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Sample records for dynamic aperture evaluation

  1. PDII- Additional discussion of the dynamic aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Norman M. Gelfand

    2002-07-23

    This note is in the nature of an addition to the dynamic aperture calculations found in the report on the Proton Driver, FERMILAB-TM-2169. A extensive discussion of the Proton Driver lattice, as well as the nomenclature used to describe it can be found in TM-2169. Basically the proposed lattice is a racetrack design with the two arcs joined by two long straight sections. The straight sections are dispersion free. Tracking studies were undertaken with the objective of computing the dynamic aperture for the lattice and some of the results have been incorporated into TM-2169. This note is a more extensive report of those calculations.

  2. Comparison of calculated with measured dynamic aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, F.

    1994-06-01

    The measured dynamic aperture of the HERA proton ring and the value expected from simulation studies agree within a factor of 2. A better agreement is achieved if a realistic tune modulation is included in the simulation. The approximate threshold of tune-modulation induced diffusion can be calculated analytically. Its value is in remarkable agreement with the dynamic aperture measured. The calculation is based on parameters of resonances through order 11 which are computed using differential-algebra methods and normal-form algorithms. Modulational diffusion in conjunction with drifting machine parameters appears to be the most important transverse diffusion process.

  3. Dynamic aperture of the recycler ring

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Meiqin; Sen, Tanaji

    2000-11-15

    This report describes the dynamic aperture tracking for the Recycler Ring based on the latest modified lattice Ver 20. The purpose of the calculation is to check the optical properties of the lattice with the replacement of the high beta straight section (HB30) by a low beta straight section (LB30) for stochastic cooling.

  4. Dynamic metamaterial aperture for microwave imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sleasman, Timothy; Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Gollub, Jonah N.; Smith, David R.

    2015-11-16

    We present a dynamic metamaterial aperture for use in computational imaging schemes at microwave frequencies. The aperture consists of an array of complementary, resonant metamaterial elements patterned into the upper conductor of a microstrip line. Each metamaterial element contains two diodes connected to an external control circuit such that the resonance of the metamaterial element can be damped by application of a bias voltage. Through applying different voltages to the control circuit, select subsets of the elements can be switched on to create unique radiation patterns that illuminate the scene. Spatial information of an imaging domain can thus be encoded onto this set of radiation patterns, or measurements, which can be processed to reconstruct the targets in the scene using compressive sensing algorithms. We discuss the design and operation of a metamaterial imaging system and demonstrate reconstructed images with a 10:1 compression ratio. Dynamic metamaterial apertures can potentially be of benefit in microwave or millimeter wave systems such as those used in security screening and through-wall imaging. In addition, feature-specific or adaptive imaging can be facilitated through the use of the dynamic aperture.

  5. Dynamic aperture effects due to linear coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Parzen, G.

    1991-01-01

    The coupling introduced by the random a{sub 1} can produce considerable distortion of the betatron motion. For a given initial x{sub o}, x{sub o}{prime}, y{sub o}, y{sub o}{prime}, the maximum x and the maximum y for the subsequent motion can be considerably larger when coupling is present. The maximum x and y can be used as a measure of the betatron distortion. One effect of this betatron distortion shows up in the dynamic aperture, in a loss in the stability limit, A{sub SL}, found by tracking. The betatron distortion causes the particle to move further out in the magnets, where it sees stronger non-linear fields. Previous tracking showed a loss in A{sub SL} due to random a{sub 1} and b{sub 1}. It was noticed then that the loss in A{sub SL} was associated with a betatron motion distortion which was primarily a linear effect. For a given initial x, x{prime}, y, y{prime} the x{sub max} and y{sub max} in the high-{Beta} magnets were considerably larger for those random a{sub 1} distributions which produced the smaller A{sub SL}. The studies described in this report show that the stability limit, A{sub SL}, depends on the starting location around the ring. This variation in A{sub SL} around the ring can be correlated with the variation in the betatron distortion for particles starting at different places around the ring. It is proposed that the average of the A{sub SL} found by starting at each of the QF, the focusing quadrupoles in the arcs, can be taken as a measure of the dynamic aperture. It is found that the average A{sub SL} is reduced by about 15% by the random a{sub 1} multipoles expected in RHIC.

  6. Role of hysteresis in stomatal aperture dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Antônio M. T.; Prado, Carmen P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Stomata are pores responsible for gas exchange in leaves. Several experiments indicate that stomata synchronize into clusters or patches. The patches’ coordination may produce oscillations in stomatal conductance. Previous studies claim to reproduce some experimental results. However, none was able to explain the variety of behavior observed in the stomatal dynamics. Recently, Ferraz and Prado suggested a realistic geometry of vein distribution. Although it reproduces the patches, no oscillation was observed and the patches remain static. Without exploring significant details, the authors stated that hysteresis in stomatal aperture could explain several experimental features. In this paper, the hysteresis hypothesis is further explored through the concept of hysteretic operators. We have shown that the hysteresis assumption is sufficient to obtain dynamical patches and oscillations in stomatal conductance. The robustness of this hypothesis is tested by using different hysteresis operators. The model analysis reveals a dependence between the period of oscillation in stomatal conductance and the water deficit between the leaf and the environment. This underlying feature of the model might inspire further experiments to test this hypothesis.

  7. Optimization of Dynamic Aperture of PEP-X Baseline Design

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Min-Huey; Cai, Yunhai; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC

    2010-08-23

    SLAC is developing a long-range plan to transfer the evolving scientific programs at SSRL from the SPEAR3 light source to a much higher performing photon source. Storage ring design is one of the possibilities that would be housed in the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel. The design goal of PEPX storage ring is to approach an optimal light source design with horizontal emittance less than 100 pm and vertical emittance of 8 pm to reach the diffraction limit of 1-{angstrom} x-ray. The low emittance design requires a lattice with strong focusing leading to high natural chromaticity and therefore to strong sextupoles. The latter caused reduction of dynamic aperture. The dynamic aperture requirement for horizontal injection at injection point is about 10 mm. In order to achieve the desired dynamic aperture the transverse non-linearity of PEP-X is studied. The program LEGO is used to simulate the particle motion. The technique of frequency map is used to analyze the nonlinear behavior. The effect of the non-linearity is tried to minimize at the given constrains of limited space. The details and results of dynamic aperture optimization are discussed in this paper.

  8. Dynamic Aperture and Tolerances for PEP-X Ultimate Storage Ring Design

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y.; Wang, M.-H.; Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    A lattice for the PEP-X ultimate storage ring light source, having 11 pm-rad natural emittance at a beam energy of 4.5 GeV at zero current, using 90 m of damping wiggler and fitting into the existing 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel, has been recently designed. Such a low emittance lattice requires very strong sextupoles for chromaticity correction, which in turn introduce strong non-linear field effects that limit the beam dynamic aperture. In order to maximize the dynamic aperture we choose the cell phases to cancel the third and fourth order geometric resonances in each 8-cell arc. Four families of chromatic sextupoles and six families of geometric (or harmonic) sextupoles are added to correct the chromatic and amplitude-dependent tunes. To find the best settings of the ten sextupole families, we use a Multi-Objective Genetic Optimizer employing elegant to optimize the beam lifetime and dynamic aperture simultaneously. Then we evaluate dynamic aperture reduction caused by magnetic field multipole errors, magnet fabrication errors and misalignments. A sufficient dynamic aperture is obtained for injection, as well as workable beam lifetime.

  9. The Aperture Capture Illusion: misperceived forms in dynamic occlusion displays.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Evan M; Kellman, Philip J

    2014-04-01

    Visual illusions can reveal unconscious representations and processes at work in perception. Here we report a robust illusion that involves the misperception of moving, partially occluded objects. When a dynamically occluded object is seen through 2 misaligned apertures, the object appears misaligned in the direction of the apertures, creating the Aperture Capture Illusion. Specifically, when part of a dynamically occluded object disappears behind an occluding surface and then another part of the object comes into view immediately afterward, the 2 parts appear misaligned in the direction of the offset of the apertures through which they were seen. This illusion can be nulled: Separating the 2 object parts to increase the time interval between their appearance produced the percept of alignment. The ability to null the illusion in this manner demonstrates that dynamically occluded regions of moving objects continue to persist in perceptual awareness but, we argue, are perceived to move at a slower velocity than visible regions. We report 7 experiments establishing the existence of the illusion and ruling out several classes of explanation for it. We interpret the illusion and the ability to nullify it within the context of Palmer, Kellman, and Shipley's (2006) theory of spatiotemporal object formation.

  10. Swamp plots for dynamic aperture studies of PEP-II lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.T.; Irwin, J.; Cai, Y.; Chen, T.; Ritson, D.

    1995-06-01

    With a newly developed algorithm using resonance basis Lie generators and their evaluation with action-angle Poisson bracket maps (nPB tracking) the authors have been able to perform fast tracking for dynamic aperture studies of PEP-II lattices as well as incorporate lattice nonlinearities in beam-beam studies. They have been able to better understand the relationship between dynamic apertures and the tune shift and resonance coefficients in the generators of the one-turn maps. To obtain swamp plots (dynamic aperture vs. working point) of the PEP-II lattices, they first compute a one-turn resonance basis map for a nominal working point and then perform nPB tracking by switching the working point while holding fixed all other terms in the map. Results have been spot-checked by comparing with element-by-element tracking.

  11. Dynamic aperture studies for the LHC high luminosity lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Maria, R. de; Giovannozzi, M.; McIntosh, E.; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Cai, Y.; Wang, M. -H.

    2015-07-14

    Since quite some time, dynamic aperture studies have been undertaken with the aim of specifying the required field quality of the new magnets that will be installed in the LHC ring in the framework of the high-luminosity upgrade. In this paper the latest results concerning the specification work will be presented, taking into account both injection and collision energies and the field quality contribution from all the magnets in the newly designed interaction regions.

  12. Multi-objective dynamic aperture optimization for storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongjun; Yang, Lingyun

    2016-11-01

    We report an efficient dynamic aperture (DA) optimization approach using multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA), which is driven by nonlinear driving terms computation. It was found that having small low order driving terms is a necessary but insufficient condition of having a decent DA. Then direct DA tracking simulation is implemented among the last generation candidates to select the best solutions. The approach was demonstrated successfully in optimizing NSLS-II storage ring DA.

  13. Dynamic aperture study for the NLC main damping rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, Andrzej; Venturini, Marco; Marks, Steve

    2004-07-05

    A sufficiently large acceptance is critical for the NLC Main Damping Rings (MDR) as the high power carried by the beams demands very high injection efficiency. Chromatic sextupoles and wiggler insertions (needed for rapid damping) are substantial sources of nonlinearities limiting the dynamic aperture. We report on the techniques we are using for analysis of single-particle beam dynamics in the presence of wiggler fields with significant nonlinear components. We demonstrate that our approach gives results in good agreement with experimental data when applied to the BL11 wiggler in SPEAR2, and discuss the present status of studies for the NLC MDR.

  14. MULTIOBJECTIVE DYNAMIC APERTURE OPTIMIZATION AT NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.; Li, Y.; Guo, W.; Krinsky, S.

    2011-03-28

    In this paper we present a multiobjective approach to the dynamic aperture (DA) optimization. Taking the NSLS-II lattice as an example, we have used both sextupoles and quadrupoles as tuning variables to optimize both on-momentum and off-momentum DA. The geometric and chromatic sextupoles are used for nonlinear properties while the tunes are independently varied by quadrupoles. The dispersion and emittance are fixed during tunes variation. The algorithms, procedures, performances and results of our optimization of DA will be discussed and they are found to be robust, general and easy to apply to similar problems.

  15. Computational Investigation of Dynamic Glottal Aperture Effects on Respiratory Airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Jinxiang; Yan, Hong; Dong, Haibo

    2008-11-01

    The periodic movement of the glottal aperture (vocal folds) during tidal breathing has been long recognized as a factor in altering the airflow dynamics in the tracheobrnchial region. The potential influence from these altered flow structures on the transport and deposition of inhaled particles is not known. However, studies devoted to this dynamic physiological feature are scarce due to the complex anatomy in of the larynx and numerical challenges in simulating dynamic geometries. In this study, a high-fidelity immersed boundary solver is used to investigate this problem. A 3D human oral-larynx-lung model is firstly reconstructed from MRI data. The role of the vocal fold movement and associated airflow characteristics such as vortex shedding, Coanda effect etc. during inhalation and exhalation are then numerically studied.

  16. Fraunhofer diffraction of Laguerre-Gaussian beam caused by a dynamic superposed dual-triangular aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinzhong; Tai, Yuping; Nie, Zhaogang; Wang, Hui; Li, Hehe; Wang, Jingge; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yishan

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the Fraunhofer diffraction of a Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam incident on a dynamic superposed dual-triangular aperture. The evolution of the diffraction pattern from this aperture is analyzed experimentally and theoretically. A special aperture, called the hex-star triangular aperture, demonstrates interesting diffraction patterns. Further, the diffraction properties of integer, half-integer, and fractional orders of topological charges at the Fraunhofer zone are studied by using the hex-star triangular aperture. This study can provide additional information to enhance the understanding of the diffraction properties of the LG beam transmitted through a complex aperture.

  17. Evaluation of coded aperture radiation detectors using a Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kyle; Huggins, Peter; Labov, Simon; Nelson, Karl; Dubrawski, Artur

    2016-12-01

    We investigate tradeoffs arising from the use of coded aperture gamma-ray spectrometry to detect and localize sources of harmful radiation in the presence of noisy background. Using an example application scenario of area monitoring and search, we empirically evaluate weakly supervised spectral, spatial, and hybrid spatio-spectral algorithms for scoring individual observations, and two alternative methods of fusing evidence obtained from multiple observations. Results of our experiments confirm the intuition that directional information provided by spectrometers masked with coded aperture enables gains in source localization accuracy, but at the expense of reduced probability of detection. Losses in detection performance can however be to a substantial extent reclaimed by using our new spatial and spatio-spectral scoring methods which rely on realistic assumptions regarding masking and its impact on measured photon distributions.

  18. Optimization of the Dynamic Aperture for SPEAR3 Low-Emittance Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lanfa; Huang, Xiaobiao; Nosochkov, Yuri; Safranek, James A.; Borland, Michael; /Argonne

    2012-05-30

    A low emittance upgrade is planned for SPEAR3. As the first phase, the emittance is reduced from 10nm to 7nm without additional magnets. A further upgrade with even lower emittance will require a damping wiggler. There is a smaller dynamic aperture for the lower emittance optics due to a stronger nonlinearity. Elegant based Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) is used to maximize the dynamic aperture. Both the dynamic aperture and beam lifetime are optimized simultaneously. Various configurations of the sextupole magnets have been studied in order to find the best configuration. The betatron tune also can be optimized to minimize resonance effects. The optimized dynamic aperture increases more than 15% from the nominal case and the lifetime increases from 14 hours to 17 hours. It is important that the increase of the dynamic aperture is mainly in the beam injection direction. Therefore the injection efficiency will benefit from this improvement.

  19. Aperture Shield Materials Characterized and Selected for Solar Dynamic Space Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The aperture shield in a solar dynamic space power system is necessary to prevent thermal damage to the heat receiver should the concentrated solar radiation be accidentally or intentionally focused outside of the heat receiver aperture opening and onto the aperture shield itself. Characterization of the optical and thermal properties of candidate aperture shield materials was needed to support the joint U.S./Russian solar dynamic space power effort for Mir. The specific objective of testing performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center was to identify a high-temperature material with a low specular reflectance, a low solar absorptance, and a high spectral emittance so that during an off-pointing event, the amount of solar energy reflecting off the aperture shield would be small, the ratio of solar absorptance to spectral emittance would provide the lowest possible equilibrium temperature, and the integrity of the aperture shield would remain intact.

  20. Dynamic aperture and performance of the SSC low energy booster lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, F.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Talman, R.; York, R.

    1991-05-01

    A systematic study of lattice designs proposed for the SSC Low Energy Booster has been performed, where the dynamic behavior of high transition gamma lattices is compared with that of a simpler FODO- like machine. After optimization of the transverse tunes, the dynamic aperture is determined by tracking the chromaticity corrected, ideal'' lattices, where the only sources on nonlinearity are the chromaticity sextupoles. The robustness of the lattices against misalignment, systematic and random errors is then evaluated and error compensation schemes worked out. The computational speed of the TEAPOT code has been greatly enhanced by porting and running its tracking core on the Intel iPSC/860 parallel computer. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Adaptive uniform grayscale coded aperture design for high dynamic range compressive spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Nelson; Rueda, Hoover; Arguello, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Imaging spectroscopy is an important area with many applications in surveillance, agriculture and medicine. The disadvantage of conventional spectroscopy techniques is that they collect the whole datacube. In contrast, compressive spectral imaging systems capture snapshot compressive projections, which are the input of reconstruction algorithms to yield the underlying datacube. Common compressive spectral imagers use coded apertures to perform the coded projections. The coded apertures are the key elements in these imagers since they define the sensing matrix of the system. The proper design of the coded aperture entries leads to a good quality in the reconstruction. In addition, the compressive measurements are prone to saturation due to the limited dynamic range of the sensor, hence the design of coded apertures must consider saturation. The saturation errors in compressive measurements are unbounded and compressive sensing recovery algorithms only provide solutions for bounded noise or bounded with high probability. In this paper it is proposed the design of uniform adaptive grayscale coded apertures (UAGCA) to improve the dynamic range of the estimated spectral images by reducing the saturation levels. The saturation is attenuated between snapshots using an adaptive filter which updates the entries of the grayscale coded aperture based on the previous snapshots. The coded apertures are optimized in terms of transmittance and number of grayscale levels. The advantage of the proposed method is the efficient use of the dynamic range of the image sensor. Extensive simulations show improvements in the image reconstruction of the proposed method compared with grayscale coded apertures (UGCA) and adaptive block-unblock coded apertures (ABCA) in up to 10 dB.

  2. Optical Property Enhancement and Durability Evaluation of Heat Receiver Aperture Shield Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Smith, Daniela C.

    1998-01-01

    Under the Solar Dynamic Flight Demonstration (SDFD) program, NASA Lewis Research Center worked with AlliedSignal Aerospace, the heat receiver contractor, on the development, characterization and durability testing of refractory metals to obtain appropriate optical and thermal properties for the SDFD heat receiver aperture shield. Molybdenum and tungsten foils were grit-blasted using silicon carbide or alumina grit under various grit-blasting conditions for optical property enhancement. Black rhenium coated tungsten foil was also evaluated. Tungsten, black rhenium-coated tungsten, and grit-blasted tungsten screens of various mesh sizes were placed over the pristine and grit-blasted foils for optical property characterization. Grit-blasting was found to be effective in decreasing the specular reflectance and the absorptance/emittance ratio of the refractory foils. The placement of a screen further enhanced these optical properties, with a grit-blasted screen over a grit-blasted foil producing the best results. Based on the optical property enhancement results, samples were tested for atomic oxygen and vacuum heat treatment durability. Grit-blasted (Al2O3 grit) 2 mil tungsten foil was chosen for the exterior layer of the SDFD heat receiver aperture shield. A 0.007 in. wire diameter, 20 x 20 mesh tungsten screen was chosen to cover the tungsten foil. Based on these test results, a heat receiver aperture shield test unit has been built with the screen covered grit-blast tungsten foil exterior layers. The aperture shield was tested and verified the thermal and structural durability of the outer foil layers during an off-pointing period.

  3. Nasal aperture shape evaluation between black and white South Africans.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Jennifer L; L'Abbé, Ericka N; Kenyhercz, Michael W

    2012-10-10

    The purpose of this study was to combine morphoscopic and metric analyses to assess variation in nasal aperture size and shape of black and white South Africans. Thirteen landmarks were digitized from the bony nasal region of 152 crania using an electromechanic instrument for geometric morphometric (general procrustes analysis) and craniometric analyses. Elliptical Fourier analysis was used to assess shape of the nasal aperture via outlines applied through photographs. Both principal component and discriminant function analyses were applied to these statistical methods. Black South Africans were classified 95-96% correctly and white South Africans were classified 91-94% correctly. In a four-way analysis of sex and ancestry, classification accuracy ranged from 56 to 70%. Most misclassifications were between the sexes within each group which suggests an absence of sexual dimorphism. This study found that there is quantifiable variation in shape of the nasal aperture between black and white South African groups using all three statistical methods. In forensic application, standard craniometrics can be used to accurately classify an unknown person.

  4. Dynamic aperture and space charge effect studies for the Recycler ring for Project-X

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, M.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Johnson, D.E.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    A simplified Recycler lattice was created to fine tune injection straight, ring tune, and phase trombone. In this paper, we will present detailed modifications for further optimization of Recycler lattice which requires the investigation of tune footprint and dynamic aperture based on higher order momentum components of the magnetic fields, together with the space charge effects.

  5. Numerical evaluation of aperture coupling in resonant cavities and frequency perturbation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, R.; Nayak, B.; Sharma, A.; Mittal, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a general formulation for numerical evaluation of the coupling between two identical resonant cavities by a small elliptical aperture in a plane common wall of arbitrary thickness. It is organized into two parts. In the first one we discuss the aperture coupling that is expressed in terms of electric and magnetic dipole moments and polarizabilities using Carlson symmetric elliptical integrals. Carlson integrals have been numerically evaluated and under zero thickness approximation, the results match with the complete elliptical integrals of first and second kind. It is found that with zero wall thickness, the results obtained are the same as those of Bethe and Collin for an elliptical and circular aperture of zero thickness. In the second part, Slater's perturbation method is applied to find the frequency changes due to apertures of finite thickness on the cavity wall.

  6. OPTIMIZING THE DYNAMIC APERTURE FOR TRIPLE BEND ACHROMATIC LATTICES.

    SciTech Connect

    KRAMER, S.L.; BENGTSSON, J.

    2006-06-26

    The Triple Bend Achromatic (TBA) lattice has the potential for lower natural emittance per period than the Double Bend Achromatic (DBA) lattice for high brightness light sources. However, the DBA has been chosen for 3rd generation light sources more often due to the higher number of undulator straight section available for a comparable emittance. The TBA has considerable flexibility in linear optics tuning while maintaining this emittance advantage. We have used the tune and chromaticity flexibility of a TBA lattice to minimize the lowest order nonlinearities to implement a 3rd order achromatic tune, while maintaining a constant emittance. This frees the geometric sextupoles to counter the higher order nonlinearities. This procedure is being used to improve the nonlinear dynamics of the TBA as a proposed lattice for NSLS-II facility. The flexibility of the TBA lattice will also provide for future upgrade capabilities of the beam parameters.

  7. The dependence of the dynamic aperture on the tune in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Parzen, G.

    1992-01-01

    This note studies the dependence of the dynamic aperture on the choice of the operating tune {nu}{sub x}, {nu}{sub y} in RHIC. Tracking studies for 1000 turns were done over the tune range {nu}{sub x} {approx equal} {nu}{sub y} = 28 to {nu}{sub x} {approx equal} {nu}{sub y} = 29.5. It was found that in each tune interval {Delta}{nu} = 0.5, e.g. {nu} = 28.5 to {nu} = 29, the dynamic aperture as a function of the tune has 5 peaks, each of which is a possible operating point. Each of these possible operating points is in a tune region free of imperfection resonances of tenth order or less, and the width of this tune region ranges from {Delta}{nu} = 0.022 to {Delta}{nu} = 0.036. Operating tunes near integer values of {nu}, which appear desirable because of the relatively large tune interval free of imperfection resonances of 10th order or less, may not be desirable because of the lower dynamic aperture in this region. Operating near integer tunes may not be desirable for heavy ions like Au, but may be desirable for the lighter ions which do not experience a large transverse growth due to intrabeam scattering. If a loss in dynamic aperture of 2 mm is regarded as significant, then the tune range of {nu} = 28 to {nu} = 28.5 does not appear as attractive as the tune range {nu} = 28.5 to {nu} = 29.5.

  8. The dependence of the dynamic aperture on the tune in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Parzen, G.

    1992-08-01

    This note studies the dependence of the dynamic aperture on the choice of the operating tune {nu}{sub x}, {nu}{sub y} in RHIC. Tracking studies for 1000 turns were done over the tune range {nu}{sub x} {approx_equal} {nu}{sub y} = 28 to {nu}{sub x} {approx_equal} {nu}{sub y} = 29.5. It was found that in each tune interval {Delta}{nu} = 0.5, e.g. {nu} = 28.5 to {nu} = 29, the dynamic aperture as a function of the tune has 5 peaks, each of which is a possible operating point. Each of these possible operating points is in a tune region free of imperfection resonances of tenth order or less, and the width of this tune region ranges from {Delta}{nu} = 0.022 to {Delta}{nu} = 0.036. Operating tunes near integer values of {nu}, which appear desirable because of the relatively large tune interval free of imperfection resonances of 10th order or less, may not be desirable because of the lower dynamic aperture in this region. Operating near integer tunes may not be desirable for heavy ions like Au, but may be desirable for the lighter ions which do not experience a large transverse growth due to intrabeam scattering. If a loss in dynamic aperture of 2 mm is regarded as significant, then the tune range of {nu} = 28 to {nu} = 28.5 does not appear as attractive as the tune range {nu} = 28.5 to {nu} = 29.5.

  9. The dependence of the dynamic aperture on the tune in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Parzen, G.

    1992-02-01

    This note studies the dependence of the dynamic aperture on the choice of the operating tune {nu}{sub x}, {nu}{sub y} in RHIC. Tracking studies for 1000 turns were done over the tune range {nu}{sub x} {approx equal} {nu}{sub y} = 28 to {nu}{sub x} {approx equal} {nu}{sub y} = 29.5. It was found that in each tune interval of length {Delta}{nu} = 0.5, e.g. {nu} = 28.5 to {nu} = 29, the dynamic aperture as a function of the tune has 5 peaks, each of which is a possible operating point. Each of these possible operating points is in a tune region free of imperfection resonances of tenth order or less, and the width of this tune region ranges from {Delta}{nu} = 0.022 to {Delta}{nu} = 0.036. Operating tunes near integer values of {nu}, which appear desirable because of the relatively large tune interval free of imperfection resonances of 10th order or less, may not be desirable because of the lower dynamic aperture in this region. Operating near integer tunes may not be desirable for heavy ions like Au, but may be desirable for the lighter ions which do not experience a large transverse growth due to intrabeam scattering. If a loss in dynamic aperture of 2 mm is regarded as significant, then the tune range of {nu} = 28 to {nu} 28.5 does not appear as attractive as the tune range {nu} = 28.5 to {nu} = 29.5.

  10. The dependence of the dynamic aperture on the tune in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Parzen, G.

    1992-02-01

    This note studies the dependence of the dynamic aperture on the choice of the operating tune {nu}{sub x}, {nu}{sub y} in RHIC. Tracking studies for 1000 turns were done over the tune range {nu}{sub x} {approx_equal} {nu}{sub y} = 28 to {nu}{sub x} {approx_equal} {nu}{sub y} = 29.5. It was found that in each tune interval of length {Delta}{nu} = 0.5, e.g. {nu} = 28.5 to {nu} = 29, the dynamic aperture as a function of the tune has 5 peaks, each of which is a possible operating point. Each of these possible operating points is in a tune region free of imperfection resonances of tenth order or less, and the width of this tune region ranges from {Delta}{nu} = 0.022 to {Delta}{nu} = 0.036. Operating tunes near integer values of {nu}, which appear desirable because of the relatively large tune interval free of imperfection resonances of 10th order or less, may not be desirable because of the lower dynamic aperture in this region. Operating near integer tunes may not be desirable for heavy ions like Au, but may be desirable for the lighter ions which do not experience a large transverse growth due to intrabeam scattering. If a loss in dynamic aperture of 2 mm is regarded as significant, then the tune range of {nu} = 28 to {nu} 28.5 does not appear as attractive as the tune range {nu} = 28.5 to {nu} = 29.5.

  11. SU-E-T-344: Dynamic Electron Beam Therapy Using Multiple Apertures in a Single Cut-Out

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, A; Yin, F; Wu, Q

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Few leaf electron collimators (FLEC) or electron MLCs (eMLC) are highly desirable for dynamic electron beam therapies as they produce multiple apertures within a single delivery to achieve conformal dose distributions. However, their clinical implementation has been challenging. Alternatively, multiple small apertures in a single cut-out with variable jaw sizes could be utilized in a single dynamic delivery. In this study, we investigate dosimetric characteristics of such arrangement. Methods: Monte Carlo (EGSnrc/BEAMnrc/DOSXYnrc) simulations utilized validated Varian TrueBeam phase spaces. Investigated quantities included: Energy (6 MeV), jaw size (1×1 to 22×22 cm {sup 2}; centered to aperture), applicator/cut-out (15×15 cm{sup 2}), aperture (1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 cm{sup 2}), and aperture placement (on/off central axis). Three configurations were assessed: (1) single aperture on-axis, (2) single aperture off-axis, and (3) multiple apertures. Reference was configuration (1) with standard jaw size. Aperture placement and jaw size were optimized to maintain reference dosimetry and minimize leakage through unused apertures to <5%. Comparison metrics included depth dose and orthogonal profiles. Results: Configuration (1) and (2): Jaw openings were reduced to 10×10 cm{sup 2} without affecting dosimetry (gamma 2%/1mm) regardless of on- or off-axis placement. For smaller jaw sizes, reduced surface (<2%, 5% for 1×1 cm{sup 2} aperture) and increased Bremsstrahlung (<2%, 10% for 1×1 cm{sup 2} aperture) dose was observed. Configuration (3): Optimal aperture placement was in the corners (order: 1×1, 4×4, 2×2, 3×3 cm{sup 2}) and jaw sizes were 4×4, 4×4, 7×7, and 5×5 cm{sup 2} (apertures: 1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 cm{sup 2} ). Asymmetric leakage was found from upper and lower jaws. Leakage was generally within 5% with a maximum of 10% observed for the 1×1 cm{sup 2} aperture irradiation. Conclusion: Multiple apertures in a single cut-out with variable jaw

  12. Fast k-space-based evaluation of imaging properties of ultrasound apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, M.; Dapp, R.; Hardt, M.; Henning, P. A.; Ruiter, N. V.

    2011-03-01

    At the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) a three-dimensional ultrasound computer tomography (3D USCT) system for early breast cancer diagnosis is being developed. This method promises reproducible volume images of the female breast in 3D. Initial measurements and a simulation based optimization method, which took several physical properties into account, led to a new aperture setup. Yet this simulation is computational too demanding to systematically evaluate the different 'virtual' apertures which can be achieved by rotation and lifting of the system. In optics a Fourier based approach is available to simulate imaging systems as linear systems. For the two apertures used in our project and one hypothetical linear array aperture this concept was evaluated and compared to a reference simulation. An acceptable conformity between the new approach and the reference simulation could be shown. With this approach a fast evaluation of optimal 'virtual' apertures for specific measurement objects and imaging constraints can be carried out within an acceptable time constraint.

  13. Dynamic optical aberration correction with adaptive coded apertures techniques in conformal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Pengbin; Zhang, Binglong

    2015-02-01

    Conformal imaging systems are confronted with dynamic aberration in optical design processing. In classical optical designs, for combination high requirements of field of view, optical speed, environmental adaption and imaging quality, further enhancements can be achieved only by the introduction of increased complexity of aberration corrector. In recent years of computational imaging, the adaptive coded apertures techniques which has several potential advantages over more traditional optical systems is particularly suitable for military infrared imaging systems. The merits of this new concept include low mass, volume and moments of inertia, potentially lower costs, graceful failure modes, steerable fields of regard with no macroscopic moving parts. Example application for conformal imaging system design where the elements of a set of binary coded aperture masks are applied are optimization designed is presented in this paper, simulation results show that the optical performance is closely related to the mask design and the reconstruction algorithm optimization. As a dynamic aberration corrector, a binary-amplitude mask located at the aperture stop is optimized to mitigate dynamic optical aberrations when the field of regard changes and allow sufficient information to be recorded by the detector for the recovery of a sharp image using digital image restoration in conformal optical system.

  14. Plasmonic cavity-apertures as dynamic pixels for the simultaneous control of colour and intensity

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hansik; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Hong, Keehoon; Yeom, Jiwoon; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-01-01

    Despite steady technological progress, displays are still subject to inherent limitations in resolution improvement and pixel miniaturization because a series of colours is generally expressed by a combination of at least three primary colour pixels. Here we propose a structure comprising a metal cavity and a nanoaperture, which we refer to as a cavity-aperture, to simultaneously control the colour and intensity of transmitted light in a single pixel. The metal cavity constructs plasmonic standing waves to organize the spatial distribution of amplitudes according to wavelength, and the nanoaperture permits light with a specific wavelength and amplitude to pass through it, depending on the nanoaperature's relative position in the cavity and the polarization state of the incident light. Therefore, the cavity-aperture has the potential to function as a dynamic colour pixel. This design method may be helpful in developing various photonic devices, such as micro-imaging systems and multiplexed sensors. PMID:25990071

  15. Tune modulation due to synchrotron oscillations and chromaticity, and the dynamic aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Parzen, G.

    1994-03-01

    A tracking study was done of the effects of a tune modulation, due to synchrotron oscillations and the tune dependence on momentum (chromaticity), on the dynamic aperture. The studies were done using several RHIC lattices and tracking runs of about 1 {times} 10{sup 6} turns. The dynamic aperture was found to decrease roughly linearly with the amplitude of the tune modulation and may be represented by A = A{sub o}(l--10 {Delta}{nu}) where A{sub o} is the dynamic aperture for {Delta}{nu} = 0, and {Delta}{nu} is the tune modulation amplitude. In Eq. (1), the range of {Delta}{nu} is such that lower order non-linear resonances, like the 1/3 and 1/4 resonance axe not crossed because of the tune modulation. Three different cases were studied, corresponding to RHIC lattices with different {beta}*, and with different synchrotron oscillation amplitudes. In each case, the tune modulation amplitude was varied by changing the chromaticity. In each case, roughly the same result, Eq. (1), was found. The result found here for the effect of a tune modulation due to chromaticity may be compared with the result found for the effect of a tune modulation due to a gradient ripple in the quadrupoles, which was A = A{sub o}(l--42 {Delta}{nu}). The effect of a {Delta}{nu} due to a gradient ripple appears to be about 4 times stronger than the effect of a {Delta}{nu} due to chromaticity and synchrotron oscillations.

  16. Evaluation Digital Elevation Model Generated by Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makineci, H. B.; Karabörk, H.

    2016-06-01

    Digital elevation model, showing the physical and topographical situation of the earth, is defined a tree-dimensional digital model obtained from the elevation of the surface by using of selected an appropriate interpolation method. DEMs are used in many areas such as management of natural resources, engineering and infrastructure projects, disaster and risk analysis, archaeology, security, aviation, forestry, energy, topographic mapping, landslide and flood analysis, Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Digital elevation models, which are the fundamental components of cartography, is calculated by many methods. Digital elevation models can be obtained terrestrial methods or data obtained by digitization of maps by processing the digital platform in general. Today, Digital elevation model data is generated by the processing of stereo optical satellite images, radar images (radargrammetry, interferometry) and lidar data using remote sensing and photogrammetric techniques with the help of improving technology. One of the fundamental components of remote sensing radar technology is very advanced nowadays. In response to this progress it began to be used more frequently in various fields. Determining the shape of topography and creating digital elevation model comes the beginning topics of these areas. It is aimed in this work , the differences of evaluation of quality between Sentinel-1A SAR image ,which is sent by European Space Agency ESA and Interferometry Wide Swath imaging mode and C band type , and DTED-2 (Digital Terrain Elevation Data) and application between them. The application includes RMS static method for detecting precision of data. Results show us to variance of points make a high decrease from mountain area to plane area.

  17. Tune modulation due to synchrotron oscillations and chromaticity, and the dynamic aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Parzen, G.

    1995-05-01

    A tracking study was done of the effects of a tune modulations, due to synchrotron oscillations and the tune dependence on momentum (chromaticity), on the dynamic aperture. The studies were done using several RHIC lattices and tracking runs of about 1 {times} 10{sup 6} turns. The dynamic aperture was found to decrease roughly linearly with the amplitude of the tune modulation. Lower order non-linear resonances, like the 1/3 and 1/4 resonance are not crossed because of the tune modulation. Three different cases were studied, corresponding to RHIC lattices with different {beta}*, and with different synchrotron oscillation amplitudes. In each case, the tune modulation amplitude was varied by changing the chromaticity. In each case, roughly the same result, was found. The result found here for the effect of a tune modulation due to chromaticity may be compared with the result found for the effect of a tune modulation due to a gradient ripple in the quadrupoles. The effect of a tune modulation due to a gradient ripple appears to be about 4 times stronger than the effect of a tune modulation due to chromaticity and synchrotron oscillations.

  18. Spatial mode dynamics in wide-aperture quantum-dot lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Jayanta; McInerney, John G.

    2009-05-15

    We present a systematic theoretical study of spatial mode dynamics in wide-aperture semiconductor quantum-dot lasers within the Maxwell-Bloch formalism. Our opto-electro-thermal model self-consistently captures the essential dynamical coupling between field, polarization, and carrier density in both thermal and nonthermal regimes, providing detailed description of the complex spatiotemporal modal intensity structure and spectra in these novel devices and broad area edge-emitting lasers in general. Using linear stability analysis and high resolution adaptive-grid finite element numerical simulation, we show that in the nonthermal regime, the presence of inhomogeneous broadening in quantum-dot active media leads to suppressed filamentation and enhanced spatial coherence compared to conventional quantum well devices with comparable phase-amplitude coupling (alpha parameter). Increasing the degree of inhomogeneous broadening in the active medium leads to further improvement in spatial coherence. In the thermal regime, there is further suppression of filamentation in the inhomogeneously broadened quantum-dot active medium; however, the spatial coherence aided by inhomogeneous broadening is partly lost due to the effect of temperature on cavity detuning. We propose that device designs based on optimized inhomogeneous broadening of quantum-dot gain medium could ultimately lead to diffraction-limited outputs in the quasi-cw regime which are still very difficult to achieve in conventional wide-aperture designs.

  19. Simulation study of dynamic aperture with head-on beam-beam compensation in the RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.

    2010-08-01

    In this note we summarize the calculated 10{sup 6} turn dynamic apertures with the proposed head-on beam-beam compensation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). To compensate the head-on beam-beam effect in the RHIC 250 GeV polarized proton run, we are planning to introduce a DC electron beam with the same transverse profile as the proton beam to collide with the proton beam. Such a device to provide the electron beam is called an electron lens (e-lens). In this note we first present the optics and beam parameters and the tracking setup. Then we compare the calculated dynamic apertures without and with head-on beam-beam compensation. The effects of adjusted phase advances between IP8 and the center of e-lens and second order chromaticity correction are checked. In the end we will scan the proton and electron beam parameters with head-on beam-beam compensation.

  20. Clinical evaluation of synthetic aperture sequential beamforming ultrasound in patients with liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Peter Møller; Hemmsen, Martin; Brandt, Andreas; Rasmussen, Joachim; Lange, Theis; Krohn, Paul Suno; Lönn, Lars; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2014-12-01

    Medical ultrasound imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) has for the first time been used for clinical patient scanning. Nineteen patients with cancer of the liver (hepatocellular carcinoma or colorectal liver metastases) were scanned simultaneously with conventional ultrasound and SASB using a commercial ultrasound scanner and abdominal transducer. SASB allows implementation of the synthetic aperture technique on systems with restricted data handling capabilities due to a reduction in the data rate in the scanner by a factor of 64. The image quality is potentially maintained despite the data reduction. A total of 117 sequences were recorded and evaluated blinded by five radiologists from a clinical perspective. Forty-eight percent of the evaluations were in favor of SASB, 33% in favor of conventional ultrasound and 19 % were equal, that is, a clear, but non-significant trend favoring SASB over conventional ultrasound (p = 0.18), despite the substantial data reduction.

  1. Closed-Form Evaluation of Mutual Coupling in a Planar Array of Circular Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    The integral expression for the mutual admittance between circular apertures in a planar array is evaluated in closed form. Very good accuracy is realized when compared with values that were obtained by numerical integration. Utilization of this closed-form expression, for all element pairs that are separated by more than one element spacing, yields extremely accurate results and significantly reduces the computation time that is required to analyze the performance of a large electronically scanning antenna array.

  2. Studies of the chromatic properties and dynamic aperture of the BNL colliding-beam accelerator. [PATRICIA particle tracking code

    SciTech Connect

    Dell, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The PATRICIA particle tracking program has been used to study chromatic effects in the Brookhaven CBA (Colliding Beam Accelerator). The short term behavior of particles in the CBA has been followed for particle histories of 300 turns. Contributions from magnet multipoles characteristic of superconducting magnets and closed orbit errors have been included in determining the dynamic aperture of the CBA for on and off momentum particles. The width of the third integer stopband produced by the temperature dependence of magnetization induced sextupoles in the CBA cable dipoles is evaluated for helium distribution systems having periodicity of one and six. The stopband width at a tune of 68/3 is naturally zero for the system having a periodicity of six and is approx. 10/sup -4/ for the system having a periodicity of one. Results from theory are compared with results obtained with PATRICIA; the results agree within a factor of slightly more than two.

  3. Optimization of dynamic aperture for hadron lattices in eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Yichao; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2015-05-03

    The potential upgrade of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to an electron ion collider (eRHIC) involves numerous extensive changes to the existing collider complex. The expected very high luminosity is planned to be achieved at eRHIC with the help of squeezing the beta function of the hadron ring at the IP to a few cm, causing a large rise of the natural chromaticities and thus bringing with it challenges for the beam long term stability (Dynamic aperture). We present our effort to expand the DA by carefully tuning the nonlinear magnets thus controlling the size of the footprints in tune space and all lower order resonance driving terms. We show a reasonably large DA through particle tracking over millions of turns of beam revolution.

  4. Effect of the cross-relaxation rate on the transverse radiation dynamics of a wide-aperture laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zaikin, A P; Molevich, N E

    2004-08-31

    The effect of a finite polarisation relaxation time on the transverse structure of the optical field of a wide-aperture laser is considered. The conditions are found for the emergence of periodic autowaves for positive and negative frequency detuning. These conditions are shown to depend strongly on the cross-relaxation rate. It is established that the dynamics of finite-aperture lasers at high cross-relaxation rates is satisfactorily described by simplified models in which the polarisation is adiabatically eliminated. (lasers)

  5. The PyZgoubi framework and the simulation of dynamic aperture in fixed-field alternating-gradient accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tygier, S.; Appleby, R. B.; Garland, J. M.; Hock, K.; Owen, H.; Kelliher, D. J.; Sheehy, S. L.

    2015-03-01

    We present PyZgoubi, a framework that has been developed based on the tracking engine Zgoubi to model, optimise and visualise the dynamics in particle accelerators, especially fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) accelerators. We show that PyZgoubi abstracts Zgoubi by wrapping it in an easy-to-use Python framework in order to allow simple construction, parameterisation, visualisation and optimisation of FFAG accelerator lattices. Its object oriented design gives it the flexibility and extensibility required for current novel FFAG design. We apply PyZgoubi to two example FFAGs; this includes determining the dynamic aperture of the PAMELA medical FFAG in the presence of magnet misalignments, and illustrating how PyZgoubi may be used to optimise FFAGs. We also discuss a robust definition of dynamic aperture in an FFAG and show its implementation in PyZgoubi.

  6. Optimization Of Chromaticity Compensation And Dynamic Aperture In MEIC Collider Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Fanglei Lin, Yaroslav Derbenev, Vasiliy Morozov, Yuhong Zhang, Kevin Beard

    2012-07-01

    The conceptual design of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab relies on an ultra-small beta-star to achieve high luminosities of up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A low-beta insertion for interaction regions unavoidably induces large chromatic effects that demand a proper compensation. The present approach of chromatic compensation in the MEIC collider rings is based on a local correction scheme using two symmetric chromatic compensation blocks that includes families of sextupoles, and are placed in a beam extension area on both sides of a collision point. It can simultaneously compensate the first order chromaticity and chromatic beam smear at the IP without inducing significant second order aberrations. In this paper, we investigate both the momentum acceptance and dynamic aperture in the MEIC ion collider ring by considering the aberration effects up to the third order, such as amplitude dependent tune shift. We also explore the compensation of the third order effects by introducing families of octupoles in the extended beam area.

  7. Evaluation of synthetic aperture radar for oil-spill response. Final report, June 1992-September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, G.L.; Mastin, G.A.; Axline, R.M.; Bradley, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a detailed evaluation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as a potential technology improvement over the Coast Guard's existing side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) for oil-spill surveillance applications. The U.S. Coast Guard Research and Development Center (RD Center), Environmental Safety Branch, sponsored a joint experiment including the U.S. Coast Guard, Sandia National Laboratories, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Hazardous Materials Division. Radar imaging missions were flown on six days over the coastal waters off Santa Barbara, CA, where there are constant natural seeps of oil. Both the Coast Guard SLAR and the Sandia National Laboratories SAR were employed to acquire simultaneous images of oil slicks and other natural sea surface features that impact oil-spill interpretation. Surface truth and other environmental data were also recorded during the experiment. The experiment data were processed at Sandia National Laboratories and delivered to the RD Center on a PC-based computer workstation for analysis by experiment participants. Synthetic aperture radar, Side looking airborne radar, Oil slicks.

  8. Dual frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission for monitoring our dynamic planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, J.; Bard, S.; Key, R.; Kim, Y.; Vaze, P.; Huneycutt, B.

    2000-01-01

    Advances in spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing technology make it possible to acquire global-scale data sets that provide unique information about the Earth's continually changing surface characteristics.

  9. Development and evaluation of a portable CZT coded aperture gamma-camera

    SciTech Connect

    Montemont, G.; Monnet, O.; Stanchina, S.; Maingault, L.; Verger, L.; Carrel, F.; Lemaire, H.; Schoepff, V.; Ferrand, G.; Lalleman, A.-S.

    2015-07-01

    We present the design and the evaluation of a CdZnTe (CZT) based gamma camera using a coded aperture mask. This camera, based on a 8 cm{sup 3} detection module, is small enough to be portable and battery-powered (4 kg weight and 4 W power dissipation). As the detector has spectral capabilities, the gamma camera allows isotope identification and colored imaging, by affecting one color channel to each identified isotope. As all data processing is done at real time, the user can directly observe the outcome of an acquisition and can immediately react to what he sees. We first present the architecture of the system, how the detector works, and its performances. After, we focus on the imaging technique used and its strengths and limitations. Finally, results concerning sensitivity, spatial resolution, field of view and multi-isotope imaging are shown and discussed. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of the cosmic-ray induced background in coded aperture high energy gamma-ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Alan; Barbier, Loius M.; Frye, Glenn M.; Jenkins, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    While the application of coded-aperture techniques to high-energy gamma-ray astronomy offers potential arc-second angular resolution, concerns were raised about the level of secondary radiation produced in a thick high-z mask. A series of Monte-Carlo calculations are conducted to evaluate and quantify the cosmic-ray induced neutral particle background produced in a coded-aperture mask. It is shown that this component may be neglected, being at least a factor of 50 lower in intensity than the cosmic diffuse gamma-rays.

  11. Four-dimensional intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning for dynamic tracking using a direct aperture deformation (DAD) method

    SciTech Connect

    Gui Minzhi; Feng Yuanming; Yi Byongyong; Dhople, Anil Arvind; Yu, Cedric

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Planning for the delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to a moving target, referred to as four-dimensional (4D) IMRT planning, is a crucial step for achieving the treatment objectives for sites that move during treatment delivery. The authors proposed a simplistic method that accounts for both rigid and nonrigid respiration-induced target motion based on 4D computed tomography (4DCT) data sets. Methods: A set of MLC apertures and weights was first optimized on a reference phase of a 4DCT data set. At each beam angle, the apertures were morphed from the reference phase to each of the remaining phases according to the relative shape changes in the beam's eye view of the target. Three different planning schemes were evaluated for two lung cases and one pancreas patient: (1) Individually optimizing each breathing phase; (2) optimizing the reference phase and shifting the optimized apertures to other breathing phases based on a rigid-body image registration; and (3) optimizing the reference phase and deforming the optimized apertures to the other phases based on the deformation and translation of target contours. Planning results using scheme 1 serves as the ''gold standard'' for plan quality assessment; scheme 2 is the method previously proposed in the literature; and scheme 3 is the method the authors proposed in this article. The optimization results were compared between the three schemes for all three cases. Results: The proposed scheme 3 is comparable to scheme 1 in plan quality, and provides improved target coverage and conformity with similar normal tissue dose compared with scheme 2. Conclusions: Direct aperture deformation method for 4D IMRT planning improves upon methods that only consider rigid-body motion and achieves a plan quality close to that optimized for each of the phases.

  12. Dosimetric evaluation of hybrid brass/stainless-steel apertures for proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Matysiak, Witold; Flampouri, Stella; Slopsema, Roelf; Li, Zuofeng

    2014-09-01

    In passive scattering proton therapy, patient specific collimators (apertures) are used to laterally shape the proton beam, and compensators are employed to distally conform proton dose to the target. Brass is a commonly used material for apertures and recently a hybrid brass/stainless-steel (BR/SST) aperture design has been introduced to reduce treatment cost without clinical flow change. We measured stopping power and leakage dose for apertures made of stainless steel and brass in the Proton Therapy system. The linear stopping power ratios for stainless steel (type 304) and brass to water were calculated to be 5.46 and 5.51, respectively. Measured stopping power ratios of SST and BR were 5.51  ±  0.04 and 5.56  ±  0.08, respectively, which agrees with the calculated values within 1%. Leakage dose on the downstream surface of two slabs of Ø18 cm stainless steel apertures (total thickness of 6.5 cm) for the maximum available proton energy (235 MeV) was 1.283% ± 0.004% of the prescription dose, and was smaller compared to the 1.358% ± 0.005% leakage dose measured for existing brass apertures of identical physical dimensions. Therefore, the existing beam range limits for brass aperture slabs used at our institution with safety margin allowances for material composition and delivered beam range uncertainties can be safely applied for the new BR/SST aperture design. Potential range differences in the brass and stainless steel interface regions of the hybrid design were further investigated using EBT3 GafChromic film. Film dosimetry revealed no discernible range variations across the brass and stainless steel interface regions. Neutron dose to the patient from brass and stainless steel apertures was simulated using the Monte Carlo method. The results indicate that stainless steel produces similar patient neutron dose compared to brass. Material activation dose rates of stainless steel were measured over a period of 7 d after irradiation. The

  13. Dosimetric evaluation of hybrid brass/stainless-steel apertures for proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Matysiak, Witold; Flampouri, Stella; Slopsema, Roelf; Li, Zuofeng

    2014-09-07

    In passive scattering proton therapy, patient specific collimators (apertures) are used to laterally shape the proton beam, and compensators are employed to distally conform proton dose to the target. Brass is a commonly used material for apertures and recently a hybrid brass/stainless-steel (BR/SST) aperture design has been introduced to reduce treatment cost without clinical flow change. We measured stopping power and leakage dose for apertures made of stainless steel and brass in the Proton Therapy system. The linear stopping power ratios for stainless steel (type 304) and brass to water were calculated to be 5.46 and 5.51, respectively. Measured stopping power ratios of SST and BR were 5.51  ±  0.04 and 5.56  ±  0.08, respectively, which agrees with the calculated values within 1%. Leakage dose on the downstream surface of two slabs of Ø18 cm stainless steel apertures (total thickness of 6.5 cm) for the maximum available proton energy (235 MeV) was 1.283% ± 0.004% of the prescription dose, and was smaller compared to the 1.358% ± 0.005% leakage dose measured for existing brass apertures of identical physical dimensions. Therefore, the existing beam range limits for brass aperture slabs used at our institution with safety margin allowances for material composition and delivered beam range uncertainties can be safely applied for the new BR/SST aperture design. Potential range differences in the brass and stainless steel interface regions of the hybrid design were further investigated using EBT3 GafChromic film. Film dosimetry revealed no discernible range variations across the brass and stainless steel interface regions. Neutron dose to the patient from brass and stainless steel apertures was simulated using the Monte Carlo method. The results indicate that stainless steel produces similar patient neutron dose compared to brass. Material activation dose rates of stainless steel were measured over a period of 7 d after irradiation. The

  14. Evaluation of synthetic aperture radar image segmentation algorithms in the context of automatic target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Kefu; Power, Gregory J.; Gregga, Jason B.

    2002-11-01

    Image segmentation is a process to extract and organize information energy in the image pixel space according to a prescribed feature set. It is often a key preprocess in automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. In many cases, the performance of image segmentation algorithms will have significant impact on the performance of ATR algorithms. Due to the variations in feature set definitions and the innovations in the segmentation processes, there is large number of image segmentation algorithms existing in ATR world. Recently, the authors have investigated a number of measures to evaluate the performance of segmentation algorithms, such as Percentage Pixels Same (pps), Partial Directed Hausdorff (pdh) and Complex Inner Product (cip). In the research, we found that the combination of the three measures shows effectiveness in the evaluation of segmentation algorithms against truth data (human master segmentation). However, we still don't know what are the impact of those measures in the performance of ATR algorithms that are commonly measured by Probability of detection (PDet), Probability of false alarm (PFA), Probability of identification (PID), etc. In all practical situations, ATR boxes are implemented without human observer in the loop. The performance of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image segmentation should be evaluated in the context of ATR rather than human observers. This research establishes a segmentation algorithm evaluation suite involving segmentation algorithm performance measures as well as the ATR algorithm performance measures. It provides a practical quantitative evaluation method to judge which SAR image segmentation algorithm is the best for a particular ATR application. The results are tabulated based on some baseline ATR algorithms and a typical image segmentation algorithm used in ATR applications.

  15. NPT: a large-aperture telescope for high dynamic range astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Robert D.; Kuhn, Jeff R.; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Coulter, Roy; Ftaclas, Christo; Graves, J. Elon; Hull, Charles L.; Jewitt, D.; Mickey, Donald L.; Moretto, Gilberto; Neill, Doug; Northcott, Malcolm J.; Roddier, Claude A.; Roddier, Francois J.; Siegmund, Walter A.; Owen, Tobias C.

    2000-06-01

    All existing night-time astronomical telescopes, regardless of aperture, are blind to an important part of the universe - the region around bright objects. Technology now exist to build an unobscured 6.5 m aperture telescope which will attain coronagraphic sensitivity heretofore unachieved. A working group hosted by the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy has developed plans for a New Planetary Telescope which will permit astronomical observations which have never before ben possible. In its narrow-field mode the off-axis optical design, combined with adaptive optics, provides superb coronagraphic capabilities, and a very low thermal IR background. These make it ideal for studies of extra-solar planets and circumstellar discs, as well as for general IR astronomy. In its wide-field mode the NPT provides a 2 degree diameter field for surveys of Kuiper Belt Objects and Near-Earth Objects, surveys central to current intellectual interests in solar system astronomy.

