Science.gov

Sample records for dynamic atmosphere composition

  1. ESA's atmospheric composition and dynamics mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Laur, Henri; Hoersch, Bianca; Ingmann, Paul; Wehr, Tobias; Langen, Joerg; Veihelmann, Ben

    For almost 15 years, ESA is providing atmospheric chemistry and composition information to the user community. In 1995, this commitment started with the GOME instrument on-board ERS-2. This mission was continued and extended with the GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY instruments on-board of ENVISAT launched in 2002. ESA is prepared to continue Envisat through 2013 in the frame of the mission extension. To respond to GMES requirements, ESA develops the Sentinel 5 Precursor mission to be launched in 2014, to continue and improve the European measurement capabilities initiated with GOME and SCIAMACHY, and continued with EUMETSAT's GOME-2 and the Dutch OMI instrument on the NASA Aura platform. In addition the Sentinel 4 and 5 missions are prepared, further improving the monitoring capabilities with geostationary observation capabilities and continuing the Low Earth Orbit Sentinel 5 Precursor well beyond 2025. At the same time, ESA is preparing two atmospheric Earth Explorer Missions. With ADM-Aeolus, a novel lidar system for the retrieval of wind speed vectors from space is being developed and planned to be launched in 2012. EarthCARE will investigate the Clouds-Aerosol-radiation-interaction with a lidar, cloud radar (provided by JAXA), multi-spectral imager and broad band radiometric instruments collocated on one platform. A major goal is the development of synergistic retrievals exploiting information from different sensors in one algorithm. The mission is planned to start in 2014. In parallel the Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 are ongoing. One of the three candidate missions is PREMIER, an infrared limb-imaging spectrometer and millimetre-wave limb-sounder planned to be launched in 2016. In addition the call of ideas for the Earth Explorer 8 has been published and the corresponding Letters of Intend have been received, including a number of proposals for mission in the atmospheric composition and dynamics domain. At the same time, the access to ESA Third

  2. Street Canyon Atmospheric Composition: Coupling Dynamics and Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, V.; Bloss, W. J.; Cai, X.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric composition within the urban environment, particularly within street canyons (formed by a road running between two rows of buildings), has a direct effect on the air quality of an environment in which a large majority of people live and work. The composition of air within a street canyon is determined by the composition of background air mixed in from above, advection of air into and out of the canyon, vehicle exhaust and other emissions from within the street, together with the mixing and chemical processing of pollutants within the canyon. This occurs on a timescale of a few seconds to minutes and as a result, within-canyon atmospheric processes can have a significant effect on atmospheric composition on such timescales. This paper outlines a modelling study of street canyon atmospheric composition, integrating the combined effects of emissions, dynamics and chemistry. This work builds upon an existing dynamical model of canyon atmospheric motion (Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model) by adding a detailed chemical reaction scheme. Previous studies have considered basic NOx-O3 cycles with only a small number of chemical reactions included. Initially, a zero-dimensional box model was used to develop and assess the accuracy of a suitable reduced chemical scheme to be included within the LES. The reduced chemical scheme, based upon a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM), includes 51 chemical species and 136 reactions. Vehicle emissions taken from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) were subsequently added to the box model. These elements were then combined with the canyon dynamics simulated by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. Results demonstrate that the enhanced model is a suitable tool to be used to further investigate the combined effects of mixing and chemical processing upon air quality within the street canyon. Subsequently, a number of key questions relating to urban atmospheric composition are addressed using the

  3. Atmospheric composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    The earth's atmosphere is made up of a number of gases in different relative amounts. Near sea level and up to about 90 km, the amount of these atmospheric gases in clean, relatively dry air is practically constant. Four of these gases, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, make up 99.99 percent by volume of the atmosphere. Two gases, ozone and water vapor, change in relative amounts, but the total amount of these two is very small compared to the amount of the other gases. The atmospheric composition shown in a table can be considered valid up to 90 km geometric altitude. Above 90 km, mainly because of molecular dissociation and diffusive separation, the composition changes.

  4. Composition/Structure/Dynamics of comet and planetary satellite atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, Michael R. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    This research program addresses two cases of tenuous planetary atmospheres: comets and Io. The comet atmospheric research seeks to analyze a set of spatial profiles of CN in comet Halley taken in a 7.4-day period in April 1986; to apply a new dust coma model to various observations; and to analyze observations of the inner hydrogen coma, which can be optically thick to the resonance scattering of Lyman-alpha radiation, with the newly developed approach that combines a spherical radiative transfer model with our Monte Carlo H coma model. The Io research seeks to understand the atmospheric escape from Io with a hybrid-kinetic model for neutral gases and plasma given methods and algorithms developed for the study of neutral gas cometary atmospheres and the earth's polar wind and plasmasphere. Progress is reported on cometary Hydrogen Lyman-alpha studies; time-series analysis of cometary spatial profiles; model analysis of the dust comae of comets; and a global kinetic atmospheric model of Io.

  5. The ENSO signal in atmospheric composition fields: emission-driven versus dynamically induced changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inness, A.; Benedetti, A.; Flemming, J.; Huijnen, V.; Kaiser, J. W.; Parrington, M.; Remy, S.

    2015-08-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) not only affects meteorological fields but also has a large impact on atmospheric composition. Atmospheric composition fields from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) reanalysis are used to identify the ENSO signal in tropospheric ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and smoke aerosols, concentrating on the months October to December. During El Niño years, all of these fields have increased concentrations over maritime South East Asia in October. The MACC Composition Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) model is used to quantify the relative magnitude of dynamically induced and emission-driven changes in the atmospheric composition fields. While changes in tropospheric ozone are a combination of dynamically induced and emission-driven changes, the changes in carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and smoke aerosols are almost entirely emission-driven in the MACC model. The ozone changes continue into December, i.e. after the end of the Indonesian fire season while changes in the other fields are confined to the fire season.

  6. Temporal Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Community Composition in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, J. B.; Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Fahey, D. W.; Fierer, N.

