. ι-carrageenan sorbents displayed higher MB adsorption capacity that was ascribed to high content of sulfonate groups. Overall, the pseudo-second order equation provided a good description of the adsorption kinetics. The κ-carrageenan sorbents followed an unusual Z-type equilibrium adsorption isotherm whereas the isotherm of ι-carrageenan sorbents, although displaying a conventional shape, could not be successfully predicted by isotherm models commonly used. Noteworthy, both sorbents were long-term stable and could easily be recycled by simply rinsing with KCl aqueous solution. The removal efficiency of κ-carrageenan sorbents was 92 % in the first adsorption cycle and kept high (>80 %) even after six consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles.

  13. Compression of the DNA substrate by a viral packaging motor is supported by removal of intercalating dye during translocation.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Black, Lindsay W

    2012-12-11

    Viral genome packaging into capsids is powered by high-force-generating motor proteins. In the presence of all packaging components, ATP-powered translocation in vitro expels all detectable tightly bound YOYO-1 dye from packaged short dsDNA substrates and removes all aminoacridine dye from packaged genomic DNA in vivo. In contrast, in the absence of packaging, the purified T4 packaging ATPase alone can only remove up to ∼1/3 of DNA-bound intercalating YOYO-1 dye molecules in the presence of ATP or ATP-γ-S. In sufficient concentration, intercalating dyes arrest packaging, but rare terminase mutations confer resistance. These distant mutations are highly interdependent in acquiring function and resistance and likely mark motor contact points with the translocating DNA. In stalled Y-DNAs, FRET has shown a decrease in distance from the phage T4 terminase C terminus to portal consistent with a linear motor, and in the Y-stem DNA compression between closely positioned dye pairs. Taken together with prior FRET studies of conformational changes in stalled Y-DNAs, removal of intercalating compounds by the packaging motor demonstrates conformational change in DNA during normal translocation at low packaging resistance and supports a proposed linear "DNA crunching" or torsional compression motor mechanism involving a transient grip-and-release structural change in B form DNA.

  14. Facile synthesis of uniform hierarchical composites CuO-CeO2 for enhanced dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Pan; Niu, Helin; Chen, Jingshuai; Song, Jiming; Mao, Changjie; Zhang, Shengyi; Gao, Yuanhao; Chen, Changle

    2016-12-01

    The hierarchically shaped CuO-CeO2 composites were prepared through a facile solvothermal method without using any template. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. In the characterization, we found that CuO-CeO2 composites were showed uniform size and morphology which were consisted of the secondary nanoflakes interconnected with each other. Most interestingly, the composites showed efficient performance to remove methyl blue and Congo red dyes from water with maximum adsorption capacities of 2131.24 and 1072.09 mg g-1, respectively. In addition, because of their larger surface area and the unique hierarchical structures, the adsorption performance of the CuO-CeO2 composites is much better than the materials of CuO and CeO2.

  15. Activated parthenium carbon as an adsorbent for the removal of dyes and heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Rajeshwarisivaraj; Subburam, V

    2002-11-01

    Parthenium hysterophorous (L) is a perennial weed distributed all over the country. Carbonized parthenium activated with conc. H2SO4 and ammonium persulphate was effective in the removal of dyes, heavy metals and phenols. Variation in the percentage removal of adsorbates was observed with increase in the contact time. Among the adsorbates tested, the affinity of the activated parthenium carbon was highest for Hg2+, Methylene Blue and Malachite Green.

  16. Preparation, characterization, and dye removal study of activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell.

    PubMed

    García, Juan Rafael; Sedran, Ulises; Zaini, Muhammad Abbas Ahmad; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

    2017-04-08

    Palm oil mill wastes (palm kernel shell (PKS)) were used to prepare activated carbons, which were tested in the removal of colorants from water. The adsorbents were prepared by 1-h impregnation of PKS with ZnCl2 as the activating agent (PKS:ZnCl2 mass ratios of 1:1 and 2:1), followed by carbonization in autogenous atmosphere at 500 and 550 °C during 1 h. The characterization of the activated carbons included textural properties (porosity), surface chemistry (functional groups), and surface morphology. The dye removal performance of the different activated carbons was investigated by means of the uptake of methylene blue (MB) in solutions with various initial concentrations (25-400 mg/L of MB) at 30 °C, using a 0.05-g carbon/50-mL solution relationship. The sample prepared with 1:1 PKS:ZnCl2 and carbonized at 550 °C showed the highest MB adsorption capacity (maximum uptake at the equilibrium, q max = 225.3 mg MB / g adsorbent), resulting from its elevated specific surface area (BET, 1058 m(2)/g) and microporosity (micropore surface area, 721 m(2)/g). The kinetic experiments showed that removals over 90% of the equilibrium adsorptions were achieved after 4-h contact time in all the cases. The study showed that palm oil mill waste biomass could be used in the preparation of adsorbents efficient in the removal of colorants in wastewaters.

  17. Removal of some cationic dyes from aqueous solutions using magnetic-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher; Bagheri, Hasan

    2011-11-30

    An adsorbent, magnetic-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes, was used for removal of cationic dyes crystal violet (CV), thionine (Th), janus green B (JG), and methylene blue (MB) from water samples. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, TEM, BET and XRD measurements. The prepared magnetic adsorbent can be well dispersed in the water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. The influences of parameters including initial pH, dosage of adsorbent and contact time have been investigated in order to find the optimum adsorption conditions. The optimum pH for removing of all the investigated cationic dyes from water solutions was found to be 7.0. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for CV, JG, Th and MB dyes were obtained as 227.7, 250.0, 36.4 and 48.1 mg g(-1), respectively. Desorption process of the adsorbed cationic dyes was also investigated using acetonitrile as the solvent. It was notable that both the adsorption and desorption of dyes were quite fast probably due to the absence of internal diffusion resistance.

  18. Adsorption and magnetic removal of neutral red dye from aqueous solution using Fe3O4 hollow nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Iram, Mahmood; Guo, Chen; Guan, Yueping; Ishfaq, Ahmad; Liu, Huizhou

    2010-09-15

    Fe(3)O(4) hollow nanospheres were prepared via a simple one-pot template-free hydrothermal method and were fully characterized. These magnetic spheres have been investigated for application as an adsorbant for the removal of dye contaminants from water. Because of the high specific surface area, nano-scale particle size, and hollow porous material, Fe(3)O(4) hollow spheres showed favorable adsorption behavior for Neutral red. Factors affecting adsorption, such as, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were evaluated. Langmuir and the Freundlich adsorption isotherms were selected to explicate the interaction of the dye and magnetic adsorbant. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm have been determined. The overall trend followed an increase of the sorption capacity with increasing dye concentration with a maximum of 90% dye removal. The monolayer adsorption capacity of magnetic hollow spheres (0.05 g) for NR in the concentration range studied, as calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model at 25 degrees C and pH 6, was found to be 105 mg g(-1). Adsorption kinetic followed pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption processes are spontaneous and endothermic. The combination of the superior adsorption and the magnetic properties of Fe(3)O(4) nanospheres can be useful as a powerful separation tool to deal with environmental pollution.

  19. MIL-68 (In) nano-rods for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li-Na; Qian, Xin-Ye; Wang, Jian-Guo; Aslan, Hüsnü; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-09-01

    MIL-68 (In) nano-rods were prepared by a facile solvothermal synthesis using NaOAc as modulator agent at 100°C for 30 min. The BET test showed that the specific surface area and pore volume of MIL-68 (In) nanorods were 1252 m(2) g(-1) and 0.80 cm(3) g(-1), respectively. The as-prepared MIL-68 (In) nanorods showed excellent adsorption capacity and rapid adsorption rate for removal of Congo red (CR) dye from water. The maximum adsorption capacity of MIL-68 (In) nanorods toward CR reached 1204 mg g(-1), much higher than MIL-68 (In) microrods and most of the previously reported adsorbents. The adsorption process of CR by MIL-68 (In) nano-rods was investigated and found to be obeying the Langmuir adsorption model in addition to pseudo-second-order rate equation. Moreover, the MIL-68 (In) nanorods showed an acceptable reusability after regeneration with ethanol. All information gives an indication that the as-prepared MIL-68 (In) nanorods show their potential as the adsorbent for highly efficient removal of CR in wastewater.

  20. Novel synthesis of a versatile magnetic adsorbent derived from corncob for dye removal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huan; Li, Jia-Bao; Liu, Wei-Wei; Miao, Miao; Cheng, Bei-Jiu; Zhu, Su-Wen

    2015-08-01

    Corncob, an agricultural waste, was successfully converted into a novel magnetic adsorbent by a low-temperature hydrothermal method (453K), including carbonization under saline conditions and magnetization using iron (III) salt. The resultant magnetic carbonaceous adsorbent (MCA) exhibited a porous structure with a higher specific surface area and more oxygen-containing functional groups than its carbonaceous precursor (CP), which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe (III). The adsorption behaviors of both MCA and CP could be described well by Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption capacity for Methylene blue (MB) revealed by adsorption isotherms were 163.93mg/g on MCA and 103.09mg/g on CP, respectively. Moreover, MCA was demonstrated as a versatile adsorbent for removal of both anionic and cationic dyes, and it showed good reusability in regeneration studies. This work provides an alternative approach for effective conversion of biomass waste and application of them in pollutant removal.

  1. Removal of basic (Methylene Blue) and acid (Egacid Orange) dyes from waters by sorption on chemically treated wood shavings.

    PubMed

    Janos, Pavel; Coskun, Sezen; Pilarová, Vera; Rejnek, Jaroslav

    2009-02-01

    Spruce wood shavings from Picea abies were used for an adsorptive removal of both basic as well as acid dyes from waters. The sorption properties of the sorbents were modified with HCl, Na(2)CO(3) and Na(2)HPO(4). The treatment of the wood sorbents with alkaline carbonate solution as well as with phosphate solution increased the sorption ability for the basic dye (Methylene Blue), whereas the treatment with mineral acid decreased the sorption ability for Methylene Blue to some extent. The opposite is true for the sorption of the acid dye--Egacid Orange. The maximum sorption capacities estimated from the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms ranged from 0.060 to 0.165 mmol g(-1) for Methylene Blue, and from 0.045 to 0.513 mmol g(-1) for Egacid Orange. The basic dye sorption decreased at low pH values in accordance with a presupposed ion-exchange mechanism of the sorption. The sorption of acid dye, on the other hand, decreased with increasing pH. The presence of inorganic salts as well as surfactants exhibited only minor effects on the dye sorption.

  2. Adsorptive removal of crystal violet dye by a local clay and process optimization by response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loqman, Amal; El Bali, Brahim; Lützenkirchen, Johannes; Weidler, Peter G.; Kherbeche, Abdelhak

    2016-12-01

    The current study relates to the removal of a dye [crystal violet (CV)] from aqueous solutions through batch adsorption experiment onto a local clay from Morocco. The clay was characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscope, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and Fraunhofer diffraction method. The influence of independent variables on the removal efficiency was determined and optimized by response surface methodology using the Box-Behnken surface statistical design. The model predicted maximum adsorption of 81.62% under the optimum conditions of operational parameters (125 mg L-1 initial dye concentration, 2.5 g L-1 adsorbent dose and time of 43 min). Practically, the removal ranges in 27.4-95.3%.

  3. Efficient removal of malachite green dye using biodegradable graft copolymer derived from amylopectin and poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Pal, Aniruddha; Ghorai, Soumitra; Mandre, N R; Pal, Sagar

    2014-10-13

    This article reports on the application of a high performance biodegradable adsorbent based on amylopectin and poly(acrylic acid) (AP-g-PAA) for removal of toxic malachite green dye (MG) from aqueous solution. The graft copolymer has been synthesized and characterized using various techniques including FTIR, GPC, SEM and XRD analyses. Biodegradation study suggests that the co-polymer is biodegradable in nature. The adsorbent shows excellent potential (Qmax, 352.11 mg g(-1); 99.05% of MG has been removed within 30 min) for removal of MG from aqueous solution. It has been observed that point to zero charge (pzc) of graft copolymer plays significant role in adsorption efficacy. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm follow pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. Thermodynamics parameters suggest that the process of dye uptake is spontaneous. Finally desorption study shows excellent regeneration efficiency of adsorbent.

  4. Surface modified magnetic nanoparticles as efficient and green sorbents: Synthesis, characterization, and application for the removal of anionic dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, Hamid Reza; Arjmand, Hooman; Hoseini, S. Jafar; Nasrabadi, Hasan

    2015-11-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the removal efficiency of sunset yellow (SY) anionic dye from aqueous solutions by using new surface modified iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Pure Fe3O4 MNPs were synthesized and then functionalized by aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), through a chemical precipitation method. Characterization of the prepared MNP adsorbents was performed by furrier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to XRD and TEM results, average size of the magnetic Fe3O4/APTES NPs was estimated to be around 12 nm. The prepared magnetic adsorbent can be well dispersed in the water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. In the adsorption process, the effect of main experimental parameters such as pH of dye solution, initial concentration of SY dye, reaction time, and amount of MNP adsorbent on the removal of SY were studied and optimized. The small amount of this adsorbent (10 mg) is applicable for the removal of high concentrations of SY dye in reasonable time (17 min), at pH 3.1. Additionally, the adsorption studies show that the Langmuir model is a suitable model to explain the experimental data with high correlation coefficient.

  5. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  6. Efficient removal of both cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous solutions using a novel amphoteric straw-based adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxuan; Yang, Hu; Dong, Lei; Yan, Han; Li, Haijiang; Jiang, Ziwen; Kan, Xiaowei; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Rongshi

    2012-10-01

    In the current paper, a novel amphoteric straw-based adsorbent was prepared and applied to adsorb various dyes from aqueous solutions. The amphoteric adsorbent was proven effective in eliminating both cationic and anionic dyes (methylene blue and acid green 25), especially at corresponding favored pH conditions. The fundamental adsorption behavior of the adsorbent on removing various dyes was also investigated at different temperatures. The adsorption isotherms were all best-fitted by the Langmuir equation, whereas the adsorption kinetics was well-described by both the pseudo-second order model and the Elovich model. The experimental result revealed that the adsorption mechanism followed the monolayer chemical adsorption with an ion-exchange process.

  7. Selective removal and recovery of Black B reactive dye from simulated textile wastewater using the supported liquid membrane process.

    PubMed

    Harruddin, Norlisa; Othman, Norasikin; Ee Sin, Andeline Lim; Raja Sulaiman, Raja Norimie

    2015-01-01

    Effluent containing colour/dyes, especially reactive dyes, becomes a great concern of wastewater treatment because it is toxic to human life and aquatic life. In this study, reactive dye of Black B was separated using the supported liquid membrane process. Commercial polypropylene membrane was used as a support of the kerosene-tridodecylamine liquid membrane. Several parameters were tested and the result showed that almost 100% of 70 ppm Black B was removed and 99% of 70 ppm Black B was recovered at pH 2 of the feed phase containing 0.00001 M Na2SiO3, flow rate of 150 ml/min and 0.2 M NaOH. The membrane support also remained stable for up to 36 hours under an optimum condition.

  8. Effectiveness of Rice Agricultural Waste, Microbes and Wetland Plants in the Removal of Reactive Black-5 Azo Dye in Microcosm Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Saba, Beenish; Jabeen, Madeeha; Khalid, Azeem; Aziz, Irfan; Christy, Ann D

    2015-01-01

    Azo dyes are commonly generated as effluent pollutants by dye using industries, causing contamination of surface and ground water. Various strategies are employed to treat such wastewater; however, a multi-faceted treatment strategy could be more effective for complete removal of azo dyes from industrial effluent than any single treatment. In the present study, rice husk material was used as a substratum in two constructed wetlands (CWs) and augmented with microorganisms in the presence of wetland plants to effectively treat dye-polluted water. To evaluate the efficiency of each process the study was divided into three levels, i.e., adsorption of dye onto the substratum, phytoremediation within the CW and then bioremediation along with the previous two processes in the augmented CW. The adsorption process was helpful in removing 50% dye in presence of rice husk while 80% in presence of rice husk biocahr. Augmentation of microorganisms in CW systems has improved dye removal efficiency to 90%. Similarly presence of microorganisms enhanced removal of total nitrogen (68% 0 and Total phosphorus (75%). A significant improvement in plant growth was also observed by measuring plant height, number of leaves and leave area. These findings suggest the use of agricultural waste as part of a CW substratum can provide enhanced removal of textile dyes.

  9. Enhanced removal of hazardous dye form aqueous solutions and real textile wastewater using bifunctional chitin/lignin biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Wawrzkiewicz, Monika; Bartczak, Przemysław; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2017-06-01

    A new biomaterial based on chitin and lignin was prepared and applied for the removal of hazardous dye C.I. Direct Blue 71 (DB71) from aqueous solutions and wastewaters. The dye sorption on the chitin/lignin biosorbent (Ch/L) was examined depending on the initial dye concentration (50-200mg/L), phase contact time (1-1440min), kind of auxiliaries (NaCl, Na2SO4, anionic surfactant SDS) and their concentrations (1-20g/L salts, 0.1-0.75g/L SDS), initial solution pH as well as temperature (20-50°C). The equilibrium and kinetic characteristics of C.I. Direct Blue 71 uptake by chitin/lignin followed by the Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second order model rather than the Langmuir, Tempkin models, and pseudo-first order model. C.I. Direct Blue 71 adsorption on chitin/lignin was spontaneous (-2.86 to -8.14kJ/mol) and endothermic (60.1kJ/mol). The possibilities of dye elution and reuse by means of the batch method were investigated and as follows the chemical reaction is an inseparable sorption mechanism. Purification of wastewaters containing direct dyes was made with 91% efficiency after 1h of phase contact time. For comparison, data obtained or obtained results in the DB71-chitin (Ch) system were also presented.

  10. Performance of dye-affinity beads for aluminium removal in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Handan; Say, Ridvan; Andaç, Müge; Bayraktar, Necmi; Denizli, Adil

    2004-01-01

    Background Aluminum has recently been recognized as a causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy, osteodystrophy, and microcytic anemia occurring in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo long-term hemodialysis. Only a small amount of Al(III) in dialysis solutions may give rise to these disorders. Methods Magnetic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (mPHEMA) beads in the size range of 80–120 μm were produced by free radical co-polymerization of HEMA and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of magnetite particles (Fe3O4). Then, metal complexing ligand alizarin yellow was covalently attached onto mPHEMA beads. Alizarin yellow loading was 208 μmol/g. These beads were used for the removal of Al(III) ions from tap and dialysis water in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. Results Al(III) adsorption capacity of the beads decreased with an increase in the flow-rate. The maximum Al(III) adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. Comparison of batch and magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) maximum capacities determined using Langmuir isotherms showed that dynamic capacity (17.5 mg/g) was somewhat higher than the batch capacity (11.8 mg/g). The dissociation constants for Al(III) were determined using the Langmuir isotherm equation to be 27.3 mM (MSFB) and 6.7 mM (batch system), indicating medium affinity, which was typical for pseudospecific affinity ligands. Al(III) ions could be repeatedly adsorbed and desorbed with these beads without noticeable loss in their Al(III) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Adsorption of Al(III) demonstrate the affinity of magnetic dye-affinity beads. The MSFB experiments allowed us to conclude that this inexpensive sorbent system may be an important alternative to the existing adsorbents in the removal of aluminium. PMID:15329149

  11. Microwave assisted synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for lighting and dye removal application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Gohain, M.; Som, S.; Kumar, Vinod; Bezuindenhoudt, B. C. B.; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report on the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) via the microwave-assisted technique. The as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were annealed at 500 °C for three hours. The ZnO NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic techniques. XRD results confirmed the formation of as-synthesized ZnO powder oriented along the (101) direction. The Kubelka-Munk function has been employed to determine the band gap of the ZnO powder. ZnO powder has been studied by photoluminescence (PL) before and after annealing to identify the emission of defects in the visible range. The intensity of the PL emission has decreased after annealing. The synthesized ZnO samples were also studied for methyl orange dye removal from waste water. It has been found that the as-synthesized ZnO shows better adsorption behaviour as compared to the annealed sample.

  12. Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.; Wang, S.B.; Zhu, Z.H.

    2006-08-01

    Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate, geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350{sup o}C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model produced the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

  13. Environmental assessment of different photo-Fenton approaches for commercial reactive dye removal.

    PubMed

    García-Montaño, Julia; Ruiz, Nilbia; Muñoz, Iván; Domènech, Xavier; García-Hortal, José A; Torrades, Francesc; Peral, José

    2006-11-16

    An environmental study using life cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to three bench-scale wastewater treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R hetero-bireactive dye removal: artificial light photo-Fenton process, solar driven photo-Fenton process and artificial light photo-Fenton process coupled to a biological treatment. The study is focused on electricity and chemicals consumption, transports and atmosphere and water emissions generated by the different processes involved. Results show that the artificial light photo-Fenton process is the worst treatment in terms of environmental impact. On the other hand, both solar driven and coupled to biological photo-Fenton processes reduce significantly the environmental damage, although none can be identified as the best in all impact categories. The major environmental impact is attributed to the H2O2 consumption and to the electrical energy consumption to run the UVA lamp. An economic analysis of the different photo-Fenton processes has also been performed and the results are discussed together with those obtained from the environmental assessment.

  14. Removal of azo dye from water by magnetite adsorption-Fenton oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rongcheng, Wu; Jiuhui, Qu

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to highlight the possibility of using powder magnetite adsorption-Fenton oxidation as a method for removal of azo dye acid red B (ARB) from water. The adsorption properties of magnetite powder towards ARB were studied. The oxidation of adsorbed ARB and regeneration of magnetite adsorbent at the same time by Fenton reagent (hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] + iron (II) [Fe2+]) in another treatment unit with a smaller volume was also investigated. The efficiency of Fenton oxidation of ARB was compared for the reaction carried out in solution and on magnetite. The magnetic separation method was used to recover magnetite after adsorption or regeneration. The results indicated that the adsorption rate was fast. The capacity was strongly dependent on pH and inorganic anions, and pH 3.8 was optimal for the adsorption of ARB. The adsorption can be described well using the Langmuir model. The oxidation was more efficient for ARB adsorbed on magnetite than in solution. The adsorption capacity of magnetite increased significantly after regeneration, which was the result of an increase in surface area of the adsorbent and change of elemental ratio (oxygen:iron [O:Fe]) on the surface. The maximum adsorption capacity for ARB was 32.4 mg/g adsorbent.

  15. Geopolymeric adsorbents from fly ash for dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2006-08-01

    Adsorbents from coal fly ash treated by a solid-state fusion method using NaOH were prepared. It was found that amorphous aluminosilicate geopolymers would be formed. These fly ash-derived inorganic polymers were assessed as potential adsorbents for removal of some basic dyes, methylene blue and crystal violet, from aqueous solution. It was found that the adsorption capacity of the synthesised adsorbents depends on the preparation conditions such as NaOH:fly-ash ratio and fusion temperature with the optimal conditions being at 1.2:1 weight ratio of Na:fly-ash at 250-350 degrees C. The synthesised materials exhibit much higher adsorption capacity than fly ash itself and natural zeolite. The adsorption isotherm can be fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich models while the two-site Langmuir model producing the best results. It was also found that the fly ash derived geopolymeric adsorbents show higher adsorption capacity for crystal violet than methylene blue and the adsorption temperature influences the adsorption capacity. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetics.

  16. Biochar Supported Nanoscale Iron Particles for the Efficient Removal of Methyl Orange Dye in Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shichen; Yan, Jingchun; Qian, Linbo; Chen, Mengfang

    2015-01-01

    The presence of organic contaminants in industrial effluents is an environmental concern of increasing global importance. One innovative technology for treating contaminated industrial effluents is nanoscale zero-valent iron supported on biochar (nZVI/BC). Based on Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller characterizations, the nZVI was well dispersed on the biochar and aggregation was dramatically reduced. Methyl orange (MO) served as the representative organic contaminant for verifying the effectiveness of the composite. Using decolorization efficiency as an indicator of treatment effectiveness, increasing doses of nZVI/BC yielded progressively better results with 98.51% of MO decolorized by 0.6 g/L of composite at an nZVI/BC mass ratio of 1:5. The superior decolorization efficiency of the nZVI/BC was attributed to the increase in the dispersion and reactivity of nZVI while biochar increasing the contact area with contaminant and the adsorption of composites. Additionally, the buffering function of acid-washed biochar could be in favor of maintaining the reactivity of nZVI. Furthermore, the aging nZVI/BC for 30 day was able to maintain the removal efficiency indicating that the oxidation of nZVI may be delayed in the presence of biochar. Therefore, the composite of nZVI/BC could represent an effective functional material for treating wastewater containing organic dyes in the future. PMID:26204523

  17. The application of textile sludge adsorbents for the removal of Reactive Red 2 dye.

    PubMed

    Sonai, Gabriela G; de Souza, Selene M A Guelli U; de Oliveira, Débora; de Souza, Antônio Augusto U

    2016-03-01

    Sludge from the textile industry was used as a low-cost adsorbent to remove the dye Reactive Red 2 from an aqueous solution. Adsorbents were prepared through the thermal and chemical treatment of sludge originating from physical-chemical (PC) and biological (BIO) effluent treatment processes. The adsorbent characterization was carried out through physical-chemical analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, pHPZC determination, Boehm titration method, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Batch kinetic experiments and adsorption isotherm modeling were conducted under different pH and temperature conditions. The results for the kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption processes associated with these systems can be described by a pseudo-second-order model and for the equilibrium data the Langmuir model provided the best fit. The adsorption was strongly dependent on the pH but not on the temperature within the ranges studied. The maxima adsorption capacities were 159.3 mg g(-1) for the BIO adsorbent and 213.9 mg g(-1) for PC adsorbent at pH of 2 and 25 °C.

  18. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-11-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

  19. Removal of chromium(VI) and dye Alizarin Red S (ARS) using polymer-coated iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, Sara; Shahzad, Asma

    2014-06-01

    The present research was conducted with an aim to develop such adsorbent system: polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles which can remove heavy metal and dye from water of different concentration. Synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for contaminated water purification has been one of the outcomes of application of rapidly growing field of Nanotechnology in Environmental Science. In the present study, the efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles for removal of Cr(VI) and dye (alizarin) from water solutions of known concentrations were evaluated. The nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Polymer-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles carrying functional groups on their surface were synthesized by different methods for permanent magnet-assisted removal of heavy metal (chromium) and dye (Alizarin Red S) from water. The characterization showed that synthesized nanoparticles were in the size range of 10-50 nm. The adsorption capacities of the Fe3O4 using polyMETAC-coated particles for dye (Alizarin Red S) removal were 80-96 % and chromium 62-91 %. The chromium concentration was determined after magnetic separation using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and dye concentration was estimated with UV-visible spectrophotometer. Nanoparticles of polymer coated showed the highest removal capacity from water for metal and dye. The developed adsorbents had higher capacity for removal of heavy metal ions and dye.

  20. Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution using magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube nanocomposite as adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ji-Lai; Wang, Bin; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yang, Chun-Ping; Niu, Cheng-Gang; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Zhou, Wen-Jin; Liang, Yi

    2009-05-30

    A magnetic multi-wall carbon nanotube (MMWCNT) nanocomposite was synthesized and was used as an adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. The MMWCNT nanocomposite was composed of commercial multi-wall carbon nanotubes and iron oxide nanoparticles. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and BET surface area measurements. Adsorption characteristics of the MMWCNT nanocomposite adsorbent were examined using methylene blue, neutral red and brilliant cresyl blue as adsorbates. Experiments were carried out to investigate adsorption kinetics, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent and the effect of adsorption dosage and solution pH values on the removal of cationic dyes. Kinetic data were well fitted by a pseudo second-order model. Freundlich model was used to study the adsorption isotherms. The prepared MMWCNT adsorbent displayed the main advantage of separation convenience compared to the present adsorption treatment.

  1. Cationic and anionic modifications of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Sajab, Mohd Shaiful; Chia, Chin Hua; Zakaria, Sarani; Khiew, Poi Sim

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers were employed to remove dyes from aqueous solutions via adsorption approaches. The EFB fibers were modified using citric acid (CA) and polyethylenimine (PEI) to produce anionic and cationic adsorbents, respectively. The CA modified EFB fibers (CA-EFB) and PEI-modified EFB fibers (PEI-EFB) were used to study the efficiency in removing cationic methylene blue (MB) and anionic phenol red (PR) from aqueous solutions, respectively, at different pHs, temperatures and initial dye concentrations. The adsorption data for MB on the CA-EFB fitted the Langmuir isotherm, while the adsorption of PR on the PEI-EFB fitted the Freundlich isotherm, suggesting a monolayer and heterogeneous adsorption behavior of the adsorption processes, respectively. Both modified fibers can be regenerated up to seven adsorption/desorption cycles while still providing as least 70% of the initial adsorption capacity.

  2. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium studies for removal of acid azo dyes by aniline formaldehyde condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terangpi, Praisy; Chakraborty, Saswati

    2016-12-01

    Adsorption of two acid dyes named Acid orange 8 (AO8) and Acid violet 7 (AV7) by amine based polymer aniline formaldehyde condensate (AFC) was studied. Adsorption of both dyes was favored at acidic pH. Electrostatic attraction between protonated amine group (NH3 +) of AFC and anionic sulfonate group (SO3 -) of dye molecule along with hydrogen bond formation and interaction between aromatic group of dye and AFC were responsible mechanisms for dye uptake. Isotherm of AO8 was Type I and followed Langmuir isotherm model. AV7 isotherm on AFC was of Type III and followed Freundlich model. Kinetics study showed that external mass transfer was the rate limiting step followed by intraparticle diffusion. Maximum adsorption capacities of AO8 and AV7 were observed as 164 and 68 mg/g. AO8 dye being smaller in molecular size was adsorbed more due to higher diffusion rate and higher dye: AFC ratio, which enhanced the interaction between dye and polymer.

  3. Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.S.; Roy, W.R.; Cole, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

  4. Textile dyes removal from aqueous solution using Opuntia ficus-indica fruit waste as adsorbent and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Cid, A A; Velázquez-Ugalde, I; Herrera-González, A M; García-Serrano, J

    2013-11-30

    For this research, three different adsorbents, one untreated and two chemically activated, were prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica fruit waste. By the construction of adsorption isotherms, its adsorption capabilities and the viability of its use in the removal of textile basic and direct type dyes were determined. It was found that the adsorbent with the most adsorption capacity for basic dyes was the one activated with NaClO, and, for direct dyes, it was the one activated with NaOH. Langmuir and Freundlich equations isotherms were applied for the analysis of the experimental data. It was found that the Freundlich model best described the adsorption behavior. The adsorption capacity was improved when the pH of the dye solution had an acid value. The specific surface area of the adsorbents was calculated by means of methylene blue adsorption at 298 K to stay within a range between 348 and 643 m(2) g(-1). The FTIR spectroscopic characterization technique, the SEM, the point of zero charge, and the elemental analysis show the chemical and physical characteristics of the studied adsorbents, which confirm the adsorption results obtained.

  5. The testing of several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R azo dye removal.

    PubMed

    García-Montaño, Julia; Domènech, Xavier; García-Hortal, José A; Torrades, Francesc; Peral, José

    2008-06-15

    Several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R reactive azo dye degradation have been evaluated. Initially, a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic biotreatment has been assessed for different dye concentrations (250, 1250 and 3135 mg l(-1)). 92-97% decolourisation was attained during the anaerobic digestion operating in batch mode. However, no dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal neither biogas production was observed during the process, indicating that no methanogenesis occurred. Additionally, according to Biotox and Zahn-Wellens assays, the anaerobically generated colourless solutions (presumably containing the resulting aromatic amines from azo bond cleavage) were found to be more toxic than the initial dye as well as aerobically non-biodegradable, thus impeding the anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment. In a second part, the use of an advanced oxidation process (AOP) like photo-Fenton or ozonation as a chemical post-treatments of the anaerobic process has been considered for the complete dye by-products mineralisation. The best results were obtained by means of ozonation at pH 10.5, achieving a global 83% mineralisation and giving place to a final harmless effluent. On the contrary, the tested photo-Fenton conditions were not efficient enough to complete oxidation.

  6. Ultrasonic enhancement of the simultaneous removal of quaternary toxic organic dyes by CuO nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Central composite design, kinetic and isotherm study.

    PubMed

    Dashamiri, Somayeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Rahimi, Mahmood Reza; Goudarzi, Alireza; Jannesar, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (CuO-NPs-AC) were prepared and fully analyzed and characterized with FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR. Subsequently, this novel material was used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of brilliant green (BG), auramine O (AO), methylene blue (MB) and eosin yellow (EY) dyes. Problems regard to dyes spectra overlap in quaternary solution of this dyes were omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method. The best pH in quaternary system was studied by using one at a time method to achieved maximum dyes removal percentage. Subsequently, sonication time, adsorbent dosage and initial dyes concentrations influence on dyes removal was optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function approach (DFA). Desirability score of 0.978 show optimum conditions set at sonication time (4.2 min), adsorbent mass (0.029 g), initial dyes concentration (4.5 mg L(-1)). Under this optimum condition the removal percentage for MB, AO, EY and BG dyes 97.58, 94.66, 96.22 and 94.93, respectively. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order while adsorption capacity according to the Langmuir model as best equilibrium isotherm model for BG, MB, AO and EY was 20.48, 21.26, 22.34 and 21.29 mg g(-1), respectively.

  7. Effect of isosmotic removal of extracellular Ca2+ and of membrane potential on cell volume in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rasgado, C; McGruder, K D; Summers, J C; Rasgado-Flores, H

    1994-09-01

    Isosmotic removal of extracellular Ca2+ (Cao) and changes in membrane potential (Vm) are frequently performed manipulations. Using isolated voltage-clamped barnacle muscle cells, we studied the effect of these manipulations on isosmotic cell volume. Replacing Cao by Mg2+ induced 1) verapamil-sensitive extracellular Na(+)-dependent membrane depolarization, 2) membrane depolarization-dependent cell volume reduction in cells whose sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was presumably loaded with Ca2+ [intracellular Ca2+ (Cai)-loaded cells], and 3) cell volume increase in cells whose SR was presumably depleted of Ca2+ (Cai-depleted cells) or in Cai-loaded cells whose Vm was held constant. Membrane depolarization induced 1) volume reduction in Cai-loaded cells or 2) verapamil-sensitive volume increase in Cai-depleted cells. This suggests tha, in Cai-loaded cells, membrane depolarization induces SR Ca2+ release, which in turn promotes volume reduction. Conversely, in Cai-depleted cells, the depolarization activates Na+ influx through a verapamil-sensitive pathway leading to the volume increase. This pathway is also revealed when Cao is removed in either Cai-depleted cells or in cells whose Vm is held constant.

  8. A self-sufficient system for removal of synthetic dye by coupling of spore-displayed triphenylmethane reductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fen; Ding, Haitao; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yuhua

    2016-11-01

    Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes by microorganisms is hampered by the transport barrier imposed by cell membranes. On the other hand, cell-free systems using enzyme-based biodegradation strategy are costly. Therefore, an efficient and inexpensive approach circumventing these problems is highly desirable. Here, we constructed a self-sufficient system for synthetic dye removal by coupling of spore surface-displayed triphenylmethane reductase (TMR) and glucose 1-dehydrogenase (GDH) for the first time. Display of both TMR and GDH significantly enhanced their stability under conditions of extreme pH and temperature. These engineered spores also exhibited more robust long-term stability than their purified counterparts. Furthermore, we observed that a high ratio of spore-displayed GDH is necessary for high dye degradation efficiency. These results indicate that this continuous dye removal system with cofactor regeneration offers a promising solution for dye biodegradation applications.

  9. Synthesis of magnetic β-cyclodextrin-chitosan/graphene oxide as nanoadsorbent and its application in dye adsorption and removal.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lulu; Luo, Chuannan; Sun, Min; Qiu, Huamin; Li, Xiangjun

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic β-cyclodextrin-chitosan/graphene oxide materials (MCCG) were fabricated through a facile chemical route and their application as excellent adsorbents for dye removal were also demonstrated. The characteristics results of FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD showed that MCCG was successfully prepared. The results showed that, benefiting from the surface property of graphene oxide, hydrophobicity of β-cyclodextrin, the abundant amino and hydroxyl functional groups of chitosan, and from the magnetic property of Fe(3)O(4), the adsorbent possesses quite a good and versatile adsorption capacity to the dye under investigation, and can be easily and rapidly extracted from water by magnetic attraction. Most importantly, the adsorbent can be easily and efficiently regenerated for reuse with hardly any compromise of the adsorption capacity. The adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics were investigated to indicate that the kinetics and equilibrium adsorptions were well-described by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The inherent advantages of the nano-structured adsorbent, such as adsorption capacity, easy, handy operation, rapid extraction, and regeneration, may pave a new, efficient and sustainable way towards highly-efficient dye pollutant removal in water and wastewater treatment.

  10. Novel polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiltration membrane blended with functionalized halloysite nanotubes for dye and heavy metal ions removal.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guangyong; He, Yi; Zhan, Yingqing; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Chunli; Yu, Zongxue

    2016-11-05

    Membrane separation is an effective method for the removal of hazardous materials from wastewater. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiltration membranes were prepared by blending with various concentrations of APTES grafted HNTs (A-HNTs). The morphology structure of the membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The contact angle (CA), pure water flux (PWF) and antifouling capacity of membranes were investigated in detail. In addition, the separation performance of membranes were reflected by the removal of dye and heavy metal ions in simulated wastewater. The results revealed that the hydrophilicity of A-HNTs blended PVDF membrane (A-HNTs@PVDF) was enhanced significantly. Owing to the electrostatic interaction between membrane surface and dye molecules, the dye rejection ratio of 3% A-HNTs@PVDF membrane reached 94.9%. The heavy metal ions rejection ratio and adsorption capacity of membrane were also improved with the addition of A-HNTs. More importantly, A-HNTs@PVDF membrane exhibited excellent rejection stability and reuse performances after several times fouling and washing tests. It can be expected that the present work will provide insight into a new method for membrane modification in the field of wastewater treatment.

  11. Application of acidic treated pumice as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye from aqueous solutions: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Samarghandi, Mohammad Reza; Zarrabi, Mansur; Sepehr, Mohammad Noori; Amrane, Abdeltif; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Bashiri, Saied

    2012-11-05

    Colored effluents are one of the important environment pollution sources since they contain unused dye compounds which are toxic and less-biodegradable. In this work removal of Acid Red 14 and Acid Red 18 azo dyes was investigated by acidic treated pumice stone as an efficient adsorbent at various experimental conditions. Removal of dye increased with increase in contact time and initial dye concentration, while decreased for increment in solution temperature and pH. Results of the equilibrium study showed that the removal of AR14 and AR18 followed Freundlich (r2>0.99) and Langmuir (r2>0.99) isotherm models. Maximum sorption capacities were 3.1 and 29.7 mg/g for AR 14 and AR18, namely significantly higher than those reported in the literature, even for activated carbon. Fitting of experimental data onto kinetic models showed the relevance of the pseudo-second order (r2>0.99) and intra-particle diffusion (r2>0.98) models for AR14 and AR18, respectively. For both dyes, the values of external mass transfer coefficient decreased for increasing initial dye concentrations, showing increasing external mass transfer resistance at solid/liquid layer. Desorption experiments confirmed the relevance of pumice stone for dye removal, since the pH regeneration method showed 86% and 89% regeneration for AR14 and AR18, respectively.

  12. Application of acidic treated pumice as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye from aqueous solutions: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Colored effluents are one of the important environment pollution sources since they contain unused dye compounds which are toxic and less-biodegradable. In this work removal of Acid Red 14 and Acid Red 18 azo dyes was investigated by acidic treated pumice stone as an efficient adsorbent at various experimental conditions. Removal of dye increased with increase in contact time and initial dye concentration, while decreased for increment in solution temperature and pH. Results of the equilibrium study showed that the removal of AR14 and AR18 followed Freundlich (r2>0.99) and Langmuir (r2>0.99) isotherm models. Maximum sorption capacities were 3.1 and 29.7 mg/g for AR 14 and AR18, namely significantly higher than those reported in the literature, even for activated carbon. Fitting of experimental data onto kinetic models showed the relevance of the pseudo-second order (r2>0.99) and intra-particle diffusion (r2>0.98) models for AR14 and AR18, respectively. For both dyes, the values of external mass transfer coefficient decreased for increasing initial dye concentrations, showing increasing external mass transfer resistance at solid/liquid layer. Desorption experiments confirmed the relevance of pumice stone for dye removal, since the pH regeneration method showed 86% and 89% regeneration for AR14 and AR18, respectively. PMID:23369579

  13. Mathematical modelling and optimization of synthetic textile dye removal using soil composites as highly competent liner material.

    PubMed

    Das, Papita; Banerjee, Priya; Mondal, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Soil is widely used as adsorbent for removing toxic pollutants from their aqueous solutions due to its wide availability and cost efficiency. This study investigates the potential of soil and soil composites for removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from solution on a comparative scale. Optimisation of different process parameters was carried out using a novel approach of response surface methodology (RSM) and a central composite design (CCD) was used for determining the optimum experimental conditions, as well as the result of their interactions. Around 99.85 % removal of CV was obtained at initial pH 6.4, which further increased to 99.98 % on using soil and cement composite proving it to be the best admixture of those selected. The phenomenon was found to be represented best by the Langmuir isotherm at different temperatures. The process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and was determined to be spontaneous chemisorption in nature. This adsorbent can hence be suggested as an appropriate liner material for the removal of CV dye.

  14. A Novel Biosorbent Lagenaria vulgaris Shell - ZrO₂for the Removal of Textile Dye From Water.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Milica M; Radović, Miljana D; Kostić, Miloš M; Mitrović, Jelena Z; Bojić, Danijela V; Zarubica, Aleksandra R; Bojić, Aleksandar Lj

    2015-07-01

    A new biosorbent, abbreviated as LVB-ZrO₂, was synthesized by chemically modifying Lagenaria vulgaris shell with ZrO₂. The removal of textile dye RB19 from aqueous solution by LVB-ZrO₂was studied. Characterization by SEM, FTIR and XRD confirmed the chemical modification of the biomaterial, which showed significant improvement of removal efficiency compared with unmodified Lagenaria vulgaris shell. LVB-ZrO₂point of zero charge is 5.49. The biosorption process is highly pH dependent and the optimal pH is 2.0, at which complete dye removal was attained. The results are the best by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The optimal adsorbent dosage is 4 mg/dm³.The RB19 biosorption follows the Langmuir isotherm model (R² = 0.9978), with the maximum sorption capacity of 75.12 mg/g. LVB-ZrO₂is a mechanically stable, easy to synthesize, cost-effective, biocompatible and environmentally-friendly biosorbent with the high potential for the removal of RB19 from aqueous solution.

  15. Design of high-strength recyclable graphene oxide-based porous composite for the removal of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Chenlu; Xiong, Jiaqing; Tao, Jin; Zhang, Desuo; Chen, Yuyue; Lin, Hong

    2015-06-01

    Graphene oxide-based composite (SSGO) with orderly pores was prepared by freeze-drying method. Its chemical structure, morphology and mechanical property were investigated. The results show that it has a unidirectional microporous structure which facilitates the diffusion of dyes. The incorporation of GO significantly improves the porous structure, and increases the compressive strength of SSGO. A 26.6 kPa increase and a 3 kPa improvement of strength in dry and wet states were achieved when 4 wt % GO was added. Moreover, the equilibrated adsorption capacity for methylene blue (MB) increased about 78.9%, up to 161 mg/g. With superior compressive strength and excellent adsorption capacity, the SSGO has promising recyclable application in dyes removal from wastewater.

  16. Removal of vertigo blue dyes from Batik textile wastewater by adsorption onto activated carbon and coal bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmiyati, L., Puspita Adi; Deni, V.; Robi Indra, S.; Islamica, Dlia; Fuadi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of vertigo blue dye from batik textile wastewater was studied by adsorptionprocess onto activated carbon (AC) and coal bottom ash (CBA).The influence of experimental conditions (pH solution, dye concentration, and contact time) were studied on the both adsorbents. At equilibrium conditions, the data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model for carbon active was 6.29mg/g at pH that found to be considerably higher than that obtained for coal bottom ash 3.72mg/g pH 9. From Freundlich model, the maximum adsorption capacity is less for coal bottom ash (pH 9) than that for carbon active (pH4).

  17. Novelties of combustion synthesized titania ultrafiltration membrane in efficient removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous effluent.

    PubMed

    Doke, Suresh M; Yadav, Ganapati D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, titania nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion and used to make ultrafiltration membrane. Characteristics of titania membranes such as textural evaluation, surface morphology, pure water permeability and protein rejection were investigated. Titania membrane sintered at 450 °C showed pure water permeability 11 × 10−2 L h−1 m−2 kPa−1 and 76% protein rejection. The membrane presented good water flux and retention properties with regards to protein and methylene blue dye. Ultrafiltration process was operated at lower pressure (100 kPa) and showed 99% removal of methylene blue using adsorptive micellar flocculation at sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration below its critical micellar concentration. Ferric chloride was used as the coagulant. The method of making titania membrane and its use are new. These studies can be extended to other dyes and pollutants.

  18. Electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced relaxations turn into contractions upon removal of extracellular calcium in rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Melike Hacer; Ozturk, Elif Inci; Uma, Serdar

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine the effect of blockade of L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCC) and in addition the removal of extracellular Ca(2+), on EFS-induced relaxations in rings of rat mesenteric artery. EFS applied to the tissues precontracted with phenylephrine caused relaxations which were markedly inhibited by nifedipine (10(-7)M) and tetraethylammonium (TEA) (1mM). Addition of LTCC opener BAY K 8644 (10(-7)M) failed to enhance the relaxations. Upon removal of Ca(2+), EFS with the same stimulation parameters produced frequency-dependent transient contractions. Tetrodotoxin (10(-6)M), capsaicin (10(-5)M) and removal of endothelium did not alter these contractions suggesting that they were not neural in origin and endothelium-derived contracting factors were unlikely to be involved. However, they were increased by nearly 40% in response to BAY K 8644 (10(-7)M) and were inhibited by nifedipine (10(-7)M), indicating that activation of the LTCCs was essential. Inositol triphosphate (InsP3) receptor antagonist 2-APB (10(-4)M) significantly reduced, and high concentration of caffeine (20mM) almost totally suppressed the contractions. These results suggest that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) EFS through membrane depolarization, evokes the opening of the LTCCs which subsequently leads to the release of Ca(2+) from internal stores via InsP3 receptors, a phenomenon known as Ca(2+) channel-induced Ca(2+) release (CCICR), to trigger vasoconstriction. That activation of LTCCs causes arterial relaxation or contraction depending on the Ca(2+) status apparently exemplifies how the same messenger fulfils opposing physiological functions in a given cell.

  19. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (<3kDa) DOM fractions constituted a major portion (>50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency.

  20. Carbonaceous material production from vegetable residue and their use in the removal of textile dyes present in wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez-Cid, A. A.; Tlalpa-Galán, M. A.; Herrera-González, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the adsorption results of acid, basic, direct, vat, and reactive-type dyes on carbonaceous adsorbent materials prepared starting off vegetable residue such as Opuntia ficus indica and Casimiroa edulis fruit wastes. The adsorbents prepared from Opuntia ficus indica waste were designated: TunaAsh, CarTunaT, and CarTunaQ. The materials obtained from Casimiroa edulis waste were named: CenZAP, CarZAPT, and CarZAPQ. TunaAsh and CenZAP consist of ashes obtained at 550 °C CarTunaT and CarZAPT consist of the materials carbonized at 400 °C lastly, CarTunaQ and CarZAPQ consist of chemically activated carbons using H3PO4 at 400 °C. Only the chemically activated materials were washed with distilled water until a neutral pH was obtained after their carbonization. All materials were ground and sieved to obtain a particle size ranging from 0.25 to 0.84 mm. The static adsorption results showed that both ashes and chemically activated carbon are more efficient at dye removal for both vegetable residues. For TunaAsh and CarTunaQ, removal rates of up to 100% in the cases of basic, acid, and direct dyes were achieved. Regarding wastewater containing reactive dyes, the efficiency ranged from 60 to 100%. For vat effluents, it ranged from 42 to 52%. In the case of CenZAP and CarZAPQ, it was possible to treat reactive effluents with rates ranging between 63 and 91%. Regarding vat effluents, it ranged from 57 to 68%. The process of characterization for all materials was done using scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

  1. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent.