  16. Development and evaluation of aperture-based complexity metrics using film and EPID measurements of static MLC openings

    SciTech Connect

    Götstedt, Julia; Karlsson Hauer, Anna; Bäck, Anna

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Complexity metrics have been suggested as a complement to measurement-based quality assurance for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). However, these metrics have not yet been sufficiently validated. This study develops and evaluates new aperture-based complexity metrics in the context of static multileaf collimator (MLC) openings and compares them to previously published metrics. Methods: This study develops the converted aperture metric and the edge area metric. The converted aperture metric is based on small and irregular parts within the MLC opening that are quantified as measured distances between MLC leaves. The edge area metric is based on the relative size of the region around the edges defined by the MLC. Another metric suggested in this study is the circumference/area ratio. Earlier defined aperture-based complexity metrics—the modulation complexity score, the edge metric, the ratio monitor units (MU)/Gy, the aperture area, and the aperture irregularity—are compared to the newly proposed metrics. A set of small and irregular static MLC openings are created which simulate individual IMRT/VMAT control points of various complexities. These are measured with both an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device and EBT3 film. The differences between calculated and measured dose distributions are evaluated using a pixel-by-pixel comparison with two global dose difference criteria of 3% and 5%. The extent of the dose differences, expressed in terms of pass rate, is used as a measure of the complexity of the MLC openings and used for the evaluation of the metrics compared in this study. The different complexity scores are calculated for each created static MLC opening. The correlation between the calculated complexity scores and the extent of the dose differences (pass rate) are analyzed in scatter plots and using Pearson’s r-values. Results: The complexity scores calculated by the edge

  17. Evaluating gambles using dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, O.; Gell-Mann, M.

    2016-02-01

    Gambles are random variables that model possible changes in wealth. Classic decision theory transforms money into utility through a utility function and defines the value of a gamble as the expectation value of utility changes. Utility functions aim to capture individual psychological characteristics, but their generality limits predictive power. Expectation value maximizers are defined as rational in economics, but expectation values are only meaningful in the presence of ensembles or in systems with ergodic properties, whereas decision-makers have no access to ensembles, and the variables representing wealth in the usual growth models do not have the relevant ergodic properties. Simultaneously addressing the shortcomings of utility and those of expectations, we propose to evaluate gambles by averaging wealth growth over time. No utility function is needed, but a dynamic must be specified to compute time averages. Linear and logarithmic "utility functions" appear as transformations that generate ergodic observables for purely additive and purely multiplicative dynamics, respectively. We highlight inconsistencies throughout the development of decision theory, whose correction clarifies that our perspective is legitimate. These invalidate a commonly cited argument for bounded utility functions.

  18. Predicting dissolution patterns in variable aperture fractures: 1. Development and evaluation of an enhanced depth-averaged computational model

    SciTech Connect

    Detwiler, R L; Rajaram, H

    2006-04-21

    Water-rock interactions within variable-aperture fractures can lead to dissolution of fracture surfaces and local alteration of fracture apertures, potentially transforming the transport properties of the fracture over time. Because fractures often provide dominant pathways for subsurface flow and transport, developing models that effectively quantify the role of dissolution on changing transport properties over a range of scales is critical to understanding potential impacts of natural and anthropogenic processes. Dissolution of fracture surfaces is controlled by surface-reaction kinetics and transport of reactants and products to and from the fracture surfaces. We present development and evaluation of a depth-averaged model of fracture flow and reactive transport that explicitly calculates local dissolution-induced alterations in fracture apertures. The model incorporates an effective mass transfer relationship that implicitly represents the transition from reaction-limited dissolution to transport-limited dissolution. We evaluate the model through direct comparison to previously reported physical experiments in transparent analog fractures fabricated by mating an inert, transparent rough surface with a smooth single crystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), which allowed direct measurement of fracture aperture during dissolution experiments using well-established light transmission techniques [Detwiler, et al., 2003]. Comparison of experiments and simulations at different flow rates demonstrate the relative impact of the dimensionless Peclet and Damkohler numbers on fracture dissolution and the ability of the computational model to simulate dissolution. Despite some discrepancies in the small-scale details of dissolution patterns, the simulations predict the evolution of large-scale features quite well for the different experimental conditions. This suggests that our depth-averaged approach to simulating fracture dissolution provides a useful approach for

  19. Design and performance evaluation of a 20-aperture multipinhole collimator for myocardial perfusion imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Jason D.; Huang, Qiu; Ellin, Justin R.; Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Shrestha, Uttam; Gullberg, Grant T.; Seo, Youngho

    2013-10-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging remains a critical tool in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, after more than three decades of use, photon detection efficiency remains poor and unchanged. This is due to the continued reliance on parallel-hole collimators first introduced in 1964. These collimators possess poor geometric efficiency. Here we present the performance evaluation results of a newly designed multipinhole collimator with 20 pinhole apertures (PH20) for commercial SPECT systems. Computer simulations and numerical observer studies were used to assess the noise, bias and diagnostic imaging performance of a PH20 collimator in comparison with those of a low energy high resolution (LEHR) parallel-hole collimator. Ray-driven projector/backprojector pairs were used to model SPECT imaging acquisitions, including simulation of noiseless projection data and performing MLEM/OSEM image reconstructions. Poisson noise was added to noiseless projections for realistic projection data. Noise and bias performance were investigated for five mathematical cardiac and torso (MCAT) phantom anatomies imaged at two gantry orbit positions (19.5 and 25.0 cm). PH20 and LEHR images were reconstructed with 300 MLEM iterations and 30 OSEM iterations (ten subsets), respectively. Diagnostic imaging performance was assessed by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis performed on a single MCAT phantom; however, in this case PH20 images were reconstructed with 75 pixel-based OSEM iterations (four subsets). Four PH20 projection views from two positions of a dual-head camera acquisition and 60 LEHR projections were simulated for all studies. At uniformly-imposed resolution of 12.5 mm, significant improvements in SNR and diagnostic sensitivity (represented by the area under the ROC curve, or AUC) were realized when PH20 collimators are substituted for LEHR parallel-hole collimators. SNR improves by factors of 1

  20. Evaluating the effect of internal aperture variability on transport in kilometer scale discrete fracture networks

    SciTech Connect

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Painter, Scott L.; Gable, Carl W.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2016-08-01

    The apertures of natural fractures in fractured rock are highly heterogeneous. However, in-fracture aperture variability is often neglected in flow and transport modeling and individual fractures are assumed to have uniform aperture distribution. The relative importance of in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling within kilometer18 scale field–scale fracture networks has been under a matter of debate for a long time because the flow in each single fracture is controlled not only by in-fracture variability but also by boundary conditions. Computational limitations have previously prohibited researchers from investigating the relative importance of in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling within large-scale fracture networks. We address this question by incorporating internal heterogeneity of individual fractures into 23 flow simulations within kilometer scale three-dimensional fracture networks, where fracture intensity, P32 (ratio between total fracture area and domain volume) is between 0.027 and 0.031 [1/m]. A recently developed discrete fracture network (DFN) simulation capability, dfnWorks, is used to generate DFNs that include in-fracture aperture variability represented by a stationary log-normal stochastic field with various correlation lengths and variances. The Lagrangian transport parameters, non-reacting travel time and cumulative retention, are calculated along particles streamlines. It is observed that due to local flow channeling early particle travel times are more sensitive to in-fracture variability than the tails of travel time distributions, where no significant effect of the in-fracture transmissivity variations and spatial correlation length is observed.

  1. Evaluating the effect of internal aperture variability on transport in kilometer scale discrete fracture networks

    DOE PAGES

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; ...

    2016-08-01

    The apertures of natural fractures in fractured rock are highly heterogeneous. However, in-fracture aperture variability is often neglected in flow and transport modeling and individual fractures are assumed to have uniform aperture distribution. The relative importance of in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling within kilometer18 scale field–scale fracture networks has been under a matter of debate for a long time because the flow in each single fracture is controlled not only by in-fracture variability but also by boundary conditions. Computational limitations have previously prohibited researchers from investigating the relative importance of in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling withinmore » large-scale fracture networks. We address this question by incorporating internal heterogeneity of individual fractures into 23 flow simulations within kilometer scale three-dimensional fracture networks, where fracture intensity, P32 (ratio between total fracture area and domain volume) is between 0.027 and 0.031 [1/m]. A recently developed discrete fracture network (DFN) simulation capability, dfnWorks, is used to generate DFNs that include in-fracture aperture variability represented by a stationary log-normal stochastic field with various correlation lengths and variances. The Lagrangian transport parameters, non-reacting travel time and cumulative retention, are calculated along particles streamlines. It is observed that due to local flow channeling early particle travel times are more sensitive to in-fracture variability than the tails of travel time distributions, where no significant effect of the in-fracture transmissivity variations and spatial correlation length is observed.« less

  2. Solar dynamic modules for Space Station Freedom: The relationship between fine-pointing control and thermal loading of the aperture plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic simulations of Space Station Freedom (SSF) configured with solar dynamic (SD) power modules were performed. The structure was subjected to Space Shuttle docking disturbances, while being controlled with a 'natural' vibration and tracking control approach. Three control cases were investigated for the purpose of investigating the relationship between actuator effort, SD pointing, and thermal loading on the receiver aperture plate. Transient, one-dimensional heat transfer analyses were performed to conservatively predict temperatures of the multi-layered receiver aperture plate assembly and thermal stresses in its shield layer. Results indicate that the proposed aperture plate is tolerant of concentrated flux impingement during short-lived structural disturbances. Pointing requirements may be loosened and the requirement control torques lessened from that previously specified. Downsizing and simplifying the joint drive system should result in a considerable savings mass.

  3. Design of dual multiple aperture devices for dynamical fluence field modulated CT

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Aswin John; Tilley, Steven; Gang, Grace; Kawamoto, Satomi; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Levinson, Reuven; Webster Stayman, J.

    2016-01-01

    A Multiple Aperture Device (MAD) is a novel x-ray beam modulator that uses binary filtration on a fine scale to spatially modulate an x-ray beam. Using two MADs in series enables a large variety of fluence profiles by shifting the MADS relative to each other. This work details the design and control of dual MADs for a specific class of desired fluence patterns. Specifically, models of MAD operation are integrated into a best fit objective followed by CMA-ES optimization. To illustrate this framework we demonstrate the design process for an abdominal phantom with the goal of uniform detected signal. Achievable fluence profiles show good agreement with target fluence profiles, and the ability to flatten projections when a phantom is scanned is demonstrated. Simulated data reconstruction using traditional tube current modulation (TCM) and MAD filtering with TCM are investigated with the dual MAD system demonstrating more uniformity in noise and illustrating the potential for dose reduction under a maximum noise level constraint. PMID:28361128

  4. Observation of sea-ice dynamics using synthetic aperture radar images: Automated analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesecky, John F.; Samadani, Ramin; Smith, Martha P.; Daida, Jason M.; Bracewell, Ronald N.

    1988-01-01

    The European Space Agency's ERS-1 satellite, as well as others planned to follow, is expected to carry synthetic-aperture radars (SARs) over the polar regions beginning in 1989. A key component in utilization of these SAR data is an automated scheme for extracting the sea-ice velocity field from a time sequence of SAR images of the same geographical region. Two techniques for automated sea-ice tracking, image pyramid area correlation (hierarchical correlation) and feature tracking, are described. Each technique is applied to a pair of Seasat SAR sea-ice images. The results compare well with each other and with manually tracked estimates of the ice velocity. The advantages and disadvantages of these automated methods are pointed out. Using these ice velocity field estimates it is possible to construct one sea-ice image from the other member of the pair. Comparing the reconstructed image with the observed image, errors in the estimated velocity field can be recognized and a useful probable error display created automatically to accompany ice velocity estimates. It is suggested that this error display may be useful in segmenting the sea ice observed into regions that move as rigid plates of significant ice velocity shear and distortion.

  5. Recursive Bayesian synthetic aperture geoacoustic inversion in the presence of motion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bien Aik; Gerstoft, Peter; Yardim, Caglar; Hodgkiss, William S

    2014-09-01

    A low signal to noise ratio (SNR), single source/receiver, broadband, frequency-coherent matched-field inversion procedure recently has been proposed. It exploits coherently repeated transmissions to improve estimation of the geoacoustic parameters. The long observation time improves the SNR and creates a synthetic aperture due to relative source-receiver motion. To model constant velocity source/receiver horizontal motion, waveguide Doppler theory for normal modes is necessary. However, the inversion performance degrades when source/receiver acceleration exists. Furthermore processing a train of pulses all at once does not take advantage of the natural incremental acquisition of data along with the ability to assess the temporal evolution of parameter uncertainty. Here a recursive Bayesian estimation approach is developed that coherently processes the data pulse by pulse and incrementally updates estimates of parameter uncertainty. It also approximates source/receiver acceleration by assuming piecewise constant but linearly changing source/receiver velocities. When the source/receiver acceleration exists, it is shown that modeling acceleration can reduce further the parameter estimation biases and uncertainties. The method is demonstrated in simulation and in the analysis of low SNR, 100-900 Hz linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulses from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment.

  6. Evaluation of aperture cover tank vent nozzles for the IRAS spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of coefficients for the three axes of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) were established to determine the maximum allowable thrust difference between the two vent nozzles of the aperture cover tank low thrust vent system and their maximum misalignment. Test data generated by flow and torque measurements permitted the selection of two nozzles whose thrust differential was within the limit of the attitude control capability. Based on thrust stand data, a thrust vector misalignment was indicated that was slightly higher than permissible for the worst case, i.e., considerable degradation of the torque capacity of the attitude control system combined with venting of helium at its upper limit. The probability of destabilizing the IRAS spacecraft by activating the venting system appeared to be very low. The selection and mounting of the nozzles have satisfied all the requirements for the safe venting of helium.

  7. Control of vacuolar dynamics and regulation of stomatal aperture by tonoplast potassium uptake

    PubMed Central

    Andrés, Zaida; Pérez-Hormaeche, Javier; Leidi, Eduardo O.; Schlücking, Kathrin; Steinhorst, Leonie; McLachlan, Deirdre H.; Schumacher, Karin; Hetherington, Alistair M.; Kudla, Jörg; Cubero, Beatriz; Pardo, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Stomatal movements rely on alterations in guard cell turgor. This requires massive K+ bidirectional fluxes across the plasma and tonoplast membranes. Surprisingly, given their physiological importance, the transporters mediating the energetically uphill transport of K+ into the vacuole remain to be identified. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis guard cells, the tonoplast-localized K+/H+ exchangers NHX1 and NHX2 are pivotal in the vacuolar accumulation of K+ and that nhx1 nhx2 mutant lines are dysfunctional in stomatal regulation. Hypomorphic and complete-loss-of-function double mutants exhibited significantly impaired stomatal opening and closure responses. Disruption of K+ accumulation in guard cells correlated with more acidic vacuoles and the disappearance of the highly dynamic remodelling of vacuolar structure associated with stomatal movements. Our results show that guard cell vacuolar accumulation of K+ is a requirement for stomatal opening and a critical component in the overall K+ homeostasis essential for stomatal closure, and suggest that vacuolar K+ fluxes are also of decisive importance in the regulation of vacuolar dynamics and luminal pH that underlie stomatal movements. PMID:24733919

  8. A Geosynchronous Synthetic Aperture Provides for Disaster Management, Measurement of Soil Moisture, and Measurement of Earth-Surface Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Soren; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A GEO-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) could provide daily coverage of basically all of North and South America with very good temporal coverage within the mapped area. This affords a key capability to disaster management, tectonic mapping and modeling, and vegetation mapping. The fine temporal sampling makes this system particularly useful for disaster management of flooding, hurricanes, and earthquakes. By using a fairly long wavelength, changing water boundaries caused by storms or flooding could be monitored in near real-time. This coverage would also provide revolutionary capabilities in the field of radar interferometry, including the capability to study the interferometric signature immediately before and after an earthquake, thus allowing unprecedented studies of Earth-surface dynamics. Preeruptive volcano dynamics could be studied as well as pre-seismic deformation, one of the most controversial and elusive aspects of earthquakes. Interferometric correlation would similarly allow near real-time mapping of surface changes caused by volcanic eruptions, mud slides, or fires. Finally, a GEO SAR provides an optimum configuration for soil moisture measurement that requires a high temporal sampling rate (1-2 days) with a moderate spatial resolution (1 km or better). From a technological point of view, the largest challenges involved in developing a geosynchronous SAR capability relate to the very large slant range distance from the radar to the mapped area. This leads to requirements for large power or alternatively very large antenna, the ability to steer the mapping area to the left and right of the satellite, and control of the elevation and azimuth angles. The weight of this system is estimated to be 2750 kg and it would require 20 kW of DC-power. Such a system would provide up to a 600 km ground swath in a strip-mapping mode and 4000 km dual-sided mapping in a scan-SAR mode.

  9. SU-E-T-593: Clinical Evaluation of Direct Aperture Optimization in Head/Neck and Prostate IMRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hosini, M; GALAL, M; Emam, I; Kamal, G; Algohary, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the planning and dosimetric advantages of direct aperture optimization (DAO) over beam-let optimization in IMRT treatment of head and neck (H/N) and prostate cancers. Methods: Five Head and Neck as well as five prostate patients were planned using the beamlet optimizer in Elekta-Xio ver 4.6 IMRT treatment planning system. Based on our experience in beamlet IMRT optimization, PTVs in H/N plans were prescribed to 70 Gy delivered by 7 fields. While prostate PTVs were prescribed to 76 Gy with 9 fields. In all plans, fields were set to be equally spaced. All cases were re-planed using Direct Aperture optimizer in Prowess Panther ver 5.01 IMRT planning system at same configurations and dose constraints. Plans were evaluated according to ICRU criteria, number of segments, number of monitor units and planning time. Results: For H/N plans, the near maximum dose (D2) and the dose that covers 95% D95 of PTV has improved by 4% in DAO. For organs at risk (OAR), DAO reduced the volume covered by 30% (V30) in spinal cord, right parotid, and left parotid by 60%, 54%, and 53% respectively. This considerable dosimetric quality improvement achieved using 25% less planning time and lower number of segments and monitor units by 46% and 51% respectively. In DAO prostate plans, Both D2 and D95 for the PTV were improved by only 2%. The V30 of the right femur, left femur and bladder were improved by 35%, 15% and 3% respectively. On the contrary, the rectum V30 got even worse by 9%. However, number of monitor units, and number of segments decreased by 20% and 25% respectively. Moreover the planning time reduced significantly too. Conclusion: DAO introduces considerable advantages over the beamlet optimization in regards to organs at risk sparing. However, no significant improvement occurred in most studied PTVs.

  10. SU-E-T-187: Collimation Methods in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy: A Treatment Plan Comparison Between a Fixed Aperture and a Dynamic Collimation System

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B; Gelover, E; Wang, D; Moignier, A; Flynn, R; Hyer, D; Lin, L; Kirk, M; Solberg, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Low-energy treatments during spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT) suffer from poor conformity due to increased spot size. Collimation devices can reduce the lateral penumbra of a proton therapy dose distribution and improve the overall plan quality. The purpose of this work was to study the advantages of individual energy-layer collimation, which is unique to a recently proposed Dynamic Collimation System (DCS), in comparison to a standard, fixed aperture that allows only a single shape for all energy layers. Methods: Three brain patients previously planned and treated with SSPT were re-planned using an in-house treatment planning system capable of modeling collimated and un-collimated proton beamlets. The un-collimated plans, which served as a baseline for comparison, reproduced the target coverage of the clinically delivered plans. The collimator opening for the aperture based plans included a 0.6 cm expansion of the largest cross section of the target in the Beam’s Eye View, while the DCS based plans were created by optimizing the collimator position for beam spots near the periphery of the target in each energy layer. Results: The reduction of mean dose to normal tissue adjacent to the target, as defined by a 10 mm ring, averaged 9.13% and 3.48% for the DCS and aperture plans, respectively. The conformity index, as defined by the ratio of the volume of the 50% isodose line to the target volume, yielded an average improvement of 16.42% and 8.16% for the DCS and aperture plans, respectively. Conclusion: Collimation reduces the dose to normal tissue adjacent to the target and increases dose conformity to the target region for low-energy SSPT. The ability of the DCS to provide collimation to each energy layer yields better conformity in comparison to fixed aperture plans. This work was partially funded by IBA (Ion Beam Applications S.A.)

  11. Performance evaluation of large aperture "polished panel" optical receivers based on experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilnrotter, V.

    Recent interest in the development of hybrid RF/Optical communications has led to the installation of a “ polished-panel” optical receiver evaluation assembly on the 34-meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13) at NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex1. The test setup consists of a custom aluminum panel polished to optical smoothness, and a large-sensor CCD camera designed to image the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished aluminum panel. Extensive data has been obtained via real-time tracking and imaging of planets and stars at DSS-13. Both “ on-source” and “ off-source” data were recorded at various elevations, enabling the development of realistic simulations and analytic models to help determine the performance of future deep-space communications systems operating with on-off keying (OOK) or pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signaling formats, and compared with the ultimate quantum bound on detection performance. Experimentally determined PSFs were scaled to provide realistic signal-distributions across a photon-counting detector array when a pulse is received, and uncoded as well as block-coded performance analyzed and evaluated for a well-known class of block codes.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Large Aperture 'Polished Panel' Optical Receivers Based on Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in hybrid RF/Optical communications has led to the development and installation of a "polished-panel" optical receiver evaluation assembly on the 34-meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13) at NASA's Goldstone Communications Complex. The test setup consists of a custom aluminum panel polished to optical smoothness, and a large-sensor CCD camera designed to image the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished aluminum panel. Extensive data has been obtained via realtime tracking and imaging of planets and stars at DSS-13. Both "on-source" and "off-source" data were recorded at various elevations, enabling the development of realistic simulations and analytic models to help determine the performance of future deep-space communications systems operating with on-off keying (OOK) or pulse-position-modulated (PPM) signaling formats with photon-counting detection, and compared with the ultimate quantum bound on detection performance for these modulations. Experimentally determined PSFs were scaled to provide realistic signal-distributions across a photon-counting detector array when a pulse is received, and uncoded as well as block-coded performance analyzed and evaluated for a well-known class of block codes.

  13. SU-E-T-567: Neutron Dose Equivalent Evaluation for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy with Apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, C; Schuemann, J; Moteabbed, M; Paganetti, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the neutron contamination from the aperture in pencil beam scanning during proton therapy. Methods: A Monte Carlo based proton therapy research platform TOPAS and the UF-series hybrid pediatric phantoms were used to perform this study. First, pencil beam scanning (PBS) treatment pediatric plans with average spot size of 10 mm at iso-center were created and optimized for three patients with and without apertures. Then, the plans were imported into TOPAS. A scripting method was developed to automatically replace the patient CT with a whole body phantom positioned according to the original plan iso-center. The neutron dose equivalent was calculated using organ specific quality factors for two phantoms resembling a 4- and 14-years old patient. Results: The neutron dose equivalent generated by the apertures in PBS is 4–10% of the total neutron dose equivalent for organs near the target, while roughly 40% for organs far from the target. Compared to the neutron dose equivalent caused by PBS without aperture, the results show that the neutron dose equivalent with aperture is reduced in the organs near the target, and moderately increased for those organs located further from the target. This is due to the reduction of the proton dose around the edge of the CTV, which causes fewer neutrons generated in the patient. Conclusion: Clinically, for pediatric patients, one might consider adding an aperture to get a more conformal treatment plan if the spot size is too large. This work shows the somewhat surprising fact that adding an aperture for beam scanning for facilities with large spot sizes reduces instead of increases a potential neutron background in regions near target. Changran Geng is supported by the Chinese Scholarship Council (CSC) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11475087)

  14. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Vassigh, Kenny; Bendek, Selman; Young, Zion W; Lynch, Dana H.

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide strawman mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible andor UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST.

  15. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  16. Integrated electrochromic aperture diaphragm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutschmann, T.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the triumphal march of handheld electronics with integrated cameras has opened amazing fields for small high performing optical systems. For this purpose miniaturized iris apertures are of practical importance because they are essential to control both the dynamic range of the imaging system and the depth of focus. Therefore, we invented a micro optical iris based on an electrochromic (EC) material. This material changes its absorption in response to an applied voltage. A coaxial arrangement of annular rings of the EC material is used to establish an iris aperture without need of any mechanical moving parts. The advantages of this device do not only arise from the space-saving design with a thickness of the device layer of 50μm. But it also benefits from low power consumption. In fact, its transmission state is stable in an open circuit, phrased memory effect. Only changes of the absorption require a voltage of up to 2 V. In contrast to mechanical iris apertures the absorption may be controlled on an analog scale offering the opportunity for apodization. These properties make our device the ideal candidate for battery powered and space-saving systems. We present optical measurements concerning control of the transmitted intensity and depth of focus, and studies dealing with switching times, light scattering, and stability. While the EC polymer used in this study still has limitations concerning color and contrast, the presented device features all functions of an iris aperture. In contrast to conventional devices it offers some special features. Owing to the variable chemistry of the EC material, its spectral response may be adjusted to certain applications like color filtering in different spectral regimes (UV, optical range, infrared). Furthermore, all segments may be switched individually to establish functions like spatial Fourier filtering or lateral tunable intensity filters.

  17. Aperture synthesis in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucherre, Michel; Greenaway, A. H.; Merkle, F.; Noordam, J. E.; Perryman, M. A. C.

    1989-09-01

    The principles of optical aperture synthesis (OAS), which can yield images of much higher resolution than current ground observations, are essentially those of radio astronomy, and may be used in either space- or ground-based studies of the stellar envelopes around Be stars, the internal dynamics of active galaxies, etc. An account is presently given of possible OAS instrument configurations; it is shown that a large field of view can be achieved, so that the instrument may be calibrated on bright stars during the observation of faint sources. Mission concepts for a 'monostructure' OAS instrument of about 30-m size are examined.

  18. Design and evaluation of a variable aperture collimator for conformal radiotherapy of small animals using a microCT scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Edward E.; Zhou Hu; Chatterjee, Raja; Keall, Paul J.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Contag, Christopher H.; Boyer, Arthur L.

    2007-11-15

    Treatment of small animals with radiation has in general been limited to planar fields shaped with lead blocks, complicating spatial localization of dose and treatment of deep-seated targets. In order to advance laboratory radiotherapy toward what is accomplished in the clinic, we have constructed a variable aperture collimator for use in shaping the beam of microCT scanner. This unit can image small animal subjects at high resolution, and is capable of delivering therapeutic doses in reasonable exposure times. The proposed collimator consists of two stages, each containing six trapezoidal brass blocks that move along a frame in a manner similar to a camera iris producing a hexagonal aperture of variable size. The two stages are offset by 30 deg. and adjusted for the divergence of the x-ray beam so as to produce a dodecagonal profile at isocenter. Slotted rotating driving plates are used to apply force to pins in the collimator blocks and effect collimator motion. This device has been investigated through both simulation and measurement. The collimator aperture size varied from 0 to 8.5 cm as the driving plate angle increased from 0 to 41 deg. . The torque required to adjust the collimator varied from 0.5 to 5 N{center_dot}m, increasing with increasing driving plate angle. The transmission profiles produced by the scanner at isocenter exhibited a penumbra of approximately 10% of the collimator aperture width. Misalignment between the collimator assembly and the x-ray source could be identified on the transmission images and corrected by adjustment of the collimator location. This variable aperture collimator technology is therefore a feasible and flexible solution for adjustable shaping of radiation beams for use in small animal radiotherapy as well as other applications in which beam shaping is desired.

  19. Evaluation of Aircraft Platforms for SOFIA by Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klotz, S. P.; Srinivasan, G. R.; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The selection of an airborne platform for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is based not only on economic cost, but technical criteria, as well. Technical issues include aircraft fatigue, resonant characteristics of the cavity-port shear layer, aircraft stability, the drag penalty of the open telescope bay, and telescope performance. Recently, two versions of the Boeing 747 aircraft, viz., the -SP and -200 configurations, were evaluated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for their suitability as SOFIA platforms. In each configuration the telescope was mounted behind the wings in an open bay with nearly circular aperture. The geometry of the cavity, cavity aperture, and telescope was identical in both platforms. The aperture was located on the port side of the aircraft and the elevation angle of the telescope, measured with respect to the vertical axis, was 500. The unsteady, viscous, three-dimensional, aerodynamic and acoustic flow fields in the vicinity of SOFIA were simulated by an implicit, finite-difference Navier-Stokes flow solver (OVERFLOW) on a Chimera, overset grid system. The computational domain was discretized by structured grids. Computations were performed at wind-tunnel and flight Reynolds numbers corresponding to one free-stream flow condition (M = 0.85, angle of attack alpha = 2.50, and sideslip angle beta = 0 degrees). The computational domains consisted of twenty-nine(29) overset grids in the wind-tunnel simulations and forty-five(45) grids in the simulations run at cruise flight conditions. The maximum number of grid points in the simulations was approximately 4 x 10(exp 6). Issues considered in the evaluation study included analysis of the unsteady flow field in the cavity, the influence of the cavity on the flow across empennage surfaces, the drag penalty caused by the open telescope bay, and the noise radiating from cavity surfaces and the cavity-port shear layer. Wind-tunnel data were also available to compare

  20. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar study of Okmok volcano, Alaska, 1992-2003: Magma supply dynamics and postemplacement lava flow deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Masterlark, Timothy; Dzurisin, D.

    2005-01-01

    Okmok volcano, located in the central Aleutian arc, Alaska, is a dominantly basaltic complex topped with a 10-km-wide caldera that formed circa 2.05 ka. Okmok erupted several times during the 20th century, most recently in 1997; eruptions in 1945, 1958, and 1997 produced lava flows within the caldera. We used 80 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images (interferograms) to study transient deformation of the volcano before, during, and after the 1997 eruption. Point source models suggest that a magma reservoir at a depth of 3.2 km below sea level, located beneath the center of the caldera and about 5 km northeast of the 1997 vent, is responsible for observed volcano-wide deformation. The preeruption uplift rate decreased from about 10 cm yr-1 during 1992-1993 to 2 ??? 3 cm yr-1 during 1993-1995 and then to about -1 ??? -2 cm yr-1 during 1995-1996. The posteruption inflation rate generally decreased with time during 1997-2001, but increased significantly during 2001-2003. By the summer of 2003, 30 ??? 60% of the magma volume lost from the reservoir in the 1997 eruption had been replenished. Interferograms for periods before the 1997 eruption indicate consistent subsidence of the surface of the 1958 lava flows, most likely due to thermal contraction. Interferograms for periods after the eruption suggest at least four distinct deformation processes: (1) volcano-wide inflation due to replenishment of the shallow magma reservoir, (2) subsidence of the 1997 lava flows, most likely due to thermal contraction, (3) deformation of the 1958 lava flows due to loading by the 1997 flows, and (4) continuing subsidence of 1958 lava flows buried beneath 1997 flows. Our results provide insights into the postemplacement behavior of lava flows and have cautionary implications for the interpretation of inflation patterns at active volcanoes.

  1. Calculate waveguide aperture susceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J.-K.; Ishii, T. K.

    1982-12-01

    A method is developed for calculating aperture susceptance which makes use of the distribution of an aperture's local fields. This method can be applied to the computation of the aperture susceptance of irises, as well as the calculation of the susceptances of waveguide filters, aperture antennas, waveguide cavity coupling, waveguide junctions, and heterogeneous boundaries such as inputs to ferrite or dielectric loaded waveguides. This method assumes a local field determined by transverse components of the incident wave in the local surface of the cross section in the discontinuity plane which lies at the aperture. The aperture susceptance is calculated by the use of the local fields, the law of energy conservation, and the principles of continuity of the fields. This method requires that the thickness of the aperture structure be zero, but this does not limit the practical usefulness of this local-field method.

  2. Fractal characteristics of fracture roughness and aperture data

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Boernge, J.

    1991-05-01

    In this study mathematical expressions are developed for the characteristics of apertures between rough surfaces. It has shown that the correlation between the opposite surfaces influences the aperture properties and different models are presented for these different surface correlations. Fracture and apertures profiles measured from intact fractures are evaluated and it is found that they qualitatively follow the mathematically predicted trends.

  3. Variable-aperture screen

    DOEpatents

    Savage, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function.

  4. Rotating Aperture System

    DOEpatents

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  5. Evaluation of groundwater dynamic regime with groundwater depth evaluation indexes.

    PubMed

    Genxu, Wang; Jian, Zhou; Kubota, Jumpei; Jianping, Su

    2008-06-01

    An accurate quantitative evaluation of anthropogenic effects on regional groundwater dynamics is critical to the rational planning, management, and use of such resources and in maintaining the sustainability of groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Based on groundwater dynamics, a series of groundwater depth evaluation indexes were created to quantitatively evaluate the effects of anthropogenic activities on the groundwater system. These indexes were based on mathematical relationships relating groundwater depth to surface runoff (gammat), precipitation (rhot), and extraction (deltat). The anthropogenic effects on these relationships were evaluated statistically, with respect to both temporal and spatial variation. The anthropogenic effects on groundwater dynamics within the arid Zhangye Basin, located in the middle reaches of northwest China's Heihe River, were investigated. River valley plains in the western portion of the basin excepted, anthropogenic activities have, since 1995, dramatically altered the basin's groundwater dynamics; in particular, in the mid-upper and lower portions of alluvial-diluvial fans and in localized northerly fine-soil plains regions, the relationship of groundwater to surface runoff and atmospheric precipitation has shifted. This and other changes indicate that anthropogenic effects on groundwater systems in this region show clear spatiotemporal variation.

  6. Sub-Aperture Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Sub-aperture interferometers -- also called wavefront-split interferometers -- have been developed for simultaneously measuring displacements of multiple targets. The terms "sub-aperture" and "wavefront-split" signify that the original measurement light beam in an interferometer is split into multiple sub-beams derived from non-overlapping portions of the original measurement-beam aperture. Each measurement sub-beam is aimed at a retroreflector mounted on one of the targets. The splitting of the measurement beam is accomplished by use of truncated mirrors and masks, as shown in the example below

  7. Distributed aperture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rabb, David; Jameson, Douglas; Stokes, Andrew; Stafford, Jason

    2010-05-10

    Distributed aperture synthesis is an exciting technique for recovering high-resolution images from an array of small telescopes. Such a system requires optical field values measured at individual apertures to be phased together so that a single, high-resolution image can be synthesized. This paper describes the application of sharpness metrics to the process of phasing multiple coherent imaging systems into a single high-resolution system. Furthermore, this paper will discuss hardware and present the results of simulations and experiments which will illustrate how aperture synthesis is performed.

  8. Optica aperture synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Avoort, Casper

    2006-05-01

    attained, solely based on information from the focal plane of the set-up. Further experiments show that the approximation of exact homothesis is limited by the optical quality of the beam combiner optics. Parallel to the experiments on homothesis, a study was performed to evaluate the use of the Extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ) formalism for analysis of multiple aperture optical systems. It is envisaged that an aberration retrieval algorithm, provided with the common focus of a homothetic array, can be used to detect misalignment of or even aberrations in the sub-apertures of the sparse synthetic aperture. The ENZ formalism is a powerful tool to describe the focal intensity profile in an optical imaging system, imaging a monochromatic point source through a pupil that is allowed to have a certain transmission profile and phase aberration function over the pupil. Moreover, the formalism allows calculation of intensity profiles outside the best-focus plane. With the intensity information of several through-focus planes, enough information is available to reconstruct the pupil function from it. The formalism is described, including the reconstruction algorithm. Although very good results are obtained for general pupil functions, the results for synthetic pupil functions are not very promising. The detailed description of the ENZ-aberration retrieval reveals the origin of the breakdown of the retrieval process. Finally, a description of experiments on nulling interferometry is given, starting with the presentation of an experimental set-up for three-beam nulling. A novel strategy for polychromatic nulling is treated here, with the goal of relieving the tight phase constraint on the spectra in the individual beams. This theoretically allows broad band-nulling with a high rejection ratio without using achromatic phase shifters. The disappointing results led to an investigation of the spectra of the individual beams. The origin of the unsatisfactory level of the rejection ratio is

  9. Variable-aperture screen

    DOEpatents

    Savage, G.M.

    1991-10-29

    Apparatus is described for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function. 10 figures.

  10. Active aperture phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, R. P.

    1989-04-01

    Developments towards the realization of active aperture phased arrays are reviewed. The technology and cost aspects of the power amplifier and phase shifter subsystems are discussed. Consideration is given to research concerning T/R modules, MESFETs, side lobe control, beam steering, optical control techniques, and printed circuit antennas. Methods for configuring the array are examined, focusing on the tile and brick configurations. It is found that there is no technological impediment for introducing active aperture phased arrays.

  11. Evaluation of Dynamic Methods for Earthwork Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlček, Jozef; Ďureková, Dominika; Zgútová, Katarína

    2015-05-01

    Rapid development of road construction imposes requests on fast and quality methods for earthwork quality evaluation. Dynamic methods are now adopted in numerous civil engineering sections. Especially evaluation of the earthwork quality can be sped up using dynamic equipment. This paper presents the results of the parallel measurements of chosen devices for determining the level of compaction of soils. Measurements were used to develop the correlations between values obtained from various apparatuses. Correlations show that examined apparatuses are suitable for examination of compaction level of fine-grained soils with consideration of boundary conditions of used equipment. Presented methods are quick and results can be obtained immediately after measurement, and they are thus suitable in cases when construction works have to be performed in a short period of time.

  12. Differential Synthetic Aperture Ladar

    SciTech Connect

    Stappaerts, E A; Scharlemann, E

    2005-02-07

    We report a differential synthetic aperture ladar (DSAL) concept that relaxes platform and laser requirements compared to conventional SAL. Line-of-sight translation/vibration constraints are reduced by several orders of magnitude, while laser frequency stability is typically relaxed by an order of magnitude. The technique is most advantageous for shorter laser wavelengths, ultraviolet to mid-infrared. Analytical and modeling results, including the effect of speckle and atmospheric turbulence, are presented. Synthetic aperture ladars are of growing interest, and several theoretical and experimental papers have been published on the subject. Compared to RF synthetic aperture radar (SAR), platform/ladar motion and transmitter bandwidth constraints are especially demanding at optical wavelengths. For mid-IR and shorter wavelengths, deviations from a linear trajectory along the synthetic aperture length have to be submicron, or their magnitude must be measured to that precision for compensation. The laser coherence time has to be the synthetic aperture transit time, or transmitter phase has to be recorded and a correction applied on detection.

  13. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  14. Apodizer aperture for lasers

    DOEpatents

    Jorna, Siebe; Siebert, Larry D.; Brueckner, Keith A.

    1976-11-09

    An aperture attenuator for use with high power lasers which includes glass windows shaped and assembled to form an annulus chamber which is filled with a dye solution. The annulus chamber is shaped such that the section in alignment with the axis of the incident beam follows a curve which is represented by the equation y = (r - r.sub.o).sup.n.

  15. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  16. Temporal Aperture Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The two types of modulation techniques useful to X-ray imaging are reviewed. The use of optimum coded temporal aperature modulation is shown, in certain cases, to offer an advantage over a spatial aperture modulator. Example applications of a diffuse anisotropic X-ray background experiment and a wide field of view hard X-ray imager are discussed.

  17. Aperture center energy showcase

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), and the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in a sustainable community. A project under that CRADA, Aperture Center Energy Showcase, offers a means to develop exhibits and demonstrations that present feedback to community members, Sandia customers, and visitors. The technologies included in the showcase focus on renewable energy and its efficiency, and resilience. These technologies are generally scalable, and provide secure, efficient solutions to energy production, delivery, and usage. In addition to establishing an Energy Showcase, support offices and conference capabilities that facilitate research, collaboration, and demonstration were created. The Aperture Center project focuses on establishing a location that provides outreach, awareness, and demonstration of research findings, emerging technologies, and project developments to Sandia customers, visitors, and Mesa del Sol community members.

  18. Tissue harmonic synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Joachim Hee; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) and tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are combined to improve the image quality of medical ultrasound imaging. The technique is evaluated in a comparative study against dynamic receive focusing (DRF). The objective is to investigate if SASB combined with THI improves the image quality compared to DRF-THI. The major benefit of SASB is a reduced bandwidth between the probe and processing unit. A BK Medical 2202 Ultraview ultrasound scanner was used to acquire beamformed RF data for offline evaluation. The acquisition was made interleaved between methods, and data were recorded with and without pulse inversion for tissue harmonic imaging. Data were acquired using a Sound Technology 192 element convex array transducer from both a wire phantom and a tissue mimicking phantom to investigate spatial resolution and penetration. In vivo scans were also performed for a visual comparison. The spatial resolution for SASB-THI is on average 19% better than DRI-THI, and the investigation of penetration showed equally good signal-to-noise ratio. In vivo B-mode scans were made and compared. The comparison showed that SASB-THI reduces the artifact and noise interference and improves image contrast and spatial resolution.

  19. Adaptive aperture synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. M.; Zhang, S.; Mudassar, A.; Love, G. D.; Greenaway, A. H.

    2005-12-01

    High-resolution imaging can be achieved by optical aperture synthesis (OAS). Such an imaging process is subject to aberrations introduced by instrumental defects and/or turbulent media. Redundant spacings calibration (RSC) is a snapshot calibration technique that can be used to calibrate OAS arrays without use of assumptions about the object being imaged. Here we investigate the analogies between RSC and adaptive optics in passive imaging applications.

  20. High numerical aperture focusing of singular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normatov, Alexander; Spektor, Boris; Shamir, Joseph

    2009-02-01

    Rigorous vector analysis of high numerical aperture optical systems encounters severe difficulties. While existing analytic methods, based on the Richards-Wolf approach, allow focusing of nearly planar incident wavefronts, these methods break down for beams possessing considerable phase jumps, such as beams containing phase singularities. This work was motivated by the need to analyze a recently introduced metrological application of singular beams that demonstrated an experimental sensitivity of 20nm under a moderate numerical aperture of 0.4. One of the possibilities to obtain even better sensitivity is by increasing the numerical aperture of the optical system. In this work we address the issue of high numerical aperture focusing of the involved singular beams. Our solution exploits the superposition principle to evaluate the three dimensional focal distribution of the electromagnetic field provided the illuminating wavefront can be described as having piecewise quasi constant phase. A brief overview of singular beam microscopy is followed by deeper discussion of the involved high numerical aperture focusing issue. Further, a few examples of different singular beam focal field distributions are presented.

  1. Multiple arrested synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, J. S.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the formulation and analysis of an airborne synthetic aperture rate scheme which employs a multiplicity of antennas with the displaced phase center antenna technique to detect slowly moving targets embedded in a severe clutter environment. The radar is evaluated using the target to clutter power ratio as the measure of performance. Noise is ignored in the analysis. An optimization scheme which maximizes this ratio is employed to obtain the optimum processor weighting. The performance of the MASAR processor with optimum weights is compared against that using target weights (composed of the target signal) and that using binomial weights (which, effectively, form an n-pulse canceller). Both the target and the clutter are modeled with the electric field backscattering coefficient. The target is modeled simply as a deterministically moving point scatterer with the same albedo as a point of clutter. The clutter is modeled as a homogeneous, isotropic, two dimensional, spatiotemporal random field for which only the correlation properties are required. The analysis shows that this radar, with its optimum weighting scheme, is a promising synthetic aperture concept for the detection of slowly moving targets immersed in strong clutter environments.

  2. Measurement of Fracture Aperture Fields Using Ttransmitted Light: An Evaluation of Measurement Errors and their Influence on Simulations of Flow and Transport through a Single Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Detwiler, Russell L.; Glass, Robert J.; Pringle, Scott E.

    1999-05-06

    Understanding of single and multi-phase flow and transport in fractures can be greatly enhanced through experimentation in transparent systems (analogs or replicas) where light transmission techniques yield quantitative measurements of aperture, solute concentration, and phase saturation fields. Here we quanti@ aperture field measurement error and demonstrate the influence of this error on the results of flow and transport simulations (hypothesized experimental results) through saturated and partially saturated fractures. find that precision and accuracy can be balanced to greatly improve the technique and We present a measurement protocol to obtain a minimum error field. Simulation results show an increased sensitivity to error as we move from flow to transport and from saturated to partially saturated conditions. Significant sensitivity under partially saturated conditions results in differences in channeling and multiple-peaked breakthrough curves. These results emphasize the critical importance of defining and minimizing error for studies of flow and transpoti in single fractures.

  3. Evaluation of allergic response using dynamic thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Rok, T.; Tatoń, G.

    2015-03-01

    Skin dynamic termography supplemented by a mathematical model is presented as an objective and sensitive indicator of the skin prick test result. Termographic measurements were performed simultaneously with routine skin prick tests. The IR images were acquired every 70 s up to 910 s after skin prick. In the model histamine is treated as the principal mediator of the allergic reaction. Histamine produces vasolidation and the engorged vessels are responsible for an increase in skin temperature. The model parameters were determined by fitting the analytical solutions to the spatio-temporal distributions of the differences between measured and baseline temperatures. The model reproduces experimental data very well (coefficient of determination = 0.805÷0.995). The method offers a set of parameters to describe separately skin allergic reaction and skin reactivity. The release of histamine after allergen injection is the best indicator of allergic response. The diagnostic parameter better correlates with the standard evaluation of a skin prick test (correlation coefficient = 0.98) than the result of the thermographic planimetric method based on temperature and heated area determination (0.81). The high sensitivity of the method allows for determination of the allergic response in patients with the reduced skin reactivity.

  4. Differential Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DOEpatents

    Stappaerts, Eddy A.

    2005-04-12

    A new differential technique for forming optical images using a synthetic aperture is introduced. This differential technique utilizes a single aperture to obtain unique (N) phases that can be processed to produce a synthetic aperture image at points along a trajectory. This is accomplished by dividing the aperture into two equal "subapertures", each having a width that is less than the actual aperture, along the direction of flight. As the platform flies along a given trajectory, a source illuminates objects and the two subapertures are configured to collect return signals. The techniques of the invention is designed to cancel common-mode errors, trajectory deviations from a straight line, and laser phase noise to provide the set of resultant (N) phases that can produce an image having a spatial resolution corresponding to a synthetic aperture.

  5. Experimental demonstration of tri-aperture Differential Synthetic Aperture Ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhilong; Huang, Jianyu; Wu, Shudong; Wang, Kunpeng; Bai, Tao; Dai, Ze; Kong, Xinyi; Wu, Jin

    2017-04-01

    A tri-aperture Differential Synthetic Aperture Ladar (DSAL) is demonstrated in laboratory, which is configured by using one common aperture to transmit the illuminating laser and another two along-track receiving apertures to collect back-scattered laser signal for optical heterodyne detection. The image formation theory on this tri-aperture DSAL shows that there are two possible methods to reconstruct the azimuth Phase History Data (PHD) for aperture synthesis by following standard DSAL principle, either method resulting in a different matched filter as well as an azimuth image resolution. The experimental setup of the tri-aperture DSAL adopts a frequency chirped laser of about 40 mW in 1550 nm wavelength range as the illuminating source and an optical isolator composed of a polarizing beam-splitter and a quarter wave plate to virtually line the three apertures in the along-track direction. Various DSAL images up to target distance of 12.9 m are demonstrated using both PHD reconstructing methods.

  6. Aperture modulated, translating bed total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Amjad; Villarreal-Barajas, Jose Eduardo; Dunscombe, Peter; Brown, Derek W.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) techniques aim to deliver a uniform radiation dose to a patient with an irregular body contour and a heterogeneous density distribution to within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. In the current article, the authors present a novel, aperture modulated, translating bed TBI (AMTBI) technique that produces a high degree of dose uniformity throughout the entire patient. Methods: The radiation beam is dynamically shaped in two dimensions using a multileaf collimator (MLC). The irregular surface compensation algorithm in the Eclipse treatment planning system is used for fluence optimization, which is performed based on penetration depth and internal inhomogeneities. Two optimal fluence maps (AP and PA) are generated and beam apertures are created to deliver these optimal fluences. During treatment, the patient/phantom is translated on a motorized bed close to the floor (source to bed distance: 204.5 cm) under a stationary radiation beam with 0 deg. gantry angle. The bed motion and dynamic beam apertures are synchronized. Results: The AMTBI technique produces a more homogeneous dose distribution than fixed open beam translating bed TBI. In phantom studies, the dose deviation along the midline is reduced from 10% to less than 5% of the prescribed dose in the longitudinal direction. Dose to the lung is reduced by more than 15% compared to the unshielded fixed open beam technique. At the lateral body edges, the dose received from the open beam technique was 20% higher than that prescribed at umbilicus midplane. With AMTBI the dose deviation in this same region is reduced to less than 3% of the prescribed dose. Validation of the technique was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Rando phantom. Agreement between calculation and measurement was better than 3% in all cases. Conclusions: A novel, translating bed, aperture modulated TBI technique that employs dynamically shaped MLC defined beams is shown to improve dose uniformity

  7. Holographically Correcting Synthetic Aperture Aberrations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Malacara (20:105-148). The synthetic aperture was aligned in accordance with the synthetic-aperture alignment technique of Gill (8:61-64). The...1987. 20. Malacara , Daniel, ed. Optical Shop Testing. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978. 21. Marciniak, Capt Michael. Tutorial Presentation of mV

  8. Material Measurements Using Groundplane Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komisarek, K.; Dominek, A.; Wang, N.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for material parameter determination using an aperture in a groundplane is studied. The material parameters are found by relating the measured reflected field in the aperture to a numerical model. Two apertures are studied which can have a variety of different material configurations covering the aperture. The aperture cross-sections studied are rectangular and coaxial. The material configurations involved combinations of single layer and dual layers with or without a resistive exterior resistive sheet. The resistivity of the resistive sheet can be specified to simulate a perfect electric conductor (PEC) backing (0 Ohms/square) to a free space backing (infinity Ohms/square). Numerical parameter studies and measurements were performed to assess the feasibility of the technique.

  9. Sonovestibular symptoms evaluated by computed dynamic posturography.

    PubMed

    Teszler, C B; Ben-David, J; Podoshin, L; Sabo, E

    2000-01-01

    The investigation of stability under bilateral acoustic stimulation was undertaken in an attempt to mimic the real-life conditions of noisy environment (e.g., industry, aviation). The Tullio phenomenon evaluated by computed dynamic posturography (CDP) under acoustic stimulation is reflected in postural unsteadiness, rather than in the classic nystagmus. With such a method, the dangerous effects of noise-induced instability can be assessed and prevented. Three groups of subjects were submitted. The first (group A) included 20 patients who complained of sonovestibular symptoms (i.e., Tullio phenomenon) on the background of an inner-ear disease. The second group (B) included 20 neurootological patients without a history of Tullio phenomenon. Group C consisted of 20 patients with normal hearing, as controls. A pure-tone stimulus of 1,000 Hz at 110 dB was delivered binaurally for 20 seconds during condition 5 and condition 6 of the CDP sensory organization test. The sequence of six sensory organization conditions was performed three times with two intermissions of 15-20 minutes between the trials. The first was performed in the regular mode (quiet stance). This was followed 20 minutes by a trial carried out in quiet stance in sensory organizations tests (SOTs) 1 through 4, and with acoustic stimulation in SOT 5 and SOT 6. The last test was performed in quiet stance throughout (identical to the first trial). A significant drop in the composite equilibrium score was witnessed in group A patients upon acoustic stimulation (p < .0001). This imbalance did not disappear completely until 20 minutes later when the third sensory organization trial was performed. In fact, the composite score obtained on the last SOT was still significantly worse than the baseline. Group B and the normal subjects (group C) showed no significant change in composite score. As regards the vestibular ratio score, again, group A marked a drop on stimulation with sound (p < .004). This decrease

  10. Dynamics Explorer twin spacecraft under evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, C.

    1981-01-01

    The Dynamics Explorer A and B satellites designed to explore the interactive processes occuring between the magnetosphere and Earth's ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and plasmasphere are described. Effects of these interactions, satellite orbits, data collecting antennas, solar power systems, axes, configurations, and Earth based command, control and data display systems are mentioned.

  11. Dynamic risk factors: the Kia Marama evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Stephen M; Wales, David S; Bakker, Leon; Ward, Tony

    2002-04-01

    Risk assessment is an essential part of clinical practice. Each of the three aspects of risk (static, stable, and acute dynamic) are important at various points of contact between the man and the systems that are responsible for providing service. Dynamic factors, the typical treatment and supervision targets, have received less research attention than static factors. This paper examined the extent to which pretreatment, posttreatment and change scores were associated with reoffending among men incarcerated for sexually molesting. The results were generally supportive of change in prooffending attitudes as the key to not reoffending and suggested that the perspective-taking component of empathy and the use of fantasy may be important mechanisms. Affect scales generally failed to show any relationship with reoffending, outside decreases in trait and suppressed anger. Moreover, these data suggest that we could improve our assessments and treatment through increased sensitivity to offense pathways.

  12. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  13. Dynamic Crack Branching - A Photoelastic Evaluation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    24. Freund, L. B., "Dynamic Crack Propagation", Mechanics of Fracture, Vol. 19, edited by F. Erdogan, ASME, 1976 , pp. 105-134. 25. Streit, R., and... spangle Dtie"Itty *I CowoffdO Reserch Laboeuotee for eM ousrme so bftgesrif UakIOŘ b.alSeg"Cl of 211135* asews t of MetasŘlosifts184 bgieaue Sellese

  14. Synthetic aperture hitchhiker imaging.

    PubMed

    Yarman, Can Evren; Yazici, Birsen

    2008-11-01

    We introduce a novel synthetic-aperture imaging method for radar systems that rely on sources of opportunity. We consider receivers that fly along arbitrary, but known, flight trajectories and develop a spatio-temporal correlation-based filtered-backprojection-type image reconstruction method. The method involves first correlating the measurements from two different receiver locations. This leads to a forward model where the radiance of the target scene is projected onto the intersection of certain hyperboloids with the surface topography. We next use microlocal techniques to develop a filtered-backprojection-type inversion method to recover the scene radiance. The method is applicable to both stationary and mobile, and cooperative and noncooperative sources of opportunity. Additionally, it is applicable to nonideal imaging scenarios such as those involving arbitrary flight trajectories, and has the desirable property of preserving the visible edges of the scene radiance. We present an analysis of the computational complexity of the image reconstruction method and demonstrate its performance in numerical simulations for single and multiple transmitters of opportunity.

  15. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Joseph P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part thereof, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases the utility thereof. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing.

  16. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, J.P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope is disclosed which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases it's utility. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing. 7 figs.

  17. Aperture masking interferometry research simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitao; Luo, Qiufeng; Fan, Weijun; Zhang, Xian Ling; Tao, Chunkan; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhou, Bifang; Chen, Hanliang

    2004-10-01

    Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) is one of the high-resolution astronomical image observation technologies. It is also an important research way to the Optical Aperture Synthesis (OAS). The theory of OAS is simply introduced and AMI simulation method is raised. The mathematics model is built and the interferogram fringes are got. The aperture mask u-v coverage is discussed and one image reconstruction method is done. The reconstructed image result is got with CLEAN method. Shortcoming of this work is also referred and the future research work is mentioned at last.