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing evidence for significant microbial influences on atmospheric chemistry, cloud condensation, and ice nuclei concentrations, with known health impacts, yet we have a limited understanding of the types, abundances, and spatiotemporal dynamics of bacteria and fungi in the atmosphere. Here we use culture-independent molecular approaches, including targeted gene sequencing and quantitative PCR, to characterize bacterial and fungal community composition and abundance in the atmospheric boundary layer. We present results from 32 air samples, collected via vacuum filtration at 10 m and 250 m on the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tower (Erie, CO) between November 2013 and April 2014. Samples were collected at night, and each sample was integrated over consecutive nights for approximately two weeks. Significant temporal shifts in bacterial and fungal community composition were observed over the course of the study, corresponding to changing bacterial and fungal concentrations. Within the same sampling time periods, bacterial and fungal communities from the near-surface atmosphere (10 m) were generally similar to those aloft (250 m), although coupled temporal and altitudinal effects were observed in some cases, particularly for fungi. Overall, our results indicate that bacterial and fungal communities exhibit minimal vertical stratification throughout the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer but show a high degree of variability on two-week timescales. This study paves the way for further research into the connections between boundary layer microbiology, atmospheric dynamics, emissions, and local meteorology.

  7. Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, John

    2004-12-01

    In his book, John Green presents a unique personal insight into the fundamentals of fluid mechanics and atmospheric dynamics. Generations of students have benefited from his lectures, and this book, many years in the making, is the result of his wide teaching and research experience. The theory of fluid flow has developed to such an extent that very complex mathematics and models are currently used to describe it, but many of the fundamental results follow from relatively simple considerations: these classic principles are derived here in a novel, distinctive, and at times even idiosyncratic, way. The book is an introduction to fluid mechanics in the atmosphere for students and researchers that are already familiar with the subject, but who wish to extend their knowledge and philosophy beyond the currently popular development of conventional undergraduate instruction.

  8. Effects of Bulk Composition on the Atmospheric Dynamics on Close-in Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Showman, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Depending on the metallicity of the protoplanetary disk, the details of gas accretion during planetary formation, and atmospheric loss during planetary evolution, the atmospheres of sub-Jupiter-sized planets could exhibit a variety of bulk compositions. Examples include hydrogen-dominated atmospheres like Jupiter, more metal-rich atmospheres like Neptune, evaporated atmospheres dominated by helium, or of course carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen, and other heavy molecules as exhibited by terrestrial planets in the solar system. Here we systematically investigate the effects of atmospheric bulk compositions on temperature and wind distributions for tidally locked sub-Jupiter-sized planets using an idealized three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM). Composition—in particular, the molecular mass and specific heat—affect the sound speed, gravity wave speeds, atmospheric scale height, and Rossby deformation radius, and therefore in principle can exert significant controls on the atmospheric circulation, including the day-night temperature difference and other observables. We performed numerous simulations exploring a wide range of molecular masses and molar specific heats. The effect of molecular weight dominates. We found that a higher-molecular-weight atmosphere tends to have a larger day-night temperature contrast, a smaller eastward phase shift in the thermal light curve, and a narrower equatorial super-rotating jet that occurs in a deeper atmosphere. The zonal-mean zonal wind is smaller and more prone to exhibit a latitudinally alternating pattern in a higher-molecular-weight atmosphere. If the vertical temperature profile is close to adiabatic, molar specific heat will play a significant role in controlling the transition from a divergent flow in the upper atmosphere to a jet-dominated flow in the lower atmosphere. We are also working on analytical theories to explain aspects of the simulations relevant for possible observables on tidally locked

  9. Effects of Bulk Composition on the Atmospheric Dynamics on Close-in Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-12-01

    Depending on the metallicity of the protoplanetary disk and processes such as gas accretion during planetary formation and atmospheric loss during planetary evolution, the atmospheres of sub-Jupiter-sized planets could exhibit a variety of bulk compositions. Examples include hydrogen-dominated atmospheres like Jupiter, more metal-rich atmospheres like Neptune, carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen, and other heavy molecules as exhibited by terrestrial planets in the solar system. In this study we systematically investigate the effects of atmospheric bulk compositions on temperature and wind distributions for tidally locked sub-Jupiter-sized planets such as super-Earths and mini-Neptunes, using an idealized three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM). Composition—in particular, the molecular mass and specific heat—affect the sound speed, gravity wave speeds, atmospheric scale height, and Rossby deformation radius, and therefore in principle can exert significant controls on the atmospheric circulation, including the day-night temperature difference and other observables.We performed numerous simulations exploring a wide range of molecular masses and molar specific heats. The effect of molecular weight dominates. We found that a higher-molecular-weight atmosphere tends to have a larger day-night temperature contrast, a smaller eastward phase shift in the thermal light curve, and a narrower equatorial super-rotating jet that occurs in a deeper atmosphere. The zonal-mean zonal wind is smaller and more prone to exhibit a latitudinally alternating pattern in a higher-molecular-weight atmosphere. If the vertical temperature profile is close to adiabatic, molar specific heat will play a significant role in controlling the transition from a divergent flow in the upper atmosphere to a jet-dominated flow in the lower atmosphere.In order to understand the systematic behavior and capture the underlying physics, we present analytical theories to explain aspects of the

  10. Lunar atmospheric composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Apollo 17 carried a miniature mass spectrometer, called the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), to the moon as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) to study the composition and variations in the lunar atmosphere. The instrument was successfully deployed in the Taurus-Littrow Valley with its entrance aperture oriented upward to intercept and measure the downward flux of gases at the lunar surface. During the ten lunations that the LACE operated, it produced a large base of data on the lunar atmosphere, mainly collected at night time. It was found that thermal escape is the most rapid loss mechanism for hydrogen and helium. For heavier gases, photoionization followed by acceleration through the solar wind electric field accounted for most of the loss. The dominant gases on the moosn were argon and helium, and models formed for their distribution are described in detail. It is concluded that most of the helium in the lunar atmosphere is of solar wind origin, and that there also exist very small amounts of methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide.