  2. Phenol-mediated decolorization and removal of disperse dyes by bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Satar, Rukhsana; Husain, Qayyum

    2009-12-14

    Salt-fractionated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) proteins were employed for the decolorization of disperse dyes in the presence of H2O2. The effect of various experimental conditions such as concentration of enzyme, H2O2, phenol, reaction time, pH and temperature on the decolorization of dyes was investigated. Dyes were recalcitrant to the decolorization catalysed by bitter gourd peroxidase. However, these dyes were decolorized significantly in the presence of a redox mediator, phenol. Bitter gourd peroxidase (0.215 U/mL) could decolorize about 60% of Disperse Red 17 in the presence of 0.2 mM phenol, whereas Disperse Brown 1 was decolorized by only 40% even in the presence of 0.4 mM phenol. Maximum decolorization of dyes was achieved in the presence of 0.75 mM H2O2 in a buffer ofpH 3.0 and 40 degrees C within 30 min. The K(m) values obtained were 0.625 mg/(L x h) and 2.5 mg/(L x h) for Disperse Red 17 and Disperse Brown 1, respectively. In all the experiments, Disperse Brown 1 was found to be more recalcitrant to decolorization catalysed by bitter gourd peroxidise, as compared to Disperse Red 17.

  3. MnCl2 and MgCl2 for the removal of reactive dye Levafix Brilliant Blue EBRA from synthetic textile wastewaters: an adsorption/aggregation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bouyakoub, A Z; Lartiges, B S; Ouhib, R; Kacha, S; El Samrani, A G; Ghanbaja, J; Barres, O

    2011-03-15

    Two divalent cation-based coagulants, magnesium chloride and manganese chloride, were used to treat synthetic textile wastewaters containing the azo-dye pigment Levafix Brilliant Blue EBRA. The jar-tests were performed in the presence or absence of auxiliary dyeing chemicals. They proved that (i) both divalent cation-based coagulants were effective in the treatment of those alkaline effluents, (ii) better performances in terms of color removal, residual turbidity, and settled volume, were achieved with manganese chloride, and (iii) the presence of dyeing auxiliaries significantly increases the required coagulant demand for treating the textile effluent. The dye removal mechanisms were investigated by combining observations of freeze-dried sediments with transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, adsorption experiments, and aggregates size measurements with a laser sizer under cyclic shear conditions. The results show that brucite (Mg(OH)(2)) particles are formed when applying MgCl(2) to the textile wastewaters, whereas a mixture of feitknechite (β-MnOOH) and hausmannite (Mn(3)O(4)) is obtained when using MnCl(2). More poorly crystallized particles are formed in presence of auxiliary dyeing chemicals. The adsorption experiments suggested that the azo-dye pigment adsorbs onto the surface of precipitating phases, whereas the aggregation dynamics indicated that a charge-neutralization mechanism underlies the formation of aggregates. The dye removal is then consistent with a precipitation/adsorption mechanism.

  4. Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution using mesoporous silica synthesized from 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekka, Basanti; Nayak, Soumitra Ranjan; Dash, Priyabrat; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2016-04-01

    In this research, mesoporous silica was synthesized via a modified sol-gel route using 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and was employed to remove malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solution. Subsequently, this material was characterized and identified by different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N2 adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermosgravimetric analysis (TGA). Unique properties such as high surface area and pore diameter, in addition to highly reactive atoms and presence of various functional groups make the mesoporous silica possible for efficient removal of malachite green (MG). In batch experimental set-up, optimum conditions for quantitative removal of MG by mesoporous silica was attained by varying different variables such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time, and pH. Optimum values were set as pH of 8.0, 0.5 g of adsorbent at contact time of 120 min. The adsorption of MG follows the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Freundlich model at all amount of adsorbent, while maximum adsorption capacity was 5.981 mg g-1 for 0.5 g mesoporous silica synthesized in IL.

  5. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Graphene Oxide-Based Magnetic Hybrids for Fast and Highly Efficient Removal of Organic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Tifeng; Liu, Yazhou; Wu, Yitian; Zhang, Qingrui; Yan, Xuehai; Gao, Faming; Bauer, Adam J. P.; Liu, Jianzhao; Zeng, Tingying; Li, Bingbing

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the facile preparation and the dye removal efficiency of nanohybrids composed of graphene oxide (GO) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles with various geometrical structures. In comparison to previously reported GO/Fe3O4 composites prepared through the one-pot, in situ deposition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the GO/Fe3O4 nanohybrids reported here were obtained by taking advantage of the physical affinities between sulfonated GO and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which allows tuning the dimensions and geometries of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in order to decrease their contact area with GO, while still maintaining the magnetic properties of the nanohybrids for easy separation and adsorbent recycling. Both the as-prepared and regenerated nanohybrids demonstrate a nearly 100% removal rate for methylene blue and an impressively high removal rate for Rhodamine B. This study provides new insights into the facile and controllable industrial scale fabrication of safe and highly efficient GO-based adsorbents for dye or other organic pollutants in a wide range of environmental-related applications. PMID:26220847

  6. Metal-organic gel templated synthesis of magnetic porous carbon for highly efficient removal of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Luhuan; Ke, Fei; Zhu, Junfa

    2016-03-21

    Magnetic porous carbon composites are promising materials in various applications, such as adsorbents, supercapacitors and catalyst supports, due to their high surface area, thermal and chemical stability, and easy separation. However, despite the increasing number of reports of magnetic porous carbon composites, the preparation of these materials with environmentally friendly procedures still remains a great challenge. Herein, we report a facile method to prepare a magnetic porous carbon composite with high surface area from a Fe-based metal-organic gel (MOG) template, an extended structure of a metal-organic framework (MOF). The obtained magnetic porous carbon composite was applied to remove organic dyes from an aqueous solution by selecting methyl orange (MO) as a model molecule. It exhibits excellent adsorption capacity (182.82 mg g(-1)), fast adsorption kinetics (8.13 × 10(-3) g mg(-1) min(-1)), and a perfect magnetic separation performance for the MO removal. This study demonstrates a new way to achieve clean synthesis of magnetic porous carbon materials, and opens a new door for the application of MOGs in organic dye removal.

  7. Role of extracellular polymeric substances from Chlorella vulgaris in the removal of ammonium and orthophosphate under the stress of cadmium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Biao; Li, Feng; Liu, Na; Ge, Fei; Xiao, Huaixian; Yang, Yixuan

    2015-08-01

    The interactions between the soluble extracellular polymeric substances (S-EPS), bound EPS (B-EPS) of algae and heavy metal, would affect the removal of ammonium (NH4(+)-N) and orthophosphate (PO4(3-)-P) from wastewater by algae-based techniques. This study investigated the role of Cd(2+)-mediated EPS from Chlorella vulgaris on NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P removal. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P still separately remained 62.6% and 64.9% under 1.0mg/L Cd(2+), compared to those without Cd(2+), mainly attributing to enhanced S-EPS and B-EPS contents of the algae. The increased of PS (polysaccharides) and PN (proteins, e.g., tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like components) led to accelerated interactions of Cd(2+) with PS and PN in EPS fractions, especially for B-EPS, due to a higher detected distribution of Cd(2+) (e.g., about 55.4% in B-EPS). Thus, algae-based techniques are stable treatment methods for wastewater in which NH4(+)-N and PO4(3-)-P coexist with heavy metals.

  8. Removal of cationic dye methylene blue by zero-valent iron: Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on removal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Kurokawa, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Moe; Takagi, Minoru; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Effects of pH and dissolved oxygen on mechanisms for decolorization and total organic carbon (TOC) removal of cationic dye methylene blue (MB) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) were systematically examined. Decolorization and TOC removal of MB by ZVI are attributed to the four potential mechanisms, i.e. reduction, degradation, precipitation and adsorption. The contributions of four mechanisms were quantified at pH 3.0, 6.0 and 10.0 in the oxic and anoxic systems. The maximum efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal of MB were found at pH 6.0. The TOC removal efficiencies at pH 3.0 and 10.0 were 11.0 and 17.0%, respectively which were considerably lower as compared with 68.1% at pH 6.0. The adsorption, which was favorable at higher pH but was depressed by the passive layer formed on the ZVI surface at alkaline conditions, characterized the effects of pH on decolorization and TOC removal of MB. The efficiencies of decolorization and TOC removal at pH 6.0 under the anoxic condition were 73.0 and 59.0%, respectively, which were comparable to 79.9 and 55.5% obtained under the oxic condition. In the oxic and anoxic conditions, however, the contributions of removal mechanisms were quite different. Although the adsorption dominated the decolorization and TOC removal under the oxic condition, the contribution of precipitation was largely superior to that of adsorption under the anoxic condition.

  9. Organo/Zn-Al LDH Nanocomposites for Cationic Dye Removal from Aqueous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starukh, G.; Rozovik, O.; Oranska, O.

    2016-04-01

    Cationic dye sorption by Zn-Al-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with anionic surfactants was examined using methylene blue (MB) dye as a compound model in aqueous solutions. The modification of Zn-Al LDHs was performed by reconstruction method using dodecyl sulfate anion (DS) solutions. DS contained Zn-Al LDHs were characterized by XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric, and SEM analysis. The reconstructed organo/Zn-Al LDHs comprise the crystalline phases (DS-intercalated LDHs, hydrotalcite), and the amorphous phase. The intercalation of DS ions into the interlayer galleries and DS adsorption on the surface of the LDHs occurred causing the MB adsorption on the external and its sorption in the internal surfaces of modified LDHs. The presence of DS greatly increased the affinity of organo/Zn-Al LDHs for MB due to hydrophobic interactions between the surfactants and the dye molecules. The optical properties of sorbed MB were studied.

  10. Kinetics, isothermal and thermodynamics studies of electrocoagulation removal of basic dye rhodamine B from aqueous solution using steel electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeogun, Abideen Idowu; Balakrishnan, Ramesh Babu

    2015-09-01

    Electrocoagulation was used for the removal of basic dye rhodamine B from aqueous solution, and the process was carried out in a batch electrochemical cell with steel electrodes in monopolar connection. The effects of some important parameters such as current density, pH, temperature and initial dye concentration, on the process, were investigated. Equilibrium was attained after 10 min at 30 °C. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and Avrami kinetic models were used to test the experimental data in order to elucidate the kinetic adsorption process; pseudo-first-order and Avrami models best fitted the data. Experimental data were analysed using six model equations: Langmuir, Freudlinch, Redlich-Peterson, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Sips isotherms and it was found that the data fitted well with Sips isotherm model. The study showed that the process depends on current density, temperature, pH and initial dye concentration. The calculated thermodynamics parameters (Δ G^circ ,Δ H^circ {text{and}}Δ S{^circ } ) indicated that the process is spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  11. Polypyrrole-coated magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent for RB19 synthetic textile dye: Removal and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Shanehsaz, Maryam; Seidi, Shahram; Ghorbani, Yousefali; Shoja, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Rouhani, Shohre

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the first attempt to study the removal of synthetic textile dye, reactive blue 19 (RB19), using the magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles modified by pyrrole (PPy@Fe3O4 MNPs) as an efficient adsorbent. The nanoadsorbent was synthesized using chemical co-precipitation. Scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR were used to characterize nanoparticles. Factors affecting the dye adsorption including the pH of the dye solution, amount of adsorbent and contact time were also further investigated. Sorption of the RB19 on PPy@Fe3O4 MNPs reached to equilibrium at contact time less than 10 min and fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 112.36 mg g(-1). Experiments for adsorption kinetic were carried out and the data fitted well according to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the MNPs were recovered with over than 90% efficiency using methanol as elution agent.

  12. A review on applicability of naturally available adsorbents for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Kaur, Harleen; Sharma, Monika; Sahore, Vishal

    2011-12-01

    The effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing, cosmetics, etc., contains large amount of hazardous dyes. There is huge number of treatment processes as well as adsorbent which are available for the processing of this effluent water-containing dye content. The applicability of naturally available low cast and eco-friendly adsorbents, for the removal of hazardous dyes from aqueous waste by adsorption treatment, has been reviewed. In this review paper, we have provided a compiled list of low-cost, easily available, safe to handle, and easy-to-dispose-off adsorbents. These adsorbents have been classified into five different categories on the basis of their state of availability: (1) waste materials from agriculture and industry, (2) fruit waste, (3) plant waste, (4) natural inorganic materials, and (5) bioadsorbents. Some of the treated adsorbents have shown good adsorption capacities for methylene blue, congo red, crystal violet, rhodamine B, basic red, etc., but this adsorption process is highly pH dependent, and the pH of the medium plays an important role in the treatment process. Thus, in this review paper, we have made some efforts to discuss the role of pH in the treatment of wastewater.

  13. Microwave treated Salvadora oleoides as an eco-friendly biosorbent for the removal of toxic methyl violet dye from aqueous solution--A green approach.

    PubMed

    Din, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Zaib; Munir, Hifza; Naz, Amber; Intisar, Azeem; Makshoof, M Nouman; Mirza, M Latif

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, microwave treated Salvadora oleoides (MW-SO) has been investigated as a potential biosorbent for the removal of toxic methyl violet dye. A batch adsorption method was experimented for biosorptive removal of toxic methyl violet dye from the aqueous solution. The effect of various operating variables, viz., adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and temperature on the removal of the dye was studied and it was found that nearly 99% removal of the dye was possible under optimum conditions. Kinetic study revealed that a pseudo-second-order mechanism was predominant and the overall process of the dye adsorption involved more than one step. Hence, in order to investigate the rate determining step, intra-particle diffusion model was applied. Adsorption equilibrium study was made by analyzing Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherm models and the biosorption data was found to be best represented by the Langmuir model. The biosorption efficiency of MW-SO was also compared with unmodified material, Salvadora oleoides (SO). It was found that the sorption capacity (qmax) increased from 58.5 mg/g to 219.7 mg/g on MW treatment. Determination of thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change (ΔG°), enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) confirmed the spontaneous, endothermic and feasible nature of the adsorption process. The preparation of MW-SO did not require any additional chemical treatment and a high percentage removal of methyl violet dye was obtained in much lesser time. Thus, it is in agreement with the principles of green chemistry. The results of the present research work suggest that MW-SO can be used as an environmentally friendly and economical alternative biosorbent for the removal of methyl violet dye from aqueous solutions.

  14. Removal of basic yellow dye from aqueous solution by sorption on green alga Caulerpa scalpelliformis.

    PubMed

    Aravindhan, Rathinam; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2007-04-02

    Dynamic batch experiments were carried out for the biosorption of basic yellow dye on to the green macroalgae Caulerpa scalpelliformis. The factors affecting the sorption process such as the initial concentration of the dye and pH of the solution, the adsorbent dosage and the time of contact were studied. The sorption kinetics followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. The Caulerpa species exhibited a maximum uptake of 27 mg of dye per gram of seaweed. The Boyd's plot confirmed the external mass transfer as the rate-limiting step. The average effective diffusion coefficient was found to be 2.47 x 10(-4)cm(2)/s. Sorption equilibrium studies demonstrated that the biosorption followed Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy of sorption DeltaH degrees , free energy change DeltaG degrees and entropy DeltaS degrees were estimated. The negative value of DeltaH degrees and negative values of DeltaG degrees show the sorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. The negative value of entropy DeltaS degrees shows the decreased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the sorption of dyes onto green seaweed.

  15. Graphene-Embedded Hydrogel Nanofibers for Detection and Removal of Aqueous-Phase Dyes.

    PubMed

    Im, Kyungun; Nguyen, Duong Nguyen; Kim, Saerona; Kong, Hye Jeong; Kim, Yukyung; Park, Chul Soon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2017-03-16

    A facile route to graphene/polymer hydrogel nanofibers was developed. An aqueous dispersion of graphene (containing >40% bilayer graphene flakes) stabilized by a functionalized water-soluble polymer with phenyl side chains was successfully electrospun to yield nanofibers. Subsequent vapor-phase cross-linking of the nanofibers produced graphene-embedded hydrogel nanofibers (GHNFs). Interestingly, the GHNFs showed chemical sensitivity to the cationic dyes methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV) in the aqueous phase. The adsorption capacities were as high as 0.43 and 0.33 mmol g(-1) s(-1) for MB and CV, respectively, even in a 1.5 mL s(-1) flow system. A density functional theory calculation revealed that aqueous-phase MB and CV dyes were oriented parallel to the graphene surface and that the graphene/dye ensembles were stabilized by secondary physical bonding mechanisms such as the π-π stacking interaction in an aqueous medium. The GHNFs exhibited electrochemical properties arising mainly from the electric double-layer capacitance, which were applied in a demonstration of GHNF-based membrane electrodes (5 cm in diameter) for detecting the dyes in the flow system. It is believed that the GHNF membrane can be a successful model candidate for commercialization of graphene due to its easy-to-fabricate process and remarkable properties.

  16. An efficient removal of crystal violet dye from waste water by adsorption onto TLAC/Chitosan composite: A novel low cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Jayasantha Kumari, H; Krishnamoorthy, P; Arumugam, T K; Radhakrishnan, S; Vasudevan, D

    2017-03-01

    A composite of Typha latifolia activated carbon (TLAC) (a novel, low cost absorbent) and chitosan (TLAC/Chitosan composite) was prepared. The composite was characterised using IR spectra, XRD, FESEM and Pore size studies. Its effectivity was tested for the removal of crystal violet dye from aqueous solutions. The effect of pH, dose rate and initial dye concentration was evaluated. The adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were studied. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were found fit effectively for the dye adsorption data in the present study. The adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The evaluated thermodynamic parameters show a spontaneous and exothermic reaction. Overall, this study indicates TLAC/Chitosan composite as an effective adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye from aqueous solutions.

  17. Acid dye removal: comparison of surfactant-modified mesoporous FSM-16 with activated carbon derived from rice husk.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed Mokhtar

    2004-04-01

    Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified mesoporous molecular sieve FSM-16, prepared by a hydrothermal process (373 K, 3 days), was tested as an adsorbent for acid dye (acid yellow, AY, and acid blue, AB) removal in comparison with as-prepared FSM-16 and activated carbon (AC) derived from rice husk (50 vol% H3PO4, 773 K, 2.5 h). The adsorption isotherms, sorption kinetics, and pH effects upon acid dyes sorption on the adsorbents were thoroughly investigated. The structures of different adsorbents were characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption measurements, and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. It was found that the ultimate capacity of the adsorbents varied in the order FSM-16 > modified FSM-16 > AC and followed first-order rate kinetics. The adsorption isotherm of acid dyes on FSM-16 is of type IV, according to the IUPAC classification, drastically different from that of CTAB/FSM-16, which showed a type I isotherm. The latter sample had better adsorption performance at low concentration of acid dyes than the former. As compared to activated carbon of microporous character, the CTAB/FSM-16 sample achieved higher performance at low concentrations. This was due to the successful narrowing of the pore opening of FSM-16 using CTAB with maintenance of a considerable portion of the pore volume. Powder XRD and N2 adsorption studies of the CTAB/FSM-16 material indicated that the textural properties of the support were preserved during the hydrothermal synthesis and that the channels remained accessible, despite a significant reduction in surface area (ca. 26%). TG studies, on the other hand, confirmed that the modified material presented a higher hydrophobicity than that of the CTAB-free FSM-16 sample.

  18. Application of linear and non-linear methods for modeling removal efficiency of textile dyes from aqueous solutions using magnetic Fe3O4 impregnated onto walnut shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, Motahare; Arab Chamjangali, Mansour; Bagherian, Ghadamali; Goudarzi, Nasser

    2017-01-01

    The performance of the Nano-magnetite Fe3O4 impregnated onto walnut shell (Fe3O4-WNS), which possessed the adsorption features of walnut shell and the magnetic property of Fe3O4, was investigated for the elimination of the methyl violet and Rhodamine 6G from contaminated aqueous solutions. The effects of different experimental variables on the removal efficiency of the cited dyes were examined. Then these variables were used as the inputs to generate linear and non-linear models such as the multiple linear regression, random forest, and artificial neural network to predict the removal efficiency of these dye species at different experimental conditions. The validation studies of these models were performed using the test set, which was not present in the modeling procedure. It was found that ANN had a higher ability to predict the adsorption process under different experimental conditions, and could be applied for the development of an automated dye wastewater removal plant. Also the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) indicated that the qmax value for Fe3O4-WNS for removal of cationic dyes was comparable or better than that for some reported adsorbents. Also it should be cited that exhausted Fe3O4-WNS was regenerated using dishwashing liquid, and reused for removal of the cited dye species from aqueous solutions.

  19. Application of linear and non-linear methods for modeling removal efficiency of textile dyes from aqueous solutions using magnetic Fe3O4 impregnated onto walnut shell.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Motahare; Arab Chamjangali, Mansour; Bagherian, Ghadamali; Goudarzi, Nasser

    2017-01-15

    The performance of the Nano-magnetite Fe3O4 impregnated onto walnut shell (Fe3O4-WNS), which possessed the adsorption features of walnut shell and the magnetic property of Fe3O4, was investigated for the elimination of the methyl violet and Rhodamine 6G from contaminated aqueous solutions. The effects of different experimental variables on the removal efficiency of the cited dyes were examined. Then these variables were used as the inputs to generate linear and non-linear models such as the multiple linear regression, random forest, and artificial neural network to predict the removal efficiency of these dye species at different experimental conditions. The validation studies of these models were performed using the test set, which was not present in the modeling procedure. It was found that ANN had a higher ability to predict the adsorption process under different experimental conditions, and could be applied for the development of an automated dye wastewater removal plant. Also the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) indicated that the qmax value for Fe3O4-WNS for removal of cationic dyes was comparable or better than that for some reported adsorbents. Also it should be cited that exhausted Fe3O4-WNS was regenerated using dishwashing liquid, and reused for removal of the cited dye species from aqueous solutions.

  20. Synthesis of magnetic nanoporous carbon from metal-organic framework for the fast removal of organic dye from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Caina; Wang, Yanen; Li, Menghua; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a magnetic nanoporous carbon (Fe3O4/NPC) was successfully synthesized by using MOF-5 as carbon precursor and Fe salt as magnetic precursor. The texture properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibration sample magnetometer (VSM), and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The Fe3O4/NPC had a high surface area with strong magnetic strength. Its adsorption behavior was tested by its adsorption capacity for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The results demonstrated that the Fe3O4/NPC had a high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate, and easy magnetic separabilty. Moreover, the adsorbent could be easily regenerated by washing it with ethanol. The Fe3O4/NPC can be used as a good alternative for the effective removal of organic dyes from wastewater.

  1. Enhancement removal of tartrazine dye using HCl-doped polyaniline and TiO2-decorated PANI particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, M. A.; Gobara, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    HCl-doped polyaniline (HCl-PANI) and titanium dioxide decorated with polyaniline (TiO2-decorated PANI) with different TiO2:PANI ratios were chemically prepared and utilized for the removal of tartrazine (TZ) dye from a synthetic aqueous solution. The mechanism of preparation of the sample suggested that aniline was adsorbed on the TiO2 surface before the polymerization process took place. Samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that HCl-PANI and TiO2-decorated PANI have an amorphous structure. The thermal stability of the prepared samples was characterized using thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. HCl-PANI is stable up to 200 °C and the relative weight per cent of PANI in the TiO2-decorated PANI was 20, 25, 40 and 45%. The removal activity of TiO2-decorated PANI via TZ azo dye was investigated under UV light irradiations and compared with HCl-PANI and TiO2 particles. The results indicated the superiority of the TiO2-decorated PANI over pure HCl-PANI and TiO2. However, the excessive PANI percentage tends to form a relatively thick layer, and even aggregates on the surface of TiO2. This hinders the migration of excited electrons from the outer PANI layer to the inner TiO2 particles, which consequently leads to a decrease in the removal efficiency. A possible mechanism for the removal oxidative degradation is also mentioned.

  2. Biological phosphorus removal in an extended ASM2 model: Roles of extracellular polymeric substances and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan-Shan; Pang, Ji-Wei; Guo, Wan-Qian; Yang, Xiao-Yin; Wu, Zhong-Yang; Ren, Nan-Qi; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an extended ASM2 model for the modeling and calibration of the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in phosphorus (P) removal in an anaerobic-aerobic process. In this extended ASM2 model, two new components, the bound EPS (XEPS) and the soluble EPS (SEPS), are introduced. Compared with the ASM2, 7.71, 8.53, and 9.28% decreases in polyphosphate (polyP) were observed in the extended ASM2 in three sequencing batch reactors feeding with different COD/P ratios, indicating that 7.71-9.28% of P in the liquid was adsorbed by EPS. Sensitive analysis indicated that, five parameters were the significant influential parameters and had been chosen for further model calibration by using the least square method to simulate by MATLAB. This extended ASM2 has been successfully established to simulate the output variables and provides a useful reference for the mathematic simulations of the role of EPS in biological phosphorus removal process.

  3. Experimental Design Approach for Methylene Blue Dye Removal in Aqueous Environment by Nitrilotriacetic Modified Banana Pith.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shi-Ling; Liew, Shu-Wei; Ong, Siew-Teng

    2016-01-01

    Native banana pith (NBP) was modified by using nitrilotriacetic acid to increase its efficiency and adsorption capacity for methylene blue (MB) dye. The effect of various parameters such as pH, contact time and initial dye concentration, sorption isotherm and adsorbent dosage were studied. The maximum adsorption capacity of the NBP and NTA-BP is 100 and 142.86 mg/g, respectively. The IR spectrum of NBP and NTA-BP showed the presence of both carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. From the SEM micrographs, the surface morphology of NTA-BP before adsorption appeared to be smoother as compared to that after adsorption process. The pH(pzc) of NBP is 5.6 whereas for NTA-BP is 7.6. The experimental data fitted well into Langmuir isotherm with R(2) of 0.992. Plackett-Burman design was applied to identify the significant factors in affecting the uptake whereas the interaction between the factors and their optimum levels for the maximum percentage uptake of MB were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the results, the optimum condition for adsorption of MB was by using 0.06 g of NTA-BP in dye solution at pH 6 with 120 minutes contact time. The maximum adsorption of MB by NTA-BP achieved 99.42% under the optimum condition.

  4. Production of a bioflocculant by Aspergillus parasiticus and its application in dye removal.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang; Ting, Yen Peng

    2005-09-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus was found to produce a bioflocculant with high flocculating activity for Kaolin suspension and water-soluble dyes. Results showed that the carbon and nitrogen sources favorable for the production of the bioflocculant were corn starch and peptone, and an optimal condition of 28 degrees C, initial pH 5-6 and shaking speed of 150 rpm. The highest flocculating efficiency achieved for Kaolin suspension was 98.1%, after 72 h cultivation. The bioflocculant was mainly composed of sugar (76.3%) and protein (21.6%), and an average molecular weight of 3.2x10(5) Da. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that amino, amide and hydroxyl groups were present in the bioflocculant molecules. The bioflocculant was effective in flocculating some soluble anionic dyes in aqueous solution, in particular Reactive Blue 4 and Acid Yellow 25 with a decolorization efficiency of 92.4 and 92.9%, respectively. The decolorization efficiency was dependent on the flocculant dosage and solution pH. XPS result shows that the amine groups in the bioflocculant were protonated at pH 5, and thus the positive bioflocculant was attracted to the negatively charged dye molecules. The amino and amide groups in the bioflocculant molecule are believed to play an important role in flocculation from the viewpoint of electrostatic interaction.

  5. Pyridine derivative covalently bonded on chitosan pendant chains for textile dye removal.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cintia S; Airoldi, Claudio

    2014-02-15

    Chitosan was chemically modified through a sequence of four reactions with immobilized 2-aminomethylpyridine at the final stage, after prior protection of amino group with benzaldehyde. The characterized biopolymers containing free amino and hydroxyl active centers on the biopolymeric structure and pyridinic nitrogen on pendant chains showed combined hydrophobic properties that can potentially favor interactions. Reactive Yellow GR and Blue RN dyes gave the maximum sorption capacities of 2.13 and 1.61 mmol g(-1), which were performed as functions of contact time, concentration and dye structure. However, biopolymer/dye interactions are governed by effective hydrogen bond and van der Waals forces for such structural adjustments. The data obtained from the concentration isotherm were applied to non-linear regressions of the Langmuir, the Freundlich and the Sips models, with the best fit to the latter model. The kinetic data was fitted to non-linear regression of pseudo-second-order, indicating that the sorption phenomena are most likely to be controlled by chemisorption process.

  6. High adsorption capacity NaOH-activated carbon for dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-Chin; Tseng, Ru-Ling

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the surface coverage ratio (Sc/Sp) and monolayer cover adsorption amount per unit surface area (qmon/Sp) were employed to investigate the adsorption isotherm equilibrium of the adsorption of dyes (AB74, BB1 and MB) on NaOH-activated carbons (FWNa2, FWNa3 and FWNa4); the adsorption rate of the Elovich equation (1/b) and the ratio of 1min adsorption amount of adsorbate to the monolayer cover amount of adsorbate (q1/qmon) were employed to investigate adsorption kinetics. The qmon/Sp of NaOH-activated carbons was better than that of KOH-activated carbons prepared from the same raw material (fir wood). The Sc/Sp values of the adsorption of all adsorbates on adsorbent FWNa3 in this study were found to be higher than those in related literature. Parameters 1/b and q1 of the adsorption of dyes on activated carbons in this study were higher than those on KOH-activated carbons; the q1/qmon value of FWNa3 was the highest. The pore structure and the TPD measurement of the surface oxide groups were employed to explain the superior adsorption performance of FWNa3. A high surface activated carbon (FWNa3) with excellent adsorption performance on dyes with relation to adsorption isotherm equilibrium and kinetics was obtained in this study. Several adsorption data processing methods were employed to describe the adsorption performance.

  7. Identification of the function of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in denitrifying phosphorus removal sludge in the presence of copper ion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yayi; Qin, Jian; Zhou, Shuai; Lin, Ximao; Ye, Liu; Song, Chengkang; Yan, Yuan

    2015-04-15

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals that enters municipal wastewater treatment plants inevitably has a toxic impact on biological treatment processes. In this study, the impact of Cu(II) (0, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 mg/L) on the performance of denitrifying phosphorus removal (DPR) and microbial community structures was investigated. Particularly, the dynamic change in the amount and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and the role of EPS in P removal, were assessed using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy combined with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis. The results showed that, after long-term adjustment, the P removal efficiency was maintained at 95 ± 2.7% at Cu(II) addition up to 2.5 mg/L, but deteriorated when the Cu(II) addition was 3 mg/L. The EPS content, including proteins and humic substances, increased with increasing Cu(II) additions at concentrations ≤2.5 mg/L. This property of EPS was beneficial for protecting phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) against heavy metals, as both proteins and humic substances are strong ligands for Cu(II). Therefore, the PAOs abundance was still relatively high (67 ± 3%) when Cu(II) accumulation in sludge was up to 10 mg/g SS. PARAFAC confirmed that aromatic proteins could be transformed into soluble microbial byproduct-like material when microorganisms were subjected to Cu(II) stress, owing to their strong metal ion complexing capacity. The increase in the percentage of humic-like substances enhanced the detoxification function of the sludge EPS. EPS accounted for approximately 26-47% of P removed by adsorption when Cu(II) additions were between 0 and 2.5 mg/L. The EPS function, including binding toxic heavy metals and P storage, enhanced the operating stability of DPR systems. This study provides us with a better understanding of (1) the tolerance of DPR sludge to copper toxicity and (2) the function of sludge EPS in the presence of heavy metals in

  8. A facile one-pot solvothermal method to produce superparamagnetic graphene-Fe3O4 nanocomposite and its application in the removal of dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiuhua; Feng, Cheng; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    A superparamagnetic graphene-Fe(3)O(4) nanocomposite (G/Fe(3)O(4)) was synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The nanocomposite G/Fe(3)O(4) prepared by the new method was firstly used as an adsorbent to remove dye for water pollution remediation. In comparison with G/Fe(3)O(4) prepared by the in situ chemical coprecipitation, the newly prepared G/Fe(3)O(4) had a higher adsorption efficiency for the dye. The adsorption characteristics of the nanocomposite adsorbent were examined using the organic dye pararosaniline as the adsorbate. The adsorption kinetics, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, and the effect of the adsorbent dosage and solution pH on the removal efficiency of pararosaniline were investigated. The adsorption capacity of G/Fe(3)O(4) for pararosaniline was evaluated using the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The G/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite can be easily manipulated in magnetic field for desired separation, leading to an easy removal of the dye from polluted water. The G/Fe(3)O(4) hybrid composite would have a great potential in removing organic dyes from polluted water.

  9. Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2006-07-31

    The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl(2) activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl(2) activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water.

  10. Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxides loaded on granular activated carbon to enhance dye removal by catalytic ozonation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shoufeng; Yuan, Deling; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yameng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Zhengquan; Huang, Haiming

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxide supported on granular activated carbon (Fe-Mn GAC) has been fabricated by an impregnation-desiccation method and tested in the catalytic ozonation of methyl orange (MO) degradation and mineralization. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterizations revealed that Fe-Mn oxides were successfully loaded and uniformly distributed on the GAC, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed that the supported GAC retained a large surface area and a high pore volume compared with the pristine GAC. The catalytic activity was systematically assessed by monitoring the MO removal efficiencies at different operational parameters, such as catalyst dosage, initial solution pH, and ozone flow rate. The Fe-Mn GAC exhibited better catalytic activity relative to ozone alone and GAC alone, improving the TOC removal by 24.5 and 11.5 % and COD removal by 13.6 and 7.3 %, respectively. The reusability of the hybrid was examined over five consecutive cyclic treatments. The Fe-Mn GAC catalytic activity was only a slight loss in the cycles, showing good stability. The addition of Na2CO3 as hydroxyl radicals (•OH) scavengers proved that the catalytic ozonation mechanism was the enhanced generation of •OH by the Fe-Mn GAC. The above results render the Fe-Mn GAC an industrially promising candidate for catalytic ozonation of dye contaminant removal.

  11. Insight into the roles of tightly and loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances on a granular sludge in ammonium nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lilong; Zhang, Xiaolei; Hao, Guoxin; Guo, Yihan; Ren, Yuan; Yu, Liangbin; Bao, Xuefei; Zhang, Ying

    2016-12-01

    To explicitly understand the function of extracellular polymeric substances in the treatment of ammonium-nitrogen-rich wastewater using aerobic granular sludge, the three forms of nitrogen (ammonium, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen) contained in tightly and loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances were analyzed. The three forms of nitrogen were monitored in the tightly and loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances in aerobic granular sludge after adsorption. The ammonium nitrogen contained in the extracellular polymeric substances was distributed in both the tightly and loosely bound forms and decreased gradually as the aeration time increased. Ammonium nitrogen remained in the tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances even after aeration was complete. The nitrite and nitrate nitrogen species in the extracellular polymeric substances were mainly present in the loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances. The sources of the three nitrogen forms detected in the extracellular polymeric substances differed relative to the different nitrogen forms.

  12. Optimum BET surface areas for activated carbon produced from textile sewage sludges and its application as dye removal.

    PubMed

    Kacan, Erdal

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this experimental study is to determine optimum preparation conditions for activated carbons obtained from textile sewage sludge (TSS) for removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. The textile sewage sludge activated carbon (TSSAC) was prepared by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The most influential factor on each experimental design responses was identified via ANNOVA analysis. Based on the central composite design (CCD), quadratic model was developed to correlate the preparation variables for one response which is the Brunauer-Emmelt-Teller (BET) surface area. RSM based on a three-variable CCD was used to determine the effect of pyrolyzed temperature (400-700 °C), carbonization time (45-180 min) and KOH: weight of TSS (wt%) impregnation ratio (0.5:1-1.5:1) on BET surface area. According to the results, pyrolyzed temperature and impregnation ratio were found as the significant factors for maximizing the BET surface area. The major effect which influences the BET surface area was found as pyrolyzed temperature. Both carbonization time and impregnation ratio of KOH had no significant effect. The optimum conditions for preparing TSSAC, based on response surface and contour plots, were found as follows: pyrolyzed temperature 700 °C, carbonization time of 45 min and chemical impregnation ratio of 0.5. The maximum and optimum BET surface area of TSSAC were found as 336 m(2)/g and 310.62 m(2)/g, respectively. Synozol Blue reactive (RSB) and Setapers Yellow-Brown (P2RFL) industrial textile dyes adsorption capacities were investigated. As expected the TSSAC which has the biggest BET surface area (336 m(2)/g) adsorbed dye best. The maximum (RSB) and (P2RFL) uptake capacities were found as 8.5383 mg/g and 5.4 mg/g, respectively. The results of this study indicated the applicability of TSSAC for removing industrial dyes from aqueous solution.

  13. Nano-silica fabricated with silver nanoparticles: antifouling adsorbent for efficient dye removal, effective water disinfection and biofouling control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sujoy K.; Khan, Md. Motiar R.; Parandhaman, T.; Laffir, Fathima; Guha, Arun K.; Sekaran, G.; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2013-05-01

    A nano-silica-AgNPs composite material is proposed as a novel antifouling adsorbent for cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification. Fabrication of well-dispersed AgNPs on the nano-silica surface, designated as NSAgNP, has been achieved through protein mediated reduction of silver ions at ambient temperature for development of sustainable nanotechnology. The coated proteins on AgNPs led to the formation of stable NSAgNP and protected the AgNPs from oxidation and other ions commonly present in water. The NSAgNP exhibited excellent dye adsorption capacity both in single and multicomponent systems, and demonstrated satisfactory tolerance against variations in pH and dye concentration. The adsorption mainly occurred through electrostatic interaction, though π-π interaction and pore diffusion also contributed to the process. Moreover, the NSAgNP showed long-term antibacterial activity against both planktonic cells and biofilms of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs retarded the initial attachment of bacteria on NSAgNP and thus significantly improved the antifouling properties of the nanomaterial, which further inhibited biofilm formation. Scanning electron and fluorescence microscopic studies revealed that cell death occurred due to irreversible damage of the cell membrane upon electrostatic interaction of positively charged NSAgNP with the negatively charged bacterial cell membrane. The high adsorption capacity, reusability, good tolerance, removal of multicomponent dyes and E. coli from the simulated contaminated water and antifouling properties of NSAgNP will provide new opportunities to develop cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification processes.A nano-silica-AgNPs composite material is proposed as a novel antifouling adsorbent for cost-effective and ecofriendly water purification. Fabrication of well-dispersed AgNPs on the nano-silica surface, designated as NSAgNP, has been achieved through

  14. Process development for the removal and recovery of hazardous dye erythrosine from wastewater by waste materials-Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha; Singh, A K

    2006-11-02

    Erythrosine is a water-soluble xanthene class of dye. It is widely used as colorant in foods, textiles, drugs and cosmetics. It is highly toxic, causes various types of allergies, thyroid activities, carcinogenicity, DNA damage behaviour, neurotoxicity and xenoestrogen nature in the humans and animals. The photochemical and biochemical degradation of the erythrosine is not recommended due to formation of toxic by-products. The present paper is an attempt to remove erythrosine from wastewater using adsorption over Bottom Ash-a power plant waste and De-Oiled Soya-an agricultural waste. Under the batch studies, effect of concentration of dye, temperature, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc., have been studied for the uptake of the dye over both adsorbents. The adsorption process verifies Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms in both the cases and based on the data different thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Batch studies also include kinetic measurements, rate constant study, mass transfer behaviour and establishment of mechanistic pathway for both the cases. For the bulk removal of the dye column operations have been carried out and breakthrough capacities of the Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns have been calculated. Attempts have also been made for the recovery of the adsorbed dye from exhausted columns by eluting dilute NaOH and more than 90% of the dye was recovered.

  15. A new morphological approach for removing acid dye from leather waste water: preparation and characterization of metal-chelated spherical particulated membranes (SPMs).

    PubMed

    Şenay, Raziye Hilal; Gökalp, Safiye Meriç; Türker, Evren; Feyzioğlu, Esra; Aslan, Ahmet; Akgöl, Sinan

    2015-03-15

    In this study, p(HEMA-GMA) poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) spherical particulated membranes (SPMs) were produced by UV-photopolymerization and the synthesized SPMs were coupled with iminodiacetic acid (IDA). Finally the novel SPMs were chelated with Cr(III) ions as ligand and used for removing acid black 210 dye. Characterizations of the metal-chelated SPMs were made by SEM, FTIR and swelling test. The water absorption capacities and acid dye adsorption properties of the SPMs were investigated and the results were 245.0, 50.0, 55.0 and 51.9% for p(HEMA), p(HEMA-GMA), p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA and p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA-Cr(III) SPMs respectively. Adsorption properties of the p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA-Cr(III) SPMs were investigated under different conditions such as different initial dye concentrations and pH. The optimum pH was observed at 4.3 and the maximum adsorption capacity was determined as 885.14 mg/g at about 8000 ppm initial dye concentration. The concentrations of the dyes were determined using a UV/Vis Spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 435 nm. Reusability of p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA-Cr(III) SPMs was also shown for five adsorption-desorption cycles without considerable decrease in its adsorption capacity. Finally, the results showed that the metal-chelated p(HEMA-GMA)-IDA SPMs were effective sorbent systems removing acid dye from leather waste water.

  16. Mixed titanium, silicon, and aluminum oxide nanostructures as novel adsorbent for removal of rhodamine 6G and methylene blue as cationic dyes from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Pal, Umapada; Sandoval, Alberto; Madrid, Sergio Isaac Uribe; Corro, Grisel; Sharma, Vivek; Mohanty, Paritosh

    2016-11-01

    Mixed oxide nanoparticles containing Ti, Si, and Al of 8-15 nm size range were synthesized using a combined sol-gel - hydrothermal method. Effects of composition on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of the nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), microRaman spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Dye removal abilities of the nanoparticles from aqueous solutions were tested for different cationic dyes. While all the mixed oxide nanoparticles revealed high and fast adsorption of cationic dyes, the particles containing Ti and Si turned out to be the best. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption behavior of the adsorbate - adsorbent systems could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Estimated thermodynamic parameters revealed the adsorption process is spontaneous, driven mainly by the electrostatic force between the cationic dye molecules and negative charge at nanoparticle surface. Highest dye adsorption capacity (162.96 mg MB/g) of the mixed oxide nanostructures containing Ti and Si is associated to their high specific surface area, and the presence of surface Si-O(δ-) groups, in addition to the hydroxyl groups of amorphous titania. Mixed oxide nanoparticles containing 75% Ti and 25% Si seen to be the most efficient adsorbents for removing cationic dye molecules from wastewater.

  17. Laser-induced removal of a dye C.I. Acid Red 87 using n-type WO3 semiconductor catalyst.

    PubMed

    Qamar, M; Gondal, M A; Hayat, K; Yamani, Z H; Al-Hooshani, K

    2009-10-30

    Water contamination by organic substances such as dyes is of great concern worldwide due to their utilization in many industrial processes and environmental concerns. To cater the needs for waste water treatment polluted with organic dyes, laser-induced photocatalytic process was investigated for removal of a dye derivative namely Acid Red 87 using n-type WO3 semiconductor catalyst. The degradation was investigated in aqueous suspensions of tungsten oxide under different experimental conditions using laser instead of conventional UV lamp as an irradiation source. The degradation process was monitored by measuring the change in dye concentration as a function of laser irradiation time by employing UV spectroscopic analysis. The degradation of dye was studied by varying different parameters such as laser energy, reaction pH, substrate concentration, catalyst concentration, and in the presence of electron acceptors such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and potassium bromate (KBrO3). The degradation rates were found to be strongly dependent on all the above-mentioned parameters. Our experimental results revealed that the dye degradation process was very fast (within few minutes) under laser irradiation as compared to conventional setups using broad spectral lamps (hours or days) and this laser-induced photocatalytic degradation method could be an effective means to eliminate the pollutants present in liquid phase. The experience gained through this study could be beneficial for treatment of waste water contaminated with organic dyes and other organic pollutants.

  18. Preparation of carbon microspheres decorated with silver nanoparticles and their ability to remove dyes from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingchun; Wu, Qingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Solid, but not hollow or porous, carbon microspheres decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNP-CMSs) were prepared from silver nitrate and CMSs by a redox reaction at room temperature. The CMSs and AgNP-CMSs were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Though with non-high specific surface area, the AgNP-CMSs exhibited a high adsorption capacity toward methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution. The AgNP-CMSs were able to remove all the MB from a solution of 30 mg/L MB in water within 1 min when the adsorbent concentration was 0.12 g/L. The AgNP-CMSs also exhibited good adsorption and photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of aqueous Rhodamine B as well as MB under visible light. FTIR was used to examine the interaction between AgNP-CMSs and MB, and the spectrum and more extra experiments suggest ionic interactions between cationic dyes and the negatively charged groups can be formed but not the presence of abundant π-π conjugations between dye molecules and the aromatic rings. The origin of the photocatalytic activity of AgNP-CMSs was attributed to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of the silver nanoparticles on the CMSs.

  19. Box-Behnken methodology for Cr (VI) and leather dyes removal by an eco-friendly biosorbent: F. vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Cobas, M; Sanromán, M A; Pazos, M

    2014-05-01

    This study focused on leather industrial effluents treatment by biosorption using Fucus vesiculosus as low-cost adsorbent. These effluents are yellowish-brown color and high concentration of Cr (VI). Therefore, biosorption process was optimized using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design operating with a simulated leather effluent obtained by mixture of Cr (VI) solution and four leather dyes. The key variables selected were initial solution pH, biomass dosage and CaCl2 concentration in the pretreatment stage. The statistical analysis shows that pH has a negligible effect, being the biomass dosage and CaCl2 concentration the most significant variables. At optimal conditions, 98% of Cr (VI) and 88% of dyes removal can be achieved. Freundlich fitted better to the obtained equilibrium data for all studied systems than Temkin, Langmuir or D-R models. In addition, the use of the final biosorbent as support-substrate to grown of enzyme producer fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus, was also demonstrated.

  20. Chemical and structural evaluation of activated carbon prepared from jute sticks for Brilliant Green dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Kabir, Mohammad Shajahan; Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Miyazawa, Tomohisa

    2010-02-15

    Activated carbons have been prepared from jute sticks by chemical activation using ZnCl(2) and physical activation using steam for the removal of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solution. The activated carbons and charcoal prepared from jute sticks were characterized by evaluating the surface chemistry, structural features and surface morphology. The maximum BET surface area was obtained to be 2304 m(2)/g for chemical activated carbon (ACC) while it is 730 and 80 m(2)/g for steam activated carbon (ACS) and charcoal, respectively. The FT-IR spectra exhibited that the pyrolysis and steam activation of jute sticks resulted in the release of aliphatic and O-containing functional groups by thermal effect. However, the release of functional groups is the effect of chemical reaction in the ZnCl(2) activation process. A honeycomb-type carbon structure in ACC was formed as observed on SEM images. Although charcoal and ACC were prepared at 500 degrees C the ACC exhibited much lower Raman sensitivity due to the formation of condensed aromatic ring systems. Due to high surface area and high porous structure with abundance of functional groups, the ACC adsorbed dye molecules with much higher efficiency than those of ACS and charcoal.