  18. A Scalable Distribution Network Risk Evaluation Framework via Symbolic Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kai; Liu, Jian; Liu, Kaipei; Tan, Tianyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Evaluations of electric power distribution network risks must address the problems of incomplete information and changing dynamics. A risk evaluation framework should be adaptable to a specific situation and an evolving understanding of risk. Methods This study investigates the use of symbolic dynamics to abstract raw data. After introducing symbolic dynamics operators, Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Kullback-Leibler relative entropy are used to quantitatively evaluate relationships between risk sub-factors and main factors. For layered risk indicators, where the factors are categorized into four main factors – device, structure, load and special operation – a merging algorithm using operators to calculate the risk factors is discussed. Finally, an example from the Sanya Power Company is given to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Conclusion Distribution networks are exposed and can be affected by many things. The topology and the operating mode of a distribution network are dynamic, so the faults and their consequences are probabilistic. PMID:25789859

  19. Synthetic aperture radar processing with tiered subapertures

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.

    1994-06-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used to form images that are maps of radar reflectivity of some scene of interest, from range soundings taken over some spatial aperture. Additionally, the range soundings are typically synthesized from a sampled frequency aperture. Efficient processing of the collected data necessitates using efficient digital signal processing techniques such as vector multiplies and fast implementations of the Discrete Fourier Transform. Inherent in image formation algorithms that use these is a trade-off between the size of the scene that can be acceptably imaged, and the resolution with which the image can be made. These limits arise from migration errors and spatially variant phase errors, and different algorithms mitigate these to varying degrees. Two fairly successful algorithms for airborne SARs are Polar Format processing, and Overlapped Subaperture (OSA) processing. This report introduces and summarizes the analysis of generalized Tiered Subaperture (TSA) techniques that are a superset of both Polar Format processing and OSA processing. It is shown how tiers of subapertures in both azimuth and range can effectively mitigate both migration errors and spatially variant phase errors to allow virtually arbitrary scene sizes, even in a dynamic motion environment.

  20. Peer Dynamics 1977-78 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shada, Marsha; Winger, Joan

    This is an evaluation of the second year of a program designed to reduce the incidence of destructive risk-taking behavior (e.g., drug-alcohol abuse and juvenile delinquency) among school-age youth. Background research indicates that peer group pressure is the single most important factor in dictating the presence or absence of juvenile…

  1. Peer Dynamics 1978-79 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winger, Joan

    This is an evaluation of the first year of a program designed to reduce the incidence of destructive risk-taking behavior (e.g., drug-alcohol abuse and juvenile delinquency) among school-age youth. Background research indicates that peer group pressure is the single most important factor in dictating the presence or absence of juvenile delinquency…

  2. Dynamic Evaluation of Distance Education Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Matthew V.

    This paper focuses on the Interactive and Distance Education Assessment (IDEA) laboratory, an assessment system developed by psychology students and faculty at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (New York) that incorporated learning styles, teaching styles, and other measures of individual difference into the evaluation of interactive and distance…

  3. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  4. Microelectrofluidic iris for variable aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jong-hyeon; Jung, Kyu-Dong; Lee, Eunsung; Choi, Minseog; Lee, Seungwan

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a variable aperture design based on the microelectrofluidic technology which integrates electrowetting and microfluidics. The proposed microelectrofluidic iris (MEFI) consists of two immiscible fluids and two connected surface channels formed by three transparent plates and two spacers between them. In the initial state, the confined aqueous ring makes two fluidic interfaces, on which the Laplace pressure is same, in the hydrophobic surface channels. When a certain voltage is applied between the dielectric-coated control electrode beneath the three-phase contact line (TCL) and the reference electrode for grounding the aqueous, the contact angle changes on the activated control electrode. At high voltage over the threshold, the induced positive pressure difference makes the TCLs on the 1st channel advance to the center and the aperture narrow. If there is no potential difference between the control and reference electrodes, the pressure difference becomes negative. It makes the TCLs on the 1st channel recede and the aperture widen to the initial state. It is expected that the proposed MEFI is able to be widely used because of its fast response, circular aperture, digital operation, high aperture ratio, and possibility to be miniaturized for variable aperture.

  5. Antenna aperture and imaging resolution of synthetic aperture imaging ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liren

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the azimuth imaging resolutions of synthetic aperture imaging ladar (SAIL) using the antenna telescopes with a circular aperture for reception and a circular plan or a Gaussian beam for transmitting and with a rectangular aperture for reception and a rectangular plane or an elliptic Gaussian beam for transmitting are investigated. The analytic expressions of impulse response for imaging are achieved. The ideal azimuth spot of resolution and its degradation due to the target deviation from the footprint center, the mismatch from the quadratic phase matched filtering, the finite sampling rate and width are discussed. And the range resolution is also studied. Mathematical criteria are all given. As a conclusion, the telescope of rectangular aperture can provide a rectangular footprint more suitable for the SAIL scanning format, and an optimal design of aperture is thus possible for both a high resolution and a wide scan strip. Moreover, an explanation to the resulted azimuth resolution from our laboratory-scaled SAIL is given to verify the developed theory.

  6. Moisture evaluation by dynamic thermography data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bison, Paolo G.; Grinzato, Ermanno G.; Marinetti, Sergio

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses the design of a nondestructive method for in situ detection of moistened areas in buildings and the evaluation of the water content in porous materials by thermographic analysis. The use of heat transfer model to interpret data allows to improve the measurement accuracy taking into account the actual boundary conditions. The relative increase of computation time is balanced by the additional advantage to optimize the testing procedure of different objects simulating the heat transfer. Experimental results on bricks used in building for restoration activities, are discussed. The water content measured in different hygrometric conditions is compared with known values. A correction on the absorptivity coefficient dependent on water content is introduced.

  7. Large aperture adaptive optics for intense lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneuville, François; Ropert, Laurent; Sauvageot, Paul; Theis, Sébastien

    2015-05-01

    ISP SYSTEM has developed a range of large aperture electro-mechanical deformable mirrors (DM) suitable for ultra short pulsed intense lasers. The design of the MD-AME deformable mirror is based on force application on numerous locations thanks to electromechanical actuators driven by stepper motors. DM design and assembly method have been adapted to large aperture beams and the performances were evaluated on a first application for a beam with a diameter of 250mm at 45° angle of incidence. A Strehl ratio above 0.9 was reached for this application. Simulations were correlated with measurements on optical bench and the design has been validated by calculation for very large aperture (up to Ø550mm). Optical aberrations up to Zernike order 5 can be corrected with a very low residual error as for actual MD-AME mirror. Amplitude can reach up to several hundreds of μm for low order corrections. Hysteresis is lower than 0.1% and linearity better than 99%. Contrary to piezo-electric actuators, the μ-AME actuators avoid print-through effects and they permit to keep the mirror shape stable even unpowered, providing a high resistance to electro-magnetic pulses. The MD-AME mirrors can be adapted to circular, square or elliptical beams and they are compatible with all dielectric or metallic coatings.

  8. Apodized apertures for solar coronagraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aime, C.

    2007-05-01

    Aims:We propose the principle of a new solar telescope that makes it possible to observe the solar corona very close to the solar limb, without the help of a Lyot coronagraph. The result is obtained using a strongly apodized aperture. Methods: We obtain the theoretical form of the diffraction halo produced by the solar disk at the level of the corona for a perfect diffraction-limited telescope, for raw and apodized apertures. The problem is first solved at one dimension for which a complete set of analytical expressions can be derived, including the effect of the center-to-limb solar variation. Formal equations are written for the two-dimensional case, and it is shown that the expression may take the form of a 1D integral. Nevertheless, the problem is difficult to solve. An analytic expression can be worked out using the line spread function, which is shown to give a valid approximation of the problem, in excellent agreement with a numerical computation that uses the exact integral. Results: We show for the raw aperture that the diffraction halo is very strong and decreases slowly as ρ-1. We propose as a solution to this problem an apodized aperture based on the generalized prolate spheroidal functions (GPSF). Such an apodized aperture may reduce the diffraction halo enough to permit a direct observation of the solar corona very close to the solar limb. A signal-to-noise ratio analysis is given. Conclusions: Different strengths of apodization may be used, but very strong apodizations are indeed mandatory. A good choice seems to be a GPSF aperture with the prolate coefficient c on the order of 10. It could reduce the halo of diffraction by a factor 105 (at the cost of an intensity throughput of 10% and a reduction in the classical resolution by a factor of about 1.6) and permit observation of the corona very close to the solar limb.

  9. Mosaic of coded aperture arrays

    DOEpatents

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Cannon, Thomas M.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a mosaic of coded aperture arrays which is capable of imaging off-axis sources with minimum detector size. Mosaics of the basic array pattern create a circular on periodic correlation of the object on a section of the picture plane. This section consists of elements of the central basic pattern as well as elements from neighboring patterns and is a cyclic version of the basic pattern. Since all object points contribute a complete cyclic version of the basic pattern, a section of the picture, which is the size of the basic aperture pattern, contains all the information necessary to image the object with no artifacts.

  10. Synthetic Aperture Radar Oceanographic Investigations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Shuchman, P.G. Teleki, S.V. Hsiao, O.H. Shemdin , and W.E. Brown, Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging of Ocean Waves : Comparison with Wave Measurements, J... Shemdin , Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging of Ocean Waves during the Marineland Experiment, IEEE J. Oceanic Eg., OE-8, pp. 83-90, 1983. 12. R.A...If the surface reflectivity is assumed to be spatially un- section. are computed from the wave height spectrum as correlated, i.e. follows . (x. Y. t

  11. Evaluation of Electromechanical Systems Dynamically Emulating a Candidate Hydrokinetic Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cavagnaro, Robert J.; Neely, Jason C.; Fay, Franois-Xavier; Mendia, Joseba Lopez; Rea, Judith A.

    2016-11-06

    The use of controllable motor-generator sets to emulate the dynamics of a hydrokinetic turbine is evaluated as an alternative to field testing a prototype. The emulator control dynamic equations are presented, methods for scaling turbine parameters are examined, and experimental results are presented from three electromechanical emulation machines (EEMs) programmed to emulate the same vertical-axis fixed-pitch turbine. Although hardware platforms and control implementations varied, results show that each EEM is successful in emulating the turbine model, thus demonstrating the general feasibility of the approach. However, performance of motor control under torque command, current command or speed command differed. In one of the EEMs evaluated, the power take off controller tracks the maximum power-point of the turbine in response to turbulence. Utilizing realistic inflow conditions and control laws, the emulator dynamic speed response is shown to agree well at low frequencies with numerical simulation but to deviate at high frequencies.

  12. Directional synthetic aperture flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov

    2004-09-01

    A method for flow estimation using synthetic aperture imaging and focusing along the flow direction is presented. The method can find the correct velocity magnitude for any flow angle, and full color flow images can be measured using only 32 to 128 pulse emissions. The approach uses spherical wave emissions with a number of defocused elements and a linear frequency-modulated pulse (chirp) to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The received signals are dynamically focused along the flow direction and these signals are used in a cross-correlation estimator for finding the velocity magnitude. The flow angle is manually determined from the B-mode image. The approach can be used for both tissue and blood velocity determination. The approach was investigated using both simulations and a flow system with a laminar flow. The flow profile was measured with a commercial 7.5 MHz linear array transducer. A plastic tube with an internal diameter of 17 mm was used with an EcoWatt 1 pump generating a laminar, stationary flow. The velocity profile was measured for flow angles of 90 and 60 degrees. The RASMUS research scanner was used for acquiring radio frequency (RF) data from 128 elements of the array, using 8 emissions with 11 elements in each emission. A 20-micros chirp was used during emission. The RF data were subsequently beamformed off-line and stationary echo canceling was performed. The 60-degree flow with a peak velocity of 0.15 m/s was determined using 16 groups of 8 emissions, and the relative standard deviation was 0.36% (0.65 mm/s). Using the same setup for purely transverse flow gave a standard deviation of 1.2% (2.1 mm/s). Variation of the different parameters revealed the sensitivity to number of lines, angle deviations, length of correlation interval, and sampling interval. An in vivo image of the carotid artery and jugular vein of a healthy 29-year-old volunteer was acquired. A full color flow image using only 128 emissions could be made with a high

  13. Evaluating effectiveness of dynamic soundfield system in the classroom

    PubMed Central

    da Cruz, Aline Duarte; Alves Silvério, Kelly Cristina; Da Costa, Aline Roberta Aceituno; Moret, Adriane Lima Mortari; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; de Souza Jacob, Regina Tangerino

    2016-01-01

    Research has reported on the use of soundfield amplification devices in the classroom. However, no study has used standardized tests to determine the potential advantages of the dynamic soundfield system for normally hearing students and for the teacher's voice. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of using dynamic soundfield system on the noise of the classroom, teacher's voice and students’ academic performance. This was a prospective cohort study in which 20 student participants enrolled in the third year of basic education were divided into two groups (i.e., control and experimental); their teacher participated. The experimental group was exposed to the dynamic soundfield system for 3 consecutive months. The groups were assessed using standardized tests to evaluate their academic performance. Further, questionnaires and statements were collected on the participants’ experience of using the soundfield system. We statistically analyzed the results to compare the academic performance of the control group with that of the experimental group. In all cases, a significance level of P < .05 was adopted. Use of the dynamic soundfield system was effective for improving the students’ academic performance on standardized tests for reading, improving the teacher's speech intelligibility, and reducing the teacher's vocal strain. The dynamic soundfield system minimizes the impact of noise in the classroom as demonstrated by the mensuration of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and pupil performance on standardized tests for reading and student and teacher ratings of amplification system effectiveness. PMID:26780961

  14. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  15. SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of radar imagery from space altitudes is discussed and the advantages of radar over passive sensor systems are outlined. Specific reference is made to the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar. Possible applications include oil spill monitoring, snow and ice reconnaissance, mineral exploration, and monitoring phenomena in the urban environment.

  16. Future of synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barath, F. T.

    1978-01-01

    The present status of the applications of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) is reviewed, and the technology state-of-the art as represented by the Seasat-A and SIR-A SARs examined. The potential of SAR applications, and the near- and longer-term technology trends are assessed.

  17. Dynamic Aperture-based Solar Loop Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jon Kwan; Newman, Timothy S.; Gary, G. Allen

    2006-01-01

    A new method to automatically segment arc-like loop structures from intensity images of the Sun's corona is introduced. The method constructively segments credible loop structures by exploiting the Gaussian-like shape of loop cross-sectional intensity profiles. The experimental results show that the method reasonably segments most of the well-defined loops in coronal images. The method is only the second published automated solar loop segmentation method. Its advantage over the other published method is that it operates independently of supplemental time specific data.

  18. An Aperture Photometry Pipeline for K2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzasi, Derek L.; Carboneau, Lindsey; Lezcano, Andy; Vydra, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research program with undergraduate students at Florida Gulf Coast University, we have constructed an aperture photometry pipeline for K2 data. The pipeline performs dynamic automated aperture mask definition for all targets in the K2 fields, followed by aperture photometry and detrending. Our pipeline is currently used to support a number of projects, including studies of stellar rotation and activity, red giant asteroseismology, gyrochronology, and exoplanet searches. In addition, output is used to support an undergraduate class on exoplanets aimed at a student audience of both majors and non-majors. The pipeline is designed for both batch and single-target use, and is easily extensible to data from other missions, and pipeline output is available to the community. This paper will describe our pipeline and its capabilities and illustrate the quality of the results, drawing on all of the applications for which it is currently used.

  19. Pavement nondestructive evaluation using finite-element dynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, W.; Hackett, R. M.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the nondestructive evaluation devices, visual distress survey and coring used to investigate jointed concrete pavement performance in northern Mississippi. 3D finite-element models were developed to simulate in-service conditions and to characterize in-situ material properties. Reasonable good agreement is found between in-situ moduli backcalculated from the dynamic analysis of falling weight deflectometer (FWD) deflections measured on selected pavements and laboratory moduli. Effects of load pulse shape, cracking, and discontinuities on the surface deflection response of pavements subjected to FWD load wee also investigated. It is shown that 3D analysis of temperature distribution and resulting thermal stresses play a significant role int he performance of concrete pavements. The study results demonstrated the extensive usefulness of the finite-element dynamic analysis and limitations of the static multilayered analysis and other pavement analysis programs which do not allow for crack modeling and dynamic analysis.

  20. Synthetic-aperture chirp confocal imaging.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wei-Chen; Dilworth, D S; Liu, Elson; Leith, E N

    2006-01-20

    An imaging system that combines synthetic-aperture imaging, holography, and an optical chirp with confocal imaging is described and analyzed. Comparisons are made with synthetic-aperture radar systems. Adaptation of several synthetic-aperture radar techniques to the optical counterparts is suggested.

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of the Reticuloendothelial System Function with Dynamic MRI

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Choi, Hoon; Zhou, Rong; Chen, I-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the reticuloendothelial system (RES) function by real-time imaging blood clearance as well as hepatic uptake of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO) using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with two-compartment pharmacokinetic modeling. Materials and Methods Kinetics of blood clearance and hepatic accumulation were recorded in young adult male 01b74 athymic nude mice by dynamic T2* weighted MRI after the injection of different doses of SPIO nanoparticles (0.5, 3 or 10 mg Fe/kg). Association parameter, Kin, dissociation parameter, Kout, and elimination constant, Ke, derived from dynamic data with two-compartment model, were used to describe active binding to Kupffer cells and extrahepatic clearance. The clodrosome and liposome were utilized to deplete macrophages and block the RES function to evaluate the capability of the kinetic parameters for investigation of macrophage function and density. Results The two-compartment model provided a good description for all data and showed a low sum squared residual for all mice (0.27±0.03). A lower Kin, a lower Kout and a lower Ke were found after clodrosome treatment, whereas a lower Kin, a higher Kout and a lower Ke were observed after liposome treatment in comparison to saline treatment (P<0.005). Conclusion Dynamic SPIO-enhanced MR imaging with two-compartment modeling can provide information on RES function on both a cell number and receptor function level. PMID:25090653

  2. The Dynamic Integrated Evaluation Model (DIEM): Achieving Sustainability in Organizational Intervention through a Participatory Evaluation Approach.

    PubMed

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Lundmark, Robert; Hasson, Henna

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there have been calls to develop ways of using a participatory approach when conducting interventions, including evaluating the process and context to improve and adapt the intervention as it evolves over time. The need to integrate interventions into daily organizational practices, thereby increasing the likelihood of successful implementation and sustainable changes, has also been highlighted. We propose an evaluation model-the Dynamic Integrated Evaluation Model (DIEM)-that takes this into consideration. In the model, evaluation is fitted into a co-created iterative intervention process, in which the intervention activities can be continuously adapted based on collected data. By explicitly integrating process and context factors, DIEM also considers the dynamic sustainability of the intervention over time. It emphasizes the practical value of these evaluations for organizations, as well as the importance of their rigorousness for research purposes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Sustainable deforestation evaluation model and system dynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C W; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony.

  4. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Huirong; Lim, C. W.; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony. PMID:25254225

  5. Broadband synthetic aperture geoacoustic inversion.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bien Aik; Gerstoft, Peter; Yardim, Caglar; Hodgkiss, William S

    2013-07-01

    A typical geoacoustic inversion procedure involves powerful source transmissions received on a large-aperture receiver array. A more practical approach is to use a single moving source and/or receiver in a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) setting. This paper uses single-receiver, broadband, frequency coherent matched-field inversion and exploits coherently repeated transmissions to improve estimation of the geoacoustic parameters. The long observation time creates a synthetic aperture due to relative source-receiver motion. This approach is illustrated by studying the transmission of multiple linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulses which results in a multi-tonal comb spectrum that is Doppler sensitive. To correlate well with the measured field across a receiver trajectory and to incorporate transmission from a source trajectory, waveguide Doppler and normal mode theory is applied. The method is demonstrated with low SNR, 100-900 Hz LFM pulse data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment.

  6. VSATs - Very small aperture terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, John L.

    The present volume on very small aperture terminals (VSATs) discusses antennas, semiconductor devices, and traveling wave tubes and amplifiers for VSAT systems, VSAT low noise downconverters, and modems and codecs for VSAT systems. Attention is given to multiaccess protocols for VSAT networks, protocol software in Ku-band VSAT network systems, system design of VSAT data networks, and the policing of VSAT networks. Topics addressed include the PANDATA and PolyCom systems, APOLLO - a satellite-based information distribution system, data broadcasting within a satellite television channel, and the NEC NEXTAR VSAT system. Also discussed are small aperture military ground terminals, link budgets for VSAT systems, capabilities and experience of a VSAT service provider, and developments in VSAT regulation.

  7. Large Aperture Scintillometer Intercomparison Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleissl, J.; Gomez, J.; Hong, S.-H.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Rahn, T.; Defoor, W. L.

    2008-07-01

    Two field studies with six large aperture scintillometers (LASs) were performed using horizontal and slant paths. The accuracy of this novel and increasingly popular technique for measuring sensible heat fluxes was quantified by comparing measurements from different instruments over nearly identical transects. Random errors in LAS measurements were small, since correlation coefficients between adjacent measurements were greater than 0.995. However, for an ideal set-up differences in linear regression slopes of up to 21% were observed with typical inter-instrument differences of 6%. Differences of 10% are typical in more realistic measurement scenarios over homogeneous natural vegetation and different transect heights and locations. Inaccuracies in the optics, which affect the effective aperture diameter, are the most likely explanation for the observed differences.

  8. Synthetic Aperture Radar Simulation Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    multilook are discussed. A chapter is devoted to elevation and planimetric data bases. In addition, six- teen pictures of SAR images from Hughes Aircraft, as...scans. Figure 5.4-1 is a photograph ot two SAR displays. The tirst display is made up ot six subscans and has a multilook ot one. Note that tading is...dentfi by block number) * Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) Simulation Study Radar Simulation Data Bases 5/~t. 4th.- Computer Image Generation Display 20

  9. Sparse-aperture adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuthill, Peter; Lloyd, James; Ireland, Michael; Martinache, Frantz; Monnier, John; Woodruff, Henry; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Turner, Nils; Townes, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Aperture masking interferometry and Adaptive Optics (AO) are two of the competing technologies attempting to recover diffraction-limited performance from ground-based telescopes. However, there are good arguments that these techniques should be viewed as complementary, not competitive. Masking has been shown to deliver superior PSF calibration, rejection of atmospheric noise and robust recovery of phase information through the use of closure phases. However, this comes at the penalty of loss of flux at the mask, restricting the technique to bright targets. Adaptive optics, on the other hand, can reach a fainter class of objects but suffers from the difficulty of calibration of the PSF which can vary with observational parameters such as seeing, airmass and source brightness. Here we present results from a fusion of these two techniques: placing an aperture mask downstream of an AO system. The precision characterization of the PSF enabled by sparse-aperture interferometry can now be applied to deconvolution of AO images, recovering structure from the traditionally-difficult regime within the core of the AO-corrected transfer function. Results of this program from the Palomar and Keck adaptive optical systems are presented.

  10. Evaluation of GLOCK 9 mm Firing Pin Aperture Shear Mark Individuality Based On 1,632 Different Pistols by Traditional Pattern Matching and IBIS Pattern Recognition.

    PubMed

    Hamby, James E; Norris, Stephen; Petraco, Nicholas D K

    2016-01-01

    Over a period of 21 years, a number of fired GLOCK cartridge cases have been evaluated. A total of 1632 GLOCK firearms were used to generate a sample of the same size. Our research hypothesis was that no cartridge cases fired from different 9-mm semiautomatic GLOCK pistols would be mistaken as coming from the same gun. Using optical comparison microscopy, two separate experiments were carried out to test this hypothesis. A subsample of 617 test-fired cases were subjected to algorithmic comparison by the Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS). The second experiment subjected the full set of 1632 cases to manual comparisons using traditional pattern matching. None of the cartridge cases were "matched" by either of these two experiments. Using these empirical findings, an established Bayesian probability model was used to estimate the chance that a 9-mm cartridge case, fired from a GLOCK, could be mistaken as coming from the same firearm when in fact it did not (i.e., the random match probability).

  11. Coded-Aperture Transaxial Tomography Using Modular Gamma Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roney, Timothy Joseph

    Imaging in nuclear medicine involves the injection of a radioactive tracer into the body and subsequent detection of the radiation emanating from an organ of interest. Single -photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is the branch of nuclear medicine that yields three-dimensional maps of the distribution of a tracer, most commonly as a series of two-dimensional slices. One major drawback to transaxial tomographic imaging in SPECT today is the rotation required of a gamma camera to collect the tomographic data set. Transaxial SPECT usually involves a large, single-crystal scintillation camera and an aperture (collimator) that together only satisfy a small portion of the spatial sampling requirements simultaneously. It would be very desirable to have a stationary data-collection apparatus that allows all spatial sampling in the data set to occur simultaneously. Aperture or detector motion (or both) is merely an inconvenience in most imaging situations where the patient is stationary. However, aperture or detector motion (or both) enormously complicate the prospect of tomograhically recording dynamic events, such as the beating heart, with radioactive pharmaceuticals. By substituting a set of small modular detectors for the large single-crystal detector, we can arrange the usable detector area in such a way as to collect all spatial samples simultaneously. The modular detectors allow for the possibility of using other types of stationary apertures. We demonstrate the capabilities of one such aperture, the pinhole array. The pinhole array is one of many kinds of collimators known as coded apertures. Coded apertures differ from conventional apertures in nuclear medicine in that they allow for overlapping projections of the object on the detector. Although overlapping projections is not a requirement when using pinhole arrays, there are potential benefits in terms of collection efficiency. There are also potential drawbacks in terms of the position uncertainty of

  12. Controlled-aperture wave-equation migration

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.; Sun, H.; Li, Z.

    2003-01-01

    We present a controlled-aperture wave-equation migration method that no1 only can reduce migration artiracts due to limited recording aperlurcs and determine image weights to balance the efl'ects of limited-aperture illumination, but also can improve thc migration accuracy by reducing the slowness perturbations within thc controlled migration regions. The method consists of two steps: migration aperture scan and controlled-aperture migration. Migration apertures for a sparse distribution of shots arc determined using wave-equation migration, and those for the other shots are obtained by interpolation. During the final controlled-aperture niigration step, we can select a reference slowness in c;ontrollecl regions of the slowness model to reduce slowncss perturbations, and consequently increase the accuracy of wave-equation migration inel hods that makc use of reference slownesses. In addition, the computation in the space domain during wavefield downward continuation is needed to be conducted only within the controlled apertures and therefore, the computational cost of controlled-aperture migration step (without including migration aperture scan) is less than the corresponding uncontrolled-aperture migration. Finally, we can use the efficient split-step Fourier approach for migration-aperture scan, then use other, more accurate though more expensive, wave-equation migration methods to perform thc final controlled-apertio.ee migration to produce the most accurate image.

  13. Numerical integration of diffraction integrals for a circular aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, I. J.; Sheppard, C. J. R.; Sharma, M.

    It is possible to obtain an accurate irradiance distribution for the diffracted wave field from an aperture by the numerical evaluation of the two-dimensional diffraction integrals using a product-integration method in which Simpson's 1/3 rule is applied twice. The calculations can be done quickly using a standard PC by utilizing matrix operations on complex numbers with Matlab. The diffracted wave field can be calculated from the plane of the aperture to the far field without introducing many of the standard approximations that are used to give Fresnel or Fraunhofer diffraction. The numerical method is used to compare the diffracted irradiance distribution from a circular aperture as predicted by Kirchhoff, Rayleigh-Sommerfeld 1 and Rayleigh-Sommerfeld 2 diffraction integrals.

  14. Interference Mitigation Effects on Synthetic Aperture Radar Coherent Data Products

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrove, Cameron

    2015-07-01

    For synthetic aperture radars radio frequency interference from sources external to the radar system and techniques to mitigate the interference can degrade the quality of the image products. Usually the radar system designer will try to balance the amount of mitigation for an acceptable amount of interference to optimize the image quality. This dissertation examines the effect of interference mitigation upon coherent data products of fine resolution, high frequency synthetic aperture radars using stretch processing. Novel interference mitigation techniques are introduced that operate on single or multiple apertures of data that increase average coherence compared to existing techniques. New metrics are applied to evaluate multiple mitigation techniques for image quality and average coherence. The underlying mechanism for interference mitigation techniques that affect coherence is revealed.

  15. Evaluation of Electromechanical Systems Dynamically Emulating a Candidate Hydrokinetic Turbine

    DOE PAGES

    Cavagnaro, Robert J.; Neely, Jason C.; Fay, Franois-Xavier; ...

    2016-11-06

    The use of controllable motor-generator sets to emulate the dynamics of a hydrokinetic turbine is evaluated as an alternative to field testing a prototype. The emulator control dynamic equations are presented, methods for scaling turbine parameters are examined, and experimental results are presented from three electromechanical emulation machines (EEMs) programmed to emulate the same vertical-axis fixed-pitch turbine. Although hardware platforms and control implementations varied, results show that each EEM is successful in emulating the turbine model, thus demonstrating the general feasibility of the approach. However, performance of motor control under torque command, current command or speed command differed. In onemore » of the EEMs evaluated, the power take off controller tracks the maximum power-point of the turbine in response to turbulence. Utilizing realistic inflow conditions and control laws, the emulator dynamic speed response is shown to agree well at low frequencies with numerical simulation but to deviate at high frequencies.« less

  16. A method for the evaluation of wide dynamic range cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ping Wah; Lu, Yu Hua

    2012-01-01

    We propose a multi-component metric for the evaluation of digital or video cameras under wide dynamic range (WDR) scenes. The method is based on a single image capture using a specifically designed WDR test chart and light box. Test patterns on the WDR test chart include gray ramps, color patches, arrays of gray patches, white bars, and a relatively dark gray background. The WDR test chart is professionally made using 3 layers of transparencies to produce a contrast ratio of approximately 110 dB for WDR testing. A light box is designed to provide a uniform surface with light level at about 80K to 100K lux, which is typical of a sunny outdoor scene. From a captured image, 9 image quality component scores are calculated. The components include number of resolvable gray steps, dynamic range, linearity of tone response, grayness of gray ramp, number of distinguishable color patches, smearing resistance, edge contrast, grid clarity, and weighted signal-to-noise ratio. A composite score is calculated from the 9 component scores to reflect the comprehensive image quality in cameras under WDR scenes. Experimental results have demonstrated that the multi-component metric corresponds very well to subjective evaluation of wide dynamic range behavior of cameras.

  17. A dynamical approach to evaluate risk in resource management.

    PubMed

    Hatton, I A; McCann, K S; Umbanhowar, J; Rasmussen, J B

    2006-06-01

    With the depletion of many natural resources, we are growing aware of the need to understand the risks that stem from different management decisions. Here, we outline an approach to test the ability of different dynamical signatures to characterize time-series data: how likely is it that a natural population is declining, sustainable, or increasing, and at what rates are these temporal changes likely occurring? These dynamical signatures can serve as a robust foundation on which to formulate alternative scenarios in a decision analysis. They take account of much of the uncertainty in model parameters and have precise mathematical underpinnings with associated risks. We present methods to evaluate the likelihood of these scenarios, and ways that the analysis can be graphically represented. We discuss different ecological factors such as climate variability, life history, ecosystem interactions, and a changing population age structure, all of which impact the dynamics of natural populations. Considering the types of dynamical signatures that emerge from these factors can change our understanding of risk and the decisions that we make.

  18. Evaluating the Dynamic Characteristics of Retrofitted RC Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ghods, Amir S.; Esfahani, Mohamad R.; Moghaddasie, Behrang

    2008-07-08

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the relationship between the damage and changes in dynamic characteristics of reinforced concrete members strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). Modal analysis is a popular non-destructive method for evaluating health of structural systems. A total of 8 reinforced concrete beams with similar dimensions were made using concrete with two different compressive strengths and reinforcement ratios. Monotonic loading was applied with four-point-bending setup in order to generate different damage levels in the specimens while dynamic testing was conducted to monitor the changes in dynamic characteristics of the specimens. In order to investigate the effect of CFRP on static and dynamic properties of specimens, some of the beams were loaded to half of their ultimate load carrying capacity and then were retrofitted using composite laminates with different configuration. Retrofitted specimens demonstrated elevated load carrying capacity, higher flexural stiffness and lower displacement ductility. By increasing the damage level in specimens, frequencies of the beams were decreased and after strengthening these values were improved significantly. The intensity of the damage level in each specimen affects the shape of its mode as well. Fixed points and curvatures of mode shapes of beams tend to move toward the location of the damage in each case.

  19. Sinogram analysis of aperture optimization by iterative least-squares in volumetric modulated arc therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, James L.

    2013-03-01

    Iterative least-squares (ILS) has been used in CT image reconstruction for many years and has also been successfully applied to fluence optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy. However, most optimization schemes use aperture optimization, where it is not so clear how to apply ILS. This study therefore proposes a method of using ILS for aperture optimization in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and evaluates the performance by comparing with segment weight optimization. The AutoBeam inverse treatment planning system was used to optimize fluence, sequence the fluence into deliverable apertures and then optimize these apertures and their accompanying segment weights. ILS was used for both the fluence and aperture optimization stages. In the aperture optimization, if the dose beyond a multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf was too high, that leaf was closed up slightly, and if the dose underneath a leaf was too low, that leaf was opened up slightly. To evaluate this heuristic, five prostate and pelvic nodes patients were retrospectively planned. To evaluate the performance of the aperture optimization, these plans were compared to those produced using segment weight optimization alone after sequencing. Sinograms showing effective monitor units delivered by MLC leaf pairs over the course of beam delivery were used to elucidate the comparison. It was found that aperture optimization with ILS produced treatment plans which were conformal, with dose deposition easily controlled by a few clinical objectives. Sinogram analysis showed that aperture optimization with ILS produced less leaf motion and less monitor unit variation between control points than when using segment weight optimization only. By converting fluence corrections to aperture shape corrections, ILS can be used as a powerful method for VMAT aperture optimization. Sinogram analysis provides a clear insight into the behaviour of the heuristic.

  20. Multi-mesh gear dynamics program evaluation and enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, L. S.; Pike, J.

    1985-01-01

    A multiple mesh gear dynamics computer program was continually developed and modified during the last four years. The program can handle epicyclic gear systems as well as single mesh systems with internal, buttress, or helical tooth forms. The following modifications were added under the current funding: variable contact friction, planet cage and ring gear rim flexibility options, user friendly options, dynamic side bands, a speed survey option and the combining of the single and multiple mesh options into one general program. The modified program was evaluated by comparing calculated values to published test data and to test data taken on a Hamilton Standard turboprop reduction gear-box. In general, the correlation between the test data and the analytical data is good.

  1. Wrist rhythm during wrist joint motion evaluated by dynamic radiography.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hiroki; Tada, Kaoru; Suganuma, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sanada, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that wrist joint motion involves a "wrist rhythm" similar to the scapulohumeral rhythm. Therefore, we used a flat-panel detector to evaluate the ratio of radiolunate and capitolunate joint motions during wrist joint motion by dynamic radiography. The subjects were 20 healthy men. Dynamic imaging of the wrist joint was performed during active exercise for a total of ten seconds. In this study, we defined the radiocarpal (RL angle) and midcarpal joint angle (CL angle) as the wrist joint angle in the obtained images and measured the variation of these angles. The average curve was plotted and regression lines calculated from the average curve. The ratio was calculated from the slopes of the regression lines of the RL CL angles. These findings indicated that the ratio of the RL and CL angle motions was approximately 1:4 during palmar flexion and approximately 2:1 during dorsiflexion.

  2. X-ray scatter tomography using coded apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCabe, Kenneth P.

    This work proposes and studies a new field of x-ray tomography which combines the principles of scatter imaging and coded apertures, termed "coded aperture x-ray scatter imaging" (CAXSI). Conventional x-ray tomography reconstructs an object's electron density distribution by measuring a set of line integrals known as the x-ray transform, based physically on the attenuation of incident rays. More recently, scatter imaging has emerged as an alternative to attenuation imaging by measuring radiation from coherent and incoherent scattering. The information-rich scatter signal may be used to infer density as well as molecular structure throughout a volume. Some scatter modalities use collimators at the source and detector, resulting in long scan times due to the low efficiency of scattering mechanisms combined with a high degree of spatial filtering. CAXSI comes to the rescue by employing coded apertures. Coded apertures transmit a larger fraction of the scattered rays than collimators while also imposing structure to the scatter signal. In a coded aperture system each detector is sensitive to multiple ray paths, producing multiplexed measurements. The coding problem is then to design an aperture which enables de-multiplexing to reconstruct the desired physical properties and spatial distribution of the target. In this work, a number of CAXSI systems are proposed, analyzed, and demonstrated. One-dimensional "pencil" beams, two-dimensional "fan" beams, and three-dimensional "cone" beams are considered for the illumination. Pencil beam and fan beam CAXSI systems are demonstrated experimentally. The utility of energy-integrating (scintillation) detectors and energy-sensitive (photon counting) detectors are evaluated theoretically, and new coded aperture designs are presented for each beam geometry. Physical models are developed for each coded aperture system, from which resolution metrics are derived. Systems employing different combinations of beam geometry, coded

  3. Stochastic Evaluation of Riparian Vegetation Dynamics in River Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Kimura, R.; Toshimori, N.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation overgrowth in sand bars and floodplains has been a serious problem for river management in Japan. From the viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to accurately predict the vegetation dynamics for a long period of time. In this study, we have developed a stochastic model for predicting the dynamics of trees in floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four processes in coupling ecohydrology with biogeomorphology: (i) stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography and (iv) vegetation dynamics on the floodplain. In the model, the flood discharge is stochastically simulated using a Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The model for vegetation dynamics includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by flood impacts, and infant tree invasion. To determine the model parameters, vegetation conditions have been observed mainly before and after flood impacts since 2008 at a field site located between 23.2-24.0 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth locations in Kako River floodplains, where the predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In this presentation, sensitivity of the vegetation overgrowth tendency is investigated in Kako River channels. Through the Monte Carlo simulation for several cross sections in Kako River, responses of the vegetated channels are stochastically evaluated in terms of the changes of discharge magnitude and channel geomorphology. The expectation and standard deviation of vegetation areal ratio are compared in the different channel cross sections for different river discharges and relative floodplain heights. The result shows that the vegetation status changes sensitively in the channels with larger discharge and insensitive in the lower floodplain

  4. Dual aperture multispectral Schmidt objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minott, P. O.

    1984-04-01

    A dual aperture, off-axis catadioptic Schmidt objective is described. It is formed by symmetrically aligning two pairs of Schmidt objectives on opposite sides of a common plane (x,z). Each objective has a spherical primary mirror with a spherical focal plane and center of curvature aligned along an optic axis laterally spaced apart from the common plane. A multiprism beamsplitter with buried dichroic layers and a convex entrance and concave exit surfaces optically concentric to the center of curvature may be positioned at the focal plane. The primary mirrors of each objective may be connected rigidly together and may have equal or unequal focal lengths.

  5. Dual aperture multispectral Schmidt objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A dual aperture, off-axis catadioptic Schmidt objective is described. It is formed by symmetrically aligning two pairs of Schmidt objectives on opposite sides of a common plane (x,z). Each objective has a spherical primary mirror with a spherical focal plane and center of curvature aligned along an optic axis laterally spaced apart from the common plane. A multiprism beamsplitter with buried dichroic layers and a convex entrance and concave exit surfaces optically concentric to the center of curvature may be positioned at the focal plane. The primary mirrors of each objective may be connected rigidly together and may have equal or unequal focal lengths.

  6. the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertou, Xavier

    2009-04-30

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  7. Aperture scanning Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is implemented through aperture scanning by an LCOS spatial light modulator at the back focal plane of the objective lens. This FPM configuration enables the capturing of the complex scattered field for a 3D sample both in the transmissive mode and the reflective mode. We further show that by combining with the compressive sensing theory, the reconstructed 2D complex scattered field can be used to recover the 3D sample scattering density. This implementation expands the scope of application for FPM and can be beneficial for areas such as tissue imaging and wafer inspection. PMID:27570705

  8. Display Factors and Subjective Evaluation of Dynamic Text Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Joey C. Y.; Chan, Alan H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Communications technology has exploded in past decades, leading to the question of which display method is the best to deliver electronic text messages. Many of these systems employ cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal displays, gas plasma displays, or light-emitting diodes as the output device. In order to overcome the limitations of screen size of the display units, numerous means of presenting dynamic display on screens have been invented. There are many factors that affect the readability of electronic text. This paper reviews some related empirical studies concerning the various display methods of dynamic text presentation, such as text display type, character type, text display direction, and text/background color combination, highlighting method and validity of highlighting. The subjective evaluation questionnaire is also discussed. According to the readability and preference ratings of the subjects given under different conditions, the best display method and color for comprehending the delivered messages were investigated. General recommendations of displaying dynamic information are made for the large display units which have been widely used for delivering important messages.

  9. Head tracker evaluation utilizing the dynamic tracker test fixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Moure Shattuck, Judson, III; Parisi, Vincent M., II; Smerdon, Arryn J.

    2007-04-01

    In military aviation, head tracker technologies have become increasingly important to track the pilot's head position and orientation, allowing the user to quickly interact with the operational environment. This technology allows the pilot to quickly acquire items of interest and see Fighter Data Link type information. Acquiring the target on a helmet-mounted tracker/display which can automatically slew a weapon's seeker is far more efficient than having to point at the target with the nose of the aircraft as previously required for the heads-up display (HUD) type of target acquisition. The United States Air Force (USAF) has used and evaluated a variety of helmet-mounted trackers for incorporation into their high performance aircrafts. The Dynamic Tracker Test Fixture (DTTF) was designed by the Helmet-Mounted Sensory Technology (HMST) laboratory to accurately measure rotation in one plane both static and dynamic conditions for the purpose of evaluating the accuracy of head trackers, including magnetic, inertial, and optical trackers. This paper describes the design, construction, capabilities, limitations, and performance of the DTTF.

  10. Advanced Multiple Aperture Seeing Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhao, Gang

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the seeing profile of the atmospheric turbulence as a function of altitude are crucial for solar astronomical site characterization, as well as the optimized design and performance estimation of solar Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO). Knowledge of the seeing distribution, up to 30 km, with a potential new solar observation site, is required for future solar MCAO developments. Current optical seeing profile measurement techniques are limited by the need to use a large facility solar telescope for such seeing profile measurements, which is a serious limitation on characterizing a site's seeing conditions in terms of the seeing profile. Based on our previous work, we propose a compact solar seeing profiler called the Advanced Multiple Aperture Seeing Profile (A-MASP). A-MASP consists of two small telescopes, each with a 100 mm aperture. The two small telescopes can be installed on a commercial computerized tripod to track solar granule structures for seeing profile measurement. A-MASP is extreme simple and portable, which makes it an ideal system to bring to a potential new site for seeing profile measurements.

  11. Hand aperture patterns in prehension.

    PubMed

    Bongers, Raoul M; Zaal, Frank T J M; Jeannerod, Marc

    2012-06-01

    Although variations in the standard prehensile pattern can be found in the literature, these alternative patterns have never been studied systematically. This was the goal of the current paper. Ten participants picked up objects with a pincer grip. Objects (3, 5, or 7cm in diameter) were placed at 30, 60, 90, or 120cm from the hands' starting location. Usually the hand was opened gradually to a maximum immediately followed by hand closing, called the standard hand opening pattern. In the alternative opening patterns the hand opening was bumpy, or the hand aperture stayed at a plateau before closing started. Two participants in particular delayed the start of grasping with respect to start of reaching, with the delay time increasing with object distance. For larger object distances and smaller object sizes, the bumpy and plateau hand opening patterns were used more often. We tentatively concluded that the alternative hand opening patterns extended the hand opening phase, to arrive at the appropriate hand aperture at the appropriate time to close the hand for grasping the object. Variations in hand opening patterns deserve attention because this might lead to new insights into the coordination of reaching and grasping.

  12. Diffraction smoothing aperture for an optical beam

    DOEpatents

    Judd, O'Dean P.; Suydam, Bergen R.

    1976-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an aperture for an optical beam having an irregular periphery or having perturbations imposed upon the periphery to decrease the diffraction effect caused by the beam passing through the aperture. Such apertures are particularly useful with high power solid state laser systems in that they minimize the problem of self-focusing which frequently destroys expensive components in such systems.

  13. Sequential beamforming for synthetic aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) is a novel technique which allows to implement synthetic aperture beamforming on a system with a restricted complexity, and without storing RF-data. The objective is to improve lateral resolution and obtain a more depth independent resolution compared to conventional ultrasound imaging. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. The initial step is to construct and store a set of B-mode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive. The focal points are considered virtual sources and virtual receivers making up a virtual array. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data, and take advantage of the virtual array in the delay and sum beamforming. The size of the virtual array is dynamically expanded and the image is dynamically focused in both transmit and receive and a range independent lateral resolution is obtained. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The lateral resolution increases with a decreasing F#. Grating lobes appear if F#≤2 for a linear array with λ-pitch. The performance of SASB with the virtual source at 20mm and F#=1.5 is compared with conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF). The axial resolution is the same for the two methods. For the lateral resolution there is improvement in FWHM of at least a factor of 2 and the improvement at -40dB is at least a factor of 3. With SASB the resolution is almost constant throughout the range. For DRF the FWHM increases almost linearly with range and the resolution at -40dB is fluctuating with range. The theoretical potential improvement in SNR of SASB over DRF has been estimated. An improvement is attained at the entire range, and at a depth of 80mm the improvement is 8dB.

  14. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  15. Door assembly with shear layer control aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, William C. (Inventor); Johnston, John T. (Inventor); Fluegel, Kyle G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    There is described a vehicle door assembly with shear layer control for controlling the airflow in and around an aperture in the vehicle fuselage. The vehicle door assembly consists of an upper door and a lower door, both slidably mounted to the exterior surface of the vehicle fuselage. In addition, an inner door is slidably mounted beneath the upper door. Beneath the inner door is an aperture assembly having an aperture opening positionable to be substantially flush with the exterior surface of the vehicle fuselage. Also provided are means for positioning the aperture assembly in an upward and downward direction in relation to the vehicle fuselage.

  16. Advanced optics experiments using nonuniform aperture functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Lowell T.

    2013-05-01

    A method to create instructive, nonuniform aperture functions using spatial frequency filtering is described. The diffraction from a single slit in the Fresnel limit and the interference from a double slit in the Fraunhofer limit are spatially filtered to create electric field distributions across an aperture to produce apodization, inverse apodization or super-resolution, and apertures with phase shifts across their widths. The diffraction effects from these aperture functions are measured and calculated. The excellent agreement between the experimental results and the calculated results makes the experiment ideal for use in an advanced undergraduate or graduate optics laboratory to illustrate experimentally several effects in Fourier optics.

  17. Negative Transconductance in Apertured Electron Guns

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; O'Shea, P G

    2007-09-21

    Passing an electron beam through an aperture can serve to reduce the beam current or change the transverse beam profile. For a sufficiently intense beam, space charge will drive a radial expansion of the beam, which may cause the current passing through the aperture to increase even though the current arriving at the aperture is decreasing. When a gridded electron gun is used, this may be expressed by stating that the transconductance of the apertured gun is negative. Here we explain this effect, and explore some of the key factors governing when it can occur and influencing its strength.

  18. 3D synthetic aperture for controlled-source electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaak, Allison

    Locating hydrocarbon reservoirs has become more challenging with smaller, deeper or shallower targets in complicated environments. Controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM), is a geophysical electromagnetic method used to detect and derisk hydrocarbon reservoirs in marine settings, but it is limited by the size of the target, low-spatial resolution, and depth of the reservoir. To reduce the impact of complicated settings and improve the detecting capabilities of CSEM, I apply synthetic aperture to CSEM responses, which virtually increases the length and width of the CSEM source by combining the responses from multiple individual sources. Applying a weight to each source steers or focuses the synthetic aperture source array in the inline and crossline directions. To evaluate the benefits of a 2D source distribution, I test steered synthetic aperture on 3D diffusive fields and view the changes with a new visualization technique. Then I apply 2D steered synthetic aperture to 3D noisy synthetic CSEM fields, which increases the detectability of the reservoir significantly. With more general weighting, I develop an optimization method to find the optimal weights for synthetic aperture arrays that adapts to the information in the CSEM data. The application of optimally weighted synthetic aperture to noisy, simulated electromagnetic fields reduces the presence of noise, increases detectability, and better defines the lateral extent of the target. I then modify the optimization method to include a term that minimizes the variance of random, independent noise. With the application of the modified optimization method, the weighted synthetic aperture responses amplifies the anomaly from the reservoir, lowers the noise floor, and reduces noise streaks in noisy CSEM responses from sources offset kilometers from the receivers. Even with changes to the location of the reservoir and perturbations to the physical properties, synthetic aperture is still able to highlight targets

  19. Dynamic Evaluation of Two Decades of CMAQ Simulations ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation focuses on the dynamic evaluation of the CMAQ model over the continental United States using multi-decadal simulations for the period from 1990 to 2010 to examine how well the changes in observed ozone air quality induced by variations in meteorology and/or emissions are simulated by the model. We applied spectral decomposition of the ozone time-series using the KZ filter to assess the variations in the strengths of synoptic (weather-induced variations) and baseline (long-term variation) forcings, embedded in the simulated and observed concentrations. The results reveal that CMAQ captured the year-to-year variability (more so in the later years than the earlier years) and the synoptic forcing in accordance with what the observations are showing. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  20. Evaluation of Dynamic Channel and Power Assignment for Cognitive Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Syed A. Ahmad; Umesh Shukla; Ryan E. Irwin; Luiz A. DaSilva; Allen B. MacKenzie

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we develop a unifying optimization formulation to describe the Dynamic Channel and Power Assignment (DCPA) problem and evaluation method for comparing DCPA algorithms. DCPA refers to the allocation of transmit power and frequency channels to links in a cognitive network so as to maximize the total number of feasible links while minimizing the aggregate transmit power. We apply our evaluation method to five algorithms representative of DCPA used in literature. This comparison illustrates the tradeoffs between control modes (centralized versus distributed) and channel/power assignment techniques. We estimate the complexity of each algorithm. Through simulations, we evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithms in achieving feasible link allocations in the network, as well as their power efficiency. Our results indicate that, when few channels are available, the effectiveness of all algorithms is comparable and thus the one with smallest complexity should be selected. The Least Interfering Channel and Iterative Power Assignment (LICIPA) algorithm does not require cross-link gain information, has the overall lowest run time, and highest feasibility ratio of all the distributed algorithms; however, this comes at a cost of higher average power per link.

  1. Analysis of Cassegrain Cloud Profiling Radar Antenna with Arbitrary Projected Apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Z.; Im, E.

    2000-01-01

    A millimeter wave Cassegrain dual-reflector rada antenna (94GHz) with super-quadric projected aperture boundaries concept, that includes sub-reflector blockage effect, is evaluated for the spaceborne radar measurement of the vertical cloud profile structure.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations: Parameter evaluation, application and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a theoretical technique for investigating the physical properties of a wide variety of molecules. This dissertation contains my studies on three important parts of the MD simulation: evaluation of parameters in empirical energy functions widely used in MD simulations, application of MD simulation on experimentally interested biological molecules and development of new methods for constraint dynamics simulations. All the work in this thesis made use of CHARMM as an MD simulation tool. The MD simulation uses empirical energy functions parameterized by a set of parameters. These parameters play an important role in the quality of the simulations. I evaluated nine parameter sets from Harvard University and Molecular Simulations, Inc. for protein simulations by the MD simulations of hydrated form of carboxy- myoglobin and interleukin-1/beta, which are rich in two typical protein structure motifs, helix and β sheet structures respectively. It is found that some sets are good at representing helical structure proteins while others are good at β sheet proteins. But all of them need improvement on representing motions at low temperature. Experimental evidence indicates that the 1A coiled-coil domains of the Intermediate Filament (IF) proteins consisting of coiled human keratins 1 and 10 (K1 and K10) are 'hot spots' for substitutional mutations. Some of these mutations are correlated to the human skin diseases-epidermolytic hyperkeratiosis (EH) and epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS). The MD simulation technique is used here for the first time to model and simulate these proteins to elucidate the molecular-level effects of these mutations. Lacking the experimental crystal structures, the initial structure of 1A domain of the wild type Intermediate Filament protein and its mutants were modeled from scratch to reproduce the well- known properties of the proteins of this kind followed by identical MD simulations. The important result is

  3. Reduced-aperture monovision for presbyopia and the Pulfrich effect

    PubMed Central

    Plainis, Sotiris; Petratou, Dionysia; Giannakopoulou, Trisevgeni; Radhakrishnan, Hema; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Charman, William Neil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Monocular use of reduced-aperture optics in the form of a corneal inlay or contact lens may improve near vision of presbyopes by increasing their depth-of-focus (DOF). However, the associated induced interocular differences in retinal illuminance may cause distortion in spatial perception due to the Pulfrich effect. Methods Three young subjects were used to explore the Pulfrich effect during reduced-aperture monovision using afocal contact lenses (in the non-dominant eye) which were either opaque with a central clear aperture of 1.5, 2.5 or 3.5 mm diameter, or had an annular opaque stop of inner and outer diameters 1.5 and 4.0 mm, respectively. The two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task of the subject was to state whether a 2° circular spot appeared in front or behind the plane of a central cross when moved left-to-right or right-to-left. The retinal illuminance of the dominant eye was varied using neutral density (ND) filters to establish the ND value which eliminated the Pulfrich effect for each lens. Results The Pulfrich effect was observed with all the lenses. The ND value required to null the effect decreased as the diameter of the aperture of the lenses increased. A reasonably good agreement was found between observed ND values for the different lenses and those predicted from the relative areas of the effective pupils of the two eyes. Minor discrepancies were attributed to decentration of the contact lenses with respect to the natural pupils. Conclusions Reduced-aperture monovision generates marked Pulfrich-type distortions in spatial perception under conditions where the visual world is changing dynamically as a result of movement.

  4. Locomotor behaviour of children while navigating through apertures.

    PubMed

    Wilmut, Kate; Barnett, Anna L

    2011-04-01

    During everyday locomotion, we encounter a range of obstacles requiring specific motor responses; a narrow aperture which forces us to rotate our shoulders in order to pass through is one example. In adults, the decision to rotate their shoulders is body scaled (Warren and Whang in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 13:371-383, 1987), and the movement through is temporally and spatially tailored to the aperture size (Higuchi et al. in Exp Brain Res 175:50-59, 2006; Wilmut and Barnett in Hum Mov Sci 29:289-298, 2010). The aim of the current study was to determine how 8-to 10-year-old children make action judgements and movement adaptations while passing through a series of five aperture sizes which were scaled to body size (0.9, 1.1, 1.3, 1.5 and 1.7 times shoulder width). Spatial and temporal characteristics of movement speed and shoulder rotation were collected over the initial approach phase and while crossing the doorway threshold. In terms of making action judgements, results suggest that the decision to rotate the shoulders is not scaled in the same way as adults, with children showing a critical ratio of 1.61. Shoulder angle at the door could be predicted, for larger aperture ratios, by both shoulder angle variability and lateral trunk variability. This finding supports the dynamical scaling model (Snapp-Childs and Bingham in Exp Brain Res 198:527-533, 2009). In terms of movement adaptations, we have shown that children, like adults, spatially and temporally tailor their movements to aperture size.