  11. Thermal infrared spectrometry of Venus: thermal structure, upper clouds, composition and dynamics of the middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasova, L.; Moroz, L.; Khatuntsev, V.; Ignatiev, N.

    Middle atmosphere of Venus (50 - 100km) is a very important part of its atmosphere. More than 70 % of the absorbed solar energy deposits there, creating an essential source of energy to support thermal structure and dynamics. Thermal infrared spectrometry in the range 6 - 40 μm, which allows to investigate the middle atmosphere, was realized by Fourier spectrometer onboard Venera-15 with spectral resolution of 4.5-6.5 cm- 1. This method enables to retrieve and analyze the 3-D temperature and zonal wind fields (h, lat, LT) in the range 55-100 km and the 3-D aerosol field (h, lat, LT) in the range 55-70 km, to find the solar related waves at isobaric levels, which are generated by the absorbed solar energy. The retrieved spectral dependence of the aerosol extinction cross section shows that the mode 3 (3- 4 μm) particles exist in the upper clouds in the cold collar. In the thermal IR spectral range the1,2 and 3 SO 2 and the H2O rotational ( 40 μm) and vibro-rotational (6.3 μm) absorption bands were observed. An advantage of the thermal infrared spectrometry method is that both the temperature and aerosol profiles, needed for retrieval of the vertical profiles of minor compounds, are evaluated fro m the same spectrum. The SO 2 vertical profiles are obtained using three fundamental bands. The H2O abundance in the range 55-65 km is also determined. The time and spatial variations of the water vapour concentration were found. The behavior of the wind speed in the mid-latitude jet reveals the correlation with its position ( latitude and altitude), which agrees with the laws of the conservation of momentum and flux. The Fourier spectrometer on Venera-15 may be considered as a precursor of the instrument of this kind for the future missions. The Planetary Fourier Specrtometer, proposed for Venus Express mission has a spectral range 1-50 μm and a spectral resolution of 1 2 cm-1 . A functioning of this instrument on the polar orbit with a- good coverage in local time and

  12. Studies for the 3-Dimensional Structure, Composition, and Dynamic of Io's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2001-01-01

    Research work is discussed for the following: (1) the exploration of new H and Cl chemistry in Io's atmosphere using the already developed two-dimensional multi-species hydrodynamic model of Wong and Smyth; and (2) for the development of a new three-dimensional multi-species hydrodynamic model for Io's atmosphere.

  13. Mars Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere is dynamically similar to the Earth's. Its spin-axis rotation rate is only minutes longer than Earth's so the Coriolois force is nearly identical to Earth's. The inclination of its spin axis is also similar to Earth's giving it similarity in seasonal change. And the Martian atmosphere is nearly transparent to solar radiation (except during dust periods) such that it is heated primarily by upwelling infrared radiation from the surface. These characteristics make Mars an ideal laboratory for studying the dynamics of rapidly rotating differentially heated atmospheres. This talk reviews what we have learned about Mars atmospheric dynamics and how if compares with Earth. The source of information to make such a comparison comes from observations and models. The former are sparse and that the latter have played a major role in shaping our thinking about the general circulation on Mars. However, the models need validation. Fortunately, the first two orbiters in NASA's Mars Surveyor Program have instrumentation to address many of the issues related to the general circulation and climate of Mars. The first, Mars Global Surveyor, is already at Mars gathering data. The second, the Mars 98 Orbiter to be launched later this year, carries a dedicated atmospheric sounder. Thus, much will be learned about Mars' atmosphere in the next few years.

  14. Dynamics of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1989-01-01

    The overall goal is to illuminate the mechanisms that control weather and climate on the Earth and other planets. Each planet presents its own puzzling behavior - the stability of jets and vortices in Jupiter's otherwise turbulent atmosphere, the superrotation of the Venus atmosphere, the interplay of dust, polar volatiles, and climate change in Mars, the supersonic meteorology of Io, and the counterintuitive equator-to-pole temperature gradients on the outer planets. The data sets are generally those obtained from spacecraft - cloud-tracked winds, radiometrically inferred temperatures, and the results of in situ observations where appropriate. The approach includes both data analysis and modeling, ranging from analytic modeling to time-dependent numerical modeling of atmospheric dynamics. The latter approach involves the use of supercomputers such as the San Diego Cray. Progress is generally made when a model with a small number of free parameters either fits a data set that has a large number of independent observations or applies to several planets at once.

  15. Finding Atmospheric Composition (AC) Metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, Richard F..; Falke, Stefan; Fiakowski, Ed; Kempler, Steve; Lynnes, Chris; Goussev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is an aggregator and curator of information related to remotely sensed atmospheric composition data and analysis. It uses existing tools and technologies and, where needed, enhances those capabilities to provide interoperable access, tools, and contextual guidance for scientists and value-adding organizations using remotely sensed atmospheric composition data. The initial focus is on Essential Climate Variables identified by the Global Climate Observing System CH4, CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2 and aerosols. This poster addresses our efforts in building the ACP Data Table, an interface to help discover and understand remotely sensed data that are related to atmospheric composition science and applications. We harvested GCMD, CWIC, GEOSS metadata catalogs using machine to machine technologies - OpenSearch, Web Services. We also manually investigated the plethora of CEOS data providers portals and other catalogs where that data might be aggregated. This poster is our experience of the excellence, variety, and challenges we encountered.Conclusions:1.The significant benefits that the major catalogs provide are their machine to machine tools like OpenSearch and Web Services rather than any GUI usability improvements due to the large amount of data in their catalog.2.There is a trend at the large catalogs towards simulating small data provider portals through advanced services. 3.Populating metadata catalogs using ISO19115 is too complex for users to do in a consistent way, difficult to parse visually or with XML libraries, and too complex for Java XML binders like CASTOR.4.The ability to search for Ids first and then for data (GCMD and ECHO) is better for machine to machine operations rather than the timeouts experienced when returning the entire metadata entry at once. 5.Metadata harvest and export activities between the major catalogs has led to a significant amount of duplication. (This is currently being addressed) 6.Most (if not all

  16. Atmospheric Circulation and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.; Rengel, Miriam

    The deep atmosphere of Venus ( ˜ 180 km including the thermosphere) presents both observational and modeling challenges. Its thick, nearly uniform global cloud cover makes it difficult to fathom the vertical structure of the global circulation through available techniques that are applied to Earth's atmosphere. Further, the slow rotation of the planet and the consequential prevailing cyclostrophic balance restricts easy inferences about the meridional flow and circulation (Gierasch et al. 1997, Read 1986, Schubert et al. 2007).