  1. Removal of cationic dye from aqueous solution using jackfruit peel as non-conventional low-cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H

    2009-02-15

    This study aimed at investigating the feasibility of using jackfruit peel (JFP), a solid waste, abundantly available in Malaysia, for the adsorption of methylene blue, a cationic dye. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of contact time, initial concentration (35-400mg/L), pH (2-11), and adsorbent dose (0.05-1.20g) on the removal of dye at temperature of 30 degrees C. The experimental data were analyzed by the four different types of linearized Langmuir isotherm, the Freundlich isotherm and the Temkin isotherm. The experimental data fitted well with the type 2 Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 285.713mg/g. Pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were tested with the experimental data, and pseudo-second-order kinetics was the best for the adsorption of MB by JFP with coefficients of correlation R(2)> or =0.9967 for all initial MB concentrations studied. The results demonstrated that the JFP is very effective for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions.

  2. Effectiveness of Cupressus sempervirens cones as biosorbent for the removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions in batch and dynamic modes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M E; Nunell, G V; Bonelli, P R; Cukierman, A L

    2010-12-01

    The feasibility of using cypress cone chips from Cupressus sempervirens as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of two representative basic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB), from aqueous solutions was investigated in batch and continuous modes. Dyes biosorption was strongly dependent on the solution's pH. Sorption kinetics was determined and properly described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Experimental equilibrium isotherms fitted the Langmuir model, showing maximum biosorption capacities of 0.62 mmol/g for MB and 0.24 mmol/g for RhB. Competitive experiments from a binary solution of the dyes demonstrated the preference of the cone chips for biosorbing MB. Very low desorption efficiencies were obtained for both dyes. Dynamic experiments showed that the breakthrough time was three times higher for MB biosorption than for RhB for the same conditions. Breakthrough curves were properly represented by a mathematical model.

  3. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for the removal of methylene blue dye from water by nano zero-valent iron (NZVI).

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Morteza; Arabi, Simin

    In this study, iron zero-valent nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and studied for removal of methylene blue dye in water solution. The reactions were mathematically described as the function of parameters such as nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) dose, pH, contact time and initial dye concentration, and were modeled by the use of response surface methodology. These experiments were carried out as a central composite design consisting of 30 experiments determined by the 2(4) full factorial designs with eight axial points and six center points. The results revealed that the optimal conditions for dye removal were NZVI dose 0.1-0.9 g/L, pH 3-11, contact time 20-100 s, and initial dye concentration 10-50 mg/L, respectively. Under these optimal values of process parameters, the dye removal efficiency of 92.87% was observed, which very close to the experimental value (92.21%) in batch experiment. In the optimization, R(2) and R(2)adj correlation coefficients for the model were evaluated as 0.96 and 0.93, respectively.

  4. Removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution by functional ionic liquid cross-linked polymer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hejun; Kan, Taotao; Zhao, Siyuan; Qian, Yixia; Cheng, Xiyuan; Wu, Wenli; Wang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Liqiang

    2013-10-15

    A novel functional ionic liquid based cross-linked polymer (PDVB-IL) was synthesized from 1-aminoethyl-3-vinylimidazolium chloride and divinylbenzene for use as an adsorbent. The physicochemical properties of PDVB-IL were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorptive capacity was investigated using anionic azo dyes of orange II, sunset yellow FCF, and amaranth as adsorbates. The maximum adsorption capacity could reach 925.09, 734.62, and 547.17 mg/g for orange II, sunset yellow FCF and amaranth at 25°C, respectively, which are much better than most of the other adsorbents reported earlier. The effect of pH value was investigated in the range of 1-8. The result shows that a low pH value is found to favor the adsorption of those anionic azo dyes. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a pseudo second-order model and Langmuir model, respectively. The adsorption process is found to be dominated by physisorption. The introduction of functional ionic liquid moieties into cross-linked poly(divinylbenzene) polymer constitutes a new and efficient kind of adsorbent.

  5. Removing dye rhodamine B from aqueous medium via wet peroxidation with V-MCM-41 and H2O2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Deyong; Long, Mingce; Chen, Chao; Wu, Yahui; Cai, Weimin; Zhou, Jiangya; Ding, Dawei

    2009-01-01

    A new heterogeneous Fenton-like system, consisting of V-MCM-41 catalyst and hydrogen peroxide, was proved to be effective in removing recalcitrant dye Rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solutions. V-MCM-41 was prepared following a direct hydrothermal procedure with tetraethyl silicate and ammonium metavanadate as precursor. The mesoporous structure has been characterized by XRD, and the specific surface area was determined as x m(2) g(-1) according to BET method. The catalytic reaction can proceed in a relatively wide pH range from acidic to alkaline. And the visible light irradiation cannot promote the reaction process. In addition, the mechanism implication for V-MCM-41 as a Fenton-like catalyst has been discussed.

  6. Removal of azo dye by a highly graphitized and heteroatom doped carbon derived from fish waste: Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengang; Zhang, Fang; Liu, Tingting; Peng, Nana; Gai, Chao

    2016-11-01

    A highly graphitized and heteroatom doped porous carbon was prepared from fish waste in the present study. The morphology and chemical composition of the resultant porous carbon were characterized by SEM-EDS, TEM, BET, XRD and Raman measurement. The prepared porous carbon was employed as an adsorbent for acid orange 7, a typical azo dye, removal from aqueous solution. The results showed that the porous carbon had ultrahigh surface area of 2146 m(2)/g, a high degree of graphitization structure and naturally doped with nitrogen and phosphorous. The maximum adsorption capacity of acid orange 7 reached 285.71 mg/g due to unique property of the prepared porous carbon. In addition, acid orange 7 adsorption onto the porous carbon well followed pseudo-second-order kinetics model and acid orange 7 diffusion in micropores was the potential rate controlling step.

  7. Zinc Oxide Coating Effect for the Dye Removal and Photocatalytic Mechanisms of Flower-Like MoS2 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qingyong; Wu, Wei; Yang, Shuanglei; Liu, Jun; Yao, Weijing; Ren, Feng; Jiang, Changzhong

    2017-12-01

    Flower-like MoS2 nanoparticles (NPs) consist of ultra-thin MoS2 nanosheets are synthesized via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The MoS2/ZnO p-n heterostructure is formed by coating n-type ZnO on the surface of flower-like MoS2 NPs through the seed-mediate route and post-annealing treatment. The effects for the dye removal and photocatalytic performances after ZnO coating are systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that the coating of ZnO nanoparticles has a positive promotion to the photodegrading properties while negative effect on the adsorption capacity of the MoS2/ZnO heterostructures. The related mechanisms on the relationship of adsorption capacity and photocatalysis are discussed in detail.

  8. Efficient removal of triphenylmethane dyes from aqueous medium by in situ electrogenerated Fenton's reagent at carbon-felt cathode.

    PubMed

    Sirés, Ignasi; Guivarch, Elodie; Oturan, Nihal; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2008-06-01

    Fenton's reagent (Fe2+ +H2O2) has been electrogenerated in situ in an undivided electrolytic cell from the effective reduction of Fe3+ and O2 at carbon-felt cathode for the treatment of aqueous solutions of four triphenylmethane dyes (TPMs), namely malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), methyl green (MeG) and fast green FCF (FCF), at pH 3.0 and room temperature. MG has been used as a model among them to study the influence of some experimental parameters on the decay kinetics, COD removal and current efficiency. The results in such electro-Fenton system are explained in terms of the many parasitic reactions involving .OH. Higher efficiency values are obtained with rising organic content and decreasing applied current. The first stage of the mineralization process, involving aromatic by-products, leads to fast decoloration as well as quick initial COD removal that fit well to a pseudo-first-order kinetics. At prolonged electrolysis time, the mineralization rate and efficiency decrease due to the formation of hardly oxidizable compounds and the enhancement of wasting reactions. Solutions of all four TPMs are quickly degraded following a pseudo-first-order decay kinetics. The absolute rate constant (kTPM) for their reaction with .OH increases in the order MeGdyes with initial COD ca. 1000 mg l(-1) is totally depolluted with efficiency near 100% at the beginning of the treatment. A general scheme for the mineralization of TPMs is proposed.

  9. Removal of direct blue-106 dye from aqueous solution using new activated carbons developed from pomegranate peel: adsorption equilibrium and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Amin, Nevine Kamal

    2009-06-15

    The use of cheap, high efficiency and ecofriendly adsorbent has been studied as an alternative source of activated carbon for the removal of dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the use of activated carbons prepared from pomegranate peel for the removal of direct blue dye from aqueous solution. A series of experiments were conducted in a batch system to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration adsorbent dosage and contact time. The results showed that the adsorption of direct blue dye was maximal at pH 2, as the amount of adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly but it decreased with the increase in initial dye concentration and solution temperature. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-second-order rate kinetic model, with a good correlation (R(2)>0.99) and intra-particle diffusion as one of the rate determining steps. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-RadushKevich (D-R) and Harkins-Jura isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data at different temperatures. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as standard Gibbs free energy (DeltaG degrees ), standard enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ), standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ), and the activation energy (E(a)) have been calculated. The adsorption process of direct blue dye onto different activated carbons prepared from pomegranate peel was found to be spontaneous and exothermic process. The findings of this investigation suggest that the physical sorption plays a role in controlling the sorption rate.

  10. Enhanced adsorptive removal of toxic dyes using SiO2 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batool, S. S.; Imran, Z.; Hassan, Safia; Rasool, Kamran; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Rafiq, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Electrospinning method was used to synthesize porous SiO2 nanofibers. The adsorption of Methyl Orange and Safranin O by porous SiO2 nanofibers was carried out by varying the parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, and temperature. Equilibrium adsorption data followed Langmuir isotherms. Kinetic adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics model. The maximum adsorption capacity for Methyl Orange and Safranin O was found to be 730.9 mg/g and 960.4 mg/g, respectively. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of Methyl Orange while basic pH was favorable for the adsorptions of Safranin O. Modeling study suggested the major mode of adsorption, while thermodynamic study showed the endothermic reactions. This effort has pronounced impact on environmental applications of SiO2 nanofibers as auspicious adsorbent nanofibers for organic material from aqueous solution.

  11. Super adsorption capability from amorphousization of metal oxide nanoparticles for dye removal

    PubMed Central

    Li, L. H.; Xiao, J.; Liu, P.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Transitional metal oxide nanoparticles as advanced environment and energy materials require very well absorption performance to apply in practice. Although most metal oxides are based on crystalline, high activities can also be achieved with amorphous phases. Here, we reported the adsorption behavior and mechanism of methyl blue (MB) on the amorphous transitional metal oxide (Fe, Co and Ni oxides) nanoparticles, and we demonstrated that the amorphousization of transitional metal oxide (Fe, Co and Ni oxides) nanoparticles driven by a novel process involving laser irradiation in liquid can create a super adsorption capability for MB, and the maximum adsorption capacity of the fabricated NiO amorphous nanostructure reaches up to 10584.6 mgg−1, the largest value reported to date for all MB adsorbents. The proof-of-principle investigation of NiO amorphous nanophase demonstrated the broad applicability of this methodology for obtaining new super dyes adsorbents. PMID:25761448

  12. Enhanced removal of methylene blue and methyl violet dyes from aqueous solution using a nanocomposite of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum and incorporated nanosilica.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Asish; Raoufi, Mohammad; Panda, Asit Baran; Schönherr, Holger; Pal, Sagar

    2014-04-09

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel nanocomposite is reported that was developed as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of toxic methylene blue (MB) and methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solution. The nanocomposite comprises hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted onto xanthan gum as well as incorporated nanosilica. The synthesis exploits the saponification of the grafted polyacrylamide and the in situ formation of nanoscale SiO2 by a sol-gel reaction, in which the biopolymer matrix promotes the silica polymerization and therefore acts as a novel template for nanosilica formation. The detailed investigation of the kinetics and the adsorption isotherms of MB and MV from aqueous solution showed that the dyes adsorb rapidly, in accordance with a pseudo-second-order kinetics and a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The entropy driven process was furthermore found to strongly depend on the point of zero charge (pzc) of the adsorbent. The remarkably high adsorption capacity of dyes on the nanocomposites (efficiency of MB removal, 99.4%; maximum specific removal Qmax, 497.5 mg g(-1); and efficiency of MV removal, 99.1%; Qmax, 378.8 mg g(-1)) is rationalized on the basis of H-bonding interactions as well as dipole-dipole and electrostatic interactions between anionic adsorbent and cationic dye molecules. Because of the excellent regeneration capacity the nanocomposites are considered interesting materials for the uptake of, for instance, toxic dyes from wastewater.

  13. TiO2/Ag modified penta-bismuth hepta-oxide nitrate and its adsorption performance for azo dye removal.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Eshraq Ahmed; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ban, Tan Kar

    2012-01-01

    A modified hydrophilic penta-bismuth hepta-oxide nitrate (Bi5O7NO3) surface was synthesized via a precipitation method using TiO2 and Ag as modified agents. The synthesized product was characterized by different analytical techniques. The removal efficiency was evaluated using mono- and di-sulphonated azo dyes as model pollutants. Different kinetic, isotherm and diffusion models were chosen to describe the adsorption process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed no noticeable differences in the chemical states of modified adsorbent when compared to pure Bi5O7NO3; however, the presence of hydrophilic centres such as TiO2 and Ag developed positively charged surface groups and improved its adsorption performance to a wide range of azo dyes. Dyes removal was found to be a function of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature. The reduction of Langmuir 1,2-mixed order kinetics to the second or first-order kinetics could be successfully used to describe the adsorption of dyes onto the modified adsorbent. Mass transfer can be described by intra-particle diffusion at a certain stage, but it was not the rate limiting step that controlled the adsorption process. Homogenous behavior of adsorbent surface can be explored by applying Langmuir isotherm to fit the adsorption data.

  14. Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Ahmed, Ibrahim S.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ► Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ► The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ► Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.8–29.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.5–47.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 °C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.45–1.47, and 1.83–1.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

  15. Simultaneous removal of dyes and metal cations using an acid, acid-base and base modified vermiculite as a sustainable and recyclable adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Stawiński, Wojciech; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Freitas, Olga; Chmielarz, Lucjan; Mordarski, Grzegorz; Figueiredo, Sónia

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this work was the modification of vermiculite in order to produce a low cost, efficient and sustainable adsorbent for dyes and metals. Three activation methods consisting of acid, base and combined acid/base treatment were applied to improve the of vermiculite's adsorption properties. Adsorbents were tested in single, bi- and tricomponent solutions containing cationic dyes and Cu(2+) cations. The raw material showed low adsorption capacity for dyes and metal. The acid/base treated vermiculite had very good adsorption capacity toward dyes while the maximum adsorption capacity for Cu(2+) did not change comparing to the starting material. The alkaline treated vermiculite was a good adsorbent for metals, while still being able to remove dyes on the level of the not treated material. Moreover, it was shown that the materials may be regenerated and used in several adsorption-desorption cycles. Furthermore, it was possible to separate adsorbed dyes from metals that were desorbed, using as eluents ethanol/NaCl and 0.05M HNO3, respectively. This opens a possibility for sustainable disposal and neutralization of both of the pollutants or for their further applications in other processes.

  16. Fabrication of novel magnetic nanocomposite with a number of adsorption sites for the removal of dye.

    PubMed

    Li, Leilei; Duan, Huimin; Wang, Xiaojiao; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-01-01

    In this current work, a novel functional ionic liquid-coated Fe3O4@chitosan@graphene oxide was synthesized and tested as adsorbents for methylene blue through batch adsorption tests. The physicochemical properties of the adsorbent were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was evaluated as a function of initial dye concentration, pH, contact time and temperature. The adsorption results indicated that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetics. The equilibrium adsorption was well-described by the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity was to be 262 mg/g. The negative value of ΔH° shows exothermic nature of adsorption process and the negative value of ΔG° indicated that the adsorption reaction is spontaneous. Moreover, the ionic liquid-coated Fe3O4@chitosan@graphene oxide could be repeatedly used by simple treatment without obvious structure and performance degradation. The obtained results suggested that the potential applications of ionic liquid-coated Fe3O4@chitosan@graphene oxide in deep-purification of polluted water.

  17. Chemical modification of chitosan by tetraethylenepentamine and adsorption study for anionic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Yi; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Bu, Huai-Tian; Yu, Xiao-Yuan; Jiang, Gang-Biao; Zeng, Ming-Hua

    2011-07-15

    To utilize the contribution of introduced amino groups to the adsorption of an anionic dye (eosin Y), a batch adsorption system was applied to study the adsorption of eosin Y from aqueous solution by tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) modified chitosan (TEPA-CS). Experiments were carried out as a function of particle size, initial pH, agitation rate, adsorbent dosage, agitation period, temperature and initial concentration of eosin Y. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to fit the adsorption isotherms. From the values of correlation coefficients (R2), it was observed that the experimental data fit very well to the Langmuir model, giving a maximum sorption capacity of 292.4mg/g at 298K. Kinetic studies showed that the kinetic data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic study revealed negative value of enthalpy change (ΔH°) and free energy change (ΔG°), indicating spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption of eosin Y on to TEPA-CS.

  18. Template-Free Synthesis of Functional 3D BN architecture for removal of dyes from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Lei, Weiwei; Qin, Si; Chen, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) architectures are of interest in applications in electronics, catalysis devices, sensors and adsorption materials. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate 3D BN architectures by a simple method. Here, we report the direct synthesis of 3D BN architectures by a simple thermal treatment process. A 3D BN architecture consists of an interconnected flexible network of nanosheets. The typical nitrogen adsorption/desorption results demonstrate that the specific surface area for the as-prepared samples is up to 1156 m2 g-1, and the total pore volume is about 1.17 cm3 g-1. The 3D BN architecture displays very high adsorption rates and large capacities for organic dyes in water without any other additives due to its low densities, high resistance to oxidation, good chemical inertness and high surface area. Importantly, 88% of the starting adsorption capacity is maintained after 15 cycles. These results indicate that the 3D BN architecture is potential environmental materials for water purification and treatment.

  19. Application of magnetic chitosan composites for the removal of toxic metal and dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D Harikishore Kumar; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic chitosan composites (MCCs) are a novel material that exhibits good sorption behavior toward various toxic pollutants in aqueous solution. These magnetic composites have a fast adsorption rate and high adsorption efficiency, efficient to remove various pollutants and they are easy to recover and reuse. These features highlight the suitability of MCCs for the treatment of water polluted with metal and organic materials. This review outlines the preparation of MCCs as well as methods to characterize these materials using FTIR, XRD, TGA and other microscopy-based techniques. Additionally, an overview of recent developments and applications of MCCs for metal and organic pollutant removal is discussed in detail. Based on current research and existing materials, some new and futuristic approaches in this fascinating area are also discussed. The main objective of this review is to provide up-to-date information about the most important features of MCCs and to show their advantages as adsorbents in the treatment of polluted aqueous solutions.

  20. Removal of basic dye from aqueous medium using a novel agricultural waste material: pumpkin seed hull.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H; El-Khaiary, M I

    2008-07-15

    In this work, pumpkin seed hull (PSH), an agricultural solid waste, is proposed as a novel material for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial concentration, agitation time and solution pH were studied in batch experiments at 30 degrees C. The equilibrium process was described well by the multilayer adsorption isotherm. The adsorption kinetics can be predicted by the pseudo-first-order and the modified pseudo-first-order models. The mechanism of adsorption was also studied. It was found that for a short time period the rate of adsorption is controlled by film diffusion. However, at longer adsorption times, pore-diffusion controls the rate of adsorption. Pore diffusion takes place in two distinct regimes, corresponding to diffusion in macro- and mesopores. The results demonstrate that the PSH is very effective in the removal of MB from aqueous solutions.

  1. Periphyton biofilms: A novel and natural biological system for the effective removal of sulphonated azo dye methyl orange by synergistic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Sadaf; Faheem, Muhammad; Ali, Naeem; Kerr, Philip G; Wu, Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    Due to their large scale use, azo dyes are adversely affecting aquatic fauna and flora as well as humans. The persistent nature of sulphonated azo dyes makes them potential ecotoxic hazards. The aim of the present study was to employ a proficient, locally available biomaterial, viz. periphyton (i.e. epiphyton, epilithon or metaphyton), for removal of the azo dye, methyl orange (MO). Results showed that the periphytic biofilms are capable of completely removing comparatively high concentrations (up to 500 mg L(-1)) of MO from wastewater. The removal of MO occurs by a synergistic mechanism involving bioadsorption and biodegradation processes. The adsorption of MO by periphyton can be described by pseudo-second order kinetics. Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models as well as Langmuir equations fit well to the MO adsorption process. FTIR analysis of MO and its metabolites demonstrated biotransformation into simpler compounds within 72 h. GC-MS/MS analysis showed the conversion of MO into simpler compounds such as phenol, ethyl acetate and acetyl acetate. The results indicated that periphyton is a promising biomaterial for the complete removal of MO from wastewater and that the treatment process has the potential for in situ removal of MO at contaminated sites.

  2. Graphene oxide/Fe3O4/chitosan nanocomposite: a recoverable and recyclable adsorbent for organic dyes removal. Application to methylene blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hoang V.; Bui, Lieu T.; Dinh, Thuy T.; Le, Dang H.; Huynh, Chinh D.; Trinh, Anh X.

    2017-03-01

    In this research, the potential of chitosan/Fe3O4/graphene oxide (CS/Fe3O4/GO) nanocomposite for efficient removal of methylene blue (MB) as a cationic dye from aqueous solutions was investigated. For this purpose, first, graphene oxide (GO) was prepared from pencil’s graphite by Hummer’s method, then after, CS/Fe3O4/GO was synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method from a mixture solution of GO, Fe3+, Fe2+ and chitosan. The synthesized CS/Fe3O4/GO was characterized by XRD, VSM and SEM techniques. Also, the various parameters affecting dye removal were investigated. Dye adsorption equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm rather than Freundlich isotherm. The maximum monolayer capacity (q max), was calculated from the Langmuir as 30.10 mg · g‑1. The results show that, CS/Fe3O4/GO nanocomposite, can be used as a cheap and efficient adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

  3. Synthesis of magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) for efficient removal of organic dyes from water

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Meng, Wei; Wu, Fengchang; Giesy, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple and efficient strategy for fabricating a magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) as sorbent to remove organic compounds from simulated water samples is presented and tested for removal of methylene blue (MB) as an example. The novel adsorbents combine advantages of MOFs and magnetic nanoparticles and possess large capacity, low cost, rapid removal and easy separation of the solid phase, which makes it an excellent sorbent for treatment of wastewaters. The resulting magnetic MOFs composites (also known as MFCs) have large surface areas (79.52 m2 g−1), excellent magnetic response (14.89 emu g−1), and large mesopore volume (0.09 cm3 g−1), as well as good chemical inertness and mechanical stability. Adsorption was not drastically affected by pH, suggesting π–π stacking interaction and/or hydrophobic interactions between MB and MFCs. Kinetic parameters followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption capacity was 84 mg MB g−1 at an initial MB concentration of 30 mg L−1, which increased to 245 mg g−1 when the initial MB concentration was 300 mg L−1. This capacity was much greater than most other adsorbents reported in the literature. In addition, MFC adsorbents possess excellent reusability, being effective after at least five consecutive cycles. PMID:26149818

  4. Magnetic Nanocomposites as Efficient Sorption Materials for Removing Dyes from Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarchuk, Oksana V.; Dontsova, Tetiana A.; Astrelin, Ihor M.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic composite sorbents based on saponite clays with different content of magnetite (2-7 wt%.) were synthesized. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction methods, and it was found that the Fe3O4 in composites is in the nanorange. It has been shown that the magnetic nanocomposites have more developed microporosity and mesoporosity compared to saponite clay. The sorption properties of magnetic nanocomposite sorbents were determined, and the results evidenced that their efficiency is significantly higher than the individual phases of the composite. It was shown that all waste composite magnetic sorbents are successfully removed from the water environment by magnetic separation.

  5. Potential Biosorbent Derived from Calligonum polygonoides for Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R2) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution. PMID:25705714

  6. Potential biosorbent derived from Calligonum polygonoides for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Asma; Khan, Hizbullah; Khan, Amir Sada; Man, Zakaria; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Abd El-Salam, Naser M

    2015-01-01

    The ash of C. polygonoides (locally called balanza) was collected from Lakki Marwat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, and was utilized as biosorbent for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The ash was used as biosorbent without any physical or chemical treatment. The biosorbent was characterized by using various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and surface area were measured using particle size analyzer and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation (BET), respectively. The SEM and BET results expressed that the adsorbent has porous nature. Effects of various conditions such as initial concentration of methylene blue (MB), initial pH, contact time, dosage of biosorbent, and stirring rate were also investigated for the adsorption process. The rate of the adsorption of MB on biomass sample was fast, and equilibrium has been achieved within 1 hour. The kinetics of MB adsorption on biosorbent was studied by pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models and the pseudo-second-order has better mathematical fit with correlation coefficient value (R (2)) of 0.999. The study revealed that C. polygonoides ash proved to be an effective, alternative, inexpensive, and environmentally benign biosorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.

  7. Sorption isotherms, kinetic and optimization process of amino acid proline based polymer nanocomposite for the removal of selected textile dyes from industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Sharista; Anand, K; Gengan, R M; Nayunigari, Mithil Kumar; Maity, Arjun

    2016-12-01

    In this article, adsorption and kinetic studies were carried out on three textile dyes, namely Reactive Blue 222 (RB 222), Reactive Red 195 (RR 195) and Reactive Yellow 145 (RY 145). The dyes studied in a mixture were adsorbed under various conditions onto PRO-BEN, a bentonite modified with a new cationic proline polymer (l-proline-epichlorohydrin polymer). The proline polymer was characterized by (1)H NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and TEM. The PRO-BEN composite was characterized by FT-IR, dynamic light scattering (DLS) (zeta potential), TEM imaging, SEM/EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (characterize the binding energy). During adsorption studies, factors involving pH, temperature, the initial concentrations of the dyes and the quantity of PRO-BEN used during adsorption were established. The results revealed that the adsorption mechanism was categorized by the Langmuir type 1 isotherm. The adsorption data followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion model indicated that adsorption did not only depend on the intraparticle diffusion of the dyes. The thermodynamic parameters verified that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. The Gibbs free energy values indicated that physisorption had occurred. Successful adsorption of dyes from an industrial effluent was achieved. Desorption studies concluded that PRO-BEN desorbed the dyes better than alumina. This can thereby be viewed as a recyclable remediation material. The PRO-BEN composite could be a cost efficient alternative towards the removal of organic dyes in wastewater treatment.

  8. Benzene carboxylic acid derivatized graphene oxide nanosheets on natural zeolites as effective adsorbents for cationic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Murthy, Bandaru N; Shapter, Joseph G; Constantopoulos, Kristina T; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Ellis, Amanda V

    2013-09-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were grafted to acid-treated natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders followed by a coupling reaction with a diazonium salt (4-carboxybenzenediazoniumtetrafluoroborate) to the GO surface. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of GO nanosheets onto the zeolite surface. The application of the adsorbents for the adsorption of rhodamine B from aqueous solutions was then demonstrated. After reaching adsorption equilibrium the maximum adsorption capacities were shown to be 50.25, 55.56 and 67.56 mg g(-1) for pristine natural zeolite, GO grafted zeolite (GO-zeolite) and benzene carboxylic acid derivatized GO-zeolite powders, respectively. The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. Further, a relationship between surface functional groups, pH and adsorption efficiency was established. Results indicate that benzene carboxylic acid derivatized GO-zeolite powders are environmentally favorable adsorbents for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

  9. Glutaraldehyde cross-linked magnetic chitosan nanocomposites: Reduction precipitation synthesis, characterization, and application for removal of hazardous textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Lee, Dae Sung

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic chitosan nanocomposites (MCNCs) were synthesized by an inexpensive reduction precipitation technique using a glutaraldehyde cross-linking agent at room temperature. Successful chitosan coating of iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction data revealed crystalline particle sizes for the iron oxide and MCNCs to be around 6-7 and 8-9 nm, respectively. In addition, the MCNCs exhibited supermagnetic properties having magnetic saturation of 17.5 emu/g. The synthesized MCNCs showed 91.60% absorption of Acid Red 2, while iron oxide 16.40% absorption; enhanced performance in MCNCs was resulted from presence of free amino and hydroxyl groups. Furthermore, the optimum pH and adsorbent concentration were 3 and 1.0 g/L, respectively. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm fit experimental data better than Langmuir and Freundlich models, based on non-linear regression. Finally, MCNCs showed 96% American Dye Manufacturing Institute (ADMI) value removal and gave recovery efficiency of 100%, making them attractive for further practical applications.

  10. Effect of electrode position on azo dye removal in an up-flow hybrid anaerobic digestion reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Min-Hua; Cui, Dan; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Liang, Bin; Wang, Ai-Jie; Cheng, Hao-Yi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two modes of hybrid anaerobic digestion (AD) bioreactor with built-in BESs (electrodes installed in liquid phase (R1) and sludge phase (R2)) were tested for identifying the effect of electrodes position on azo dye wastewater treatment. Alizarin yellow R (AYR) was used as a model dye. Decolorization efficiency of R1 was 90.41 ± 6.20% at influent loading rate of 800 g-AYR/ m3·d, which was 39% higher than that of R2. The contribution of bioelectrochemical reduction to AYR decolorization (16.23 ± 1.86% for R1 versus 22.24 ± 2.14% for R2) implied that although azo dye was mainly removed in sludge zone, BES further improved the effluent quality, especially for R1 where electrodes were installed in liquid phase. The microbial communities in the electrode biofilms (dominant by Enterobacter) and sludge (dominant by Enterococcus) were well distinguished in R1, but they were similar in R2. These results suggest that electrodes installed in liquid phase in the anaerobic hybrid system are more efficient than that in sludge phase for azo dye removal, which give great inspirations for the application of AD-BES hybrid process for various refractory wastewaters treatment.

  11. Effect of electrode position on azo dye removal in an up-flow hybrid anaerobic digestion reactor with built-in bioelectrochemical system

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Min-Hua; Cui, Dan; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Liang, Bin; Wang, Ai-Jie; Cheng, Hao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two modes of hybrid anaerobic digestion (AD) bioreactor with built-in BESs (electrodes installed in liquid phase (R1) and sludge phase (R2)) were tested for identifying the effect of electrodes position on azo dye wastewater treatment. Alizarin yellow R (AYR) was used as a model dye. Decolorization efficiency of R1 was 90.41 ± 6.20% at influent loading rate of 800 g-AYR/ m3·d, which was 39% higher than that of R2. The contribution of bioelectrochemical reduction to AYR decolorization (16.23 ± 1.86% for R1 versus 22.24 ± 2.14% for R2) implied that although azo dye was mainly removed in sludge zone, BES further improved the effluent quality, especially for R1 where electrodes were installed in liquid phase. The microbial communities in the electrode biofilms (dominant by Enterobacter) and sludge (dominant by Enterococcus) were well distinguished in R1, but they were similar in R2. These results suggest that electrodes installed in liquid phase in the anaerobic hybrid system are more efficient than that in sludge phase for azo dye removal, which give great inspirations for the application of AD-BES hybrid process for various refractory wastewaters treatment. PMID:27121278

  12. Catalytic ozonation of organic pollutants from bio-treated dyeing and finishing wastewater using recycled waste iron shavings as a catalyst: Removal and pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Ma, Luming; Chen, Yunlu; Cheng, Yunqin; Liu, Yan; Zha, Xiaosong

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic ozonation of organic pollutants from actual bio-treated dyeing and finishing wastewater (BDFW) with iron shavings was investigated. Catalytic ozonation effectively removed organic pollutants at initial pH values of 7.18-7.52, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) level decreased from 142 to 70 mg·L(-1) with a discharge limitation of 80 mg·L(-1). A total of 100% and 42% of the proteins and polysaccharides, respectively, were removed with a decrease in their contribution to the soluble COD from 76% to 41%. Among the 218 organic species detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, 58, 77, 79 and 4 species were completely removed, partially removed, increased and newly generated, respectively. Species including textile auxiliaries and dye intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect decreased from 51% to 33%, suggesting a reduction in the acute toxicity. The enhanced effect was due to hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation, co-precipitation and oxidation by other oxidants. The proteins were removed by OH oxidation (6%), by direct ozonation, co-precipitation and oxidation by other oxidants (94%). The corresponding values for polysaccharides were 21% and 21%, respectively. In addition, the iron shavings behaved well in successive runs. These results indicated that the process was favorable for engineering applications for removal of organic pollutants from BDFW.

  13. High-performance magnetic carbon materials in dye removal from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yu; Dai, Yuan; Fu, Feng

    2016-07-01

    To obtain a novel adsorbent with excellent adsorption capacity and convenient magnetic separation property, magnetic activated semi-coke was prepared by KOH activation method and further modified by FeCl3. The surface morphology, physical structure, chemical properties and textural characteristics of unmodified semi-coke, KOH-modified semi-coke and magnetic activated semi-coke were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption measurement, and electronic differential system. The adsorption characteristics of the magnetic activated semi-coke were explored for the removal of methyl orang (MO), methylene blue (MB), congo red (CR), acid fuchsin (AF), and rhodamine B (RB) from aqueous solution. The effects of adsorption parameters, including adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time, were investigated by comparing the adsorption properties of the magnetic activated semi-coke to RB. The result showed that the magnetic activated semi-coke displayed excellent dispersion, convenient separation and high adsorption capacity. The adsorption experiment data indicated that the pseudosecond order model and the Langmuir model could well explain the adsorption processes of RB on the magnetic activated semi-coke, and the maximum adsorption capacity (qm) was 526.32 mg/g. The values of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) indicated that the adsorption process depended on the temperature of the aqueous phase, and it was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. As the addition of the magnetic activated semi-coke, the color of the solution significantly faded. Subsequently, fast aggregation of the magnetic activated semi-coke from their homogeneous dispersion in the presence of an external magnetic field could be happened. So, the magnetic activated semi-coke displayed excellent dispersion, convenient separation and high adsorption capacity.

  14. High-performance magnetic carbon materials in dye removal from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xiaoming Zhang, Yu; Dai, Yuan; Fu, Feng

    2016-07-15

    To obtain a novel adsorbent with excellent adsorption capacity and convenient magnetic separation property, magnetic activated semi-coke was prepared by KOH activation method and further modified by FeCl{sub 3}. The surface morphology, physical structure, chemical properties and textural characteristics of unmodified semi-coke, KOH-modified semi-coke and magnetic activated semi-coke were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, and electronic differential system. The adsorption characteristics of the magnetic activated semi-coke were explored for the removal of methyl orang (MO), methylene blue (MB), congo red (CR), acid fuchsin (AF), and rhodamine B (RB) from aqueous solution. The effects of adsorption parameters, including adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time, were investigated by comparing the adsorption properties of the magnetic activated semi-coke to RB. The result showed that the magnetic activated semi-coke displayed excellent dispersion, convenient separation and high adsorption capacity. The adsorption experiment data indicated that the pseudosecond order model and the Langmuir model could well explain the adsorption processes of RB on the magnetic activated semi-coke, and the maximum adsorption capacity (q{sub m}) was 526.32 mg/g. The values of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) indicated that the adsorption process depended on the temperature of the aqueous phase, and it was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. As the addition of the magnetic activated semi-coke, the color of the solution significantly faded. Subsequently, fast aggregation of the magnetic activated semi-coke from their homogeneous dispersion in the presence of an external magnetic field could be happened. So, the magnetic activated semi-coke displayed excellent dispersion, convenient separation and high adsorption capacity. - Graphical abstract: As the addition of the magnetic activated semi

  15. Use of RSM modeling for optimizing decolorization of simulated textile wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 capable of simultaneous removal of reactive dyes and hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Zahid; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Tanvir; Nadeem, Habibullah; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Azeem; Abid, Muhammad; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Remediation of colored wastewater loaded with dyes and metal ions is a matter of interest nowadays. In this study, 220 bacteria isolated from textile wastewater were tested for their potential to decolorize each of the four reactive dyes (reactive red-120, reactive black-5, reactive yellow-2, and reactive orange-16) in the presence of a mixture of four different heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd) commonly found in textile effluents. Among the tested bacteria, the isolate ZM130 was found to be the most efficient in decolorizing reactive dyes in the presence of the mixture of heavy metals and was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The strain ZM130 was highly effective in simultaneously removing hexavalent chromium (25 mg L(-1)) and the azo dyes (100 mg L(-1)) from the simulated wastewater even in the presence of other three heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd). Simultaneous removal of chromium and azo dyes ranged as 76.6-98.7 % and 51.9-91.1 %, respectively, after 180 h incubation. On the basis of quadratic polynomial equation and response surfaces given by the response surface methodology (RSM), optimal salt content, pH, carbon co-substrate content, and level of multi-metal mixtures for decolorization of reactive red-120 in a simulated textile wastewater by the strain ZM130 were predicted to be 19.8, 7.8, and 6.33 g L(-1) and a multi-metal mixture (Cr 13.10 mg L(-1), Pb 26.21 mg L(-1), Cd 13.10 mg L(-1), Zn 26.21 mg L(-1)), respectively. Moreover, the strain ZM130 also exhibited laccase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (NADH-DCIP reductase) activity during the decolorization of reactive red-120. However, the laccase activity was found to be maximum in the presence of 300 mg L(-1) of the dye as compared to other concentrations. Hence, the isolation of this strain might serve as a potential bio-resource required for developing the strategies aiming at bioremediation of the

  16. Response surface-optimized removal of Reactive Red 120 dye from its aqueous solutions using polyethyleneimine enhanced ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, J; Singh, M; Sikder, J; Padarthi, V; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S

    2015-11-01

    Retention of toxic dyes with molecular weights lower than the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of the ultrafiltration membranes can be improved through selective binding of the target dyes to a water-soluble polymer, followed by ultrafiltration of the macromolecular complexes formed. This method, often referred to as polymer enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF), was investigated in the present study, using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as the chelating agent. Model azo dye Reactive Red 120 was selected as the poorly biodegradable, target contaminant, because of its frequent recalcitrant presence in colored effluents, and its eventual ecotoxicological impacts on the environment. The effects of the governing process factors, namely, cross flow rate, transmembrane pressure polymer to dye ratio and pH, on target dye rejection efficiency were meticulously examined. Additionally, each parameter level was statistically optimized using central composite design (CCD) from the response surface methodology (RSM) toolkit, with an objective to maximize performance efficiency. The results revealed high dye retention efficiency over 99%, accompanied with reasonable permeate flux over 100L/m(2)h under optimal process conditions. The estimated results were elucidated graphically through response surface (RS) plots and validated experimentally. The analyses clearly established PEUF as a novel, reasonably efficient and economical route for recalcitrant dye treatment.

  17. Tetracycline removal and effect on the formation and degradation of extracellular polymeric substances and volatile fatty acids in the process of hydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Guangying; Hao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Jing; Liu, Rutao; Liu, Chunguang

    2016-07-01

    Many research indicate antibiotics show adverse effect on methane fermentation, while few research focus on their effect on hydrogen fermentation. The present study aimed to gain insight of the effect of antibiotics on hydrogen fermentation with waste sludge and corn straw as substrate. For this purpose, tetracycline, as a model, was investigated with regard to tetracycline removal, hydrogen production, interaction with extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) of substrate and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on concentration and composition. Results show that tetracycline could be removed efficiently by hydrogen fermentation, and relative low-dose tetracycline (200mg/l) exposure affects little on hydrogen production. While tetracycline exposure could change hydrogen fermentation from butyric acid-type to propionic acid-type depending on tetracycline level. Based upon three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-vis tetracycline changed the component and content of EPSs, and static quenching was the main mechanism between EPSs with tetracycline.

  18. Removal of hazardous azopyrazole dye from an aqueous solution using rice straw as a waste adsorbent: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Bindary, Ashraf A.; El-Sonbati, Adel Z.; Al-Sarawy, Ahmad A.; Mohamed, Khaled S.; Farid, Mansour A.

    2015-02-01

    In this research, activated carbonmade from rice straw (ACRS) was synthesized simply by a low cost and nontoxic procedure and used for the adsorption of hazardous azopyrazole dye. The effect of different variables in the batch method as a function of solution pH, contact time, concentration of adsorbate, adsorbent dosage and temperature were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertaine. Surface modification of ACRS using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was obtained. More than 75% removal efficiency was obtained within 75 min at adsorbent dose of 0.5 g for initial dye concentration of 30-100 mg L-1 at pH 3. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by the isotherm models namely, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption and the isotherm constants were determined. The kinetic data obtained with different initial concentration and temperature were analyzed using a pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations. The activation energy of adsorption was also evaluated and found to be +13.25 kJ mol-1 indicating that the adsorption is physisorption. The thermodynamics of the adsorption indicated spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process. The results indicate that ACRS could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of acid dyes from aqueous solution.

  19. Magnetic activated carbon-Fe3O4 nanocomposites--synthesis and applications in the removal of acid yellow dye 17 from water.

    PubMed

    Ranjithkumar, V; Hazeen, A Nizarul; Thamilselvan, M; Vairam, S

    2014-07-01

    In this work, synthesis of activated carbon-Fe3O4 composites using activated carbon and iron benzoate/oxalate precursors by simple pyrolytic method and its utility for the removal of acid yellow dye from water are presented. Iron carboxylates held up into the pores of carbon dissociate at their decomposition temperatures form dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles in carbon matrix. The composites were characterized by FTIR, PXRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and magnetization measurements. The size of the nano iron oxides are in the range of 21-33 nm formed from iron benzoate precursor and 6-11 nm from iron oxalate precursor. The oxides are magnetic and their saturation magnetization in the range of 0.08-0.16 emu/g and Coercivity (H(c)) 474-600, being lower and higher than that of bare bulk Fe3O4 are due to the nano size of oxides. Composites find application in the removal of acid yellow dye 17 from the synthetic aqueous solution at pH 5. The adsorption data are found to fit well for Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Kinetics data of adsorption of dyes indicate that the adsorption follows pseudo-second order kinetic model.

  20. Cauliflower Leave, an Agricultural Waste Biomass Adsorbent, and Its Application for the Removal of MB Dye from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamic Studies.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Seraj Anwar; Khan, Fauzia; Ahmad, Anees

    2016-01-01

    Cauliflower leaf powder (CLP), a biosorbent prepared from seasonal agricultural crop waste material, has been employed as a prospective adsorbent for the removal of a basic dye, methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by the batch adsorption method under varying conditions, namely, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, solution pH, and temperature. Characterization of the material by FTIR and SEM indicates the presence of functional groups and rough coarse surface suitable for the adsorption of methylene blue over it. Efforts were made to fit the isotherm data using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin equation. The experimental data were best described by Freundlich isotherm model, with an adsorption capacity of 149.22 mg/g at room temperature. To evaluate the rate of methylene blue adsorption onto CLP, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were employed. The experimental data were best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Evaluation of thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs' free energy showed the feasible, spontaneous, and exothermic nature of the adsorption process. On the basis of experimental results obtained, it may be concluded that the CLP prepared from agricultural waste has considerable potential as low-cost adsorbent in wastewater treatment for the removal of basic dye, MB.

  1. Cauliflower Leave, an Agricultural Waste Biomass Adsorbent, and Its Application for the Removal of MB Dye from Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Seraj Anwar; Khan, Fauzia

    2016-01-01

    Cauliflower leaf powder (CLP), a biosorbent prepared from seasonal agricultural crop waste material, has been employed as a prospective adsorbent for the removal of a basic dye, methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by the batch adsorption method under varying conditions, namely, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, solution pH, and temperature. Characterization of the material by FTIR and SEM indicates the presence of functional groups and rough coarse surface suitable for the adsorption of methylene blue over it. Efforts were made to fit the isotherm data using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin equation. The experimental data were best described by Freundlich isotherm model, with an adsorption capacity of 149.22 mg/g at room temperature. To evaluate the rate of methylene blue adsorption onto CLP, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were employed. The experimental data were best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Evaluation of thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs' free energy showed the feasible, spontaneous, and exothermic nature of the adsorption process. On the basis of experimental results obtained, it may be concluded that the CLP prepared from agricultural waste has considerable potential as low-cost adsorbent in wastewater treatment for the removal of basic dye, MB. PMID:27974892

  2. Synthesis, characterisation of polyaniline-Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite and its application for removal of an acid violet 19 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Manohar R.; Khairnar, Subhash D.; Shrivastava, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    The present work deals with the development of a new method for the removal of dyes from an aqueous solution using polyaniline (PANI)-Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite. It is synthesised in situ through self-polymerisation of monomer aniline. Photocatalytic degradation studies were carried out for cationic acid violet 19 (acid fuchsine) dye using PANI-Fe3O4 nanocomposite in aqueous solution. Different parameters like catalyst dose, contact time and pH have been studied to optimise reaction condition. The optimum conditions for the removal of the dye are initial concentration 20 mg/l, adsorbent dose 6 gm/l, pH 7. The EDS technique gives elemental composition of synthesised PANI-Fe3O4. The SEM and XRD studies were carried for morphological feature characteristics of PANI-Fe3O4 nanocomposite. The VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer) gives magnetic property of PANI-Fe3O4 nanocomposite; also FT-IR analysis gives characteristics frequency of synthesised PANI-Fe3O4. Besides the above studies kinetic study has also been carried out.

  3. Removal of Remazol Blue RR dye from aqueous solutions with Neem leaves and evaluation of their acute toxicity with Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Immich, Ana Paula Serafini; Ulson de Souza, Antônio Augusto; Ulson de Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli

    2009-05-30

    The removal of dyes present in industrial effluent has received great attention in the past few years. This is partly due to increasing environmental awareness and the implementation of ever stricter environmental rules. However, some treatments for color removal from these effluents do not guarantee the absence of other secondary toxic substances, often originating from the treatment process itself. The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity level of the adsorbent Neem, used in adsorption processes for color removal, as well as that of the dye solution before and after the adsorption process. The toxicity tests were carried out according to the Environment Agency FATMA regulation no. 017/02. They consisted of exposing representative microorganisms from the environment, for a certain time interval, to several concentrations of one or more substances, under different environmental conditions, and then evaluating the toxic effects. The results show that the Neem leaf extract had a harmful affect on the test organism used. Thus, it is recommended that the leaf extract is removed prior to effluent treatment, since the results of this study indicate that this will reduce the toxicity of the effluent and also improve the efficiency of the adsorption process.

  4. Dye remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulty) BLOOD Severe change in acid level of blood (pH balance), which leads to damage in all of the body organs EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of vision Severe ... Blood in the stool Burns and possible holes (perforations) ...

  5. Synthesis of porous chitosan-polyaniline/ZnO hybrid composite and application for removal of reactive orange 16 dye.

    PubMed

    Kannusamy, Pandiselvi; Sivalingam, Thambidurai

    2013-08-01

    For the first time, chitosan-polyaniline/ZnO hybrids were prepared through a polymerization of aniline hydrochloride in the presence of ZnCl2 and chitosan. The hybrid materials were characterized by FT-IR, BET, SEM, UV-vis spectra and XRD analysis. From the BET and SEM micrographs, the introduction of ZnO nanoparticles into chitosan-polyaniline hybrid could obviously increase the porosity due to good possibility for dye adsorption. Adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of contact time, concentration of dye, adsorbent dosage and pH using reactive orange 16 as a model pollutant. The adsorption equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm equation, with maximum adsorption capacity value was found to be 476.2mgg(-1). Adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model agreed well with the experimental data and good correlation (R(2)>0.999). Photocatalytic degradation of dye under UV irradiation at pH 5.8 has also been examined. FT-IR spectrum clearly indicates that before adsorption of hybrid showed the functional groups of chitosan and polyaniline, whereas the dye adsorbed hybrid only present the dye molecules and ZnO. Based on the results of present investigation, the introduction of ZnCl2 into chitosan-polyaniline hybrid will enhance the adsorption of reactive dyes and photocatalytic degradation.