  5. Multifocal interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Chng, Xiong Kai Benjamin; Adie, Steven G.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Scott Carney, P.

    2014-01-01

    There is an inherent trade-off between transverse resolution and depth of field (DOF) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) which becomes a limiting factor for certain applications. Multifocal OCT and interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) each provide a distinct solution to the trade-off through modification to the experiment or via post-processing, respectively. In this paper, we have solved the inverse problem of multifocal OCT and present a general algorithm for combining multiple ISAM datasets. Multifocal ISAM (MISAM) uses a regularized combination of the resampled datasets to bring advantages of both multifocal OCT and ISAM to achieve optimal transverse resolution, extended effective DOF and improved signal-to-noise ratio. We present theory, simulation and experimental results. PMID:24977909

  6. Large aperture Fresnel telescopes/011

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A., LLNL

    1998-07-16

    At Livermore we`ve spent the last two years examining an alternative approach towards very large aperture (VLA) telescopes, one based upon transmissive Fresnel lenses rather than on mirrors. Fresnel lenses are attractive for VLA telescopes because they are launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) and because they virtually eliminate the traditional, very tight, surface shape requirements faced by reflecting telescopes. Their (potentially severe) optical drawback, a very narrow spectral bandwidth, can be eliminated by use of a second (much smaller) chromatically-correcting Fresnel element. This enables Fresnel VLA telescopes to provide either single band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 0.1), multiple band, or continuous spectral coverage. Building and fielding such large Fresnel lenses will present a significant challenge, but one which appears, with effort, to be solvable.

  7. Dynamic size spectrometry of airborne microorganisms: Laboratory evaluation and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yinge; Willeke, Klaus; Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Donnelly, Jean

    Bioaerosol samplers need to be calibrated for the microorganisms of interest. The Aerosizer, a relatively new aerodynamic size spectrometer, is shown to be a suitable dynamic instrument for the evaluation and calibration of such samplers in the laboratory, prior to their use in the field. It provides the necessary reference count against which the microbiological response of the sampler can be compared. It measures the health-significant aerodynamic diameters of microorganisms down to 0.5 μm, thus including most of the bacteria, fungi and pollen found in outdoor and indoor air environments. Comparison tests with a laser size spectrometer indicate that the suspension of microorganisms needs to be washed several times before aerosolization to avoid coating of the airborne microorganisms with nutrients and microbial slime from the suspension, and to reduce the residue particles to sizes below the lowest size of the aerosolized microorganisms.

  8. Evaluation of Electric Power Procurement Strategies by Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saisho, Yuichi; Hayashi, Taketo; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji

    In deregulated electricity markets, the role of a distribution company is to purchase electricity from the wholesale electricity market at randomly fluctuating prices and to provide it to its customers at a given fixed price. Therefore the company has to take risk stemming from the uncertainties of electricity prices and/or demand fluctuation instead of the customers. The way to avoid the risk is to make a bilateral contact with generating companies or install its own power generation facility. This entails the necessity to develop a certain method to make an optimal strategy for electric power procurement. In such a circumstance, this research has the purpose for proposing a mathematical method based on stochastic dynamic programming and additionally considering the characteristics of the start-up cost of electric power generation facility to evaluate strategies of combination of the bilateral contract and power auto-generation with its own facility for procuring electric power in deregulated electricity market. In the beginning we proposed two approaches to solve the stochastic dynamic programming, and they are a Monte Carlo simulation method and a finite difference method to derive the solution of a partial differential equation of the total procurement cost of electric power. Finally we discussed the influences of the price uncertainty on optimal strategies of power procurement.

  9. Evaluating the utility of dynamical downscaling in agricultural impacts projections.

    PubMed

    Glotter, Michael; Elliott, Joshua; McInerney, David; Best, Neil; Foster, Ian; Moyer, Elisabeth J

    2014-06-17

    Interest in estimating the potential socioeconomic costs of climate change has led to the increasing use of dynamical downscaling--nested modeling in which regional climate models (RCMs) are driven with general circulation model (GCM) output--to produce fine-spatial-scale climate projections for impacts assessments. We evaluate here whether this computationally intensive approach significantly alters projections of agricultural yield, one of the greatest concerns under climate change. Our results suggest that it does not. We simulate US maize yields under current and future CO2 concentrations with the widely used Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer crop model, driven by a variety of climate inputs including two GCMs, each in turn downscaled by two RCMs. We find that no climate model output can reproduce yields driven by observed climate unless a bias correction is first applied. Once a bias correction is applied, GCM- and RCM-driven US maize yields are essentially indistinguishable in all scenarios (<10% discrepancy, equivalent to error from observations). Although RCMs correct some GCM biases related to fine-scale geographic features, errors in yield are dominated by broad-scale (100s of kilometers) GCM systematic errors that RCMs cannot compensate for. These results support previous suggestions that the benefits for impacts assessments of dynamically downscaling raw GCM output may not be sufficient to justify its computational demands. Progress on fidelity of yield projections may benefit more from continuing efforts to understand and minimize systematic error in underlying climate projections.

  10. Dynamic network data envelopment analysis for university hospitals evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Maria Stella de Castro; Rodrigues, Henrique de Castro; André, Edgard Caires Gazzola; de Azeredo, Jônatas Almeida; Lins, Marcos Pereira Estellita

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To develop an assessment tool to evaluate the efficiency of federal university general hospitals. METHODS Data envelopment analysis, a linear programming technique, creates a best practice frontier by comparing observed production given the amount of resources used. The model is output-oriented and considers variable returns to scale. Network data envelopment analysis considers link variables belonging to more than one dimension (in the model, medical residents, adjusted admissions, and research projects). Dynamic network data envelopment analysis uses carry-over variables (in the model, financing budget) to analyze frontier shift in subsequent years. Data were gathered from the information system of the Brazilian Ministry of Education (MEC), 2010-2013. RESULTS The mean scores for health care, teaching and research over the period were 58.0%, 86.0%, and 61.0%, respectively. In 2012, the best performance year, for all units to reach the frontier it would be necessary to have a mean increase of 65.0% in outpatient visits; 34.0% in admissions; 12.0% in undergraduate students; 13.0% in multi-professional residents; 48.0% in graduate students; 7.0% in research projects; besides a decrease of 9.0% in medical residents. In the same year, an increase of 0.9% in financing budget would be necessary to improve the care output frontier. In the dynamic evaluation, there was progress in teaching efficiency, oscillation in medical care and no variation in research. CONCLUSIONS The proposed model generates public health planning and programming parameters by estimating efficiency scores and making projections to reach the best practice frontier. PMID:27191158

  11. Enhanced Optical Transmission with Coaxial Apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haftel, Michael; Schlockermann, Carl; Orbons, Shannon; Roberts, Ann; Jamieson, David; Freeman, Darren; Luther-Davies, Barry

    2007-03-01

    Recently it has been shown that ``cylindrical'' surface plasmons (CSP's) on cylindrical interfaces of coaxial ring apertures produce a new form of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) that extends to ever increasing wavelengths as the dielectric ring narrows. Using analytic and FDTD calculations we present some of the consequences of CSP's on EOT as well as experimental confirmation of such effects. We find that EOT, even with cylindrical apertures, is aided by the increase in cutoff wavelength due to CSP's, which is a consequence of the mode structure of individual apertures. CSP effects also explain most of the long-wavelength features of transmission spectra measured for CR apertures. We also show that CSP's can be ``spoofed'' at low frequencies by coaxial apertures in metamaterials consisting of a (macroscopic) periodic dielectric structure embedded in a perfect conductor. F. I. Baida et al., Phys. Rev. B 67, 155314 (2003); M.I Haftel et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193104 (2006).

  12. Variable aperture collimator for high energy radiation

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Ronald A.

    1984-05-22

    An apparatus is disclosed providing a variable aperture energy beam collimator. A plurality of beam opaque blocks are in sliding interface edge contact to form a variable aperture. The blocks may be offset at the apex angle to provide a non-equilateral aperture. A plurality of collimator block assemblies may be employed for providing a channel defining a collimated beam. Adjacent assemblies are inverted front-to-back with respect to one another for preventing noncollimated energy from emerging from the apparatus. An adjustment mechanism comprises a cable attached to at least one block and a hand wheel mechanism for operating the cable. The blocks are supported by guide rods engaging slide brackets on the blocks. The guide rods are pivotally connected at each end to intermediate actuators supported on rotatable shafts to change the shape of the aperture. A divergent collimated beam may be obtained by adjusting the apertures of adjacent stages to be unequal.

  13. Micro Ring Grating Spectrometer with Adjustable Aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spectrometer includes a micro-ring grating device having coaxially-aligned ring gratings for diffracting incident light onto a target focal point, a detection device for detecting light intensity, one or more actuators, and an adjustable aperture device defining a circular aperture. The aperture circumscribes a target focal point, and directs a light to the detection device. The aperture device is selectively adjustable using the actuators to select a portion of a frequency band for transmission to the detection device. A method of detecting intensity of a selected band of incident light includes directing incident light onto coaxially-aligned ring gratings of a micro-ring grating device, and diffracting the selected band onto a target focal point using the ring gratings. The method includes using an actuator to adjust an aperture device and pass a selected portion of the frequency band to a detection device for measuring the intensity of the selected portion.

  14. Dynamic evaluation of CMAQ part I: Separating the effects of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A dynamic evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 5.0.1 was conducted to evaluate the model's ability to predict changes in ozone levels between 2002 and 2005, a time period characterized by emission reductions associated with the EPA's Nitrogen Oxides State Implementation Plan as well as significant reductions in mobile source emissions. Model results for the summers of 2002 and 2005 were compared to simulations from a previous version of CMAQ to assess the impact of model updates on predicted pollutant response. Changes to the model treatment of emissions, meteorology and chemistry had substantial impacts on the simulated ozone concentrations. While the median bias for high summertime ozone decreased in both years compared to previous simulations, the observed decrease in ozone from 2002 to 2005 in the eastern US continued to be underestimated by the model. Additional “cross” simulations were used to decompose the model predicted change in ozone into the change due to emissions, the change due to meteorology and any remaining change not explained individually by these two components. The decomposition showed that the emission controls led to a decrease in modeled high summertime ozone close to twice as large as the decrease attributable to changes in meteorology alone. Quantifying the impact of retrospective emission controls by removing the impacts of meteorology during the control period can be a valuable approac

  15. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Reference Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Rioux, Norman; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  16. A future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-09-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  17. An Evaluative Review of Simulated Dynamic Smart 3d Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeijn, H.; Sheth, F.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of plants can be an asset for creating agricultural based visualisation products. The continuum of 3D plants models ranges from static to dynamic objects, also known as smart 3D objects. There is an increasing requirement for smarter simulated 3D objects that are attributed mathematically and/or from biological inputs. A systematic approach to plant simulation offers significant advantages to applications in agricultural research, particularly in simulating plant behaviour and the influences of external environmental factors. This approach of 3D plant object visualisation is primarily evident from the visualisation of plants using photographed billboarded images, to more advanced procedural models that come closer to simulating realistic virtual plants. However, few programs model physical reactions of plants to external factors and even fewer are able to grow plants based on mathematical and/or biological parameters. In this paper, we undertake an evaluation of plant-based object simulation programs currently available, with a focus upon the components and techniques involved in producing these objects. Through an analytical review process we consider the strengths and weaknesses of several program packages, the features and use of these programs and the possible opportunities in deploying these for creating smart 3D plant-based objects to support agricultural research and natural resource management. In creating smart 3D objects the model needs to be informed by both plant physiology and phenology. Expert knowledge will frame the parameters and procedures that will attribute the object and allow the simulation of dynamic virtual plants. Ultimately, biologically smart 3D virtual plants that react to changes within an environment could be an effective medium to visually represent landscapes and communicate land management scenarios and practices to planners and decision-makers.

  18. Comparison of large aperture telescopes with parabolic and spherical primaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1986-01-01

    Quasi-Cassegrain-type four-mirror telescopes are compared to conventional two-mirror Cassegrain telescopes for use as high performance, very large aperture space telescopes. Spherical and parabolic primaries with continuous as well as segmented surfaces are considered. Imaging characteristics and misalignment sensitivities serve as the principal criteria of comparison. The evaluation shows that parabolic primaries yield superior wide-field performance, whereas spherical primaries hold distinct advantages regarding manufacturability and regarding certain alignment aspects in the case of segmentation.

  19. High-aperture cryogenic light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Le Gros, M A; McDermott, G; Uchida, M; Knoechel, C G; Larabell, C A

    2009-07-01

    We report here the development of instruments and protocols for carrying out high numerical aperture immersion light microscopy on cryogenic specimens. Imaging by this modality greatly increases the lifetimes of fluorescence probes, including those commonly used for protein localization studies, while retaining the ability to image the specimen with high fidelity and spatial resolution. The novel use of a cryogenic immersion fluid also minimizes the refractive index mismatch between the sample and lens, leading to a more efficient coupling of the light from the sample to the image forming system. This enhancement is applicable to both fluorescence and transmitted light microscopy techniques. The design concepts used for the cryogenic microscope can be applied to virtually any existing light-based microscopy technique. This prospect is particularly exciting in the context of 'super-resolution' techniques, where enhanced fluorescence lifetime probes are especially useful. Thus, using this new modality it is now possible to observe dynamic events in a live cell, and then rapidly vitrify the specimen at a specific time point prior to carrying out high-resolution imaging. The techniques described can be used in conjunction with other imaging modalities in correlated studies. We have also developed instrumentation to perform cryo-light imaging together with soft X-ray tomography on the same cryo-fixed specimen as a means of carrying out high content, quantifiable correlated imaging analyses. These methods are equally applicable to correlated light and electron microscopy of frozen biological objects.

  20. Finding Optimal Apertures in Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jeffrey C.; Morris, Robert L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Girouard, Forrest R.

    2016-12-01

    With the loss of two spacecraft reaction wheels precluding further data collection for the Kepler primary mission, even greater pressure is placed on the processing pipeline to eke out every last transit signal in the data. To that end, we have developed a new method to optimize the Kepler Simple Aperture Photometry (SAP) photometric apertures for both planet detection and minimization of systematic effects. The approach uses a per cadence modeling of the raw pixel data and then performs an aperture optimization based on signal-to-noise ratio and the Kepler Combined Differential Photometric Precision (CDPP), which is a measure of the noise over the duration of a reference transit signal. We have found the new apertures to be superior to the previous Kepler apertures. We can now also find a per cadence flux fraction in aperture and crowding metric. The new approach has also been proven to be robust at finding apertures in K2 data that help mitigate the larger motion-induced systematics in the photometry. The method further allows us to identify errors in the Kepler and K2 input catalogs.

  1. Walking through Apertures in Individuals with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Objective Walking through a narrow aperture requires unique postural configurations, i.e., body rotation in the yaw dimension. Stroke individuals may have difficulty performing the body rotations due to motor paralysis on one side of their body. The present study was therefore designed to investigate how successfully such individuals walk through apertures and how they perform body rotation behavior. Method Stroke fallers (n = 10), stroke non-fallers (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 23) participated. In the main task, participants walked for 4 m and passed through apertures of various widths (0.9–1.3 times the participant’s shoulder width). Accidental contact with the frame of an aperture and kinematic characteristics at the moment of aperture crossing were measured. Participants also performed a perceptual judgment task to measure the accuracy of their perceived aperture passability. Results and Discussion Stroke fallers made frequent contacts on their paretic side; however, the contacts were not frequent when they penetrated apertures from their paretic side. Stroke fallers and non-fallers rotated their body with multiple steps, rather than a single step, to deal with their motor paralysis. Although the minimum passable width was greater for stroke fallers, the body rotation angle was comparable among groups. This suggests that frequent contact in stroke fallers was due to insufficient body rotation. The fact that there was no significant group difference in the perceived aperture passability suggested that contact occurred mainly due to locomotor factors rather than perceptual factors. Two possible explanations (availability of vision and/or attention) were provided as to why accidental contact on the paretic side did not occur frequently when stroke fallers penetrated the apertures from their paretic side. PMID:28103299

  2. Parallel optical nanolithography using nanoscale bowtie apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uppuluri, Sreemanth M. V.

    Over the past two decades various branches of science and engineering have developed techniques for producing nanoscopic light sources for different applications such as imaging, detection and fabrication. These areas include near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), surface-enhanced Raman scattering and detection (SERS), plasmonics and so on. In particular nanolithography techniques have been developed to produce feature sizes in the sub-100 nm length scales. These processes include variations of standard photolithography process to achieve high resolution, optical fiber-based near-field lithography, surface plasmon assisted nanolithography, interference optical lithography and so on. This work presents a study of the viability of using nanoscale bowtie apertures for nanolithography. Bowtie apertures exhibit a unique property of supporting a propagating TE10 mode at wavelengths of light in the visible and near-UV regimes. The energy of this mode is concentrated in the gap region of the aperture and thus these apertures have the potential to produce high intensity nanoscale light spots that can be used for nano-patterning applications. We demonstrate this capability of nanoscale bowtie apertures by patterning photoresist to obtain resolution less than 100 nm. Initially we present the results from static lithography experiments and show that the ridge apertures of different shapes -- C, H and bowtie produce holes in the photoresist of dimensions around 50-60 nm. Subsequently we address the issues involved in using these apertures for nano directwriting. We show that chromium thin-films offer a viable solution to produce high quality metal films of surface roughness less than 1 nm over an area of 25 mum2. This is indeed important to achieve intimate contact between the apertures and the photoresist surface. We also explain ways to decrease friction between the mask and photoresist surfaces during nano direct-writing. In addition, to decrease the contact force

  3. Passive microwave imaging by aperture synthesis technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Liang; Zhang, Zuyin; Guo, Wei; Gui, Liangqi

    2007-11-01

    In order to verify the theory of aperture synthesis at low expense, two-channel ka-band correlation radiometer which is basic part of synthetic aperture radiometer is designed firstly before developing the multi-channel synthetic aperture radiometer. The performance of two-channel correlation radiometer such as stability and coherence of visibility phase are tested in the digital correlation experiment. Subsequently all required baselines are acquired by moving the antenna pair sequentially, corresponding samples of the visibility function are measured and the image of noise source is constructed using an inverse Fourier transformation.

  4. Particle-in-Cell Modeling of Magnetized Argon Plasma Flow Through Small Mechanical Apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Adam B. Sefkow and Samuel A. Cohen

    2009-04-09

    Motivated by observations of supersonic argon-ion flow generated by linear helicon-heated plasma devices, a three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to study whether stationary electrostatic layers form near mechanical apertures intersecting the flow of magnetized plasma. By self-consistently evaluating the temporal evolution of the plasma in the vicinity of the aperture, the PIC simulations characterize the roles of the imposed aperture and applied magnetic field on ion acceleration. The PIC model includes ionization of a background neutral-argon population by thermal and superthermal electrons, the latter found upstream of the aperture. Near the aperture, a transition from a collisional to a collisionless regime occurs. Perturbations of density and potential, with mm wavelengths and consistent with ion acoustic waves, propagate axially. An ion acceleration region of length ~ 200-300 λD,e forms at the location of the aperture and is found to be an electrostatic double layer, with axially-separated regions of net positive and negative charge. Reducing the aperture diameter or increasing its length increases the double layer strength.

  5. Synthetic Aperture Radar Missions Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, S.

    2000-01-01

    This report reviews the history of the LightSAR project and summarizes actions the agency can undertake to support industry-led efforts to develop an operational synthetic aperture radar (SAR) capability in the United States.

  6. An empirical explanation of aperture effects.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyongje; Wojtach, William T; Purves, Dale

    2009-01-06

    The perceived direction of a moving line changes, often markedly, when viewed through an aperture. Although several explanations of this remarkable effect have been proposed, these accounts typically focus on the percepts elicited by a particular type of aperture and offer no biological rationale. Here, we test the hypothesis that to contend with the inherently ambiguous nature of motion stimuli the perceived direction of objects moving behind apertures of different shapes is determined by a wholly empirical strategy of visual processing. An analysis of moving line stimuli generated by objects projected through apertures shows that the directions of motion subjects report in psychophysical testing is accounted for by the frequency of occurrence of the 2D directions of stimuli generated by simulated 3D sources. The completeness of these predictions supports the conclusion that the direction of perceived motion is fully determined by accumulated behavioral experience with sources whose physical motions cannot be conveyed by image sequences as such.

  7. Contour-Mapping Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R. M.; Caro, E. R.; Wu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne two-antenna synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) interferometric system provides data processed to yield terrain elevation as well as reflectedintensity information. Relative altitudes of terrain points measured to within error of approximately 25 m.

  8. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOEpatents

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  9. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOEpatents

    Shin, Yong W.; Wiedermann, Arne H.; Ockert, Carl E.

    1985-01-01

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  10. Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hyde, R A

    1999-07-01

    The Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100-m) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope s large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) it and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope s eyepiece; the Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band (Deltalambda/lambda approximately 0.1), multiband, or continuous spectral coverage.

  11. Eyeglass. 1. Very large aperture diffractive telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25{endash}100-m) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope{close_quote}s large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently launchable (lightweight, packagable, and deployable) it and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope{close_quote}s eyepiece; the Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{approximately}0.1), multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. {copyright} 1999 Optical Society of America

  12. Active multi-aperture imaging through turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nicholas J.; Widiker, Jeffrey J.; McManamon, Paul F.; Haus, Joseph W.

    2012-06-01

    We describe our Innovative Multi Aperture Gimbaless Electro-Optical (IMAGE) testbed which uses coherent detection of the complex field reflected off a diffuse target with seven hexagonally arranged apertures. The seven measured optical fields are then phased with a digital optimization algorithm to synthesize a composite image whose angular resolution exceeds that of a single aperture. This same post-detection phasing algorithm also corrects aberrations induced by imperfect optics and a turbulent atmospheric path. We present the coherent imaging sub-aperture design used in the IMAGE array as well as the design of a compact range used to perform scaled tests of the IMAGE array. We present some experimental results of imaging diffuse targets in the compact range with two phase screens which simulates a ~7[Km] propagation path through distributed atmospheric turbulence.

  13. Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Roderick Allen

    1998-04-20

    A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

  14. Ride Dynamics and Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole Body Vibration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-29

    serious injuries that may occur as a result of vibration exposure . The technique for collecting data to be used for either ride dynamics or WBV exposure ......evaluating the ride dynamics or ride quality and whole body vibration ( WBV ) of ground vehicles. Ride dynamics and WBV pertain to the sensation or feel of

  15. Large aperture ac interferometer for optical testing.

    PubMed

    Moore, D T; Murray, R; Neves, F B

    1978-12-15

    A 20-cm clear aperture modified Twyman-Green interferometer is described. The system measures phase with an AC technique called phase-lock interferometry while scanning the aperture with a dual galvanometer scanning system. Position information and phase are stored in a minicomputer with disk storage. This information is manipulated with associated software, and the wavefront deformation due to a test component is graphically displayed in perspective and contour on a CRT terminal.

  16. Aperture Engineering for Impulse Radiating Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyo, J. S.

    The past several years have seen the development of an improved understanding of the role of aperture design for impulse radiating antennas (IRAs). The understanding began with the emergence of the concept of prompt aperture efficiency for ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas. This emergence allowed us to concentrate on ways to shape the aperture and control the field distribution within the aperture in order to maximize the prompt response from IRAs. In many high voltage UWB applications it is impossible to increase the radiated fields by increasing the source power. This is because in such instances the sources are already at the limits of linear electromagnetics. In these cases, we would like to come up with methods to improve the radiated field without altering the input impedance of the IRA. In this paper we will explore several such methods including the position of the feed arms to maximize field uniformity, the shaping of the aperture to increase radiated fields by reducing the aperture size, the relative sizing of the reflector (or lens) and the feed horn, and actually reorienting the currents on the reflector by controlling the direction of current flow. One common thread appears in all of these studies, that is the influence of Dr. Carl Baum on the direction and development of the work.

  17. Dynamic Evaluation of Long-Term Air Quality Model Simulations Over the Northeastern U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dynamic model evaluation assesses a modeling system's ability to reproduce changes in air quality induced by changes in meteorology and/or emissions. In this paper, we illustrate various approaches to dynamic mode evaluation utilizing 18 years of air quality simulations perform...

  18. Application of a geocentrifuge and sterolithographically fabricated apertures to multiphase flow in complex fracture apertures.

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn E. McCreery; Robert D. Stedtfeld; Alan T. Stadler; Daphne L. Stoner; Paul Meakin

    2005-09-01

    A geotechnical centrifuge was used to investigate unsaturated multiphase fluid flow in synthetic fracture apertures under a variety of flow conditions. The geocentrifuge subjected the fluids to centrifugal forces allowing the Bond number to be systematically changed without adjusting the fracture aperture of the fluids. The fracture models were based on the concept that surfaces generated by the fracture of brittle geomaterials have a self-affine fractal geometry. The synthetic fracture surfaces were fabricated from a transparent epoxy photopolymer using sterolithography, and fluid flow through the transparent fracture models was monitored by an optical image acquisition system. Aperture widths were chosen to be representative of the wide range of geological fractures in the vesicular basalt that lies beneath the Idaho Nation Laboratory (INL). Transitions between different flow regimes were observed as the acceleration was changed under constant flow conditions. The experiments showed the transition between straight and meandering rivulets in smooth walled apertures (aperture width = 0.508 mm), the dependence of the rivulet width on acceleration in rough walled fracture apertures (average aperture width = 0.25 mm), unstable meandering flow in rough walled apertures at high acceleration (20g) and the narrowing of the wetted region with increasing acceleration during the penetration of water into an aperture filled with wetted particles (0.875 mm diameter glass spheres).

  19. Apparent apertures from ground penetrating radar data and their relation to heterogeneous aperture fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakas, A.; Linde, N.

    2017-03-01

    Considering fractures with heterogeneous aperture distributions, we explore the reliability of constant-aperture estimates derived from ground penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data. We generate geostatistical fracture aperture realizations that are characterized by the same mean-aperture and variance, but different Hurst exponents and cutoff lengths. For each of the 16 classes of heterogeneity considered, we generate 1000 fracture realizations from which we compute GPR reflection data using our recent effective-dipole forward model. We then use each (noise-contaminated) dataset individually to invert for a single 'apparent' aperture, i.e., we assume that the fracture aperture is homogeneous. We find that the inferred 'apparent' apertures are only reliable when fracture heterogeneity is non-fractal (the Hurst exponent is close to 1) and the scale of the dominant aperture heterogeneities is larger than the first Fresnel zone. These results are a direct consequence of the non-linear character of the thin-bed reflection coefficients. As fracture heterogeneity is ubiquitous and often fractal, our results suggest that robust field-based inference of fracture aperture can only be achieved by accounting for the non-linear response of fracture heterogeneity on GPR data.

  20. Evaluating time dynamics of topographic threshold relations for gully initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayas, Antonio; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Poesen, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Gully erosion is one of the most important soil degradation processes at global scale. However, modelling of gully erosion is still difficult. Despite advances in the modelling of gully headcut rates and incision rates, it remains difficult to predict the location of gully initiation points and trajectories. In different studies it has been demonstrated that a good method of predicting gully initiation is by using a slope (S) - area (A) threshold. Such an S-A relation is a simple way of estimating the critical discharges needed to generate a critical shear stress that can incise a particular soil and initiate a gully. As such, the simple S-A threshold will vary if the rainfall-runoff behaviour of the soil changes or if the soil's erodibility changes. Over the past decades, important agronomic changes have produced significant changes in the soil use and soil management in SW Spain. It is the objective of this research to evaluate how S-A relations for gully initiation have changed over time and for two different land uses, cereal and olive. Data was collected for a gully network in the Cordoba Province, SW Spain. From photo-interpretation of historical air photos between 1956 and 2013, the gully network and initiation points were derived. In total 10 different time steps are available (1956; 1977; 1984; 1998; 2001; 2004; 2006; 2008; 2010; 2013). Topographical thresholds were extracted by combining the digitized gully network with the DEM. Due to small differences in the alignment of ortophotos and DEM, an optimization technique was developed in GIS to extract the correct S-A value for each point. With the S-A values for each year, their dynamics was evaluated as a function of land use (olive or cereal) and in function of the following variables in each of the periods considered: • soil management • soil cover by weeds, where weed growth was modeled from the daily soil water balance • rainfall intensity • root cohesion, , where root growth was modeled from

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI evaluation of cerebral cavernous malformations.

    PubMed

    Hart, Blaine L; Taheri, Saeid; Rosenberg, Gary A; Morrison, Leslie A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the behavior of CNS cavernous malformations (CCMs) using a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) technique sensitive for slow transfer rates of gadolinium. The prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPPA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained from 14 subjects with familial CCMs (4 men and 10 women, ages 22-76 years, mean 48.1 years). Following routine anatomic MRI of the brain, DCEMRI was performed for six slices, using T1 mapping with partial inversion recovery (TAPIR) to calculate T1 values, following administration of 0.025 mmol/kg gadolinium DTPA. The transfer rate (Ki) was calculated using the Patlak model, and Ki within CCMs was compared to normal-appearing white matter as well as to 17 normal control subjects previously studied. All subjects had typical MRI appearance of CCMs. Thirty-nine CCMs were studied using DCEMRI. Ki was low or normal in 12 lesions and elevated from 1.4 to 12 times higher than background in the remaining 27 lesions. Ki ranged from 2.1E-6 to 9.63E-4 min(-1), mean 3.55E-4. Normal-appearing white matter in the CCM patients had a mean Ki of 1.57E-4, not statistically different from mean WM Ki of 1.47E-4 in controls. TAPIR-based DCEMRI technique permits quantifiable assessment of CCMs in vivo and reveals considerable differences not seen with conventional MRI. Potential applications include correlation with biologic behavior such as lesion growth or hemorrage, and measurement of drug effects.

  2. SU-E-J-20: Adaptive Aperture Morphing for Online Correction for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, R; Qin, A; Yan, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Online adaptive aperture morphing is desirable over translational couch shifts to accommodate not only the target position variation but also anatomic changes (rotation, deformation, and relation of target to organ-atrisks). We proposed quick and reliable method for adapting segment aperture leaves for IMRT treatment of prostate. Methods: The proposed method consists of following steps: (1) delineate the contours of prostate, SV, bladder and rectum on kV-CBCT; (2) determine prostate displacement from the rigid body registration of the contoured prostate manifested on the reference CT and the CBCT; (3) adapt the MLC segment apertures obtained from the pre-treatment IMRT planning to accommodate the shifts as well as anatomic changes. The MLC aperture adaptive algorithm involves two steps; first move the whole aperture according to prostate translational/rotational shifts, and secondly fine-tune the aperture shape to maintain the spatial relationship between the planning target contour and the MLC aperture to the daily target contour. Feasibility of this method was evaluated retrospectively on a seven-field IMRT treatment of prostate cancer patient by comparing dose volume histograms of the original plan and the aperture-adjusted plan, with/without additional segments weight optimization (SWO), on two daily treatment CBCTs selected with relative large motion and rotation. Results: For first daily treatment, the prostate rotation was significant (12degree around lateral-axis). With apertureadjusted plan, the D95 to the target was improved 25% and rectum dose (D30, D40) was reduced 20% relative to original plan on daily volumes. For second treatment-fraction, (lateral shift = 6.7mm), after adjustment target D95 improved by 3% and bladder dose (D30, maximum dose) was reduced by 1%. For both cases, extra SWO did not provide significant improvement. Conclusion: The proposed method of adapting segment apertures is promising in treatment position correction

  3. Connecting Research to Teaching: Evaluating and Writing Dynamic Geometry Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocki, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The advent of dynamic geometry software has changed the way students draw, construct, and measure by using virtual tools instead of or along with physical tools. Use of technology in general and of dynamic geometry in particular has gained traction in mathematics education, as evidenced in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI…

  4. High numerical aperture projection system for extreme ultraviolet projection lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2000-01-01

    An optical system is described that is compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation and comprises five reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The five optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as concave, convex, concave, convex, and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for ring field, step and scan lithography methods. The invention uses aspheric mirrors to minimize static distortion and balance the static distortion across the ring field width which effectively minimizes dynamic distortion. The present invention allows for higher device density because the optical system has improved resolution that results from the high numerical aperture, which is at least 0.14.

  5. Optical Transmission Properties of Dielectric Aperture Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao

    units (RIU) and a dynamic range as large as 0.17 RIU. Subsequently, optical transmission properties through a self-mixing interferometer array are studied and a novel high-resolution cost-effective optical spectrometer is proposed. The miniature interferometer-based spectrometer is made of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with a CCD as the detector. The detected intensity of each CCD pixels contains the spectral information. Since each frequency component in the incoming beam corresponds to a unique phase difference of the two beam portions of each optical interferometer, the total intensity received by each CCD pixel, which is resulted from the addition of the interference signals from all the frequency components in the beam, should also be unique. Therefore, the spectrum calculation is a problem to solve an ill-posed linear system by using Tikhonov regularization method. Simulation results show that the resolution can reach picometer level. Apart from the choice of path difference between the interfering beams, the spectral resolution also depends on the signal-to-noise ratio and analogue-digital conversion resolution (dynamic range) of the CCD chip. In addition, the theory of uniform waveguide scattering is explored to expand the possibility of using such mini-interferometers for performing free-space spectral analysis of waveguide devices. At the same time, the method of least squares is used to correct the pixel non-uniformity of the CCD so as to improve the performance of the spectrometer. The sensor chip and spectrometer chip introduced here are based on the interference of light transmitted through dielectric aperture arrays. Their compact feature renders these devices ideal for miniaturization and integration as the systems in microfluidics architectures and lab-on-chip designs.

  6. Performance Evaluation of a Dedicated Camera Suitable for Dynamic Radiopharmaceuticals Evaluation in Small Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Loudos, George; Majewski, Stanislaw; Wojcik, Randolph; Weisenberger, Andrew; Sakelios, Nikolas; Nikita, Konstantina; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos; Bouziotis, Penelope; Xanthopoulos, Stavros; Varvarigou, Alexandra

    2007-06-01

    As the result of a collaboration between the Detector and Imaging Group of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (US), the Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products (IRRP) of N.C.S.R. ldquoDemokritosrdquo and the Biomedical Simulations and Imaging Applications Laboratory (BIOSIM) of National Technical University of Athens (Greece), a mouse sized camera optimized for Tc^99m imaging was developed. The detector was built in Jefferson Lab and transferred to Greece, where it was evaluated with phantoms and small animals. The system will be used initially for planar dynamic studies in small animals, in order to assess the performance of new radiolabeled biomolecules for oncological studies. The active area of the detector is approximately 48 mm times 96 mm. It is based on two flat-panel Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT), a pixelated NaI(Tl) scintillator and a high resolution lead parallel-hole collimator. The system was developed to optim

  7. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: Relationship Between the Alar Cartilage and Piriform Aperture.

    PubMed

    Strapasson, Raíssa Ananda Paim; Herrera, Lara Maria; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2017-03-29

    During forensic facial reconstruction, facial features may be predicted based on the parameters of the skull. This study evaluated the relationships between alar cartilage and piriform aperture and nose morphology and facial typology. Ninety-six cone beam computed tomography images of Brazilian subjects (49 males and 47 females) were used in this study. OsiriX software was used to perform the following measurements: nasal width, distance between alar base insertion points, lower width of the piriform aperture, and upper width of the piriform aperture. Nasal width was associated with the lower width of the piriform aperture, sex, skeletal vertical pattern of the face, and age. The current study contributes to the improvement of forensic facial guides by identifying the relationships between the alar cartilages and characteristics of the biological profile of members of a population that has been little studied thus far.

  8. Evaluation of Airfoil Dynamic Stall Characteristics for Maneuverability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In severe maneuvers, out of necessity for a military aircraft or inadvertently for a civil aircraft, a helicopter airfoil will stall in a dynamic manner and provide lift beyond what would be calculated based on static airfoil tests. The augmented lift that occurs in dynamic stall is related to a vortex that is shed near the leading edge of the airfoil. However, directly related to the augmented lift that results from the dynamic stall vortex are significant penalties in pitching moment and drag. An understanding of the relationship between the augmented lift in dynamic stall and the associated moment and drag penalties is the purpose of this paper. This relationship is characterized using data obtained in two-dimensional wind tunnel tests and related to the problem of helicopter maneuverability.

  9. Aperture effects in squid jet propulsion.

    PubMed

    Staaf, Danna J; Gilly, William F; Denny, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    Squid are the largest jet propellers in nature as adults, but as paralarvae they are some of the smallest, faced with the inherent inefficiency of jet propulsion at a low Reynolds number. In this study we describe the behavior and kinematics of locomotion in 1 mm paralarvae of Dosidicus gigas, the smallest squid yet studied. They swim with hop-and-sink behavior and can engage in fast jets by reducing the size of the mantle aperture during the contraction phase of a jetting cycle. We go on to explore the general effects of a variable mantle and funnel aperture in a theoretical model of jet propulsion scaled from the smallest (1 mm mantle length) to the largest (3 m) squid. Aperture reduction during mantle contraction increases propulsive efficiency at all squid sizes, although 1 mm squid still suffer from low efficiency (20%) because of a limited speed of contraction. Efficiency increases to a peak of 40% for 1 cm squid, then slowly declines. Squid larger than 6 cm must either reduce contraction speed or increase aperture size to maintain stress within maximal muscle tolerance. Ecological pressure to maintain maximum velocity may lead them to increase aperture size, which reduces efficiency. This effect might be ameliorated by nonaxial flow during the refill phase of the cycle. Our model's predictions highlight areas for future empirical work, and emphasize the existence of complex behavioral options for maximizing efficiency at both very small and large sizes.

  10. Static and Dynamic Facial Cues Differentially Affect the Consistency of Social Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Hehman, Eric; Flake, Jessica K; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2015-08-01

    Individuals are quite sensitive to others' appearance cues when forming social evaluations. Cues such as facial emotional resemblance are based on facial musculature and thus dynamic. Cues such as a face's structure are based on the underlying bone and are thus relatively static. The current research examines the distinction between these types of facial cues by investigating the consistency in social evaluations arising from dynamic versus static cues. Specifically, across four studies using real faces, digitally generated faces, and downstream behavioral decisions, we demonstrate that social evaluations based on dynamic cues, such as intentions, have greater variability across multiple presentations of the same identity than do social evaluations based on static cues, such as ability. Thus, although evaluations of intentions vary considerably across different instances of a target's face, evaluations of ability are relatively fixed. The findings highlight the role of facial cues' consistency in the stability of social evaluations.

  11. Evaluating the Accuracy of Hessian Approximations for Direct Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yu; Siebert, Matthew R; Hase, William L; Kay, Kenneth G; Ceotto, Michele

    2013-01-08

    Direct dynamics simulations are a very useful and general approach for studying the atomistic properties of complex chemical systems, since an electronic structure theory representation of a system's potential energy surface is possible without the need for fitting an analytic potential energy function. In this paper, recently introduced compact finite difference (CFD) schemes for approximating the Hessian [J. Chem. Phys.2010, 133, 074101] are tested by employing the monodromy matrix equations of motion. Several systems, including carbon dioxide and benzene, are simulated, using both analytic potential energy surfaces and on-the-fly direct dynamics. The results show, depending on the molecular system, that electronic structure theory Hessian direct dynamics can be accelerated up to 2 orders of magnitude. The CFD approximation is found to be robust enough to deal with chaotic motion, concomitant with floppy and stiff mode dynamics, Fermi resonances, and other kinds of molecular couplings. Finally, the CFD approximations allow parametrical tuning of different CFD parameters to attain the best possible accuracy for different molecular systems. Thus, a direct dynamics simulation requiring the Hessian at every integration step may be replaced with an approximate Hessian updating by tuning the appropriate accuracy.

  12. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  13. Class of near-perfect coded apertures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, T. M.; Fenimore, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    Coded aperture imaging of gamma ray sources has long promised an improvement in the sensitivity of various detector systems. The promise has remained largely unfulfilled, however, for either one of two reasons. First, the encoding/decoding method produces artifacts, which even in the absence of quantum noise, restrict the quality of the reconstructed image. This is true of most correlation-type methods. Second, if the decoding procedure is of the deconvolution variety, small terms in the transfer function of the aperture can lead to excessive noise in the reconstructed image. It is proposed to circumvent both of these problems by use of a uniformly redundant array (URA) as the coded aperture in conjunction with a special correlation decoding method.

  14. Trunk Highway 169: Dynamic ramp metering evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Peak period travel demand has exceed unmanaged road capacity on most of Twin Cities metropolitan area freeways for more than two decades. During this time, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MN/DOT) has developed and implemented its freeway traffic management system (FTMS). MN/DOT continues to expand the FTMS, which includes ramp metering as one component. This report documents the impact of dynamic ramp metering on Trunk Highway 169 (TH 16) from Minnetonka Boulevard in Minnetonka to 77th Avenue in Brooklyn Park. The study examines changes in traffic performance with regard to traffic flow, congestion levels, travel times, and accident rates before and after implementation of dynamic ramp metering.

  15. Technical evaluation report of AGARD Technical Evaluation Meeting on Unsteady Aerodynamics: Fundamentals and Applications to Aircraft Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabey, D. G.; Chambers, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    From May 6 to 9, 1985, the Fluid Dynamics Panel and Flight Mechanics Panel of AGARD jointly arranged a Symposium on Unsteady Aerodynamics-Fundamentals and Applications to Aircraft Dynamics at the Stadthall, Goettingen, West Germany. This Symposium was organized by an international program committee chaired by Dr. K. J. Orlik-Ruckemann of the Fluid Dynamics Panel. The program consisted of five sessions grouped in two parts: (1) Fundamentals of Unsteady Aerodynamics; and (2) Applications to Aircraft Dynamics. The 35 papers presented at the 4 day meeting are published in AGARD CP 386 and listed in the Appendix. As the papers are already available and cover a very wide field, the evaluators have offered brief comments on every paper, followed by an overall evaluation of the meeting, together with some general conclusions and recommendations.

  16. Development and evaluation of a dynamic web-based application.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yichuan; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2007-10-11

    Traditional consumer health informatics (CHI) applications that were developed for lay public on the Web were commonly written in a Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). As genetics knowledge rapidly advances and requires updating information in a timely fashion, a different content structure is therefore needed to facilitate information delivery. This poster will present the process of developing a dynamic database-driven Web CHI application.

  17. Student Evaluation of Mathematical Statements Using Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, J.; Moss, L.; Grover, B.

    2007-01-01

    The research question addressed by this study is whether or not students made effective use of dynamic geometry software to explore the validity of a geometrical statement. Particular attention was paid to the use of definitions and the types of justifications students employed. Interviews conducted with six secondary mathematics preservice…

  18. Distributed Apertures in Laminar Flow Laser Turrets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    t r by Oe" Vmbat) High Energy Lasers Aperture Arrays Laser Turrets Aero-Optics 20. Aeft*ACT (CieOuu en revere siea of 400arind OE#1 by.*f Week.1a...ciation to Mom and Dad for their love and resolve which encourages the author to fulfill his potential. 11 I. INTRODUCTION Propagation of laser energy ...is the true measure of the "goodness" of a system of one or more apertures. PIB FPIB A (11) Power projected is found by use of the relation for the on

  19. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  20. Grating-flanked plasmonic coaxial apertures for efficient fiber optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Amr A E; Sheikhoelislami, Sassan; Gastelum, Steven; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2016-09-05

    Subwavelength plasmonic apertures have been foundational for direct optical manipulation of nanoscale specimens including sub-100 nm polymeric beads, metallic nanoparticles and proteins. While most plasmonic traps result in two-dimensional localization, three-dimensional manipulation has been demonstrated by integrating a plasmonic aperture on an optical fiber tip. However, such 3D traps are usually inefficient since the optical mode of the fiber and the subwavelength aperture only weakly couple. In this paper we design more efficient optical-fiber-based plasmonic tweezers combining a coaxial plasmonic aperture with a plasmonic grating coupler at the fiber tip facet. Using full-field finite difference time domain analysis, we optimize the grating design for both gold and silver fiber-based coaxial tweezers such that the optical transmission through the apertures is maximized. With the optimized grating, we show that the maximum transmission efficiency increases from 2.5% to 19.6% and from 1.48% to 16.7% for the gold and silver structures respectively. To evaluate their performance as optical tweezers, we calculate the optical forces and the corresponding trapping potential on dielectric particles interacting with the apertures. We demonstrate that the enahncement in the transmission translates into an equivalent increase in the optical forces. Consequently, the optical power required to achieve stable optical trapping is significantly reduced allowing for efficient localization and 3D manipulation of sub-30 nm dielectric particles.

  1. Fluorescence enhancement and focal volume reduction observed in c-shaped nano-apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Yin; Fore, Samantha; Huser, Thomas; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2008-02-01

    We evaluate the potential ability of c-shaped apertures milled in aluminum thin films to reduce the effective measurement volume and to enhance the fluorescence signal for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of ATTO655 dye dissolved in a HEPES buffer solution. Previous studies have shown that by morphing a square aperture into a rectangular aperture while holding the cross-sectional area constant will yield strong polarization dependence in the reduction of the effective volume and about a factor of 2-3 enhancement in the fluorescence count rate per molecule. By morphing the rectangular aperture into a c-shaped aperture we gain further reduction in focal volume while maintaining the count rate enhancements. In particular, we compare c-shaped apertures to squares with the same cross-sectional area and show that one can achieve one molecule per focal volume at ~3µM (about a 1000 times reduction in effective volume compared to confocal FCS) while maintaining a fluorescence count rate per molecule of about an order of magnitude higher than for bulk diffusing dyes. Two orthogonal polarizations for the incident field have been studied to explore the effects on the focal volume reduction and fluorescence count rate enhancements.

  2. Role of the aperture in Z-scan experiments: A parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidian Vaziri, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    In close-aperture Z-scan experiments, a small aperture is conventionally located in the far-field thereby enabling the detection of slight changes in the laser beam profile due to the Kerr-lensing effect. In this work, by numerically solving the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integrals, the amount of transmitted power through apertures has been evaluated and a parametric study on the role of the various parameters that can influence this transmitted power has been done. In order to perform a comprehensive analysis, we have used a nonlinear phase shift optimized for nonlocal nonlinear media in our calculations. Our results show that apertures will result in the formation of symmetrical fluctuations on the wings of Z-scan transmittance curves. It is further shown that the appearance of these fluctuations can be ascribed to the natural diffraction of the Gaussian beam as it propagates up to the aperture plane. Our calculations reveal that the nonlocal parameter variations can shift the position of fluctuations along the optical axis, whereas their magnitude depends on the largeness of the induced nonlinear phase shift. It is concluded that since the mentioned fluctuations are produced by the natural diffraction of the Gaussian beam itself, one must take care not to mistakenly interpret them as noise and should not expect to eliminate them from experimental Z-scan transmittance curves by using apertures with different sizes.

  3. Sub-aperture stitching test of a cylindrical mirror with large aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shuai; Chen, Shanyong; Shi, Feng; Lu, Jinfeng

    2016-09-01

    Cylindrical mirrors are key optics of high-end equipment of national defense and scientific research such as high energy laser weapons, synchrotron radiation system, etc. However, its surface error test technology develops slowly. As a result, its optical processing quality can not meet the requirements, and the developing of the associated equipment is hindered. Computer Generated-Hologram (CGH) is commonly utilized as null for testing cylindrical optics. However, since the fabrication process of CGH with large aperture is not sophisticated yet, the null test of cylindrical optics with large aperture is limited by the aperture of the CGH. Hence CGH null test combined with sub-aperture stitching method is proposed to break the limit of the aperture of CGH for testing cylindrical optics, and the design of CGH for testing cylindrical surfaces is analyzed. Besides, the misalignment aberration of cylindrical surfaces is different from that of the rotational symmetric surfaces since the special shape of cylindrical surfaces, and the existing stitching algorithm of rotational symmetric surfaces can not meet the requirements of stitching cylindrical surfaces. We therefore analyze the misalignment aberrations of cylindrical surfaces, and study the stitching algorithm for measuring cylindrical optics with large aperture. Finally we test a cylindrical mirror with large aperture to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  4. Image quality affected by diffraction of aperture structure arrangement in transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Huang, Mao-Hsiu; Jeng, Wei-de; Huang, Ting-Wei; Lo, Kuo-Lung; Ou-Yang, Mang

    2015-10-01

    Transparent display is one of the main technologies in next-generation displays, especially for augmented reality applications. An aperture structure is attached on each display pixel to partition them into transparent and black regions. However, diffraction blurs caused by the aperture structure typically degrade the transparent image when the light from a background object passes through finite aperture window. In this paper, the diffraction effect of an active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display (AMOLED) is studied. Several aperture structures have been proposed and implemented. Based on theoretical analysis and simulation, the appropriate aperture structure will effectively reduce the blur. The analysis data are also consistent with the experimental results. Compared with the various transparent aperture structure on AMOLED, diffraction width (zero energy position of diffraction pattern) of the optimize aperture structure can be reduced 63% and 31% in the x and y directions in CASE 3. Associated with a lenticular lens on the aperture structure, the improvement could reach to 77% and 54% of diffraction width in the x and y directions. Modulation transfer function and practical images are provided to evaluate the improvement of image blurs.

  5. Evaluation of the Use of Group Dynamics Training in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortvedt, Marjory M.

    The paper evaluates the use of group dynamics training for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides in Ohio and assesses low income homemakers' adoption of group participation. The treatment group of aides was given week-long experimental group dynamics training which was coupled with nutrition and money management subject…

  6. Ride Dynamics and Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole Body Vibration. Change 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-03

    methods for evaluating the ride dynamics or ride quality of ground vehicles as well as the vehicle occupants’ exposure to Whole-Body Vibration ( WBV ...occur as a result of vibration exposure . The technique for collecting data to be used for either ride dynamics or WBV exposure assessments is similar...

  7. Evaluation of the sensing block method for dynamic force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qinghui; Chen, Hao; Li, Wenzhao; Song, Li

    2017-01-01

    Sensing block method was proposed for the dynamic force measurement by Tanimura et al. in 1994. Comparing with the Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique, it can provide a much longer measuring time for the dynamic properties test of materials. However, the signals recorded by sensing block are always accompanied with additional oscillations. Tanimura et al. discussed the effect of force rising edge on the test results, whereas more research is still needed. In this paper, some more dominant factors have been extracted through dimensional analysis. The finite element simulation has been performed to assess these factors. Base on the analysis and simulation, some valuable results are obtained and some criterions proposed in this paper can be applied in design or selection of the sensing block.

  8. Evaluation of dynamical models: Dissipative synchronization and other techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Luis Antonio; Furtado, Edgar Campos; Tôrres, Leonardo A. B.

    2006-12-01

    Some recent developments for the validation of nonlinear models built from data are reviewed. Besides giving an overall view of the field, a procedure is proposed and investigated based on the concept of dissipative synchronization between the data and the model, which is very useful in validating models that should reproduce dominant dynamical features, like bifurcations, of the original system. In order to assess the discriminating power of the procedure, four well-known benchmarks have been used: namely, Duffing-Ueda, Duffing-Holmes, and van der Pol oscillators, plus the Hénon map. The procedure, developed for discrete-time systems, is focused on the dynamical properties of the model, rather than on statistical issues. For all the systems investigated, it is shown that the discriminating power of the procedure is similar to that of bifurcation diagrams—which in turn is much greater than, say, that of correlation dimension—but at a much lower computational cost.

  9. Using Dynamic Capability Evaluation to Organize a Team of Cooperative, Autonomous Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Using Dynamic Capability Evaluation to Organize a Team of Cooperative, Autonomous Robots Eric Matson Scott DeLoach Multi-agent and Cooperative...00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Using Dynamic Capability Evaluation to Organize a Team of Cooperative, Autonomous Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...company structure. Agent: Equivalent to autonomous robots in this instance. Agents coordinate through the organization via conversations and act

  10. Phase-Slip Avalanches in the Superflow of {sup 4}He through Arrays of Nanosize Apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Pekker, David; Barankov, Roman; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2007-04-27

    In response to recent experiments by the Berkeley group, we construct a model of superflow through an array of nanosize apertures that incorporates two basic ingredients: (1) disorder associated with each aperture having its own random critical velocity, and (2) effective interaperture coupling, mediated through the bulk superfluid. As the disorder becomes weak there is a transition from a regime where phase slips are largely independent to a regime where interactions lead to system-wide avalanches of phase slips. We explore the flow dynamics in both regimes, and make connections to the experiments.

  11. A typical Ztrack'' long-term tracking result for the SSC aperture study

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Bourianoff, G. ); Schachinger, L. )

    1990-12-01

    A large amount of supercomputer CPU time has been used for tracking particles in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) using a vectorized, multi-tasked post-Teapot tracking program called Ztrack.'' Typically, hundreds of particles with appropriate initial displacements (relative to the closed orbits) are tracked for a hundred thousand turns. One then simply makes a survival plot (turn at which particle is lost versus initial displacements) to determine the dynamic aperture. Occasionally, particles are tracked to a million turns for very selective cases. These numerical studies aid in determining the best aperture for the SSC. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Three-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy using synthetic aperture imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moonseok; Choi, Youngwoon; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Sung, Yongjin; Kim, Kwanhyung; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We implement differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy using high-speed synthetic aperture imaging that expands the passband of coherent imaging by a factor of 2.2. For an aperture synthesized coherent image, we apply for the numerical post-processing and obtain a high-contrast DIC image for arbitrary shearing direction and bias retardation. In addition, we obtain images at different depths without a scanning objective lens by numerically propagating the acquired coherent images. Our method achieves high-resolution and high-contrast 3-D DIC imaging of live biological cells. The proposed method will be useful for monitoring 3-D dynamics of intracellular particles. PMID:22463035

  13. Requirements for imaging vulnerable plaque in the coronary artery using a coded aperture imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozian, Cynthia

    A coded aperture1 plate was employed on a conventional gamma camera for 3D single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging on small animal models. The coded aperture design was selected to improve the spatial resolution and decrease the minimum detectable activity (MDA) required to image plaque formation in the APoE (apolipoprotein E) gene deficient mouse model when compared to conventional SPECT techniques. The pattern that was tested was a no-two-holes-touching (NTHT) modified uniformly redundant array (MURA) having 1,920 pinholes. The number of pinholes combined with the thin sintered tungsten plate was designed to increase the efficiency of the imaging modality over conventional gamma camera imaging methods while improving spatial resolution and reducing noise in the image reconstruction. The MDA required to image the vulnerable plaque in a human cardiac-torso mathematical phantom was simulated with a Monte Carlo code and evaluated to determine the optimum plate thickness by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) yielding the lowest possible MDA and highest area under the curve (AUC). A partial 3D expectation maximization (EM) reconstruction was developed to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dynamic range, and spatial resolution over the linear correlation method of reconstruction. This improvement was evaluated by imaging a mini hot rod phantom, simulating the dynamic range, and by performing a bone scan of the C-57 control mouse. Results of the experimental and simulated data as well as other plate designs were analyzed for use as a small animal and potentially human cardiac imaging modality for a radiopharmaceutical developed at Bristol-Myers Squibb Medical Imaging Company, North Billerica, MA, for diagnosing vulnerable plaques. If left untreated, these plaques may rupture causing sudden, unexpected coronary occlusion and death. The results of this research indicated that imaging and reconstructing with this new partial 3D algorithm improved

  14. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Microwave Radiometers : an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; McKague, Darren

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes 1) the progress of the work of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS) Instrumentation and Future Technologies Technical Committee (IFT-TC) Microwave Radiometer Working Group and 2) an overview of the development of interferometric synthetic aperture microwave radiometers as an introduction to a dedicated session.