  17. Atmospheric Composition Change: Climate-Chemistry Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaksen, I.S.A.; Granier, C.; Myhre, G.; Bernsten, T. K.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Gauss, S.; Klimont, Z.; Benestad, R.; Bousquet, P.; Collins, W.; Cox, T.; Eyring, V.; Fowler, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Jockel, P.; Laj, P.; Lohmann, U.; Maione, M.; Monks, T.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Raes, F.; Richter, A.; Rognerud, B.; Schulz, M.; Shindell, D.; Stevenson, D. S.; Storelvmo, T.; Wang, W.-C.; vanWeele, M.; Wild, M.; Wuebbles, D.

    2011-01-01

    Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds such as methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds such as ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate-chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change, through changes in temperature, dynamics, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric stability, and biosphere-atmosphere interactions, affects the atmospheric composition and oxidation processes in the troposphere. Here we present progress in our understanding of processes of importance for climate-chemistry interactions, and their contributions to changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. A key factor is the oxidation potential involving compounds such as O3 and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Reported studies represent both current and future changes. Reported results include new estimates of radiative forcing based on extensive model studies of chemically active climate compounds such as O3, and of particles inducing both direct and indirect effects. Through EU projects such as ACCENT, QUANTIFY, and the AEROCOM project, extensive studies on regional and sector-wise differences in the impact on atmospheric distribution are performed. Studies have shown that land-based emissions have a different effect on climate than ship and aircraft emissions, and different measures are needed to reduce the climate impact. Several areas where climate change can affect the tropospheric oxidation process and the chemical composition are identified. This can take place through enhanced stratospheric-tropospheric exchange of ozone, more frequent periods with stable conditions favouring pollution build up over industrial areas, enhanced temperature-induced biogenic emissions, methane releases from permafrost thawing, and enhanced

  18. Lidar investigations of atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philbrick, C. Russell; Hallen, Hans D.

    2015-09-01

    Ground based lidar techniques using Raleigh and Raman scattering, differential absorption (DIAL), and supercontinuum sources are capable of providing unique signatures to study dynamical processes in the lower atmosphere. The most useful profile signatures of dynamics in the lower atmosphere are available in profiles of time sequences of water vapor and aerosol optical extinction obtained with Raman and DIAL lidars. Water vapor profiles are used to study the scales and motions of daytime convection cells, residual layer bursts into the planetary boundary layer (PBL), variations in height of the PBL layer, cloud formation and dissipation, scale sizes of gravity waves, turbulent eddies, as well as to study the seldom observed phenomena of Brunt-Väisälä oscillations and undular bore waves. Aerosol optical extinction profiles from Raman lidar provide another tracer of dynamics and motion using sequential profiles atmospheric aerosol extinction, where the aerosol distribution is controlled by dynamic, thermodynamic, and photochemical processes. Raman lidar profiles of temperature describe the stability of the lower atmosphere and measure structure features. Rayleigh lidar can provide backscatter profiles of aerosols in the troposphere, and temperature profiles in the stratosphere and mesosphere, where large gravity waves, stratospheric clouds, and noctilucent clouds are observed. Examples of several dynamical features are selected to illustrate interesting processes observed with Raman lidar. Lidar experiments add to our understanding of physical processes that modify atmospheric structure, initiate turbulence and waves, and describe the relationships between energy sources, atmospheric stability parameters, and the observed dynamics.

  19. Uranus atmospheric dynamics and circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Beebe, Reta F.; Conrath, Barney J.; Hinson, David P.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1991-01-01

    The observations, models, and theories relevant to the atmospheric dynamics and meteorology of Uranus are discussed. The available models for the large-scale heat transport and atmospheric dynamics as well as diagnostic interpretations of the Voyager data are reviewed. Some pertinent ideas and questions regarding the global circulation balance are considered, partly in comparison with other planetary atmospheres. The available data indicate atmospheric rotation at midlatitudes nearly 200 m/s faster than that of the planetary magnetic field. Analysis of the dynamical deformation of the shape and size of isobaric surfaces measured by the Voyager radio-occultation experiment suggests a subrotating equator at comparable altitudes. Infrared temperature retrievals above the cloud deck indicate a smaller equator-to-pole contrast than expected for purely radiative-convective equilibrium, but show local variations implying a latitudinally correlated decrease with altitude in the cloud-tracked wind.

  20. The PHOCUS Project: Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, J.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.

    2012-12-01

    On the morning of July 21, 2011, the PHOCUS sounding rocket was launched from Esrange, Sweden, into strong noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). The aim of the PHOCUS project (Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer mesosphere) is to study mesospheric particles (ice and meteoric smoke) and their interaction with their neutral and charged environment. Interactions of interest comprise the charging and nucleation of particles, the relationship between meteoric smoke and ice, and the influence of these particles on gas-phase chemistry. Here we will describe the optical measurements of the atmospheric composition and present first results including comparison to the other simultaneous measurements. The atmospheric composition was probed by a set of optical instruments from Stockholm University. The idea behind the instrument setup was to combine the advantages of the sensitive resonance fluorescence with well-calibrated airglow photometry. The set of instruments consisted of two resonance fluorescence probes (each containing a lamp and a detector), one for atomic oxygen and one for atomic hydrogen, and two IR photometers for O2 and OH dayglow emissions in the near IR. The O2 IR Atmospheric system at 1.27 μm is related to the photolysis of O3, which during the day is in steady state with O and a retrieval of O is possible. The OH Meinel emission is produced by the reaction between mesospheric O3 and H, and H concentrations can be deduced by combining information from both photometers. Unfortunately, some of these measurements were corrupted by instrument problems or payload glow. O3 and O profiles will be presented and compared to the simultaneous measurements of ice and meteoric smoke particles, water vapour and the state of the background neutral and charged atmosphere.