  6. Selective removal of toxic anionic dyes using a novel nanocomposite derived from cationically modified guar gum and silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Patra, Abhay Shankar; Ghorai, Soumitra; Ghosh, Shankhamala; Mandal, Barun; Pal, Sagar

    2016-01-15

    A novel nanocomposite derived from cationically modified guar gum and in-situ incorporated SiO2 NP (cat-GG/SiO2) has been developed. The cat-GG has been synthesised by grafting poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) on GG backbone. Various analyses endorse the suitability of cat-GG as well-organized template for the development of homogeneous SiO2 NPs. Dye adsorption studies predict that cat-GG/SiO2 efficiently and selectively adsorb anionic dyes (reactive blue-RB and Congo red-CR) from mixture of dye solutions. This is because of high surface area, multifunctional chelating H-bonding interactions and electrostatic interactions of cationic adsorbent with anionic dyes. Dyes adsorbed on the composite surface are desorbed reversibly using pH 10 stripping solution. Besides, cat-GG/SiO2 has been recycled efficiently with no prominent loss of dye uptake capacity, even after 4 adsorption-desorption cycles.

  7. Effects of the removal of extracellular Ca2+ on [Ca2+]i responses to FCCP and acetate in carotid body glomus cells of adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sato, M

    1997-09-12

    The effects of the removal of extracellular Ca2+ on the responses of cytosolic concentrations of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) to acidic stimuli, a protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and an organic acid acetate, were examined in clusters of cultured carotid body glomus cells of adult rabbits using fura-2 microfluorometry. Application of FCCP (1 microM) induced an increase in [Ca2+]i (mean +/- S.E.M., 108 +/- 14%). After withdrawal of the protonophore the increased [Ca2+]i returned slowly to a resting level. The [Ca2+]i response was attenuated by an inorganic Ca2+ channel antagonist Ni2+ (2 mM) by 81 +/- 4%, and by an L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel antagonist D600 (10 microM) by 53 +/- 13%. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ eliminated the [Ca2+]i response in 71% of the tested cells (n = 17), and depressed it by 68 +/- 6% in the rest. Recovery following stimulation with FCCP in the absence of Ca2+ reversibly produced a rapid and large rise in [Ca2+]i, referred to as a [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/FCCP. The magnitude of a [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/FCCP (285 +/- 28%, P < 0.05) was larger than that of an increase in [Ca2+]i induced by FCCP in the presence of Ca2+ and had a correlation with the intensity of the suppression of the [Ca2+]i response by Ca2+ removal. A [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/FCCP was inhibited mostly by D600. Similarly, recovery following exposure to acetate in the absence of Ca2+ caused a rise in [Ca2+]i, referred to as a [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/acetate which was sensitive to D600. The magnitude of the [Ca2+]i rise was larger than that of a change in [Ca2+]i caused by acetate in the presence of Ca2+. These results suggest that FCCP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was, in most cells, due to Ca2+ influx via L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and, in some cells, due to both Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ pool. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ might modify [Ca2+]i responses to acidic stimuli, causing [Ca2+]i

  8. Optimization of a cationic dye removal by a chemically modified agriculture by-product using response surface methodology: biomasses characterization and adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Azzaz, Ahmed Amine; Jellali, Salah; Akrout, Hanene; Assadi, Aymen Amine; Bousselmi, Latifa

    2016-10-10

    The present study investigates the alkaline modification of raw orange tree sawdust (ROS) for an optimal removal of methylene blue (MB), as a cationic dye model, from synthetic solutions. The effects of operating parameters, namely, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations, ROS doses in NaOH solutions, stirring times, and initial MB concentrations on dye removal efficiency, were followed in batch mode. The process optimization was performed through the response surface methodology approach (RSM) by using Minitab17 software. The results showed that the order of importance of the followed parameters was NaOH treatment concentrations > stirring times > initial MB concentrations > ROS doses in NaOH solutions. The optimal experimental conditions ensuring the maximal MB removal efficiency was found for a NaOH treatment concentration of 0.14 M, a stirring time of 1 h, a ROS dose in NaOH solutions of 50 g L(-1), and an initial MB concentration of 69.5 mg L(-1). Specific analyses of the raw and alkali-treated biomasses, e.g., SEM/EDS and XRD analyses, demonstrated an important modification of the crystalline structure of the wooden material and a significant increase in its surface basic functional groups. Kinetic and isotherm studies of MB removal from synthetic solutions by ROS and the alkali-treated material (ATOS) showed that for both adsorbents, the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir model fitted the best the experimental data, respectively, which indicates that MB removal might be mainly a chemical and a monolayer process. Furthermore, thanks to the chemical modification of the ROS, the MB maximal uptake capacity has increased from about 39.7 to 78.7 mg g(-1). On the other hand, due to the competition phenomenon, the coexistence of MB and Zn(II) ions could significantly decrease the MB removal efficiency. A maximal decrease of about 32 % was registered for an initial Zn(II) concentration of 140 mg L(-1). Desorption experiments undertaken at natural pH (without

  9. Ratiometric Imaging of Extracellular pH in Dental Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Dige, Irene

    2016-03-09

    The pH in bacterial biofilms on teeth is of central importance for dental caries, a disease with a high worldwide prevalence. Nutrients and metabolites are not distributed evenly in dental biofilms. A complex interplay of sorption to and reaction with organic matter in the biofilm reduces the diffusion paths of solutes and creates steep gradients of reactive molecules, including organic acids, across the biofilm. Quantitative fluorescent microscopic methods, such as fluorescence life time imaging or pH ratiometry, can be employed to visualize pH in different microenvironments of dental biofilms. pH ratiometry exploits a pH-dependent shift in the fluorescent emission of pH-sensitive dyes. Calculation of the emission ratio at two different wavelengths allows determining local pH in microscopic images, irrespective of the concentration of the dye. Contrary to microelectrodes the technique allows monitoring both vertical and horizontal pH gradients in real-time without mechanically disturbing the biofilm. However, care must be taken to differentiate accurately between extra- and intracellular compartments of the biofilm. Here, the ratiometric dye, seminaphthorhodafluor-4F 5-(and-6) carboxylic acid (C-SNARF-4) is employed to monitor extracellular pH in in vivo grown dental biofilms of unknown species composition. Upon exposure to glucose the dye is up-concentrated inside all bacterial cells in the biofilms; it is thus used both as a universal bacterial stain and as a marker of extracellular pH. After confocal microscopic image acquisition, the bacterial biomass is removed from all pictures using digital image analysis software, which permits to exclusively calculate extracellular pH. pH ratiometry with the ratiometric dye is well-suited to study extracellular pH in thin biofilms of up to 75 µm thickness, but is limited to the pH range between 4.5 and 7.0.

  10. Evaluation of the treatment performance of lab-scaled vertical flow constructed wetlands in removal of organic compounds, color and nutrients in azo dye-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dogdu, Gamze; Yalcuk, Arda

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the treatment performance of vertical flow intermittent feeding constructed wetland (VFCW) in removal of organic pollution, nutrients and color in azo-dye containing wastewater. The systems consisted of PVC reactors, some filling materials such as gravel, sand and zeolite and wetland plants including Typha angustifolia and Canna indica. The average treatment efficiency of the systems for COD, color, sulphate, NH4-N, and PO4-P were in the range of 57-63%, 94-99%, 44-48%, 39-44%, and 84-88%, respectively among the VFCW reactors. It is concluded that VFCW reactor system can effectively be used in the treatment of dye-rich wastewater, especially for the removal of color and in the reduction of COD. Biofilm formation and cleavage of azo bonds could be observed by SEM and FTIR results, respectively. Almost similar NH4-N and PO4-P removal were obtained in all reactors by using same amount of zeolite media.

  11. Removal of reactive dyes from textile wastewater by immobilized chitosan upon grafted Jute fibers with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mahmoud S.

    2015-10-01

    Jute fibers were grafted with acrylic acid by gamma irradiation technique. Chitosan was immobilized upon the grafted Jute fibers to be used as an adsorbent for waste reactive dye. The treated Jute fibers were characterized by using of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of Jute treatment on its thermal stability by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and its mechanical properties were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and the different factors affecting the dye adsorption such as pH and contact time were also studied. It was found that the dye adsorption was enhanced in the low pH range and increased with increasing of the contact time, regardless of temperature change.

  12. Removal of cationic Rhodamine-B dye using nano-titania with anatase crystalline structure and kinetic analysis of the photocatalytic reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongfang

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalytic removal of Rhodamine-B (RhB) dye from liquid phase was done using anatase-phase nanocrystalline TiO2 synthesized via a modified sol-gel process. The anatase-phase nanocrystalline TiO2 was characterized using various analytical techniques including XRD, UV-vis DRS, PL, and FTIR to investigate its phase composition and structure, nanocrystalline size, band gap energy, photoluminescence and surface properties of the prepared systems. The photocatalytic discoloration efficiency of anatase-phase nanocrystalline titania was investigated by monitoring the decomposition of RhB dye as target compounds in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the as-prepared anatase-phase nanocrystalline TiO2 was excellent for degradation of RhB molecule, and the crystallite size, excitonic PL and surface hydroxyl content have intimate relationship with the decomposition efficiency of RhB. The reaction mechanism was proposed and the results demonstrate that the role of direct photolysis on RhB dye degradation can be neglected. Meanwhile, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model describes the photodecay date of RhB in consistent with a first order powder law and thus photocatalytic oxidation reaction followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics.

  13. Removal of anionic dye Congo red from aqueous solution by raw pine and acid-treated pine cone powder as adsorbent: equilibrium, thermodynamic, kinetics, mechanism and process design.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Sara; Sen, Tushar Kanti

    2012-04-15

    Pine cone a natural, low-cost agricultural by-product in Australia has been studied for its potential application as an adsorbent in its raw and hydrochloric acid modified form. Surface study of pine cone and treated pine cone was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The modification process leads to increases in the specific surface area and decreases mean particle sizes of acid-treated pine cone when compared to raw pine cone biomass. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to remove anionic dye Congo red from aqueous solution. It was found that the extent of Congo red adsorption by both raw pine cone biomass and acid-treated biomass increased with initial dye concentration, contact time, temperature but decreased with increasing solution pH and amount of adsorbent of the system. Overall, kinetic studies showed that the dye adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics based on pseudo-first-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The different kinetic parameters including rate constant, half-adsorption time, and diffusion coefficient were determined at different physico-chemical conditions. Equilibrium data were best represented by Freundlich isotherm model among Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. It was observed that the adsorption was pH dependent and the maximum adsorption of 32.65 mg/g occurred at pH of 3.55 for an initial dye concentration of 20 ppm by raw pine cone, whereas for acid-treated pine cone the maximum adsorption of 40.19 mg/g for the same experimental conditions. Freundlich constant 'n' also indicated favourable adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G(0), ∆H(0), and ∆S(0) were calculated. A single-stage batch absorber design for the Congo red adsorption onto pine cone biomass also presented based on the Freundlich isotherm model equation.

  14. Characterization of TiO(2)-chitosan/glass photocatalyst for the removal of a monoazo dye via photodegradation-adsorption process.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hui, Lee Kong; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Hamadneh, Imad Moh'd Khair Rashid

    2009-05-15

    In this paper, the newly explored TiO(2)-Chitosan/Glass was suggested as a promising alternative material to conventional means of wastewater treatment. Characterization of TiO(2)-Chitosan/Glass photocatalyst was studied with SEM-EDX, XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The combination effect of photodegradation-adsorption process for the removal of methyl orange (MO), an acid dye of the monoazo series occur promisingly when four layers of TiO(2)-Chitosan/Glass photocatalyst was used for MO removal. Approximately, 87.0% of total MO removal was achieved. The reactive -NH(2), -OH, and metal oxide contents in the prepared photocatalyst responsible for the photodegradation-adsorption effect were confirmed by FTIR study. Similarly, MO removal behavior was well supported by SEM-EDX and XRD analysis. Significant dependence of MO removal on the TiO(2)-Chitosan loading can be explained in terms of relationship between quantum yield of photocatalytic reactions and photocatalyst structure/activity. Hence, the research work done thus far suggests a new method, having both the advantages of photodegradation-adsorption process in the abatement of various wastewater pollutants.

  15. Simultaneous removing of Pb(2+) ions and alizarin red S dye after their complexation by ultrasonic waves coupled adsorption process: Spectrophotometry detection and optimization study.

    PubMed

    Pourebrahim, F; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K; Heidari, F; Kheirandish, S

    2017-03-01

    Funthenalized chitosan (CS) was composited with mesoprous SBA-15 and characterized via. different techniques such as FT-IR and FE-SEM. Subsequently, this new material was applied for simulations ultrasound-assisted adsorption of Pb(2+) ion and alizarin red S (ARS) dye after their complexation. Efficient conventional variables in adsorption process such as initial ARS and Pb(2+) concentration, adsorbent mass and sonication time were studied by small central composite design (CCD) and optimized with desirability function approach. Lack of fit testes and model summary statistics for linear, 2FI, quadratic and cubic models were investigated and according to the insignificant lack of fit and maximizing the R-squared (R(2)), adjusted R-squared and the predicted R-squared quadratic model was selected for other step analysis for removal of ARS dye, while, for Pb(2+) ions 2FI model was selected as best model. Quadratic model ANOVA for ARS dye removal shows the F-value parameter (683.91), very low p-value model (<0.0001) and p-value lack of fit (0.0568) that implied this model was highly significant. Also, 2FI model ANOVA for Pb(2+) ions removal shows the F-value parameter (282.51), very low p-value model (<0.0001) and p-value lack of fit (2.05). According to desirability function approach maximum removal percentage of ARS (87.61%) and Pb(2+) ions (83.54%) was shown at optimum of condition that were set as at: 25 and 25mgL(-1), 0.028g and 11.8min for initial ARS and Pb(2+) ions concentration, adsorbent mass and sonication time, respectively. Finally, it was found that the equilibrium and kinetic of adsorption process follow the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. From the Langmuir isotherm, maximum monolayer capacity (qmax) was obtained 50.25 and 57.14mgg(-1) for ARS and Pb(2+) ions removal, respectively.

  16. Removing Structural Disorder from Oriented TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Reducing the Dimensionality of Transport and Recombination in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, K.; Vinzant, T. B.; Neale, N. R.; Frank, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the influence of morphological disorder, arising from bundling of nanotubes (NTs) and microcracks in films of oriented TiO{sub 2} NT arrays, on charge transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Capillary stress created during evaporation of liquids from the mesopores of dense TiO{sub 2} NT arrays was of sufficient magnitude to induce bundling and microcrack formation. The average lateral deflection of the NTs in the bundles increased with the surface tension of the liquids and with the film thicknesses. The supercritical CO{sub 2} drying technique was used to produce bundle-free and crack-free NT films. Charge transport and recombination properties of sensitized films were studied by frequency-resolved modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopies. Transport became significantly faster with decreased clustering of the NTs, indicating that bundling creates additional pathways via intertube contacts. Removing such contacts alters the transport mechanism from a combination of one and three dimensions to the expected one dimension and shortens the electron-transport pathway. Reducing intertube contacts also resulted in a lower density of surface recombination centers by minimizing distortion-induced surface defects in bundled NTs. A causal connection between transport and recombination is observed. The dye coverage was greater in the more aligned NT arrays, suggesting that reducing intertube contacts increases the internal surface area of the films accessible to dye molecules. The solar conversion efficiency and photocurrent density were highest for DSSCs incorporating films with more aligned NT arrays owing to an enhanced light-harvesting efficiency. Removing structural disorder from other materials and devices consisting of nominally one-dimensional architectures (e.g., nanowire arrays) should produce similar effects.

  17. Removing structural disorder from oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays: reducing the dimensionality of transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Vinzant, Todd B; Neale, Nathan R; Frank, Arthur J

    2007-12-01

    We report on the influence of morphological disorder, arising from bundling of nanotubes (NTs) and microcracks in films of oriented TiO2 NT arrays, on charge transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Capillary stress created during evaporation of liquids from the mesopores of dense TiO2 NT arrays was of sufficient magnitude to induce bundling and microcrack formation. The average lateral deflection of the NTs in the bundles increased with the surface tension of the liquids and with the film thicknesses. The supercritical CO2 drying technique was used to produce bundle-free and crack-free NT films. Charge transport and recombination properties of sensitized films were studied by frequency-resolved modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopies. Transport became significantly faster with decreased clustering of the NTs, indicating that bundling creates additional pathways via intertube contacts. Removing such contacts alters the transport mechanism from a combination of one and three dimensions to the expected one dimension and shortens the electron-transport pathway. Reducing intertube contacts also resulted in a lower density of surface recombination centers by minimizing distortion-induced surface defects in bundled NTs. A causal connection between transport and recombination is observed. The dye coverage was greater in the more aligned NT arrays, suggesting that reducing intertube contacts increases the internal surface area of the films accessible to dye molecules. The solar conversion efficiency and photocurrent density were highest for DSSCs incorporating films with more aligned NT arrays owing to an enhanced light-harvesting efficiency. Removing structural disorder from other materials and devices consisting of nominally one-dimensional architectures (e.g., nanowire arrays) should produce similar effects.

  18. Removal of binary dyes mixtures with opposite and similar charges by adsorption, coagulation/flocculation and catalytic oxidation in the presence of CeO2/H2O2 Fenton-like system.

    PubMed

    Issa Hamoud, Houeida; Finqueneisel, Gisèle; Azambre, Bruno

    2016-08-25

    In this study, the removal of binary mixtures of dyes with similar (Orange II/Acid Green 25) or opposite charges (Orange II/Malachite Green) was investigated either by simple adsorption on ceria or by the heterogeneous Fenton reaction in presence of H2O2. First, the CeO2 nanocatalyst with high specific surface area (269 m(2)/g) and small crystal size (5 nm) was characterized using XRD, Raman spectroscopy and N2 physisorption at 77 K. The adsorption of single dyes was studied either from thermodynamic and kinetic viewpoints. It is shown that the adsorption of dyes on ceria surface is highly pH-dependent and followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Adsorption isotherms fit well the Langmuir model with a complete monolayer coverage and higher affinity towards Orange II at pH 3, compared to other dyes. For the (Orange II/Acid Green 25) mixture, both the amounts of dyes adsorbed on ceria surface and discoloration rates measured from Fenton experiments were decreased by comparison with single dyes. This is due to the adsorption competition existing onto the same surface Ce(x+) sites and the reaction competition with hydroxyl radicals, respectively. The behavior of the (Orange II/Malachite Green) mixture is markedly different. Dyes with opposite charges undergo paired adsorption on ceria as well as homogeneous and heterogeneous coagulation/flocculation processes, but can also be removed by heterogeneous Fenton process.

  19. Application of central composite design and artificial neural network in modeling of reactive blue 21 dye removal by photo-ozonation process.

    PubMed

    Mehrizad, Ali; Gharbani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with use of central composite design (CCD) and artificial neural network (ANN) in modeling and optimization of reactive blue 21 (RB21) removal from aqueous media under photo-ozonation process. Four effective operational parameters (including: initial concentration of RB21, O(3) concentration, UV light intensity and reaction time) were chosen and the experiments were designed by CCD based on response surface methodology (RSM). The obtained results from the CCD model were used in modeling the process by ANN. Under optimum condition (O(3) concentration of 3.95 mg L(-1), UV intensity of 20.5 W m(-2), reaction time of 7.77 min and initial dye concentration of 40.21 mg L(-1)), RB21 removal efficiency reached to up 98.88%. A topology of ANN with a three-layer consisting of four input neurons, 14 hidden neurons and one output neuron was designed. The relative significance of each major factor was calculated based on the connection weights of the ANN model. Dye and ozone concentrations were the most important variables in the photo-ozonation of RB21, followed by reaction time and UV light intensity. The comparison of predicted values by CCD and ANN with experimental results showed that both methods were highly efficient in the modeling of the process.

  20. Pathogenic Cysteine Removal Mutations in FGFR Extracellular Domains Stabilize Receptor Dimers and Perturb the TM Dimer Structure.

    PubMed

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-10-09

    Missense mutations that introduce or remove cysteine residues in receptor tyrosine kinases are believed to cause pathologies by stabilizing the active receptor tyrosine kinase dimers. However, the magnitude of this stabilizing effect has not been measured for full-length receptors. Here, we characterize the dimer stabilities of three full-length fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) mutants harboring pathogenic cysteine substitutions: the C178S FGFR1 mutant, the C342R FGFR2 mutant, and the C228R FGFR3 mutant. We find that the three mutations stabilize the FGFR dimers. We further see that the mutations alter the configuration of the FGFR transmembrane dimers. Thus, both aberrant dimerization and perturbed dimer structure likely contribute to the pathological phenotypes arising due to these mutations.

  1. Simultaneous removal of binary mixture of Brilliant Green and Crystal Violet using derivative spectrophotometric determination, multivariate optimization and adsorption characterization of dyes on surfactant modified nano-γ-alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolgharnein, Javad; Bagtash, Maryam; Shariatmanesh, Tahere

    2015-02-01

    The present study deals with the simultaneous removal of Brilliant Green (BG) and Crystal Violet (CV) by surfactant-modified alumina. The utilization of alumina nanoparticles with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) as a novel and efficient adsorbent is successfully carried out to remove two cationic dyes from aqueous solutions in binary batch systems. A first-order derivative spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous determination of BG and CV in binary solutions. The linear concentration range and limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of BG and CV were found to be: 1-20, 1-15 mg/L, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. The influence of various parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration of dyes and sorbent mass on the dye adsorption is investigated. A response surface methodology achieved through performing the Box-Behnken design is utilized to optimize the removal of dyes by surfactant-modified nanoparticle alumina through a batch adsorption process. The proposed quadratic model resulting from the Box-Behnken design approach fitted very well with the experimental data. The optimal conditions for dye removal were contact time t = 50 min, sorbent dose = 0.036 g, CBG (Initial BG concentration) = 215 mg/L and CCV (Initial CV concentration) = 170 mg/L. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis, the isotherms and kinetics of adsorption were also explored.

  2. CLARITY-compatible lipophilic dyes for electrode marking and neuronal tracing

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kristian H. R.; Berg, Rune W.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent lipophilic dyes, such as DiI, stain cellular membranes and are used extensively for retrograde/anterograde labeling of neurons as well as for marking the position of extracellular electrodes after electrophysiology. Convenient histological clearing techniques, such as CLARITY, enable immunostaining and imaging of large volumes for 3D-reconstruction. However, such clearing works by removing lipids and, as an unintended consequence, also removes lipophilic dyes. To remedy this wash-out, the molecular structure of the dye can be altered to adhere to both membranes and proteins so the dye remains in the tissue after lipid–clearing. Nevertheless, the capacity of such modified dyes to remain in tissue has not yet been tested. Here, we test dyes with molecular modifications that make them aldehyde-fixable to proteins. We use three Dil–analogue dyes, CM-DiI, SP-DiI and FM 1–43FX that are modified to be CLARITY-compatible candidates. We use the challenging adult, myelin-rich spinal cord tissue, which requires prolonged lipid–clearing, of rats and mice. All three dyes remained in the tissue after lipid–clearing, but CM-DiI had the sharpest and FM 1–43FX the strongest fluorescent signal. PMID:27597115

  3. Removal of extracellular coat from giant sperm in female receptacle induces sperm motility in Mytilocypris mytiloides (Cyprididae, Ostracoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Matzke-Karasz, Renate; Smith, Robin J; Heß, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies of cypridoidean ostracods have noted that (1) their giant spermatozoa are immotile inside the male, (2) these spermatozoa are motile in the female seminal receptacle and (3) these receptacles are often filled with empty sperm coats. Such findings have led previous authors to hypothesize that sperm must shed their coats in the female receptacle to become motile. We present light and electron microscopy results and video recordings of mating experiments with virgin specimens of Mytilocypris mytiloides. We show that the empty sperm coats frequently found in the female receptacles are not the result of sperm molting but are the resistant inner coats of exhausted sperm not used for egg fertilization. In contrast, we show that an outer granular coating material is successively removed from the sperm while resident inside the female receptacles before first oviposition occurs. During this period, previously immotile sperm gain motility, showing strong movement shortly before first oviposition takes place. By correlation of these phenomena, we suggest that dissolution of the outer coat material is required for motility to develop.

  4. Adsorptive removal of dye using biochar derived from residual algae after in-situ transesterification: Alternate use of waste of biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Piyushi; Subramanian, K A; Dastidar, M G

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this present study was to utilize the residual biomass (DB) of Spirulina platensis algae, left after in-situ transesterification, for biochar preparation. This is a solid waste residue of biodiesel industry. The biochar (BC) prepared was examined for its capacity to adsorb congo red dye from the aqueous solution. The results were compared with other adsorbents used in the study such as commercial activated carbon (AC), original algae biomass (AB) and DB. The results of proximate analysis of BC showed the decrease in the percentage of volatile matter and an increase in fixed carbon content compared to DB. The physico-chemical properties of BC were studied using elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. The AC and BC adsorbents showed better performance in removing 85.4% and 82.6% of dye respectively from solution compared to AB (76.6%) and DB (78.1%). The effect of initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and pH of solution on the adsorption phenomena was studied by conducting the batch adsorption experiments. The highest specific uptake for biochar was observed at acidic pH of 2 with 0.2 g/100 ml of adsorbent dosage and 90 mg/l of initial concentration. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to three isotherms, namely Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. Freundlich model proved to show the best suited results with value of correlation coefficient of 99.12%. Thus, the application of DB for production of biochar as potential adsorbent supports sustainability of algae biodiesel.

  5. Preparation of nanomaterials for the ultrasound-enhanced removal of Pb(2+) ions and malachite green dye: Chemometric optimization and modeling.

    PubMed

    Dil, Ebrahim Alipanahpour; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Asfaram, Arash; Hajati, Shaaker; Mehrabi, Fatemeh; Goudarzi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticle-loaded activated carbon (CuO-NP-AC) was synthesized and characterized using different techniques such as FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR. It was successfully applied for the ultrasound-assisted simultaneous removal of Pb(2+) ions and malachite green (MG) dye in binary system from aqueous solution. The effect of important parameters was modeled and optimized by artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum simultaneous removal percentages (>99.0%) were found at 25mgL(-1), 20mgL(-1), 0.02g, 5min and 6.0 corresponding to initial Pb(2+) concentration, initial MG concentration, CuO-NP-AC amount, ultrasonication time and pH, respectively. The precision of the equation obtained by RSM was confirmed by the analysis of variance and calculation of correlation coefficient relating the predicted and the experimental values of ultrasound-assisted simultaneous removal of the analytes. A good agreement between experimental and predicted values was observed. A feed-forward neural network with a topology optimized by response surface methodology was successfully applied for the prediction of ultrasound-assisted simultaneous removal of Pb(2+) ions and MG dye in binary system by CuO-NPs-AC. The number of hidden neurons, MSE, R(2), number of epochs and error histogram were chosen for ANN modeling. Then, Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R isothermal models were applied for fitting the experimental data. It was found that the Langmuir model well describes the isotherm data with a maximum adsorption capacity of 98.328 and 87.719mgg(-1) for Pb(2+) and MG, respectively. Kinetic studies at optimum condition showed that maximum Pb(2+) and MG adsorption is achieved within 5min of the start of most experiments. The combination of pseudo-second-order rate equation and intraparticle diffusion model was applicable to explain the experimental data of ultrasound-assisted simultaneous removal of Pb(2+) and MG at optimum condition obtained from RSM.

  6. Preparation of char from lotus seed biomass and the exploration of its dye removal capacity through batch and column adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Nethaji, S; Sivasamy, A; Kumar, R Vimal; Mandal, A B

    2013-06-01

    Char was obtained from lotus seed biomass by a simple single-step acid treatment process. It was used as an adsorbent for the removal of malachite green dye (MG) from simulated dye bath effluent. The adsorbent was characterized for its surface morphology, surface functionalities, and zero point charge. Batch studies were carried out by varying the parameters such as initial aqueous pH, adsorbent dosage, adsorbent particle size, and initial adsorbate concentration. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to test the isotherm data and the Freundlich isotherm best fitted the data. Thermodynamic studies were carried out and the thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G, ∆H, and ∆S were evaluated. Adsorption kinetics was carried out and the data were tested with pseudofirst-order model, pseudosecond-order model, and intraparticle diffusion model. Adsorption of MG was not solely by intraparticle diffusion but film diffusion also played a major role. Continuous column experiments were also conducted using microcolumn and the spent adsorbent was regenerated using ethanol and was repeatedly used for three cycles in the column to determine the reusability of the regenerated adsorbent. The column data were modeled with the modeling equations such as Adam-Bohart model, Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model, and Yoon-Nelson model for all the three cycles.

  7. Efficient and rapid adsorption characteristics of templating modified guar gum and silica nanocomposite toward removal of toxic reactive blue and Congo red dyes.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sagar; Patra, Abhay Shankar; Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Mahato, Vivekananda; Sarkar, Supriyo; Singh, R P

    2015-09-01

    The present study highlights the potentiality of sol-gel synthesized guar gum-graft-poly (acrylamide)/silica (g-GG/SiO2) hybrid nanocomposite toward the rapid removal of toxic reactive blue 4 (RB) and Congo red (CR) dyes from aqueous solution. Various physicochemical characterizations support the feasibility of the functionalized guar gum matrix as efficient template for the formation of homogeneous nanoscale silica particles. The composite demonstrates rapid and superior adsorption efficiency of RB (Qmax: 579.01 mg g(-1) within 40 min) and CR (Qmax: 233.24 mg g(-1) within 30 min) dyes from aqueous environment. Here, the pH driven adsorption process depends strongly on the ionic strength of the salt solution. The adsorption kinetics data predicts that pseudo second-order (surface adsorption) and intraparticle diffusion take place simultaneously. The adsorption equilibrium is in good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm, while the thermodynamics study confirms spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. Desorption study predicts the excellent regenerative efficacy of nanocomposite.

  8. Green synthesis of AgI-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites: Toward enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for organic dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Lee, Seunghee; Choi, Jiha; Park, Seonhwa; Ma, Rory; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-06-01

    Novel reduced graphene oxide (RGO) enwrapped AgI nanocomposites were successfully fabricated by a facile template-free ultrasound-assisted method at room temperature. The structural, morphological, and optical studies demonstrate that the obtained nanostructures have good crystallinity and that the graphene nanosheets are decorated densely with AgI nanostructures. The photocatalytic activity of the composite was evaluated by the degradation of an organic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), under visible-light irradiation. The results indicate that AgI with incorporated graphene exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than the pure AgI due to the improved separation efficiency of the photogenerated carriers and that it prolonged the lifetime of the electron-hole pairs due to the chemical bonding between AgI and graphene. AgI (0.4 mg mL-1 of graphene oxide) nanocomposites displayed the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency and the corresponding catalytic efficiencies within 70 min were ∼96%. Moreover, with the assistance of H2O2 the photocatalytic ability of the as-obtained AgI-RGO nanocomposites was enhanced. The corresponding catalytic efficiencies within 30 min were ∼96.8% (for 1 mL H2O2) under the same irradiation conditions. The excellent visible-light photocatalytic efficiency and luminescence properties make the AgI-RGO nanocomposites promising candidates for the removal of organic dyes for water purification and enable their application in near-UV white LEDs.

  9. Introduction of double amidoxime group by double post surface modification on poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) beads for higher amounts of organic dyes, As (V) and Cr (VI) removal.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, Muhammad; Demirci, Sahin; Uzun, Yusuf; Siddiq, Mohammad; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the synthesis of micron-sized poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (p(VBC)) beads and subsequent conversion of the reactive chloromethyl groups to double amidoxime group containing moieties by post modification is reported. The prepared beads were characterized by SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. The amidoximated p(VBC) beads were used as adsorbent for the removal of organic dyes, such as eosin y (EY) and methyl orange (MO), and heavy metals containing complex ions such as dichromate (Cr2O7(2-)) and arsenate (HAsO4(2)(-)) from aqueous media. The effect of the adsorbent dose on the percent removal, the effect of initial concentration of adsorbates on the adsorption rate and their amounts were also investigated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were applied to the adsorption processes. The results indicated that the adsorption of both dichromate and arsenate ions obeyed the Langmuir adsorption model. Interestingly, it was found that the prepared beads were capable of removing significant amounts of arsenate and dichromate ions from tap and river (Sarıcay, Canakkale-Turkey) water.

  10. Microwave-enhanced UV/H2O2 degradation of an azo dye (tartrazine): optimization, colour removal, mineralization and ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Fernanda; Nascimento, Ulisses Magalhães; Azevedo, Eduardo Bessa

    2013-01-01

    This study optimizes two factors, pH and initial [H2O2], in the ultraviolet (UV)/H2O2/microwave (MW) process through experimental design and assesses the effect of MWs on the colour removal of an azo-dye (tartrazine) solution that was favoured by an acidic pH. The estimated optimal conditions were: initial [H2O2] = 2.0 mmol L(-1) and pH = 2.6, at 30 +/- 2 degrees C. We obtained colour removals of approximately 92% in 24 min of irradiation (EDL, 244.2 W), following zero order kinetics: k = (3.9 +/- 0.52) x 10(-2) a.u. min(-1) and R2 = 0.989. Chemical and biological oxygen demand were significantly removed. On the other hand, the carbon content, biodegradability and ecotoxicity (Lactuca sativa) remained approximately the same. The UV/H2O2/MW process was shown to be eight times faster than other tested processes (MW, H2O2, H2O2/MW, and UV/MW).

  11. An efficient removal of methyl orange dye from aqueous solution by adsorption onto chitosan/MgO composite: A novel reusable adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2014-02-01

    We report a novel multi-functional magnesium oxide (MgO) immobilized chitosan (CS) composite was prepared by chemical precipitation method. The CS-MgO composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and zeta potential. The composite was applied as a novel adsorbent for removal of methyl orange model dye and the effect of adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time were studied. The adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo second order reaction. The adsorbent efficiency was unaltered even after five cycles of reuse. In addition, the composite exhibited a superior antibacterial efficacy of 93% within 24 h against Escherichia coli as measured by colony forming units. Based on the data of present investigation the composite being a biocompatible, eco-friendly and low-cost adsorbent with antibacterial activity could find potential applications in variety of fields and in particular environmental applications.

  12. Silica coated magnetic particles using microwave synthesis for removal of dyes from natural water samples: Synthesis, characterization, equilibrium, isotherm and kinetics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Salwa A.; Soliman, Ezzat M.

    2013-11-01

    Monitoring pollutants in water samples is a challenge to analysts. So, the removal of Napthol blue black (NBB) and Erichrome blue black R (EBBR) from aqueous solutions was investigated using magnetic chelated silica particles. Magnetic solids are widely used in detection and analytical systems because of the performance advantages they offer compared to similar solids that lack magnetic properties. In this context, a fast, simple and clean method for modification of magnetic particles (Fe3O4) with silica gel was developed using microwave technique to introduce silica gel coated magnetic particles (SG-MPs) sorbent. The magnetic sorbent was characterized by the FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scan electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The effects of pH, time, weight of sorbent and initial concentration of dye were evaluated. It was interesting to find from results that SG-MPs exhibits high percentage extraction of the studied dyes (100% for NBB and 98.75% for EBBR) from aqueous solutions. The Freundlich isotherm with r2 = 0.973 and 0.962 and Langmuir isotherms with r2 = 0.993 and 0.988 for NBB and EBBR, respectively were used to describe adsorption equilibrium. Also, adsorption kinetic experiments have been carried out and the data have been well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation r2 = 1.0 for NBB and 0.999 for EBBR. The prepared sorbent with rapid adsorption rate and separation convenience was applied for removal of NBB and EBBR pollutants from natural water samples with good precision (RSD% = 0.05-0.3%).

  13. Application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon for ultrasonic assisted dyes removal: Experimental design and derivative spectrophotometry method.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fatemeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Asfaram, Arash

    2016-11-01

    A method based on application of ZnO nanorods loaded on activated carbon (ZnO-NRs-AC) for adsorption of Bromocresol Green (BCG) and Eosin Y (EY) accelerated by ultrasound was described. The present material was synthesized under ultrasound assisted wet-chemical method and subsequently was characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, BET and XRD analysis. The extent of contribution of conventional variables like pH (2.0-10.0), BCG concentration (4-20mgL(-1)), EY concentration (3-23mgL(-1)), adsorbent dosage (0.01-0.03g), sonication time (1-5min) and centrifuge time (2-6min) as main and interaction part were investigated by central composite design under response surface methodology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adapted to experimental data and guide the best operational conditions mass by set at 6.0, 9mgL(-1), 10mgL(-1), 0.02g, 4 and 4min for pH, BCG concentration, EY concentration, adsorbent dosage, sonication and centrifuge time, respectively. At these specified conditions dye adsorption efficiency was higher than 99.5%. The suitability and well prediction of optimum point was tested by conducting five experiments and respective results revel that RSD% was lower than 3% and high quality of fitting was confirmed by t-test. The experimental data were best fitted in Langmuir isotherm equation and the removal followed pseudo second order kinetics. The experimentally obtained maximum adsorption capacities were estimated as 57.80 and 61.73mgg(-1) of ZnO-NRs-AC for BCG and EY respectively from binary dye solutions. The mechanism of removal was explained by boundary layer diffusion via intraparticle diffusion.

  14. Process development for the batch and bulk removal and recovery of a hazardous, water-soluble azo dye (Metanil Yellow) by adsorption over waste materials (Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya).

    PubMed

    Mittal, Alok; Gupta, V K; Malviya, Arti; Mittal, Jyoti

    2008-03-01

    Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya have been used as adsorbents for the removal of a hazardous azo dye-Metanil Yellow from its aqueous solutions. Adsorption of Metanil Yellow on these adsorbents has been studied as function of time, temperature, concentration and pH. Batch adsorption studies, kinetic studies and column operations enabled extraction of lethal dye from wastewaters. Adsorption equilibrium data confirms both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and monolayer coverage of dye over adsorbents. Kinetic data have been employed to calculate specific rate constants, indicating thereby involvement of first order kinetics in the on-going adsorption and activation energy was determined as 0.813 and 1.060 kJ mol(-1) for Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya, respectively. For both adsorbents, the adsorption process has been found governing by film diffusion, over the entire concentration range. Column operations have also been performed for the bulk removal of the dye and also to examine the practical utilization of fixed bed adsorption technique in elimination of dangerous effluent. Saturation factors for Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns have been calculated as 99.15 and 99.38%, respectively. Attempts have also been made to regenerate the dye from the exhausted columns using aqueous sodium hydroxide as eluent.

  15. Preparation of β-Cyclodextrin Multi-Decorated Halloysite Nanotubes as a Catalyst and Nanoadsorbent for Dye Removal.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xuan Thang; Showkat, Ali Md; Kim, Dong Woo; Jeong, Yeon Tae; Kim, Jong Su; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2015-11-01

    Hybrid materials of β-cyclodextrin multi-decorated halloysite nanotubes (HNTs-g-βCD) were prepared by a facile route, which showed high efficiency for catalysis and dye adsorption. Initially, the surface of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) was modified with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) by the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate having epoxy groups as a monomer. Subsequently, β-cyclodextrin was conjugated with the modified HNTs to produce HNTs-g-βCD by the epoxide ring-opening reaction of mono-6-deoxy-6-hexanediamine-β-cyclodextrin. The nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, SEM, and TEM. The HNTs-g-βCD composites could be used as a nano adsorbent for methylene blue and a catalyst in the oxidation reaction of benzyl alcohol owing to the unique structure of β-cyclodextrin. The HNTs-g-βCD shows promiseas potential multi-functional materials by a combination of β-cyclodextrin and HNTs properties.

  16. Artificial neural network modeling of photocatalytic removal of a disperse dye using synthesized of ZnO nanoparticles on montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Kıranşan, Murat; Khataee, Alireza; Karaca, Semra; Sheydaei, Mohsen

    2015-04-05

    In this study, the photocatalytic ability of ZnO/Montmorilonite (ZnO/MMT) nanocomposite under UV-A, UV-B and UV-C radiation was investigated. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized on the surface of MMT and used as photocatalyst in decolorization of Disperse Red 54 (DR54) solution. Synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms curves. The average width of synthesized ZnO particles is in the range of 30-45 nm. Effect of UV light regions, initial dye concentration, initial dosage of nanocomposite, and reusability of catalyst was studied on decolorization efficiency. The highest decolorization efficiency was achieved under UV-C radiation. A three-layered feed forward back propagation artificial neural network model was developed to predict the photocatalysis of DR54 under UV-C radiation. According to ANN model the ZnO/MMT dosage with a relative importance of 49.21% is the most influential parameter in the photocatalytic decolorization process.

  17. Organogelation and hydrogelation of low-molecular-weight amphiphilic dipeptides: pH responsiveness in phase-selective gelation and dye removal.

    PubMed

    Kar, Tanmoy; Debnath, Sisir; Das, Dibyendu; Shome, Anshupriya; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2009-08-04

    The search for efficient low-molecular-weight gelators (LMWGs) with possible structure-activity correlation is on the rise. The present work reports a novel set of amphiphilic dipeptide-based carboxylic acids capable of efficiently gelating organic solvents. More interestingly, their sodium salts showed enhanced efficiency in organogelation with the additional ability to gelate water. Electrostatic interactions present in the aggregation of the sodium carboxylates of amphiphilic dipeptides seem to be important because some of the nongelator carboxylic acids turned out to be excellent gelators upon salt formation. The combinations and sequence of the amino acids in the dipeptide moiety were systematically altered to understand the collective importance of the nonpolar aliphatic/aromatic substitution in amino acids in the self-assembling behavior of amphiphiles. Almost a 20-fold enhancement in the gelation ability was observed on reversing the sequence of the amino acid residues, and in some cases, nongelators were transformed to efficient gelators. Spectroscopic and microscopic studies of these thermoreversible organo/hydrogels revealed that balanced participation of the noncovalent interactions including hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions are crucial for organo/hydrogelation. These dipeptides selectively gelate organic solvents from their mixtures with water, and the xerogels prepared from these organogels showed time-dependent adsorption of dyes such as crystal violet. The most remarkable feature of these gelators is the pH responsiveness, which was aptly utilized for the pH-dependent phase-selective gelation of either solvent in a biphasic mixture of oil and water. The dissimilar gelation ability of the acid and its salt originating from the pH responsiveness of the amphiphilic dipeptide was employed in the instant removal of large amounts of dyes for wastewater treatment.

  18. Humic acid adsorption onto cationic cellulose nanofibers for bioinspired removal of copper(II) and a positively charged dye.

    PubMed

    Sehaqui, H; Perez de Larraya, Uxua; Tingaut, P; Zimmermann, T

    2015-07-14

    Waste pulp residues are herein exploited for the synthesis of a sorbent for humic acid (HA), which is a major water pollutant. Cellulose pulp was etherified with a quaternary ammonium salt in water thereby introducing positive charges onto the surface of the pulp fibers, and subsequently mechanically disintegrated into high surface area cellulose nanofibers (CNF). CNF with three different charge contents were produced and their adsorption capacity towards HA was investigated with UV-spectrophotometry, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, and ζ-potential measurements. Substantial coverage of the CNF surface with HA in a wide pH range led to a reversal of the positive ζ-potentials of CNF suspensions. The HA adsorption capacity and the kinetics of HA uptake were found to be promoted by both acidic pH conditions and the surface charge content of CNF. It is suggested that HA adsorption onto CNF depends on electrostatic interactions between the two components, as well as on the conformation of HA. At pH ∼ 6, up to 310 mg g(-1) of HA were adsorbed by the functionalized CNF, a substantially higher capacity than that of previously reported HA sorbents in the literature. It is further shown that CNF-HA complexes could be freeze-dried into "soil-mimicking" porous foams having good capacity to capture Cu(II) ions and positive dyes from contaminated water. Thus, the most abundant natural polymer, i.e., cellulose could effectively bind the most abundant natural organic matter for environmental remediation purpose.

  19. Microwave induced synthesis of graft copolymer of binary vinyl monomer mixtures onto delignified Grewia optiva fibre: Application in dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vinod; Pathania, Deepak; Priya, Bhanu; Singha, A. K.; Sharma, Gaurav

    2014-08-01

    Grafting method, through microwave radiation technique is very effective in terms of time consumption, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Via this method, delignified Grewia optiva identified as a waste biomass, was graft copolymerized with methylmethacrylate (MMA) as an principal monomer in a binary mixture of ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and ethyl acrylate (EA) under microwave irradiation (MWR) using ascorbic acid/H2O2 as an initiator system. The concentration of the comonomer was optimized to maximize the graft yield with respect to the primary monomer. Maximum graft yield (86.32%) was found for dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) binary mixture as compared to other synthesized copolymer. The experimental results inferred that the optimal concentrations for the comonomers to the optimized primary monomer was observed to be 3.19 mol/L×10-1 for EMA and 2.76 mol/L×10-1 for EA. Delignified and graft copolymerized fibre were subjected to evaluation of physicochemical properties such as swelling behaviour and chemical resistance. The synthesized graft copolymers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction techniques. Thermal stability of dGo-poly(MMA-co-EA) was found to be more as compared to the delignified Grewia optiva fibre and other graft copolymers. Although the grafting technique was found to decrease percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index among the graft copolymers but there was significant increase in their acid/base and thermal resistance properties. The grafted samples have been explored for the adsorption of hazardous methylene dye from aqueous system.

  20. Chemically modified olive stone: a low-cost sorbent for heavy metals and basic dyes removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Abdellah; Ouali, Mohand Said; Elandaloussi, El Hadj; De Menorval, Louis Charles; Lindheimer, Marc

    2009-04-15

    In the present work, we have investigated the sorption efficiency of treated olive stones (TOS) towards cadmium and safranine removal from their respective aqueous solutions. TOS material was prepared by treatment of olive stones with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature followed up by a subsequent neutralization with 0.1 M NaOH aqueous solution. The resulting material has been thoroughly characterized by SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), MAS (13)C NMR, FTIR and physicochemical parameters were calculated. The sorption study of TOS at the solid-liquid interface was investigated using kinetics, sorption isotherms, pH effect and thermodynamic parameters. The preliminary results indicate that TOS exhibit a better efficiency in terms of sorption capacities toward the two pollutants (128.2 and 526.3 mg/g for cadmium and safranine, respectively) than those reported so far in the literature. Moreover, the sorption process is ascertained to occur fast enough so that the equilibrium is reached in less than 15 min of contact time. The results found in the course of this study suggest that ion exchange mechanism is the most appropriate mechanism involved in cadmium and safranine removal. Finally, the sorption efficiency of TOS is compared to those of other low-cost sorbents materials yet described in the literature.

  1. Superparamagnetic iron oxide coated on the surface of cellulose nanospheres for the rapid removal of textile dye under mild condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yunfeng; Qin, Zongyi; Liu, Yannan; Cheng, Miao; Qian, Pengfei; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Meifang

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic composite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by anchoring iron oxide (Fe3O4) on the surface of carboxyl cellulose nanospheres through a facile chemical co-precipitation method. The as-prepared MNPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurement, thermal gravity analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry. These MNPs were of a generally spherical shape with a narrow size distribution, and exhibited superparamagnetic behaviors with high saturation magnetization. High efficient removal of Navy blue in aqueous solution was demonstrated at room temperature in a Fenton-like system containing the MNPs and H2O2, which benefited from small particle size, large surface area, high chemical activity, and good dispersibility of the MNPs. The removal efficiency of Navy blue induced by the MNPs prepared at a weight ratio of cellulose to iron of 1:2 were 90.6% at the first minute of the degradation reaction, and 98.0% for 5 min. Furthermore, these MNPs could be efficiently recycled and reused by using an external magnetic field. The approach presented in this paper promotes the use of renewable natural resources as templates for the preparation and stabilization of various inorganic nanomaterials for the purpose of catalysis, magnetic resonance imaging, biomedical and other potential applications.