  15. Vowel Aperture and Syllable Segmentation in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goslin, Jeremy; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2008-01-01

    The theories of Pulgram (1970) suggest that if the vowel of a French syllable is open then it will induce syllable segmentation responses that result in the syllable being closed, and vice versa. After the empirical verification that our target French-speaking population was capable of distinguishing between mid-vowel aperture, we examined the…

  16. Radiation safety considerations in proton aperture disposal.

    PubMed

    Walker, Priscilla K; Edwards, Andrew C; Das, Indra J; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2014-04-01

    Beam shaping in scattered and uniform scanned proton beam therapy (PBT) is made commonly by brass apertures. Due to proton interactions, these devices become radioactive and could pose safety issues and radiation hazards. Nearly 2,000 patient-specific devices per year are used at Indiana University Cyclotron Operations (IUCO) and IU Health Proton Therapy Center (IUHPTC); these devices require proper guidelines for disposal. IUCO practice has been to store these apertures for at least 4 mo to allow for safe transfer to recycling contractors. The devices require decay in two staged secure locations, including at least 4 mo in a separate building, at which point half are ready for disposal. At 6 mo, 20-30% of apertures require further storage. This process requires significant space and manpower and should be considered in the design process for new clinical facilities. More widespread adoption of pencil beam or spot scanning nozzles may obviate this issue, as apertures then will no longer be necessary.

  17. Perceiving Affordances for Fitting through Apertures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Shaziela; Adolph, Karen E.; Lin, Grace C.

    2008-01-01

    Affordances--possibilities for action--are constrained by the match between actors and their environments. For motor decisions to be adaptive, affordances must be detected accurately. Three experiments examined the correspondence between motor decisions and affordances as participants reached through apertures of varying size. A psychophysical…

  18. Demonstration of synthetic aperture imaging ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buell, W.; Marechal, N.; Buck, J.; Dickinson, R.; Kozlowski, D.; Wright, T.; Beck, S.

    2005-05-01

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging LADAR system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope aperture. The purpose of this work is to investigate Synthetic Aperture Imaging LADAR (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. This paper details our laboratory-scale SAIL testbed, digital signal processing techniques, and image results. A number of fine-resolution, well-focused SAIL images are shown including both retro-reflecting and diffuse scattering targets. A general digital signal processing solution to the laser waveform instability problem is described and demonstrated, involving both new algorithms and hardware elements. These algorithms are primarily data-driven, without a priori knowledge of waveform and sensor position, representing a crucial step in developing a robust imaging system. These techniques perform well on waveform errors, but not on external phase errors such as turbulence or vibration. As a first step towards mitigating phase errors of this type, we have developed a balanced, quadrature phase, laser vibrometer to work in conjunction with our SAIL system to measure and compensate for relative line of sight motion between the target and transceiver. We describe this system and present a comparison of the vibrometer-measured phase error with the phase error inferred from the SAIL data.

  19. Processing for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lybanon, M.

    1973-01-01

    The data handling and processing in using synthetic aperture radar as a satellite-borne earth resources remote sensor is considered. The discussion covers the nature of the problem, the theory, both conventional and potential advanced processing techniques, and a complete computer simulation. It is shown that digital processing is a real possibility and suggests some future directions for research.

  20. Nano-scale zero valent iron transport in a variable aperture dolomite fracture and a glass fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, P.; Sleep, B. E.; Cui, Z.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations are being performed to understand the transport behavior of carboxymethyl cellulose polymer stabilized nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) in a variable aperture dolomite rock fracture and a variable aperture glass replica of a fractured slate. The rock fracture was prepared by artificially inducing a fracture in a dolomite block along a stylolite, and the glass fracture was prepared by creating molds with melted glass on two opposing sides of a fractured slate rock block. Both of the fractures were 0.28 m in length and 0.21 m in width. Equivalent hydraulic apertures are about 110 microns for the rock fracture and 250 microns for the glass replica fracture. Sodium bromide and lissamine green B (LGB) serve as conservative tracers in the rock fracture and glass replica fracture, respectively. A dark box set-up with a light source and digital camera is being used to visualize the LGB and CMC-nZVI movement in the glass fracture. Experiments are being performed to determine the effects of water specific discharge and CMC concentration on nZVI transport in the fractures. Transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-visual spectrophotometry were performed to determine the stability and characteristics of the CMC-nZVI mixture. The transport of bromide, LGB, CMC, and CMC-nZVI in both fractures is being evaluated through analysis of the effluent concentrations. Time-lapse images are also being captured for the glass fracture. Bromide, LGB, and CMC recoveries have exceeded 95% in both fractures. Significant channeling has been observed in the fractures for CMC transport due to viscous effects.

  1. RF Performance of Membrane Aperture Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flint, Eirc M.; Lindler, Jason E.; Thomas, David L.; Romanofsky, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent results establishing the suitability of Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST) for Radio Frequency (RF) applications. These single surface shells are capable of maintaining their figure with no preload or pressurization and minimal boundary support, yet can be compactly roll stowed and passively self deploy. As such, they are a promising technology for enabling a future generation of RF apertures. In this paper, we review recent experimental and numerical results quantifying suitable RF performance. It is shown that candidate materials possess metallic coatings with sufficiently low surface roughness and that these materials can be efficiently fabricated into RF relevant doubly curved shapes. A numerical justification for using a reflectivity metric, as opposed to the more standard RF designer metric of skin depth, is presented and the resulting ability to use relatively thin coating thickness is experimentally validated with material sample tests. The validity of these independent film sample measurements are then confirmed through experimental results measuring RF performance for reasonable sized doubly curved apertures. Currently available best results are 22 dBi gain at 3 GHz (S-Band) for a 0.5m aperture tested in prime focus mode, 28dBi gain for the same antenna in the C-Band (4 to 6 GHz), and 36.8dBi for a smaller 0.25m antenna tested at 32 GHz in the Ka-Band. RF range test results for a segmented aperture (one possible scaling approach) are shown as well. Measured antenna system actual efficiencies (relative to the unachievable) ideal for these on axis tests are generally quite good, typically ranging from 50 to 90%.

  2. Thermal evaluation of advanced solar dynamic heat receiver performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Roger A.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal performance of a variety of concepts for thermal energy storage as applied to solar dynamic applications is discussed. It is recognized that designs providing large thermal gradients or large temperature swings during orbit are susceptible to early mechanical failure. Concepts incorporating heat pipe technology may encounter operational limitations over sufficiently large ranges. By reviewing the thermal performance of basic designs, the relative merits of the basic concepts are compared. In addition the effect of thermal enhancement and metal utilization as applied to each design provides a partial characterization of the performance improvements to be achieved by developing these technologies.

  3. Improvement of synthetic aperture techniques by means of the coarray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Arguedas, C. J.; Martínez-Graullera, O.; Romero-Laorden, D.; Pérez-López, M.; Gómez-Ullate, L.

    2012-05-01

    In the field of ultrasonic imaging, the synthetic aperture techniques are well known due to their ability for obtain images using fewer resources. Initially, these techniques were developed to reduce the cost and complexity of phased array instrumentation. Although these drawbacks have already been overcome, the interest on the synthetic aperture systems has not decayed. The reasons of that are the high image quality achieved with these techniques (images dynamically focused both in emission and reception), and the fact that they are an excellent solution for the design of new high performance instrumentation with a low volume and power consumption, easily integrable in autonomous and embedded systems. Using the coarray as a model of the pulse-echo systems, the present work analyzes experimentally the main synthetic aperture strategies appeared until now, introducing two new proposals (2R-SAFT and nR-SAFT) that allow to improve the quality of the images without increase the hardware complexity of the system.

  4. Measuring methods for evaluation of dynamic tyre properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmoch, Klaus

    1992-01-01

    Extensive measuring methods for macroscopic assessment of tire properties, based on classical mechanics and dynamics, are presented. Theoretical results and measurements were included in an expert system, where the pneumatic tire is represented as a wheel with particular elastic properties. For geometry measurement of the tire surface, a laser scanner test bed was used. The tire was excited with a shaker in order to obtain acceleration signals and for estimating global parameters such as stiffness, damping, and nonlinearity influence, which is found to increase with excitation force. Tire dynamic behavior was examined by low velocities with microscopy and infrared thermography, in order to quantify temperature augmentation and tangential and normal forces in the contact area; the slip stick oscillations were recorded on microphones. A drum test bed was used for studying tire behavior at high velocities and the tire vehicle interaction was established with acceleration measurements; nonuniformity influence on rolling stability was ascertained. The results were compared with data from theoretical models, which are pinpoint mass systems or multiple bodies problems.

  5. Dynamic evaluation system for interpolation errors in the encoder of high precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qiu-hua; Wu, Yong-zhi; Zhao, Chang-hai; Liang, Li-hui; Sun, Ying; Jiang, Yong

    2009-05-01

    In order to measure dynamic interpolation errors of photoelectric encoder of high precision, the dynamic evaluation system of interpolation errors is introduced. Firstly, the fine Moiré signal of encoder which is collected with the high-speed data gathering card into the computer is treated to equiangular data with the method of linear interpolation. Then, the analysis of harmonic wave with the FFT is processed. Compared with the standard signal, the dynamic interpolation errors of the encoder are calculated. Experimental results show that the precision of the dynamic evaluation system of interpolation errors is +/-0.1 %( pitch). The evaluation system is simple, fast, high precision, and can be used in the working field of the encoder.

  6. Peer Dynamics Final Evaluation Report. 1979/1980. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cathy; Walker, Connie

    This is Part I of a final evaluation of a program designed to reduce the incidence of destructive risk-taking behavior (e.g. drug-alcohol abuse, and juvenile delinquency) among school-age youth. Background research indicates that peer group pressure is the single most important factor in dictating the presence or absence of juvenile delinquency…

  7. Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) entrance aperture design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheimets, P.; Park, S.; Bergner, H.; Chou, C.; Gates, R.; Honsa, M.; Podgorski, W.; Yanari, C.

    2014-07-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is a complementary follow-on to Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO-AIA) and funded as a member of the NASA SMEX program. This paper presents the thermal design of the IRIS telescope front end, with a focus on the IRIS door and entrance aperture assembly. The challenge of the IRIS entrance aperture, including the door design, was to manage the solar flux, both before and after the door was opened. This is especially a problem with instruments that are permanently pointed directly at the sun. Though there is an array of effective flux-rejecting coatings, they are expensive, hard to apply, harder to measure, delicate, prone to unpredictable performance decay with exposure, and very often a source of contamination. This paper presents a thermal control and protection method based on robust, inexpensive coatings and materials, combined to produce high thermal and structural isolation. The end result is a first line of thermal protection whose performance is easy to predict and well isolated from the instrument it is protecting.

  8. An Evaluation of the Applicability of Damage Tolerance to Dynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Le, Dy; Turnberg, Jay

    2005-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the aircraft industry have teamed together to develop methods and guidance for the safe life-cycle management of dynamic systems. Based on the success of the United States Air Force damage tolerance initiative for airframe structure, a crack growth based damage tolerance approach is being examined for implementation into the design and management of dynamic systems. However, dynamic systems accumulate millions of vibratory cycles per flight hour, more than 12,000 times faster than an airframe system. If a detectable crack develops in a dynamic system, the time to failure is extremely short, less than 100 flight hours in most cases, leaving little room for error in the material characterization, life cycle analysis, nondestructive inspection and maintenance processes. In this paper, the authors review the damage tolerant design process focusing on uncertainties that affect dynamic systems and evaluate the applicability of damage tolerance on dynamic systems.

  9. Methods for evaluating the predictive accuracy of structural dynamic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasselman, T. K.; Chrostowski, Jon D.

    1990-01-01

    Uncertainty of frequency response using the fuzzy set method and on-orbit response prediction using laboratory test data to refine an analytical model are emphasized with respect to large space structures. Two aspects of the fuzzy set approach were investigated relative to its application to large structural dynamics problems: (1) minimizing the number of parameters involved in computing possible intervals; and (2) the treatment of extrema which may occur in the parameter space enclosed by all possible combinations of the important parameters of the model. Extensive printer graphics were added to the SSID code to help facilitate model verification, and an application of this code to the LaRC Ten Bay Truss is included in the appendix to illustrate this graphics capability.

  10. Molecular dynamics evaluation of self-diffusion in Yukawa systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, H.; Hamaguchi, S.

    2000-11-01

    Self-diffusion coefficients of Yukawa systems in the fluid phase are obtained from molecular dynamics simulations in a wide range of the thermodynamical parameters. The Yukawa system is a collection of particles interacting through Yukawa (i.e., screened Coulomb) potentials, which may serve as a model for charged dust particles in a plasma or colloidal particles in electrolytes. The self-diffusion coefficients are found to follow a simple scaling law with respect to the system temperature, which is consistent with the universal scaling (i.e., temperature scaling independent of the ratio of interparticle distance to screening length) observed by Robbins et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 88, 3286 (1988)] if the fluid system is near solidification. Also discussed is the velocity autocorrelation function, which is in part used to determine the self-diffusion coefficients through the Green-Kubo formula.

  11. Sex, Mosquitoes and Epidemics: An Evaluation of Zika Disease Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Baca-Carrasco, David; Velasco-Hernández, Jorge X

    2016-11-01

    Since the first major outbreak reported on the island Yap in 2007, the Zika virus spread has alerted the scientific community worldwide. Zika is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes; particularly in Central and South America, the main vector is the same mosquito that transmits dengue and chikungunya, Aedes aegypti. Seeking to understand the dynamics of spread of the Zika, in this paper, three mathematical models are presented, in which vector transmission of the virus, sexual contact transmission and migration are considered. Numerical analysis of these models allows us to have a clear view of the effects of sexual transmission and migration in the spread of the virus, showing that sexual transmission influences the magnitude of the outbreaks and migration generates outbreaks over time, each of lower intensity than the previous.

  12. Dynamic System Response of Truss Panels under High Dynamic Loading through Experimental & Computation Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    has simplified the experimental analysis of dynamic impact simulations. Simulations not only reduce the cost and time of manufacturing prototypes...weight; (4) select the best stacking sequence for face sheets composed of laminated composite materials; (5) compare the optimum structural weight...Detailed finite element calculations using fully meshed geometries with square honeycomb, prismatic corrugations and pyramidal truss topologies made

  13. Dynamic evaluation of a traction-drive joint for space telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desilva, Clarence W.; Hankins, Walter W., III

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an analysis and evaluation of a prototype traction-drive joint for robotic manipulators, developed under NASA sponsorship. A dynamic model is developed using the Lagrange formulation. Controllability, observability, dynamic stability, and response characteristics of the joint to test inputs are studied. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR) is implemented on the joint model to determine a basis for evaluating the performance of the traction-drive joint under servo control. An evaluation of the results and directions for future investigations are presented.

  14. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1983-08-31

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  15. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1985-01-01

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  16. Vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection from laser-irradiated target

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, Robert F.; Mitchell, Kenneth B.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection of a laser-irradiated target. Within a vacuum chamber are disposed a beam focusing element, a disc having an aperture and a recollimating element. The edge of the focused beam impinges on the edge of the aperture to produce a plasma which refracts any retroreflected light from the laser's target.

  17. Dynamic evaluation of a nuclear main steam isolation valve actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, A.J.

    1981-09-01

    Architect and Engineering Specifications for ASME Section III, Class I values include seismic requirements of natural frequency determination of the valve and valve actuator. Detailed tests of the springs were conducted to evaluate the effect of these component resonators on the actuator assembly. The importance of using clear, concise definitions within contract documents is discussed as related to the interpretation of experimental results. 16 refs.

  18. Fast-neutron, coded-aperture imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Richard S.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Hutcheson, Anthony L.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses a large-scale, coded-aperture imager for fast neutrons, building off a proof-of concept instrument developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The Space Science Division at the NRL has a heritage of developing large-scale, mobile systems, using coded-aperture imaging, for long-range γ-ray detection and localization. The fast-neutron, coded-aperture imaging instrument, designed for a mobile unit (20 ft. ISO container), consists of a 32-element array of 15 cm×15 cm×15 cm liquid scintillation detectors (EJ-309) mounted behind a 12×12 pseudorandom coded aperture. The elements of the aperture are composed of 15 cm×15 cm×10 cm blocks of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The arrangement of the aperture elements produces a shadow pattern on the detector array behind the mask. By measuring of the number of neutron counts per masked and unmasked detector, and with knowledge of the mask pattern, a source image can be deconvolved to obtain a 2-d location. The number of neutrons per detector was obtained by processing the fast signal from each PMT in flash digitizing electronics. Digital pulse shape discrimination (PSD) was performed to filter out the fast-neutron signal from the γ background. The prototype instrument was tested at an indoor facility at the NRL with a 1.8-μCi and 13-μCi 252Cf neutron/γ source at three standoff distances of 9, 15 and 26 m (maximum allowed in the facility) over a 15-min integration time. The imaging and detection capabilities of the instrument were tested by moving the source in half- and one-pixel increments across the image plane. We show a representative sample of the results obtained at one-pixel increments for a standoff distance of 9 m. The 1.8-μCi source was not detected at the 26-m standoff. In order to increase the sensitivity of the instrument, we reduced the fastneutron background by shielding the top, sides and back of the detector array with 10-cm-thick HDPE. This shielding configuration led

  19. High-resolution fracture aperture mapping using optical profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, Pasha; Elkhoury, Jean E.; Detwiler, Russell L.

    2013-10-01

    Fractures play an important role in the Earth's crust, often controlling both mechanical and transport processes. Developing a mechanistic understanding of these processes requires quantifying the roughness of fracture surfaces and the contacts and void spaces between fracture surfaces at high spatial resolution (10s of microns) over a broad range of scales (centimeters to meters). Here we present a scalable method for measuring fracture surfaces and reconstructing fracture aperture fields using an optical profilometer. We evaluate the method by measuring two fractured limestone cores; one is a tensile fracture with strong cross correlation between the surfaces and the other is a saw-cut, sand-blasted fracture with negligible cross correlation between the surfaces. Results of repeated measurements of these two fractures suggest that well-correlated surfaces, where the correlation between the surfaces can aid reconstruction, can be reproduced with local uncertainties with median standard deviation of 8 μm . Poorly correlated surfaces, where reconstruction relies solely upon the precision of the placement of the halves of the core on the profilometer stage, can be reproduced with local uncertainties with median standard deviation of 20 μm . Additionally, we quantified the accuracy of the technique by comparing calculated aperture profiles of a fractured concrete core to thin sections cut from the core after impregnating it with epoxy. The median deviation between the two measurements, which includes errors due to residual misalignment of the profiles, was 29 μm supporting the accuracy of the method. Our results emphasize the potential for using noncontact surface measurement techniques to accurately and precisely reconstruct fracture apertures over a wide range of length scales.

  20. New methods of data calibration for high power-aperture lidar.

    PubMed

    Guan, Sai; Yang, Guotao; Chang, Qihai; Cheng, Xuewu; Yang, Yong; Gong, Shaohua; Wang, Jihong

    2013-03-25

    For high power-aperture lidar sounding of wide atmospheric dynamic ranges, as in middle-upper atmospheric probing, photomultiplier tubes' (PMT) pulse pile-up effects and signal-induced noise (SIN) complicates the extraction of information from lidar return signal, especially from metal layers' fluorescence signal. Pursuit for sophisticated description of metal layers' characteristics at far range (80~130km) with one PMT of high quantum efficiency (QE) and good SNR, contradicts the requirements for signals of wide linear dynamic range (i.e. from approximate 10(2) to 10(8) counts/s). In this article, Substantial improvements on experimental simulation of Lidar signals affected by PMT are reported to evaluate the PMTs' distortions in our High Power-Aperture Sodium LIDAR system. A new method for pile-up calibration is proposed by taking into account PMT and High Speed Data Acquisition Card as an Integrated Black-Box, as well as a new experimental method for identifying and removing SIN from the raw Lidar signals. Contradiction between the limited linear dynamic range of raw signal (55~80km) and requirements for wider acceptable linearity has been effectively solved, without complicating the current lidar system. Validity of these methods was demonstrated by applying calibrated data to retrieve atmospheric parameters (i.e. atmospheric density, temperature and sodium absolutely number density), in comparison with measurements of TIMED satellite and atmosphere model. Good agreements are obtained between results derived from calibrated signal and reference measurements where differences of atmosphere density, temperature are less than 5% in the stratosphere and less than 10K from 30km to mesosphere, respectively. Additionally, approximate 30% changes are shown in sodium concentration at its peak value. By means of the proposed methods to revert the true signal independent of detectors, authors approach a new balance between maintaining the linearity of adequate signal (20

  1. LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T; Soufli, R; Pivovaroff, M

    2011-03-02

    Synchrotron or FEL X-ray mirrors are required to deliver an X-ray beam from its source to an experiment location, without contributing significantly to wave front distortion. Accurate mirror figure measurements are required prior to installation to meet this intent. This paper describes how a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer was calibrated to <1 nm absolute accuracy and used to mount and measure 450 mm long flats for the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Measuring focus mirrors with an interferometer requires additional calibration, because high fringe density introduces systematic errors from the interferometer's imaging optics. This paper describes how these errors can be measured and corrected. The calibration approaches described here apply equally well to interferometers larger than 300 mm aperture, which are becoming more common in optics laboratories. The objective of this effort was to install LCLS flats with < 10 nm of spherical curvature, and < 2 nm rms a-sphere. The objective was met by measuring the mirrors after fabrication, coating and mounting, using a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer calibrated to an accuracy < 1 nm. The key to calibrating the interferometer accurately was to sample the error using independent geometries that are available. The results of those measurements helped identify and reduce calibration error sources. The approach used to measure flats applies equally well to focus mirrors, provided an additional calibration is performed to measure the error introduced by fringe density. This calibration has been performed on the 300 mm aperture interferometer, and the measurement correction was evaluated for a typical focus mirror. The 300 mm aperture limitation requires stitching figure measurements together for many X-ray mirrors of interest, introducing another possible error source. Stitching is eliminated by applying the calibrations described above to larger aperture instruments

  2. Evaluation of Instrumentation and Dynamic Thermal Ratings for Overhead Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.

    2013-01-31

    In 2010, a project was initiated through a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the New York Power Authority (NYPA) to evaluate EPRI's rating technology and instrumentation that can be used to monitor the thermal states of transmission lines and provide the required real-time data for real-time rating calculations. The project included the installation and maintenance of various instruments at three 230 kV line sites in northern New York. The instruments were monitored, and data collection and rating calculations were performed for about a three year period.

  3. Large aperture compound lenses made of lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, M. A.; Beguiristain, H. R.; Gary, C. K.; Pantell, R. H.

    2003-04-01

    We have measured the intensity profile and transmission of x rays focused by a series of biconcave parabolic unit lenses fabricated in lithium. For specified focal length and photon energy lithium compound refractive lenses (CRL) have a larger transmission, aperture size, and gain compared to aluminum, kapton, and beryllium CRLs. The lithium compound refractive lens was composed of 335 biconcave, parabolic unit lenses each with an on-axis radius of curvature of 0.95 mm. Two-dimensional focusing was obtained at 8.0 keV with a focal length of 95 cm. The effective aperture of the CRL was measured to be 1030 μm with on-axis (peak) transmissions of 27% and an on-axis intensity gain of 18.9.

  4. Compact high precision adjustable beam defining aperture

    DOEpatents

    Morton, Simon A; Dickert, Jeffrey

    2013-07-02

    The present invention provides an adjustable aperture for limiting the dimension of a beam of energy. In an exemplary embodiment, the aperture includes (1) at least one piezoelectric bender, where a fixed end of the bender is attached to a common support structure via a first attachment and where a movable end of the bender is movable in response to an actuating voltage applied to the bender and (2) at least one blade attached to the movable end of the bender via a second attachment such that the blade is capable of impinging upon the beam. In an exemplary embodiment, the beam of energy is electromagnetic radiation. In an exemplary embodiment, the beam of energy is X-rays.

  5. Performance limits for Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-02-01

    The performance of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to ''get your arms around'' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics, no matter how bright the engineer tasked to generate a system design. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall SAR system. For example, there are definite optimum frequency bands that depend on weather conditions and range, and minimum radar PRF for a fixed real antenna aperture dimension is independent of frequency. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the ''seek time''.

  6. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

    2012-09-01

    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  7. Polarization-sensitive interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy

    PubMed Central

    South, Fredrick A.; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Xu, Yang; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Carney, P. Scott; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional optical microscopy suffers from the well-known compromise between transverse resolution and depth-of-field. This is true for both structural imaging methods and their functional extensions. Interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) is a solution to the 3D coherent microscopy inverse problem that provides depth-independent transverse resolution. We demonstrate the extension of ISAM to polarization sensitive imaging, termed polarization-sensitive interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (PS-ISAM). This technique is the first functionalization of the ISAM method and provides improved depth-of-field for polarization-sensitive imaging. The basic assumptions of polarization-sensitive imaging are explored, and refocusing of birefringent structures is experimentally demonstrated. PS-ISAM enables high-resolution volumetric imaging of birefringent materials and tissue. PMID:26648593

  8. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Fourier Beamformation Using Virtual Sources.

    PubMed

    Moghimirad, Elahe; Villagomez Hoyos, Carlos A; Mahloojifar, Ali; Mohammadzadeh Asl, Babak; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2016-12-01

    An efficient Fourier beamformation algorithm is presented for multistatic synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging using virtual sources. The concept is based on the frequency domain wavenumber algorithm from radar and sonar and is extended to a multielement transmit/receive configuration using virtual sources. Window functions are used to extract the azimuth processing bandwidths and weight the data to reduce side lobes in the final image. Field II simulated data and SARUS (Synthetic Aperture Real-time Ultrasound System) measured data are used to evaluate the results in terms of point spread function, resolution, contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, and processing time. Lateral resolutions of 0.53 and 0.66 mm are obtained for Fourier Beamformation Using Virtual Sources (FBV) and delay and sum (DAS) on point target simulated data. Corresponding axial resolutions are 0.21 mm for FBV and 0.20 mm for DAS. The results are also consistent over different depths evaluated using a simulated phantom containing several point targets at different depths. FBV shows a better lateral resolution at all depths, and the axial and cystic resolutions of -6, -12, and -20 dB are almost the same for FBV and DAS. To evaluate the cyst phantom metrics, three different criteria of power ratio, contrast ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio have been used. Results show that the algorithms have a different performance in the cyst center and near the boundary. FBV has a better performance near the boundary; however, DAS is better in the more central area of the cyst. Measured data from phantoms are also used for evaluation. The results confirm applicability of FBV in ultrasound, and 20 times less processing time is attained in comparison with DAS. Evaluating the results over a wide variety of parameters and having almost the same results for simulated and measured data demonstrates the ability of FBV in preserving the quality of image as DAS, while providing a more efficient algorithm with 20 times less

  9. Infrared interferometer with a scanned aperture.

    PubMed

    Edwin, R P

    1975-08-01

    A Twyman-Green interferometer operating at a 3.39-microm wavelength has been built in which the collimator aperture was scanned by a laser beam. The scanning was produced by reflecting the laser beam from a mirror supported by four piezoelectric elements and oscillated about two orthogonal axes. The radiation transmitted by the interferometer was measured by a stationary detector of small area. The complete system offers a cheap and efficient alternative to conventional ir interferometers.

  10. Synthetic aperture ladar concept for infrastructure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbide, Simon; Marchese, Linda; Terroux, Marc; Bergeron, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Long range surveillance of infrastructure is a critical need in numerous security applications, both civilian and military. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) continues to provide high resolution radar images in all weather conditions from remote distances. As well, Interferometric SAR (InSAR) and Differential Interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) have become powerful tools adding high resolution elevation and change detection measurements. State of the art SAR systems based on dual-use satellites are capable of providing ground resolutions of one meter; while their airborne counterparts obtain resolutions of 10 cm. D-InSAR products based on these systems could produce cm-scale vertical resolution image products. Deformation monitoring of railways, roads, buildings, cellular antennas, power structures (i.e., power lines, wind turbines, dams, or nuclear plants) would benefit from improved resolution, both in the ground plane and vertical direction. The ultimate limitation to the achievable resolution of any imaging system is its wavelength. State-of-the art SAR systems are approaching this limit. The natural extension to improve resolution is to thus decrease the wavelength, i.e. design a synthetic aperture system in a different wavelength regime. One such system offering the potential for vastly improved resolution is Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL). This system operates at infrared wavelengths, ten thousand times smaller than radar wavelengths. This paper presents a laboratory demonstration of a scaled-down infrastructure deformation monitoring with an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Ladar (IFSAL) system operating at 1.5 μm. Results show sub-millimeter precision on the deformation applied to the target.

  11. Performance Limits for Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report ( SAR ) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 70 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT...second edition Armin W. Doerry SAR Applications Department Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1330...ABSTRACT The performance of a Synthetic Aperture Radar ( SAR ) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is

  12. High-speed synthetic aperture microscopy for live cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moonseok; Choi, Youngwoon; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Sung, Yongjin; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.; Choi, Wonshik

    2011-01-01

    We present a high-speed synthetic aperture microscopy for quantitative phase imaging of live biological cells. We measure 361 complex amplitude images of an object with various directions of illumination covering an NA of 0.8 in less than one-thirteenth of a second and then combine the images with a phase-referencing method to create a synthesized phase image. Because of the increased depth selectivity, artifacts from diffraction that are typically present in coherent imaging are significantly suppressed, and lateral resolution of phase imaging is improved. We use the instrument to demonstrate high-quality phase imaging of live cells, both static and dynamic, and thickness measurements of a nanoscale cholesterol helical ribbon. PMID:21263482

  13. Assessing collective affect recognition via the Emotional Aperture Measure.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey; Bartel, Caroline A; Rees, Laura; Huy, Quy

    2016-01-01

    Curiosity about collective affect is undergoing a revival in many fields. This literature, tracing back to Le Bon's seminal work on crowd psychology, has established the veracity of collective affect and demonstrated its influence on a wide range of group dynamics. More recently, an interest in the perception of collective affect has emerged, revealing a need for a methodological approach for assessing collective emotion recognition to complement measures of individual emotion recognition. This article addresses this need by introducing the Emotional Aperture Measure (EAM). Three studies provide evidence that collective affect recognition requires a processing style distinct from individual emotion recognition and establishes the validity and reliability of the EAM. A sample of working managers further shows how the EAM provides unique insights into how individuals interact with collectives. We discuss how the EAM can advance several lines of research on collective affect.

  14. Substrate effect on aperture resonances in a thin metal film.

    PubMed

    Kang, J H; Choe, Jong-Ho; Kim, D S; Park, Q-Han

    2009-08-31

    We present a simple theoretical model to study the effect of a substrate on the resonance of an aperture in a thin metal film. The transmitted energy through an aperture is shown to be governed by the coupling of aperture waveguide mode to the incoming and the outgoing electromagnetic waves into the substrate region. Aperture resonance in the energy transmission thus depends critically on the refractive index of a substrate. We explain the substrate effect on aperture resonance in terms of destructive interference among evanescent modes or impedance mismatch. Our model shows an excellent agreement with a rigorous FDTD calculation and is consistent with previous experimental observations.

  15. Dynamic Model of Aircraft Passenger Seats for Vibration Comfort Evaluation and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šika, Z.; Valášek, Michael; Vampola, T.; Füllekrug, U.; Klimmek, T.

    The paper deals with the development of the seat dynamical model for vibration comfort evaluation and control. The aircraft seats have been tested extensively by vibrations on the 6 DOF vibrating platform. The importance of the careful comfort control together with the flight mechanics control is namely stressed for the blended wing body (BWB) aircrafts. They have a very large fuselage, where the mechanical properties (accelerations, angular accelerations) vary considerably for different seat places. The model have been improved by adding of dynamical models of the aircraft passenger seats identified by the measurements on the 6 DOF vibrating platform. The experiments, their results and the identification of the dynamical seat model are described. The model is further modified by adding of the comfort evaluation norms represented by dynamical filters. The structure and identification of the seat model is briefly described and discussed.

  16. Engineering evaluation of SSME dynamic data from engine tests and SSV flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of dynamic data from SSME hot firing tests and SSV flights is summarized. The basic objective of the study is to provide analyses of vibration, strain and dynamic pressure measurements in support of MSFC performance and reliability improvement programs. A brief description of the SSME test program is given and a typical test evaluation cycle reviewed. Data banks generated to characterize SSME component dynamic characteristics are described and statistical analyses performed on these data base measurements are discussed. Analytical models applied to define the dynamic behavior of SSME components (such as turbopump bearing elements and the flight accelerometer safety cut-off system) are also summarized. Appendices are included to illustrate some typical tasks performed under this study.

  17. Diffraction contrast imaging using virtual apertures.

    PubMed

    Gammer, Christoph; Burak Ozdol, V; Liebscher, Christian H; Minor, Andrew M

    2015-08-01

    Two methods on how to obtain the full diffraction information from a sample region and the associated reconstruction of images or diffraction patterns using virtual apertures are demonstrated. In a STEM-based approach, diffraction patterns are recorded for each beam position using a small probe convergence angle. Similarly, a tilt series of TEM dark-field images is acquired. The resulting datasets allow the reconstruction of either electron diffraction patterns, or bright-, dark- or annular dark-field images using virtual apertures. The experimental procedures of both methods are presented in the paper and are applied to a precipitation strengthened and creep deformed ferritic alloy with a complex microstructure. The reconstructed virtual images are compared with conventional TEM images. The major advantage is that arbitrarily shaped virtual apertures generated with image processing software can be designed without facing any physical limitations. In addition, any virtual detector that is specifically designed according to the underlying crystal structure can be created to optimize image contrast.

  18. Restoring Aperture Profile At Sample Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J L; Hackel, R P; Lungershausen, A W

    2003-08-03

    Off-line conditioning of full-size optics for the National Ignition Facility required a beam delivery system to allow conditioning lasers to rapidly raster scan samples while achieving several technical goals. The main purpose of the optical system designed was to reconstruct at the sample plane the flat beam profile found at the laser aperture with significant reductions in beam wander to improve scan times. Another design goal was the ability to vary the beam size at the sample to scan at different fluences while utilizing all of the laser power and minimizing processing time. An optical solution was developed using commercial off-the-shelf lenses. The system incorporates a six meter relay telescope and two sets of focusing optics. The spacing of the focusing optics is changed to allow the fluence on the sample to vary from 2 to 14 Joules per square centimeter in discrete steps. More importantly, these optics use the special properties of image relaying to image the aperture plane onto the sample to form a pupil relay with a beam profile corresponding almost exactly to the flat profile found at the aperture. A flat beam profile speeds scanning by providing a uniform intensity across a larger area on the sample. The relayed pupil plane is more stable with regards to jitter and beam wander. Image relaying also reduces other perturbations from diffraction, scatter, and focus conditions. Image relaying, laser conditioning, and the optical system designed to accomplish the stated goals are discussed.

  19. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-01-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  20. The AdaptiSPECT Imaging Aperture

    PubMed Central

    Chaix, Cécile; Moore, Jared W.; Van Holen, Roel; Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the imaging aperture of an adaptive SPECT imaging system being developed at the Center for Gamma Ray Imaging (AdaptiSPECT). AdaptiSPECT is designed to automatically change its configuration in response to preliminary data, in order to improve image quality for a particular task. In a traditional pinhole SPECT imaging system, the characteristics (magnification, resolution, field of view) are set by the geometry of the system, and any modification can be accomplished only by manually changing the collimator and the distance of the detector to the center of the field of view. Optimization of the imaging system for a specific task on a specific individual is therefore difficult. In an adaptive SPECT imaging system, on the other hand, the configuration can be conveniently changed under computer control. A key component of an adaptive SPECT system is its aperture. In this paper, we present the design, specifications, and fabrication of the adaptive pinhole aperture that will be used for AdaptiSPECT, as well as the controls that enable autonomous adaptation. PMID:27019577

  1. Synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameri, Golafsoun; Baxter, John S. H.; McLeod, A. Jonathan; Jayaranthe, Uditha L.; Chen, Elvis C. S.; Peters, Terry M.

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound calibration allows for ultrasound images to be incorporated into a variety of interventional applica­ tions. Traditional Z- bar calibration procedures rely on wired phantoms with an a priori known geometry. The line fiducials produce small, localized echoes which are then segmented from an array of ultrasound images from different tracked probe positions. In conventional B-mode ultrasound, the wires at greater depths appear blurred and are difficult to segment accurately, limiting the accuracy of ultrasound calibration. This paper presents a novel ultrasound calibration procedure that takes advantage of synthetic aperture imaging to reconstruct high resolution ultrasound images at arbitrary depths. In these images, line fiducials are much more readily and accu­ rately segmented, leading to decreased calibration error. The proposed calibration technique is compared to one based on B-mode ultrasound. The fiducial localization error was improved from 0.21mm in conventional B-mode images to 0.15mm in synthetic aperture images corresponding to an improvement of 29%. This resulted in an overall reduction of calibration error from a target registration error of 2.00mm to 1.78mm, an improvement of 11%. Synthetic aperture images display greatly improved segmentation capabilities due to their improved resolution and interpretability resulting in improved calibration.

  2. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris; Null, Tom; Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2003-04-01

    Achieving fine resolution bearing estimates for multiple sources using acoustic arrays with small apertures, in number of wavelengths, is a difficult challenge. It requires both large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains and very narrow beam responses. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays is accomplished by exploiting acoustical fluctuations. Acoustical fluctuations in the atmosphere are caused by wind turbulence along the propagation path, air turbulence at the sensor, source/receiver motion, unsteady source level, and fine scale temperature variations. Similar environmental and source dependent phenomena cause fluctuations in other propagation media, e.g., undersea, optics, infrared. Amplitude fluctuations are exploited to deconvolve the beam response functions from the beamformed data of small arrays to achieve high spatial resolution, i.e., fine bearing resolution, and substantial SNR gain. Results are presented for a six microphone low-frequency array with an aperture of less than three wavelengths. [Work supported by U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center.

  3. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-11-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  4. Methods for evaluating the predictive accuracy of structural dynamic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasselman, Timothy K.; Chrostowski, Jon D.

    1991-01-01

    Modeling uncertainty is defined in terms of the difference between predicted and measured eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Data compiled from 22 sets of analysis/test results was used to create statistical databases for large truss-type space structures and both pretest and posttest models of conventional satellite-type space structures. Modeling uncertainty is propagated through the model to produce intervals of uncertainty on frequency response functions, both amplitude and phase. This methodology was used successfully to evaluate the predictive accuracy of several structures, including the NASA CSI Evolutionary Structure tested at Langley Research Center. Test measurements for this structure were within + one-sigma intervals of predicted accuracy for the most part, demonstrating the validity of the methodology and computer code.

  5. Filled aperture concepts for the Terrestrial Planet Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.

    2003-02-01

    Filled aperture telescopes can deliver a real, high Strehl image which is well suited for discrimination of faint planets in the vicinity of bright stars and against an extended exo-zodiacal light. A filled aperture offers a rich variety of PSF control and diffraction suppression techniques. Filled apertures are under consideration for a wide spectral range, including visible and thermal-IR, each of which offers a significant selection of biomarker molecular bands. A filled aperture visible TPF may be simpler in several respects than a thermal-IR nuller. The required aperture size (or baseline) is much smaller, and no cryogenic systems are required. A filled aperture TPF would look and act like a normal telescope - vendors and users alike would be comfortable with its design and operation. Filled aperture telescopes pose significant challenges in production of large primary mirrors, and in very stringent wavefront requirements. Stability of the wavefront control, and hence of the PSF, is a major issue for filled aperture systems. Several groups have concluded that these and other issues can be resolved, and that filled aperture options are competitive for a TPF precursor and/or for the full TPF mission. Ball, Boeing-SVS and TRW have recently returned architecture reviews on filled aperture TPF concepts. In this paper, I will review some of the major considerations underlying these filled aperture concepts, and suggest key issues in a TPF Buyers Guide.

  6. SEASAT synthetic-aperture radar data user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Huneycutt, B.; Holt, B. M.; Held, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    The SEASAT Synthetic-Aperture Radar (SAR) system, the data processors, the extent of the image data set, and the means by which a user obtains this data are described and the data quality is evaluated. The user is alerted to some potential problems with the existing volume of SEASAT SAR image data, and allows him to modify his use of that data accordingly. Secondly, the manual focuses on the ultimate focuses on the ultimate capabilities of the raw data set and evaluates the potential of this data for processing into accurately located, amplitude-calibrated imagery of high resolution. This allows the user to decide whether his needs require special-purpose data processing of the SAR raw data.

  7. Two-beam-coupling correlator for synthetic aperture radar image recognition with power-law scattering centers preenhancement.

    PubMed

    Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Woods, Charles L; Kierstead, John; Khoury, Jed

    2008-06-01

    Synthetic radar image recognition is an area of interest for military applications including automatic target recognition, air traffic control, and remote sensing. Here a dynamic range compression two-beam-coupling joint transform correlator for detecting synthetic aperture radar targets is utilized. The joint input image consists of a prepower-law, enhanced scattering center of the input image and a linearly synthesized power-law-enhanced scattering center template. Enhancing the scattering center of both the synthetic template and the input image furnishes the conditions for achieving dynamic range compression correlation in two-beam coupling. Dynamic range compression (a) enhances the signal-to-noise ratio, (b) enhances the high frequencies relative to low frequencies, and (c) converts the noise to high frequency components. This improves the correlation-peak intensity to the mean of the surrounding noise significantly. Dynamic range compression correlation has already been demonstrated to outperform many optimal correlation filters in detecting signals in severe noise environments. The performance is evaluated via established metrics such as peak-to-correlation energy, Horner efficiency, and correlation-peak intensity. The results showed significant improvement as the power increased.

  8. Sub-aperture stitching for data measured on spherical and aspherical lenses using interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stašík, Marek

    2016-11-01

    In order to measure an optical lens surface shape using optical interference with sufficient accuracy, it is usually necessary divide area into sub-apertures and then captures each sector separately. When the data are acquired, it is necessary to merge elements together for further analysis. This paper is primary about stitching sub-apertures on spherical and aspherical optical lens. The main content of this paper is mostly the description of a stitching procedure and troubleshooting during process. The paper for example contains a description how sub-apertures tilt was compensated and how sub-apertures rotation was solved. Another topic in this paper is dealing with final adjustment during stitching. The paper contains description for used algorithms. For example an algorithm for finding a sub-aperture centre and algorithm for overlap deviation evaluation are included in this paper. Very useful part in this paper is the description of used computational complexity optimisation methods. And finally real measured and processed data are presented.

  9. Matched Field Processing Based on Least Squares with a Small Aperture Hydrophone Array

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Yingmin; Zhu, Guolei

    2016-01-01

    The receiver hydrophone array is the signal front-end and plays an important role in matched field processing, which usually covers the whole water column from the sea surface to the bottom. Such a large aperture array is very difficult to realize. To solve this problem, an approach called matched field processing based on least squares with a small aperture hydrophone array is proposed, which decomposes the received acoustic fields into depth function matrix and amplitudes of the normal modes at the beginning. Then all the mode amplitudes are estimated using the least squares in the sense of minimum norm, and the amplitudes estimated are used to recalculate the received acoustic fields of the small aperture array, which means the recalculated ones contain more environmental information. In the end, lots of numerical experiments with three small aperture arrays are processed in the classical shallow water, and the performance of matched field passive localization is evaluated. The results show that the proposed method can make the recalculated fields contain more acoustic information of the source, and the performance of matched field passive localization with small aperture array is improved, so the proposed algorithm is proved to be effective. PMID:28042828

  10. Gas Flux and Density Surrounding a Cylindrical Aperture in the Free Molecular Flow Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2011-01-01

    The equations for rigorously calculating the particle flux and density surrounding a cylindrical aperture in the free molecular flow regime are developed and presented. The fundamental equations for particle flux and density from a reservoir and a diffusely reflecting surface will initially be developed. Assumptions will include a Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution, equal particle and wall temperatures, and a linear flux distribution along the cylindrical aperture walls. With this information, the equations for axial flux and density surrounding a cylindrical aperture will be developed. The cylindrical aperture will be divided into multiple volumes and regions to rigorously determine the surrounding axial flux and density, and appropriate limits of integration will be determined. The results of these equations will then be evaluated. The linear wall flux distribution assumption will be assessed. The axial flux and density surrounding a cylindrical aperture with a thickness-to-radius ratio of 1.25 will be presented. Finally, the equations determined in this study will be verified using multiple methods.

  11. Matched Field Processing Based on Least Squares with a Small Aperture Hydrophone Array.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Yingmin; Zhu, Guolei

    2016-12-30

    The receiver hydrophone array is the signal front-end and plays an important role in matched field processing, which usually covers the whole water column from the sea surface to the bottom. Such a large aperture array is very difficult to realize. To solve this problem, an approach called matched field processing based on least squares with a small aperture hydrophone array is proposed, which decomposes the received acoustic fields into depth function matrix and amplitudes of the normal modes at the beginning. Then all the mode amplitudes are estimated using the least squares in the sense of minimum norm, and the amplitudes estimated are used to recalculate the received acoustic fields of the small aperture array, which means the recalculated ones contain more environmental information. In the end, lots of numerical experiments with three small aperture arrays are processed in the classical shallow water, and the performance of matched field passive localization is evaluated. The results show that the proposed method can make the recalculated fields contain more acoustic information of the source, and the performance of matched field passive localization with small aperture array is improved, so the proposed algorithm is proved to be effective.

  12. Accuracy evaluation of the Kinect v2 sensor during dynamic movements in a rehabilitation scenario.

    PubMed

    Capecci, M; Ceravolo, M G; Ferracuti, F; Iarlori, S; Longhi, S; Romeo, L; Russi, S N; Verdini, F; Capecci, M; Ceravolo, M G; Ferracuti, F; Iarlori, S; Longhi, S; Romeo, L; Russi, S N; Verdini, F; Longhi, S; Romeo, L; Russi, S N; Iarlori, S; Capecci, M; Ferracuti, F; Ceravolo, M G; Verdini, F

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the accuracy evaluation of the Kinect v2 sensor is investigated in a rehabilitation scenario. The accuracy analysis is provided in terms of joint positions and angles during dynamic postures used in low-back pain rehabilitation. Although other studies have focused on the validation of the accuracy in terms of joint angles and positions, they present results only considering static postures whereas the rehabilitation exercise monitoring involves to consider dynamic movements with a wide range of motion and issues related to the joints tracking. In this work, joint positions and angles represent clinical features, chosen by medical staff, used to evaluate the subject's movements. The spatial and temporal accuracy is investigated with respect to the gold standard, represented by a stereophotogrammetric system, characterized by 6 infrared cameras. The results provide salient information for evaluating the reliability of Kinect v2 sensor for dynamic postures.

  13. Coherent synthetic imaging using multi-aperture scanning Fourier ptychography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zongliang; Ma, Haotong; Qi, Bo; Ren, Ge

    2016-10-01

    The high resolution is what the synthetic aperture technique quests for. In this paper, we propose an approach of coherent synthetic imaging with sparse aperture systems using multi-aperture scanning Fourier ptychography algorithm, which can further improve the resolution of sparse aperture systems. The reported technique first acquires a series of raw images by scanning a sparse aperture system and then the captured images are used to synthesize a larger spectrum in the frequency domain using aperture-scanning Fourier ptychography algorithm. The system's traveling circumvent its diffraction limit so that a super-resolution image can be obtained. Numerical simulation demonstrates the validity. The technique proposed in this paper may find wide applications in synthetic aperture imaging and astronomy.

  14. Imaging performance of annular apertures. II - Line spread functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Line images formed by aberration-free optical systems with annular apertures are investigated in the whole range of central obstruction ratios. Annular apertures form lines images with central and side line groups. The number of lines in each line group is given by the ratio of the outer diameter of the annular aperture divided by the width of the annulus. The theoretical energy fraction of 0.889 in the central line of the image formed by an unobstructed aperture increases for centrally obstructed apertures to 0.932 for the central line group. Energy fractions for the central and side line groups are practically constant for all obstruction ratios and for each line group. The illumination of rectangular secondary apertures of various length/width ratios by apertures of various obstruction ratios is discussed.

  15. Rank minimization code aperture design for spectrally selective compressive imaging.

    PubMed

    Arguello, Henry; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2013-03-01

    A new code aperture design framework for multiframe code aperture snapshot spectral imaging (CASSI) system is presented. It aims at the optimization of code aperture sets such that a group of compressive spectral measurements is constructed, each with information from a specific subset of bands. A matrix representation of CASSI is introduced that permits the optimization of spectrally selective code aperture sets. Furthermore, each code aperture set forms a matrix such that rank minimization is used to reduce the number of CASSI shots needed. Conditions for the code apertures are identified such that a restricted isometry property in the CASSI compressive measurements is satisfied with higher probability. Simulations show higher quality of spectral image reconstruction than that attained by systems using Hadamard or random code aperture sets.

  16. Evaluation of a IMU with optical fiber gyros in dynamic windtunnel tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Minoru; Sasa, Shuichi; Nagayasu, Masahiko; Kajoka, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Toshio

    A study of dynamic windtunnel tests using a 5 percent cable-mounted model of the NAL spaceplane was carried out to identify aerodynamic parameters of the Spaceplane at National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL). In this study, an inertial measuring unit with optical fiber gyros, which will be installed on the model and will be used to measure angular rates about three axes of the model, has been developed and evaluated in dynamic windtunnel tests. It is reported that the IMU has been used effectively in the control system of the model; however, the accuracy, resolution, and frequency response of the OFG-3 were insufficient for the dynamic windtunnel tests.

  17. Feasibility study of synthetic aperture infrared laser radar techniques for imaging of static and moving objects.

    PubMed

    Yoshikado, S; Aruga, T

    1998-08-20

    Techniques for two types of 10-mum band synthetic aperture infrared laser radar using a hypothetical reference point target (RPT) are presented. One is for imaging static objects with a single two-dimensional scanning aperture. Through the simple manipulation of a reference wave phase, a desired image can be obtained merely by the two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the correlator output between the intermediate frequency signals of the reference and object waves. The other, with a one-dimensional aperture array, is for moving objects that pass across the array direction without attitude change. We performed imaging by using a two-dimensional RPT correlation method. We demonstrate the capability of these methods for imaging and evaluate the necessary conditions for signal-to-noise ratio and random phase errors in signal reception through numerical simulations in terms of feasibility.

  18. Design of acoustic beam aperture modifier using gradient-index phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-06-01

    This article reports the design concept of a novel acoustic beam aperture modifier using butt-jointed gradient-index phononic crystals (GRIN PCs) consisting of steel cylinders embedded in a homogeneous epoxy background. By gradually tuning the period of a GRIN PC, the propagating direction of acoustic waves can be continuously bent to follow a sinusoidal trajectory in the structure. The aperture of an acoustic beam can therefore be shrunk or expanded through change of the gradient refractive index profiles of the butt-jointed GRIN PCs. Our computational results elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed acoustic beam aperture modifier. Such an acoustic device can be fabricated through a simple process and will be valuable in applications, such as biomedical imaging and surgery, nondestructive evaluation, communication, and acoustic absorbers.

  19. Evaluation of Permanent Deformation of CRM-Reinforced SMA and Its Correlation with Dynamic Stiffness and Dynamic Creep

    PubMed Central

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2013-01-01

    Today, rapid economic and industrial growth generates increasing amounts of waste materials such as waste tyre rubber. Attempts to inspire a green technology which is more environmentally friendly that can produce economic value are a major consideration in the utilization of waste materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM)), in stone mastic asphalt (SMA 20) performance. The virgin bitumen (80/100) penetration grade was used, modified with crumb rubber at four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 12%, 16%, and 20% by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the indirect tensile (dynamic stiffness), dynamic creep, and wheel tracking tests. By the experimentation, the appropriate amount of CRM was found to be 16% by weight of bitumen. The results show that the addition of CRM into the mixture has an obvious significant effect on the performance properties of SMA which could improve the mixture's resistance against permanent deformation. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the rut depth and permanent strain as compared to resilient modulus; thus dynamic creep test might be a more reliable test in evaluating the rut resistance of asphalt mixture. PMID:24302883

  20. Evaluation of permanent deformation of CRM-reinforced SMA and its correlation with dynamic stiffness and dynamic creep.

    PubMed

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2013-01-01

    Today, rapid economic and industrial growth generates increasing amounts of waste materials such as waste tyre rubber. Attempts to inspire a green technology which is more environmentally friendly that can produce economic value are a major consideration in the utilization of waste materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM)), in stone mastic asphalt (SMA 20) performance. The virgin bitumen (80/100) penetration grade was used, modified with crumb rubber at four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 12%, 16%, and 20% by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the indirect tensile (dynamic stiffness), dynamic creep, and wheel tracking tests. By the experimentation, the appropriate amount of CRM was found to be 16% by weight of bitumen. The results show that the addition of CRM into the mixture has an obvious significant effect on the performance properties of SMA which could improve the mixture's resistance against permanent deformation. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the rut depth and permanent strain as compared to resilient modulus; thus dynamic creep test might be a more reliable test in evaluating the rut resistance of asphalt mixture.