  1. Ion and neutral mass spectrometry of the isotopic composition of Titan's upper atmosphere: Implications for the atmospheric dynamics and photochemistry, and the evolution of the major species over geological time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandt, Kathleen E.

    developed for this Dissertation are relevant not only to Titan, but also to Earth. They can be used to evaluate dynamics and photochemistry of the nitrogen isotopes in the upper atmosphere and to define future missions to study the composition of the Earth's thermosphere.

  2. Atmospheric composition and stability of ocean planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wordsworth, R.; Pierrehumbert, R.

    2013-12-01

    Earth is an unusual planet because it possesses surface liquid water, but also because it simultaneously has surface land. Dynamical modeling suggests that many terrestrial exoplanets will form with many times Earth's present-day H2O inventory, and hence may initially be covered by global oceans. Understanding the climate evolution and volatile cycling of ocean planets is hence an important step towards predicting the range of possible atmospheric conditions for terrestrial-mass exoplanets in general. Here we use a combination of basic theory, 1D climate/escape modeling and 3D GCM calculations to study the stability of ocean planets to water loss via photolysis of H2O in the high atmosphere and associated hydrogen escape. We show that inside the runaway greenhouse limit, water loss is likely to be ineffective regardless of mass, age and atmospheric composition, due to a combination of cold-trapping at the tropopause and IR cooling in the high atmosphere by radiatively active gases such as CO2. Hence planets that form with a high water content should generally remain water-rich throughout their lifetimes. We also show via simple equilibrium ocean chemistry calculations that volatiles such as CO2 are likely to reach high atmospheric levels in the absence of surface land, resulting in hot surface conditions. Our calculations highlight the importance of future work to study the partitioning of H2O between the surface/crust and the deep mantle in rocky planets. They also imply that distinguishing between optically thick CO2/H2O-rich atmospheres and cases where surface IR emission to space is possible will be a key challenge for future super-Earth atmospheric characterization.

  3. Dynamics of the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasseur, Guy

    In recent years, much effort has been put in the study of chemical, dynamical, and radiative processes in the middle atmosphere. A great deal of activity has been stimulated by the necessity of estimating the potential effects of several anthropogenic perturbations on the ozone layer and on the earth's climate. For example, the atmospheric response to the emission of chlorofluorocarbons or nitrogen oxides is among the problems to be elucidated. Questions such as this cannot be properly answered without an understanding of the various processes involved in the transport of chemical constituents. The publication of a book. that contains original contributions on a variety of topics, such as internal gravity waves, tides, planetary waves, and stratospheric warmings, and that presents overview articles on the transport of trace species and on general circulation models is particularly useful for both research scientists and graduate students involved in atmospheric science.

  4. Atmospheric composition forecasting in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.

    2010-01-01

    The atmospheric composition is a societal issue and, following new European directives, its forecast is now recommended to quantify the air quality. It concerns both gaseous and particles species, identified as potential problems for health. In Europe, numerical systems providing daily air quality forecasts are numerous and, mostly, operated by universities. Following recent European research projects (GEMS, PROMOTE), an organization of the air quality forecast is currently under development. But for the moment, many platforms exist, each of them with strengths and weaknesses. This overview paper presents all existing systems in Europe and try to identify the main remaining gaps in the air quality forecast knowledge. As modeling systems are now able to reasonably forecast gaseous species, and in a lesser extent aerosols, the future directions would concern the use of these systems with ensemble approaches and satellite data assimilation. If numerous improvements were recently done on emissions and chemistry knowledge, improvements are still needed especially concerning meteorology, which remains a weak point of forecast systems. Future directions will also concern the use of these forecast tools to better understand and quantify the air pollution impact on health.

  5. Atmospheric composition - Influence of biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    The variability of atmospheric constituents influenced by biological organisms over various time scales is examined, together with the human contribution to atmospheric sulfur. The biogeochemistry of nitrogen is discussed, with an emphasis on N2O, NO, and microbially mediated reactions in soil and water. Carbon species are bound up mainly in sediments and the deep ocean, but human activities involving combustion may cause a doubling of the atmospheric levels of CO2 in the near future, which could produce a general low-level atmospheric warming. Longer term measurements are required to assess the effects of CH4 augmentation in the atmosphere through fuel combustion. Coal burning effectively doubles the amount of SO2 produced by natural sources, and reduces the pH of rainwater, thus posing hazards to fish, plankton, and mollusc life.

  6. Photodissociation dynamics and atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, R. P.

    1993-07-01

    The paper uses data from the literature to explore photodissociation dynamics of molecules possessing three, four, and five atoms, as represented by O3 and CO2, NH3 and C2H2, and CH4, respectively. The results yield many details, even in regard to the disposal of energy into rotation, which have applications to atmospheric problems. For instance, experiments probing the translational energies of the O and the vibrational and rotational distributions in the CO suggest that a spin-forbidden channel operates as it does in ozone photolysis. The data for both O3 and CO2 suggest a relationship between the structure of the parent molecule and the dynamics of dissociation.

  7. Titan's atmosphere composition: certainties and speculations.

    PubMed

    Gautier, D

    1995-03-01

    Firm results concerning the thermal structure, the composition, the seasonal effects of the atmosphere of Titan, as well as the superotation of its stratosphere are reviewed. The nature of the surface of the satellite, the possible presence of argon in the atmosphere and the structure and composition of clouds and aerosols are, among other topics, still speculative. The implications of the observed deuterium enrichment on the origin of ices in the outer part of the nebula are controversial.