  2. Removal of the methyl violet 2B dye from aqueous solution using sustainable adsorbent Artocarpus odoratissimus stem axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooh, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi; Dahri, Muhammad Khairud; Lim, Linda B. L.

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the potential of the stem axis of Artocarpus odoratissimus fruit (TSA) as an adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet 2B (MV). The functional group analysis was carried out using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Investigation of the effects of pH and ionic strength provide insights on the involvement of electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic-hydrophobic attraction between the adsorbent and adsorbates. Kinetics models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Weber-Morris and Boyd) and isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Raduskevich) were used for characterising the adsorption process. The Langmuir model predicted a high q m of 263.7 mg g-1. Thermodynamics studies indicate the adsorption system is spontaneous, endothermic and physical sorption dominant. The spent adsorbent was successfully regenerated using water and obtained adsorption capacity close to the unused adsorbent even after fifth cycle of washing.

  3. Supramolecular Phase-Selective Gelation by Peptides Bearing Side-Chain Azobenzenes: Effect of Ultrasound and Potential for Dye Removal and Oil Spill Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Bachl, Jürgen; Oehm, Stefan; Mayr, Judith; Cativiela, Carlos; Marrero-Tellado, José Juan; Díaz Díaz, David

    2015-01-01

    Phase selective gelation (PSG) of organic phases from their non-miscible mixtures with water was achieved using tetrapeptides bearing a side-chain azobenzene moiety. The presence of the chromophore allowed PSG at the same concentration as the minimum gelation concentration (MGC) necessary to obtain the gels in pure organic phases. Remarkably, the presence of the water phase during PSG did not impact the thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties of the corresponding organogels. In the case of miscible oil/water mixtures, the entire mixture was gelled, resulting in the formation of quasi-hydrogels. Importantly, PSG could be triggered at room temperature by ultrasound treatment of the mixture or by adding ultrasound-aided concentrated solution of the peptide in an oil-phase to a mixture of the same oil and water. Moreover, the PSG was not affected by the presence of salts or impurities existing in water from natural sources. The process could be scaled-up, and the oil phases (e.g., aromatic solvents, gasoline, diesel fuel) recovered almost quantitatively after a simple distillation process, which also allowed the recovery and reuse of the gelator. Finally, these peptidic gelators could be used to quantitatively remove toxic dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:26006247

  4. Ultrasound-promoted coating of MOF-5 on silk fiber and study of adsorptive removal and recovery of hazardous anionic dye "congo red".

    PubMed

    Khanjani, Somayeh; Morsali, Ali

    2014-07-01

    A metal-organic framework MOF-5 has been synthesized on silk fiber through electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly. The silk surface coating was formed via sequential dipping in an alternating bath of metal and ligand solutions at room temperature by direct mixing. SEM was used to investigate the growth of MOF-5 coating as materials for separation membrane due to their desirable properties in adsorptive removal of congo red (CR) from contaminated water. The adsorption capacity of MOF-5 is remarkable high in the liquid phase. The adsorption of CR at various concentration and contact time in spontaneous process were studied. The silk fibers containing MOF-5 open a wide field of possible applications, such as protection layers or membranes in pollution remediation wastewater and any effluent. Desorption of the dye can be carried out by using NaOH solution with more than about 50% recovery of congo red from MOF-5 coated on silk membrane filtration. In order to investigate the role of sonicating on the morphology of products, one of the reactions was performed with ultrasound irradiation and the crystal growth is completed more than other methods. The samples and adsorption of CR were characterized with SEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy.

  5. Supramolecular phase-selective gelation by peptides bearing side-chain azobenzenes: effect of ultrasound and potential for dye removal and oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Bachl, Jürgen; Oehm, Stefan; Mayr, Judith; Cativiela, Carlos; Marrero-Tellado, José Juan; Díaz, David Díaz

    2015-05-22

    Phase selective gelation (PSG) of organic phases from their non-miscible mixtures with water was achieved using tetrapeptides bearing a side-chain azobenzene moiety. The presence of the chromophore allowed PSG at the same concentration as the minimum gelation concentration (MGC) necessary to obtain the gels in pure organic phases. Remarkably, the presence of the water phase during PSG did not impact the thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties of the corresponding organogels. In the case of miscible oil/water mixtures, the entire mixture was gelled, resulting in the formation of quasi-hydrogels. Importantly, PSG could be triggered at room temperature by ultrasound treatment of the mixture or by adding ultrasound-aided concentrated solution of the peptide in an oil-phase to a mixture of the same oil and water. Moreover, the PSG was not affected by the presence of salts or impurities existing in water from natural sources. The process could be scaled-up, and the oil phases (e.g., aromatic solvents, gasoline, diesel fuel) recovered almost quantitatively after a simple distillation process, which also allowed the recovery and reuse of the gelator. Finally, these peptidic gelators could be used to quantitatively remove toxic dyes from aqueous solutions.

  6. Delaminated montmorillonite with iron(III)-TiO₂ species as a photocatalyst for removal of a textile azo-dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Torres-Luna, Juan A; Carriazo, José G; Sanabria, Nancy R

    2016-01-01

    A set of mesoporous delaminated montmorillonites containing iron(III)-titanium oxide species was synthesized using two minerals: a bentonite as support and an ilmenite as source of Fe-TiO2 species. Several values of both sulphuric acid concentration and temperature were employed to extract Fe-TiO2 species from an ilmenite. Analyses by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption confirmed the successful formation of delaminated (or exfoliated) mesoporous structures. Optical properties of solids were determined by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and their band gap energy values were also calculated. A small UV-shift of band gap values regarding that of commercial photo-active TiO2 was detected as consequence of the quantum size effect, suggesting that photocatalytic experiments should be performed under UV-radiation assistance. The synthesized solids showed good activity in the photocatalytic oxidation of a textile dye (reactive yellow 145: RY 145), achieving conversions higher than 70% and chemical oxygen demand removal between 60% and 80%.

  7. Blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in aswan governorate, Upper Egypt, as an adsorbent for the removal of merocyanine dye from its aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Taha, Gharib Mahmoud; Mosaed, Taghreed Mahmoud

    2010-04-01

    The adsorption potential of the blast furnace slag of a ferrosilicon firm in Aswan Governorate, Egypt, to decolorize aqueous solutions of 3-methyl-1-phenylpyrazol-5-one 4[2] merocyanine dye (1) was investigated at room temperature. The influence of the solution pH, the quantity of adsorbent, the initial concentration of 1, and the applied contact time were studied with the batch technique. The maximum percentage of removal of 1 was observed at pH 4. The adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich than by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, confirming the formation of monolayers of 1 on the adsorbent surface. Kinetic rate constants and the transient behavior at different initial concentrations of 1 were determined with both the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and the Ho and McKay pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The calculated kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of 1 on blast furnace slag followed a second-order chemisorption process.

  8. Significantly enhanced dye removal performance of hollow tin oxide nanoparticles via carbon coating in dark environment and study of its mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the correlation between physicochemical properties and morphology of nanostructures is a prerequisite for widespread applications of nanomaterials in environmental application areas. Herein, we illustrated that the uniform-sized SnO2@C hollow nanoparticles were large-scale synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The size of the core-shell hollow nanoparticles was about 56 nm, and the shell was composed of a solid carbon layer with a thickness of 2 ~ 3 nm. The resulting products were characterized in terms of morphology, composition, and surface property by various analytical techniques. Moreover, the SnO2@C hollow nanoparticles are shown to be effective adsorbents for removing four different dyes from aqueous solutions, which is superior to the pure hollow SnO2 nanoparticles and commercial SnO2. The enhanced mechanism has also been discussed, which can be attributed to the high specific surface areas after carbon coating. PMID:25221462

  9. Removal of methyl orange and mythelene blue dyes from aqueous solution using low cost adsorbent zeolite synthesized from fly ash.

    PubMed

    Das, Shakti; Barman, Sanghamitra; Thakur, Ruchika

    2012-10-01

    The zeolite ZX1 synthesized from fly ash was employed as effective adsorbent for removal of methylene blue and methyl orange, from its aqueous solution. In the present study, X-type and A-type zeolite were synthesized by alkali fusion, followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was then characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solution pH has an important role in the the adsorption behavior of ZX1. Higher solution pH results in higher adsorption capacity. The equilibrium results were well described by Freundlich isotherm model. Physical regeneration at high temperature showed that the adsorbent exhibits somehow lower adsorption capacity as compared to the fresh sample. The values of changes in enthalpy (deltaH(o)) and entropy (deltaS(o)) during the adsorption process were found to be -20.85 kJ/mol and -90.61 J/mol K(-1). Adsorption of methyl orange over Zeolite ZX1 is much higher than ZA1. Correlation coefficient was found to be 0.998.

  10. Synthesis of Magnetic Fe3O4-Chitosan Nanoparticles by Ionic Gelation and Their Dye Removal Ability.

    PubMed

    Akin, Deniz; Yakar, Arzu; Gündüz, Ufuk

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize magnetic Fe3O4 chitosan nanoparticles (m-Fe3O4-CNs) by ionic gelation method and use them as adsorbent for the removal of Bromothymol Blue (BB) from aqueous solutions. Also, the effect of various parameters on the preparation of m-Fe3O4-CNs was investigated in this study. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Adsorption of BB on m-Fe3O4-CNs was studied in a batch reactor at different experimental conditions such as adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, initial BB concentration and temperature. Kinetic behaviors, equilibrium isotherms and thermodynamics of the adsorption process were investigated in detail. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model well fitted the adsorption experimental results. The thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption was a spontaneous, favorable and exothermic process in nature.

  11. Toxicity removal assessments related to degradation pathways of azo dyes: Toward an optimization of Electro-Fenton treatment.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Xuan Huong; Nguyen, Thi Van; Yacouba, Zoulkifli Amadou; Zoungrana, Laetitia; Avril, Florent; Petit, Eddy; Mendret, Julie; Bonniol, Valerie; Bechelany, Mikhael; Lacour, Stella; Lesage, Geoffroy; Cretin, Marc

    2016-10-01

    The degradation pathway of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) by Electro-Fenton process using carbon felt cathode was investigated via HPLC-UV and LC-MS, IC, TOC analysis and bioassays (Vibrio Fischeri 81.9% Microtox(®) screening tests). The TOC removal of AO7 reached 96.2% after 8 h treatment with the optimal applied current density at -8.3 mA cm(-2) and 0.2 mM catalyst concentration. The toxicity of treated solution increased rapidly to its highest value at the early stage of electrolysis (several minutes), corresponding to the formation of intermediate poisonous aromatic compounds such as 1,2-naphthaquinone (NAPQ) and 1,4-benzoquinone (BZQ). Then, the subsequent formation of aliphatic short-chain carboxylic acids like acetic acid, formic acid, before the complete mineralization, leaded to a non-toxic solution after 270 min for 500 mL of AO7 (1 mM). Moreover, a quantitative analysis of inorganic ions (i.e. ammonium, nitrate, sulfate) produced during the course of degradation could help to verify molar balance with regard to original nitrogen and sulfur elements. To conclude, a clear degradation pathway of AO7 was proposed, and could further be applied to other persistent pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment.

  12. Fast removal of malachite green dye using novel superparamagnetic sodium alginate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    In this study, superparamagnetic sodium alginate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Alg-Fe3O4) as a novel magnetic adsorbent were prepared by in situ coprecipitation method, in which Fe3O4 nanoparticles were precipitated from FeCl3 and FeCl2 under alkaline medium in the presence of sodium alginate. The Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used for removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions using batch adsorption technique. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed using XRD, FTIR, TEM, TGA and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. FTIR analysis of synthesized nanoparticles provided the evidence that sodium alginate was successfully coated on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The FT-IR and TGA characterization showed that the Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles contained about 14% (w/w) of sodium alginate. Moreover, TEM analysis indicated that the average diameter of the Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was about 12nm. The effects of adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature were investigated on the adsorption properties of MG onto Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The equilibrium adsorption data were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation was 47.84mg/g. The kinetics of adsorption of MG onto Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were investigated using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the adsorption of MG onto nanoparticles followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  13. Ratiometric imaging of extracellular pH in bacterial biofilms with C-SNARF-4.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Garcia, Javier E; Greve, Matilde; Raarup, Merete K; Nyvad, Bente; Dige, Irene

    2015-02-01

    pH in the extracellular matrix of bacterial biofilms is of central importance for microbial metabolism. Biofilms possess a complex three-dimensional architecture characterized by chemically different microenvironments in close proximity. For decades, pH measurements in biofilms have been limited to monitoring bulk pH with electrodes. Although pH microelectrodes with a better spatial resolution have been developed, they do not permit the monitoring of horizontal pH gradients in biofilms in real time. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy can overcome these problems, but none of the hitherto employed methods differentiated accurately between extracellular and intracellular microbial pH and visualized extracellular pH in all areas of the biofilms. Here, we developed a method to reliably monitor extracellular biofilm pH microscopically with the ratiometric pH-sensitive dye C-SNARF-4, choosing dental biofilms as an example. Fluorescent emissions of C-SNARF-4 can be used to calculate extracellular pH irrespective of the dye concentration. We showed that at pH values of <6, C-SNARF-4 stained 15 bacterial species frequently isolated from dental biofilm and visualized the entire bacterial biomass in in vivo-grown dental biofilms with unknown species composition. We then employed digital image analysis to remove the bacterial biomass from the microscopic images and adequately calculate extracellular pH values. As a proof of concept, we monitored the extracellular pH drop in in vivo-grown dental biofilms fermenting glucose. The combination of pH ratiometry with C-SNARF-4 and digital image analysis allows the accurate monitoring of extracellular pH in bacterial biofilms in three dimensions in real time and represents a significant improvement to previously employed methods of biofilm pH measurement.

  14. Synthesis of carbon loaded γ-Fe2O3 nanocomposite and their applicability for the selective removal of binary mixture of dyes by ultrasonic adsorption based on response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Saad, Muhammad; Tahir, Hajira

    2017-05-01

    The contemporary problems concerning water purification could be resolved by using nanosorbents. The present studies emphasis on the synthesis of γ-Fe2O3-activated carbon nanocomposites (γ-Fe2O3-NP-AC) by sol-gel method. The composition and surface morphology of them were studied by FTIR, EDS, SEM and XRD techniques. Moreover they were employed for the selective removal of binary mixture of dyes including reactive red 223 dye (RR) and Malachite Green dye (MG) by ultrasonic assisted adsorption method. Sonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in the sample. The ultrasonic frequencies (>20kHz) were used to agitate experimental solutions in current studies. The response surface methodology based on 5 factorial central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the optimum parameters of adsorption. The optimum operating parameters (OOP) including sonication time, solution pH, amount of adsorbent, concentration of RR and MG were estimated for the selective removal of mixture of dyes. On OOP conditions of RR, the % removal of RR and MG were observed to be 92.12% and 10.05% respectively. While at OOP of MG, the % removal of MG and RR were observed to be 85.32% and 32.13% from the mixture respectively. Moreover the mechanisms of adsorption of RR and MG on the γ-Fe2O3-NP-AC were also illustrated. The significance of the RR-γ-Fe2O3-NP-AC and MG-γ-Fe2O3-NP-AC adsorption models was affirmed by ANOVA test. The Pareto plots for the selective removal of the RR and MG from the binary mixture also confirm the significance of the factors. Isothermal studies were performed and RR adsorption was observed to follow Langmuir isotherm model whereas MG adsorption was observed to follow Freundlich model. Thermodynamic studies were conducted and the outcomes suggested the spontaneous nature of adsorption processes. The kinetic models were employed to study the kinetics of the process. It was observed that the system followed pseudo second order, intra

  15. Carbonaceous adsorbents derived from textile cotton waste for the removal of Alizarin S dye from aqueous effluent: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Wanassi, Béchir; Hariz, Ichrak Ben; Ghimbeu, Camélia Matei; Vaulot, Cyril; Hassen, Mohamed Ben; Jeguirim, Mejdi

    2017-01-27

    Recycling cotton waste derived from the textile industry was used as a low-cost precursor for the elaboration of an activated carbon (AC) through carbonization and zinc chloride chemical activation. The AC morphological, textural, and surface chemistry properties were determined using different analytical techniques including Fourier transform infrared, temperature programmed desorption-mass spectroscopy, nitrogen manometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the AC was with a hollow fiber structure in an apparent diameter of about 6.5 μm. These analyses indicate that the AC is microporous and present a uniform pore size distributed centered around 1 nm. The surface area and micropore volume were 292 m(2).g(-1) and 0.11 cm(3).g(-1), respectively. Several types of acidic and basic oxygenated surface groups were highlighted. The point of zero charge (pHPZC) of theca was 6.8. The AC performance was evaluated for the removal of Alizarin Red S (ARS) from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacity was 74 mg.g(-1) obtained at 25 °C and pH = 3. Kinetics and equilibrium models were used to determine the interaction nature of the ARS with the AC. Statistical tools were used to select the suitable models. The pseudo-second order was found to be the most appropriate kinetic model. The application of two and three isotherm models shows that Langmuir-Freundlich (n = 0.84, K = 0.0014 L.mg(-1), and q = 250 mg.g(-1)) and Sips (n = 0.84, K = 0.003 L.mg(-1), and q = 232.6 mg.g(-1)) were the suitable models. The results demonstrated that cotton waste can be used in the textile industry as a low-cost precursor for the AC synthesis and the removal of anionic dye from textile wastewater.

  16. A new nanohybrid material constructed from Keggin-type polyoxometalate and Cd(II) semicarbazone Schiff base complex with excellent adsorption properties for the removal of cationic dye pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Saeed; Amini, Mostafa M.; Dusek, Michal; Kucerakova, Monika; Mahmoudi, Farzaneh

    2017-02-01

    A novel nanohybrid material containing a Cd(II) semicarbazone Schiff base complex and phosphomolybdic acid, [Cd(H2L+)6][H2L]+4[PMo12O40]4·18CH3OH·4H2O (1), [HL = pyridine-2-carbaldehyde semicarbazone] was prepared by a simple sonochemical route and characterized by 1HNMR, 13CNMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, PXRD, FESEM, TG-DTA and BET-BJH surface area analysis. Also the single crystal 1, was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group P-1 and is assembled into 3D supramolecular structure via hydrogen intermolecular interactions. The nanohybrid 1 was tested for the adsorption and removal of organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions. The effects of parameters such as the dosage of adsorbent, the initial concentration and pH of dye solution were investigated on the removal efficiency of methylene blue. The nanohybrid 1 exhibited excellent adsorption ability towards cationic dyes. Moreover, it could be easily separated from the reaction solution and recycled up to three times without significant loss of adsorption activity.

  17. Adsorption and kinetic studies of seven different organic dyes onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste and removal of them from wastewater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Afkhami, Abbas; Ahmadi, Mazaher

    2012-12-01

    Adsorption of seven different organic dyes from aqueous solutions onto magnetite nanoparticles loaded tea waste (MNLTW) was studied. MNLTW was prepared via a simple method and was fully characterized. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Adsorption characteristics of the MNLTW adsorbent was examined using Janus green, methylene blue, thionine, crystal violet, Congo red, neutral red and reactive blue 19 as adsorbates. Dyes adsorption process was thoroughly studied from both kinetic and equilibrium points of view for all adsorbents. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, Redlich-Peterson, Brouers-Sotolongo and Temkin isotherms. The results from Langmuir isotherm indicated that the capacity of MNLTW for the adsorption of cationic dyes was higher than that for anionic dyes. The adsorption kinetics was tested for the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models at different experimental conditions.

  18. EXTRACELLULAR POLYANIONS IN DIGESTED SLUDGE: MEASUREMENT AND RELATIONSHIP TO SLUDGE DEWATERABILITY. (R823486)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The polyanionic fraction of digested sludge extracellular material was quantified using an in situ dye adsorption method, and the relationships between measured extracellular polyanion (ECPA)
    concentrations and sludge dewaterability were investigated. Measured ECPA concentrat...

  19. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  20. High level extracellular production of a recombinant alkaline catalase in E. coli BL21 under ethanol stress and its application in hydrogen peroxide removal after cotton fabrics bleaching.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenxiao; Zheng, Hongchen; Zhao, Xingya; Li, Shufang; Xu, Jianyong; Song, Hui

    2016-08-01

    The effects of induction parameters, osmolytes and ethanol stress on the productivity of the recombinant alkaline catalase (KatA) in Escherichia coli BL21 (pET26b-KatA) were investigated. The yield of soluble KatA was significantly enhanced by 2% ethanol stress. And a certain amount of Triton X-100 supplementation could markedly improved extracellular ratio of KatA. A total soluble catalase activity of 78,762U/mL with the extracellular ratio of 92.5% was achieved by fed-batch fermentation in a 10L fermentor, which was the highest yield so far. The purified KatA showed high stability at 50°C and pH 6-10. Application of KatA for elimination of H2O2 after cotton fabrics bleaching led to less consumption of water, steam and electric power by 25%, 12% and 16.7% respectively without productivity and quality losing of cotton fabrics. Thus, the recombinant KatA is a promising candidate for industrial production and applications.

  1. Water-n-BuOH solvothermal synthesis of ZnAl-LDHs with different morphologies and its calcined product in efficient dyes removal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gailing; Sun, Yingying; Zhao, Chencong; Zhao, Yifei; Song, Zhaoyuan; Chen, Junli; Ma, Shulan; Du, Junping; Yin, Zhigang

    2017-05-15

    In this study, water-n-BuOH mixed solvents were used to synthesize the ZnAl-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-LDHs) via hydrothermal method. The XRD, FT-IR, SEM, ICP and CHN analyses revealed that the type of intercalated anions, the layer Zn/Al ratios, and morphologies of the LDHs depended on the ratio of V(water)/V(n-BuOH) in the mixed solvents. When the ratio of V(water)/V(n-BuOH) is 3 or 0.3, the as-prepared LDHs had 3D "silk flowers" (ZnAl-LDH-3) or "Sedimentary rock" morphology (ZnAl-LDH-0.3). Adsorption properties of dyes on calcined LDHs were studied. Compared with ZnAl-LDO-0.3 and ZnAl-LDO-w (calcined from the LDHs obtained in pure water), ZnAl-LDO-3 showed much better adsorption efficiency for anionic dyes thanks to its much larger BET-specific surface area. The sorption kinetics for dyes was appropriately described by the pseudo-second-order model and sorption isotherms can be fitted more satisfactorily by the Langmuir model. With the increasing concentrations of dyes from 10mg/L to 400mg/L, the maximum absorption capacities of ZnAl-LDO-3 were 1540mg/g (2.21mmol/g) for congo red, 1153mg/g (3.52mmol/g) for methyl orange and 390mg/g (0.63mmol/g) for active red (X-3B), respectively. The adsorption dyes onto the external surface is still the main mechanism for LDO adsorbents. The ZnAl-LDO-3 was a potential adsorbent for dyeing wastewater treatment.

  2. Synthesis of interpenetrating network hydrogel from poly(acrylic acid-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and sodium alginate: modeling and kinetics study for removal of synthetic dyes from water.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bidyadhar; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2013-10-15

    Several interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogels were made by free radical in situ crosslink copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and hydroxy ethyl methacrylate in aqueous solution of sodium alginate. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) was used as comonomer crosslinker for making these crosslink hydrogels. All of these hydrogels were characterized by carboxylic content, FTIR, SEM, XRD, DTA-TGA and mechanical properties. Swelling, diffusion and network parameters of the hydrogels were studied. These hydrogels were used for adsorption of two important synthetic dyes, i.e. Congo red and methyl violet from water. Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of dye adsorption by these hydrogels were also studied.

  3. Decolorization of adsorbed textile dyes by developed consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Telke, Amar A; Jagtap, Sujit S; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study was to develop consortium using Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and Aspergillus ochraceus NCIM-1146 to decolorize adsorbed dyes from textile effluent wastewater under solid state fermentation. Among various agricultural wastes rice bran showed dye adsorption up to 90, 62 and 80% from textile dye reactive navy blue HE2R (RNB HE2R) solution, mixture of textile dyes and textile industry wastewater, respectively. Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 showed 62 and 38% decolorization of RNB HE2R adsorbed on rice bran in 24h under solid state fermentation. However, the consortium of Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 and A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 (consortium-PA) showed 80% decolorization in 24h. The consortium-PA showed effective ADMI removal ratio of adsorbed dyes from textile industry wastewater (77%), mixture of textile dyes (82%) and chemical precipitate of textile dye effluent (CPTDE) (86%). Secretion of extracellular enzymes such as laccase, azoreductase, tyrosinase and NADH-DCIP reductase and their significant induction in the presence of adsorbed dye suggests their role in the decolorization of RNB HE2R. GCMS and HPLC analysis of product suggests the different fates of biodegradation of RNB HE2R when used Pseudomonas sp. SUK1, A. ochraceus NCIM-1146 and consortium PA.

  4. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W.

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  5. Use of agricultural waste sugar beet pulp for the removal of Gemazol turquoise blue-G reactive dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Zümriye; Isoglu, I Alper

    2006-09-01

    The potential use of dried sugar beet pulp, an agricultural solid waste by-product, as an biosorbent for Gemazol turquoise blue-G, a copper-pthalocyanine reactive dye commonly used in dyeing of cotton, was investigated in the present study. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, temperature and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that adsorption was strongly pH-dependent and slightly temperature-dependent. At 800 mg l(-1) initial Gemazol turquoise blue-G concentration, dried sugar beet pulp exhibited the highest Gemazol turquoise blue-G uptake capacity of 234.8 mg g(-1) at 25 degrees C and at an initial pH value of 2.0. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich, the two and three parameters adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm constants were evaluated depending on temperature. Both the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models were applicable for describing the dye biosorption by dried sugar beet pulp in the concentration (100-800 mg l(-1)) and temperature (25-45 degrees C) ranges studied. Simple mass transfer and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of biosorption and potential rate controlling steps such as external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion and biosorption process. The sorption process was found to be controlled by both surface and pore diffusion with surface diffusion at the earlier stages followed by pore diffusion at the later stages. Pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and saturation type kinetic models described the biosorption kinetics accurately at all concentrations and temperatures studied. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the sorption process was exothermic and the biosorption of dye on dried sugar beet pulp might be physical in nature.

  6. Treatment of azo dye-containing synthetic textile dye effluent using sulfidogenic anaerobic baffled reactor.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Sebnem; Cirik, Kevser; Akman, Dilek; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Cinar, Ozer

    2013-10-01

    This study aims at investigating azo dye reduction performance of a sulfidogenic anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) for around 400 days. ABR was operated at 30 °C in a temperature-controlled room and hydraulic retention time (HRT) was kept constant at 2 days. The robustness of ABR was assessed under varying azo dye loadings and COD/sulfate ratios. Additionally, oxygen was supplied (1-2 L air/m(3)reactor min) to the last compartment to investigate the removal of azo dye breakdown products. ABR performed well in terms of COD, sulfate and azo dye removals throughout the reactor operation. Maximum azo dye, COD and sulfate removals were 98%, 98% and 93%, respectively, at COD/sulfate ratio of 0.8. Aeration created different redox conditions in last compartment, which enhanced the removal of COD and breakdown products. The adverse effects of aeration on azo dye reduction were eliminated thanks to the compartmentalized structure of the ABR.

  7. Self-sustainable Chlorella pyrenoidosa strain NCIM 2738 based photobioreactor for removal of Direct Red-31 dye along with other industrial pollutants to improve the water-quality.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Surbhi; Singh, Rachana; Chaurasia, Akhilesh K; Nigam, Subhasha

    2016-04-05

    The genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of diazo dyes from industrial effluents pose a serious environmental threat by contaminating aquatic ecosystem and consequently impact human health. The potential of a diazo dye resistant, self-sustainable photosynthetic green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 provides a viable green technology for an efficient biodegradation of diazo dye Direct Red-31 (DR-31) and overall improvement of water quality. Herein, we for the first time report the degradation of DR-31 using C. pyrenoidosa. Batch experiments were performed to optimize the effect of initial pH, contact time and toxicity-range of DR-31 in order to achieve the optimal conditions for maximum decolourization in continuous cyclic photobioreactor. In batch culture, C. pyrenoidosa exhibited 96% decolourization with 40mgL(-1) dye at pH3. The equilibrium was attained within 30min and the maximum uptake of 30.53mgg(-1) algal biomass was observed during this period. This was found to be fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The FT-IR spectra showed a change from -N=N- to N-H suggesting the possible involvement of the azoreductase enzyme. The application of C. pyrenoidosa not only degraded the DR-31 but also improved the quality of water by reducing COD (82.73%), BOD (56.44%), sulphate (54.54%), phosphate (19.88%), and TDS (84.18%) which was further enhanced in continuous cyclic bioreactor treatment. The results clearly showed that C. pyrenoidosa provides an efficient, self-sustainable green technology for decolourization of DR-31 and improved the water quality.

  8. Extracellular bioreduction

    DOEpatents

    Chidambaram, Devicharan [Middle Island, NY; Francis, Arokiasamy J [Middle Island, NY

    2012-04-17

    A method for processing environmental or industrial samples to remove, reclaim or otherwise reduce the level of chemical species present in the sample that act as redox active species. The redox active species is kept in a waste chamber and is separated from an aqueous bacterial culture that is held in a culture chamber. The waste chamber and the culture chamber are separated by a porous membrane through which electron transfer can occur but through which the aqueous bacterial culture cannot pass. The redox active species substantially remains in the waste chamber and is in non-contact with the aqueous bacterial culture during the process of removal, reduction or reclamation.

  9. Azo Dye Biodecolorization Enhanced by Echinodontium taxodii Cultured with Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jing; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose facilitates the fungal oxidization of recalcitrant organic pollutants through the extracellular ligninolytic enzymes induced by lignin in wood or other plant tissues. However, available information on this phenomenon is insufficient. Free radical chain reactions during lignin metabolism are important in xenobiotic removal. Thus, the effect of lignin on azo dye decolorization in vivo by Echinodontium taxodii was evaluated. In the presence of lignin, optimum decolorization percentages for Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B, Direct Black 38, and Direct Black 22 were 91.75% (control, 65.96%), 76.89% (control, 43.78%), 43.44% (control, 17.02%), and 44.75% (control, 12.16%), respectively, in the submerged cultures. Laccase was the most important enzyme during biodecolorization. Aside from the stimulating of laccase activity, lignin might be degraded by E. taxodii, and then these degraded low-molecular-weight metabolites could act as redox mediators promoting decolorization of azo dyes. The relationship between laccase and lignin degradation was investigated through decolorization tests in vitro with purified enzyme and dozens of aromatics, which can be derivatives of lignin and can function as laccase mediators or inducers. Dyes were decolorized at triple or even higher rates in certain laccase–aromatic systems at chemical concentrations as low as 10 µM. PMID:25285777

  10. Complete removal of AHPS synthetic dye from water using new electro-fenton oxidation catalyzed by natural pyrite as heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Labiadh, Lazhar; Oturan, Mehmet A; Panizza, Marco; Hamadi, Nawfel Ben; Ammar, Salah

    2015-10-30

    The mineralization of a new azo dye - the (4-amino-3-hydroxy-2-p-tolylazo-naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) (AHPS) - has been studied by a novel electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP), consisting in electro-Fenton (EF) oxidation, catalyzed by pyrite as the heterogeneous catalyst - the so-called 'pyrite-EF'. This solid pyrite used as heterogeneous catalyst instead of a soluble iron salt, is the catalyst the system needs for production of hydroxyl radicals. Experiments were performed in an undivided cell equipped with a BDD anode and a commercial carbon felt cathode to electrogenerate in situ H2O2 and regenerate ferrous ions as catalyst. The effects on operating parameters, such as applied current, pyrite concentration and initial dye content, were investigated. AHPS decay and mineralization efficiencies were monitored by HPLC analyses and TOC measurements, respectively. Experimental results showed that AHPS was quickly oxidized by hydroxyl radicals (OH) produced simultaneously both on BDD surface by water discharge and in solution bulk from electrochemically assisted Fenton's reaction with a pseudo-first-order reaction. AHPS solutions with 175 mg L(-1) (100 mg L(-1) initial TOC) content were then almost completely mineralized in 8h. Moreover, the results demonstrated that, under the same conditions, AHPS degradation by pyrite electro-Fenton process was more powerful than the conventional electro-Fenton process.

  11. Application of longan shell as non-conventional low-cost adsorbent for the removal of cationic dye from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya; Zhu, Lin; Jiang, Haitao; Hu, Fang; Shen, Xiangqian

    2016-04-01

    With simple physical treatment, adsorption potential of longan shell for the methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was studied as a low-cost material under the conditions of adsorbent dosage (1-6 g/L), initial solution pH (2-12), contact time (5-180 min), temperature (293, 313, 313 K) and initial dye concentration (100-500 mg/L). The SEM images and FTIR spectra of longan shell before and after dye adsorption were analyzed to understand the adsorption process of MB onto longan shell. The kinetic data and the equilibrium data were simulated by different kinetic and isotherm models, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the experimental equilibrium data were better fit to Langmuir equation than Freundlich equation with the maximum adsorption capacity of 141.04 mg/g. In addition, main activation parameters (Ea, ΔH#, ΔS# and ΔG#) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) of the absorption process were also determined.

  12. Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

    1977-01-01

    In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

  13. Kinetics of a reactive dye adsorption onto dolomitic sorbents.

    PubMed

    Walker, G M; Hansen, L; Hanna, J-A; Allen, S J

    2003-05-01

    A novel wastewater treatment technique has been investigated, for reactive dye removal, in batch kinetic systems. These experimental studies have indicated that charred dolomite has the potential to act as an adsorbent for the removal of Brilliant Red reactive dye from aqueous solution. The effect of initial dye concentration, adsorbent mass:liquid volume ratio, and agitation speed on dye removal have been determined with the experimental data mathematically described using empirical external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion models. The experimental data show conformity with an adsorption process, with the removal rate heavily dependent on both external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion.

  14. Hierarchical Heteroaggregation of Binary Metal-Organic Gels with Tunable Porosity and Mixed Valence Metal Sites for Removal of Dyes in Water

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Asif; Xia, Wei; Mahmood, Nasir; Wang, Qingfei; Zou, Ruqiang

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical heteronuclear metal-organic gels (MOGs) based on iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) metal-organic framework (MOF) backbones bridged by tri-carboxylate ligands have firstly been synthesized by simple solvothermal method. Monometallic MOGs based on Fe or Al give homogenous monoliths, which have been tuned by introduction of heterogeneity in the system (mismatched growth). The developed gels demonstrate that surface areas, pore volumes and pore sizes can be readily tuned by optimizing heterogeneity. The work also elaborates effect of heterogeneity on size of MOG particles which increase substantially with increasing heterogeneity as well as obtaining mixed valence sites in the gels. High surface areas (1861 m2/g) and pore volumes (9.737 cc/g) were obtained for heterogeneous gels (0.5Fe-0.5Al). The large uptakes of dye molecules (290 mg/g rhodamine B and 265 mg/g methyl orange) with fast sorption kinetics in both neutral and acidic mediums show good stability and accessibility of MOG channels (micro and meso-/macropores), further demonstrating their potential applications in catalysis and sorption of large molecules. PMID:26014755

  15. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, color removal by ozonization and by treatment with manganese solid waste, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Degradation of dyes from aqueous solution by Fenton processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Nidheesh, Puthiya Veetil; Gandhimathi, Rajan; Ramesh, Srikrishnaperumal Thanga

    2013-04-01

    Several industries are using dyes as coloring agents. The effluents from these industries are increasingly becoming an environmental problem. The removal of dyes from aqueous solution has a great potential in the field of environmental engineering. This paper reviews the classification, characteristics, and problems of dyes in detail. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods used for dye removal are also analyzed. Among these methods, Fenton process-based advanced oxidation processes are an emerging prospect in the field of dye removal. Fenton processes have been classified and represented as "Fenton circle". This paper analyzes the recent studies on Fenton processes. The studies include analyzing different configurations of reactors used for dye removal, its efficiency, and the effects of various operating parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, H2O2 concentration, initial dye concentration, and temperature of Fenton processes. From the present study, it can be conclude that Fenton processes are very effective and environmentally friendly methods for dye removal.

  17. Enzymatic biotransformation of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Couto, S

    2009-11-01

    Environmental pollution by discharge of dye-containing effluents represents a serious ecological concern in many countries. Public demands for colour-free discharges to receiving waters have made decolouration of a variety of industrial wastewater a top priority. The current existing techniques for dye removal have several drawbacks such as high cost, low efficiency, use of large amounts of chemicals and formation of toxic sub-products. This has impelled the search for alternative methods such as those based on oxidative enzymes. This approach is believed to be a promising technology since it is cost-effective, environmentally friendly and does not produce sludge. Enzymatic transformation of synthetic dyes can be described as the conversion of dye molecules by enzymes into simpler and generally colourless molecules. Detailed characterisation of the metabolites produced during enzymatic transformation of synthetic dyes as well as ecotoxicity studies is of great importance to assess the effectiveness of the biodegradation process. However, most reports on the biotreatment of dyes mainly deal with decolouration and there are few reports on the reduction in toxicity or on the identification of the biodegradation products. This implies a limitation to assess their true technical potential.

  18. Feasibility analysis of color removal from textile dyeing wastewater in a fixed-bed column system by surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ozgur; Turan, Mustafa; Turan, Abdullah Zahid; Faki, Aysegul; Engin, Ahmet Baki

    2009-07-30

    In this study, the ability of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) to remove color from real textile wastewater was investigated. Tests were performed in a fixed-bed column reactor and the surface of natural zeolite was modified with a quaternary amine surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB). The zeolite bed that was modified at 1 g L(-1) HTAB concentration and HTAB flow rate of 0.015 L min(-1) showed good performance in removing color. Effects of wastewater color intensity, flow rates and bed heights were also studied. Wastewater was diluted several times in the ratios of 25%, 50% and 75% in order to assess the influence of wastewater strength. The breakthrough curves of the original and diluted wastewaters are dispersed due to the fact that breakthrough came late at lower color intensities and saturation of the bed appeared faster at higher color intensities. The column had a 3-cm diameter and four different bed heights of 12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50 cm, which treated 5.25, 19.50, 35.25 and 51 L original textile wastewater, respectively, at the breakthrough time at a flow rate of 0.025 L min(-1). The theoretical service times evaluated from bed depth service time (BDST) approach for different column variables. The calculated and theoretical values of the exchange zone height were found with a difference of 27%. The various design parameters obtained from fixed-bed experimental studies showed good correlation with corresponding theoretical values, under different bed heights. The regeneration of the SMZ was also evaluated using a solution consisting of 30 g L(-1) NaCl and 1.5 g L(-1) NaOH at pH 12 and temperature 30 degrees C. Twice-regenerated SMZ showed the best performance compared with the others while first- and thrice-regenerated perform lower than the original SMZ.

  19. Zinc chloride as a coagulant for textile dyes and treatment of generated dye sludge under the solid state fermentation: hybrid treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Lade, Harshad S; Lee, Dae Sung; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2015-01-01

    Dye sludge generation is major drawback of coagulation process. Efficient hybrid technology by combining coagulation and solid state fermentation (SSF) has capacity to solve generated dye sludge problem. Coagulation of 100mg/L Reactive Red 120 (RR120) using ZnCl2 showed 99% color removal. Mixture of textile dyes (MTD) and textile wastewater (TW) showed 96% and 98% ADMI (American Dye Manufacturing Institute) removal after coagulation by ZnCl2. 92% and 94% ADMI removal from MTD and TW dye sludge and 96% decolorization of RR120 sludge was observed respectively by developed microbial consortium (DCM) in 72h under SSF. Scale up of coagulation process by coagulation reactor (CR) having 50L capacity operated for 30min/cycle. CR showed average 94% ADMI removal from TW in 10 successive cycles. Scale up of SSF composting bioreactor (CB) showed complete dye removal from dye sludge obtained from CR (500L of TW) in 30days.

  20. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye lr amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant.

  1. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  2. A hybrid artificial neural network and particle swarm optimization for prediction of removal of hazardous dye brilliant green from aqueous solution using zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Ansari, A.; Bahari, F.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Vafaei, A.

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnS-NP-AC) simply was synthesized in the presence of ultrasound and characterized using different techniques such as SEM and BET analysis. Then, this material was used for brilliant green (BG) removal. To dependency of BG removal percentage toward various parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and contact time were examined and optimized. The mechanism and rate of adsorption was ascertained by analyzing experimental data at various time to conventional kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and second order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. Comparison according to general criterion such as relative error in adsorption capacity and correlation coefficient confirm the usability of pseudo-second-order kinetic model for explanation of data. The Langmuir models is efficiently can explained the behavior of adsorption system to give full information about interaction of BG with ZnS-NP-AC. A multiple linear regression (MLR) and a hybrid of artificial neural network and partial swarm optimization (ANN-PSO) model were used for prediction of brilliant green adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Comparison of the results obtained using offered models confirm higher ability of ANN model compare to the MLR model for prediction of BG adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Using the optimal ANN-PSO model the coefficient of determination (R2) were 0.9610 and 0.9506; mean squared error (MSE) values were 0.0020 and 0.0022 for the training and testing data set, respectively.

  3. A hybrid artificial neural network and particle swarm optimization for prediction of removal of hazardous dye brilliant green from aqueous solution using zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Ansari, A; Bahari, F; Ghaedi, A M; Vafaei, A

    2015-02-25

    In the present study, zinc sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (ZnS-NP-AC) simply was synthesized in the presence of ultrasound and characterized using different techniques such as SEM and BET analysis. Then, this material was used for brilliant green (BG) removal. To dependency of BG removal percentage toward various parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and contact time were examined and optimized. The mechanism and rate of adsorption was ascertained by analyzing experimental data at various time to conventional kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and second order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. Comparison according to general criterion such as relative error in adsorption capacity and correlation coefficient confirm the usability of pseudo-second-order kinetic model for explanation of data. The Langmuir models is efficiently can explained the behavior of adsorption system to give full information about interaction of BG with ZnS-NP-AC. A multiple linear regression (MLR) and a hybrid of artificial neural network and partial swarm optimization (ANN-PSO) model were used for prediction of brilliant green adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Comparison of the results obtained using offered models confirm higher ability of ANN model compare to the MLR model for prediction of BG adsorption onto ZnS-NP-AC. Using the optimal ANN-PSO model the coefficient of determination (R(2)) were 0.9610 and 0.9506; mean squared error (MSE) values were 0.0020 and 0.0022 for the training and testing data set, respectively.

  4. Self-assembly synthesis of hollow double silica @ mesoporous magnesium silicate magnetic hierarchical nanotubes with excellent performance for fast removal of cationic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yaxi; Cui, Guijia; Liu, Yan; Li, Haizhen; Sun, Zebin; Yan, Shiqiang

    2016-11-01

    In this work, novel hollow double silica @ mesoporous magnesium silicate magnetic hierarchical nanotubes (MgSNTs) were successfully synthesized by using magnetic mesoporous silica nanocapsules (MSNCs) as morphology templates via a hydrothermal method for the first time. MgSNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Mapping, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infraed spetroscopy, N2 adorption-desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The synthesized MgSNTs with high specific surface area (588 m2/g), average pore width (7.13 nm) and pore volume (1.05 cm3/g) had high removal efficiency for low concentration methylene blue (70 mg/L, 299 mg/g) and high adsorption capacities for high concentration rodamine B (300 mg/L, 752 mg/g). Besides, it could be easily recovered due with the help of γ-Fe2O3 in the inner chamber. Moreover, the adsorption capacity, the influence of pH, adsorption kinetics and adsorption mechanism were also carefully and comprehensively investigated. The results indicated that magnetic magnesium silicate nanotubes (MgSNTs) using mesoporous silica nanocapsules as the assisted templates were promsing adsorbents for water purification.

  5. Preparation, characterization and adsorption properties of chitosan modified magnetic graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes for highly effective removal of a carcinogenic dye from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, HuaYue; Fu, YongQian; Jiang, Ru; Yao, Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, YanWen; Xiao, Ling; Zeng, GuangMing

    2013-11-01

    Novel chitosan-modified magnetic graphitized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CS-m-GMCNTs) were synthesized via a suspension cross-linking method. Composition, morphology and magnetic properties of as-prepared CS-m-GMCNTs were characterized by XRD, SEM-EDS, BET and VSM. The large saturation magnetization (12.27 emu g-1) allows fast separation of CS-m-GMCNTs from treated aqueous solution. The adsorption of congo red (CR) on CS-m-GMCNTs was strongly dependent on pH, temperature of the aqueous phase and adsorbent dosage. Up to 100 and 94.58% color removal could be achieved in 100 min contact time with 10 and 50 mg L-1 of initial concentrations, respectively. The adsorption capacity of CR onto CS-m-GMCNTs could reach 262.9 mg g-1. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.999) was suitable to describe the process of CR adsorption onto CS-m-GMCNTs. The Langmuir model fitted the adsorption isotherm data better than the Freundlich model. Values of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) indicated that the adsorption process was strongly dependent on temperature of the aqueous phase, and spontaneous and endothermic process in nature. Therefore, CS-m-GMCNTs adsorbent displays main advantages of excellent dispersion, convenience separation and high adsorption capacity, which implies their potential application in the environmental cleanup.

  6. Probing the Effects of Templating on the UV and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Porous Nitrogen-Modified Titania Monoliths for Dye Removal.

    PubMed

    Nursam, Natalita M; Wang, Xingdong; Tan, Jeannie Z Y; Caruso, Rachel A

    2016-07-13

    Porous nitrogen-modified titania (N-titania) monoliths with tailored morphologies were prepared using phase separation and agarose gel templating techniques. The doping and templating process were simultaneously carried out in a one-pot step using alcohol amine-assisted sol-gel chemistry. The amount of polymer used in the monoliths that were prepared using phase separation was shown to affect both the physical and optical properties: higher poly(ethylene glycol) content increased the specific surface area, porosity, and visible light absorption of the final materials. For the agarose-templated monoliths, the infiltration conditions affected the monolith morphology. A porous monolith with high surface area and the least shrinkage was obtained when the N containing alkoxide precursor was infiltrated into the agarose scaffolds at 60 °C. The effect of the diverse porous morphologies on the photocatalytic activity of N-titania was studied for the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) under visible and UV light irradiation. The highest visible light activity was achieved by the agarose-templated N-titania monolith, in part due to higher N incorporation. This sample also showed better UV activity, partly because of the higher specific surface area (up to 112 m(2) g(-1)) compared to the phase separation-induced monoliths (up to 103 m(2) g(-1)). Overall, agarose-templated, porous N-titania monoliths provided better features for effectively removing the MB contaminant.

  7. Removal of organic dye by air and macroporous ZnO/MoO3/SiO2 hybrid under room conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mengjia; Wang, Shengtian; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lingling; Hao, Tianhong

    2011-07-01

    A new macroporous ZnO/MoO3/SiO2 hybrid was synthesized by a method involving sol-gel technology and biomimetic synthesis. It was characterized by Elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical degradation of 0.3 g/L Safranin T (ST) by air oxidation over macroporous ZnO/MoO3/SiO2 hybrid was studied. It was found that the decolorization efficiency and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of ST reached above 95.3% and 93.2%, respectively, within 25 min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. And the organic pollutant was mineralized to simple inorganic species such as HCO3-, Cl- and NO3-, while the total organic carbon (TOC) decreased 95.4%. The structure and morphology of the catalyst were still stable after six cycling runs and the leaching test showed negligible leaching effect.