  1. Digital holographic microscopy for quantitative cell dynamic evaluation during laser microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lingfeng; Mohanty, Samarendra; Zhang, Jun; Genc, Suzanne; Kim, Myung K.; Berns, Michael W.; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    Digital holographic microscopy allows determination of dynamic changes in the optical thickness profile of a transparent object with subwavelength accuracy. Here, we report a quantitative phase laser microsurgery system for evaluation of cellular/ sub-cellular dynamic changes during laser micro-dissection. The proposed method takes advantage of the precise optical manipulation by the laser microbeam and quantitative phase imaging by digital holographic microscopy with high spatial and temporal resolution. This system will permit quantitative evaluation of the damage and/or the repair of the cell or cell organelles in real time. PMID:19582118

  2. Method and Application for Dynamic Comprehensive Evaluation with Subjective and Objective Information

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dinglin; Zhao, Xianglian

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to deal with more complicated evaluation situations, scientists have focused their efforts on dynamic comprehensive evaluation research. How to make full use of the subjective and objective information has become one of the noteworthy content. In this paper, a dynamic comprehensive evaluation method with subjective and objective information is proposed. We use the combination weighting method to determine the index weight. Analysis hierarchy process method is applied to dispose the subjective information, and criteria importance through intercriteria correlation method is used to handle the objective information. And for the time weight determination, we consider both time distance and information size to embody the principle of esteeming the present over the past. And then the linear weighted average model is constructed to make the evaluation process more practicable. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. Overall, the results suggest that the proposed method is reasonable and effective. PMID:24386176

  3. The physics of light transmission through subwavelength apertures and aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, J.

    2009-06-01

    The passage of light through apertures much smaller than the wavelength of the light has proved to be a surprisingly subtle phenomenon. This report describes how modern developments in nanofabrication, coherent light sources and numerical vector field simulations have led to the upending of early predictions from scalar diffraction theory and classical electrodynamics. Optical response of real materials to incident coherent radiation at petahertz frequencies leads to unexpected consequences for transmission and extinction of light through subwavelength aperture arrays. This paper is a report on progress in our understanding of this phenomenon over the past decade.

  4. Evaluation of oxygen transfer efficiency under process conditions using the dynamic off-gas method.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, A; Libra, J A; Sahlmann, C; Wiesmann, U; Gnirss, R

    2007-05-01

    The off-gas method can be used to investigate standard oxygen transfer efficiencies under process conditions (alphaSOTE) over the operating life of an aeration system. A method to evaluate alphaSOTE is described in detail by US and German standards. The standards, however, do not describe how to evaluate dynamic changes in aSOTE over a day, which can be useful to uncover problems and unfavourable process conditions. Based on over three years experience gained in off-gas testing in Berlin wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) under operating conditions, a method to evaluate and interpret the dynamic changes in oxygen transfer is presented. The application of the dynamic off-gas method brings important additional information, which can be used to increase operational efficiency of the aeration basin and to increase process reliability, with a relatively small increase in effort. This paper shows how to perform dynamic measurements under process conditions. Some results of such measurements under dynamic process conditions, performed in a Berlin WWTP, are discussed.

  5. A nonlinear dynamics approach for incorporating wind-speed patterns into wind-power project evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huffaker, Ray; Bittelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wind-energy production may be expanded beyond regions with high-average wind speeds (such as the Midwest U.S.A.) to sites with lower-average speeds (such as the Southeast U.S.A.) by locating favorable regional matches between natural wind-speed and energy-demand patterns. A critical component of wind-power evaluation is to incorporate wind-speed dynamics reflecting documented diurnal and seasonal behavioral patterns. Conventional probabilistic approaches remove patterns from wind-speed data. These patterns must be restored synthetically before they can be matched with energy-demand patterns. How to accurately restore wind-speed patterns is a vexing problem spurring an expanding line of papers. We propose a paradigm shift in wind power evaluation that employs signal-detection and nonlinear-dynamics techniques to empirically diagnose whether synthetic pattern restoration can be avoided altogether. If the complex behavior of observed wind-speed records is due to nonlinear, low-dimensional, and deterministic system dynamics, then nonlinear dynamics techniques can reconstruct wind-speed dynamics from observed wind-speed data without recourse to conventional probabilistic approaches. In the first study of its kind, we test a nonlinear dynamics approach in an application to Sugarland Wind-the first utility-scale wind project proposed in Florida, USA. We find empirical evidence of a low-dimensional and nonlinear wind-speed attractor characterized by strong temporal patterns that match up well with regular daily and seasonal electricity demand patterns.

  6. Using a melanin granule lattice model to study the thermal effects of pulsed and scanning light irradiations through a measurement aperture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Optical radiation hazards of scanning light sources are often evaluated using pulsed light source criteria, with the relevant pulse parameter equivalent to the scanning light source determined by the energy delivered through a measurement aperture. However, physical equivalence has not been completely understood: a pulsed light source is temporally dynamic but spatially stationary, while a scanning light source is temporally stationary but spatially dynamic. This study introduces a numerical analysis based upon the melanin granule lattice model to investigate the equivalence of scanning and pulsed light sources through a measurement aperture and their respective thermal effects in the pigmented retinal layer. The numerical analysis calculates the thermal contribution of individual melanin granules with varying temporal sequence, and finds that temperature changes and thermal damage thresholds for the two different types of light sources were not equal. However, dwell times of 40 to 200 μsec did not produce significant differences between pulsed and scanning light sources in temperature change and thermal damage thresholds to the sample tissue.

  7. Using a melanin granule lattice model to study the thermal effects of pulsed and scanning light irradiations through a measurement aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Optical radiation hazards of scanning light sources are often evaluated using pulsed light source criteria, with the relevant pulse parameter equivalent to the scanning light source determined by the energy delivered through a measurement aperture. However, physical equivalence has not been completely understood: a pulsed light source is temporally dynamic but spatially stationary, while a scanning light source is temporally stationary but spatially dynamic. This study introduces a numerical analysis based upon the melanin granule lattice model to investigate the equivalence of scanning and pulsed light sources through a measurement aperture and their respective thermal effects in the pigmented retinal layer. The numerical analysis calculates the thermal contribution of individual melanin granules with varying temporal sequence, and finds that temperature changes and thermal damage thresholds for the two different types of light sources were not equal. However, dwell times of 40 to 200 μsec did not produce significant differences between pulsed and scanning light sources in temperature change and thermal damage thresholds to the sample tissue.

  8. Efficient stray-light suppression for resonance fluorescence in quantum dot micropillars using self-aligned metal apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfmann, Caspar; Musiał, Anna; Maier, Sebastian; Emmerling, Monika; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    Within this work we propose and demonstrate a technological approach to efficiently suppress excitation laser stray-light in resonance fluorescence experiments on quantum dot micropillars. To ensure efficient stray-light suppression, their fabrication process includes a planarization step and subsequent covering with a titanium mask to fabricate self-aligned apertures at the micropillar positions. These apertures aim to limit laser stray-light in the side-excitation vertical-detection configuration, while enabling detection of the optical signal through the top facet of the micropillars. The beneficial effects of these apertures are proven and quantitatively evaluated within a statistical study in which we determine and compare the stray-light suppression of 48 micropillars with and without metal apertures. Actual resonance fluorescence experiments on single quantum dots coupled to the cavity mode prove the relevance of the proposed approach and demonstrate that it will foster further studies on cavity quantum electrodynamics phenomena under coherent optical excitation.

  9. Modular method of detection, localization, and counting of multiple-taxon pollen apertures using bag-of-words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-Vega, Gildardo; Benezeth, Yannick; Marzani, Franck; Boochs, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Accurate recognition of airborne pollen taxa is crucial for understanding and treating allergic diseases which affect an important proportion of the world population. Modern computer vision techniques enable the detection of discriminant characteristics. Apertures are among the important characteristics which have not been adequately explored until now. A flexible method of detection, localization, and counting of apertures of different pollen taxa with varying appearances is proposed. Aperture description is based on primitive images following the bag-of-words strategy. A confidence map is estimated based on the classification of sampled regions. The method is designed to be extended modularly to new aperture types employing the same algorithm by building individual classifiers. The method was evaluated on the top five allergenic pollen taxa in Germany, and its robustness to unseen particles was verified.

  10. Design and Analysis of the Aperture Shield Assembly for a Space Solar Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, Hal J.; Trinh, Tuan; Westelaken, William; Krystkowiak, Christopher; Avanessian, Vahe; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    A joint U.S./Russia program has been conducted to design, develop, fabricate, launch, and operate the world's first space solar dynamic power system on the Russian Space Station Mir. The goal of the program was to demonstrate and confirm that solar dynamic power systems are viable for future space applications such as the International Space Station (ISS). The major components of the system include a solar receiver, a closed Brayton cycle power conversion unit, a power conditioning and control unit, a solar concentrator, a radiator, a thermal control system, and a Space Shuttle carrier. Unfortunately, the mission was demanifested from the ISS Phase 1 Space Shuttle Program in 1996. However, NASA Lewis is proposing to use the fabricated flight hardware as part of an all-American flight demonstration on the ISS in 2002. The present paper concerns the design and analysis of the solar receiver aperture shield assembly. The aperture shield assembly comprises the front face of the cylindrical receiver and is located at the focal plane of the solar concentrator. The aperture shield assembly is a critical component that protects the solar receiver structure from highly concentrated solar fluxes during concentrator off-pointing events. A full-size aperture shield assembly was fabricated. This unit was essentially identical to the flight configuration, with the exception of materials substitution. In addition, a thermal shock test aperture shield assembly was fabricated. This test article utilized the flight materials and was used for high-flux testing in the solar simulator test rig at NASA Lewis. This testing is described in a companion paper.

  11. The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope (CAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Lynch, Dana H.; Vassigh, Kenny K.; Young, Zion

    2016-07-01

    The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope, CAST, is a concept that provides access to a UV/visible-infrared wavelength sub-arcsecond imaging platform from space, something that will be in high demand after the retirement of the astronomy workhorse, the 2.4 meter diameter Hubble Space Telescope. CAST allows building large aperture telescopes based on small, compatible and low-cost segments mounted on autonomous cube-sized satellites. The concept merges existing technology (segmented telescope architecture) with emerging technology (smartly interconnected modular spacecraft, active optics, deployable structures). Requiring identical mirror segments, CAST's optical design is a spherical primary and secondary mirror telescope with modular multi-mirror correctors placed at the system focal plane. The design enables wide fields of view, up to as much as three degrees, while maintaining aperture growth and image performance requirements. We present a point design for the CAST concept based on a 0.6 meter diameter (3 x 3 segments) growing to a 2.6 meter diameter (13 x 13 segments) primary, with a fixed Rp=13,000 and Rs=8,750 mm curvature, f/22.4 and f/5.6, respectively. Its diffraction limited design uses a two arcminute field of view corrector with a 7.4 arcsec/mm platescale, and can support a range of platescales as fine as 0.01 arcsec/mm. Our paper summarizes CAST, presents a strawman optical design and requirements for the underlying modular spacecraft, highlights design flexibilities, and illustrates applications enabled by this new method in building space observatories.

  12. Optimization of synthetic aperture image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Jensen, Jonas; Villagomez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Stuart, Matthias B.; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic Aperture (SA) imaging produces high-quality images and velocity estimates of both slow and fast flow at high frame rates. However, grating lobe artifacts can appear both in transmission and reception. These affect the image quality and the frame rate. Therefore optimization of parameters effecting the image quality of SA is of great importance, and this paper proposes an advanced procedure for optimizing the parameters essential for acquiring an optimal image quality, while generating high resolution SA images. Optimization of the image quality is mainly performed based on measures such as F-number, number of emissions and the aperture size. They are considered to be the most contributing acquisition factors in the quality of the high resolution images in SA. Therefore, the performance of image quality is quantified in terms of full-width at half maximum (FWHM) and the cystic resolution (CTR). The results of the study showed that SA imaging with only 32 emissions and maximum sweep angle of 22 degrees yields a very good image quality compared with using 256 emissions and the full aperture size. Therefore the number of emissions and the maximum sweep angle in the SA can be optimized to reach a reasonably good performance, and to increase the frame rate by lowering the required number of emissions. All the measurements are performed using the experimental SARUS scanner connected to a λ/2-pitch transducer. A wire phantom and a tissue mimicking phantom containing anechoic cysts are scanned using the optimized parameters for the transducer. Measurements coincide with simulations.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Hybrid Dynamical-Statistical Downscaling Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Daniel Burton

    Regional climate change studies usually rely on downscaling of global climate model (GCM) output in order to resolve important fine-scale features and processes that govern local climate. Previous efforts have used one of two techniques: (1) dynamical downscaling, in which a regional climate model is forced at the boundaries by GCM output, or (2) statistical downscaling, which employs historical empirical relationships to go from coarse to fine resolution. Studies using these methods have been criticized because they either dynamical downscaled only a few GCMs, or used statistical downscaling on an ensemble of GCMs, but missed important dynamical effects in the climate change signal. This study describes the development and evaluation of a hybrid dynamical-statstical downscaling method that utilizes aspects of both dynamical and statistical downscaling to address these concerns. The first step of the hybrid method is to use dynamical downscaling to understand the most important physical processes that contribute to the climate change signal in the region of interest. Then a statistical model is built based on the patterns and relationships identified from dynamical downscaling. This statistical model can be used to downscale an entire ensemble of GCMs quickly and efficiently. The hybrid method is first applied to a domain covering Los Angeles Region to generate projections of temperature change between the 2041-2060 and 1981-2000 periods for 32 CMIP5 GCMs. The hybrid method is also applied to a larger region covering all of California and the adjacent ocean. The hybrid method works well in both areas, primarily because a single feature, the land-sea contrast in the warming, controls the overwhelming majority of the spatial detail. Finally, the dynamically downscaled temperature change patterns are compared to those produced by two commonly-used statistical methods, BCSD and BCCA. Results show that dynamical downscaling recovers important spatial features that the

  14. Synthetic aperture radar autofocus via semidefinite relaxation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuang-Hung; Wiesel, Ami; Munson, David C

    2013-06-01

    The autofocus problem in synthetic aperture radar imaging amounts to estimating unknown phase errors caused by unknown platform or target motion. At the heart of three state-of-the-art autofocus algorithms, namely, phase gradient autofocus, multichannel autofocus (MCA), and Fourier-domain multichannel autofocus (FMCA), is the solution of a constant modulus quadratic program (CMQP). Currently, these algorithms solve a CMQP by using an eigenvalue relaxation approach. We propose an alternative relaxation approach based on semidefinite programming, which has recently attracted considerable attention in other signal processing problems. Experimental results show that our proposed methods provide promising performance improvements for MCA and FMCA through an increase in computational complexity.

  15. Dual-sided coded-aperture imager

    DOEpatents

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2009-09-22

    In a vehicle, a single detector plane simultaneously measures radiation coming through two coded-aperture masks, one on either side of the detector. To determine which side of the vehicle a source is, the two shadow masks are inverses of each other, i.e., one is a mask and the other is the anti-mask. All of the data that is collected is processed through two versions of an image reconstruction algorithm. One treats the data as if it were obtained through the mask, the other as though the data is obtained through the anti-mask.

  16. Synthetic aperture radar in geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomiyasu, K.

    1978-01-01

    Radar images of the earth were taken with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from geosynchronous orbital ranges by utilizing satellite motion relative to a geostationary position. A suitable satellite motion was obtained by having an orbit plane inclined relative to the equatorial plane and by having an eccentric orbit. Potential applications of these SAR images are topography, water resource management and soil moisture determination. Preliminary calculations show that the United States can be mapped with 100 m resolution cells in about 4 hours. With the use of microwave signals the mapping can be performed day or night, through clouds and during adverse weather.

  17. Combined synthetic aperture radar/Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marque, R. E.; Maurer, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations into merging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images using optical and digital merging techniques. The unique characteristics of airborne and orbital SAR and Landsat MSS imagery are discussed. The case for merging the imagery is presented and tradeoffs between optical and digital merging techniques explored. Examples of Landsat and airborne SAR imagery are used to illustrate optical and digital merging. Analysis of the merged digital imagery illustrates the improved interpretability resulting from combining the outputs from the two sensor systems.

  18. Aperture correction for a sphere interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold Nicolaus, R.; Bönsch, Gerhard

    2009-12-01

    Considerations have been made to derive a correction for the diameter measurements of a sphere by means of a special sphere interferometer. This correction is caused by the finite diameter of the light source acting as the entrance 'pinhole' aperture in the light collimating system. The finite diameter has the effect that the wave which is incident on the sphere is a superposition of spherical waves which are slightly inclined with respect to each other. The resulting correction is essential for high accuracy dimensional measurements of silicon spheres to determine the Avogadro constant—a new determination of which is a contribution to a new definition of the kilogram.

  19. Synthetic aperture radar for disaster monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, R.; Saddler, R.; Doerry, A. W.

    2011-06-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is well known to afford imaging in darkness and through clouds, smoke, and other obscurants. As such, it is particularly useful for mapping and monitoring a variety of natural and man-made disasters. A portfolio of SAR image examples has been collected using General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc.'s (GA-ASI's) Lynx® family of Ku-Band SAR systems, flown on both operational and test-bed aircraft. Images are provided that include scenes of flooding, ice jams in North Dakota, agricultural field fires in southern California, and ocean oil slicks from seeps off the coast of southern California.

  20. Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proposed Title: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating Neighborhood Economic Outcomes from Transportation and Land Use Decisions Topic (must choose one item from a drop-down list): Community Indicators Learning Objectives (must list 2): • What are the benefits and l...

  1. Dynamical Evaluation of Ocean Models using the Gulf Stream as an Example

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    1 Dynamical evaluation of ocean models using the Gulf Stream as an example Harley E. Hurlburt 1 , E. Joseph Metzger 1 , James G. Richman 1 , Eric...the organising committee, to Andreas Schiller and Chari Pattiaratchi for coordination of the curriculum and local venues, Nick D’Adamo for

  2. Dynamic Evaluation of Two Decades of CMAQ Simulations over the Continental United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on the dynamic evaluation of the CMAQ model over the continental United States using multi-decadal simulations for the period from 1990 to 2010 to examine how well the changes in observed ozone air quality induced by variations in meteorology and/or emis...

  3. Evaluation of Student Models on Current Socio-Scientific Topics Based on System Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuhoglu, Hasret

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to 1) enable primary school students to develop models that will help them understand and analyze a system, through a learning process based on system dynamics approach, 2) examine and evaluate students' models related to socio-scientific issues using certain criteria. The research method used is a case study. The study sample…

  4. Abstract: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating the Sustainability of “Complete Streets” Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating the Sustainability of “Complete Streets” Practices Primary Author: Nicholas R. Flanders 109 T.W. Alexander Drive Mail Code: E343-02 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 919-541-3660 Flanders.nick@Epa.gov Topic categ...

  5. Dynamic Evaluation of a Regional Air Quality Model: Assessing the Emissions-Induced Weekly Ozone Cycle

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality models are used to predict changes in pollutant concentrations resulting from envisioned emission control policies. Recognizing the need to assess the credibility of air quality models in a policy-relevant context, we perform a dynamic evaluation of the community Mult...

  6. Evaluating and Advancing the Effective Teaching of Special Educators with a Dynamic Instructional Practices Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.; Kurz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We describe the concept of a dynamic instructional practices portfolio to evaluate special education teachers. This portfolio features the My Instructional Learning Opportunities Guidance System (MyiLOGS) as the core component. MyiLOGS is an online, daily self-report measure of opportunity to learn (OTL) that provides detailed information on…

  7. An evaluation of biosurveillance grid--dynamic algorithm distribution across multiple computer nodes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Chi; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Wagner, Michael M

    2007-10-11

    Performing fast data analysis to detect disease outbreaks plays a critical role in real-time biosurveillance. In this paper, we described and evaluated an Algorithm Distribution Manager Service (ADMS) based on grid technologies, which dynamically partition and distribute detection algorithms across multiple computers. We compared the execution time to perform the analysis on a single computer and on a grid network (3 computing nodes) with and without using dynamic algorithm distribution. We found that algorithms with long runtime completed approximately three times earlier in distributed environment than in a single computer while short runtime algorithms performed worse in distributed environment. A dynamic algorithm distribution approach also performed better than static algorithm distribution approach. This pilot study shows a great potential to reduce lengthy analysis time through dynamic algorithm partitioning and parallel processing, and provides the opportunity of distributing algorithms from a client to remote computers in a grid network.

  8. Agricultural crop harvest progress monitoring by fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hao; Zhao, Chunjiang; Yang, Guijun; Li, Zengyuan; Chen, Erxue; Yuan, Lin; Yang, Xiaodong; Xu, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic mapping and monitoring of crop harvest on a large spatial scale will provide critical information for the formulation of optimal harvesting strategies. This study evaluates the feasibility of C-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) for monitoring the harvesting progress of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields. Five multitemporal, quad-pol Radarsat-2 images and one optical ZY-1 02C image were acquired over a farmland area in China during the 2013 growing season. Typical polarimetric signatures were obtained relying on polarimetric decomposition methods. Temporal evolutions of these signatures of harvested fields were compared with the ones of unharvested fields in the context of the entire growing cycle. Significant sensitivity was observed between the specific polarimetric parameters and the harvest status of oilseed rape fields. Based on this sensitivity, a new method that integrates two polarimetric features was devised to detect the harvest status of oilseed rape fields using a single image. The validation results are encouraging even for the harvested fields covered with high residues. This research demonstrates the capability of PolSAR remote sensing in crop harvest monitoring, which is a step toward more complex applications of PolSAR data in precision agriculture.

  9. Overview of magnetic nonlinear beam dynamics in the RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Luo,Y.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Bengtsson, J.; Calaga, R.; Fischer, W.; Jain, A.; Pilat, f.; Ptitsyn, V.; Malitsky, N.; Robert-Demolaize, g.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tomas, R.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-05-04

    In this article we review our studies of nonlinear beam dynamics due to the nonlinear magnetic field errors in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Nonlinear magnetic field errors, including magnetic field errors in interaction regions (IRs), chromatic sextupoles, and sextupole components from arc main dipoles are discussed. Their effects on beam dynamics and beam dynamic aperture are evaluated. The online methods to measure and correct the IR nonlinear field errors, second order chromaticities, and horizontal third order resonance are presented. The overall strategy for nonlinear corrections in RHIC is discussed.

  10. Semisupervised synthetic aperture radar image segmentation with multilayer superpixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Can; Su, Weimin; Gu, Hong; Gong, Dachen

    2015-01-01

    Image segmentation plays a significant role in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image processing. However, SAR image segmentation is challenging due to speckle. We propose a semisupervised bipartite graph method for segmentation of an SAR image. First, the multilayer over-segmentation of the SAR image, referred to as superpixels, is computed using existing segmentation algorithms. Second, an unbalanced bipartite graph is constructed in which the correlation between pixels is replaced by the texture similarity between superpixels, to reduce the dimension of the edge matrix. To also improve efficiency, we define a new method, called the combination of the Manhattan distance and symmetric Kullback-Leibler divergence, to measure texture similarity. Third, by the Moore-Penrose inverse matrix and semisupervised learning, we construct an across-affinity matrix. A quantitative evaluation using SAR images shows that the new algorithm produces significantly high-quality segmentations as compared with state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms.

  11. Geometrical Aberration Suppression for Large Aperture Sub-THz Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachon, M.; Liebert, K.; Siemion, A.; Bomba, J.; Sobczyk, A.; Knap, W.; Coquillat, D.; Suszek, J.; Sypek, M.

    2017-03-01

    Advanced THz setups require high performance optical elements with large numerical apertures and small focal lengths. This is due to the high absorption of humid air and relatively low efficiency of commercially available detectors. Here, we propose a new type of double-sided sub-THz diffractive optical element with suppressed geometrical aberration for narrowband applications (0.3 THz). One side of the element is designed as thin structure in non-paraxial approach which is the exact method, but only for ideally flat elements. The second side will compensate phase distribution differences between ideal thin structure and real volume one. The computer-aided optimization algorithm is performed to design an additional phase distribution of correcting layer assuming volume designing of the first side of the element. The experimental evaluation of the proposed diffractive component created by 3D printing technique shows almost two times larger performance in comparison with uncorrected basic diffractive lens.

  12. Geometrical Aberration Suppression for Large Aperture Sub-THz Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachon, M.; Liebert, K.; Siemion, A.; Bomba, J.; Sobczyk, A.; Knap, W.; Coquillat, D.; Suszek, J.; Sypek, M.

    2016-11-01

    Advanced THz setups require high performance optical elements with large numerical apertures and small focal lengths. This is due to the high absorption of humid air and relatively low efficiency of commercially available detectors. Here, we propose a new type of double-sided sub-THz diffractive optical element with suppressed geometrical aberration for narrowband applications (0.3 THz). One side of the element is designed as thin structure in non-paraxial approach which is the exact method, but only for ideally flat elements. The second side will compensate phase distribution differences between ideal thin structure and real volume one. The computer-aided optimization algorithm is performed to design an additional phase distribution of correcting layer assuming volume designing of the first side of the element. The experimental evaluation of the proposed diffractive component created by 3D printing technique shows almost two times larger performance in comparison with uncorrected basic diffractive lens.

  13. NST: Thermal Modeling for a Large Aperture Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, Roy

    2011-05-01

    Late in the 1990s the Dutch Open Telescope demonstrated that internal seeing in open, large aperture solar telescopes can be controlled by flushing air across the primary mirror and other telescope structures exposed to sunlight. In that system natural wind provides a uniform air temperature throughout the imaging volume, while efficiently sweeping heated air away from the optics and mechanical structure. Big Bear Solar Observatory's New Solar Telescope (NST) was designed to realize that same performance in an enclosed system by using both natural wind through the dome and forced air circulation around the primary mirror to provide the uniform air temperatures required within the telescope volume. The NST is housed in a conventional, ventilated dome with a circular opening, in place of the standard dome slit, that allows sunlight to fall only on an aperture stop and the primary mirror. The primary mirror is housed deep inside a cylindrical cell with only minimal openings in the side at the level of the mirror. To date, the forced air and cooling systems designed for the NST primary mirror have not been implemented, yet the telescope regularly produces solar images indicative of the absence of mirror seeing. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the NST primary mirror system along with measurements of air flows within the dome, around the telescope structure, and internal to the mirror cell are used to explain the origin of this seemingly incongruent result. The CFD analysis is also extended to hypothetical systems of various scales. We will discuss the results of these investigations.

  14. Design and performance of a cryogenic iris aperture mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, C.; Laauwen, W. M.; de Vries, E. A.; Smit, H. P.; Detrain, A.; Eggens, M. J.; Ferrari, L.; Dieleman, P.

    2014-07-01

    A cryogenic iris mechanism is under development as part of the ground calibration source for the SAFARI instrument. The iris mechanism is a variable aperture used as an optical shutter to fine-tune and modulate the absolute power output of the calibration source. It has 4 stainless steel blades that create a near-circular aperture in every position. The operating temperature is 4.5 Kelvin to provide a negligible background to the SAFARI detectors, and `hot spots' above 9K should be prevented. Cryogenic testing proved that the iris works at 4K. It can be used in a broad range of cryogenic optical instruments where optical throughput needs to be controlled. Challenges in the design include the low cooling power available (5mW) and low friction at cryogenic temperatures. The actuator is an `arc-type' rotary voice-coil motor. The use of flexural pivots creates a mono-stable mechanism with a resonance frequency at 26Hz. Accurate and fast position control with disturbance rejection is managed by a PID servo loop using a hall-sensor as input. At 4 Kelvin, the frequency is limited to 4Hz to avoid excess dissipation and heating. In this paper, the design and performance of the iris are discussed. The design was optimized using a thermal, magnetic and mechanical model made with COMSOL Finite Element Analysis software. The dynamical and state-space modeling of the mechanism and the concept of the electrical control are presented. The performance of the iris show good agreement to the analytical and COMSOL modeling.

  15. High-flux, high-temperature thermal vacuum qualification testing of a solar receiver aperture shield

    SciTech Connect

    Kerslake, T.W.; Mason, L.S.; Strumpf, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    As part of the International Space Station (ISS) Phase 1 program, NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Russian Space Agency (RSA) teamed together to design, build and flight test the world`s first orbital Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) on the Russian space station Mir. The Solar Dynamic Flight Demonstration (SDFD) program was to operate a nominal 2 kWe SDPS on Mir for a period up to 1-year starting in late 1997. Unfortunately, the SDFD mission was demanifested from the ISS Phase 1 shuttle program in early 1996. However, substantial flight hardware and prototypical flight hardware was built including a heat receiver and aperture shield. The aperture shield comprises the front face of the cylindrical cavity heat receiver and is located at the focal plane of the solar concentrator. It is constructed of a stainless steel plate with a 1-m outside diameter, a 0.24-m inside diameter and covered with high-temperature, refractory metal multi-foil insulation (MFI). The aperture shield must minimize heat loss from the receiver cavity, provide a stiff, high strength structure to accommodate shuttle launch loads and protect receiver structures from highly concentrated solar fluxes during concentrator off-pointing events. To satisfy Mir operational safety protocols, the aperture shield was required to accommodate direct impingement of the intensely concentrated solar image for a 1-hour period. To verify thermal-structural durability under the anticipated high-flux, high-temperature loading, an aperture shield test article was constructed and underwent a series of two tests in a large thermal vacuum chamber configured with a reflective, point-focus solar concentrator and a solar simulator. The test article was positioned near the focal plane and exposed to concentrated solar flux for a period of 1-hour. In the first test, a near equilibrium temperature of 1862 K was attained in the center of the shield hot spot. In the second test, with increased incident flux, a near

  16. High-Flux, High-Temperature Thermal Vacuum Qualification Testing of a Solar Receiver Aperture Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Mason, Lee S.; Strumpf, Hal J.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the International Space Station (ISS) Phase 1 program, NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) and the Russian Space Agency (RSA) teamed together to design, build and flight test the world's first orbital Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) on the Russian space station Mir. The Solar Dynamic Flight Demonstration (SDFD) program was to operate a nominal 2 kWe SDPS on Mir for a period up to 1-year starting in late 1997. Unfortunately, the SDFD mission was demanifested from the ISS phase 1 shuttle program in early 1996. However, substantial flight hardware and prototypical flight hardware was built including a heat receiver and aperture shield. The aperture shield comprises the front face of the cylindrical cavity heat receiver and is located at the focal plane of the solar concentrator. It is constructed of a stainless steel plate with a 1-m outside diameter, a 0.24-m inside diameter and covered with high-temperature, refractory metal Multi-Foil Insulation (MFI). The aperture shield must minimize heat loss from the receiver cavity, provide a stiff, high strength structure to accommodate shuttle launch loads and protect receiver structures from highly concentrated solar fluxes during concentrator off-pointing events. To satisfy Mir operational safety protocols, the aperture shield was required to accommodate direct impingement of the intensely concentrated solar image for a 1-hour period. To verify thermal-structural durability under the anticipated high-flux, high-temperature loading, an aperture shield test article was constructed and underwent a series of two tests in a large thermal vacuum chamber configured with a reflective, point-focus solar concentrator and a solar simulator. The test article was positioned near the focal plane and exposed to concentrated solar flux for a period of 1-hour. In the first test, a near equilibrium temperature of 1862 K was attained in the center of the shield hot spot. In the second test, with increased incident flux, a near

  17. Development of large aperture composite adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetik, Viliam; Vitovec, Bohumil; Jiran, Lukas; Nemcova, Sarka; Zicha, Josef; Inneman, Adolf; Mikulickova, Lenka; Pavlica, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Large aperture composite adaptive optics for laser applications is investigated in cooperation of Institute of Plasma Physic, Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering FME CTU and 5M Ltd. We are exploring opportunity of a large-size high-power-laser deformable-mirror production using a lightweight bimorph actuated structure with a composite core. In order to produce a sufficiently large operational free aperture we are developing new technologies for production of flexible core, bimorph actuator and deformable mirror reflector. Full simulation of a deformable-mirrors structure was prepared and validated by complex testing. A deformable mirror actuation and a response of a complicated structure are investigated for an accurate control of the adaptive optics. An original adaptive optics control system and a bimorph deformable mirror driver were developed. Tests of material samples, components and sub-assemblies were completed. A subscale 120 mm bimorph deformable mirror prototype was designed, fabricated and thoroughly tested. A large-size 300 mm composite-core bimorph deformable mirror was simulated and optimized, fabrication of a prototype is carried on. A measurement and testing facility is modified to accommodate large sizes optics.

  18. KAOS: kilo-aperture optical spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.; Dey, Arjun; Boyle, Brian; Glazebrook, Karl

    2004-09-01

    A design is described for a potential new facility capable of taking detailed spectroscopy of millions of objects in the Universe to explore the complexity of the Universe and to answer fundamental questions relating to the equation of state of dark energy and to how the Milky Way galaxy formed. The specific design described is envisioned for implementation on the Gemini 8-meter telescopes. It utilizes a 1.5° field of view and samples that field with up to ~5000 apertures. This Kilo-Aperture Optical Spectrograph (KAOS) is mounted at prime focus with a 4-element corrector, atmospheric dispersion compensator (ADC), and an Echidna-style fiber optic positioner. The ADC doubles as a wobble plate, allowing fast guiding that cancels out the wind buffeting of the telescope. The fibers, which can be reconfigured in less than 10 minutes, feed to an array of 12 spectrographs located in the pier of the telescope. The spectrographs are capable of provided spectral resolving powers of a few thousand up to about 40,000.

  19. Very large aperture optics for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwath, T. G.; Smith, J. P.; Johnson, M. T.

    1994-09-01

    A new type of space optics technology is presented which promises the realization of very large apertures (tens of meters), while packagable into lightweight, small volume containers compatible with conventional launch vehicles. This technology makes use of thin foils of circular shape which are uniformly mass loaded around the perimeter. Once unfurled and set into rapid rotation about the transversal axis, the foil is stretched into a perfectly flat plane by the centrifugal forces acting on the peripheral masses. The simplest applications of this novel technology are optically flat reflectors, using metallized foils of Mylar, Kevlar, or Kapton. Other more complex optical components can be realized by use of binary optics techniques, such as depositing holograms by selective local microscale removal of the reflective surface. Electrostatic techniques, in conjunction with an auxiliary foil, under local, distributed real-time control of the optical parameters, allow implementation of functions like beam steering and focal length adjustments. Gas pressurization allows stronger curvatures and thus smaller focal ratios for non-imaging applications. Limits on aperture are imposed primarily by manufacturing capabilities. Applications of such large optics in space are numerous. They range from military, such as space based lasers, to the civilian ones of power beaming, solar energy collection, and astronomy. This paper examines this simple and innovative concept in detail, discusses deployment and attitude control issues and presents approaches for realization.

  20. The SKA New Instrumentation: Aperture Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ardenne, A.; Faulkner, A. J.; de Vaate, J. G. bij

    The radio frequency window of the Square Kilometre Array is planned to cover the wavelength regime from cm up to a few meters. For this range to be optimally covered, different antenna concepts are considered enabling many science cases. At the lowest frequency range, up to a few GHz, it is expected that multi-beam techniques will be used, increasing the effective field-of-view to a level that allows very efficient detailed and sensitive exploration of the complete sky. Although sparse narrow band phased arrays are as old as radio astronomy, multi-octave sparse and dense arrays now being considered for the SKA, requiring new low noise design, signal processing and calibration techniques. These new array techniques have already been successfully introduced as phased array feeds upgrading existing reflecting telescopes and for new telescopes to enhance the aperture efficiency as well as greatly increasing their field-of-view (van Ardenne et al., Proc IEEE 97(8):2009) by [1]. Aperture arrays use phased arrays without any additional reflectors; the phased array elements are small enough to see most of the sky intrinsically offering a large field of view.

  1. Multi-shot compressed coded aperture imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Du, Juan; Wu, Tengfei; Jin, Zhenhua

    2013-09-01

    The classical methods of compressed coded aperture (CCA) still require an optical sensor with high resolution, although the sampling rate has broken the Nyquist sampling rate already. A novel architecture of multi-shot compressed coded aperture imaging (MCCAI) using a low resolution optical sensor is proposed, which is mainly based on the 4-f imaging system, combining with two spatial light modulators (SLM) to achieve the compressive imaging goal. The first SLM employed for random convolution is placed at the frequency spectrum plane of the 4-f imaging system, while the second SLM worked as a selecting filter is positioned in front of the optical sensor. By altering the random coded pattern of the second SLM and sampling, a couple of observations can be obtained by a low resolution optical sensor easily, and these observations will be combined mathematically and used to reconstruct the high resolution image. That is to say, MCCAI aims at realizing the super resolution imaging with multiple random samplings by using a low resolution optical sensor. To improve the computational imaging performance, total variation (TV) regularization is introduced into the super resolution reconstruction model to get rid of the artifacts, and alternating direction method of multipliers (ADM) is utilized to solve the optimal result efficiently. The results show that the MCCAI architecture is suitable for super resolution computational imaging using a much lower resolution optical sensor than traditional CCA imaging methods by capturing multiple frame images.

  2. Integrated feeds for electronically reconfigurable apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Jeffrey Grant

    With the increasing ubiquity of wireless technology, the need for lower-profile, electronically reconfigurable, highly-directive beam-steering antennas is increasing. This thesis proposes a new electronic beam-steering antenna architecture which combines the full-space beam-steering properties of reflectarrays and transmitarrays with the low-profile feeding characteristics of leaky-wave antennas. Two designs are developed: an integrated feed reflectarray and an integrated feed transmitarray, both of which integrate a leaky-wave feed directly next to the reconfigurable aperture itself. The integrated feed transmitarray proved to be the better architecture due to its simpler design and better performance. A 6-by-6 element array was fabricated and experimentally verified, and full-space (both azimuth and elevation) beam-steering was demonstrated at angles up to 45 degrees off broadside. In addition to the reduction in profile, the integrated feed design enables robust fixed control of the amplitude distribution across the aperture, a characteristic not as easily attained in typical reflectarrays/transmitarrays.

  3. New physics and applications of apertures in thin metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Reuven; Al-Balushi, Ahmed A.; Kotnala, Abhay; Gelfand, Ryan F.; Wheaton, Skylar; Chen, Shuwen; Jin, Shilong

    2014-08-01

    The nanoplasmonic properties of apertures in metal films have been studied extensively; however, we have recently discovered surprising new features of this simple system with applications to super-focusing and super-scattering. Furthermore, apertures allow for optical tweezers that can hold onto particles of the order of 1 nm; I will briefly highlight our work using these apertures to study protein - small molecule interactions and protein - DNA binding.

  4. Experimental investigations of 3 mm aperture PPLN structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, D.; Pronyushkina, A.; Boyko, A.; Kostyukova, N.; Trashkeev, S.; Nuyshkov, B.; Shur, V.

    2017-01-01

    We are reporting about investigation of domestic 3 mm aperture periodically polled lithium niobate (PPLN) structures for cascaded mid-IR OPO. Wide aperture periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate (LiNbO3) structures at multigrating, fan-out and multi fan-out configuration were prepared at “Labfer LTD”. Laser source based on such structures can be used for special applications. Four different PPLN structures were investigated and effective aperture for effective pumping was defined.

  5. Tomographic Processing of Synthetic Aperture Radar Signals for Enhanced Resolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    digital signal processing view of strip-mapping synthetic aperture radar," M.S. thesis , University of Illinois, Urbana, IL,1988." [571 David C. Munson...TOMOGRAPHIC PROCESSING OF 1 SYNTHETIC APERTURE I RADAR SIGNALS FOR ENHANCED RESOLUTION,I * Jerald Lee Bauck DTIC ELECTE JAN2419901D I I UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS...NC 27709-2211 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO CCESSION NO. 11i. TITLE (Include Security Classification) TOMOGRAPHIC PROCESSING OF SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADlAR SIGNALS

  6. Functionalized apertures for the detection of chemical and biological materials

    DOEpatents

    Letant, Sonia E.; van Buuren, Anthony W.; Terminello, Louis J.; Thelen, Michael P.; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.; Hart, Bradley R.

    2010-12-14

    Disclosed are nanometer to micron scale functionalized apertures constructed on a substrate made of glass, carbon, semiconductors or polymeric materials that allow for the real time detection of biological materials or chemical moieties. Many apertures can exist on one substrate allowing for the simultaneous detection of numerous chemical and biological molecules. One embodiment features a macrocyclic ring attached to cross-linkers, wherein the macrocyclic ring has a biological or chemical probe extending through the aperture. Another embodiment achieves functionalization by attaching chemical or biological anchors directly to the walls of the apertures via cross-linkers.

  7. Diffraction from oxide confinement apertures in vertical-cavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, P.A.; Carlsten, J.L.; Kilper, D.C.; Lear, K.L.

    1999-08-01

    Direct measurement of scattered fields from oxide confinement apertures in vertical-cavity lasers is presented. Diffraction fringes associated with each transverse lasing mode are detected in the far field from devices with varying oxide aperture dimensions and with quantum efficiencies as high as 48{percent}. The diffracted pattern symmetries match the rectangular symmetry of the oxide apertures present in the devices and fringe locations are compared to Fraunhofer theory. The fraction of power diffracted from the lasing mode remains roughly constant as a function of relative pump rate, but is shown to depend on both transverse mode order and oxide aperture size. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Coded aperture imaging for fluorescent x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Haboub, A.; MacDowell, A. A.; Marchesini, S.; Parkinson, D. Y.

    2014-06-15

    We employ a coded aperture pattern in front of a pixilated charge couple device detector to image fluorescent x-rays (6–25 KeV) from samples irradiated with synchrotron radiation. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays, and given a known source plane, allow for a large numerical aperture x-ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop and fabricate the free standing No-Two-Holes-Touching aperture pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the recorded encoded pattern were developed by means of a ray tracing technique and confirmed by experiments on standard samples.

  9. Microscopic bio-corrosion evaluations of magnesium surfaces in static and dynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bontrager, J; Mahapatro, A; Gomes, A S

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradable materials including biodegradable metals are continuously being investigated for the development of next generation cardiovascular stents. Predictive in vitro tests are needed that could evaluate potential materials while simulating in vivo conditions. In this manuscript we report the microscopic bio-corrosion evaluations of magnesium surfaces in static and dynamic conditions. A corrosion test bench was designed and fabricated and static and dynamic corrosion tests were carried out with samples of magnesium alloy. The fluid wall shear stress equation and the Churchill's friction factor equation were used to calculate the fluid velocity required to generate the desired shear stress on samples in the test bench. Static and dynamic corrosion tests at 24 and 72 h were carried out at 0.88 Pa shear stress mimicking the in vivo shear stress. Microscopic evaluations of the corroded surfaces were carried out by optical, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to evaluate the corrosion behaviour and surface properties of the test samples. The surface and interface analysis of magnesium samples post test indicated that dynamic conditions prevented the build-up of corrosion by-products on the sample surface and the corrosion mechanism was uniform as compared to static conditions. The use of a masking element to restrict the exposed area of the sample didn't result in increased corrosion at the boundary. Thus, we have demonstrated the feasibility of the designed test bench as a viable method for bio-corrosion surface analysis under dynamic corrosion conditions for potential biodegradable cardiovascular stent materials.

  10. Local Difference Measures between Complex Networks for Dynamical System Model Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Stefan; Donges, Jonathan F.; Volkholz, Jan; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A faithful modeling of real-world dynamical systems necessitates model evaluation. A recent promising methodological approach to this problem has been based on complex networks, which in turn have proven useful for the characterization of dynamical systems. In this context, we introduce three local network difference measures and demonstrate their capabilities in the field of climate modeling, where these measures facilitate a spatially explicit model evaluation. Building on a recent study by Feldhoff et al. [1] we comparatively analyze statistical and dynamical regional climate simulations of the South American monsoon system. Three types of climate networks representing different aspects of rainfall dynamics are constructed from the modeled precipitation space-time series. Specifically, we define simple graphs based on positive as well as negative rank correlations between rainfall anomaly time series at different locations, and such based on spatial synchronizations of extreme rain events. An evaluation against respective networks built from daily satellite data provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 V7 reveals far greater differences in model performance between network types for a fixed but arbitrary climate model than between climate models for a fixed but arbitrary network type. We identify two sources of uncertainty in this respect. Firstly, climate variability limits fidelity, particularly in the case of the extreme event network; and secondly, larger geographical link lengths render link misplacements more likely, most notably in the case of the anticorrelation network; both contributions are quantified using suitable ensembles of surrogate networks. Our model evaluation approach is applicable to any multidimensional dynamical system and especially our simple graph difference measures are highly versatile as the graphs to be compared may be constructed in whatever way required. Generalizations to directed as well as edge- and node

  11. Dynamic evaluation of environmental impact due to tritium accidental release from the fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican

    2015-10-01

    As one of the key safety issues of fusion reactors, tritium environmental impact of fusion accidents has attracted great attention. In this work, the dynamic tritium concentrations in the air and human body were evaluated on the time scale based on accidental release scenarios under the extreme environmental conditions. The radiation dose through various exposure pathways was assessed to find out the potential relationships among them. Based on this work, the limits of HT and HTO release amount for arbitrary accidents were proposed for the fusion reactor according to dose limit of ITER. The dynamic results aim to give practical guidance for establishment of fusion emergency standard and design of fusion tritium system.

  12. An evaluation of dynamic mutuality measurements and methods in cyclic time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaohua; Huang, Guitian; Duan, Na

    2010-12-01

    Several measurements and techniques have been developed to detect dynamic mutuality and synchronicity of time series in econometrics. This study aims to compare the performances of five methods, i.e., linear regression, dynamic correlation, Markov switching models, concordance index and recurrence quantification analysis, through numerical simulations. We evaluate the abilities of these methods to capture structure changing and cyclicity in time series and the findings of this paper would offer guidance to both academic and empirical researchers. Illustration examples are also provided to demonstrate the subtle differences of these techniques.

  13. Noninvasive evaluation of corneal abnormalities using static and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Misra, Anup K.; Leung, Alfred B.; King, James F.; Datiles, Manuel B., III

    2002-06-01

    A preliminary study of corneal abnormalities in intact bovine eyes is presented. Twenty-one eyes were treated with chemicals, cotton swabs, and radial and photo-refractive surgeries. Dynamic and static light scattering was performed as a function of the penetration depth into the corneal tissue. Topographical maps of corneal refractive power from untreated and treated corneas were also obtained using videokeratoscopy and results compared. The ultimate aim is to develop the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) for clinical applications in early evaluation of corneal complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgeries and other corneal abnormalities.

  14. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Corneal Abnormalities Using Static and Dynamic Light Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Misra, Anup K.; Leung, Alfred B.; King, James F.; Datiles, Manuel B., III

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary study of corneal abnormalities in intact bovine eyes is presented. Twenty-one eyes were treated with chemicals, cotton swabs, and radial and photo-refractive surgeries. Dynamic and static light scattering was performed as a function of the penetration depth into the corneal tissue. Topographical maps of corneal refractive power from untreated and treated corneas were also obtained using videokeratoscopy and results compared. The ultimate aim is to develop the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) for clinical applications in early evaluation of corneal complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgeries and other corneal abnormalities.

  15. Evaluating the effects of anthropogenic stressors on source-sink dynamics in pond-breeding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Willson, John D; Hopkins, William A

    2013-06-01

    Although interwetland dispersal is thought to play an important role in regional persistence of pond-breeding amphibians, few researchers have modeled amphibian metapopulation or source-sink dynamics. Results of recent modeling studies suggest anthropogenic stressors, such as pollution, can negatively affect density and population viability of amphibians breeding in isolated wetlands. Presumably population declines also result in reduced dispersal to surrounding (often uncontaminated) habitats, potentially affecting dynamics of nearby populations. We used our data on the effects of mercury (Hg) on the American toad ( Bufo americanus) as a case study in modeling the effects of anthropogenic stressors on landscape-scale amphibian dynamics. We created a structured metapopulation model to investigate regional dynamics of American toads and to evaluate the degree to which detrimental effects of Hg contamination on individual populations can disrupt interpopulation dynamics. Dispersal from typical American toad populations supported nearby populations that would otherwise have been extirpated over long time scales. Through support of such sink populations, dispersal between wetland-associated subpopulations substantially increased overall productivity of wetland networks, but this effect declined with increasing interwetland distance and decreasing wetland size. Contamination with Hg substantially reduced productivity of wetland-associated subpopulations and impaired the ability of populations to support nearby sinks within relevant spatial scales. Our results add to the understanding of regional dynamics of pond-breeding amphibians, the wide-reaching negative effects of environmental contaminants, and the potential for restoration or remediation of degraded habitats.

  16. Communications: Evaluation of the nondiabaticity of quantum molecular dynamics with the dephasing representation of quantum fidelity.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Tomás; Vanícek, Jirí

    2010-06-28

    We propose an approximate method for evaluating the importance of non-Born-Oppenheimer effects on the quantum dynamics of nuclei. The method uses a generalization of the dephasing representation (DR) of quantum fidelity to several diabatic potential energy surfaces and its computational cost is the cost of dynamics of a classical phase space distribution. It can be implemented easily into any molecular dynamics program and also can utilize on-the-fly ab initio electronic structure information. We test the methodology on three model problems introduced by Tully and on the photodissociation of NaI. The results show that for dynamics close to the diabatic limit, the decay of fidelity due to nondiabatic effects is described accurately by the DR. In this regime, unlike the mixed quantum-classical methods such as surface hopping or Ehrenfest dynamics, the DR can capture more subtle quantum effects than the population transfer between potential energy surfaces. Hence we propose using the DR to estimate the dynamical importance of diabatic, spin-orbit, or other couplings between potential energy surfaces. The acquired information can help reduce the complexity of a studied system without affecting the accuracy of the quantum simulation.

  17. Automated Movement Correction for Dynamic PET/CT Images: Evaluation with Phantom and Patient Data

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hu; Wong, Koon-Pong; Wardak, Mirwais; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge R.; Nelson, Linda D.; Small, Gary W.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Head movement during a dynamic brain PET/CT imaging results in mismatch between CT and dynamic PET images. It can cause artifacts in CT-based attenuation corrected PET images, thus affecting both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the dynamic PET images and the derived parametric images. In this study, we developed an automated retrospective image-based movement correction (MC) procedure. The MC method first registered the CT image to each dynamic PET frames, then re-reconstructed the PET frames with CT-based attenuation correction, and finally re-aligned all the PET frames to the same position. We evaluated the MC method's performance on the Hoffman phantom and dynamic FDDNP and FDG PET/CT images of patients with neurodegenerative disease or with poor compliance. Dynamic FDDNP PET/CT images (65 min) were obtained from 12 patients and dynamic FDG PET/CT images (60 min) were obtained from 6 patients. Logan analysis with cerebellum as the reference region was used to generate regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) for FDDNP scan before and after MC. For FDG studies, the image derived input function was used to generate parametric image of FDG uptake constant (Ki) before and after MC. Phantom study showed high accuracy of registration between PET and CT and improved PET images after MC. In patient study, head movement was observed in all subjects, especially in late PET frames with an average displacement of 6.92 mm. The z-direction translation (average maximum = 5.32 mm) and x-axis rotation (average maximum = 5.19 degrees) occurred most frequently. Image artifacts were significantly diminished after MC. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the FDDNP DVR and FDG Ki values in the parietal and temporal regions after MC. In conclusion, MC applied to dynamic brain FDDNP and FDG PET/CT scans could improve the qualitative and quantitative aspects of images of both tracers. PMID:25111700

  18. Automated movement correction for dynamic PET/CT images: evaluation with phantom and patient data.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hu; Wong, Koon-Pong; Wardak, Mirwais; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge R; Nelson, Linda D; Small, Gary W; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Head movement during a dynamic brain PET/CT imaging results in mismatch between CT and dynamic PET images. It can cause artifacts in CT-based attenuation corrected PET images, thus affecting both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the dynamic PET images and the derived parametric images. In this study, we developed an automated retrospective image-based movement correction (MC) procedure. The MC method first registered the CT image to each dynamic PET frames, then re-reconstructed the PET frames with CT-based attenuation correction, and finally re-aligned all the PET frames to the same position. We evaluated the MC method's performance on the Hoffman phantom and dynamic FDDNP and FDG PET/CT images of patients with neurodegenerative disease or with poor compliance. Dynamic FDDNP PET/CT images (65 min) were obtained from 12 patients and dynamic FDG PET/CT images (60 min) were obtained from 6 patients. Logan analysis with cerebellum as the reference region was used to generate regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) for FDDNP scan before and after MC. For FDG studies, the image derived input function was used to generate parametric image of FDG uptake constant (Ki) before and after MC. Phantom study showed high accuracy of registration between PET and CT and improved PET images after MC. In patient study, head movement was observed in all subjects, especially in late PET frames with an average displacement of 6.92 mm. The z-direction translation (average maximum = 5.32 mm) and x-axis rotation (average maximum = 5.19 degrees) occurred most frequently. Image artifacts were significantly diminished after MC. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the FDDNP DVR and FDG Ki values in the parietal and temporal regions after MC. In conclusion, MC applied to dynamic brain FDDNP and FDG PET/CT scans could improve the qualitative and quantitative aspects of images of both tracers.

  19. Advanced methods in synthetic aperture radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    For over 50 years our world has been mapped and measured with synthetic aperture radar (SAR). A SAR system operates by transmitting a series of wideband radio-frequency pulses towards the ground and recording the resulting backscattered electromagnetic waves as the system travels along some one-dimensional trajectory. By coherently processing the recorded backscatter over this extended aperture, one can form a high-resolution 2D intensity map of the ground reflectivity, which we call a SAR image. The trajectory, or synthetic aperture, is achieved by mounting the radar on an aircraft, spacecraft, or even on the roof of a car traveling down the road, and allows for a diverse set of applications and measurement techniques for remote sensing applications. It is quite remarkable that the sub-centimeter positioning precision and sub-nanosecond timing precision required to make this work properly can in fact be achieved under such real-world, often turbulent, vibrationally intensive conditions. Although the basic principles behind SAR imaging and interferometry have been known for decades, in recent years an explosion of data exploitation techniques enabled by ever-faster computational horsepower have enabled some remarkable advances. Although SAR images are often viewed as simple intensity maps of ground reflectivity, SAR is also an exquisitely sensitive coherent imaging modality with a wealth of information buried within the phase information in the image. Some of the examples featured in this presentation will include: (1) Interferometric SAR, where by comparing the difference in phase between two SAR images one can measure subtle changes in ground topography at the wavelength scale. (2) Change detection, in which carefully geolocated images formed from two different passes are compared. (3) Multi-pass 3D SAR tomography, where multiple trajectories can be used to form 3D images. (4) Moving Target Indication (MTI), in which Doppler effects allow one to detect and

  20. Annular sub-aperture stitching interferometry testing for large-caliber aspheric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pengfei; Yang, Shuming; Sun, Lin; Zhao, Pu; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2016-09-01

    An annular sub-aperture stitching interferometry testing is proposed for large-caliber aspheric lens testing, expanding the dynamic range of the interferometer, broadening the scope of the measurement, and reducing the cost of the measurement to a large extent without the use of compensating elements. The large-caliber aspheric is divided into several annular sub-apertures, and there are some overlapping areas between each two adjacent sub-apertures. When testing, the test aspheric is moved along the optical axis according to path planning so that the reference spherical shape and the test aspheric interest at points of common tangency to reduce the fringe density of the sub-aperture. However, in the process of moving the test optic, six DOF (degrees of freedom) misalignment errors will occur. According to the rigid body kinematics theory, the misalignment error separation model is established so that the misalignment factors can be calculated by the information of each overlapping regions. Then all sub-apertures are unified to the same reference with proper algorithm, and subsequently, misalignment error of the reference is removed by Zernike polynomial fitting, and the whole surface error is recovered. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the feasibility of the method we developed. By analyzing the influence of the six DOF on the stitching result, the most important factor is obtained, and some measures are taken, that is, a measurement system combining two interferometers is designed, one of which is to measure the departures between the reference and the aspheric, and another to test the piston errors to be transmitted to the control system to improve the accuracy.