  8. Chemistry and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2012-05-01

    For more than two decades a cadre of physical chemists has focused on understanding the formation processes, chemical composition, and chemical kinetics of atmospheric aerosol particles and droplets with diameters ranging from a few nanometers to ˜10,000 nm. They have adapted or invented a range of fundamental experimental and theoretical tools to investigate the thermochemistry, mass transport, and chemical kinetics of processes occurring at nanoscale gas-liquid and gas-solid interfaces for a wide range of nonideal, real-world substances. State-of-the-art laboratory methods devised to study molecular spectroscopy, chemical kinetics, and molecular dynamics also have been incorporated into field measurement instruments that are deployed routinely on research aircraft, ships, and mobile laboratories as well as at field sites from megacities to the most remote jungle, desert, and polar locations. These instruments can now provide real-time, size-resolved aerosol particle physical property and chemical composition data anywhere in Earth's troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  9. Polar Atmospheric Dynamics of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Mitchell, J. L.; Heavens, N. G.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the transition in Jupiter's atmospheric dynamic regime between mid-latitudes to polar regions. Spacecraft observations of Jupiter have identified three distinct dynamical regimes in the cloud-top winds. In the equatorial region, a fast, broad jetstream blows eastward where no vortices are found. In the mid-latitudes, many vortices exist between the numerous jetstreams that alternate in wind direction between eastward and westward. On Jupiter, vortices become increasingly prevalent with latitude; poleward of 65 degree N/S latitudes, the banded structure that characterizes the lower latitudes becomes indiscernible, and the flow acquires an increasingly turbulent appearance with little zonal organization - we identify this regime as polar turbulence. Saturn also has a very similarly organized atmosphere, except that it maintains zonally organized cloud bands up to the poles and lacks polar turbulence. The zonal structure of Saturn culminates in the southern hemisphere with a hurricane-like cyclonic vortex residing precisely at south pole. Here, we focus on the transition from the mixed jet-vortex regime in the mid-latitudes to the vortex-dominated polar-regime of Jupiter. Using an idealized shallow-water model in a beta-plane channel, we test the stability of various scenarios that range between a jet-dominated flow and vortical turbulence. Since we are simulating a zone on the sphere rather than the full circulation, we test the sensitivity of the dynamics to latitude by varying the model’s beta-plane parameters, namely, the background Coriolis parameter f0 and its gradient beta. In addition, as we employ a 1 1/2-layer shallow-water model, we also vary the layer thickness and the bottom-layer topography to mimic a steeply varying thermal stratification (i.e., a potential vorticity front) by exploiting the topographic beta effects. We use the EPIC model (Dowling et al. 1998) to perform our numerical experiments. Our study is supported by a NASA Outer

  10. Titan's Atmospheric Dynamics and Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Baines, K. H.; Bird, M. K.; Tokano, T.; West, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Titan, after Venus, is the second example of an atmosphere with a global cyclostrophic circulation in the solar system, but a circulation that has a strong seasonal modulation in the middle atmosphere. Direct measurement of Titan's winds, particularly observations tracking the Huygens probe at 10degS, indicate that the zonal winds are generally in the sense of the satellites rotation. They become cyclostrophic approx. 35 km above the surface and generally increase with altitude, with the exception of a sharp minimum centered near 75 km, where the wind velocity decreases to nearly zero. Zonal winds derived from the temperature field retrieved from Cassini measurements, using the thermal wind equation, indicate a strong winter circumpolar vortex, with maximum winds at mid northern latitudes of 190 ms-' near 300 km. Above this level, the vortex decays. Curiously, the zonal winds and temperatures are symmetric about a pole that is offset from the surface pole by approx.4 degrees. The cause of this is not well understood, but it may reflect the response of a cyclostrophic circulation to the offset between the equator, where the distance to the rotation axis is greatest, and the solar equator. The mean meridional circulation can be inferred from the temperature field and the meridional distribution of organic molecules and condensates and hazes. Both the warm temperatures in the north polar region near 400 km and the enhanced concentration of several organic molecules suggests subsidence there during winter and early spring. Stratospheric condensates are localized at high northern latitudes, with a sharp cut-off near 50degN. Titan's winter polar vortex appears to share many of the same characteristics of winter vortices on Earth-the ozone holes. Global mapping of temperatures, winds, and composition in he troposphere, by contrast, is incomplete. The few suitable discrete clouds that have bee found for tracking indicate smaller velocities than aloft, consistent with the

  11. An assessment model for atmospheric composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, Michael J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Predicting future perturbations to global air quality and climate requires, as a prerequisite, prognostic models for the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. Such assessment models are needed to evaluate the impact on our environment of different social choices that affect emissions of the photochemically and radiatively important trace gases. Our presentation here of a prototype assessment model is intended to encourage public scientific discussions of the necessary components of the model and their interactions, with the recognition that models similar to this will likely be used by the Environmental Protection Agency and other regulatory agencies in order to assess the effect of changes in atmospheric composition on climate over the next century.

  12. OGO-6 neutral atmospheric composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taeusch, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The continued analysis of data obtained from the neutral atmospheric composition experiment flown on OGO-V6 is discussed. The effort was directed toward the study of five specific areas of interest for which the OGO-V6 data were especially useful.

  13. Atmospheric Data Package for the Composite Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Ramsdell, James V.

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this data package is to summarize our conceptual understanding of atmospheric transport and deposition, describe how this understanding will be simplified for numerical simulation as part of the Composite Analysis (i.e., implementation model), and finally to provide the input parameters needed for the simulations.

  14. Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Composition on LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Jill R.; Effenberger, Andrew J.; Hatch, Jeremy J.

    While laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an attractive technique because of its basic simplicity with little or no sample preparation and ability to be performed under standard Earth atmosphere, there has been increasing interest in performing LIBS under non-standard pressures and with surrounding atmospheric gases other than air. Altering the atmospheric pressure can dramatically change the observed LIBS spectra, such as greatly improving the resolution, signal intensity, and overall signal-to-noise ratio by judicious choice of pressure and gas composition. The ability to enhance LIBS spectra has enabled challenging applications related to detection of isotopes. Interest in non-standard atmospheric conditions is also driven by applications for space exploration and process monitoring as well as the opportunity to better understand the dynamics associated with the LIBS plasma.