  8. Biosorption of Azo dyes by spent Rhizopus arrhizus biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi, Neeta A.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, spent Rhizopus arrhizus biomass was used for the removal of six azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The dye removal capacity of the biomass was evaluated by conducting batch tests as a function of contact time, biomass dosage, pH and initial dye concentrations. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well with the experimental data with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999, suggesting that chemisorptions might be the rate limiting step. The equilibrium sorption data showed good fit to the Langmuir isotherm model. Among the six dyes tested, the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for fast red A and metanil yellow was found to be 108.8 and 128.5 mg/g, respectively. These encouraging results suggest that dead Rhizopus arrhizus biomass could be a potential biomaterial for the removal of azo dyes from aqueous dye solution.

  9. Determination of minimum enzymatic decolorization time of reactive dye solution by spectroscopic & mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Mithat; Ozdemir, Zafer Omer; Eroglu, Emre; Altikatoglu, Melda; Guney, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography and petroleum products. Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation, precipitation, adsorption, chemical degradation, photo degradation, and chemical coagulation. Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an important issue for several research field (chemistry, environment) In this study, minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data. Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance decrease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye. All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 degrees C constant temperature for 30 minutes. The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model. Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation. It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation.

  10. Decolourisation of Red 5 MB dye by microbes isolated from textile dye effluent.

    PubMed

    Subashini, P; Hiranmaiyadav, R; Premalatha, M S

    2010-07-01

    One of the major environmental problems is the presence of dye materials in textile wastewater, which need to be removed before releasing into the environment. Some dyes are toxic and carcinogenic in nature. The discharge of the textile effluent into rivers and lakes leads to higher BOD causing threat to aquatic life. Development of efficient dye degradation requires suitable strain and its use under favorable condition to realize the degradation potential. In this study, three microorganisms were isolated from the Red 5 MB dye containing textile wastewater. They were identified and tested for the dye decolourisation provided with different sugars as carbon source. The percentage of dye decolorized by Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus were found to be about 40%, 75% and 53.8% respectively.

  11. Decolorizing activity of malachite green and its mechanisms involved in dye biodegradation by Achromobacter xylosoxidans MG1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji'ai; Qiao, Min; Wei, Kangbi; Ding, Junmei; Liu, Zhongzhong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Huang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    An Achromobacter xylosoxidans MG1 strainisolated from the effluent treatment plant of a textile and dyeing factory from Yunnan Province in China was found capable of decolorizing the malachite green dye at a high efficacy. Strain MG1 reduced 86% malachite green at the concentration of 2,000 mg/l within 1 h, representing a greater ability for decolorizing and a higher tolerance of this compound than all previously reported bacteria. Color removal was optimal at pH 6 and 38°C. Further experimental evidences demonstrated that both cytoplasmic and extracellular biodegradation contributed to the decolorization of malachite green. Nested PCR was employed to identify the candidate genes responsible for malachite green decolorization, and we identified a cytoplasmic triphenylmethane reductase gene with 100% amino acid similarity to the corresponding gene in Citrobacter sp. strain. In contrast to our expectation, the addition of metyrapone had little effect on the cytoplasmic biodegradation, suggesting that cytochrome P450 was not involved in the high-performance reduction. The extracellular biodegradation was likely attributable to the secretion of extracellular proteases and some heat-resistant compounds.

  12. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  13. Enzymatic decolorization of spent textile dyeing baths composed by mixtures of synthetic dyes and additives.

    PubMed

    Ciullini, Ilaria; Gullotto, Antonella; Tilli, Silvia; Sannia, Giovanni; Basosi, Riccardo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2012-10-01

    The effects of different components of real dyeing bath formulations, such as the equalizing and fixing additives-acids, salts, and surfactants-on the decolorization catalyzed by Funalia trogii enzymatic extracts, were investigated to understand their influence on the recalcitrance to biodegradation of this type of wastewater. The decolorization of selected dyes and dye mixtures after tissue dyeing was performed in the presence/absence of auxiliary compounds. All spent dyeing baths were enzymatically decolorized to different extents, by the addition of extracts containing laccase only or laccase plus cellobiose dehydrogenase. Whereas surfactant auxiliaries, in some instances, inhibit the decolorization of spent dyeing baths, in several occurrences the acid/salt additives favor the enzymatic process. In general, the complete spent dyeing formulations are better degraded than those containing the dyes only. The comparison of extracellular extracts obtained from spent straws from the commercial growth of Pleurotus sp. mushrooms with those from F. trogii reveals similar decolorization extents thus allowing to further reduce the costs of bioremediation.

  14. Removal of some textile dyes from aqueous solutions by poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, Hatice Kaplan; Kirci, Betül; Kavlak, Serap; Güner, Ali

    2003-12-01

    Poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/water and poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/K 2S 2O 8/water systems are hydrogels prepared by irradiation with γ-rays at ambient temperature. Both hydrogel systems were employed for diffusion and swelling experiments in various textile dyes aqueous solutions (textile dyes such as Cibacron Blue (CB) F3GA, Methyl Orange (MO), Congo Red (CR)). For these hydrogel systems, swelling studies indicated that swelling percentages increased in the following order: MO>CB F3GA>CR at fixed dose 96 kGy. Because of this reason MO dye solution has been chosen and all swelling properties are investigated for 26, 64, 96 and 124 kGy. The swelling capabilities of PVP and PVP/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels in MO dye solution vary in the range of 400-1500%. The diffusion of dye solutions PVP and PVP/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels was assumed to be Fickian character. The swelling behavior of PVP and PVP/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels exhibits second-order kinetic in all dye solutions. Diffusion coefficient, initial swelling rate, swelling rate constant, maximum swelling and equilibrium water/dye content were found for all gel systems in dye solutions.

  15. Daylight-driven photocatalytic degradation of ionic dyes with negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers: dye charge-dependent roles of reactive species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Suxiang; Cai, Lejuan; Li, Dapeng; Fa, Wenjun; Zhang, Yange; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Even though dye degradation is a successful application of semiconductor photocatalysis, the roles of reactive species in dye degradation have not received adequate attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the degradation of two cationic dyes (rhodamine B and methylene blue) and two anionic dyes (methyl orange and orange G) over negatively surface-charged In2S3 nanoflowers synthesized at 80 °C under indoor daylight lamp irradiation. It is notable to find In2S3 nanoflowers were more stable in anionic dyes degradation compared to that in cationic dyes removal. The active species trapping experiments indicated photogenerated electrons were mainly responsible for cationic dyes degradation, but holes were more important in anionic dyes degradation. A surface-charge-dependent role of reactive species in ionic dye degradation was proposed for revealing such interesting phenomenon. This study would provide a new insight for preparing highly efficient daylight-driven photocatalyst for ionic dyes degradation.

  16. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Effluent treatment in the textile industry: Dyes. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and reuse of textile industry effluents containing dyes. The citations explore bacteria that absorb dyes, neutralization of dye effluents, decolorization by ozonization or ultraviolet radiation, flocculation treatment, and dye absorption methods and materials. Membrane treatment, electrolysis, and ultrafiltration methods of removing dyes from wastewater are considered, as well as reuse of dye-containing effluents. Textile effluents that do not contain dyes are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymers for some reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Okutucu, Burcu; Akkaya, Alper; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon their structure, azo- and anthraquinonic dyes are the two major classes and together represent 90% of all organic colorants. Adsorption of dye molecules onto a sorbent can be an effective, low-cost method of color removal. Most of the techniques used for removal of dyes are of high production cost, and the regeneration also makes them uneconomical. There is much interest in the development of cheaper and effective newer materials for use as adsorbents. Molecular imprinting is a new kind of materials that can be alternative adsorbents. In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers of three textile dyes (Cibacron Orange P-4R, Cibacron Red P-4B, Cibacron Black PSG) were prepared. Methacrylic acid was used as a monomer for red and orange dyes and acrylamide was used for black dye. Methanol:acetonitrile was used as a porogen. The selective recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers was studied by an equilibrium-adsorption batch method. The adsorption data are for Cibacron Black PSG 65% and nonimprinted polymer (NIP) 25%; Cibacron Red P-4B 72% and NIP 18%; and Cibacron Orange P-4R 45% and NIP 10%, respectively. Dye-imprinted polymers were used as a solid-phase extraction material for selective adsorption from wastewater of textile factory.

  19. Mechanotransduction and extracellular matrix homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Jay D.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Schwartz, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Preface Soft connective tissues at steady state are yet dynamic; resident cells continually read environmental cues and respond to promote homeostasis, including maintenance of the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix that are fundamental to cellular and tissue health. The mechanosensing process involves assessment of the mechanics of the matrix by the cells through integrins and the actomyosin cytoskeleton, and is followed by a mechano-regulation process that includes the deposition, rearrangement, or removal of matrix to maintain overall form and function. Progress toward understanding the molecular, cellular, and tissue scale effects that promote mechanical homeostasis has helped identify key questions for future research. PMID:25355505

  20. Yeast extracellular proteases.

    PubMed

    Ogrydziak, D M

    1993-01-01

    Many species of yeast secrete significant amounts of protease(s). In this article, results of numerous surveys of yeast extracellular protease production have been compiled and inconsistencies in the data and limitations of the methodology have been examined. Regulation, purification, characterization, and processing of yeast extracellular proteases are reviewed. Results obtained from the sequences of cloned genes, especially the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bar protease, the Candida albicans acid protease, and the Yarrowia lipolytica alkaline protease, have been emphasized. Biotechnological applications and the medical relevance of yeast extracellular proteases are covered. Yeast extracellular proteases have potential in beer and wine stabilization, and they probably contribute to pathogenicity of Candida spp. Yeast extracellular protease genes also provide secretion and processing signals for yeast expression systems designed for secretion of heterologous proteins. Coverage of the secretion of foreign proteases such as prochymosin, urokinase, and tissue plasminogen activator by yeast in included.

  1. Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

  2. Relationship of Cotton Fiber Calcium and Magnesium Contents on Dye Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton from a single bale was processed into knit fabrics and prepared for dyeing. Following scouring, fabrics were soaked in either a metal sequestering solution or a water solution, bleached and dyed using 5 dye shades from both reatice and direct dye classes. Results indicate that removal of re...

  3. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  4. New protocols for DNA sequencing with dye terminators.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, A; Charnock-Jones, D S

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a new two-step protocol for Taq cycle sequencing using the ABI dye terminators. First, linear PCR is used to extend a single sequencing primer in the absence of dye terminators. This nested set of polynucleotides as well as the original primer then serve as starting points for the cycled termination reactions. Using this method it is easily possible to generate dye terminator raw data with much improved signal intensity beyond 400 to 500 bp. We also present a quick and convenient method to remove excess of dye terminators by gel filtration using 24 mini columns fixed in a block of perspex.

  5. Passive mode locking of lasers with a tunable dye cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, G. Z.; Goldstein, R. L.

    1982-11-01

    A laminar-flow dye cell with continuously variable thickness (tunable without removal of the dye solution) provides an excellent way of optimizing passively mode-locked lasers. Varying the cell thickness adjusts low-light-level transmittance to match the total cavity and excitation energy conditions and also varies pulse duration. Acceptable cell thicknesses and dye concentrations can be calculated theoretically using well-known parameters. The cell can be conveniently returned to compensate for dye degradation or to provide conditions for Q switching. Experimental evidence is presented for a Nd:YAG laser.

  6. Adsorption Capability of Cationic Dyes (Methylene Blue and Crystal Violet) onto Poly-γ-glutamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption capability of cationic dyes, which were methylene blue and crystal violet, by poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) in a single or binary solution system was investigated. The effect of the molecular weight of PGA, initial dye concentration, solution pH, and temperature on the adsorption of dyes was evaluated. The adsorption mechanism of dyes onto PGA was the interaction between -COOH group on the PGA surface and the polarity groups of dyes. These results indicated that PGA is useful for removal of dyes and cationic organic compounds from a single or binary solution system.

  7. Uptake of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by biosorption onto granular kohlrabi peel.

    PubMed

    Gong, Renmin; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Huijun; Sun, Yingzhi; Liu, Birong

    2007-04-01

    A new, low cost, locally available biomaterial was tested for its ability to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution. Granules prepared from kohlrabi peel had been utilized as a sorbent for uptake of three cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB), neutral red (NR) and acridine orange (AO). The effects of various experimental parameters (e.g., dye concentration, particle size, initial pH, contact time and other factors) were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. Above the value of initial pH 4, three dyes studied could be removed effectively. The isothermal data fitted the Langmuir model in the case of NR sorption and the Freundlich model for all three dyes sorption. The biosorption processes followed the pseudo-first-order rate kinetics. The results in this study indicated that kohlrabi peel was an attractive candidate for removing cationic dyes from the dye wastewater.

  8. A study of dyes sorption on biobased cryogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobritoiu, Rodica; Patachia, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Three types of biopolymers based materials were synthesized and tested as adsorbents for the dyes from aqueous solutions. Blends based on poly (vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and scleroglucan [Scl], cellulose micro-fibres [cel] and zein, respectively, have been prepared by repeated freezing-thawing cycles. Methylene blue [MB] was selected as a model dye in order to evaluate the capacity of the prepared materials to remove the dyes from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial dye concentration, contact time and the composition of materials on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of sorption were discussed. The pseudo-second-order kinetics was found to better fit the experimental data thus being able to consistently predict the amount of dye adsorbed over the entire sorption period. The sorption equilibrium data obey Freundlich isotherm. Sorption capacity was evaluated both by dye solution and cryogel analysis by using VIS spectrometry and image analysis with CIELAB system. The sorption of monomer or aggregated dye molecules was identified and correlated with the type and morphology of the gel. The highest efficiency in MB removal was obtained for Scl/PVA cryogels in 1:9 weight ratio (9.5279 mg/g MB for an initial concentration by 8 × 10-5 mol/L in MB). These materials are suitable as sorbents for the advanced removal of dyes from waste water.

  9. Chemical stabilization of laser dyes. Final report, 1 April 1987-31 March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, T.H.

    1990-04-10

    Irradiation of ethanol solutions of coumarin laser dye lasers produces products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. A major photoprocess which produces material which absorbs at the lasing wavelength is dye sensitized solvent oxidative oligomerization, producing aldehydic and ketonic products. A dye laser stabilization technique is removal of these carbonyl compounds as they are formed by reduction with a polymer bound borohydride reducing agent.

  10. Simultaneous laccase production and color removal by culturing fungus Pycnoporus sp. SYBC-L3 in a textile wastewater effluent supplemented with a lignocellulosic waste Phragmites australis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiayang; Cai, Yujie; Liao, Xiangru; Huang, Qingguo; Hao, Zhikui; Hu, Mingming; Zhang, Dabing

    2012-08-01

    We conducted experiments to culture Pycnoporus sp. SYBC-L3 in a medium comprising an industrial waste (dye-containing textile effluent) and a lignocellulosic waste (Phragmites australis) that achieved laccase production while having the color removed from the wastewater. Our experimental results showed that the fungus grew well in liquid submerged cultivation with the diluted textile effluent as the sole culture medium, but relatively low extracellular laccase activity (1.8 U/mL) was produced. Addition of the lignocellulosic biomass enhanced laccase production and color removal. The highest laccase activity was found to be 6.5 U/mL in the presence of Phragmites australis stem. Under this condition, 70 % color removal occurred in the culture medium. This study provided an alternative novel scheme to remove color in textile wastewater while having an economic value added by producing laccase.

  11. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics and column operations for the removal of hazardous dye, Tartrazine from aqueous solutions using waste materials--Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya, as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha

    2006-08-25

    Adsorbents, Bottom Ash (a power plant waste) and De-Oiled Soya (an agricultural waste) exhibit good efficacy to adsorb a highly toxic dye, Tartrazine. Through the batch technique equilibrium uptake of the dye is observed at different concentrations, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents and sieve size of adsorbents. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms are successfully employed on both the adsorbents and on the basis of these models the thermodynamic parameters are evaluated. Kinetic investigations reveal that more than 50% adsorption of dye is achieved in about 1h in both the cases, whereas, equilibrium establishment takes about 3-4h. The linear plots obtained in rate constant and mass transfer studies further confirm the applicability of first order rate expression and mass transfer model, respectively. The kinetic data treated to identify rate controlling step of the ongoing adsorption processes indicate that for both the systems, particle diffusion process is predominant at higher concentrations, while film diffusion takes place at lower concentrations. The column studies reveal that about 96% saturation of both the columns is attained during their exhaustion, while about 88 and 84% of the dye material is recovered by eluting dilute NaOH solution through exhausted Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns, respectively.

  12. Textile dye degradation using nano zero valent iron: A review.

    PubMed

    Raman, Chandra Devi; Kanmani, S

    2016-07-15

    Water soluble unfixed dyes and inorganic salts are the major pollutants in textile dyeing industry wastewater. Existing treatment methods fail to degrade textile dyes and have limitations too. The inadequate treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a major concern when effluent is directly discharged into the nearby environment. Long term disposal threatens the environment, which needs reclamation. This article reviews the current knowledge of nano zero valent iron (nZVI) technique in the degradation of textile dyes. The application of nZVI on textile dye degradation is receiving great attention in the recent years because nZVI particles are highly reactive towards the pollutant, less toxic, and economical. The nZVI particles aggregate quickly with respect to time and the addition of supports such as resin, nickel, zinc, bentonite, biopolymer, kaolin, rectorite, nickel-montmorillonite, bamboo, cellulose, biochar, graphene, and clinoptilolite enhanced the stability of iron nanoparticles. Inclusion of supports may in turn introduce additional toxic pollutants, hence green supports are recommended. The majority of investigations concluded dye color removal as textile dye compound removal, which is not factual. Very few studies monitored the removal of total organic carbon and observed the products formed. The results revealed that partial mineralization of the textile dye compound was achieved. Instead of stand alone technique, nZVI can be integrated with other suitable technique to achieve complete degradation of textile dye and also to treat multiple pollutants in the real textile dyeing wastewater. It is highly recommended to perform more bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to apply this technique to the textile effluent contaminated sites.

  13. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing.

  14. Laser dye stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, N.

    1980-06-01

    Lasing characteristics and bleaching of four Eastman Kodak ir dyes have been examined in dimethyl sulfoxide. These ir dyes are shown to improve in performance in the absence of oxygen. Their photochemical stability was found to be comparable to the quinolone laser dyes when exposed to flashlamp excitation. Photodecomposition of the ir dyes under lasing conditions was found to vary between 1.6 and 6×10-10 moles of dye for each joule (electrical) of input energy; in comparison, the photodecomposition values for the better coumarin dyes was 0.2 to 1.0×10-10 moles/J at a concentration of 1.0×10-4 M in ethanol. It was also found that increasing the concentration of these tricarbocyanine dyes gives a marked improvement in the useful lifetime of these solutions as lasing media in the absence of oxygen.

  15. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The cloning of a G protein-coupled extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(o)(2+))-sensing receptor (CaR) has elucidated the molecular basis for many of the previously recognized effects of Ca(o)(2+) on tissues that maintain systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, especially parathyroid chief cells and several cells in the kidney. The availability of the cloned CaR enabled the development of DNA and antibody probes for identifying the CaR's mRNA and protein, respectively, within these and other tissues. It also permitted the identification of human diseases resulting from inactivating or activating mutations of the CaR gene and the subsequent generation of mice with targeted disruption of the CaR gene. The characteristic alterations in parathyroid and renal function in these patients and in the mice with "knockout" of the CaR gene have provided valuable information on the CaR's physiological roles in these tissues participating in mineral ion homeostasis. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about how the CaR regulates other tissues involved in systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, particularly bone and intestine. Moreover, there is evidence that additional Ca(o)(2+) sensors may exist in bone cells that mediate some or even all of the known effects of Ca(o)(2+) on these cells. Even more remains to be learned about the CaR's function in the rapidly growing list of cells that express it but are uninvolved in systemic Ca(o)(2+) metabolism. Available data suggest that the receptor serves numerous roles outside of systemic mineral ion homeostasis, ranging from the regulation of hormonal secretion and the activities of various ion channels to the longer term control of gene expression, programmed cell death (apoptosis), and cellular proliferation. In some cases, the CaR on these "nonhomeostatic" cells responds to local changes in Ca(o)(2+) taking place within compartments of the extracellular fluid (ECF) that communicate with the outside environment (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract). In others

  16. Degradation of textile dyes by cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dellamatrice, Priscila Maria; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de; Fiore, Marli Fátima; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    Dyes are recalcitrant compounds that resist conventional biological treatments. The degradation of three textile dyes (Indigo, RBBR and Sulphur Black), and the dye-containing liquid effluent and solid waste from the Municipal Treatment Station, Americana, São Paulo, Brazil, by the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae UTCC64, Phormidium autumnale UTEX1580 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 was evaluated. The dye degradation efficiency of the cyanobacteria was compared with anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic systems in terms of discolouration and toxicity evaluations. The discoloration was evaluated by absorption spectroscopy. Toxicity was measured using the organisms Hydra attenuata, the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and lettuce seeds. The three cyanobacteria showed the potential to remediate textile effluent by removing the colour and reducing the toxicity. However, the growth of cyanobacteria on sludge was slow and discoloration was not efficient. The cyanobacteria P. autumnale UTEX1580 was the only strain that completely degraded the indigo dye. An evaluation of the mutagenicity potential was performed by use of the micronucleus assay using Allium sp. No mutagenicity was observed after the treatment. Two metabolites were produced during the degradation, anthranilic acid and isatin, but toxicity did not increase after the treatment. The cyanobacteria showed the ability to degrade the dyes present in a textile effluent; therefore, they can be used in a tertiary treatment of effluents with recalcitrant compounds.

  17. Electrocoagulation/electroflotation of reactive, disperse and mixture dyes in an external-loop airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Balla, Wafaa; Essadki, A H; Gourich, B; Dassaa, A; Chenik, H; Azzi, M

    2010-12-15

    This paper studied the efficiency of electrocoagulation/electroflotation in removing colour from synthetic and real textile wastewater by using aluminium and iron electrodes in an external-loop airlift reactor of 20 L. The disperse dye is a mixture of Yellow terasil 4G, Red terasil 343 150% and Blue terasil 3R02, the reactive dye is a mixture of Red S3B 195, Yellow SPD, Blue BRFS. For disperse dye, the removal efficiency was better using aluminium electrodes, whereas, the iron electrodes showed more efficiency for removing colour for reactive dye and mixed synthetic dye. Both for disperse, reactive and mixed dye, 40 mA cm(-2) and 20 min were respectively the optimal current density and electrolysis time. 7.5 was an optimal initial pH for both reactive and mixed synthetic dye and 6.2 was an optimal initial pH for disperse dye. The colour efficiency reached in general 90%. The results showed also that Red and Blue disappeared quickly comparatively to the Yellow component both for reactive and disperse dyes. The real textile wastewater was then used. Three effluents were also used: disperse, reactive and the mixture. The colour efficiency is between 70 and 90% and COD efficiency reached 78%. The specific electrical energy consumption per kg dye removed (E(dye)) in optimal conditions for real effluent was calculated. 170 kWh/kg(dye) was required for a reactive dye, 120 kWh/kg(dye) for disperse and 50 kWh/kg(dye) for the mixture.

  18. Cross-linked beads of activated oil palm ash zeolite/chitosan composite as a bio-adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue and acid blue 29 dyes.

    PubMed

    Khanday, W A; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2017-02-01

    Cross-linked beads of activated oil palm ash zeolite/chitosan (Z-AC/C) composite were prepared through the hydrothermal treatment of NaOH activated oil palm ash followed by beading with chitosan. The effects of initial dye concentration (50-400mg/L), temperature (30°C-50°C) and pH (3-13) on batch adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 29 (AB29) were studied. Adsorption of both dyes was better described by Pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Z-AC/C were 151.51, 169.49, and 199.20mg/g for MB and 212.76, 238.09, and 270.27mg/g for AB29 at 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C, respectively.

  19. Partially purified bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidase catalyzed decolorization of textile and other industrially important dyes.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Suhail; Ali Khan, Amjad; Husain, Qayyum

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic action of partially purified bitter gourd peroxidase for the degradation/decolorization of complex aromatic structures. Twenty-one dyes, with a wide spectrum of chemical groups, currently being used by the textile and other important industries have been selected for the study. Here, for the first time we have shown peroxidases from Momordica charantia (300 EU/gm of vegetable) to be highly effective in decolorizing industrially important dyes. Dye solutions, containing 50-200 mg dye/l, were used for the treatment with bitter gourd peroxidase (specific activity of 99.0 EU/mg protein). M. charantia peroxidases were able to decolorize most of the textile dyes by forming insoluble precipitate. When the textile dyes were treated with increasing concentration of enzyme, it was observed that greater fraction of the color was removed but four out of eight reactive dyes were recalcitrant to decolorization by bitter gourd peroxidase. Step-wise addition of enzyme to the decolorizing reaction mixture at the interval of 1h further enhanced the dye decolorization. The rate of decolorization was enhanced when the dyes were incubated with fixed quantity of enzyme for increasing times. Decolorization of non-textile dyes resulted in the degradation and removal of dyes from the solution without any precipitate formation. Decolorization rate was drastically increased when the textile and other industrially important non-textile dyes were treated with bitter gourd peroxidase in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Complex mixtures of dyes were prepared by taking three to four reactive textile and non-textile dyes in equal proportions. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with the enzyme in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Our data suggest that the peroxidase/mediator system is an effective biocatalyst for the treatment of effluents containing recalcitrant dyes from textile, dye manufacturing

  20. Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of azo dye (Congo red) using modified Y zeolite as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kondru, Arun Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep; Chand, Shri

    2009-07-15

    The present study explores the degradation of azo dye (Congo red) by catalytic wet peroxide oxidation using Fe exchanged commercial Y zeolite as a catalyst. The effects of various operating parameters like temperature, initial pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration and catalyst loading on the removal of dye, color and COD from an aqueous solution were studied at atmospheric pressure. The percent removals of dye, color and COD at optimum pH(0) 7, 90 degrees C using 0.6 ml H(2)O(2)/350 ml solution and 1g/l catalyst was 97% (in 4h), 100% (in 45 min) and 58% (in 4h), respectively. The % dye removal has been found to be less in comparison to % color removal at all conditions, e.g. dye removal in 45 min and at above conditions was 82%, whereas the color removal was 100%. The results indicate that the Fe exchanged Y zeolite is a promising catalyst for dye removal. Fe exchanged catalyst is characterized using XRD, SEM/EDAX, surface area analyzer and FTIR. Though the dye, color and COD removals were maximum at pH(0) 2 but as the leaching of Fe from the catalyst was more in acidic pH range, pH(0) 7 was taken as operating pH due to almost comparable removals as of pH(0) 2 and no leaching of Fe ions.

  1. Quantification of Adsorption of Azo Dye Molecules on Graphene Oxide Using Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Raghvendra Pratap; Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Vaibhav, Kumar; Saxena, Sumit; Shukla, Shobha

    2017-02-01

    The presence of azo dye molecules in effluents is a source of water pollution and an environmental hazard. Thus, it is very important to separate out such dye molecules. We have investigated the use of graphene oxide (GO) for the purification of dye-contaminated water. The adsorption efficiency of GO in the degradation of azo dye molecules and the interaction mechanism has been estimated using Ultra Violet-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The charge on the dye molecules along with steric hinderance due to their molecular structure is understood to be detrimental in the adsorption and removal of such dyes. Spectroscopic studies suggest that GO can be used as a potential candidate for efficient removal of cationic azo-dye molecules by adsorption.

  2. Quantification of Adsorption of Azo Dye Molecules on Graphene Oxide Using Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Raghvendra Pratap; Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Vaibhav, Kumar; Saxena, Sumit; Shukla, Shobha

    2016-11-01

    The presence of azo dye molecules in effluents is a source of water pollution and an environmental hazard. Thus, it is very important to separate out such dye molecules. We have investigated the use of graphene oxide (GO) for the purification of dye-contaminated water. The adsorption efficiency of GO in the degradation of azo dye molecules and the interaction mechanism has been estimated using Ultra Violet-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The charge on the dye molecules along with steric hinderance due to their molecular structure is understood to be detrimental in the adsorption and removal of such dyes. Spectroscopic studies suggest that GO can be used as a potential candidate for efficient removal of cationic azo-dye molecules by adsorption.

  3. Synthesis of Laser Dyes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-09

    block number) This report describes the progress made in attempts to prepare seven laser dyes. These dyes all have a 2-(L-pyridy.)-1,3- oxazole ...structure one dye, The synthesis of one dye, 2-(Ni-met.hyl-4-pyridiniiumi)pherianthroL9,10-dJ-1,3- oxazole tosylate (I) has been com-pleted. Preliminary...1,3- oxazoles . I~ 20 [IISTRI:’UTIGTJi/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 0UNITILA-,SIFIEDI.JNLiITED 0 SAME AS RPT El DTIC

  4. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Donald L.; Ramachandra, Muralidhara

    1993-01-01

    A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesized magnetically separable mesostructured H2Ti3O7/γ-Fe2O3 nanocomposite for organic dye removal via adsorption and its regeneration/reuse through synergistic non-radiation driven H2O2 activation.

    PubMed

    Narayani, Harsha; Jose, Manu; Sriram, K; Shukla, Satyajit

    2017-02-14

    Hydrogen titanate (H2Ti3O7) nanotubes/nanosheets (HTN) are emerging class of adsorbent material which possess unique property of activating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to generate the reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide radical ions (O2(.-)) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH), effective in the decomposition of surface-adsorbed dye. However, HTN are non-magnetic which create hurdle in their effective separation from the treated aqueous solution. To overcome this issue, magnetic nanocomposites (HTNF) composed of HTN and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been processed by subjecting the core-shell magnetic photocatalyst consisting of γ-Fe2O3/silica (SiO2)/titania (TiO2), having varying amounts of TiO2 in the shell to the hydrothermal conditions. HTNF-5 magnetic nanocomposite consisting of 31 wt% H2Ti3O7, typically having nanotube morphology with the highest specific surface area (133 m(2) g(-1)) and pore-volume (0.22 cm(3) g(-1)), exhibits the highest capacity (74 mg g(-1)) for the adsorption of cationic methylene blue (MB) dye from an aqueous solution involving the electrostatic attraction mechanism and pseudo-second-order kinetics. Very fast magnetic separation followed by regeneration of HTNF-5 magnetic nanocomposite has been demonstrated via non-radiation driven H2O2 activation. It has been ascertained for the first time that the underlying mechanism of dye decomposition involves the synergy effect between the constituents of HTNF magnetic nanocomposite.

  6. P2X7 receptor-pannexin 1 hemichannel association: effect of extracellular calcium on membrane permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Poornima, V; Madhupriya, M; Kootar, S; Sujatha, G; Kumar, Arvind; Bera, Amal Kanti

    2012-03-01

    Activation of P2X(7) receptor (P2X(7)R) and pannexin have been implicated in membrane permeabilization associated with ischemic cell death and many other inflammatory processes. P2X(7)R has a unique property of forming large pore upon repeated or prolonged application of agonist like ATP or 2', 3'-(4-benzoyl) benzoyl ATP. It has been proposed that pannexin 1 (panx1) hemichannel associates with P2X(7)R to form large pore, though the actual mechanism is not yet understood. Calcium concentration in extracellular milieu drops in many patho-physiological conditions, e.g. ischemia, when P2X(7)R/pannexin is also known to be activated. Therefore, we hypothesize that extracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](o)) plays an important role in the coupling of P2X(7)R-panx1 and subsequent membrane permeabilization. In this study we show that membrane permeability of the P2X(7)R and panx1 expressing N2A cell increases in ([Ca(2+)](o))-free solution. In [Ca(2+)](o)-free solution, fluorescent dye calcein trapped cells exhibited time-dependent dye leakage resulting in about 50% decrease of fluorescence intensity in 30 min. Control cells in 2 mM [Ca(2+)](o) did not show such leakage. Like N2A cells, mixed culture of neuron and glia, derived from hippocampal progenitor cells showed similar dye leakage. Dye leakage was blocked either by pannexin-specific blocker, carbenoxolone or P2X(7)R antagonists, Brilliant Blue G, and oxidized ATP. Furthermore P2X(7)R and panx1 were co-immunoprecipitated. The amount of P2X(7)R protein pulled-down with panx1, increased by twofold when cells were incubated 30 min in [Ca(2+)](o)-free buffer. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate the activation and association of P2X(7)R-panx1, triggered by the removal of [Ca(2+)](o).

  7. Multianalyte microphysiometry reveals changes in cellular bioenergetics upon exposure to fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Shinawi, Tesniem F; Kimmel, Danielle W; Cliffel, David E

    2013-12-17

    Fluorescent dyes have been designed for internal cellular component specificity and have been used extensively in the scientific community as a means to monitor cell growth, location, morphology, and viability. However, it is possible that the introduction of these dyes influences the basal function of the cell and, in turn, the results of these studies. Electrochemistry provides a noninvasive method for probing the unintended cellular affects of these dyes. The multianalyte microphysiometer (MAMP) is capable of simultaneous electrochemical measurement of extracellular metabolites in real-time. In this study, analytes central to cellular metabolism, glucose, lactate, oxygen, as well as extracellular acidification were monitored to determine the immediate metabolic effects of nuclear stains, including SYTO, DAPI dilactate, Hoechst 33342, and FITC dyes upon the pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages. The experimental results revealed that the SYTO dye 13 significantly decreased glucose and oxygen consumption and increased extracellular acidification and lactate production in both cell lines, indicating a shift to anaerobic respiration. No other dyes caused significantly definitive changes in cellular metabolism upon exposure. This study shows that fluorescent dyes can have unintended effects on cellular metabolism and care should be taken when using these probes to investigate cellular function and morphology.

  8. Degradation of environment pollutant dyes using phytosynthesized metal nanocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MeenaKumari, M.; Philip, Daizy

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time biogenic reduction and stabilization of gold and silver ions at room temperature using fruit juice of Punica granatum. The formation, morphology and crystalline structure of the synthesized nanoparticles are determined using UV-Visible, XRD and TEM. An attempt to reveal the partial role of phenolic hydroxyls in the reduction of Au3+ and Ag+ is done through FTIR analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles are used as potential catalysts in the degradation of a cationic phenothiazine dye, an anionic mono azo dye and a cationic fluorescent dye. The calculated values of percentage removal of dyes and the rate constants from pseudo first order kinetic data fit give a comparative study on degradation of organic dyes in presence of prepared gold and silver nanoparticles.

  9. Microencapsulated Fluorescent Dye Penetrant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Microencapsulated fluorescent dye pentrant materials were evaluated for feasibility as a technique to detect cracks on metal surfaces when applied as...a free flowing dry powder. Various flourescent dye solutions in addition to a commercial penetrant (Zyglo ZL-30) were microencapsulated and tested on

  10. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary dyes are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other ... infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system damage. Alternative ... References Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  11. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Field, George F.

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  12. Wastewater treatment: Dye and pigment industry. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning treatment of wastewater containing dyes and pigments. The citations discuss the of dyes and pigments in wastewater treatment systems, biodegradation of dyes, absorption and adsorption processes to remove dyes from wastewater, environmental effects from the disposal of dye-containing wastes, and methods of analysis for dyes in waste streams. Treatment methods such as ozonation, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal filtration, activated sludge, electrochemical treatments, thermal treatments, simple filtration, and absorption media are included. (Contains a minimum of 112 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  14. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  15. Treatment of direct blending dye wastewater and recycling of dye sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Hui; Li, Ming-Li; Yuan, Yuan

    2012-03-06

    A new sorbent material, barium sulfate-Direct Blending Yellow D-3RNL hybrid (BSD), was synthesized and characterized by various methods. Both the anionic dyes, Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B and Weak Acid Green GS were hardly adsorbed by the BSD material, while the sorption of Ethyl Violet (EV) and Victoria Blue B were extremely obvious. The sorption of cationic dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model, which depended on the electric charge attraction. The saturation amount of EV adsorbed onto the BSD material approached to 39.36 mg/g. The sorption of EV changed little with pH from 3 to 12 while it increased with increasing levels of electrolyte. A dye wastewater sampled from Jinjiang Chemicals was treated, and the color removal rate was more than the COD removal rate. In addition, the cationic dye-BSD sludge was utilized as a colorant fill-in coating. The light stability and thermal stability of the colorant was measured and exhibited good features. This work provided a simple and eco-friendly method for dye wastewater treatment with recycling of waste.

  16. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. . Faculty of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  17. Adaptation for improving lifetime of dye laser using coumarin dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1984-10-23

    The effective lasing lifetime of laser dyes including coumarin dyes are significantly extended by the use of an inert cover gas for the laser dye solution such as argon in combination with the employment of a glass filter such as Pyrex disposed between the pumping flash lamp and the dye laser cavity capable of absorbing electromagnetic radiation of about 300 nanometers or shorter wavelength.

  18. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dazhong; Fan, Jianxin; Zhou, Weizhi; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Kang, Qi

    2009-12-15

    The performances of polydiallydimethylammonium modified bentonite (PDADMA-bentonite) as an adsorbent to remove anionic dyes, namely Acid Scarlet GR (AS-GR), Acid Turquoise Blue 2G (ATB-2G) and Indigo Carmine (IC), were investigated in single, binary and ternary dye systems. In adsorption from single dye solutions with initial concentration of 100 micromol/L, the dosage of PDADMA-bentonite needed to remove 95% dye was 0.42, 0.68 and 0.75 g/L for AS-GR, ATB-2G and IC, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of the three dyes obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model with the equilibrium constants of 0.372, 0.629 and 4.31 L/micromol, the saturation adsorption amount of 176.3, 149.2 and 228.7 micromol/g for ATB-2G, IC and AS-GR, respectively. In adsorption from mixed dye solutions, the isotherm of each individual dye followed an expanded Langmuir isotherm model and the relationship between the total amount of dyes adsorbed and the total equilibrium dye concentration was interpreted well by Langmuir isotherm model. In the region of insufficient dosage of PDADMA-bentonite, the dye with a larger affinity was preferentially removed by adsorption. Desorption was observed in the kinetic curve of the dye with lower affinity on PDADMA-bentonite surface by the competitive adsorption. The kinetics in single dye solution and the total adsorption of dyes in binary and ternary dye systems nicely followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  19. Adsorption of basic dyes from aqueous solution onto pumice powder.

    PubMed

    Akbal, Feryal

    2005-06-15

    The adsorption of methylene blue and crystal violet on pumice powder samples of varying compositions was investigated using a batch adsorption technique. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, and contact time, were also investigated. The extent of dye removal increased with decreased initial concentration of the dye and also increased with increased contact time and amount of adsorbent used. Adsorption data were modeled using the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The adsorption kinetic of methylene blue and crystal violet could be described by the pseudo-second-order reaction model.

  20. Bioremediation and Detoxification of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Triarylmethane Dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Industrial Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Ogugbue, Chimezie Jason; Sawidis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. In this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in Greece. The bacterial isolate was identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24 h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. Decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a function of operational parameters (aeration, dye concentration, temperature, and pH) and the optimal operational conditions obtained for decolorization of the dyes were: pH 7-8, 35°C and culture agitation. Effective color removal within 24 h was obtained at a maximum dye concentration of 50 mg/L. Dye decolorization was monitored using a scanning UV/visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to the degradation of dyes into non-colored intermediates. Phytotoxicity studies carried out using Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Lens esculenta revealed the triarylmethane dyes exerted toxic effects on plant growth parameters monitored. However, significant reduction in toxicity was obtained with the decolorized dye metabolites thus, indicating the detoxification of the dyes following degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:21808740

  1. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  2. Biosorption and biodegradation of a sulfur dye in high-strength dyeing wastewater by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thai Anh; Fu, Chun-Chieh; Juang, Ruey-Shin

    2016-11-01

    The ability of the bacterial strain Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans to remove sulfur blue 15 (SB15) dye from water samples was examined. This bacterium could not only oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid but also promote the attachment of the cells to the surface of sulfidic particles, therefore serving as an efficient biosorbent. The biosorption isotherms were better described by the Langmuir equation than by the Freundlich or Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Also, the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. At pH 8.3 and SB15 concentrations up to 2000 mg L(-1) in the biomass/mineral salt solution, the dye removal and decolorization were 87.5% and 91.4%, respectively, following the biosorption process. Biodegradation was proposed as a subsequent process for the remaining dye (250-350 mg L(-1)). A central composite design was used to analyze independent variables in the response surface methodology study. Under the optimal conditions (i.e., initial dye concentration of 300 mg L(-1), initial biomass concentration of 1.0 g L(-1), initial pH of 11.7, and yeast extract dose of 60 mg L(-1)), up to 50% of SB15 was removed after 4 days of biodegradation.

  3. Direct thermal dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlinger, Edward

    1990-07-01

    Direct thermal dyes are members of a class of compounds referred to in the imaging industry as color formers or leuco dyes. The oldest members of that class have simple triarylmethane structures, and have been employed for years in various dyeing applications. More complex triarylmethane compounds, such as phthalides and fluorans, are now used in various imaging systems to produce color. Color is derived from all of these compounds via the same mechanism, on a molecular level. That is, an event of activation produces a highly resonating cationic system whose interaction with incident light produces reflected light of a specific color. The activation event in the case of a direct thermal system is the creation of a melt on the paper involving dye and an acidic developer. The three major performance parameters in a thermal system are background color, image density, and image stability. The three major dye physical parameters affecting thermal performance are chemical constituency, purity, and particle size. Those dyes having the best combination of characteristics which can also be manufactured economically dominate the marketplace. Manufacturing high performance dyes for the thermal market involves multi-step, convergent reaction sequences performed on large scale. Intermediates must be manufactured at the right time, and at the right quality to be useful.

  4. A facile one-pot hydrothermal method to produce SnS2/reduced graphene oxide with flake-on-sheet structures and their application in the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xiujie; Lu, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yanpeng; Zhang, Chengcheng; Kong, Lirong; Wang, Ce

    2013-09-15

    In this article, we report a novel one-pot synthesis of SnS2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) flake-on-sheet nanocomposites via in situ reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by Sn(2+) under hydrothermal conditions. The morphology and structure of the obtained product were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction instrument (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The adsorption characteristics of the SnS2/rGO nanocomposites were examined using an organic dye Rhodamine B (RhB) as adsorbate. SnS2/rGO exhibited superior adsorption behavior for RhB. The adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm were investigated. The adsorption of RhB by SnS2/rGO was well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the resultant kinetic data were well described by pseudo-second-order model.

  5. Long-lived laser dye

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1986-07-29

    A method is described of obtaining in a flashlamp pumped laser system, a long-lived flashpumped laser dye having a low threshold of lasing and a moderate output comprising the steps of: placing a dye solution comprising a laser dye, the N-methyl tosylate salt of 2-(4-pyridyl)-5-(4-methoxphenyl)oxazole, and a solvent into a laser dye cavity; screening the dye solution from ultraviolet light with an optical filter; flushing the dye solution with an inert gas; and optically pumping the dye solution with a flashlamp to produce laser emission.

  6. Relative performance of biofilm configuration over suspended growth operation on azo dye based wastewater treatment in periodic discontinuous batch mode operation.

    PubMed

    Mohan, S Venkata; Reddy, C Nagendranatha; Kumar, A Naresh; Modestra, J Annie

    2013-11-01

    Functional role of biofilm and suspended growth bioreactor configurations in response to the treatment of azo-dye (C.I. Acid Black 10B) bearing wastewater was evaluated in periodic discontinuous batch mode operation at varying dye concentrations. The biofilm system depicted higher dye removal efficiency (93.14%) compared to suspended mode (84.29%) at 350 mg dye/l operation. Both the reactor configurations did not show much process inhibition at higher dye loads studied. Azo reductase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities showed significant variation indicating the different metabolic capabilities of the native-microflora, stable proton shuttling between metabolic intermediates and differences in the delivery of reducing powers from the substrate metabolism towards dye removal. Voltammograms visualized marked variations in electron discharge properties with the function of reactor configuration, time intervals and dye load. Higher redox catalytic currents, lower Tafel slopes and polarization resistance showed good correlation with enzyme activities and dye removal.

  7. Adsorption studies of methylene blue dye on tunisian activated lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriaa, A.; Hamdi, N.; Srasra, E.

    2011-02-01

    Activated carbon prepared from natural lignin, providing from a geological deposit, was used as the adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate various experimental parameters like pH and contact time for the removal of this dye. Effective pH for MB removal was 11. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption of dye was gradual process. Quasi equilibrium reached in 4 h. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data. Pseudo-second-order rate equation was able to provide realistic description of adsorption kinetics. The experimental isotherms data were also modelled by the Langmuir and Freundlich equation of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 147 mg/g. Activated lignin was shown to be a promising material for adsorption of MB from aqueous solutions.

  8. Decolorization of direct dyes by immobilized turnip peroxidase in batch and continuous processes.

    PubMed

    Matto, Mahreen; Husain, Qayyum

    2009-03-01

    An inexpensive immobilized turnip peroxidase has been employed for the decolorization of some direct dyes in batch and continuous reactors. Wood shaving was investigated as an inexpensive material for the preparation of bioaffinity support. Concanavalin A-wood shaving bound turnip peroxidase exhibited 67% of the original enzyme activity. Both soluble and immobilized turnip peroxidase could effectively remove more than 50% color from dyes in the presence of metals/salt and 0.6mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole, after 1h of incubation. The columns containing immobilized peroxidase could decolorize 64% direct red 23% and 50% mixture of direct dyes at 4 and 3 months of operation, respectively. Total organic carbon analysis of treated dye or mixture of dyes revealed that these results were quite comparable to the loss of color from solutions. Thus, this study showed that the immobilized enzyme could be efficiently used for the removal of synthetic dyes from industrial effluents.

  9. Preferential biodegradation of structurally dissimilar dyes from a mixture by Brevibacillus laterosporus.

    PubMed

    Kurade, Mayur B; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-09-15

    Biodegradation of a mixture containing seven commercial textile dyes with different structures and color properties has been investigated by an ecofriendly strain--Brevibacillus laterosporus MTCC 2298. It showed 87% decolorization in terms of ADMI removal (American Dye Manufacturing Institute) within 24h. The effective decolorization of dye mixture was attained in the presence of metal salt--CaCl(2) and nitrogen sources. The induction of oxido-reductive enzymes such as veratryl alcohol oxidase, tyrosinase, NADH-DCIP reductase and azo reductase was found to be responsible for biotransformation of dyes. High performance thin layer chromatography exposed the mechanism of preferential biodegradation of dyes at different time periods. Significant change in the high pressure liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of sample before and after treatment confirmed the biodegradation of dye mixture. Phytotoxicity study revealed the much less toxic nature of the metabolites produced after the degradation of dyes mixture.

  10. Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for color removal from textile wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, G.; Xu, X.

    1997-03-01

    Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for two basic dyes (Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9) and two direct dyes (Congo Red and Direct Blue 71) in aqueous solutions were studied with equilibrium isotherms and kinetic adsorptions. The maximum adsorptions of two basic dyes on sunflower stalks are very high, i.e., 205 and 317 mg/g for Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9, respectively. The two direct dyes have relatively lower adsorption on sunflower stalks. The adsorptive behaviors of sunflower stalk components are different. The pith, which is the soft and porous material in the center of stalks, has twice the adsorptive capacity of the skin. Particle sizes of sunflower stalks also affect the adsorption of dyes. The adsorption rates of two basic dyestuffs are much higher than that of the direct dyes. Within 30 min about 80% basic dyes were removed from the solutions.