  1. Evaluation of bio-inspired morphing concepts with regard to aircraft dynamics and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickenheiser, Adam M.; Garcia, Ephrahim; Waszak, Martin

    2004-07-01

    This paper will discuss the application of various bio-inspired morphing concepts to unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) designs. Several analysis tools will be introduced to calculate the aerodynamic benefits, dynamic response, and mission-level benefits of morphing shape changes. Empirical relations are employed to calculate the effects of various geometry changes on the aerodynamics of the vehicle. A six-degree-of-freedom simulation will evaluate the stability and dynamic response of each vehicle configuration as well as "snapshots" of the morphing change. Subsequently, an aircraft performance analysis will be conducted for various shape configurations. Specifically, the performance of a bio-inspired wing is compared to conventional designs. The aircraft dynamic improvements that morphing technologies introduce will be discussed.

  2. Characterisation of dynamic behaviour of alumina ceramics: evaluation of stress uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiyong; Li, Peifeng

    2015-10-01

    Accurate characterisation of dynamic behaviour of ceramics requires the reliable split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique and the condition of uniaxial homogeneous specimen deformation. In this study, an experimentally validated 3D finite element model of the full scale SHPB experiment was developed to quantitatively evaluate the wave propagation in the bars and the stress distribution/evolution in the alumina specimen. Wave signals in both the SHPB experiments and the finite element model were analysed to characterise the dynamic behaviour of alumina. It was found that the equilibrium of both stresses within the specimen and forces at the specimen ends can be established in the intermediate stage of deformation. The validity of stress uniformity in the alumina specimen supports the assumption of uniaxial homogeneous specimen deformation in the SHPB and validates the characterisation of dynamic behaviour of alumina ceramics.

  3. Evaluation of the readsorption of plutonium and americium in dynamic fractionations of environmental solid samples.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-07-01

    A dynamic extraction system exploiting sequential injection (SI) for sequential extractions incorporating a specially designed extraction column is developed to fractionate radionuclides in environmental solid samples such as soils and sediments. The extraction column can contain up to 5 g of a soil sample, and under optimal operational conditions it does not give rise to creation of back pressure. Attention has been placed on studies of the readsorption problems during sequential extraction using a modified Standards, Measurements and Testing (SM&T) scheme with four-step sequential extractions. The degree of readsorption in dynamic and conventional batch extraction systems is compared and evaluated by using a double-spiking technique. A high degree of readsorption of plutonium and americium (>75%) was observed in both systems, and they also exhibited similar distribution patterns of the two radionuclides. However, the dynamic system is fully automated, eliminates manual separations, significantly reduces the operational time required, and offers detailed kinetic information.

  4. Very high numerical aperture light transmitting device

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Stephen W.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1998-01-01

    A new light-transmitting device using a SCIN glass core and a novel calcium sodium cladding has been developed. The very high index of refraction, radiation hardness, similar solubility for rare earths and similar melt and viscosity characteristics of core and cladding materials makes them attractive for several applications such as high-numerical-aperture optical fibers and specialty lenses. Optical fibers up to 60 m in length have been drawn, and several simple lenses have been designed, ground, and polished. Preliminary results on the ability to directly cast optical components of lead-indium phosphate glass are also discussed as well as the suitability of these glasses as a host medium for rare-earth ion lasers and amplifiers.

  5. Automated change detection for synthetic aperture sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G-Michael, Tesfaye; Marchand, Bradley; Tucker, J. D.; Sternlicht, Daniel D.; Marston, Timothy M.; Azimi-Sadjadi, Mahmood R.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, an automated change detection technique is presented that compares new and historical seafloor images created with sidescan synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) for changes occurring over time. The method consists of a four stage process: a coarse navigational alignment; fine-scale co-registration using the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm to match features between overlapping images; sub-pixel co-registration to improves phase coherence; and finally, change detection utilizing canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The method was tested using data collected with a high-frequency SAS in a sandy shallow-water environment. By using precise co-registration tools and change detection algorithms, it is shown that the coherent nature of the SAS data can be exploited and utilized in this environment over time scales ranging from hours through several days.

  6. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes.

    PubMed

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D

    2015-04-16

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths.

  7. Saturation of the Large Aperture Scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohsiek, W.; Meijninger, W. M. L.; Debruin, H. A. R.; Beyrich, F.

    2006-10-01

    The saturation aspects of a large aperture (0.3 m) scintillometer operating over a 10-km path were investigated. Measurements were made over mainly forested, hilly terrain with typical maximum sensible heat fluxes of 300-400 W m -2, and over flat terrain with mainly grass, and typical maximum heat fluxes of 100-150 W m-2. Scintillometer-based fluxes were compared with eddy-correlation observations. Two different schemes for calculating the reduction of scintillation caused by saturation were applied: one based on the work of Hill and Clifford, the other based on Frehlich and Ochs. Without saturation correction, the scintillation fluxes were lower than the eddy-correlation fluxes; the saturation correction according to Frehlich and Ochs increased the scintillometer fluxes to an unrealistic level. Correcting the fluxes after the theory of the Hill and Clifford gave satisfying results

  8. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar using two satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomiyasu, K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper demonstrates the feasibility of a bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BISAR) utilizing two satellites. The proposed BISAR assumes that the direction of the two narrow antenna beams are programmed to coincide over the desired area to be imaged. Functionally, the transmitter and receiver portions can be interchanged between the two satellites. The two satellites may be in one orbit plane or two different orbits such as geosynchronous and low-earth orbits. The pulse repetition frequency and imaging geometry are constrained by contours of isodops and isodels. With two images of the same area viewed from different angles, it is possible in principle to derive three-dimensional stereo images. Applications of BISAR include topography, water resource management, and soil moisture determination.. Advantages of BISAR over a monostatic SAR are mentioned, including lower transmitter power and greater ranges in incidence angle and coverage.

  9. High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Andrew J.; Prasciolu, Mauro; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Krzywinski, Jacek; Meents, Alke; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Barty, Anton; Bean, Richard J.; Barthelmess, Miriam; Oberthuer, Dominik; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Aquila, Andrew; Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Saša

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing brightness of synchrotron radiation sources demands improved X-ray optics to utilise their capability for imaging and probing biological cells, nanodevices, and functional matter on the nanometer scale with chemical sensitivity. Here we demonstrate focusing a hard X-ray beam to an 8 nm focus using a volume zone plate (also referred to as a wedged multilayer Laue lens). This lens was constructed using a new deposition technique that enabled the independent control of the angle and thickness of diffracting layers to microradian and nanometer precision, respectively. This ensured that the Bragg condition is satisfied at each point along the lens, leading to a high numerical aperture that is limited only by its extent. We developed a phase-shifting interferometric method based on ptychography to characterise the lens focus. The precision of the fabrication and characterisation demonstrated here provides the path to efficient X-ray optics for imaging at 1 nm resolution.

  10. Analysis of synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Some problems faced in applications of radar measurements in hydrology are: (1) adequate calibration of the radar systems and direct digital data will be required in order that repeatable data can be acquired for hydrologic applications; (2) quantitative hydrologic research on a large scale will be prohibitive with aircraft mounted synthetic aperture radar systems due to the system geometry; (3) spacecraft platforms appear to be the best platforms for radar systems when conducting research over watersheds larger than a few square kilometers; (4) experimental radar systems should be designed to avoid use of radomes; and (5) cross polarized X and L band data seem to discriminate between good and poor hydrologic cover better than like polarized data.

  11. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  12. A Nonlinear Dynamics Approach for Incorporating Wind-Speed Patterns into Wind-Power Project Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huffaker, Ray; Bittelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wind-energy production may be expanded beyond regions with high-average wind speeds (such as the Midwest U.S.A.) to sites with lower-average speeds (such as the Southeast U.S.A.) by locating favorable regional matches between natural wind-speed and energy-demand patterns. A critical component of wind-power evaluation is to incorporate wind-speed dynamics reflecting documented diurnal and seasonal behavioral patterns. Conventional probabilistic approaches remove patterns from wind-speed data. These patterns must be restored synthetically before they can be matched with energy-demand patterns. How to accurately restore wind-speed patterns is a vexing problem spurring an expanding line of papers. We propose a paradigm shift in wind power evaluation that employs signal-detection and nonlinear-dynamics techniques to empirically diagnose whether synthetic pattern restoration can be avoided altogether. If the complex behavior of observed wind-speed records is due to nonlinear, low-dimensional, and deterministic system dynamics, then nonlinear dynamics techniques can reconstruct wind-speed dynamics from observed wind-speed data without recourse to conventional probabilistic approaches. In the first study of its kind, we test a nonlinear dynamics approach in an application to Sugarland Wind—the first utility-scale wind project proposed in Florida, USA. We find empirical evidence of a low-dimensional and nonlinear wind-speed attractor characterized by strong temporal patterns that match up well with regular daily and seasonal electricity demand patterns. PMID:25617767

  13. Validation of a Laboratory Method for Evaluating Dynamic Properties of Reconstructed Equine Racetrack Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Setterbo, Jacob J.; Chau, Anh; Fyhrie, Patricia B.; Hubbard, Mont; Upadhyaya, Shrini K.; Symons, Jennifer E.; Stover, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Racetrack surface is a risk factor for racehorse injuries and fatalities. Current research indicates that race surface mechanical properties may be influenced by material composition, moisture content, temperature, and maintenance. Race surface mechanical testing in a controlled laboratory setting would allow for objective evaluation of dynamic properties of surface and factors that affect surface behavior. Objective To develop a method for reconstruction of race surfaces in the laboratory and validate the method by comparison with racetrack measurements of dynamic surface properties. Methods Track-testing device (TTD) impact tests were conducted to simulate equine hoof impact on dirt and synthetic race surfaces; tests were performed both in situ (racetrack) and using laboratory reconstructions of harvested surface materials. Clegg Hammer in situ measurements were used to guide surface reconstruction in the laboratory. Dynamic surface properties were compared between in situ and laboratory settings. Relationships between racetrack TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements were analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression. Results Most dynamic surface property setting differences (racetrack-laboratory) were small relative to surface material type differences (dirt-synthetic). Clegg Hammer measurements were more strongly correlated with TTD measurements on the synthetic surface than the dirt surface. On the dirt surface, Clegg Hammer decelerations were negatively correlated with TTD forces. Conclusions Laboratory reconstruction of racetrack surfaces guided by Clegg Hammer measurements yielded TTD impact measurements similar to in situ values. The negative correlation between TTD and Clegg Hammer measurements confirms the importance of instrument mass when drawing conclusions from testing results. Lighter impact devices may be less appropriate for assessing dynamic surface properties compared to testing equipment designed to simulate hoof impact (TTD

  14. Evaluation of travelling vortex speed by means of vortex tracking and dynamic mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyhlík, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    The article deals with the analysis of unsteady periodic flow field related to synthetic jet creation. The analyses are based on the data obtained using ANSYS Fluent solver. Numerical results are validated by hot wire anemometry data measured along the jet centerline. The speed of travelling vortex ring is evaluated by using vortex tracking method and by using dynamic mode decomposition method. Vortex identification is based on residual vorticity which allows identifying regions in the flow field where fluid particles perform the rotational motion. The regime of the synthetic jet with Re = 329 and S = 19.7 is chosen. Both the vortex tracking and the dynamic mode decomposition based vortex speed evaluation indicate an increase in the vortex speed close to the orifice and then decrease with maximum reaching almost one and half of orifice centerline velocity. The article contains extended version the article presented at the conference AEaNMiFMaE 2016.

  15. Evaluation of the dynamic behavior of a Pelton runner based on strain gauge measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Reiner; Probst, Christian

    2016-11-01

    A reliable mechanical design of Pelton runners is very important in the layout of new installations and modernizations. Especially in horizontal machines, where the housing is not embedded into concrete, a rupture of a runner bucket can have severe consequences. Even if a crack in the runner is detected on time, the outage time that follows the malfunction of the runner is shortening the return of investment. It is a fact that stresses caused by the runner rotation and the jet forces are superposed by high frequent dynamic stresses. In case of resonance it even can be the dominating effect that is limiting the lifetime of a runner. Therefore a clear understanding of the dynamic mechanisms is essential for a safe runner design. This paper describes the evaluation of the dynamic behavior of a Pelton runner installed in a model turbine based on strain gauge measurements. Equipped with strain gauges at the root area of the buckets, the time responses of the strains under the influence of various operational parameters were measured. As a result basic theories for the jet bucket excitation were verified and the influence of the water mass was detected by evaluating the frequency shift in case of resonance. Furthermore, the influence of the individual bucket masses onto the dynamic behaviour for different mode shapes got measured.

  16. The optical synthetic aperture image restoration based on the improved maximum-likelihood algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Zexun; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Baoming; Gong, Zhihui

    2012-09-01

    Optical synthetic aperture imaging (OSAI) can be envisaged in the future for improving the image resolution from high altitude orbits. Several future projects are based on optical synthetic aperture for science or earth observation. Comparing with equivalent monolithic telescopes, however, the partly filled aperture of OSAI induces the attenuation of the modulation transfer function of the system. Consequently, images acquired by OSAI instrument have to be post-processed to restore ones equivalent in resolution to that of a single filled aperture. The maximum-likelihood (ML) algorithm proposed by Benvenuto performed better than traditional Wiener filter did, but it didn't work stably and the point spread function (PSF), was assumed to be known and unchanged in iterative restoration. In fact, the PSF is unknown in most cases, and its estimation was expected to be updated alternatively in optimization. Facing these limitations of this method, an improved ML (IML) reconstruction algorithm was proposed in this paper, which incorporated PSF estimation by means of parameter identification into ML, and updated the PSF successively during iteration. Accordingly, the IML algorithm converged stably and reached better results. Experiment results showed that the proposed algorithm performed much better than ML did in peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error and the average contrast evaluation indexes.

  17. ThermoData engine (TDE): software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept. 4. Chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D; Kazakov, Andrei F; Muzny, Chris D; Frenkel, Michael

    2009-12-01

    ThermoData Engine (TDE) is the first full-scale software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept, as reported recently in this journal. This paper describes the first application of this concept to the evaluation of thermodynamic properties for chemical reactions. Reaction properties evaluated are the enthalpies, entropies, Gibbs energies, and thermodynamic equilibrium constants. Details of key considerations in the critical evaluation of enthalpies of formation and of standard entropies for organic compounds are discussed in relation to their application in the calculation of reaction properties. Extensions to the class structure of the program are described that allow close linkage between the derived reaction properties and the underlying pure-component properties. Derivation of pure-component enthalpies of formation and of standard entropies through the use of directly measured reaction properties (enthalpies of reaction and equilibrium constants) is described. Directions for future enhancements are outlined.

  18. Dynamic quantitative echocardiographic evaluation of mitral regurgitation in the operating department.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Alejandro; Soulière, Vicky; Denault, André Y; Bouchard, Denis; Couture, Pierre; Pellerin, Michel; Carrier, Michel; Levesque, Sylvie; Ducharme, Anique; Basmadjian, Arsène J

    2006-02-01

    Hemodynamic modifications induced by general anesthesia could lead to underestimation of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity in the operating department and potentially serious consequences. The intraoperative severity of MR was prospectively compared with the preoperative baseline evaluation using dynamic quantitative transesophageal echocardiography in 25 patients who were stable with MR 2/4 or greater undergoing coronary bypass, mitral valve operation, or both. Significant changes in the severity of MR using transesophageal echocardiographic criteria occurred after the induction of general anesthesia and with phenylephrine. Quantitative transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of MR using effective orifice area and vena contracta, and the use of phenylephrine challenge, were useful to avoid underestimating MR severity in the operating department.

  19. Evaluation of Ares-I Control System Robustness to Uncertain Aerodynamics and Flex Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; VanTassel, Chris; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Spanos, Pol

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of robust control theory to evaluate robustness of the Ares-I control systems. Three techniques for estimating upper and lower bounds of uncertain parameters which yield stable closed-loop response are used here: (1) Monte Carlo analysis, (2) mu analysis, and (3) characteristic frequency response analysis. All three methods are used to evaluate stability envelopes of the Ares-I control systems with uncertain aerodynamics and flex dynamics. The results show that characteristic frequency response analysis is the most effective of these methods for assessing robustness.

  20. Monitoring the fatigue state of steel by evaluating the quasistatic and dynamic magnetic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenbossche, Lode; Dupre, Luc; Melkebeek, Jan

    2005-05-15

    For the evaluation of fatigue damage progression the application of quasistatic and dynamic magnetic measurements combined with the Preisach hysteresis model and the statistical loss theory is investigated. Throughout the fatigue lifetime hysteresis and excess magnetic behavior, both known to be sensitive to microstructural variations, are monitored. The magnetic evaluation results for fatigue tests executed on two steels depend on their initial microstructure and chemical composition. In addition the effect of low stress amplitude cyclic loading on the magnetic properties of electrical steel is investigated: after 1000 cycles the excess losses are slightly decreased, while hysteresis properties stay invariant.

  1. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis: Evaluation of Model-Based Pulmonary Perfusion Analysis With Pyramid Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Image Analysis aims to develop model-based computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected with the Dynamic Pulmonary Imaging technique 18,5,17,6. We have proposed and evaluated a multiresolutional method with an explicit ventilation model based on pyramid images for ventilation analysis. We have further extended the method for ventilation analysis to pulmonary perfusion. This paper focuses on the clinical evaluation of our method for

  2. From Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry to in Vivo Evaluation of Reversible and Irreversible Myeloperoxidase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Soubhye, Jalal; Gelbcke, Michel; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Dufrasne, François; Boufadi, Mokhtaria Yasmina; Nève, Jean; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Karim; Meyer, Franck

    2017-02-09

    The implementation of dynamic combinatorial libraries allowed the determination of highly active reversible and irreversible inhibitors of myeloperoxidase (MPO) at the nanomolar level. Docking experiments highlighted the interaction between the most active ligands and MPO, and further kinetic studies defined the mode of inhibition of these compounds. Finally, in vivo evaluation showed that one dose of irreversible inhibitors is able to suppress the activity of MPO after inducing inflammation.

  3. Improved Healing of Large, Osseous, Segmental Defects by Reverse Dynamization: Evaluation in a Sheep Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Reverse Dynamization: Evaluation in a Sheep Model 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0324 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher H. Evans...initiated. One such fixator has been tested on a cadaveric sheep tibia. In the unlocked, loose position, the axial stiffness of the tibia and fixator...in due course. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Sheep ; tibia; external fixator; axial stiffness 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  4. Frequency Diversity for Improving Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    xiii List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi I. Introduction ...Improving Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging I. Introduction 1.1 Research Motivation Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an active radio frequency (RF) imaging...PFA) begins with introduction of the linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform. LFM is the most common waveform used in general radar applications [25

  5. Fraunhofer Diffraction Patterns from Apertures Illuminated with Nonparallel Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingsporn, Paul E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses several aspects of Fraunhofer diffraction patterns from apertures illuminated by diverging light. Develops a generalization to apertures of arbitrary shape which shows that the sizes of the pattern are related by a simple scale factor. Uses the Abbe theory of image formation by diffraction to discuss the intensity of illumination of the…

  6. Phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling: Conductors penetrating an aperture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.B.; King, R.J.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coupling effects of penetrating conductors through free-standing apertures. This penetrating conductor and aperture arrangement are referred to as a modified aperture. A penetrating conductor is defined here to be a thin, single wire bent twice at 90 angles. The wire was inserted through a rectangular aperture in a metal wall. Vertical segments on both sides of the wall coupled energy from one region to the other. Energy was incident upon the modified aperture from what is referred to as the exterior region. The amount of coupling was measured by a D sensor on the other (interior) side of the wall. This configuration of an aperture in a metal wall was used as opposed to an aperture in a cavity in order to simplify the interpretation of resulting data. The added complexity of multiple cavity resonances was therefore eliminated. Determining the effects of penetrating conductors on aperture coupling is one of several topics being investigated as part of on-going research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the phenomenology of electromagnetic coupling. These phenomenology studies are concerned with the vulnerability of electronic systems to high intensity electromagnetic fields. The investigation is relevant to high altitude EMP (HEMP), enhanced HEMP (EHEMP), and high power microwave (HPM) coupling.

  7. Possible Influence of Aperture Heating on VIRGO Radiometry on SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, C.

    2010-12-01

    The early increase, first observed by the PMO6V radiometer on VIRGO/SOHO, indicates that aperture heating may be a problem for solar radiometry, not only in space, but also on ground. Heating of the precision aperture in front of the receiver cavity increases the irradiance in proportion to the incoming solar radiation and the emitted radiation from the aperture is added to the irradiance measured. Similar effects are also observed in ACRIMs and the HF on NIMBUS-7 and seem to be inherent to radiometers with the precision aperture directly in front of the cavity and the view limiting one at some distance in front. With this arrangement the precision aperture is illuminated during the measurement phase only and the measured irradiance increased accordingly. In TIM on SORCE the precision aperture is in front of the radiometer and the cavity entrance area determines the view angle. This avoids the influence of aperture heating and it may explain - at least part of - the fact that TIM measures lower values than the classical radiometers. Experimentally this effect is very difficult to determine directly and the result of thermal-model calculations and air-vacuum ratios with different amount of aperture heating are used to learn more about the magnitude of this effect. An estimate of this effect for the PMO6V/VIRGO instrument is presented.

  8. The sonar aperture and its neural representation in bats.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Melina; Warmbold, Alexander; Hoffmann, Susanne; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2011-10-26

    As opposed to visual imaging, biosonar imaging of spatial object properties represents a challenge for the auditory system because its sensory epithelium is not arranged along space axes. For echolocating bats, object width is encoded by the amplitude of its echo (echo intensity) but also by the naturally covarying spread of angles of incidence from which the echoes impinge on the bat's ears (sonar aperture). It is unclear whether bats use the echo intensity and/or the sonar aperture to estimate an object's width. We addressed this question in a combined psychophysical and electrophysiological approach. In three virtual-object playback experiments, bats of the species Phyllostomus discolor had to discriminate simple reflections of their own echolocation calls differing in echo intensity, sonar aperture, or both. Discrimination performance for objects with physically correct covariation of sonar aperture and echo intensity ("object width") did not differ from discrimination performances when only the sonar aperture was varied. Thus, the bats were able to detect changes in object width in the absence of intensity cues. The psychophysical results are reflected in the responses of a population of units in the auditory midbrain and cortex that responded strongest to echoes from objects with a specific sonar aperture, regardless of variations in echo intensity. Neurometric functions obtained from cortical units encoding the sonar aperture are sufficient to explain the behavioral performance of the bats. These current data show that the sonar aperture is a behaviorally relevant and reliably encoded cue for object size in bat sonar.

  9. Wave-Coherence Measurements Using Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    3473-3482, 1997. PUBLICATIONS Walker, D.T., Lyzenga, D.R. & Renouf , M.A. Characterizing wave coherence with satellite-based synthetic aperture radar...Res. (2000). Walker, D.T., Lyzenga, D.R. & Renouf , M.A. Characterizing wave coherence with satellite-based synthetic aperture radar. Proceedings of

  10. Synthetic aperture design for increased SAR image rate

    SciTech Connect

    Bielek, Timothy P.; Thompson, Douglas G.; Walker, Bruce C.

    2009-03-03

    High resolution SAR images of a target scene at near video rates can be produced by using overlapped, but nevertheless, full-size synthetic apertures. The SAR images, which respectively correspond to the apertures, can be analyzed in sequence to permit detection of movement in the target scene.

  11. Efficient and accurate evaluation of potential energy matrix elements for quantum dynamics using Gaussian process regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alborzpour, Jonathan P.; Tew, David P.; Habershon, Scott

    2016-11-01

    Solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using a linear combination of basis functions, such as Gaussian wavepackets (GWPs), requires costly evaluation of integrals over the entire potential energy surface (PES) of the system. The standard approach, motivated by computational tractability for direct dynamics, is to approximate the PES with a second order Taylor expansion, for example centred at each GWP. In this article, we propose an alternative method for approximating PES matrix elements based on PES interpolation using Gaussian process regression (GPR). Our GPR scheme requires only single-point evaluations of the PES at a limited number of configurations in each time-step; the necessity of performing often-expensive evaluations of the Hessian matrix is completely avoided. In applications to 2-, 5-, and 10-dimensional benchmark models describing a tunnelling coordinate coupled non-linearly to a set of harmonic oscillators, we find that our GPR method results in PES matrix elements for which the average error is, in the best case, two orders-of-magnitude smaller and, in the worst case, directly comparable to that determined by any other Taylor expansion method, without requiring additional PES evaluations or Hessian matrices. Given the computational simplicity of GPR, as well as the opportunities for further refinement of the procedure highlighted herein, we argue that our GPR methodology should replace methods for evaluating PES matrix elements using Taylor expansions in quantum dynamics simulations.

  12. Mean Performance Optimization of an Orbiting Distributed Aperture by Warped Aperture Image Plane Comparisons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    7-6 v Page 7.4 Viewing Geometry Effects on Io(ξ, η) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10 7.5 Optimized Formations for Inertial... Effects of Each Aligning Rotation on Receiver Loci . . . . . . . . . 7-11 7.6. Effects of Each Aligning Rotation on Io(ξ, η)? . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11...this solution to include the effects of non-ideal viewing geometries. xvi MEAN PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF AN ORBITING DISTRIBUTED APERTURE BY WARPED

  13. Biomechanical model for evaluation of pediatric upper extremity joint dynamics during wheelchair mobility.

    PubMed

    Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Slavens, Brooke A; Wang, Mei; Vogel, Lawrence C; Smith, Peter A; Harris, Gerald F

    2014-01-03

    Pediatric manual wheelchair users (MWU) require high joint demands on their upper extremity (UE) during wheelchair mobility, leading them to be at risk of developing pain and pathology. Studies have examined UE biomechanics during wheelchair mobility in the adult population; however, current methods for evaluating UE joint dynamics of pediatric MWU are limited. An inverse dynamics model is proposed to characterize three-dimensional UE joint kinematics and kinetics during pediatric wheelchair mobility using a SmartWheel instrumented handrim system. The bilateral model comprises thorax, clavicle, scapula, upper arm, forearm, and hand segments and includes the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumeral, elbow and wrist joints. A single 17 year-old male with a C7 spinal cord injury (SCI) was evaluated while propelling his wheelchair across a 15-meter walkway. The subject exhibited wrist extension angles up to 60°, large elbow ranges of motion and peak glenohumeral joint forces up to 10% body weight. Statistically significant asymmetry of the wrist, elbow, glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints was detected by the model. As demonstrated, the custom bilateral UE pediatric model may provide considerable quantitative insight into UE joint dynamics to improve wheelchair prescription, training, rehabilitation and long-term care of children with orthopedic disabilities. Further research is warranted to evaluate pediatric wheelchair mobility in a larger population of children with SCI to investigate correlations to pain, function and transitional changes to adulthood.

  14. Dynamic systems and the role of evaluation: The case of the Green Communities project.

    PubMed

    Anzoise, Valentina; Sardo, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    The crucial role evaluation can play in the co-development of project design and its implementation will be addressed through the analysis of a case study, the Green Communities (GC) project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Environment within the EU Interregional Operational Program (2007-2013) "Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency". The project's broader goals included an attempt to trigger a change in Italian local development strategies, especially for mountain and inland areas, which would be tailored to the real needs of communities, and based on a sustainable exploitation and management of the territorial assets. The goal was not achieved, and this paper addresses the issues of how GC could have been more effective in fostering a vision of change, and which design adaptations and evaluation procedures would have allowed the project to better cope with the unexpected consequences and resistances it encountered. The conclusions drawn are that projects should be conceived, designed and carried out as dynamic systems, inclusive of a dynamic and engaged evaluation enabling the generation of feedbacks loops, iteratively interpreting the narratives and dynamics unfolding within the project, and actively monitoring the potential of various relationships among project participants for generating positive social change.

  15. Coded Aperture Imaging for Fluorescent X-rays-Biomedical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Haboub, Abdel; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Parkinson, Dilworth

    2013-06-01

    Employing a coded aperture pattern in front of a charge couple device pixilated detector (CCD) allows for imaging of fluorescent x-rays (6-25KeV) being emitted from samples irradiated with x-rays. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays and allow for a large Numerical Aperture x- ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop the self-supported coded aperture pattern of the Non Two Holes Touching (NTHT) pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the encoded pattern recorded were developed by means of modeling and confirmed by experiments. Samples were irradiated by monochromatic synchrotron x-ray radiation, and fluorescent x-rays from several different test metal samples were imaged through the newly developed coded aperture imaging system. By choice of the exciting energy the different metals were speciated.

  16. Microfabricated high-bandpass foucault aperture for electron microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Glaeser, Robert; Cambie, Rossana; Jin, Jian

    2014-08-26

    A variant of the Foucault (knife-edge) aperture is disclosed that is designed to provide single-sideband (SSB) contrast at low spatial frequencies but retain conventional double-sideband (DSB) contrast at high spatial frequencies in transmission electron microscopy. The aperture includes a plate with an inner open area, a support extending from the plate at an edge of the open area, a half-circle feature mounted on the support and located at the center of the aperture open area. The radius of the half-circle portion of reciprocal space that is blocked by the aperture can be varied to suit the needs of electron microscopy investigation. The aperture is fabricated from conductive material which is preferably non-oxidizing, such as gold, for example.

  17. Measurements of Aperture Averaging on Bit-Error-Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Andrews, Larry C.; Phillips, Ronald L.; Nelson, Richard A.; Ferrell, Bobby A.; Borbath, Michael R.; Galus, Darren J.; Chin, Peter G.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Burdge, Geoffrey L.; Wayne, David; Pescatore, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We report on measurements made at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at Kennedy Space Center of receiver aperture averaging effects on a propagating optical Gaussian beam wave over a propagation path of 1,000 in. A commercially available instrument with both transmit and receive apertures was used to transmit a modulated laser beam operating at 1550 nm through a transmit aperture of 2.54 cm. An identical model of the same instrument was used as a receiver with a single aperture that was varied in size up to 20 cm to measure the effect of receiver aperture averaging on Bit Error Rate. Simultaneous measurements were also made with a scintillometer instrument and local weather station instruments to characterize atmospheric conditions along the propagation path during the experiments.

  18. Modal wavefront estimation from its slopes by numerical orthogonal transformation method over general shaped aperture.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jingfei; Wang, Wei; Gao, Zhishan; Liu, Zhiying; Wang, Shuai; Benítez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C; Yuan, Qun

    2015-10-05

    Wavefront estimation from the slope-based sensing metrologies zis important in modern optical testing. A numerical orthogonal transformation method is proposed for deriving the numerical orthogonal gradient polynomials as numerical orthogonal basis functions for directly fitting the measured slope data and then converting to the wavefront in a straightforward way in the modal approach. The presented method can be employed in the wavefront estimation from its slopes over the general shaped aperture. Moreover, the numerical orthogonal transformation method could be applied to the wavefront estimation from its slope measurements over the dynamic varying aperture. The performance of the numerical orthogonal transformation method is discussed, demonstrated and verified by the examples. They indicate that the presented method is valid, accurate and easily implemented for wavefront estimation from its slopes.

  19. Characterization of fracture aperture for groundwater flow and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, A.; Sato, H.; Tetsu, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents experiments and numerical analyses of flow and transport carried out on natural fractures and transparent replica of fractures. The purpose of this study was to improve the understanding of the role of heterogeneous aperture patterns on channelization of groundwater flow and dispersion in solute transport. The research proceeded as follows: First, a precision plane grinder was applied perpendicular to the fracture plane to characterize the aperture distribution on a natural fracture with 1 mm of increment size. Although both time and labor were intensive, this approach provided a detailed, three dimensional picture of the pattern of fracture aperture. This information was analyzed to provide quantitative measures for the fracture aperture distribution, including JRC (Joint Roughness Coefficient) and fracture contact area ratio. These parameters were used to develop numerical models with corresponding synthetic aperture patterns. The transparent fracture replica and numerical models were then used to study how transport is affected by the aperture spatial pattern. In the transparent replica, transmitted light intensity measured by a CCD camera was used to image channeling and dispersion due to the fracture aperture spatial pattern. The CCD image data was analyzed to obtain the quantitative fracture aperture and tracer concentration data according to Lambert-Beer's law. The experimental results were analyzed using the numerical models. Comparison of the numerical models to the transparent replica provided information about the nature of channeling and dispersion due to aperture spatial patterns. These results support to develop a methodology for defining representative fracture aperture of a simplified parallel fracture model for flow and transport in heterogeneous fractures for contaminant transport analysis.

  20. 47 CFR 25.134 - Licensing provisions for Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... network using a code division multiple access (CDMA) technique, N is the maximum number of co-frequency... Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal (CSAT) networks. 25.134 Section 25.134 Telecommunication...) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal (CSAT) networks. (a)(1) [Reserved] (2) Large Networks of...

  1. Development and evaluation of the herd dynamic milk model with focus on the individual cow component.

    PubMed

    Ruelle, E; Delaby, L; Wallace, M; Shalloo, L

    2016-12-01

    The herd dynamic milk (HDM) model is a dynamic model capable of simulating the performance of individual dairy animals (from birth to death), with a daily time step. Within this study, the HDM model is described and evaluated in relation to milk production, body condition score (BCS) and BCS change throughout lactation by comparing model simulations against data from published experimental studies. The model's response to variation in genetic potential, herbage allowance and concentrate supplementation was tested in a sensitivity analysis. Data from experiments in Ireland and France over a 3-year period (2009-11) were used to complete the evaluation. The aim of the Irish experiment was to determine the impact of different stocking rates (SRs) (SR1: 3.28 cow/ha, SR2: 2.51 cow/ha) on key physical, biological and economic performance. The aim of the French experiment was to evaluate over a prolonged time period, the ability of two breeds of dairy cows (Holstein and Normande) to produce and to reproduce under two feeding strategies (high level and low level) in the context of compact calving. The model evaluation was conducted at the herd level with separate evaluations for the primiparous and multiparous cows. The evaluation included the two extreme SRs for the Irish experiment, and an evaluation at the overall herd and individual animal level for the different breeds and feeding levels for the French data. The comparison of simulation and experimental data for all scenarios resulted in a relative prediction error, which was consistently <15% across experiments for weekly milk production and BCS. In relation to BCS, the highest root mean square error was 0.27 points of BCS, which arose for Holstein cows in the low feeding group in late lactation. The model responded in a realistic fashion to variation in genetic potential for milk production, herbage allowance and concentrate supplementation.

  2. Coordinating Multi-Rover Systems: Evaluation Functions for Dynamic and Noisy Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the evolution of control strategies for a collective: a set of entities that collectively strives to maximize a global evaluation function that rates the performance of the full system. Directly addressing such problems by having a population of collectives and applying the evolutionary algorithm to that population is appealing, but the search space is prohibitively large in most cases. Instead, we focus on evolving control policies for each member of the collective. The fundamental issue in this approach is how to create an evaluation function for each member of the collective that is both aligned with the global evaluation function and is sensitive to the fitness changes of the member, while relatively insensitive to the fitness changes of other members. We show how to construct evaluation functions in dynamic, noisy and communication-limited collective environments. On a rover coordination problem, a control policy evolved using aligned and member-sensitive evaluations outperfoms global evaluation methods by up to 400%. More notably, in the presence of a larger number of rovers or rovers with noisy and communication limited sensors, the proposed method outperforms global evaluation by a higher percentage than in noise-free conditions with a small number of rovers.

  3. End-to-end assessment of a large aperture segmented ultraviolet optical infrared (UVOIR) telescope architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield exo-earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an exo-earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and exo-earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling these missions.

  4. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Oliver; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and Exo-Earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling it.

  5. Evaluation of a CMIP5 derived dynamical global wind wave climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemer, Mark A.; Trenham, Claire E.

    2016-07-01

    Much effort has gone into evaluating the skill of General Circulation Models (GCMs) for 'standard' climate variables such as surface (air and/or sea) temperature, or precipitation. Whether climate model skill to simulate standard variables translates to the performance of dynamical GCM forced wind-wave simulations is yet to be established. We assess an ensemble of historical dynamical wave climate simulations whereby surface winds taken from GCMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) are used to force a spectral wave model. The GCMs used include 8 CMIP5 models and two dynamically downscaled CMIP3 models. The climatological properties of key integrated wave parameters (significant wave height, maximum wave height, mean wave period and direction) are evaluated, using two independent methods, relative to three historical wave hindcast/reanalysis datasets over 13 areas of the global ocean. We identify that high performance of GCMs for 'standard' climate variables does not imply high performance for GCM forced wave simulations. We also identify there is little to no benefit in choosing a higher resolution CMIP5 GCM (with resolution of ∼1.4°) over a lower resolution GCM (∼2.8°) to improve skill of GCM forced dynamical wave simulations. With the conscious push towards developing projections of waves and storm surges to aid assessments of possible climate driven impacts to coastal communities, we stress the need to evaluate the performance of a GCM for the marine meteorological climate independently of the performance of the GCM for the 'standard' climate variables.

  6. Dynamic finite element knee simulation for evaluation of knee replacement mechanics.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Mark A; Clary, Chadd W; Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Deacy, James S; Maletsky, Lorin P; Rullkoetter, Paul J

    2012-02-02

    In vitro pre-clinical testing of total knee replacement (TKR) devices is a necessary step in the evaluation of new implant designs. Whole joint knee simulators, like the Kansas knee simulator (KKS), provide a controlled and repeatable loading environment for comparative evaluation of component designs or surgical alignment under dynamic conditions. Experimental testing, however, is time and cost prohibitive for design-phase evaluation of tens or hundreds of design variations. Experimentally-verified computational models provide an efficient platform for analysis of multiple components, sizes, and alignment conditions. The purpose of the current study was to develop and verify a computational model of a dynamic, whole joint knee simulator. Experimental internal-external and valgus-varus laxity tests, followed by dynamic deep knee bend and gait simulations in the KKS were performed on three cadaveric specimens. Specimen-specific finite element (FE) models of posterior-stabilized TKR were created from magnetic resonance images and CAD geometry. The laxity data was used to optimize mechanical properties of tibiofemoral soft-tissue structures on a specimen-specific basis. Each specimen was subsequently analyzed in a computational model of the experimental KKS, simulating both dynamic activities. The computational model represented all joints and actuators in the experimental setup, including a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to drive quadriceps actuation. The computational model was verified against six degree-of-freedom patellofemoral (PF) and tibiofemoral (TF) kinematics and actuator loading during both deep knee bend and gait activities, with good agreement in trends and magnitudes between model predictions and experimental kinematics; differences were less than 1.8 mm and 2.2° for PF and TF translations and rotations. The whole joint FE simulator described in this study can be applied to investigate a wide range of clinical and research questions.

  7. ThermoData Engine (TDE): software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept. 3. Binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D; Kazakov, Andrei F; Muzny, Chris D; Frenkel, Michael

    2009-02-01

    ThermoData Engine (TDE) is the first full-scale software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept, as reported recently in this journal. The present paper describes the first application of this concept to the evaluation of thermophysical properties for binary chemical systems. Five activity-coefficient models have been implemented for representation of phase-equilibrium data (vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid equilibrium): NRTL, UNIQUAC, Van Laar, Margules/Redlich-Kister, and Wilson. Implementation of these models in TDE is fully described. Properties modeled individually are densities, surface tensions, critical temperatures, critical pressures, excess enthalpies, and the transport properties-viscosity and thermal conductivity. Extensions to the class structure of the program are described with emphasis on special features allowing close linkage between mixture and pure-component properties required for implementation of the models. Details of gas-phase models used in conjunction with the activity-coefficient models are shown. Initial implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept for reactions is demonstrated with evaluation of enthalpies of formation for compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Directions for future enhancements are outlined.

  8. Integrated Stochastic Evaluation of Flood and Vegetation Dynamics in Riverine Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Kimura, R.

    2014-12-01

    Areal expansion of trees on gravel beds and sand bars has been a serious problem for river management in Japan. From the viewpoints of ecological restoration and flood control, it would be necessary to accurately predict the vegetation dynamics for a long period of time. This presentation tries to evaluate both vegetation overgrowth tendency and flood protection safety in an integrated manner for several vegetated channels in Kako River, Japan. The predominant tree species in Kako River are willows and bamboos. The evaluation employs a stochastic process model, which has been developed for statistically evaluating flow and vegetation status in a river course through the Monte Carlo simulation. The model for vegetation dynamics includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by flood impacts, and infant tree invasion. Through the Monte Carlo simulation for several cross sections in Kako River, responses of the vegetated channels are stochastically evaluated in terms of the changes of discharge magnitude and channel geomorphology. The result shows that the river channels with high flood protection priority are extracted from the several channel sections with the corresponding vegetation status. The present investigation suggests that the stochastic analysis could be one of the powerful diagnostic methods for river management.

  9. Fracture-aperture alteration induced by calcite precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T.; Detwiler, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation significantly alters the transport properties of fractured rock. Chemical solubility gradients that favor precipitation induce mineral growth, which decreases the local aperture and alters preferential flow paths. Understanding the resulting development of spatial heterogeneities is necessary to predict the evolution of transport properties in the subsurface. We present experimental results that quantify the relationship between mineral precipitation and aperture alteration in a transparent analog fracture, 7.62cm x 7.62cm, with a uniform aperture of ~200 μm. Prior to flow experiments, a pump circulated a super-saturated calcite solution over the bottom glass, coating the glass surface with calcite. This method of seeding resulted in clusters of calcite crystals with large reactive surface area and provided micro-scale variability in the aperture field. A continuous flow syringe pump injected a reactive fluid into the fracture at 0.5 ml/min. The fluid was a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, 0.02M) and calcium chloride (CaCl2 0.0004M) with a saturation index, Ω, of 8.51 with respect to calcite. A strobed LED panel backlit the fracture and a high-resolution CCD camera monitored changes in transmitted light intensity. Light transmission techniques provided a quantitative measurement of fracture aperture over the flow field. Results from these preliminary experiments showed growth near the inlet of the fracture, with decreasing precipitation rates in the flow direction. Over a period of two weeks, the fracture aperture decreased by 17% within the first 4mm of the inlet. Newly precipitated calcite bridged individual crystal clusters and smoothed the reacting surface. This observation is an interesting contradiction to the expectation of surface roughening induced by mineral growth. Additionally, the aperture decreased uniformly across the width of the fracture due to the initial aperture distribution. Future experiments of precipitation

  10. Probabilistic Evaluation of Anthropogenic Regulations In a Vegetated River Channel Using a Vegetation Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation overgrowth in fluvial floodplains, gravel beds, and sand bars has been a serious engineering problem for riparian management in Japan. From the viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to predict the vegetation dynamics accurately for long-term duration. In this research, we have developed a stochastic model for predicting the vegetation dynamics in fluvial floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four components: (i) long-term stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with floodplain vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography, and (iv) vegetation dynamics on floodplains. In the vegetation dynamics model, the flood discharge (i) is stochastically simulated using a filtered Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The component for vegetation dynamics (iv) includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by floods, and infant tree recruitment. Vegetation condition has been observed mainly before and after floods since 2008 at a field site located between 23-24 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. The Kako River has the catchment area of 1,730 km2 and the main channel length of 96 km. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth sites in the Kako River floodplains. The predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In the field survey, the position, trunk diameter and height of each tree as well as the riverbed materials were measured after several flood events to investigate their impacts on the floodplain vegetation community. This presentation tries to examine effects of anthropogenic river regulations, i.e., thinning and cutting-down, in the vegetated channel in Kako River by using the vegetation dynamics model. Sensitivity of both the flood water level and the vegetation status in the channel is statistically evaluated in terms of the different cutting

  11. Information extraction and transmission techniques for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, V. S.; Yurovsky, L.; Watson, E.; Townsend, K.; Gardner, S.; Boberg, D.; Watson, J.; Minden, G. J.; Shanmugan, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    Information extraction and transmission techniques for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery were investigated. Four interrelated problems were addressed. An optimal tonal SAR image classification algorithm was developed and evaluated. A data compression technique was developed for SAR imagery which is simple and provides a 5:1 compression with acceptable image quality. An optimal textural edge detector was developed. Several SAR image enhancement algorithms have been proposed. The effectiveness of each algorithm was compared quantitatively.

  12. Adaptive Full Aperture Wavefront Sensor Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, William G.

    1997-01-01

    This grant and the work described was in support of a Seven Segment Demonstrator (SSD) and review of wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Program. A team developed the SSD concept. For completeness, some of the information included in this report has also been included in the final report of a follow-on contract (H-27657D) entitled "Construction of Prototype Lightweight Mirrors". The original purpose of this GTRI study was to investigate how various wavefront sensing techniques might be most effectively employed with large (greater than 10 meter) aperture space based telescopes used for commercial and scientific purposes. However, due to changes in the scope of the work performed on this grant and in light of the initial studies completed for the NGST program, only a portion of this report addresses wavefront sensing techniques. The wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the NGST were summarized in proposals and briefing materials developed by three study teams including NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, TRW, and Lockheed-Martin. In this report, GTRI reviews these approaches and makes recommendations concerning the approaches. The objectives of the SSD were to demonstrate functionality and performance of a seven segment prototype array of hexagonal mirrors and supporting electromechanical components which address design issues critical to space optics deployed in large space based telescopes for astronomy and for optics used in spaced based optical communications systems. The SSD was intended to demonstrate technologies which can support the following capabilities: Transportation in dense packaging to existing launcher payload envelopes, then deployable on orbit to form a space telescope with large aperture. Provide very large (greater than 10 meters) primary reflectors of low mass and cost. Demonstrate the capability to form a segmented primary or

  13. Traffic Management Coordinator Evaluation of the Dynamic Weather Routes Concept and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Chester

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a weather-avoidance system for airline dispatchers and FAA traffic managers that continually searches for and advises the user of more efficient routes around convective weather. NASA and American Airlines (AA) have been conducting an operational trial of DWR since July 17, 2012. The objective of this evaluation is to assess DWR from a traffic management coordinator (TMC) perspective, using recently retired TMCs and actual DWR reroutes advisories that were rated acceptable by AA during the operational trial. Results from the evaluation showed that the primary reasons for a TMC to modify or reject airline reroute requests were related to airspace configuration. Approximately 80 percent of the reroutes evaluated required some coordination before implementation. Analysis showed TMCs approved 62 percent of the requested DWR reroutes, resulting in 57 percent of the total requested DWR time savings.

  14. High dynamic range hyperspectral imaging for camouflage performance test and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, D.; Feenan, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of high dynamic range processing applied to the specific technique of hyper-spectral imaging with linescan spectrometers. The technique provides an improvement in signal to noise for reflectance estimation. This is demonstrated for field measurements of rural imagery collected from a ground-based linescan spectrometer of rural scenes. Once fully developed, the specific application is expected to improve the colour estimation approaches and consequently the test and evaluation accuracy of camouflage performance tests. Data are presented on both field and laboratory experiments that have been used to evaluate the improvements granted by the adoption of high dynamic range data acquisition in the field of hyperspectral imaging. High dynamic ranging imaging is well suited to the hyperspectral domain due to the large variation in solar irradiance across the visible and short wave infra-red (SWIR) spectrum coupled with the wavelength dependence of the nominal silicon detector response. Under field measurement conditions it is generally impractical to provide artificial illumination; consequently, an adaptation of the hyperspectral imaging and re ectance estimation process has been developed to accommodate the solar spectrum. This is shown to improve the signal to noise ratio for the re ectance estimation process of scene materials in the 400-500 nm and 700-900 nm regions.

  15. A novel three-dimensional smile analysis based on dynamic evaluation of facial curve contour.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Lin, Han; Lin, Qiuping; Zhang, Jinxin; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Yao; Zhao, Zhi; Lv, Jiahong; Lee, Mln Kyeong; Xu, Yue

    2016-02-25

    The influence of three-dimensional facial contour and dynamic evaluation decoding on factors of smile esthetics is essential for facial beauty improvement. However, the kinematic features of the facial smile contour and the contribution from the soft tissue and underlying skeleton are uncharted. Here, the cheekbone-maxilla contour and nasolabial fold were combined into a "smile contour" delineating the overall facial topography emerges prominently in smiling. We screened out the stable and unstable points on the smile contour using facial motion capture and curve fitting, before analyzing the correlation between soft tissue coordinates and hard tissue counterparts of the screened points. Our finding suggests that the mouth corner region was the most mobile area characterizing smile expression, while the other areas remained relatively stable. Therefore, the perioral area should be evaluated dynamically while the static assessment outcome of other parts of the smile contour contribute partially to their dynamic esthetics. Moreover, different from the end piece, morphologies of the zygomatic area and the superior part of the nasolabial crease were determined largely by the skeleton in rest, implying the latter can be altered by orthopedic or orthodontic correction and the former better improved by cosmetic procedures to improve the beauty of smile.

  16. Evaluation of dynamic coastal response to sea-level rise modifies inundation likelihood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lentz, Erika E.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Horton, Radley M.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments1, 2, making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making3. We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30 × 30 m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 km2 of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.

  17. A novel three-dimensional smile analysis based on dynamic evaluation of facial curve contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; Lin, Han; Lin, Qiuping; Zhang, Jinxin; Zhu, Ping; Lu, Yao; Zhao, Zhi; Lv, Jiahong; Lee, Mln Kyeong; Xu, Yue

    2016-02-01

    The influence of three-dimensional facial contour and dynamic evaluation decoding on factors of smile esthetics is essential for facial beauty improvement. However, the kinematic features of the facial smile contour and the contribution from the soft tissue and underlying skeleton are uncharted. Here, the cheekbone-maxilla contour and nasolabial fold were combined into a “smile contour” delineating the overall facial topography emerges prominently in smiling. We screened out the stable and unstable points on the smile contour using facial motion capture and curve fitting, before analyzing the correlation between soft tissue coordinates and hard tissue counterparts of the screened points. Our finding suggests that the mouth corner region was the most mobile area characterizing smile expression, while the other areas remained relatively stable. Therefore, the perioral area should be evaluated dynamically while the static assessment outcome of other parts of the smile contour contribute partially to their dynamic esthetics. Moreover, different from the end piece, morphologies of the zygomatic area and the superior part of the nasolabial crease were determined largely by the skeleton in rest, implying the latter can be altered by orthopedic or orthodontic correction and the former better improved by cosmetic procedures to improve the beauty of smile.

  18. Evaluation of Dynamic Coastal Response to Sea-level Rise Modifies Inundation Likelihood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, Erika E.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Horton, Radley M.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments, making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making. We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30x30m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 sq km of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.

  19. Evaluation of vestibular and dynamic visual acuity in adults with congenital deafness.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yukinori; Kaga, Kimitaka; Takekoshi, Hideki; Sakuraba, Keisyoku

    2012-10-01

    This study compared vestibular and dynamic visual acuity in 19 adult athletes with deafness participating in Deaflympics to those of 25 young adults with normal hearing. Balance capability was evaluated using a one-leg standing test with eyes open and stabilometry. Caloric tests and vestibular evoked myogenic potential tests were conducted to test vestibular function. Visual function was evaluated using a dynamic visual acuity test. No significant difference was found between results of the one-leg standing test with eyes open and stabilometry with eyes open. Athletes with deafness performed better than normal hearing young adults with eyes closed. The caloric test indicated hypofunction of the lateral semicircular canal function in 5 of the 19 athletes with deafness. Balance-function tests showed normal results for both groups. The results for athletes with deafness on visual acuity were better than those of controls. Young Deaflympics athletes with deafness can adjust their balance function as well as or better than normal hearing young adults using dynamic visual acuity.

  20. Evaluation of static and dynamic perfusion cardiac computed tomography for quantitation and classification tasks.

    PubMed

    Bindschadler, Michael; Modgil, Dimple; Branch, Kelley R; La Riviere, Patrick J; Alessio, Adam M

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) acquisitions for perfusion assessment can be performed in a dynamic or static mode. Either method may be used for a variety of clinical tasks, including (1) stratifying patients into categories of ischemia and (2) using a quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) estimate to evaluate disease severity. In this simulation study, we compare method performance on these classification and quantification tasks for matched radiation dose levels and for different flow states, patient sizes, and injected contrast levels. Under conditions simulated, the dynamic method has low bias in MBF estimates (0 to [Formula: see text]) compared to linearly interpreted static assessment (0.45 to [Formula: see text]), making it more suitable for quantitative estimation. At matched radiation dose levels, receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the static method, with its high bias but generally lower variance, had superior performance ([Formula: see text]) in stratifying patients, especially for larger patients and lower contrast doses [area under the curve [Formula: see text] to 96 versus 0.86]. We also demonstrate that static assessment with a correctly tuned exponential relationship between the apparent CT number and MBF has superior quantification performance to static assessment with a linear relationship and to dynamic assessment. However, tuning the exponential relationship to the patient and scan characteristics will likely prove challenging. This study demonstrates that the selection and optimization of static or dynamic acquisition modes should depend on the specific clinical task.

  1. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors.

    PubMed

    McLean, Thomas D; Moore, Murray E; Justus, Alan L; Hudston, Jonathan A; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. The Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch's minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The measured alpha activity increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. Data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source has been used to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  2. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Thomas D.; Moore, Murray E.; Justus, Alan L.; Hudston, Jonathan A.; Barbé, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. Furthermore, the Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached to the watch’s minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The alpha activity we measured increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. We also used data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.