  15. Dynamic of the atmospheric boundary layer from the isotopic composition of surface water vapor at the Maïdo Observatory (La Réunion, Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilpart, Etienne; Vimeux, Francoise; Metzger, Jean-Marc; Evan, Stephanie; Brioude, Jerome; Cattani, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Projections of tropical and subtropical precipitation strongly differ from one climate model to another, both in sign and in amplitude. This is the case for example in some parts of the West Indian Ocean. The causes of those uncertainties are numerous and a better understanding of humid processes in the tropical atmosphere is needed. We propose to address this burning question by using water stables isotopes. We have been measuring the isotopic composition of surface water vapor at the atmospheric Observatory of Maïdo located at La Reunion Island (21°S, 55°E, 2200m a.s.l) since November 2014. Our results exhibit a strong diurnal cycle all over the year (except during cyclonic activity), with almost constant isotopic values during the day (around -13.5±0.6‰ for oxygen 18 from November 2014 to November 2015) and variable and very depleted isotopic values during the night (down to -35‰ for oxygen 18 over the same period) associated with low humidity levels. We will show in this presentation that the diurnal isotopic variations are associated to a strong air masses mixing. During the day, the isotopic composition of the vapor is typical of marine boundary layer (BL) moisture transported from the close Ocean and lifted up to the Maïdo station. During the night, the depleted values and the low humidity could trace free troposphere moisture, which is consistent with previous studies suggesting that the Maïdo Observatory is above the BL during the night. We will explore the influence of the daily BL development on our observations, using a set of atmospheric vertical profiles done on site in May 2015 during the BIOMAIDO campaign. At last, we will discuss the most isotopic depleted values recorded in our observations during the night as a possible consequence of regional strong subsidences.

  16. Dynamics of atmospheric re-entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Frank J.; Anandakrishnan, Satya M.

    1993-03-01

    The present volume on dynamics of atmospheric reentry is an extention of the original book, Reentry Vehicle Dynamics. Topics addressed include atmospheric models, earth's form and gravitational field, axis transformations, force and moment equations, Keplerian motion, reentry vehicle particle mechanics, decoys and the identification of reentry vehicles, and particle motion in maneuvering reentry vehicles. Attention is also given to angular motion during the exoatmospheric (Keplerian) phase, a flowfield description, angular motion during reentry, error analysis, and inertial guidance.

  17. Effects of eustatic sea-level change, ocean dynamics, and iron fertilization on atmospheric pCO2 and seawater composition over the last 130 000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallmann, K.; Schneider, B.; Sarnthein, M.

    2015-06-01

    We developed and employed an earth system model to explore the forcings of atmospheric pCO2 change and the chemical and isotopic evolution of seawater over the last glacial cycle. Concentrations of dissolved phosphorus, reactive nitrogen, molecular oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), 13C-DIC and 14C-DIC were calculated for 24 ocean boxes. The bi-directional water fluxes between these model boxes were derived from a 3-D circulation field of the modern ocean (Opa 8.2, NEMO) and tuned such that tracer distributions calculated by the box model were consistent with observational data from the modern ocean. To model the last 130 kyr, we employed records of past changes in sea-level, ocean circulation, and dust deposition. According to the model, about half of the glacial pCO2 drawdown may be attributed to marine regressions. The glacial sea-level low-stands implied steepened ocean margins, a reduced burial of particulate organic carbon, phosphorus, and neritic carbonate at the margin seafloor, a decline in benthic denitrification, and enhanced weathering of emerged shelf sediments. In turn, they led to a distinct rise in the standing stocks of DIC, TA, and nutrients in the global ocean, promoted the glacial sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in the ocean, and added 13C- and 14C-depleted DIC to the ocean as recorded in benthic foraminifera signals. The other half of the glacial drop in pCO2 was linked to reduced deep ocean dynamics, a shoaling of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, and a rise in iron fertilization. The increased transit time of deep waters in the glacial ocean led to significant 14C depletions with respect to the atmosphere. The deglacial rapid and stepwise rise in atmospheric pCO2 was induced by upwelling both in the Southern Ocean and subarctic North Pacific and promoted by a drop in dust-borne iron discharge to the Southern Ocean. The deglacial sea-level rise led to a gradual decline in nutrient, DIC, and TA stocks

  18. New Discoveries Resulted from Lidar Investigation of Middle and Upper Atmosphere Temperature, Composition, Chemistry and Dynamics at McMurdo, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; Yu, Z.; Fong, W.; Chen, C.; Huang, W.; Lu, X.; Gardner, C. S.; McDonald, A.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Vadas, S.

    2013-12-01

    discoveries may have opened the new door to observing the neutral thermosphere with ground-based instruments. Extreme Fe events in summer were observed and understood as the interesting interactions among the meteoric metal atoms, sub-visible ice particles and energetic particles during aurora precipitation. Furthermore, the McMurdo middle and upper atmosphere is found to be very dynamical, especially in winter when inertia-gravity waves and eastward propagating planetary waves are predominant in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and in the stratosphere, respectively. Despite small amplitudes below 100 km, the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal amplitudes exhibit fast growth from 100 to 110 km depending on the geomagnetic activities. These observations pose great challenges to our understanding of the Earth's upper atmosphere but also provide excellent opportunities to exploring how the electrodynamics and neutral dynamics work together at this high southern latitude to produce many intriguing geophysical phenomena.

  19. Atmospheric composition of cold super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Paris, P.; Patzer, B.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hedelt, P.; Stracke, B.; Rauer, H.