  11. Decoloration and mineralization of reactive dyes using electron beam irradiation, Part I: Effect of the dye structure, concentration and absorbed dose (single, binary and ternary systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahdat, Ali; Bahrami, S. Hajir; Arami, M.; Bahjat, A.; Tabakh, F.; Khairkhah, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, three different reactive dyes (C.I. Reactive Red 4, C.I. Reactive Blue 2 and C.I. Reactive Yellow 4) and their blend solutions were irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam. Effect of absorbed dose, dye structure and primary solution concentrations on the pH value changes, degree of decoloration and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of solutions were investigated. Results show that this method is effective in decomposition and decoloration of the dyes solutions. This method can be applied in mineralization of wastewater containing different dyes.

  12. Response surface optimization of bioremediation of Acid black 52 (Cr complex dye) using Aspergillus tamarii.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arpita; Dastidar, Manisha Ghosh; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2017-02-01

    Bioremediation of the Cr complex dye (Acid black 52) was performed in batch and continuous modes using growing Aspergillus tamarii. The removal of Cu which may be present as an impurity was 100% at 100 mg/L initial dye concentration. The removal of color and Cr decreased from 87% to 4% and from 92% to 8%, respectively, by increasing dye concentration from 100 to 5000 mg/L in batch mode. The removal of color and Cr increased from 27% to 67.8% and from 32% to 72%, respectively, with increasing hydraulic retention time from 28 to 220 h at 100 mg/L dye concentration in continuous mode. For optimization of color removal using response surface methodology (RSM) the ranges of parameters were kept at dye concentration: 200-500 mg/L; pH: 4-6 and time: 35-50 hours. Maximum color removal suggested by the model was 85.6809% at initial dye concentration 200 mg/L, pH 5.25 and time 50 h. The validation experiments in batch and continuous modes were conducted at the optimum conditions as suggested by the RSM model. The theoretical and experimental responses of color removal were in close agreement in batch mode. The scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses indicated biosorption and biodegradation of dye.

  13. Preparation of Graphene Oxide-Based Hydrogels as Efficient Dye Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haiying; Jiao, Tifeng; Zhang, Qingrui; Guo, Wenfeng; Peng, Qiuming; Yan, Xuehai

    2015-06-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets exhibit superior adsorption capacity for removing organic dye pollutants from an aqueous environment. In this paper, the facile preparation of GO/polyethylenimine (PEI) hydrogels as efficient dye adsorbents has been reported. The GO/PEI hydrogels were achieved through both hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between amine-rich PEI and GO sheets. For both methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB), the as-prepared hydrogels exhibit removal rates within about 4 h in accordance with the pseudo-second-order model. The dye adsorption capacity of the hydrogel is mainly attributed to the GO sheets, whereas the PEI was incorporated to facilitate the gelation process of GO sheets. More importantly, the dye-adsorbed hydrogels can be conveniently separated from an aqueous environment, suggesting potential large-scale applications of the GO-based hydrogels for organic dye removal and wastewater treatment.

  14. Preparation of Graphene Oxide-Based Hydrogels as Efficient Dye Adsorbents for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haiying; Jiao, Tifeng; Zhang, Qingrui; Guo, Wenfeng; Peng, Qiuming; Yan, Xuehai

    2015-12-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets exhibit superior adsorption capacity for removing organic dye pollutants from an aqueous environment. In this paper, the facile preparation of GO/polyethylenimine (PEI) hydrogels as efficient dye adsorbents has been reported. The GO/PEI hydrogels were achieved through both hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between amine-rich PEI and GO sheets. For both methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB), the as-prepared hydrogels exhibit removal rates within about 4 h in accordance with the pseudo-second-order model. The dye adsorption capacity of the hydrogel is mainly attributed to the GO sheets, whereas the PEI was incorporated to facilitate the gelation process of GO sheets. More importantly, the dye-adsorbed hydrogels can be conveniently separated from an aqueous environment, suggesting potential large-scale applications of the GO-based hydrogels for organic dye removal and wastewater treatment.

  15. Extracellular histones inhibit efferocytosis.

    PubMed

    Friggeri, Arnaud; Banerjee, Sami; Xie, Na; Cui, Huachun; De Freitas, Andressa; Zerfaoui, Mourad; Dupont, Hervé; Abraham, Edward; Liu, Gang

    2012-07-18

    The uptake and clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages and other phagocytic cells, a process called efferocytosis, is a major component in the resolution of inflammation. Increased concentrations of extracellular histones are found during acute inflammatory states and appear to contribute to organ system dysfunction and mortality. In these studies, we examined the potential role of histones in modulating efferocytosis. We found that phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils or thymocytes by macrophages was significantly diminished in the presence of histones H3 or H4, but not histone H1. Histone H3 demonstrated direct binding to macrophages, an effect that was diminished by preincubation of macrophages with the opsonins growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor (EGF) 8 (MFG-E8). Incubation of histone H3 with soluble α(v)β₅ integrin and Mer, but not with α(v)β₃, diminished its binding to macrophages. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by alveolar macrophages in vivo was diminished in the presence of histone H3. Incubation of histone H3 with activated protein C, a treatment that degrades histones, abrogated its inhibitory effects on efferocytosis under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The present studies demonstrate that histones have inhibitory effects on efferocytosis, suggesting a new mechanism by which extracellular histones contribute to acute inflammatory processes and tissue injury.

  16. Biological decolorization of reactive anthraquinone and phthalocyanine dyes under various oxidation-reduction conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young H; Matthews, Rosalyn D; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2006-02-01

    The decolorization of two anthraquinone dyes (Reactive Blue 4 [RB4] and Reactive Blue 19 [RB19]) and two phthalocyanine dyes (Reactive Blue 7 [RB7] and Reactive Blue 21 [RB21]) was investigated at an initial dye concentration of 300 mg/L using an unacclimated, enrichment culture. The culture was fed a mixture of organic compounds and maintained initially under aerobic conditions, and then progressively developed anoxic/ anaerobic conditions. Biotransformation-related decolorization of the dyes did not take place under aerobic conditions, but use of the feed organic mixture and biomass production by the enrichment culture were not affected. Complete ammonia removal occurred in the control and all dye-amended cultures. The development and extent of nitrification were much lower in the latter cultures, in which ammonia removal via air stripping was the dominant mechanism. Prolonged incubation of the culture under anoxic/anaerobic conditions with multiple carbon source additions resulted in a high decolorization extent of anthraquinone dyes (over 84%) and only partial decolorization of phthalocyanine dyes (49 to 66%). Development of significant methanogenic activity took place in the control and, to a lesser extent, in the two phthalocyanine dye-amended cultures, but the anthraquinone dyes severely inhibited the development of methanogenic activity. The RB4 and RB19 decolorization was attributed to nonreversible, microbially mediated dye transformation(s), demonstrated by the accumulation of decolorization products with absorbance maxima in the 420- to 460-nm region. The decolorization of RB4 and RB19 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At an initial dye concentration of 300 mg/L, the observed maximum decolorization rate per unit biomass was 9.1 and 37.5 mg dye/mg volatile suspended solids x day for the RB4 and RB19, respectively. Thus, partial decolorization of reactive phthalocyanine dyes and extensive biological decolorization of reactive anthraquinone dyes is

  17. Decolorization of azo dyes (Direct Blue 151 and Direct Red 31) by moderately alkaliphilic bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Lalnunhlimi, Sylvine; Krishnaswamy, Veenagayathri

    2016-01-01

    Removal of synthetic dyes is one of the main challenges before releasing the wastes discharged by textile industries. Biodegradation of azo dyes by alkaliphilic bacterial consortium is one of the environmental-friendly methods used for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Hence, this study presents isolation of a bacterial consortium from soil samples of saline environment and its use for the decolorization of azo dyes, Direct Blue 151 (DB 151) and Direct Red 31 (DR 31). The decolorization of azo dyes was studied at various concentrations (100-300mg/L). The bacterial consortium, when subjected to an application of 200mg/L of the dyes, decolorized DB 151 and DR 31 by 97.57% and 95.25% respectively, within 5 days. The growth of the bacterial consortium was optimized with pH, temperature, and carbon and nitrogen sources; and decolorization of azo dyes was analyzed. In this study, the decolorization efficiency of mixed dyes was improved with yeast extract and sucrose, which were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Such an alkaliphilic bacterial consortium can be used in the removal of azo dyes from contaminated saline environment.

  18. Decolorization of azo dyes (Direct Blue 151 and Direct Red 31) by moderately alkaliphilic bacterial consortium

    PubMed Central

    Lalnunhlimi, Sylvine; Krishnaswamy, Veenagayathri

    2016-01-01

    Removal of synthetic dyes is one of the main challenges before releasing the wastes discharged by textile industries. Biodegradation of azo dyes by alkaliphilic bacterial consortium is one of the environmental-friendly methods used for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Hence, this study presents isolation of a bacterial consortium from soil samples of saline environment and its use for the decolorization of azo dyes, Direct Blue 151 (DB 151) and Direct Red 31 (DR 31). The decolorization of azo dyes was studied at various concentrations (100–300 mg/L). The bacterial consortium, when subjected to an application of 200 mg/L of the dyes, decolorized DB 151 and DR 31 by 97.57% and 95.25% respectively, within 5 days. The growth of the bacterial consortium was optimized with pH, temperature, and carbon and nitrogen sources; and decolorization of azo dyes was analyzed. In this study, the decolorization efficiency of mixed dyes was improved with yeast extract and sucrose, which were used as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Such an alkaliphilic bacterial consortium can be used in the removal of azo dyes from contaminated saline environment. PMID:26887225

  19. Photoactive dye enhanced tissue ablation for endoscopic laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Minwoo; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Nguyen, Van Phuc; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-02-01

    Laser light has been widely used as a surgical tool to treat benign prostate hyperplasia with high laser power. The purpose of this study was to validate the feasibility of photoactive dye injection to enhance light absorption and eventually to facilitate tissue ablation with low laser power. The experiment was implemented on chicken breast due to minimal optical absorption Amaranth (AR), black dye (BD), hemoglobin powder (HP), and endoscopic marker (EM), were selected and tested in vitro with a customized 532-nm laser system with radiant exposure ranging from 0.9 to 3.9 J/cm2. Light absorbance and ablation threshold were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer and Probit analysis, respectively, and compared to feature the function of the injected dyes. Ablation performance with dye-injection was evaluated in light of radiant exposure, dye concentration, and number of injection. Higher light absorption by injected dyes led to lower ablation threshold as well as more efficient tissue removal in the order of AR, BD, HP, and EM. Regardless of the injected dyes, ablation efficiency principally increased with input parameter. Among the dyes, AR created the highest ablation rate of 44.2+/-0.2 μm/pulse due to higher absorbance and lower ablation threshold. Preliminary tests on canine prostate with a hydraulic injection system demonstrated that 80 W with dye injection yielded comparable ablation efficiency to 120 W with no injection, indicating 33 % reduced laser power with almost equivalent performance. In-depth comprehension on photoactive dye-enhanced tissue ablation can help accomplish efficient and safe laser treatment for BPH with low power application.

  20. Surface functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles with cationic polymers via the combination of mussel inspired chemistry and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization: Characterization and enhanced removal of organic dye.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Mao, Liucheng; Xu, Dazhuang; Zeng, Guangjian; Huang, Hongye; Jiang, Ruming; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-03-28

    Monodispersed SiO2 particles functionalized with cationic polymers poly-((3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) (PAPTCl) were prepared using mussel inspired surface modification strategy and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and zeta potential were employed to characterize these SiO2 samples. The adsorption performance of the functionalized SiO2 (donated as SiO2-PDA-PAPTCl) towards anionic organic dye Congo red (CR) was investigated to evaluate their potential environmental applications. We demonstrated that the surface of SiO2 particles can be successfully functionalized with cationic PAPTCl. The adsorption capability of as-prepared SiO2 was found to increases from 28.70 and 106.65mg/g after surface grafted with cationic polymers. The significant enhancement in the adsorption capability of SiO2-PDA-PAPTCl is mainly attributed to the introduction of cationic polymers. More importantly, this strategy is expected to be promising for fabrication of many other functional polymer nanocomposites for environmental applications due to the universality of mussel inspired chemistry and well designability and good monomer adaptability of SI-ATRP.

  1. Understanding the degradation of Congo red and bacterial diversity in an air-cathode microbial fuel cell being evaluated for simultaneous azo dye removal from wastewater and bioelectricity generation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Li, Youming; Hu, Yongyou; Hou, Bin; Zhang, Yaping; Li, Sizhe

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the mechanism of Congo red degradation and bacterial diversity in a single-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) incorporating a microfiltration membrane and air-cathode. The MFC was operated continuously for more than 4 months using a mixture of Congo red and glucose as fuel. We demonstrated that the Congo red azo bonds were reduced at the anode to form aromatic amines. This is consistent with the known mechanism of anaerobic biodegradation of azo dyes. The MFC developed a less dense biofilm at the anode in the presence of Congo red compared to its absence indicating that Congo red degradation negatively affected biofilm formation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and direct 16S ribosomal DNA gene nucleotide sequencing revealed that the microbial communities differed depending on whether Congo red was present in the MFC. Geobacter-like species known to generate electricity were detected in the presence or absence of Congo red. In contrast, Azospirillum, Methylobacterium, Rhodobacter, Desulfovibrio, Trichococcus, and Bacteroides species were only detected in its presence. These species were most likely responsible for degrading Congo red.

  2. Dyes for Eyes™: hydrodynamics, biocompatibility and efficacy of 'heavy' (dual) dyes for chromovitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Andreas; Bruinsma, Marieke; Oellerich, Silke; Frank, Hans; Gabel, Detlef; Melles, Gerrit R J

    2013-01-01

    As epiretinal membranes (ERMs), the internal limiting membrane (ILM) and the vitreous cortex are essentially transparent tissues, or translucent structures, nontraumatic removal may be challenging in various types of macular surgery. Vital dyes stain these thin tissues, thus allowing for better visualization of these structures during vitrectomy and selective 'membrane peeling' from the underlying retina. To avoid swirling of the dye within the fluid-filled vitreous cavity, and to better target the dye onto the macula, a fluid-air exchange is commonly performed. However, this may jeopardize visualization of the macula during peeling due to clouding of the posterior lens capsule, and may lead to postoperative visual field defects. Recently, a new dye solution for staining the ERM and ILM simultaneously has been developed that circumvents the need for fluid-air exchange, i.e. MembraneBlue-Dual™. This paper will focus on the hydrodynamics and biocompatibility of this 'heavy' dual dye and its efficacy for staining of the ILM and/or ERMs during posterior segment surgery in a multicenter clinical setting.

  3. Decolorization of Textile Dyes and Degradation of Mono-Azo Dye Amaranth by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCIM 2890.

    PubMed

    Ghodake, Gajanan; Jadhav, Umesh; Tamboli, Dhawal; Kagalkar, Anuradha; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2011-10-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCIM 2890 (A. caloaceticus) was found to decolorize 20 different textile dyes of various classes. Decolorization of an azo dye amaranth was observed effectively (91%) at static anoxic condition, whereas agitated culture grew well but showed less decolorization (68%) within 48 h of incubation. Induction of intracellular and extracellular lignin peroxidase, intracellular laccase, dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP) reductase and riboflavin reductase represented their involvement in the biodegradation of amaranth. The products obtained after degradation of Amaranth were characterized as naphthalene sulfamide, hydroxyl naphthalene diazonium and naphthalene diazonium. The germination and growth of Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo seeds, and the growth of E. coli and Bacillus substilis were not inhibited by the metabolic products of the dye.

  4. Extracellular matrix structure.

    PubMed

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented.

  5. A simple method for screening photoelectric dyes towards their use for retinal prostheses.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Toshihiko

    2003-10-01

    Photoelectric dyes absorb light and convert photon energy to electric potentials. To test whether these dyes could be used for retinal prostheses, a simple in vitro screening system was developed. Retinal neurons were cultured from the eyes of chick embryos at the 10-day embryonic stage, at which time no retinal photoreceptor cells have yet developed. Intracellular calcium elevation was observed with Fluo-4 in cultured retinal neurons before and after photoelectric dye was applied at varying concentrations to the culture medium. Five of 7 photoelectric dyes tested in this in vitro system induced intracellular calcium elevation in cultured chick retinal neurons. The intracellular calcium elevation generated by the 5 photoelectric dyes was blocked by extracellular calcium depletion in the case of all 5 dyes, and, except for one dye, by the presence of voltage-gated calcium channel blockers. The photoelectric dyes absorbed light under an inverted microscope and stimulated retinal neurons. This simple in vitro system allows the screening of photoelectric dyes which can be used for retinal prostheses.

  6. Adenoid removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... This does not cause problems most of the time. Alternative Names Adenoidectomy; Removal of adenoid glands Images Adenoid removal - series References Wetmore RF. Tonsils and adenoids. In: Kliegman ...

  7. Homogenous and heterogenous advanced oxidation of two commercial reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Balcioglu, I A; Arslan, I; Sacan, M T

    2001-07-01

    Two commercial reactive dyes, the azo dye Reactive Black 5 and the copper phythalocyanine dye Reactive Blue 21, have been treated at a concentration of 75 mg l(-1) by titanium dioxide mediated photocatalytic (TiO2/UV), dark and UV-light assisted Fenton (Fe2+/H2O2) and Fenton-like (Fe3+/H2O2) processes in acidic medium. For the treatment of Reactive Black 5, all investigated advanced oxidation processes were quite effective in terms of colour, COD as well as TOC removal. Moreover, the relative growth inhibition of the azo dye towards the marine algae Dunaliella tertiolecta that was initially 70%, did not exhibit an increase during the studied advanced oxidation reactions and complete detoxification at the end of the treatment period could be achieved for all investigated treatment processes. However, for Reactive Blue 21, abatement in COD and UV-VIS absorbance values was mainly due to the adsorption of the dye on the photocatalyst surface and/or the coagulative effect of Fe3+/Fe2+ ions. Although only a limited fraction of the copper phythalocyanine dye underwent oxidative degradation, 47% of the total copper in the dye was already released after 1 h photocatalytic treatment.

  8. Degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process

    SciTech Connect

    Abidin, Che Zulzikrami Azner E-mail: drfahmi@unimap.edu.my E-mail: fatinnadhirah89@gmail.com; Fahmi, Muhammad Ridwan E-mail: drfahmi@unimap.edu.my E-mail: fatinnadhirah89@gmail.com; Fazara, Md Ali Umi E-mail: drfahmi@unimap.edu.my E-mail: fatinnadhirah89@gmail.com; Nadhirah, Siti Nurfatin E-mail: drfahmi@unimap.edu.my E-mail: fatinnadhirah89@gmail.com

    2014-10-24

    In this study, the degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was evaluated based on the trend of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Three types of dyes consist of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dyes were used to compare the degradation mechanism of the dyes. The UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale cylindrical glass reactor operated in semi-batch mode. The UV/Vis characterization of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye indicated that the rapid degradation of the dyes by UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process is meaningful with respect to decolourization, as a result of the azo bonds and substitute antraquinone chromophore degradation. However, this process is not efficient for aromatic amines removal. The monoazo MO was difficult to be decolorized than diazo RR120 dye, which imply that number of sulphonic groups in the dye molecules determines the reactivity with hydroxyl radical. The increased in COD removal is the evidence for oxidation and decreased in carbon content of dye molecules. TOC removal analysis shows that low TOC removal of monoazo MO and diazo RR120, as compared to anthraquinone RB19 may indicate an accumulation of by-products that are resistant to the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} photolysis.

  9. Developing azo and formazan dyes based on environmental considerations: Salmonella mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Laura C; Freeman, Harold S; Claxton, Larry D

    2004-02-26

    In previous papers, the synthesis and chemical properties of iron-complexed azo and formazan dyes were reported. It was shown that in certain cases iron could be substituted for the traditionally used metals such as chromium and cobalt, without having an adverse effect on dye stability. While these results suggested that the iron analogs were potential replacements for the commercially used chromium and cobalt prototypes, characterization of potentially adverse environmental effects of the new dyes was deemed an essential step in their further development. The present paper provides results from using the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay to determine the mutagenicity of some important commercial metal complexed dyes, their unmetallized forms, and the corresponding iron-complexed analogs. The study compared the mutagenic properties of six unmetallized azo dyes, six commercial cobalt- or chromium-complexed azo dyes, six iron-complexed azo dyes, six unmetallized formazan dyes, and six iron-complexed formazan dyes. The results of this study suggest that the mutagenicity of the unmetallized dye precursors plays a role in determining the mutagenicity of the iron-complexes. For the monoazo dye containing a nitro group, metal complex formation using iron or chromium decreased or removed mutagenicity in TA100; however, little reduction in mutagenicity was noted in TA98. For the formazan dye containing a nitro group, metal-complex formation using iron increased mutagenicity. Results varied for metal-complexes of azo and formazan dyes without nitro groups, but in general, the metal-complexed dyes based on mutagenic ligands were also mutagenic, while those dyes based on nonmutagenic ligands were nonmutagenic.

  10. The Comparative Study on the Rapid Decolorization of Azo, Anthraquinone and Triphenylmethane Dyes by Anaerobic Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Daizong; Zhang, Hao; He, Rubao; Zhao, Min

    2016-01-01

    An anaerobic sludge (AS), capable of decolorizing a variety of synthetic dyes, was acclimated and is reported here. The sludge presented a much better dye decolorizing ability than that of different individual strains. A broad spectrum of dyes could be decolorized by the sludge. Continuous decolorization tests showed that the sludge exhibited the ability to decolorize repeated additions of dye. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of the dye wastewater reached 52% after 12 h of incubation. Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that the microbial community changed as a result of varying initial concentrations of dyes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbial populations in the sludge belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The degradation products of the three types of dye were identified. For azo dyes, the anaerobic sludge converted Methyl Orange to N,N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid; for triphenylmethane dyes, after Malachite Green was decolorized, the analyzed products were found to be a mixture of N,N-dimethylbenzenamine, 3-dimethyl-aminophenol and 4-dimethylaminobenzophenone; for anthraquinone dyes, two products (acetophenone and 2-methylbenzoic acid) were observed after Reactive Blue 19 decolorization. Together, these results suggest that the anaerobic sludge has promising potential for use in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing various types of dyes. PMID:27801853

  11. Biodegradation of direct blue 129 diazo dye by Spirodela polyrrhiza: An artificial neural networks modeling.

    PubMed

    Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R; Moradi, Z; Vafaei, F

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza was examined for direct blue 129 (DB129) azo dye. The dye removal efficiency was optimized under the variable conditions of the operational parameters including removal time, initial dye concentration, pH, temperature and amount of plant. The study reflected the significantly enhanced dye removal efficiency of S. polyrrhiza by increasing the temperature, initial dye concentration and amount of plant. Intriguingly, artificial neural network (ANN) predicted the removal time as the most dominant parameter on DB129 removal efficiency. Furthermore, the effect of dye treatment on some physiologic indices of S. polyrrhiza including growth rate, photosynthetic pigments content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were studied. The results revealed a reduction in photosynthetic pigments content and in multiplication of fronds after exposure to dye solution. In contrast, malondialdehyde content as well as catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities significantly increased that was probably due to the ability of plant to overcome oxidative stress. As a result of DB129 biodegradation, a number of intermediate compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis. Accordingly, the probable degradation pathway of DB129 in S. polyrrhiza was postulated.

  12. Kinetics and inhibition during the decolorization of reactive anthraquinone dyes under methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Fontenot, E J; Beydilli, M I; Lee, Y H; Pavlostathis, S G

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the biological decolorization of two reactive anthraquinone dyes (Reactive Blue 4, RB 4; Reactive Blue 19, RB 19) under methanogenic conditions. Using a mixed, methanogenic culture, batch assays were performed to evaluate both the rate and extent of color removal as well as any potential inhibition. The effect of initial dye, biomass, and organic feed concentration, as well as the effect of repetitive dye addition on color removal kinetics and culture inhibition were assessed. Overall, a lower rate and extent of color removal was observed in RB 4-amended cultures as opposed to the RB 19-amended cultures. For an incubation time of ca. 15 days and an initial dye concentration of 2000 mg/L, the extent of color removal was 50 and 95% for RB 4 and RB 19, respectively. Inhibition of acidogenesis and to a larger degree of methanogenesis, resulting in accumulation of volatile fatty acids, was observed in both RB 4- and RB 19-amended cultures. Although the degree of inhibition varied among the two dyes tested (RB 19 was more inhibitory than RB 4), an increase of inhibition was observed with increasing initial dye concentration. At an initial dye concentration of 500 mg/L or higher, methane production was lower than 6% of that of the control culture for both RB 4 and RB 19. However, color removal occurred despite culture inhibition.

  13. [Spectral and fluorescent study of the interaction of squarylium dyes, derivatives of 3H-indolium, with albumins].

    PubMed

    Tatikolov, A S; Panova, I G; Ishchenko, A A; Kudinova, M A

    2010-01-01

    Noncovalent interactions of intraionic squarylium dyes, derivatives of 3H-indolium, as well as the structurally analogous ionic indodicarbocyanine dye with serum albumins (human, bovine, rat) and, for comparison, with ovalbumin has been studied by spectral and fluorescent methods. The hydrophilic squarylium dye with sulfonate groups was found to interact with albumins more efficiently, which is probably due to the double negative charge on the dye molecule at the expense of the sulfonate groups and the ability to form hydrogen bonds with albumin. The hydrophilic indodicarbocyanine dye without the squarylium group in its structure binds to albumins much more weaker than the structurally analogous squarylium dye. The dyes bind to ovalbumin less efficiently than to serum albumins. Along with the binding of monomeric dye molecules, the aggregation of the dyes on albumins is also observed. The hydrophobic squarylium dye without sulfonate groups tends to form aggregates in aqueous solutions, which partially decompose upon the introduction of albumin into the solution. The hydrophilic squarylium dye with sulfonate groups can be recommended for tests as a spectral-fluorescent probe for serum albumins in extracellular media of living organisms.

  14. Visible to near infra red absorption in natural dye (Mondo Grass Berry) for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitigala, Duleepa; Desilva, L. A. A.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2012-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Research on development of artificial dyes for broadening the response is important in finding a solution. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination. The broad spectral response from 400 nm to 750 nm was also observed for the Mondo Grass dye compared to other natural dyes consists of anthocyanins or tannins.

  15. Influence of dye type and salinity on aerobic decolorization of azo dyes by microbial consortium and the community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liang; Ning, Shuxiang; Wang, Ying; Cao, Xiangyu

    2012-01-01

    In this research, aerobic decolorization of different azo dyes by a microbial community was studied. The results showed that more than 80% of four azo dyes (100 mg/L) could be aerobically decolorized by the microbial consortium, however, the time needed was obviously different. Kinetic data indicated that the processes were well described by zero-order kinetics, and the chemical structures of dyes had obvious influence on decolorization rates. On the other hand, effects of salinity on decolorization were also investigated. There was still 40% dye removal for Acid Brilliant Red GR when the salinity increased to 250 g/L. And the microbial community structures with different salinity were detected by PCR-DGGE. It was shown that the same two bacteria were dominant in all decolorization systems, and some typical halophilic microorganisms were found under higher-salt conditions.

  16. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  17. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  18. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions.

  19. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  20. Laser dye technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  1. Influence of textile dye and decolorized metabolites on microbial fuel cell-assisted bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Ma, Chih-Ming; Han, Ke; Yueh, Pei-Lin; Qin, Lian-Jie; Hsueh, Chuan-Chung

    2016-01-01

    As known, decolorized metabolites (DMs) were capable to act as electron shuttles (ESs) to enhance color removal of textile dye(s); however, optimal manipulation of such advantages to microbial fuel cell (MFC)-assisted dye decolorization for industrial practicability were still remained open to be disclosed. The novelty of this work was to disclose such DMs-supplementing strategies for the most promising reductive decolorization in MFC-assisted bioremediation. Quantitative assessment clearly indicated that MFCs coupled to DMs accumulation was economically-feasible strategy of bioaugmentation and biostimulation. That is, MFC technology can be applied to select appropriate on-site dye decontamination in the presence of naturally-generating DMs.

  2. Synthesis of malachite@clay nanocomposite for rapid scavenging of cationic and anionic dyes from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Varsha; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of malachite@clay nanocomposite was successfully carried out for the removal of cationic (Methylene Blue, MB) and anionic dyes (Congo Red, CR) from synthetic wastewater. Nanocomposite was characterized by TEM, SEM, FT-IR, EDS analysis and zeta potential. TEM analysis indicated that the particle diameter of nanocomposite was in the range of 14 to 23nm. Various important parameters viz. contact time, concentration of dyes, nanocomposite dosage, temperature and solution pH were optimized to achieve maximum adsorption capacity. In the case of MB, removal decreased from 99.82% to 93.67% while for CR, removal decreased from 88.55% to 75.69% on increasing dye concentration from 100 to 450mg/L. pH study confirmed the higher removal of CR in acidic range while MB removal was higher in alkaline range. Kinetic study revealed the applicability of pseudo-second-order model for the adsorption of both dyes. Negative values of ΔG(0) for both systems suggested the feasibility of dye removal and support for spontaneous adsorption of CR and MB on nanocomposite. Nanocomposite showed 277.77 and 238.09mg/g Langmuir adsorption capacity for MB and CR respectively. Desorption of dyes from the dye loaded nanocomposite was easily carried out with acetone. The results indicate that the prepared malachite@clay nanocomposite is an efficient adsorbent with high adsorption capacity for the aforementioned dyes.

  3. Making recombinant extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Florence; Koch, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    A variety of approaches to understand extracellular matrix protein structure and function require production of recombinant proteins. Moreover, the expression of heterologous extracellular matrix proteins, in particular collagens, using the recombinant technology is of major interest to the biomedical industry. Although extracellular matrix proteins are large, modular and often multimeric, most of them have been successfully produced in various expression systems. This review provides important factors, including the design of the construct, the cloning strategies, the expression vectors, the transfection method and the host cell systems, to consider in choosing a reliable and cost-effective way to make recombinant extracellular matrix proteins. Advantages and drawbacks of each system have been appraised. Protocols that may ease efficient recombinant production of extracellular matrix are described. Emphasis is placed on the recombinant collagen production. Members of the collagen superfamily exhibit specific structural features and generally require complex post-translational modifications to retain full biological activity that make more arduous their recombinant production.

  4. Parametric study of a dyeing wastewater treatment by modified sericite.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Kyu Han

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate color, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) removal using modified sericite with magnesium (Mg-Sericite) flocculants in dyeing wastewater. Mg-Sericite flocculants successfully removed >95% of color, SS. COD and BOD in dyeing wastewater at the following optimal conditions: Mg-Sericite dosage of 40 mg/L, pH of 11, Mg/Sericite ratio of 1.5, settling time of 20 min, mixing time of 10 min and mixing rate of 100 rpm. The bioflocculant, Mg-Sericite, can be a promising flocculants due to its high efficiency and low dose requirements in dyeing wastewater treatment. In addition, Mg-Sericite does not contaminate treated wastewater, which can be recycled to reduce not only the cost and the demand for water but also the extra operational costs for reusing wastewater.

  5. Comparison of nickel doped Zinc Sulfide and/or palladium nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon as efficient adsorbents for kinetic and equilibrium study of removal of Congo Red dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, K.; Ghaedi, M.; Ansari, A.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the efficiency of nickel doped Zinc Sulfide nanoparticle loaded on activated carbon (Ni-ZnS-NP-AC) and palladium nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Pd-NP-AC) for the removal of Congo Red (CR) from aqueous solution was investigated. These materials were fully identified and characterized in term of structure, surface area and pore volume with different techniques such XRD, FE-SEM and TEM analysis. The dependency of CR removal percentage to variables such as pH, contact time, amount of adsorbents, CR concentration was examined and optimum values were set as: 0.03 g Ni-ZnS-NP-AC and 0.04 g of Pd-NP-AC at pH of 3 and 2 after mixing for 22 and 26 min for Ni-ZnS-NP-AC and Pd-NP-AC, respectively. Subsequently, it was revealed that isotherm data efficiency can be correlated Langmuir with maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of 286 and 126.6 mg g-1 at room temperature for Ni-ZnS-NP-AC and Pd-NP-AC, respectively. Investigation of correlation between time and rate of adsorption reveal that the CR adsorption onto both adsorbents followed pseudo second order and interparticle diffusion simultaneously.

  6. Removal of sulfadimethoxine in soil mediated by extracellular oxidoreductases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rashmi; Sidhu, Sudeep S; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Qingguo

    2015-11-01

    Sulfadimethoxine (SDM) is an antibiotic commonly used in concentrated animal feeding operations and released into the environment via manure application on agricultural lands. Transformation of antibiotics in soil impacts the likelihood of their entry to water bodies, uptake by plants, and thus their effect on terrestrial and aquatic organisms. We conducted experiments to incubate SDM in a sandy loam soil in the presence of humification enzymes commonly found in natural soil, laccase, horseradish peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase. Incubation with the enzymes led to significant reduction in the fraction of SDM extractable from soil, indicating the formation of bound residues. Such transformation was enhanced when the organic matter content in soil is increased or when certain chemical mediators were used along with laccase. The study provided a basis for understanding the environmental fate of sulfonamides and help with the development of remediation methods to mitigate the release of sulfonamides from soil to water.

  7. Efficacy of fungal decolorization of a mixture of dyes belonging to different classes

    PubMed Central

    Przystas, Wioletta; Zablocka-Godlewska, Ewa; Grabinska-Sota, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    Dyes are the most difficult constituents to remove by conventional biological wastewater treatment. Colored wastewater is mainly eliminated by physical and chemical procedures, which are very expensive and have drawbacks. Therefore, the advantage of using biological processes, such as the biotransformation of dyes, is that they may lead to complete mineralization or formation of less toxic products. To prove the possibility of using fungal processes for decolorization and other applications, the analysis of the toxicity of the processes' products is required. The decolorization of the mixture of two dyes from different classes - triphenylmethane brilliant green and azo Evans blue (GB - total concentration 0.08 g/L, proportion 1:1 w/w) - by Pleurotus ostreatus (BWPH and MB), Gloeophyllum odoratum (DCa), RWP17 (Polyporus picipes) and Fusarium oxysporum (G1) was studied. Zootoxicity (Daphnia magna) and phytotoxicity (Lemna minor) changes were estimated at the end of the experiment. The mixture of dyes was significantly removed by all the strains that were tested with 96 h of experimental time. However, differences among strains from the same species (P. ostreatus) were noted. Shaking improved the efficacy and rate of the dye removal. In static samples, the removal of the mixture reached more than 51.9% and in shaken samples, more than 79.2%. Tests using the dead biomass of the fungi only adsorbed up to 37% of the dye mixture (strain BWPH), which suggests that the process with the living biomass involves the biotransformation of the dyes. The best results were reached for the MB strain, which removed 90% of the tested mixture under shaking conditions. Regardless of the efficacy of the dye removal, toxicity decreased from class V to class III in tests with D. magna. Tests with L. minor control samples were classified as class IV, and samples with certain strains were non-toxic. The highest phytotoxicity decrease was noted in shaken samples where the elimination of dye

  8. Extracellular RNA in aging.

    PubMed

    Dluzen, Douglas F; Noren Hooten, Nicole; Evans, Michele K

    2017-03-01

    Since the discovery of extracellular RNA (exRNA) in circulation and other bodily fluids, there has been considerable effort to catalog and assess whether exRNAs can be used as markers for health and disease. A variety of exRNA species have been identified including messenger RNA and noncoding RNA such as microRNA (miRNA), small nucleolar RNA, transfer RNA, and long noncoding RNA. Age-related changes in exRNA abundance have been observed, and it is likely that some of these transcripts play a role in aging. In this review, we summarize the current state of exRNA profiling in various body fluids and discuss age-related changes in exRNA abundance that have been identified in humans and other model organisms. miRNAs, in particular, are a major focus of current research and we will highlight and discuss the potential role that specific miRNAs might play in age-related phenotypes and disease. We will also review challenges facing this emerging field and various strategies that can be used for the validation and future use of exRNAs as markers of aging and age-related disease. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1385. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1385 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. New method for quantification of dye sorption using SBA mesoporous silica as a target sorbent.

    PubMed

    Nesic, Aleksandra R; Kokunesoski, Maja J; Volkov-Husovic, Tatjana D; Velickovic, Sava J

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a new method for the quantification of methyl violet cationic dye sorption onto SBA-15 mesoporous silica was developed. This method related the intensity of coloration of SBA-15 samples (after reached equilibrium sorption) within dye concentration in aqueous solution using Image-Pro Plus software. The sorption process of methyl violet dye onto SBA-15 was analyzed varying different initial parameters (dye concentration, mass of sorbent, pH of dye solution, and contact sorption time). SBA-15 proved as efficient sorbent for removal of methyl violet dye in contact time of 5 min, with maximum percentage of dye removal 99% at pH 8. The results obtained from Image-Pro Plus showed to be in good agreement with the sorption parameters obtained by UV/Vis spectroscopy, which has been the most commonly used instrument for quantification of dye sorption. The image analysis method proved well prediction of dye concentrations with maximum relative error of 1.83%. The advantages of this method are low cost and reliable quantitative evaluation with minimum of time.

  10. Kinetics of basic dye (methylene blue) biosorption by giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza).

    PubMed

    Waranusantigul, P; Pokethitiyook, P; Kruatrachue, M; Upatham, E S

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater containing pigments and/or dyes can cause serious water pollution problems in the form of reduced light penetration and photosynthesis, and the toxicity from heavy metals associated with pigments and/or dyes. Laboratory investigations, of the potential use of dried Spirodela polyrrhiza biomass as an adsorbent for the removal of the basic dye methylene blue from aqueous solution were conducted. A series of experiments were undertaken in an agitated batch adsorber to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. sorbent dosage, pH, and contact time. The results showed that as the amount of the dried S. polyrrhiza increased, the percentage of dye sorption increased accordingly. At pH 2.0 the sorption of dye was not favorable, while the sorption at other pHs (3.0-11.0) was remarkable. There was no significant difference in the dye concentration remaining when the pH was increased from 3.0 to 11.0. The dye removal time was influenced by the initial dye concentration, and the process followed the first-order rate kinetics. The rate constants for intraparticle diffusion were 1.00 and 3.27 mg/g/min1/2 for 300 and 500 mg/l of dye, respectively.

  11. Oxidative treatment of azo dyes in aqueous solution by potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Aleboyeh, A; Olya, M E; Aleboyeh, H

    2009-03-15

    This work was conducted to study the ability of permanganate (KMnO(4)) oxidative treatment as a method to decolourise the solutions containing azo dye C.I. Acid Orange 7, C.I. Acid Orange 8, C.I. Acid Red 14, or C.I. Acid Red 73, in a batch system. The results of the study demonstrated the complete removal of the colour and partial mineralization for each dye solution. The effect of the key operating variables such as initial dye concentration, permanganate amount, pH and temperature were studied. Decolourisation reactions were influenced by the acidity and temperature of the treated solutions. To avoid the overdose of KMnO(4), the stoichiometric amount of permanganate required for 1 mol of dye complete colour removal was determined. The reactions between permanganate and C.I. Acid Orange 7, C.I. Acid Orange 8, C.I. Acid Red 14 and C.I. Acid Red 73 dyes in acidic medium exhibit (2.05, 2.20, 2.42 and 2.79):1 stoichiometry (MnO(4)(-):dye). Dye degradation efficiency by potassium permanganate was studied, monitoring total organic carbon (TOC). The results indicated that the degradation efficiency of azo dyes increased with the increase of the potassium permanganate amount. Meanwhile, even in large excess of the oxidant, the dye mineralization was incomplete.

  12. Adsorption of dyes on carbon nanomaterials from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Ovejero, G; Sotelo, J L; Mestanza, M; García, J

    2010-10-01

    The removal of methylene blue (MB), a cationic dye and orange II (OII), an anionic dye, from aqueous solution by using carbon nanomaterials as multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNF) as adsorbents was studied in batch experiments. The effect of pH, temperature and surface modification of adsorbent on the removal of MB and OII was also investigated. The removals of OII and MB by adsorption on MWNT were maximum at pH 3.0 and pH 7.0, respectively. However, in the case CNF was employed as adsorbent, the optimum values of pH were 9.0 and 5.0 for OII and MB, respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms are applied to fit the adsorption data of both dyes. Equilibrium data were well described by the typical Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Overall, the study demonstrated that MWNTs and CNFs can effectively remove cationic and anionic dyes as MB and OII from aqueous solutions under these experimental conditions.

  13. Degradation and toxicity depletion of RB19 anthraquinone dye in water by ozone-based technologies.

    PubMed

    Lovato, María E; Fiasconaro, María L; Martín, Carlos A

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated the discoloration and mineralization of Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) anthraquinone dye by single ozonation, single UV radiation and ozonation jointed with UV radiation (O3/UV). The problem was approached from two points of view: with the objective of color removal or the mineralization of solution. In each case, the optimum operating conditions were different. Ozonation was the most effective treatment for color removal, while the combined O3/UV treatment was for mineralization. Major intermediates of the dye degradation were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a degradation pathway was proposed. In addition, a clear decrease of the toxicity of the dye was achieved at the end of the experiments. The effect of initial dye concentration, pH, ozone dose, and UV radiation on the degradation of the dye and decrease of total organic carbon was investigated, in order to establish the optimal operating conditions to achieve discoloration, mineralization or a combination of both.

  14. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  15. Biomineralization of azo dye bearing wastewater in periodic discontinuous batch reactor: Effect of microaerophilic conditions on treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Naresh Kumar, A; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the influence of microaerophilic condition on periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR) operation in treating azo dye containing wastewater. The process performance was evaluated with the function of various dye load operations (50-750 mg/l) by keeping the organic load (1.6 kg COD/m(3)-day) constant. Initially, lower dye operation (50mg dye/l) resulted in higher dye [45 mg dye/l (90%)] and COD [SDR: 1.29 kg COD/m(3)-day (92%)] removal efficiencies. Higher dye load operation (750 mg dye/l) also showed non-inhibitory performance with respect to dye [600 mg dye/l (80%)] and COD [1.25 kg COD/m(3)-day (80%)] removal efficiencies. Increment in dye load showed increment in azo reductase and dehydrogenase activities (39.6 U; 4.96 μg/ml; 750 mg/l). UV-Vis spectroscopy (200-800 nm), FTIR and (1)H NMR studies revealed the disappearance of azo bond (-NN-). First derivative cyclic voltammogram supported the involvement of various membrane bound redox shuttlers, viz., cytochrome-C, cytochrome-bc1 and flavoproteins (FAD (H)).

  16. Reduction of acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent using Fenton-coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

    2014-06-15

    Dye wastewater exhibits significant ecotoxicity even though its physico-chemical parameters meet the discharge standards. In this work, the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent were tested, and the Fenton-coagulation process was carried out to detoxify this dye effluent. The acute toxicity was evaluated according to the mortality rate of zebrafish, and genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was also investigated. The results indicated that the dye effluent showed strong acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. After 4h of treatment by Fenton-coagulation process, the dye effluent exhibited no significant acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. In addition, its COD was less than 50mg/L, which met the discharge standard. It demonstrates that Fenton-coagulation process can comprehensively reduce the acute toxicity and genotoxicity as well as the COD of the dye effluent.

  17. Photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes

    SciTech Connect

    von Trebra, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Coumarin laser dyes are widely used in dye lasers for the generation of tunable laser light in the blue-green spectral region. As in the case with most laser dyes, coumarin dyes undergo photochemical reactions that interfere with simulated emission and result in loss of laser power output. This thesis describes the photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and some attempts to extend the useful lifetime of several dyes in dye lasers. Irradiation of Coumarin 311, 7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-coumarin (15), in oxygen-free ethanol solution results in the inefficient dye destruction. Products formed absorb light at the lasing wavelength of the dye, interfere with stimulated emission, and decrease the power output of the dye laser. Addition of the sulfur free radical chain transfer agents ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide retard the rate of formation of photoproducts absorbing at the lasing wavelengths. Deuterium incorporation, from the irradiation of Coumarin 311 in the presence of ethanethiol-S-d and ethyl disulfide, indicates that photoproducts most likely result from the reactions of free radicals which are generated in a bimolecular reaction between excited Coumarin 311 and ground state Coumarin 311. Ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide are shown to decrease the rate of power loss from a Coumarin 1 (3) dye laser. The naturally occurring amino acid cysteine acts similarly.

  18. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Eui-Jong; Tabatabai, S Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR18), and acid yellow 36 (AY36) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane-dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye-dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment.

  19. Synthesis of iron(II,III) oxide/zinc oxide/copper(II) oxide (Fe3O4/ZnO/CuO) nanocomposites and their photosonocatalytic property for organic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Taufik, Ardiansyah; Saleh, Rosari

    2017-04-01

    A facile sol-gel method was adopted to synthesize iron(II,III) oxide/zinc oxide/copper(II) oxide (Fe3O4/ZnO/CuO) nanocomposites with various CuO loadings at a low temperature. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyses. The photosonocatalytic properties of the nanocomposites were tested by methylene blue removal in aqueous solutions under the combination of UV or visible light and ultrasound. The catalyst with the lowest CuO loading exhibited the highest photosonocatalytic performance under UV light, while the fastest degradation under visible light was achieved at the highest CuO loading. Overall, the photosonocatalytic process with light and ultrasound irradiation led to more complete degradation compared to using light alone. According to the experiments performed with radical scavengers, the holes and OH radicals are the dominant oxidative species. The nanocomposites can be easily separated from the treated solution using an external magnetic field, and the samples remain very stable after 4 cycles. These results indicate that these materials have great potential for treating organic pollutants in wastewaters.

  20. FY 1980 Report on Dye Laser Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    by block number) Dye Lasers Laser Dyes Tunable Lasers Photodegradation Rhodamine Dyes 20. ABSTRACT (Continue n resld* it necesiry and Identify by block...limited usefulness as a portable military device because of the photodegradation of the dye solution. Although there have been state-of-the-art reviews...on laser dyes , 1𔃼 the photodegradation of laser dyes ,3 and dye lasers, 4- 6 only authors from, or funded by, military organizations have given strict

  1. Reuse of reactive dyes for dyeing of jute fabric.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S N; Pan, N C; Day, A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the work was to find out suitable method of dyeing so that costly reactive dye can be reused without draining them. The bleached jute fabric was dyed with four different class of reactive dyes namely, cold brand, hot brand, vinyl sulphone and high exhaustion (HE) brand. It is found that the two-step two-bath method of reactive dyeing, where exhaustion and fixation step is separated, is most ideal for reuse of dye bath. Separate original samples produced K/S value same as that of original sample and the K/S value of separate reuse sample varied from 50% to 80% of the original sample depending on the class of dye. In case of same bath method, colour yield of original reuse samples varies from only 10% to maximum 30% of the original samples depending on the class of dyes. Reuse of reactive dyes following separate bath method is particularly suitable for higher depth of shade (4% and above). This process not only utilises costly reactive dyes to the maximum extent but it also produces low water pollution as the effluent contain minimum amount of dye. So the process is economic and eco-friendly as well.

  2. Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

    2013-02-15

    The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9.

  3. Toxicity assessment and microbial degradation of azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Puvaneswari, N; Muthukrishnan, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2006-08-01

    Toxic effluents containing azo dyes are discharged from various industries and they adversely affect water resources, soil fertility, aquatic organisms and ecosystem integrity. They pose toxicity (lethal effect, genotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity) to aquatic organisms (fish, algae, bacteria, etc.) as well as animals. They are not readily degradable under natural conditions and are typically not removed from waste water by conventional waste water treatment systems. Benzidine based dyes have long been recognized as a human urinary bladder carcinogen and tumorigenic in a variety of laboratory animals. Several microorganisms have been found to decolourize, transform and even to completely mineralize azo dyes. A mixed culture of two Pseudomonas strains efficiently degraded mixture of 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) and phenol/cresols. Azoreductases of different microorganisms are useful for the development of biodegradation systems as they catalyze reductive cleavage of azo groups (-N=N-) under mild conditions. In this review, toxic impacts of dyeing factory effluents on plants, fishes, and environment, and plausible bioremediation strategies for removal of azo dyes have been discussed.