  3. Dynamic Radioactive Source for Evaluating and Demonstrating Time-dependent Performance of Continuous Air Monitors

    DOE PAGES

    McLean, Thomas D.; Moore, Murray E.; Justus, Alan L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of continuous air monitors in the presence of a plutonium aerosol is time intensive, expensive, and requires a specialized facility. The Radiation Protection Services Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a Dynamic Radioactive Source, intended to replace plutonium aerosol challenge testing. Furthermore, the Dynamic Radioactive Source is small enough to be inserted into the sampler filter chamber of a typical continuous air monitor. Time-dependent radioactivity is introduced from electroplated sources for real-time testing of a continuous air monitor where a mechanical wristwatch motor rotates a mask above an alpha-emitting electroplated disk source. The mask is attached tomore » the watch’s minute hand, and as it rotates, more of the underlying source is revealed. The alpha activity we measured increases with time, simulating the arrival of airborne radioactive particulates at the air sampler inlet. The Dynamic Radioactive Source allows the temporal behavior of puff and chronic release conditions to be mimicked without the need for radioactive aerosols. The new system is configurable to different continuous air monitor designs and provides an in-house testing capability (benchtop compatible). It is a repeatable and reusable system and does not contaminate the tested air monitor. Test benefits include direct user control, realistic (plutonium) aerosol spectra, and iterative development of continuous air monitor alarm algorithms. We also used data obtained using the Dynamic Radioactive Source to elucidate alarm algorithms and to compare the response time of two commercial continuous air monitors.« less

  4. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in the evaluation of airway dynamics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabari, Margit V.; Kelly, Vanessa J.; Applegate, Matthew B.; Chee, Chunmin; Tan, Khay M.; Hariri, Lida P.; Harris, R. Scott; Winkler, Tilo; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease resulting in periodic attacks of coughing and wheezing due to temporarily constricted and clogged airways. The pathophysiology of asthma and the process of airway narrowing are not completely understood. Appropriate in vivo imaging modality with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to dynamically assess the behavior of airways is missing. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables real-time evaluation of the airways during dynamic and static breathing maneuvers. Our aim was to visualize the structure and function of airways in healthy and Methacholine (MCh) challenged lung. Sheep (n=3) were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and imaged with OCT in 4 dependent and 4 independent airways both pre- and post-MCh administration. The OCT system employed a 2.4 Fr (0.8 mm diameter) catheter and acquired circumferential cross-sectional images in excess of 100 frames per second during dynamic tidal breathing, 20 second static breath-holds at end-inspiration and expiration pressure, and in a response to a single deep inhalation. Markedly different airway behavior was found in dependent versus non-dependent airway segments before and after MCh injection. OCT is a non-ionizing light-based imaging modality, which may provide valuable insight into the complex dynamic behavior of airway structure and function in the normal and asthmatic lung.

  5. Synthetic aperture ultrasound Fourier beamformation using virtual sources.

    PubMed

    Moghimirad, Elahe; Villagomez-Hoyos, Carlos A; Mahloojifar, Ali; Mohammadzadeh Asl, Babak; Jensen, Jorgen

    2016-09-07

    An efficient Fourier beamformation algorithm is presented for multistatic synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging using virtual sources (FBV). The concept is based on the frequency domain wavenumber algorithm from radar and sonar and is extended to a multi-element transmit/receive configuration using virtual sources. Window functions are used to extract the azimuth processing bandwidths and weight the data to reduce sidelobes in the final image. Field II simulated data and SARUS measured data are used to evaluate the results in terms of point spread function, resolution, contrast, SNR, and processing time. Lateral resolutions of 0.53 mm and 0.66 mm are obtained for FBV and DAS on point target simulated data. Corresponding axial resolutions are 0.21 mm for FBV and 0.20 mm for DAS. The results are also consistent over different depths evaluated using a simulated phantom containing several point targets at different depths. FBV shows a better lateral resolution at all depths, and the axial and cystic resolutions of -6 dB, -12 dB and -20 dB are almost the same for FBV and DAS. To evaluate the cyst phantom metrics, three different criteria of Power Ratio (PR), Contrast Ratio (CR), and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) have been used. Results show that the algorithms have a different performance in the cyst center and near the boundary. FBV has a better performance near the boundary, however, DAS is better in the more central area of the cyst. Measured data from phantoms are also used for evaluation. The results confirm the applicability of FBV in ultrasound and 20 times less processing time in comparison with DAS is attained. Evaluating the results over a wide variety of parameters and having almost the same results for simulated and measured data demonstrates the ability of FBV in preserving the quality of image as DAS, while providing a more efficient algorithm with 20 times less computations.

  6. Study on key techniques for synthetic aperture ladar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Changqing; Zeng, Xiaodong; Feng, Zhejun; Zhang, Wenrui; Su, Lei

    2008-03-01

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging LADAR system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope aperture. The purpose of this work is to investigate Synthetic Aperture Imaging LADAR (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. Because of many advantages, LADAR based on synthetic aperture theory is becoming research hotspot and practicality. Synthetic Aperture LADAR (SAL) technology satisfies the critical need for reliable, long-range battlefield awareness. An image that takes radar tens of seconds to produce can be produced in a few thousands of a second at optical frequencies. While radar waves respond to macroscopic features such as corners, edges, and facets, laser waves interact with microscopic surface characteristics, which results in imagery that appears more familiar and is more easily interpreted. SAL could provide high resolution optical/infrared imaging. In the present paper we have tried to answer three questions: (1) the process of collecting the samples over the large "synthetic" aperture; (2) differences between SAR and SAL; (3) the key techniques for SAL system. The principle and progress of SAL are introduced and a typical SAL system is described. Beam stabilization, chirp laser, and heterodyne detection, which are among the most challenging aspects of SAL, are discussed in detail.

  7. Eyeglass: A Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R; Dixit, S; Weisberg, A; Rushford, M

    2002-07-29

    Eyeglass is a very large aperture (25-100 meter) space telescope consisting of two distinct spacecraft, separated in space by several kilometers. A diffractive lens provides the telescope's large aperture, and a separate, much smaller, space telescope serves as its mobile eyepiece. Use of a transmissive diffractive lens solves two basic problems associated with very large aperture space telescopes; it is inherently fieldable (lightweight and flat, hence packagable and deployable) and virtually eliminates the traditional, very tight, surface shape tolerances faced by reflecting apertures. The potential drawback to use of a diffractive primary (very narrow spectral bandwidth) is eliminated by corrective optics in the telescope's eyepiece. The Eyeglass can provide diffraction-limited imaging with either single-band, multiband, or continuous spectral coverage. Broadband diffractive telescopes have been built at LLNL and have demonstrated diffraction-limited performance over a 40% spectral bandwidth (0.48-0.72 {micro}m). As one approach to package a large aperture for launch, a foldable lens has been built and demonstrated. A 75 cm aperture diffractive lens was constructed from 6 panels of 1 m thick silica; it achieved diffraction-limited performance both before and after folding. This multiple panel, folding lens, approach is currently being scaled-up at LLNL. We are building a 5 meter aperture foldable lens, involving 72 panels of 700 {micro}m thick glass sheets, diffractively patterned to operate as coherent f/50 lens.

  8. A 2D MTF approach to evaluate and guide dynamic imaging developments

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Tzu-Cheng; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Hoge, W. Scott; Madore, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    As the number and complexity of partially sampled dynamic imaging methods continue to increase, reliable strategies to evaluate performance may prove most useful. In the present work, an analytical framework to evaluate given reconstruction methods is presented. A perturbation algorithm allows the proposed evaluation scheme to perform robustly without requiring knowledge about the inner workings of the method being evaluated. A main output of the evaluation process consists of a 2D modulation transfer function (MTF), an easy-to-interpret visual rendering of a method’s ability to capture all combinations of spatial and temporal frequencies. Approaches to evaluate noise properties and artifact content at all spatial and temporal frequencies are also proposed. One fully sampled phantom and three fully sampled cardiac cine datasets were subsampled (R=4 and 8), and reconstructed with the different methods tested here. A hybrid method, which combines the main advantageous features observed in our assessments, was proposed and tested in a cardiac cine application, with acceleration factors of 3.5 and 6.3 (skip factor of 4 and 8, respectively). This approach combines features from methods such as k-t sensitivity-encoding (k-t SENSE), unaliasing by Fourier encoding the overlaps in the temporal dimension-SENSE (UNFOLD-SENSE), generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA), sensitivity profiles from an array of coils for encoding and reconstruction in parallel (SPACE-RIP), self, hybrid referencing with UNFOLD and GRAPPA (SHRUG) and GRAPPA-enhanced sensitivity maps for SENSE reconstructions (GEYSER). PMID:19877276

  9. Multistatic synthetic aperture radar image formation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, V; Swoboda, J; Yarman, C E; Yazici, B

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we consider a multistatic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging scenario where a swarm of airborne antennas, some of which are transmitting, receiving or both, are traversing arbitrary flight trajectories and transmitting arbitrary waveforms without any form of multiplexing. The received signal at each receiving antenna may be interfered by the scattered signal due to multiple transmitters and additive thermal noise at the receiver. In this scenario, standard bistatic SAR image reconstruction algorithms result in artifacts in reconstructed images due to these interferences. In this paper, we use microlocal analysis in a statistical setting to develop a filtered-backprojection (FBP) type analytic image formation method that suppresses artifacts due to interference while preserving the location and orientation of edges of the scene in the reconstructed image. Our FBP-type algorithm exploits the second-order statistics of the target and noise to suppress the artifacts due to interference in a mean-square sense. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of our multistatic SAR image formation algorithm with the FBP-type bistatic SAR image reconstruction algorithm. While we mainly focus on radar applications, our image formation method is also applicable to other problems arising in fields such as acoustic, geophysical and medical imaging.

  10. FASS: the full aperture seeing sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guesalaga, A.; Perera, S.; Osborn, J.; Sarazin, M.; Neichel, B.; Wilson, R.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a novel technique atmospheric turbulence monitoring called FASS (full aperture seeing sensor) based on a low noise CCD detector. The method uses a Fourier processing approach that estimates the spatial frequency distribution of the scintillation images. This frequency approach samples the propagated images along pupil rings, making the frequency transformation circular, avoiding distortions due to the finite nature of the data. It is shown that aspects such as detector exposure time, opto-mechanical stability, detailed modelling of propagation, noise and star chromaticity, must be carefully addressed during the design and calibration stages. Although only ground conjugation results are presented in this article, the technique is expected to operate in the generalized mode guaranteeing sufficiently large speckles (larger than the detector pixels). Pixel gains and offsets are effectively corrected, so they don't significantly influence the accuracy of the profile estimation. Temporal correlations are also shown to provide complementary information not only on the layer wind velocity, but a coarse estimation of their altitude. Factors limiting the accuracy of the method, such as chromaticity, turbulence strength, exposure time and vibrations are discussed. The method provides excellent performance in simulations and encouraging preliminary results from on-sky images acquired and Paranal, Chile. Comparison to coetaneous profiles estimated with the Durham Stereo-SCIDAR instrument (DSS) are analysed.

  11. Synthetic-Aperture Silhouette Imaging (SASI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxman, R.

    2016-09-01

    The problem of ground-based fine-resolution imaging of geosynchronous satellites continues to be an important unsolved space-surveillance problem. We are investigating a passive-illumination approach that is radically different from amplitude, intensity, or heterodyne interferometry approaches. The approach, called Synthetic-Aperture Silhouette Imaging (SASI), produces a fine-resolution image of the satellite silhouette. When plane-wave radiation emanating from a bright star is occluded by a GEO satellite, then the light is diffracted and a moving diffraction pattern (shadow) is cast on the surface of the earth. With prior knowledge of the satellite orbit and star location, the track of the moving shadow can be predicted with high precision. A linear array of inexpensive hobby telescopes can be deployed roughly perpendicular to the shadow track to collect a time history of the star intensity as the shadow passes by. A phase-retrieval algorithm, using the strong constraint that the occlusion of the satellite is a binary-valued silhouette, allows us to retrieve the missing phase and reconstruct a fine-resolution image of the silhouette. Silhouettes are highly informative, providing diagnostic information about deployment of antennas and solar panels, enabling satellite pose estimation, and revealing the presence and orientation of neighboring satellites in rendezvous and proximity operations.

  12. High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Andrew J.; Prasciolu, Mauro; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Krzywinski, Jacek; Meents, Alke; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Barty, Anton; Bean, Richard J.; Barthelmess, Miriam; Oberthuer, Dominik; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Aquila, Andrew; Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Saša

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing brightness of synchrotron radiation sources demands improved X-ray optics to utilise their capability for imaging and probing biological cells, nanodevices, and functional matter on the nanometer scale with chemical sensitivity. Here we demonstrate focusing a hard X-ray beam to an 8 nm focus using a volume zone plate (also referred to as a wedged multilayer Laue lens). This lens was constructed using a new deposition technique that enabled the independent control of the angle and thickness of diffracting layers to microradian and nanometer precision, respectively. This ensured that the Bragg condition is satisfied at each point along the lens, leading to a high numerical aperture that is limited only by its extent. We developed a phase-shifting interferometric method based on ptychography to characterise the lens focus. The precision of the fabrication and characterisation demonstrated here provides the path to efficient X-ray optics for imaging at 1 nm resolution. PMID:26030003

  13. Motion measurement for synthetic aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measures radar soundings from a set of locations typically along the flight path of a radar platform vehicle. Optimal focusing requires precise knowledge of the sounding source locations in 3-D space with respect to the target scene. Even data driven focusing techniques (i.e. autofocus) requires some degree of initial fidelity in the measurements of the motion of the radar. These requirements may be quite stringent especially for fine resolution, long ranges, and low velocities. The principal instrument for measuring motion is typically an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), but these instruments have inherent limi ted precision and accuracy. The question is %22How good does an IMU need to be for a SAR across its performance space?%22 This report analytically relates IMU specifications to parametric requirements for SAR. - 4 - Acknowledgements Th e preparation of this report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Although this report is an independent effort, it draws heavily from limited - release documentation generated under a CRADA with General Atomics - Aeronautical System, Inc. (GA - ASI), and under the Joint DoD/DOE Munitions Program Memorandum of Understanding. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of En ergy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract AC04-94AL85000.

  14. High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

    DOE PAGES

    Morgan, Andrew J.; Prasciolu, Mauro; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; ...

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing brightness of synchrotron radiation sources demands improved X-ray optics to utilise their capability for imaging and probing biological cells, nanodevices, and functional matter on the nanometer scale with chemical sensitivity. Here we demonstrate focusing a hard X-ray beam to an 8 nm focus using a volume zone plate (also referred to as a wedged multilayer Laue lens). This lens was constructed using a new deposition technique that enabled the independent control of the angle and thickness of diffracting layers to microradian and nanometer precision, respectively. This ensured that the Bragg condition is satisfied at each point along themore » lens, leading to a high numerical aperture that is limited only by its extent. We developed a phase-shifting interferometric method based on ptychography to characterise the lens focus. The precision of the fabrication and characterisation demonstrated here provides the path to efficient X-ray optics for imaging at 1 nm resolution.« less

  15. Optical aperture synthesis with electronically connected telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine; Nuñez, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Highest resolution imaging in astronomy is achieved by interferometry, connecting telescopes over increasingly longer distances and at successively shorter wavelengths. Here, we present the first diffraction-limited images in visual light, produced by an array of independent optical telescopes, connected electronically only, with no optical links between them. With an array of small telescopes, second-order optical coherence of the sources is measured through intensity interferometry over 180 baselines between pairs of telescopes, and two-dimensional images reconstructed. The technique aims at diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometre-long baselines to reach resolutions showing details on stellar surfaces and perhaps even the silhouettes of transiting exoplanets. Intensity interferometry circumvents problems of atmospheric turbulence that constrain ordinary interferometry. Since the electronic signal can be copied, many baselines can be built up between dispersed telescopes, and over long distances. Using arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, this should enable the optical equivalent of interferometric arrays currently operating at radio wavelengths. PMID:25880705

  16. A synthetic aperture acoustic prototype system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, Robert H.; Bishop, Steven S.; Chan, Aaron M.; Gugino, Peter M.; Donzelli, Thomas P.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    2015-05-01

    A novel quasi-monostatic system operating in a side-scan synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) imaging mode is presented. This research project's objectives are to explore the military utility of outdoor continuous sound imaging of roadside foliage and target detection. The acoustic imaging method has several military relevant advantages such as being immune to RF jamming, superior spatial resolution as compared to 0.8-2.4 GHz ground penetrating radar (GPR), capable of standoff side and forward-looking scanning, and relatively low cost, weight and size when compared to GPR technologies. The prototype system's broadband 2-17 kHz LFM chirp transceiver is mounted on a manned all-terrain vehicle. Targets are positioned within the acoustic main beam at slant ranges of two to seven meters and on surfaces such as dirt, grass, gravel and weathered asphalt and with an intervening metallic chain link fence. Acoustic image reconstructions and signature plots result in means for literal interpretation and quantifiable analyses.

  17. Radar aperture synthesis observations of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, Imke; Palmer, Patrick; Mitchell, David L.; Ostro, Steven J.; Yeomens, Donald K.; Snyder, Lewis E.

    1994-01-01

    We report of Goldstone-VLA, radar aperture-synthesis observations of the mainbelt asteroids 324 Bamberga and 7 Iris and the near-Earth asteroids 1991 EE and 4179 Toutatis. Simultaneous resolution of echoes in both angle and Doppler frequency provide new constraints on the mainbelt asteroids' pole directions: Bamberga's spin vector is within 40 deg of the south ecliptic pole, and the twofold ambiguity in Iris' pole direction (P. Magnusson, 1989) is resolved in favor of the ecliptic coordinates lambda = 15 deg, beta = +25 deg. For Bamberga, monostatic and bistatic radar echoes and VLA thermal-emission measurements, also reported here, are consistent with radiometric estimates of Bamberga's size and with the hypothesis that the asteroid is overlain by a regolith having a porosity of approximately 50%. Our near-Earth asteroid measurements required the development of new on-line VLA software that allows imaging of objects that are in the telescope's `near field.' This software has been successfully tested on Toutatis at a distance of 0.06 AU and will be essential for VLA observations of Earth-approaching comets.

  18. Evaluation of MOSTAS computer code for predicting dynamic loads in two-bladed wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaza, K. R. V.; Janetzke, D. C.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Calculated dynamic blade loads are compared with measured loads over a range of yaw stiffnesses of the DOE/NASA Mod-0 wind turbine to evaluate the performance of two versions of the MOSTAS computer code. The first version uses a time-averaged coefficient approximation in conjunction with a multiblade coordinate transformation for two-bladed rotors to solve the equations of motion by standard eigenanalysis. The results obtained with this approximate analysis do not agree with dynamic blade load amplifications at or close to resonance conditions. The results of the second version, which accounts for periodic coefficients while solving the equations by a time history integration, compare well with the measured data.

  19. Evaluation of a fictitious domain method for predicting dynamic response of mechanical heart valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stijnen, J. M. A.; de Hart, J.; Bovendeerd, P. H. M.; van de Vosse, F. N.

    2004-07-01

    Flow phenomena around heart valves are important for the motion of the valve leaflets, hence the dynamics of the valve. This work presents an evaluation of a two-dimensional moving rigid heart valve, in which a fictitious domain method is used to describe fluid-structure interaction. Valve motion and fluid flow around the valve were computed for several Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in an in vitro experimental set-up were performed to validate the computational results. The influences of variations of the flow-pulse, expressed in Reynolds and Strouhal number, are well predicted by the computational method. As the fictitious domain method can readily be applied to fully three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction problems, this study indicates that this method is well suited for the analysis of valve dynamics and ventricular flow in physiologically realistic geometries.

  20. Computational EEG modelling of decision making under ambiguity reveals spatio-temporal dynamics of outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jollans, Lee; Whelan, Robert; Venables, Louise; Turnbull, Oliver H; Cella, Matteo; Dymond, Simon

    2017-03-15

    Complex human cognition, such as decision-making under ambiguity, is reflected in dynamic spatio-temporal activity in the brain. Here, we combined event-related potentials with computational modelling of the time course of decision-making and outcome evaluation during the Iowa Gambling Task. Measures of choice probability generated using the Prospect Valence Learning Delta (PVL-Delta) model, in addition to objective trial outcomes (outcome magnitude and valence), were applied as regressors in a general linear model of the EEG signal. The resulting three-dimensional spatio-temporal characterization of task-related neural dynamics demonstrated that outcome valence, outcome magnitude, and PVL-Delta choice probability were expressed in distinctly separate event related potentials. Our findings showed that the P3 component was associated with an experience-based measure of outcome expectancy.

  1. Evaluation of MOSTAS computer code for predicting dynamic loads in two bladed wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaza, K. R. V.; Janetzke, D. C.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Calculated dynamic blade loads were compared with measured loads over a range of yaw stiffnesses of the DOE/NASA Mod-O wind turbine to evaluate the performance of two versions of the MOSTAS computer code. The first version uses a time-averaged coefficient approximation in conjunction with a multi-blade coordinate transformation for two bladed rotors to solve the equations of motion by standard eigenanalysis. The second version accounts for periodic coefficients while solving the equations by a time history integration. A hypothetical three-degree of freedom dynamic model was investigated. The exact equations of motion of this model were solved using the Floquet-Lipunov method. The equations with time-averaged coefficients were solved by standard eigenanalysis.

  2. A Simulation Environment for the Dynamic Evaluation of Disaster Preparedness Policies and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Bryan; Swarup, Samarth; Bisset, Keith; Eubank, Stephen; Marathe, Madhav; Barrett, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Disasters affect a society at many levels. Simulation based studies often evaluate the effectiveness of one or two response policies in isolation and are unable to represent impact of the policies to coevolve with others. Similarly, most in-depth analyses are based on a static assessment of the “aftermath” rather than capturing dynamics. We have developed a data-centric simulation environment for applying a systems approach to a dynamic analysis of complex combinations of disaster responses. We analyze an improvised nuclear detonation in Washington DC with this environment. The simulated blast affects the transportation system, communications infrastructure, electrical power system, behaviors and motivations of population, and health status of survivors. The effectiveness of partially restoring wireless communications capacity is analyzed in concert with a range of other disaster response policies. Despite providing a limited increase in cell phone communication, overall health was improved. PMID:23903394

  3. Evaluation of Synthetic Aperture Radar for Oil-Spill Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    range of values, indicate range limits. C-5 SAR Capabilities Survey Page 5 Functional Performance Characteristics, continued, .... * Multilook ...Two different multilook schemes could be applied to a broad-swath Coast Guard SAR : 1) temporal multilook , and 2) pixel averaging. Temporal Multilook ...reduced looks could be multilooked in one of a number of ways and displayed, either separately from or as an overlay of the normal SAR single-look of

  4. Measurement and simulation of apertures on Z hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.; Matuska, W. Jr.; Swenson, F.J.

    1998-12-01

    The authors have performed aperture measurements and simulations for vacuum hohlraums heated by wire array implosions. A low-Z plastic coating is often applied to the aperture to create a high ablation pressure which retards the expansion of the gold hohlraum wall. However, this interface is unstable and may be subjects to the development of highly nonlinear perturbations (jets) as a result of shocks converging near the edge of the aperture. These experiments have been simulated using Lagrangian and Eulerian radiation hydrodynamics codes.

  5. Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF) for Sparse Aperture Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Daniel W.; Miller, David W.; Sedwick, Raymond J.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional methods of actuating spacecraft in sparse aperture arrays use propellant as a reaction mass. For formation flying systems, propellant becomes a critical consumable which can be quickly exhausted while maintaining relative orientation. Additional problems posed by propellant include optical contamination, plume impingement, thermal emission, and vibration excitation. For these missions where control of relative degrees of freedom is important, we consider using a system of electromagnets, in concert with reaction wheels, to replace the consumables. Electromagnetic Formation Flight sparse apertures, powered by solar energy, are designed differently from traditional propulsion systems, which are based on V. This paper investigates the design of sparse apertures both inside and outside the Earth's gravity field.

  6. Terahertz interferometric synthetic aperture tomography for confocal imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Heimbeck, M S; Marks, D L; Brady, D; Everitt, H O

    2012-04-15

    Terahertz (THz) interferometric synthetic aperture tomography (TISAT) for confocal imaging within extended objects is demonstrated by combining attributes of synthetic aperture radar and optical coherence tomography. Algorithms recently devised for interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy are adapted to account for the diffraction-and defocusing-induced spatially varying THz beam width characteristic of narrow depth of focus, high-resolution confocal imaging. A frequency-swept two-dimensional TISAT confocal imaging instrument rapidly achieves in-focus, diffraction-limited resolution over a depth 12 times larger than the instrument's depth of focus in a manner that may be easily extended to three dimensions and greater depths.

  7. NASA-ISRO synthetic aperture radar: science and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Raj; Rosen, Paul; Misra, Tapan

    2016-05-01

    NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR), a novel SAR concept will be utilized to image wide swath at high resolution of stripmap SAR. It will have observations in L- and S-bands to understand highly spatial and temporally complex processes such as ecosystem disturbances, ice sheet changes, and natural hazards including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides. NISAR with several advanced features such as 12 days interferometric orbit, achievement of high resolution and wide swath images through SweepSAR technology and simultaneous data acquisition in dual frequency would support a host of applications. The primary objectives of NISAR are to monitor ecosystems including monitoring changes in ecosystem structure and biomass estimation, carbon flux monitoring; mangroves and wetlands characterization; alpine forest characterization and delineation of tree-line ecotone, land surface deformation including measurement of deformation due to co-seismic and inter-seismic activities; landslides; land subsidence and volcanic deformation, cryosphere studies including measurements of dynamics of polar ice sheet, ice discharge to the ocean, Himalayan snow and glacier dynamics, deep and coastal ocean studies including retrieval of ocean parameters, mapping of coastal erosion and shore-line change; demarcation of high tide line (HTL) and low tide line (LTL) for coastal regulation zones (CRZ) mapping, geological studies including mapping of structural and lithological features; lineaments and paleo-channels; geo-morphological mapping, natural disaster response including mapping and monitoring of floods, forest fires, oil spills, earthquake damage and monitoring of extreme weather events such as cyclones. In addition to the above, NISAR would support various other applications such as enhanced crop monitoring, soil moisture estimation, urban area development, weather and hydrological forecasting.

  8. A dynamic tester to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of the surface of textiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Xu, Weilin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The thermal and moisture behaviour of the microclimate of textiles is crucial in determining the physiological comfort of apparel, but it has not been investigated sufficiently due to the lack of particular evaluation techniques. Based on sensing, temperature controlling and wireless communicating technology, a specially designed tester has been developed in this study to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of the surface of textiles in moving status. A temperature acquisition system and a temperature controllable hotplate have been established to test temperature and simulate the heat of human body, respectively. Relative humidity of the surface of fabric in the dynamic process has been successfully tested through sensing. Meanwhile, wireless communication technology was applied to transport the acquired data of temperature and humidity to computer for further processing. Continuous power supply was achieved by intensive contact between an elastic copper plate and copper ring on the rotating shaft. This tester provides the platform to evaluate the thermal and moisture behaviour of textiles. It enables users to conduct a dynamic analysis on the temperature and humidity together with the thermal and moisture transport behaviour of the surface of fabric in moving condition. Development of this tester opens the door of investigation on the micro-climate of textiles in real time service, and eventually benefits the understanding of the sensation comfort and wellbeing of apparel wearers.

  9. Evaluating the dynamic response of in-flight thrust calculation techniques during throttle transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    New flight test maneuvers and analysis techniques for evaluating the dynamic response of in-flight thrust models during throttle transients have been developed and validated. The approach is based on the aircraft and engine performance relationship between thrust and drag. Two flight test maneuvers, a throttle step and a throttle frequency sweep, were developed and used in the study. Graphical analysis techniques, including a frequency domain analysis method, were also developed and evaluated. They provide quantitative and qualitative results. Four thrust calculation methods were used to demonstrate and validate the test technique. Flight test applications on two high-performance aircraft confirmed the test methods as valid and accurate. These maneuvers and analysis techniques were easy to implement and use. Flight test results indicate the analysis techniques can identify the combined effects of model error and instrumentation response limitations on the calculated thrust value. The methods developed in this report provide an accurate approach for evaluating, validating, or comparing thrust calculation methods for dynamic flight applications.

  10. High-contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: active correction of aperture discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Elodie

    2013-09-01

    We present a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach relies on using two sequential Deformable Mirrors to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of Deformable Mirror Surfaces that yield high contrast Point Spread Functions is not linear, and non-linear methods are needed to find the true minimum in the optimization topology. We solve the highly non-linear Monge-Ampere equation that is the fundamental equation describing the physics of phase induced amplitude modulation. We determine the optimum configuration for our two sequential Deformable Mirror system and show that high-throughput and high contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies. We name this process Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD). We show that for geometries similar to JWST, ACAD can attain at least 10-7 in contrast and an order of magnitude higher for future Extremely Large Telescopes, even when the pupil features a missing segment" . We show that the converging non-linear mappings resulting from our Deformable Mirror shapes actually damp near-field diffraction artifacts in the vicinity of the discontinuities. Thus ACAD actually lowers the chromatic ringing due to diffraction by segment gaps and strut's while not amplifying the diffraction at the aperture edges beyond the Fresnel regime and illustrate the broadband properties of ACAD in the case of the pupil configuration corresponding to the Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets. Since details about these telescopes are not yet available to the broader astronomical community, our test case is based on a geometry mimicking the actual one, to the best of our knowledge.

  11. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Evaluate Scapular Movement Among Manual Wheelchair Users and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Sheng; Koontz, Alicia M.; Boninger, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A large percentage of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) report shoulder pain that can limit independence and quality of life. The pain is likely related to the demands placed on the shoulder by transfers and propulsion. Shoulder pathology has been linked to altered scapular mechanics; however, current methods to evaluate scapular movement are invasive, require ionizing radiation, are subject to skin-based motion artifacts, or require static postures. Objective: To investigate the feasibility of applying 3-dimensional ultrasound methods, previously used to look at scapular position in static postures, to evaluate dynamic scapular movement. Method: This study evaluated the feasibility of the novel application of a method combining 2-dimensional ultrasound and a motion capture system to determine 3-dimensional scapular position during dynamic arm elevation in the scapular plane with and without loading. Results: Incremental increases in scapular rotations were noted for extracted angles of 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75° of humeral elevation. Group differences were evaluated between a group of 16 manual wheelchair users (MWUs) and a group of age- and gender-matched able-bodied controls. MWUs had greater scapular external rotation and baseline pathology on clinical exam. MWUs also had greater anterior tilting, with this difference further accentuated during loading. The relationship between demographics and scapular positioning was also investigated, revealing that increased age, pathology on clinical exam, years since injury, and body mass index were correlated with scapular rotations associated with impingement (internal rotation, downward rotation, and anterior tilting). Conclusion: Individuals with SCI, as well as other populations who are susceptible to shoulder pathology, may benefit from the application of this imaging modality to quantitatively evaluate scapular positioning and effectively target therapeutic interventions. PMID:26689695

  12. Evaluation of a compartmental model for estimating tumor hypoxia via FMISO dynamic PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenli; Georgi, Jens-Christoph; Nehmeh, Sadek A.; Narayanan, Manoj; Paulus, Timo; Bal, Matthieu; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Schmidtlein, C. Ross; Lee, Nancy Y.; Humm, John L.

    2009-05-01

    This paper systematically evaluates a pharmacokinetic compartmental model for identifying tumor hypoxia using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO). A generic irreversible one-plasma two-tissue compartmental model was used. A dynamic PET image dataset was simulated with three tumor regions—normoxic, hypoxic and necrotic—embedded in a normal-tissue background, and with an image-based arterial input function. Each voxelized tissue's time activity curve (TAC) was simulated with typical values of kinetic parameters, as deduced from FMISO-PET data from nine head-and-neck cancer patients. The dynamic dataset was first produced without any statistical noise to ensure that correct kinetic parameters were reproducible. Next, to investigate the stability of kinetic parameter estimation in the presence of noise, 1000 noisy samples of the dynamic dataset were generated, from which 1000 noisy estimates of kinetic parameters were calculated and used to estimate the sample mean and covariance matrix. It is found that a more peaked input function gave less variation in various kinetic parameters, and the variation of kinetic parameters could also be reduced by two region-of-interest averaging techniques. To further investigate how bias in the arterial input function affected the kinetic parameter estimation, a shift error was introduced in the peak amplitude and peak location of the input TAC, and the bias of various kinetic parameters calculated. In summary, mathematical phantom studies have been used to determine the statistical accuracy and precision of model-based kinetic analysis, which helps to validate this analysis and provides guidance in planning clinical dynamic FMISO-PET studies.

  13. High-contrast Imaging with an Arbitrary Aperture: Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin

    2013-06-01

    We present a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach relies on using two sequential deformable mirrors (DMs) to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of DM surfaces that yield high-contrast point-spread functions is not linear, and nonlinear methods are needed to find the true minimum in the optimization topology. We solve the highly nonlinear Monge-Ampere equation that is the fundamental equation describing the physics of phase-induced amplitude modulation. We determine the optimum configuration for our two sequential DM system and show that high-throughput and high-contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies. We name this process Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD). We show that for geometries similar to the James Webb Space Telescope, ACAD can attain at least 10-7 in contrast and an order of magnitude higher for both the future extremely large telescopes and on-axis architectures reminiscent of the Hubble Space Telescope. We show that the converging nonlinear mappings resulting from our DM shapes actually damp near-field diffraction artifacts in the vicinity of the discontinuities. Thus, ACAD actually lowers the chromatic ringing due to diffraction by segment gaps and struts while not amplifying the diffraction at the aperture edges beyond the Fresnel regime. This outer Fresnel ringing can be mitigated by properly designing the optical system. Consequently, ACAD is a true broadband solution to the problem of high-contrast imaging with segmented and/or on-axis apertures. We finally show that once the nonlinear solution is found, fine tuning with linear methods used in wavefront control can be applied to further contrast by another order of magnitude. Generally speaking, the

  14. High-contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: Active compensation of aperture discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin

    2013-06-01

    We present a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach relies on using two sequential deformable mirrors (DMs) to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of DM surfaces that yield high-contrast point-spread functions is not linear, and nonlinear methods are needed to find the true minimum in the optimization topology. We solve the highly nonlinear Monge-Ampere equation that is the fundamental equation describing the physics of phase-induced amplitude modulation. We determine the optimum configuration for our two sequential DM system and show that high-throughput and high-contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies. We name this process Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD). We show that for geometries similar to the James Webb Space Telescope, ACAD can attain at least 10{sup –7} in contrast and an order of magnitude higher for both the future extremely large telescopes and on-axis architectures reminiscent of the Hubble Space Telescope. We show that the converging nonlinear mappings resulting from our DM shapes actually damp near-field diffraction artifacts in the vicinity of the discontinuities. Thus, ACAD actually lowers the chromatic ringing due to diffraction by segment gaps and struts while not amplifying the diffraction at the aperture edges beyond the Fresnel regime. This outer Fresnel ringing can be mitigated by properly designing the optical system. Consequently, ACAD is a true broadband solution to the problem of high-contrast imaging with segmented and/or on-axis apertures. We finally show that once the nonlinear solution is found, fine tuning with linear methods used in wavefront control can be applied to further contrast by another order of magnitude. Generally speaking

  15. Dynamic evaluation and control of blood clotting using a microfluidic platform for high-throughput diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combariza, Miguel E.; Yu, Xinghuo; Nesbitt, Warwick; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco; Rabus, Dominik G.; Mitchell, Arnan

    2015-12-01

    Microfluidic technology has the potential to revolutionise blood-clotting diagnostics by incorporating key physiological blood flow conditions like shear rate. In this paper we present a customised dynamic microfluidic system, which evaluates the blood clotting response to multiple conditions of shear rate on a single microchannel. The system can achieve high-throughput testing through use of an advanced fluid control system, which provides with rapid and precise regulation of the blood flow conditions in the platform. We present experimental results that demonstrate the potential of this platform to develop into a high-throughput, low-cost, blood-clotting diagnostics device.

  16. Development and implementation of dynamic methodologies for evaluating energy conservation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephanedes, Y. J.; Michalopoulos, P. G.; Gabriel, D. A.; Hanna, H.; Plum, R.

    1982-04-01

    The modified TRANSIT1 simulation model is developed and implemented to test a wide range of transportation-related energy conservation policies and evaluate their impacts across time. The dynamic structure is based on a set of nonlinear differential equations describing the demand-supply-resource-energy interactions in a transportation system. Time delays associated with fluctuations in travel demand and management responsiveness to those fluctuations are explicitly included. Congestion effects on highway travel times are incorporated by connecting TRANSIT1 to the freeway FREQ6 programs.

  17. Evaluation of probabilistic and dynamical invariants from finite symbolic substrings - comparison between two approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoop, R.; Parisi, J.

    1992-09-01

    While evaluating scaling functions of fractal dimensions and Lyapunov exponents from time series in the traditional way, assumptions are made concerning the grammar of the underlying dynamical system: it is implicitly assumed that the length of the substrings considered is sufficient to capture the grammatical properties of the system. In this contribution, we show where this assumption becomes relevant. We give an example of a simple grammatical rule which leads to badly behaving convergence properties of the associated scaling functions. As another consequence of our investigations, we conclude that, whenever a finite grammar is encountered, the cycle expansion approach of Cvitanović using periodic orbits should preferably be used.

  18. Evaluation of High Dynamic Range Photography as a Luminance Mapping Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Inanici, Mehlika; Galvin, Jim

    2004-12-30

    The potential, limitations, and applicability of the High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography technique is evaluated as a luminance mapping tool. Multiple exposure photographs of static scenes are taken with a Nikon 5400 digital camera to capture the wide luminance variation within the scenes. The camera response function is computationally derived using the Photosphere software, and is used to fuse the multiple photographs into HDR images. The vignetting effect and point spread function of the camera and lens system is determined. Laboratory and field studies have shown that the pixel values in the HDR photographs can correspond to the physical quantity of luminance with reasonable precision and repeatability.

  19. ThermoData Engine (TDE) software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept. 7. Ternary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D; Muzny, Chris D; Kazakov, Andrei F; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Magee, Joseph W; Abdulagatov, Ilmutdin; Kang, Jeong Won; Frenkel, Michael

    2012-01-23

    ThermoData Engine (TDE) is the first full-scale software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept, as reported in this journal. The present paper describes the first application of this concept to the evaluation of thermophysical properties for ternary chemical systems. The method involves construction of Redlich-Kister type equations for individual properties (excess volume, thermal conductivity, viscosity, surface tension, and excess enthalpy) and activity coefficient models for phase equilibrium properties (vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibrium). Constructed ternary models are based on those for the three pure component and three binary subsystems evaluated on demand through the TDE software algorithms. All models are described in detail, and extensions to the class structure of the program are provided. Reliable evaluation of properties for the binary subsystems is essential for successful property evaluations for ternary systems, and algorithms are described to aid appropriate parameter selection and fitting for the implemented activity coefficient models (NRTL, Wilson, Van Laar, Redlich-Kister, and UNIQUAC). Two activity coefficient models based on group contributions (original UNIFAC and NIST-KT-UNIFAC) are also implemented. Novel features of the user interface are shown, and directions for future enhancements are outlined.

  20. The U.S. Geological Survey Dynamic Surface Water Extent product evaluation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, John

    2016-04-01

    The USGS has developed a Dynamic Surface Water Extent (DSWE) landsat science product to meet broad scientific and resource management needs. Product usability is a primary goal for this effort. Rigorous measurement and reporting of product uncertainty as well as the evaluation and refinement of product utility are necessary to achieve this goal. To appropriately balance information provided against cost of implementation, a multi-tiered strategy is employed to evaluate and document DSWE uncertainty and utility for potential users. To refine the product from a user's perspective, foster unbiased product assessment, and stretch development resources as far as possible, the final tier of evaluation is performed collaboratively. Evaluation study areas and time frames are selected to provide the greatest challenges to DSWE performance and to provide coincident, independent sources of inundation information, respectively. While DSWE is currently based on Landsat alone, data from passive and active sensing systems from numerous airborne (to include unmanned airborne systems) and satellite-based platforms are processed using automated and manual approaches to yield polygon and point based validation data. In situ data on inundation and water stage collected at key U.S. study areas are also used both to understand DSWE weaknesses and facilitate DSWE use in science and resource management. The effectiveness of this approach is illustrated through case studies drawn from DSWE prototype product evaluation for hydrologic modeling and flood inundation mapping.

  1. F-k Domain Imaging for Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming.

    PubMed

    Vos, Hendrik J; van Neer, Paul L M J; Mota, Mariana Melo; Verweij, Martin D; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Volker, Arno W F

    2016-01-01

    Spatial resolution in medical ultrasound images is a key component in image quality and an important factor for clinical diagnosis. In early systems, the lateral resolution was optimal in the focus but rapidly decreased outside the focal region. Improvements have been found in, e.g., dynamic-receive beamforming, in which the entire image is focused in receive, but this requires complex processing of element data and is not applicable for mechanical scanning of single-element images. This paper exploits the concept of two-stage beamforming based on virtual source-receivers, which reduces the front-end computational load while maintaining a similar data rate and frame rate compared to dynamic-receive beamforming. We introduce frequency-wavenumber domain data processing to obtain fast second-stage data processing while having similarly high lateral resolution as dynamic-receive beamforming and processing in time-space domain. The technique is very suitable in combination with emerging technologies such as application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), hand-held devices, and wireless data transfer. The suggested method consists of three steps. In the first step, single-focused RF line data are shifted in time to relocate the focal point to a new origin t' = 0, z' = 0. This new origin is considered as an array of virtual source/receiver pairs, as has been suggested previously in literature. In the second step, the dataset is efficiently processed in the wavenumber-frequency domain to form an image that is in focus throughout its entire depth. In the third step, the data shift is undone to obtain a correct depth axis in the image. The method has been tested first with a single-element scanning system and second in a tissue-mimicking phantom using a linear array. In both setups, the method resulted in a −6-dB lateral point spread function (PSF) which was constant over the entire depth range, and similar to dynamic-receive beamforming and synthetic aperture sequential

  2. Large aperture CCD x ray detector for protein crystallography using a fiberoptic taper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, M. G.; Westbrook, E. M.; Naday, I.; Coleman, T. A.; Westbrook, M. L.; Travis, D. J.; Sweet, R. M.; Pflugrath, J. W.

    A detector with a 114 mm aperture, based on a charge-coupled device (CCD), has been designed for x-ray diffraction studies in protein crystallography. The detector was tested on a beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory with a beam intensity greater than 10(exp 9) x-ray photons/s. A fiberoptic taper, an image intensifier and a lens demagnify, intensify, and focus the image onto a CCD having 512 x 512 pixels. A detective quantum efficiency (DOE) of 0.36 was obtained by evaluating the statistical uncertainty in the detector output. The dynamic range of a 4 x 4 pixel resolution element, comparable in size to a diffraction peak, was 10(exp 4). The point-spread function shows FWHM resolution of approximately 1 pixel, where a pixel on the detector face is 160 microns. A complete data set, consisting of forty-five 1 deg rotation frames, was obtained in just 36 s of x-ray exposure to a crystal of chicken egg-white lysozyme. In a separate experiment, a lysozyme data set consisting of 495 0.1 deg frames, was processed by the MADNES data reduction program, yielding symmetry R-factors for the data of 3.2 to 3.5 percent. Diffraction images from crystals of the myosin S1 head (a = 275 A) were also recorded. The Bragg spots, only 5 pixels apart, were resolved but were not sufficiently separated to process these data. Changes in the detector design which will improve the DOE and spatial resolution are outlined. The overall performance showed that this type of detector is well suited for x-ray scattering investigations with synchrotron sources.

  3. Vortex characteristics of Fraunhofer diffractions of a plane wave by a spiral phase plate limited by pseudoring polygonal apertures.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huiqin; Wang, Taofen; Zhu, Kaicheng

    2008-08-15

    We introduce a multilevel spiral phase plate (SPP) limited by a pseudoring polygonal aperture (PRPA). Such an SPP has the advantages of easier fabrication and greater suppression of the sidelobes of the diffraction field over that generated with a polygonal aperture (PA). The Fraunhofer diffraction fields generated by an SPP with a PRPA or with a PA have the same topological charge features and a similar diffraction pattern. Numerical evaluations show that the maximum bright annular-intensity difference between the diffraction patterns for the SPP with a PRPA and that of a PA does not exceed 3% under optimal design parameters.

  4. Magnetically tunable broadband transmission through a single small aperture.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ke; Liu, Wenjun; Guo, Yunsheng; Dong, Guoyan; Lei, Ming

    2015-07-22

    Extraordinary transmission through a small aperture is of great interest. However, it faces a limitation that most of approaches can not realize the tunable transmission property, which is not benefit for the miniaturization of the microwave system. Here, we demonstrate a magnetically tunable broadband transmission through a small aperture. By placing two ferrite rods symmetrically on both sides of a single small aperture, the strongly localized electromagnetic fields are effectively coupled to the two ferrite rods. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that such structure not only realizes a nearly total transmission through a small aperture, but also obtains a magnetically tunable property. This work offers new opportunities for the miniaturization of the microwave system.

  5. Synthetic aperture radar signal processing: Trends and technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlander, John C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology is presented in vugraph form. The following topics are covered: an SAR ground data system; SAR signal processing algorithms; SAR correlator architectures; and current and future trends.

  6. Ambiguity Of Doppler Centroid In Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chi-Yung; Curlander, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Paper discusses performances of two algorithms for resolution of ambiguity in estimated Doppler centroid frequency of echoes in synthetic-aperture radar. One based on range-cross-correlation technique, other based on multiple-pulse-repetition-frequency technique.

  7. Synthetic aperture radar range - Azimuth ambiguity design and constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlis, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Problems concerning the design of a system for mapping a planetary surface with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are considered. Given an ambiguity level, resolution, and swath width, the problems are related to the determination of optimum antenna apertures and the most suitable pulse repetition frequency (PRF). From the set of normalized azimuth ambiguity ratio curves, the designer can arrive at the azimuth antenna length, and from the sets of normalized range ambiguity ratio curves, he can arrive at the range aperture length or pulse repetition frequency. A procedure based on this design method is shown in an example. The normalized curves provide results for a SAR using a uniformly or cosine weighted rectangular antenna aperture.

  8. Photonic spin-controlled multifunctional shared-aperture antenna array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguid, Elhanan; Yulevich, Igor; Veksler, Dekel; Kleiner, Vladimir; Brongersma, Mark L.; Hasman, Erez

    2016-06-01

    The shared-aperture phased antenna array developed in the field of radar applications is a promising approach for increased functionality in photonics. The alliance between the shared-aperture concepts and the geometric phase phenomenon arising from spin-orbit interaction provides a route to implement photonic spin-control multifunctional metasurfaces. We adopted a thinning technique within the shared-aperture synthesis and investigated interleaved sparse nanoantenna matrices and the spin-enabled asymmetric harmonic response to achieve helicity-controlled multiple structured wavefronts such as vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum. We used multiplexed geometric phase profiles to simultaneously measure spectrum characteristics and the polarization state of light, enabling integrated on-chip spectropolarimetric analysis. The shared-aperture metasurface platform opens a pathway to novel types of nanophotonic functionality.

  9. Magnetically tunable broadband transmission through a single small aperture

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Ke; Liu, Wenjun; Guo, Yunsheng; Dong, Guoyan; Lei, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Extraordinary transmission through a small aperture is of great interest. However, it faces a limitation that most of approaches can not realize the tunable transmission property, which is not benefit for the miniaturization of the microwave system. Here, we demonstrate a magnetically tunable broadband transmission through a small aperture. By placing two ferrite rods symmetrically on both sides of a single small aperture, the strongly localized electromagnetic fields are effectively coupled to the two ferrite rods. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that such structure not only realizes a nearly total transmission through a small aperture, but also obtains a magnetically tunable property. This work offers new opportunities for the miniaturization of the microwave system. PMID:26198543

  10. An Adaptive Homomorphic Aperture Photometry Algorithm for Merging Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. C.; Hwang, C. Y.

    2017-03-01

    We present a novel automatic adaptive aperture photometry algorithm for measuring the total magnitudes of merging galaxies with irregular shapes. First, we use a morphological pattern recognition routine for identifying the shape of an irregular source in a background-subtracted image. Then, we extend the shape of the source by using the Dilation image operation to obtain an aperture that is quasi-homomorphic to the shape of the irregular source. The magnitude measured from the homomorphic aperture would thus have minimal contamination from the nearby background. As a test of our algorithm, we applied our technique to the merging galaxies observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope. Our results suggest that the adaptive homomorphic aperture algorithm can be very useful for investigating extended sources with irregular shapes and sources in crowded regions.

  11. Highly uniform parallel microfabrication using a large numerical aperture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-Yu; Zhang, Chen-Chu; Hu, Yan-Lei; Wang, Chao-Wei; Li, Jia-Wen; Su, Ya-Hui; Chu, Jia-Ru; Wu, Dong

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we report an improved algorithm to produce accurate phase patterns for generating highly uniform diffraction-limited multifocal arrays in a large numerical aperture objective system. It is shown that based on the original diffraction integral, the uniformity of the diffraction-limited focal arrays can be improved from ˜75% to >97%, owing to the critical consideration of the aperture function and apodization effect associated with a large numerical aperture objective. The experimental results, e.g., 3 × 3 arrays of square and triangle, seven microlens arrays with high uniformity, further verify the advantage of the improved algorithm. This algorithm enables the laser parallel processing technology to realize uniform microstructures and functional devices in the microfabrication system with a large numerical aperture objective.

  12. High-aperture diffractive lens for holographic printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherdev, A. Y.; Odinokov, S. B.; Lushnikov, D. S.; Shishova, M. V.; Gurylev, O. A.; Kaytukov, C. B.

    2016-10-01

    The optical scheme of holographic printer for obtaining of holographic stereograms with an increasing field of view is proposed. Conventional holographic printers allow obtaining holographic stereograms with the field of view up to 90°. Proposed scheme allows increasing field of view up to 120°. The optical scheme is based on a diffuser and a diffraction optical element, the high-aperture diffractive lens. The experience of using the composite holographic lens and the amplitude diffractive lens based on a binary Fresnel zone plate as a high-aperture diffractive lens is described. Samples of high-aperture diffractive lens with f-number f/0.3 are obtained and investigated. Samples of holographic stereograms are obtained using samples of high-aperture diffractive lens.

  13. Role of Sucrose in Emerging Mechanisms of Stomatal Aperture Regulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Outlaw, W. H.

    2000-09-15

    Focused on the second of 2 hypotheses that were proposed for testing that transpiration rate determines the extent to which suc accumulates in the GC wall providing a mechanism for regulating stomatal aperture size.

  14. Detection of small, slow ground targets using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis; Chapin, Elaine; Rosen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along-track interferometry (ATI) is a technique for sensing Earth-surface motion. The technique involves interferometrically combining data from two radar images acquired from phase centers separated along the platform flight track.

  15. Method of evaluating, expanding, and collapsing connectivity regions within dynamic systems

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, David A.

    2004-11-16

    An automated process defines and maintains connectivity regions within a dynamic network. The automated process requires an initial input of a network component around which a connectivity region will be defined. The process automatically and autonomously generates a region around the initial input, stores the region's definition, and monitors the network for a change. Upon detecting a change in the network, the effect is evaluated, and if necessary the regions are adjusted and redefined to accommodate the change. Only those regions of the network affected by the change will be updated. This process eliminates the need for an operator to manually evaluate connectivity regions within a network. Since the automated process maintains the network, the reliance on an operator is minimized; thus, reducing the potential for operator error. This combination of region maintenance and reduced operator reliance, results in a reduction of overall error.

  16. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  17. Large-aperture broadband sapphire windows for common aperture, target acquisition, tracking, and surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel

    1997-06-01

    State of the art optical sensing systems performing target acquisition/tracking and surveillance functions are being designed to incorporate a number of sensors into one package. These include visual and MWIR cameras, FLIRs, and laser range finders. These combined systems are being configured to view through a common aperture window. Typical window diameters are to eleven inches, but some surveillance applications have windows approaching twenty inches in diameter. These sensor windows typically operate in hostile environments including very high pressure differentials, large thermal gradients, and severe rain and sand abrasion. EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities are also commonly required. For airborne applications and to minimize thermal gradients, thinner, lightweight, high strength windows are also necessary. Sapphire is an ideal window material to satisfy these requirements due to its high strength, UV-MWIR bandpass, minimal optical scatter, excellent index of refraction homogeneity and very high scratch/impact resistance. Associated optical fabrication, grid lithography and optical coating processes have been developed at Hughes Danbury for sapphire windows. This paper addresses the development of a family of large aperture, broadband sapphire windows which also provide EMI/EMC protection and de-icing capabilities. The resulting design configuration and performance characteristics are also addressed. Future technology development requirements are also discussed.

  18. Multi-aperture viewing: perception of figures through very small apertures.

    PubMed

    Mateeff, S; Popov, D; Hohnsbein, J

    1993-12-01

    A new phenomenon of viewing objects through multiple apertures is reported. When a solid figure is hidden behind a sieve of very small apertures (pinholes), only its general shape may be perceived. Outline figures may be entirely invisible behind the sieve. Motion of the figure markedly improves the visibility of the outline figures and of the small details and edges of the solid figures. Two experiments are presented. The first demonstrates that the size of a dark stimulus moving behind a rear-illuminated row of holes is perceived with an accuracy that may be considerably better (i.e. the error is smaller) than the interhole distance. The results of the second experiment show that the visibility of an outline figure, a ring, is significantly better when the figure smoothly moves than when presented at random positions behind a two-dimensional sieve. Changing the velocity within the range of 5.18-10.36 deg/sec does not affect the visibility of the figure while it moves; however, a lower rate of discrete presentation leads to significantly better visibility. An explanation of the phenomenon is presented in terms of integration of information about the relative positions of the covered/uncovered holes, with a possible involvement of motion analyzing mechanisms.

  19. Autofocus algorithm for synthetic aperture radar imaging with large curvilinear apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleszynski, E.; Bleszynski, M.; Jaroszewicz, T.

    2013-05-01

    An approach to autofocusing for large curved synthetic aperture radar (SAR) apertures is presented. Its essential feature is that phase corrections are being extracted not directly from SAR images, but rather from reconstructed SAR phase-history data representing windowed patches of the scene, of sizes sufficiently small to allow the linearization of the forward- and back-projection formulae. The algorithm processes data associated with each patch independently and in two steps. The first step employs a phase-gradient-type method in which phase correction compensating (possibly rapid) trajectory perturbations are estimated from the reconstructed phase history for the dominant scattering point on the patch. The second step uses phase-gradient-corrected data and extracts the absolute phase value, removing in this way phase ambiguities and reducing possible imperfections of the first stage, and providing the distances between the sensor and the scattering point with accuracy comparable to the wavelength. The features of the proposed autofocusing method are illustrated in its applications to intentionally corrupted small-scene 2006 Gotcha data. The examples include the extraction of absolute phases (ranges) for selected prominent point targets. They are then used to focus the scene and determine relative target-target distances.

  20. Simultaneous usage of pinhole and penumbral apertures for imaging small scale neutron sources from inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    PubMed

    Guler, N; Volegov, P; Danly, C R; Grim, G P; Merrill, F E; Wilde, C H

    2012-10-01

    Inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility are designed to understand the basic principles of creating self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled cryogenic plastic capsules. The neutron imaging diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by observing neutron images in two different energy bands for primary (13-17 MeV) and down-scattered (6-12 MeV) neutrons. From this, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. These experiments provide small sources with high yield neutron flux. An aperture design that includes an array of pinholes and penumbral apertures has provided the opportunity to image the same source with two different techniques. This allows for an evaluation of these different aperture designs and reconstruction algorithms.