  4. Algal decolorization and degradation of monoazo and diazo dyes.

    PubMed

    Omar, Hanan Hafez

    2008-05-15

    This study is to inspect how the variation of molecular structures and functional groups present in our models, monoazo dye (Tartrazine) and diazo dye (Ponceau), affects decolorization capabilities of green algae, cyanobacteria and diatoms. The results revealed that the removal of azo dyes was rapid at the initial period of study (3 days) and became slowly with the time (6 days). The maximum decolorization was observed at 5 ppm Tartrazine with S. bijugatus (68%) and N. muscourm after 6 days incubation. The reduction of color removal appears to be related to the molecular structure of the dyes and species of algae used. The culture of the diatom Nitzschia perminuta was completely died after 2 days of incubation. Azo reductase of algae, which is responsible for degradation of azo dyes into aromatic amine by breaking the azo linkage, was estimated. IR spectra represented a new peak at 3300 cm(-1) and a reduction in the azo band at 1642-1631 cm(-1). In order to investigate the sorption behavior of algae, Langmuir equilibrium model was tested.

  5. Adsorption of acid dye onto organobentonite.

    PubMed

    Baskaralingam, P; Pulikesi, M; Elango, D; Ramamurthi, V; Sivanesan, S

    2006-02-06

    Removal of Acid Red 151 from aqueous solution at different dye concentrations, adsorbent doses and pH has been studied. The bentonite clay has been modified using cationic surfactants, which has been confirmed using XRD and FT-IR analyses. Experimental result has shown that the acidic pH favours the adsorption. The adsorption isotherms are described by means of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity has been found to be 357.14 and 416.66 mg g(-1) for the cetyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride-bentonite (CDBA-bent) and cetylpyridinium chloride-bentonite (CP-bent), respectively. Kinetic studies show that the adsorption followed second-order kinetics.

  6. Extracellular matrix and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C

    2014-04-01

    Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects.

  7. Waste metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent for a reactive dye.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Vílar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-05-30

    An industrial waste sludge mainly composed by metal hydroxides was used as a low-cost adsorbent for removing a reactive textile dye (Remazol Brilliant Blue) in solution. Characterization of this waste material included chemical composition, pH(ZPC) determination, particle size distribution, physical textural properties and metals mobility under different pH conditions. Dye adsorption equilibrium isotherms were determined at 25 and 35 degrees C and pH of 4, 7 and 10 revealing reasonably fits to Langmuir and Freundlich models. At 25 degrees C and pH 7, Langmuir fit indicates a maximum adsorption capacity of 91.0mg/g. An adsorptive ion-exchange mechanism was identified from desorption studies. Batch kinetic experiments were also conducted at different initial dye concentration, temperature, adsorbent dosage and pH. A pseudo-second-order model showed good agreement with experimental data. LDF approximation model was used to estimate homogeneous solid diffusion coefficients and the effective pore diffusivities. Additionally, a simulated real effluent containing the selected dye, salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals, was also used in equilibrium and kinetic experiments and the adsorption performance was compared with aqueous dye solutions.

  8. Evaluating role of immobilized periphyton in bioremediation of azo dye amaranth.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Sadaf; Faheem, Muhammad; Ali, Naeem; Kerr, Philip G; Wu, Yonghong

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioremediation capabilities of three kinds of periphyton (i.e. epiphyton, metaphyton and epilithon) immobilized in bioreactors to decolorize and biodegrade the sulphonated azo dye, amaranth. Results showed that periphyton dominated by phyla including Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Complete removal of dye was shown by all the biofilms periphyton (epiphyton showed highest removal efficacy) over a range of initial concentrations (50-500mgL(-1)) within 84h at pH 7 and 30°C. Biodegradation of amaranth was confirmed through FTIR and HPLC and the biodegradation pathways were detected by GC-MS/MS analysis. The azo bonds in the amaranth were successfully broken by periphyton and amaranth was converted to non-toxic, aliphatic compounds including isobutene, acetyl acetate and ethyl acetate. The results showed the potential application of immobilized periphyton at industrial scale for the removal of azo dyes from wastewater containing azo dye amaranth.

  9. Ozonation of azo dyes (Orange II and Acid Red 27) in saline media.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alessandra C; Pic, Jean Stephane; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L; Dezotti, Marcia

    2009-09-30

    Ozonation of two azo dyes was investigated in a monitored bench scale bubble column reactor (8.5-L), varying liquid media salt content (0, 1, 40 and 100 g L(-1), NaCl). In experiments with Orange II pH was varied (5, 7.5 and 9) but ozonation of Acid Red 27 was performed at pH 7.5. Ozone self-decomposition rate-constant increased with salt concentration. Color removal was very effective and fast achieved under all experimental conditions. For the two azo dyes tested, more than 98% of color intensity was removed in 30-min ozonation assays. However, only partial mineralization of azo dyes (45%-Orange II; 20%-Acid Red 27) was attained in such experiments. The degree of mineralization (TOC removal) was negatively affected by salt concentration. Biodegradation assays conducted by respirometry revealed the inhibitory effect of dye degradation products formed during ozonation.

  10. Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

  11. Recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes.

  12. Functional behavior of bio-electrochemical treatment system with increasing azo dye concentrations: Synergistic interactions of biocatalyst and electrode assembly.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Velvizhi, G; Naresh Kumar, A; Venkata Mohan, S

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of dye bearing wastewater through biological machinery is particularly challenging due to its recalcitrant and inhibitory nature. In this study, functional behavior and treatment efficiency of bio-electrochemical treatment (BET) system was evaluated with increasing azo dye concentrations (100, 200, 300 and 500mg dye/l). Maximum dye removal was observed at 300mg dye/l (75%) followed by 200mg dye/l (65%), 100mg dye/l (62%) and 500mg dye/l (58%). Concurrent increment in dye load resulted in enhanced azo reductase and dehydrogenase activities respectively (300mg dye/l: 39.6U; 4.96μg/ml). Derivatives of cyclic voltammograms also supported the involvement of various membrane bound redox shuttlers, viz., cytochrome-c, cytochrome-bc1 and flavoproteins during the electron transfer. Bacterial respiration during BET operation utilized various electron acceptors such as electrodes and dye intermediates with simultaneous bioelectricity generation. This study illustrates the synergistic interaction of biocatalyst with electrode assembly for efficient treatment of azo dye wastewater.

  13. Reduction of an azo dye acid black 24 solution using synthesized nanoscale zerovalent iron particles.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin; Yu, Hsing-Hung; Chen, Wang-Hung

    2007-10-01

    The strong color and high total organic carbon (TOC) of laboratory-synthesized azo dye, C.I. Acid Black 24 (AB24), solution was substantially reduced with particles of chemically synthesized nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) under varied conditions of experimental variables such as NZVI dosage, initial dye concentration, and pH. From the results, the synthesized NZVI particles can effectively remove color and TOC of AB24 dye solution under certain conditions. The best removal efficiencies for color and TOC were obtained as 98.9 and 53.8%, respectively, with an initial dye concentration of 100 mg L(-1) and an NZVI dosage of 0.3348 g L(-1). Additionally, the removal rates followed an empirical rate equation with respect to the initial dye concentration as well as the NZVI dosage. The NZVI dosage addition exponentially increments the removal efficiency, with observed empirical reaction rate constants (k) of 0.046-0.603 min(-1) for added NZVI of 0.0335-0.3348 g L(-1). Moreover, the largest unit removal capacity was 609.4 mg of AB24 uptake for each gram of NZVI (i.e., 609.4 mg AB24/g NZVI). Ultimately, the ideal operation conditions were 0.1674-0.3348 g L(-1) of NZVI dosage, 15-30 min of reaction time, and pH 4-9 for 25-100 mg L(-1) of initial dye concentration.

  14. Flocculation performance of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polyamine in treating dyeing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanfang; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Zhan, Xiao; Si, Xiaohui; Li, Chunxiao

    2009-01-01

    Epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polymers with different intrinsic viscosity (eta) and cationicity (tau) were synthesized. The flocculation performance and mechanism of these polymers in the removal of the reactive and disperse dyes from synthetic wastewater was investigated in terms of flocculation dynamics and color removal efficiency. The polymer flocculation efficiency was compared with that of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and a composite flocculant based on polyaluminum chloride-epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polyamine. The results showed that epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polymer was effective over a pH range of 2-10 for the reactive and disperse dye removal (Reactive Brilliant Red and Disperse Yellow dyes). Epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polymer with the highest eta and tau gave the best reactive dye removal efficiency, and its adsorption-bridging and electric neutralization ability played important roles in the flocculation process. The higher the eta viscosity of the epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polymer, the better the flocculation performance of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polyamine, and stronger adsorption-bridging ability was obtained for removing the disperse dye from dyeing wastewaters. Epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine polymer achieved better decolorization performance when used together with PAC.

  15. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) by addition of synthetic dye into natural dye (anthocyanin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2017-02-01

    This article reported combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) applications. This study aims was to improve the performance of DSSC by addition of synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye. Anthocyanin dye was extracted from red cabbage and synthetic dye was obtained from N719. We prepared anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at 2 different volume, anthocyanin dye at volume of 10 ml and combination dyes with anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at volume of 8 mL : 2 mL. The DSSCs were designed into sandwich structure on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using TiO2 electrode, carbon electrode, anthocyanin and synthetic dyes, and redox electrolyte. The absorption wavelength of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 nm – 580 nm, the combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes can increase the absorbance peak only. The IPCE characteristic with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage and combination dyes resulted quantum efficiency of 0.081% and 0.092% at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. The DSSC by anthocyanin dye of red cabbage achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.024%, while the DSSC by combination dyes achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.054%, combination dyes by addition synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye enhanced the conversion efficiency up to 125%.

  16. Extracellular matrix as a driver for lung regeneration.

    PubMed

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Niklason, Laura E

    2015-03-01

    Extracellular matrix has manifold roles in tissue mechanics, guidance of cellular behavior, developmental biology, and regenerative medicine. Over the past several decades, various pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that many connective tissues may be replaced and/or regenerated using suitable extracellular matrix scaffolds. More recently, decellularization of lung tissue has shown that gentle removal of cells can leave behind a "footprint" within the matrix that may guide cellular adhesion, differentiation and homing following cellular repopulation. Fundamental issues like understanding matrix composition and micro-mechanics remain difficult to tackle, largely because of a lack of available assays and tools for systematically characterizing intact matrix from tissues and organs. This review will critically examine the role of engineered and native extracellular matrix in tissue and lung regeneration, and provide insights into directions for future research and translation.

  17. Azaquinolone dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

  18. Azacoumarin dye lasers

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Atkins, Ronald L.; Henry, Ronald A.; Fletcher, Aaron N.

    1978-01-01

    A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue-green to near ultraviolet region.

  19. Fiberized fluorescent dye microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladev, Veselin; Eftimov, Tinko

    2013-03-01

    In the present work we study the effect of the length of fluorescent dye-filled micro-capillaries on the fluorescence spectra. Two types of micro-capillaries have been studied: a 100 μm inner diameter fused silica capillary with a transparent coating and one of the holes of a fiber optic glass ferrule with 125 μm inner diameter. The tubes were filled with solutions of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol and then in glycerin. Experimental data show that the maximum fluorescence and the largest spectral widths are observed for a sample length of about 0.25 mm for the used concentration. This results show that miniature tunable fiberized dye lasers can be developed using available standard micro-and fibre-optic components.

  20. Azo dye treatment with simultaneous electricity production in an anaerobic-aerobic sequential reactor and microbial fuel cell coupled system.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongjian; Zhang, Xingwang; Lin, Jun; Han, Song; Lei, Lecheng

    2010-06-01

    A microbial fuel cell and anaerobic-aerobic sequential reactor coupled system was used for azo dye degradation with simultaneous electricity production. Electricity was produced during the co-metabolism process of glucose and azo dye. A microorganism cultured graphite-granular cathode effectively decreased the charge transfer resistance of the cathode and yielded higher power density. Operation parameters including glucose concentration and hydraulic retention time were optimized. The results indicated that recovering electricity during a sequential aerobic-anaerobic azo dye treatment process enhanced chemical oxygen demand removal and did not decrease azo dye removal. Moreover, UV-vis spectra and GC-MS illustrated that the azo bond was cleaved biologically in the anaerobic chamber and abiotically in the aerobic chamber. The toxic intermediates, aromatic amines, were removed by aerobic treatment. Our work demonstrated that the microbial fuel cell and sequential anode-cathode reactor coupled system could be applied to achieve electricity production with simultaneous azo dye degradation.

  1. Photodegradation of an azo dye of the textile industry.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Rosario López; Espinoza, Abel Gutarra; Litter, Marta I

    2002-07-01

    An advanced oxidation treatment, UV/H2O2, was applied to an azo dye, Hispamin Black CA, widely used in the Peruvian textile industry. Rates of color removal and degradation of the dye have been evaluated. A strongly absorbing solution was completely decolorized after 35 min of treatment, and after 60 min an 82% reduction of the total organic carbon (TOC) was obtained. It has been found that the degradation rate increased until an optimum value, beyond which the reagent exerted an inhibitory effect. The degradation rate was also function of pH.

  2. Photodissociation Dye Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    Chemical Properties of Free Radicals 5 C. Criteria for the Selection of Photodissociation Dye Laser Molecules 6 III. EXPERIMENTAL EFFORT AND...nanoseconds. In radicl systems, however, there is evidence both theoretical and experimental, that the first doublet-doublet electronic tra-jitions are...Properties, of Free Radicals Recombination is only one of many possible reaction paths that can occur in a radical system. Because they are characterized

  3. Electrolytic removal of Rhodamine B from aqueous solution by peroxicoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Nidheesh, Puthiya Veetil; Gandhimathi, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Peroxicoagulation treatment of aqueous solution containing hazardous dye, Rhodamine B, with commercially available graphite as cathode and iron as anode has been studied. The effect of various operational parameters such as solution pH, applied voltage, electrode area, other ions, etc. on the dye removal was investigated. The experimental result showed that pH-regulated peroxicoagulation system is an efficient process for the dye removal. Ninety-five percent of the dye was removed after 180 min of electrolysis. Anions such as carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride and sulphate negatively affected the efficiency of peroxicoagulation system. From the present study, it can be concluded that peroxicoagulation process is an efficient tool for dye removal from aqueous solution.

  4. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample.

  5. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Srotoswini; Dollahon, Norman R.; Stoll, Sarah L.

    2011-05-15

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

  6. Adsorption of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions by fly ash: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Dizge, N; Aydiner, C; Demirbas, E; Kobya, M; Kara, S

    2008-02-11

    Adsorption kinetic and equilibrium studies of three reactive dyes namely, Remazol Brillant Blue (RB), Remazol Red 133 (RR) and Rifacion Yellow HED (RY) from aqueous solutions at various initial dye concentration (100-500 mg/l), pH (2-8), particle size (45-112.5 microm) and temperature (293-323 K) on fly ash (FA) were studied in a batch mode operation. The adsorbent was characterized with using several methods such as SEM, XRD and FTIR. Adsorption of RB reactive dye was found to be pH dependent but both RR and RY reactive dyes were not. The result showed that the amount adsorbed of the reactive dyes increased with increasing initial dye concentration and contact time. Batch kinetic data from experimental investigations on the removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using FA have been well described by external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion had rate limiting affects on the removal process. This was attributed to the relatively simple macropore structure of FA particles. The adsorption data fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum conditions for removal of the reactive dyes were 100mg/l initial dye concentration, 0.6g/100ml adsorbent dose, temperature of 293 K, 45 microm particle size, pH 6 and agitation speed of 250 rpm, respectively. The values of Langmuir and Freundlich constants were found to increase with increasing temperature in the range 135-180 and 15-34 mg/g for RB, 47-86 and 1.9-3.7 mg/g for RR and 37-61 and 3.0-3.6 mg/g for RY reactive dyes, respectively. Different thermodynamic parameters viz., changes in standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy were evaluated and it was found that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  7. Removal of acridine orange from water by graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiallos, D. Coello; Gómez, C. Vacacela; Usca, G. Tubón; Pérez, D. Cid; Tavolaro, P.; Martino, G.; Caputi, L. S.; Tavolaro, A.

    2015-02-01

    Dyes are usually used in textile manufacturing and are one of the major contaminations in water. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the removal of dyes is of great concern, and recent applications using carbon-based materials showed high adsorption ability. In this work we use graphene oxide (GO) produced by improved Hummer's method, for adsorption of acridine orange dye (AO) in water. GO is a material containing functional groups such as carboxyl, epoxy, ketone, and hydroxyl, that can adsorb cationic dyes. Factors such as initial concentration of dye, the amount of GO, temperature and contact time were evaluated. Results show that the adsorption equilibrium, with the removal of 40% of the dye, is reached in approximately 1 hour, and that the adsorption capacity increases at higher initial concentrations. The highest value of AO adsorbed was 229.8 mg/g equivalent to 92% removal percentage by using AO initial concentration 0.10 mg/mL. FT-IR analysis of GO with adsorbed AO shows changes in the stretching vibrational bands, which corroborate the AO/GO interaction due to the functional groups present in GO. Furthermore, AO adsorbed on GO does not desorb back into water. Our results show that GO is an effective adsorbent and could be used to treat effluents contaminated with dyes.

  8. Decolorization and transformation of anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 19 by ozonation.

    PubMed

    Fanchiang, J M; Tseng, D H

    2009-02-01

    The decolorization and transformation of the anthraquinone dye, Reactive Blue 19 (RB-19), by ozonation with a semi-batch reactor were investigated. The effects of different operating parameters, such as the initial RB-19 concentrations, ozone feed rates and initial pH, on the performance of color, dye and total organic carbon (TOC) removal were also evaluated based on their pseudo-first-order rate constants and removal efficiencies. The experimental results indicated that the removal of color and the dye itself was more rapid and complete than that of TOC in all the ozonation tests. However, increasing the initial RB-19 concentration had a significant effect on decreasing the rate constant of RB-19 reduction. In addition, increasing the ozone feed rate had positive effects on the color, dye and TOC removal, particularly on the TOC diminution. The rate constant and efficiency of color removal were highest at initial acidic pH conditions, but the dye and TOC removal were more effective at initial basic pH values, possibly due to the more powerful and non-selective hydroxyl radical oxidation.

  9. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... removal; Basal cell cancer - removal; Actinic keratosis - removal; Wart - removal; Squamous cell - removal; Mole - removal; Nevus - removal; ... can remove: Benign or pre-malignant skin lesions Warts Moles Sunspots Hair Small blood vessels in the ...

  10. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  11. DYNAMICS OF ACRIDINE ORANGE-CELL INTERACTION. II. DYE-INDUCED ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN MULTIVESICULAR BODIES (ACRIDINE ORANGE PARTICLES).

    PubMed

    ROBBINS, E; MARCUS, P I; GONATAS, N K

    1964-04-01

    The brilliantly fluorescent cytoplasmic particles that accumulate in HeLa cells treated with acridine orange, previously referred to as acridine orange particles, are shown to represent acid phosphatase positive multivesicular bodies (MVB). Dynamic changes in the ultrastructure of these organelles may be induced by varying the concentration of extracellular dye and the length of exposure to the dye. Low concentrations of dye for long intervals of time lead to marked hypertrophy of the MVB and accumulation of myelin figures within them, the acid phosphatase activity being retained. High concentrations of dye for short time intervals lead initially to a diffuse distribution of dye through out the cytoplasm (cytoplasmic reddening) as viewed in the fluorescence microscope. When cells are stained in this way and incubated in a dye-free medium, the diffusely distributed dye is segregated into MVB within 1 hour. Ultrastructurally, these MVB show dilatation but no myelin figures. The process of dye segregation is energy dependent and will not occur in starved cells. This energy dependence and the occurrence of segregation via dilatation of the MVB rather than ultrastructural transformation, i.e. formation of new binding sites, suggests that the process involves an active transport mechanism. Of the various energy sources supplied to starved cells, only glucose, mannose, and pyruvate are fully effective in supporting dye segregation. Blockage of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with malonate inhibits the effects of pyruvate but not of glucose, demonstrating the efficacy of both the tricarboxylic acid and glycolytic cycles in supplying energy for the process.

  12. Preparation of sludge-based activated carbon and its application in dye wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoning; Zhu, Nanwen; Yin, Bingkui

    2008-05-01

    A novel activation process was adopted to produce highly porous activated carbon from cyclic activated sludge in secondary precipitator in municipal wastewater treatment plant for dye removal from colored wastewater. The physical properties of activated carbon produced with the activation of 3M KOH solution in the atmosphere of steam were investigated. Adsorption removal of a dye, Acid Brilliant Scarlet GR, from aqueous solution onto the sludge-based activated carbon was studied under varying conditions of adsorption time, initial concentration, carbon dosage and pH. Adsorption equilibrium was obtained in 15 min for the dye initial concentration of 300 mg/L. Initial pH of solution had an insignificant impact on the dye removal. Results indicated that 99.7% coloration and 99.6% total organic carbon (TOC) were removed after 15 min adsorption in the synthetic solution of Acid Brilliant Scarlet GR with initial concentration of 300 mg/L of the dye and 20 g/L activated carbon. The Langmuir and Freundlich equilibrium isotherm models fitted the adsorption data well with R(2)=0.996 and 0.912, respectively. Accordingly, it is concluded that the procedure of developing activated carbon used in this study could be effective and practical for utilizing in dye wastewater treatment.

  13. Polypeptide micelles with dual pH activatable dyes for sensing cells and cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ping; Yang, Yueting; Yi, Huqiang; Fang, Shengtao; Zhang, Pengfei; Sheng, Zonghai; Gao, Guanhui; Gao, Duyang; Cai, Lintao

    2014-04-01

    pH is an important control parameter for maintenance of cell viability and tissue functions. pH monitoring provides valuable information on cell metabolic processes and the living environment. In this study, we prepared dual pH-sensitive, fluorescent dye-loaded polypeptide nanoparticles (DPNs) for ratiometric sensing of pH changes in living cells. DPNs contain two types of dyes: N-(rhodamine B) lactam cystamine (RBLC), an acid activatable fluorescent dye with increased fluorescence in an acidic environment, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), a base activatable fluorescent dye with enhanced fluorescence in an alkaline environment. Hence, DPNs exhibited a dual response signal with strong red fluorescence and weak green fluorescence under acidic conditions; in contrast, they showed strong green fluorescence and almost no red fluorescence under alkaline and neutral conditions. The favorable inverse pH responses of the two fluorescent dyes resulted in ratiometric pH determination for DPNs with an optimized pH-sensitive range of pH 4.5-7.5. Quantitative analysis of the intracellular pH of intact MCF-7 cells has been successfully demonstrated with our nanosensor. Moreover, single acid activatable fluorescent dye doped polypeptide nanoparticles that only contained RBLC can distinguish tumor tissue from normal tissue by monitoring the acidic extracellular environment.pH is an important control parameter for maintenance of cell viability and tissue functions. pH monitoring provides valuable information on cell metabolic processes and the living environment. In this study, we prepared dual pH-sensitive, fluorescent dye-loaded polypeptide nanoparticles (DPNs) for ratiometric sensing of pH changes in living cells. DPNs contain two types of dyes: N-(rhodamine B) lactam cystamine (RBLC), an acid activatable fluorescent dye with increased fluorescence in an acidic environment, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), a base activatable fluorescent dye with enhanced fluorescence

  14. Non-classical azoreductase secretion in Clostridium perfringens in response to sulfonated azo dye exposure.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jessica M; John, Gilbert H

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium perfringens, a strictly anaerobic microorganism and inhabitant of the human intestine, has been shown to produce an azoreductase enzyme (AzoC), an NADH-dependent flavin oxidoreductase. This enzyme reduces azo dyes into aromatic amines, which can be carcinogenic. A significant amount of work has been completed on the activity of AzoC. Despite this, much is still unknown, including whether azoreduction of these dyes occurs intracellularly or extracellulary. A physiological study of C. perfringens involving the effect of azo dye exposure was completed to answer this question. Through exposure studies, azo dyes were found to cause cytoplasmic protein release, including AzoC, from C. perfringens in dividing and non-dividing cells. Sulfonation (negative charge) of azo dyes proved to be the key to facilitating protein release of AzoC and was found to be azo-dye-concentration-dependent. Additionally, AzoC was found to localize to the Gram-positive periplasmic region. Using a ΔazoC knockout mutant, the presence of additional azoreductases in C. perfringens was suggested. These results support the notion that the azoreduction of these dyes may occur extracellularly for the commensal C. perfringens in the intestine.

  15. Kinetics of azoreductase and assessment of toxicity of metabolic products from azo dyes by Pseudomonas luteola.

    PubMed

    Hu, T L

    2001-01-01

    This is a continuous study on a decolorization strain, Pseudomonas luteola, which involves treating seven azo dyes with different structures. This study focuses mainly on determining both the mechanism of decolorization by P. luteola and the activity of azoreductase from P. luteola as well as identifying and assessing the toxicity of metabolic products of azo dyes. The growth of P. luteola reached the stationary phase after shaking incubation for 24 hours. Then, while being kept static, the color of seven tested azo dyes (100 mg/l) could be removed. The proportion of color removal was between 59-99%, which figure is related to the structure of the dye. Monoazo dyes (RP2B, V2RP and Red 22) showed the fastest rate of decolorization, i.e. from 0.23-0.44 mg dye-mg cell-1 hr-1. P. luteola could remove the color of V2RP and a leather dye at a concentration of 200 mg/l, and as to the rest of the azo dyes, it could remove at a concentration of up to 100 mg/l. Decolorization of RP2B and Red 22 required activation energy of 7.00 J/mol and 6.63 J/mole, respectively, indicating that it was easier for azoreductase to decolorize structurally simple dyes. The kinetics of azoreductase towards seven azo dyes suggested a competitive inhibition model be applied. Microtox was used to analyze the toxicity of the metabolic products of azo dyes. EC50 showed differences in toxicity before and after the azo dyes had been metabolized. Analysis revealed significant differences between the results obtained by EC50 with Blue 15 and those obtained with the leather dye, indicating that the toxicities of the metabolic products were increased. The differences obtained by EC50 with Red 22, RP2P and V2RP were small, and Black 22 showed no such difference. Sulfanic acid and orthanilic acid may be the intermediate products of Violet 9 and RP2B, respectively. However, according to FT-IR analysis, aromatic amines were present in the metabolic product.

  16. Comparison of photocatalytic degradation of dyes in relation to their structure.

    PubMed

    Byberg, R; Cobb, J; Martin, L Diez; Thompson, R W; Camesano, T A; Zahraa, O; Pons, M N

    2013-06-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of a series of six acid dyes (Direct Red 80, Direct Red 81, Direct Red 23, Direct Violet 51, Direct Yellow 27, and Direct Yellow 50) has been tested compared in terms of color removal, mineralization, and toxicity (Lactuca sativa L. test) after photocatalysis on immobilized titanium dioxide. The dyes were examined at their natural pH and after hydrolysis at pH 12. Results show that hydrolysis decreases strongly the efficiency of color removal, that full mineralization takes much longer reaction time than color removal, and that toxicity is only very partially reduced. Some structural parameters, related to the structure and the topology of the dye molecules, could be correlated with the apparent color removal rates at natural pH.

  17. Using resin supported nano zero-valent iron particles for decoloration of Acid Blue 113 azo dye solution.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin; Chen, Chi-Chun; Chen, Po-En

    2010-12-15

    In this study, a synthesized cation exchange resin supported nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) complex forming NZVI-resin was proposed for the decoloration of an azo dye Acid Blue 113 (AB 113), taking into account reaction time, initial dye concentration, NZVI dose and pH. From results, the successful decoloration of the AB 113 solution was observed using a NZVI-resin. Increasing the iron load to 50.8 mg g(-1), the removal efficiencies of the AB 113 concentration increased exponentially. With an initial dye concentration of 100 mg l(-1) and nano iron load of 50.8 mg g(-1), the best removal efficiencies were obtained at 100 and 12.6% for dye concentration and total organic carbon, respectively. Color removal efficiency was dependent on initial dye concentration and iron load. Moreover, the removal rates followed modified pseudo-first order kinetic equations with respect to dye concentration. Thus, the observed removal rate constants (k) were 0.137-0.756 min(-1) by NZVI loads of 4.9-50.8 mg g(-1). Consequently, the NZVI-resin performed effectively for the decoloration of AB 113 azo dye, offering great potential in the application of NZVI-resins in larger scale column tests and further field processes.

  18. Treatment of Basic Red 29 dye solution using iron-aluminum electrode pairs by electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton methods.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Yusuf; Shahbazi, Reza; Koparal, A Savaş; Öğütveren, Ulker Bakır

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the treatment of Basic Red 29 (BR29) dye solution using hybrid iron-aluminum electrodes by electrocoagulation and electro-Fenton methods. The effect of current density, initial pH, supporting electrolyte, H₂O₂, and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency was investigated, and the best experimental conditions were obtained. Time-coarse variation of UV-Vis spectra and toxicity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were also examined at the best experimental conditions. Both systems were found very successful for the removal of BR29 dye. The removal efficiency of >95% for BR29 dye solution was reached easily in a short time. At the best experimental conditions, for the initial BR29 concentration of 100 mg/L, >95% BR29 dye and 71.43% COD removal were obtained after 20 and 40 min of electrolysis, respectively. Additionally, toxicity results for electro-Fenton treatment of 100 mg/L BR29 were also very promising. According to the results obtained, although electro-Fenton is more effective, both systems can be used successfully to treat textile wastewater including dyes.

  19. Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis by adsorption.

    PubMed

    Santhi, T; Manonmani, S; Smitha, T

    2010-07-15

    The use of low-cost, locally available, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the epicarp of Ricinus communis for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were investigated and optimal experimental conditions were ascertained. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. Optimum pH value for dye adsorption was 7.0. Maximum dye was sequestered within 50 min of the start of every experiment. The adsorption of malachite green followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and fits the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Tempkin equations well. The maximum removal of MG was obtained at pH 7 as 99.04% for adsorbent dose of 1 g 50 mL(-1) and 25 mg L(-1) initial dye concentration at room temperature. Activated carbon developed from R. communis can be an attractive option for dye removal from diluted industrial effluents since test reaction made on simulated dyeing wastewater showed better removal percentage of MG.

  20. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di

    2010-03-16

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  1. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  2. Ultrasound for low temperature dyeing of wool with acid dye.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of reducing the temperature of conventional wool dyeing with an acid levelling dye using ultrasound was studied in order to reach exhaustion values comparable to those obtained with the standard procedure at 98 °C, obtaining dyed samples of good quality. The aim was to develop a laboratory method that could be transferred at industrial level, reducing both the energy consumption and fiber damage caused by the prolonged exposure to high temperature without the use of polluting auxiliary agents. Dyeings of wool fabrics were carried out in the temperature range between 60 °C and 80 °C using either mechanical or ultrasound agitation of the bath and coupling the two methods to compare the results. For each dyeing, the exhaustion curves of the dye bath were determined and the better results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical stirring. Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasonic efficiency were calculated in comparison with mechanical stirring alone. In the presence of ultrasound the absorption rate constants increased by at least 50%, at each temperature, confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound was ascribed to the pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It was also shown that the effect of ultrasound at 60 °C was just on the dye bath, practically unaffecting the wool fiber surface, as confirmed by the results of SEM analysis. Finally, fastness tests to rubbing and domestic laundering yielded good values for samples dyed in ultrasound assisted process even at the lower temperature. These results suggest the possibility, thanks to the use of ultrasound, to obtain a well equalized dyeing on wool working yet at 60°C, a temperature process strongly lower than 98°C, currently used in industry

  3. Blood analyte sensing using fluorescent dye-loaded red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Shao, Xiaole; Cooley, Nicholas; Milanick, Mark A.; Glass, Timothy E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of blood analytes provides crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Due to analyte transporters on red blood cell (RBC) membranes that equilibrate intracellular and extracellular analyte levels, RBCs serve as an attractive alternative for encapsulating analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, the functionalized RBCs may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed sensing system utilizes the ability of the RBCs to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before lysis, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. While at low temperature, analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution diffuse into the perforated RBCs and become entrapped upon restoration of temperature and osmolarity. Since the fluorescent signal from the entrapped dye reports on changes in the analyte level of the extracellular solution via the RBC transporters, interactions between the RBCs and the dye are critical to the efficacy of this technique. In this work, we study the use of a near infrared pH sensitive dye encapsulated within RBCs and assess the ability to measure dye fluorescence in vivo.

  4. Effect of nitrate on anaerobic azo dye reduction.

    PubMed

    Cirik, Kevser; Kitiş, Mehmet; Çinar, Özer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of nitrate on anaerobic color removal efficiencies. For this aim, anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with a simulated textile effluent including Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R azo dye was operated with a total cycle time of 12 h, including anaerobic (6 h) and aerobic cycles (6 h). Microorganism grown under anaerobic phase of the reactor was exposed to different amounts of competitive electron acceptor (nitrate) and performance of the system was determined by monitoring color removal efficiency, nitrate removal, nitrite formation and removal, oxidation reduction potential, color removal rate, chemical oxygen demand (COD), specific anaerobic enzyme (azo reductase) and aerobic enzyme (catechol 1,2 dioxygenase), and formation and removal of aromatic amines. Variations of population dynamics of microorganisms exposed to various amount of nitrate were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). It was found that nitrate has adverse effect on anaerobic color removal efficiency and color removal was achieved after denitrification process was completed. It was found that nitrate stimulates the COD removal efficiency and accelerates the COD removal in the first hour of anaerobic phase. About 90 % total COD removal efficiencies were achieved in which microorganism exposed to increasing amount of nitrate. Population dynamics of microorganisms exposed to various amount of nitrate were changed and diversity was increased.

  5. Extracellular Vesicles from Vascular Endothelial Cells Promote Survival, Proliferation and Motility of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurachi, Masashi; Mikuni, Masahiko; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    We previously examined the effect of brain microvascular endothelial cell (MVEC) transplantation on rat white matter infarction, and found that MVEC transplantation promoted remyelination of demyelinated axons in the infarct region and reduced apoptotic death of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). We also found that the conditioned medium (CM) from cultured MVECs inhibited apoptosis of cultured OPCs. In this study, we examined contribution of extracellular vesicles (EVs) contained in the CM to its inhibitory effect on OPC apoptosis. Removal of EVs from the CM by ultracentrifugation reduced its inhibitory effect on OPC apoptosis. To confirm whether EVs derived from MVECs are taken up by cultured OPCs, we labeled EVs with PKH67, a fluorescent dye, and added them to OPC cultures. Many vesicular structures labeled with PKH67 were found within OPCs immediately after their addition. Next we examined the effect of MVEC-derived EVs on OPC behaviors. After 2 days in culture with EVs, there was significantly less pyknotic and more BrdU-positive OPCs when compared to control. We also examined the effect of EVs on motility of OPCs. OPCs migrated longer in the presence of EVs when compared to control. To examine whether these effects on cultured OPCs are shared by EVs from endothelial cells, we prepared EVs from conditioned media of several types of endothelial cells, and tested their effects on cultured OPCs. EVs from all types of endothelial cells we examined reduced apoptosis of OPCs and promoted their motility. Identification of the molecules contained in EVs from endothelial cells may prove helpful for establishment of effective therapies for demyelinating diseases. PMID:27403742

  6. Comprehensive review and compilation of treatment for azo dyes using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Murali, V; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Hamidin, Nasrul

    2013-03-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent an emerging technology that focuses on power generation and effluent treatment. This review compiles articles related to MFCs using azo dye as the substrate. The significance of the general components in MFCs and systems of MFCs treating azo dye is depicted in this review. In addition, degradation of azo dyes such as Congo red, methyl orange, active brilliant red X-3B, amaranth, reactive blue 221, and acid orange 7 in MFCs are summarized. Further exploration and operational modification are suggested to address the challenges of complete removal of azo dye with maximum power generation in an MFC. In addition, a sequential treatment system with MFCs is suggested for complete mineralization of azo dye.

  7. Dye laser traveling wave amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, F.

    1983-01-01

    A flash lamp pumped dye laser suitable for use as an amplifier stage was developed. The desired output laser pulses are of nanosecond duration, tunable in center frequency, and of good optical quality. Its usefulness as a laser oscillator is emphasized, because it constitutes a compact, relatively efficient source of tunable dye laser light.

  8. The effects of chemical coagulants on the decolorization of dyes by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Erick B.; Hung, Yung-Tse; Mulamba, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of electrocoagulation (ECF) coupled with an addition of chemical coagulant to decolorize textile dye. Tests were conducted using Box Behnken methodology to vary six parameters: dye type, weight, coagulant type, dose, initial pH and current density. The combination of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was able to decolorize dye up to 99.42 % in 30 min of treatment time which is remarkably shorter in comparison with using conventional chemical coagulation. High color removal was found to be contingent upon the dye type and current density, along with the interactions between the current density and the coagulant dose. The addition of chemical coagulants did enhanced treatment efficiency.

  9. Effects of Dye Structure in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Anna R.

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are photovoltaic devices that may compete with standard silicon solar cells due to their ease of construction and lower cost [32]. Ruthenium dye structures, such as N3 (Ru -- (4,4' -- dicarboxylic acid -- 2,2' -- bipyridine)2(NCS)2), have shown promise for collection efficiencies near silicon photovoltaic levels [20, 33]. DSSCs have not achieved the reproducibility and maximum efficiency of silicon solar cells [33, 34]. Altering ligands on the dye molecules may affect the energies of light that are absorbed by the DSSC. Photovoltaic testing, including current versus voltage tests, of DSSCs with both narrow band monochromated light sources and broadband (AM1.5 solar simulator) allows comparison between maximum efficiency, short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, and spectral response (SR) for the dye molecules. By studying how the efficiency and power output change with different dye structures, the nature of how to increase efficiency of the DSSC can be addressed. Conjugation length of the ligands in ruthenium dye molecules can be shown, through square-well and Huckel theory calculations, to have a role in changing the HOMO-LUMO gap of the molecules and the absorption of specific wavelengths of light by the DSSC. The efficiency, max power, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and SR were all measured for the DSSCs at wavelengths from 350 nm to 690 nm using a monochromated light source. Measurements taken at 20 nm steps reveal trends in the photon acceptance for dye molecules that can be linked to the conjugation length of the ligands in the dye through the SR. The change in the SR centroid and UV-VIS measurements indicate a trend toward increasing optimal wavelength with increasing conjugation length in the dye molecules; however these trends are not as pronounced as theoretical calculations for the dyes. This difference in wavelength shift occurs due to the theoretical calculations accounting for only the ligands

  10. Antimicrobial dyes and mechanosensitive channels.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Ramiz A

    2013-08-01

    The search for new and effective antimicrobial agents has never been as important; however, since the discovery of antibiotics, exploring the antimicrobial activity of dyes has been forgotten. Antimicrobial dyes are an untapped resource and have the ability to potentially combat the spread of drug-resistant bacteria either alone or as antimicrobial adjuvants. The mechanosensitive ion channel of large conductance (MscL) is highly conserved and ubiquitous in bacterial species. There is evidence to suggest that at least one triphenylmethane dye acts through the highly conserved MscL channel and combining the two approaches of exploring the mechanism of action of other triphenylmethane dyes or antimicrobial dyes in general and the novel MscL target provides a new opportunity for further exploration.

  11. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  12. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James E.; Cobb, E.D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

  13. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  14. Diode pumped tunable dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukova, O.; Gorbunkov, M.; Petukhov, V.; Semenov, M.

    2017-03-01

    A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by blue laser diodes (λ =445 nm) in a 200 ns pulsed mode has been developed. We used a 3-mirror cavity with transverse excitation and total internal reflection of laser beam in the active element. Tuning curves for 8 dyes in benzyl alcohol were measured in the range of 506-700 nm. Four dyes have their tuning range more than 60 nm, which is comparable to the tuning ranges of other dye lasers pumped by more expensive sources. The output energy obtained at the generation maximum of both DCM and coumarin 540A dyes was approximately 130 nJ while the pump energy was 2400 nJ.

  15. Abatement of Azo Dye from Wastewater Using Bimetal-Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Ghorban; Farjadfard, Sima

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new adsorbent, bimetallic chitosan particle (BCP) that is successfully synthesized and applied to remove the orange II dye from wastewater. The effects of pH, BCP quantity, and contact time are initially verified on the basis of the percentage of orange II removed from the wastewater. Experimental data reveal that the Cu/Mg bimetal and chitosan have a synergistic effect on the adsorption process of the adsorbate, where the dye adsorption by Cu/Mg bimetal, chitosan alone, and bimetal-chitosan is 10, 49, and 99.5%, respectively. The time required for the complete decolorization of orange II by 1 mg/L of BCP is 10 min. The Langmuir model is the best fit for the experimental data, which attains a maximum adsorption capacity of 384.6 mg/g. The consideration of the kinetic behavior indicates that the adsorption of orange II onto the BCP fits best with the pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. Further, the simulated azo dye wastewater can be effectively treated using a relatively low quantity of the adsorbent, 1 mg/L, within a short reaction time of 20 min. Overall, the use of BCP can be considered a promising method for eliminating the azo dye from wastewater effectively. PMID:24348163

  16. Removal of Direct Red 12B by garlic peel as a cheap adsorbent: Kinetics, thermodynamic and equilibrium isotherms study of removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaram, A.; Fathi, M. R.; Khodadoust, S.; Naraki, M.

    2014-06-01

    The removal of dyes from industrial waste is very important from health and hygiene point of view and for environmental protection. In this work, efficiency and performance of garlic peel (GP) adsorbent for the removal of Direct Red 12B (DR12B) from wastewater was investigated. The influence of variables including pH, concentration of the dye and amount of adsorbent, particle size, contact time and temperature on the dye removal has been investigated. It was observed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fits better with good correlation coefficient and the equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model. More than 99% removal efficiency was obtained within 25 min at adsorbent dose of 0.2 g per 50 ml for initial dye concentration of 50 mg L-1. Calculation of various thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy of the on-going adsorption process indicate feasibility and endothermic nature of DR12B adsorption.

  17. Arylamine organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mao; Chen, Jun

    2013-04-21

    Arylamine organic dyes with donor (D), π-bridge (π) and acceptor (A) moieties for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received great attention in the last decade because of their high molar absorption coefficient, low cost and structural variety. In the early stages, the efficiency of DSCs with arylamine organic dyes with D-π-A character was far behind that of DSCs with ruthenium(II) complexes partly due to the lack of information about the relationship between the chemical structures and the photovoltaic performance. However, exciting progress has been recently made, and power conversion efficiencies over 10% were obtained for DSCs with arylamine organic dyes. It is thus that the recent research and development in the field of arylamine organic dyes employing an iodide/triiodide redox couple or polypyridyl cobalt redox shuttles as the electrolytes for either DSCs or solid-state DSCs has been summarized. The cell performance of the arylamine organic dyes are compared, providing a comprehensive overview of arylamine organic dyes, demonstrating the advantages/disadvantages of each class, and pointing out the field that needs to reinforce the research direction in the further application of DSCs.

  18. Simultaneous chromate reduction and azo dye decolourization by Lactobacillus paracase CL1107 isolated from deep sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guangdao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Guoguang

    2015-07-01

    Lactobacillus paracase CL1107 capable of removing toxic chromium (Cr(VI)) and Acid Black (ATT) azo dye simultaneously was isolated from deep sea sediment of the North Atlantic. CL1107 exhibited appreciable dye-Cr(VI) bioremoval ability in the pH range from 5 to 7, temperature 25-35 °C and NaCl 0-6% under aerobic conditions. The maximum removal values of Cr(VI) (95.8%) and dye (92.3%) were obtained in the media including only Cr(VI) or dye at initial concentration of 100 mg/L. In the experiments for the simultaneous treatment of both pollutants, the reduction of Cr(VI) and dye was 58.5% and 51.9%, respectively. The azo dye and Cr(VI) reductive activities in strain CL1107 were located in the cell free extract and cell debris, respectively. The mechanisms of azo dye and Cr(VI) reduction were found to be enzyme-mediated. In the treatment of saline tannery wastewater, decolourization of about 76% and 63% Cr(VI) reduction of were achieved. Furthermore, Azo dyes, Cr(VI) and wastewater showed reduced toxicity toward Artemia salina after treatment. These results demonstrate the potential of CL1107 in bioremediation of dye or/and Cr(VI) contamination in salt environments.

  19. Acid Black 48 dye biosorption using Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized with treated sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Mitter, E K; Corso, C R

    2012-01-01

    The textile industry consumes large quantities of water and chemicals, especially in dyeing and finishing processes. Textile dye adsorption can be accomplished with natural or synthetic compounds. Cell immobilization using biomaterials allows the reduction of toxicity and mechanical resistance and opens spaces within the matrix for cell growth. The use of natural materials, such as sugarcane bagasse, is promising due to the low costs involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of sugarcane bagasse treated with either polyethyleneimine (PEI), NaOH or distilled water in the cell immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for textile dye removal. Three different adsorption tests were conducted: treated sugarcane bagasse alone, free yeast cells and bagasse-immobilized yeast cells. Yeast immobilization was 31.34% with PEI-treated bagasse, 8.56% with distilled water and 22.54% with NaOH. PEI-treated bagasse exhibited the best removal rates of the dye at all pH values studied (2.50, 4.50 and 6.50). The best Acid Black 48 adsorption rates were obtained with use of free yeast cells. At pH 2.50, 1 mg of free yeast cells was able to remove 5488.49 g of the dye. The lowest adsorption capacity rates were obtained using treated bagasse alone. However, the use of bagasse-immobilized cells increased adsorption efficiency from 20 to 40%. The use of immobilized cells in textile dye removal is very attractive due to adsorbed dye precipitation, which eliminates the industrial need for centrifugation processes. Dye adsorption using only yeast cells or sugarcane bagasse requires separation methods.

  20. Elimination of textile dyes using activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Cid, Alejandra-Alicia; Herrera-González, Ana-María; Salazar-Villanueva, Martín; Bautista-Hernández, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    In this study, three mesoporous activated carbons prepared from vegetable residues were used to remove acid, basic, and direct dyes from aqueous solutions, and reactive and vat dyes from textile wastewater. Granular carbons obtained by chemical activation at 673 K with phosphoric acid from prickly pear peels (CarTunaQ), broccoli stems (CarBrocQ), and white sapote seeds (CarZapQ) were highly efficient for the removal of dyes. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out in batch systems and treated with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherms ranged between 131.6 and 312.5 mg/g for acid dyes, and between 277.8 and 500.0 mg/g for basic dyes at 303 K. Our objective in this paper was to show that vegetable wastes can serve as precursors for activated carbons that can be used for the adsorption of dyes. Specifically CarBrocQ was the best carbon produced for the removal of textile dyes. The color removal of dyes present in textile wastewaters was compared with that of a commercial powdered carbon, and it was found that the carbons produced using waste material reached similar efficiency levels. Carbon samples were characterized by bulk density, point of zero charge, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, methylene blue adsorption isotherms at 303 K, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (SBET). The results show that the activated carbons possess a large specific surface area (1025-1177 m(2)/g) and high total pore volume (1.06-2.16 cm(3)/g) with average pore size diameters between 4.1 and 8.4 nm. Desorption and regeneration tests were made to test the viability of reusing the activated carbons.