    2008-09-01

    Planets of masses below 10 times that of Earth (so-called Super-Earths) orbiting far away from their central star have been discovered by Microlensing surveys. Super-Earth atmospheres cannot be characterized remotely yet. However, based on climate modelling and analogies with our solar system, we can put constraints on possible atmospheric compositions. Whenever the triple point of a gaseous constituent is reached on the surface, this constituent is likely to freeze out until equilibrium between ice and vapour/liquid is reached. Important greenhouse gases which are essential for habitability considerations are water (triple point 6.5 mb, 273 K) and carbon dioxide (triple point 5.18 bar, 216 K). In our work we apply a 1D radiative-convective model to Super-Earth atmospheres. We investigate the effect of varying orbital distance, stellar type and planetary mass upon the ability of water and carbon dioxide to remain in the atmosphere. Our results indicate a threshold regime where atmospheres switch from being CO2-rich to being N2-dominated. Implications for habitability and surface conditions are discussed.

  20. Mass spectrometric measurements of atmospheric composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a magnetic sector field analyzer for continuous sampling and measurement of outer planetary atmospheres is discussed. Special features of the analyzer include a dynamic range of 10 to the minus 7th power, a mass range from 1 to 48 AMU, two ion sensitivities, a special scan time of 35 sec at 14 BPS, and the use of ion counting techniques for analysis.

  1. Atmospheric dynamics of tidally synchronized extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Cho, James Y-K

    2008-12-13

    Tidally synchronized planets present a new opportunity for enriching our understanding of atmospheric dynamics on planets. Subject to an unusual forcing arrangement (steady irradiation on the same side of the planet throughout its orbit), the dynamics on these planets may be unlike that on any of the Solar System planets. Characterizing the flow pattern and temperature distribution on the extrasolar planets is necessary for reliable interpretation of data currently being collected, as well as for guiding future observations. In this paper, several fundamental concepts from atmospheric dynamics, likely to be central for characterization, are discussed. Theoretical issues that need to be addressed in the near future are also highlighted.

  2. Dynamics of the Venus atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    The superrotation of the Venus atmosphere is a major unanswered problem in planetary science. At cloud-top levels (65-70 km altitude) the atmosphere rotates with a five-day period, corresponding to an equatorial wind speed of 90 m/s. Angular velocity is roughly constant on spherical shells, and decreases linearly with altitude to zero at the surface. The direction of rotation is the same as that of the solid planet, which is retrograde--opposite to the direction of orbital motion, but the 5-day period is short compared to the 243-day spin period of the solid planet or to the mean solar day, which is 117 Earth-days at the surface. The problem with the superrotation is that shearing stresses tend to transfer angular momentum downward, and would slow the atmosphere until it is spinning with the solid planet. Some organized circulation pattern is counteracting the tendency, but the pattern has not been identified. A simple Hadley-type circulation cannot do it because such a circulation is zonally symmetric and Hide's Theorem states that in an axisymmetric circulation an extremum in angular momentum per unit mass M can exist only at the surface. Venus violates the last condition, having a maximum of retrograde M on the equator at 70-80 km altitude. This leaves waves and eddies to maintain the superrotation but the length scales and forcing mechanisms for these motions need to be specified. Possible forcing mechanisms associated with waves, eddies and tides are discussed.

  3. Atmospheric dynamics of the outer planets.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, A P

    1990-04-20

    Despite major differences in the solar and internal energy inputs, the atmospheres of the four Jovian planets all exhibit latitudinal banding and high-speed jet streams. Neptune and Saturn are the windiest planets, Jupiter is the most active, and Uranus is a tipped-over version of the others. Large oval storm systems exhibit complicated time-dependent behavior that can be simulated in numerical models and laboratory experiments. The largest storm system, the Great Red Spot of Jupiter, has survived for more than 300 years in a chaotic shear zone where smaller structures appear and dissipate every few days. Future space missions will add to our understanding of small-scale processes, chemical composition, and vertical structure. Theoretical hypotheses about the interiors provide input for fluid dynamical models that reproduce many observed features of the winds, temperatures, and cloud patterns. In one set of models the winds are confined to the thin layer where clouds form. In other models, the winds extend deep into the planetary fluid interiors. Hypotheses will be tested further as observations and theories become more exact and detailed comparisons are made.

  4. Composition, Chemistry, and Climate of the Atmosphere. 2: Mean properties of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B. (Editor); Salstein, David A.

    1994-01-01

    The atmosphere can be defined as the relatively thin gaseous envelope surrounding the entire planet Earth. It possesses a number of properties related to its physical state and chemical composition, and it undergoes a variety of internal processes and external interactions that can either maintain or alter these properties. Whereas descriptions of the atmosphere's chemical properties form much of the remaining chapters of this book, the present chapter will highlight the atmosphere's gases, and these define its temperature structure. In contrast, the larger-scale motions comprise the winds, the global organization of which is often referred to as the general circulation. The framework of the dynamical and thermodynamical laws, including the three principles of conversation of mass, momentum, and energy, are fundamental in describing both the internal processes of the atmosphere and its external interactions. The atmosphere is not a closed system, because it exchanges all three of these internally conservative quantities across the atmosphere's boundary below and receives input from regions outside it. Thus surface fluxes of moisture, momentum, and heat occur to and from the underlying ocean and land. The atmosphere exchanges very little mass and momentum with space, though it absorbs directly a portion of the solar radiational energy received from above.

  5. Titan's Atmospheric Composition from Observations by the Cassini Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; LeClair, A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Conrath, B. J.; Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. J.; Nixon, C. A.; Brasunas, J.; Achterberg, R. K.

    2006-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard the Cassini spacecraft has been making observations during the fly-bys of Titan since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion in July 2004. The observations provide infrared them1 emission spectra of Titan s atmosphere in three spectral channels covering the 10/cm to 1400/cm spectral region, with variable spectral resolutions of 0.53/cm and 2.8/cm. The uniquely observed spectra exhibit rotational and vibrational-rotational spectral lines of the molecular constituents of Titan s atmosphere that may be analyzed to retrieve information about the composition, thermal structure, and physical and dynamical processes in the remotely sensed atmosphere. We present an analysis of Titan's infrared spectra observed during July 2004 (TO), December 2004 (Tb) and February 2005 (T3), for retrieval of the stratospheric thermal structure, distribution of the hydrocarbons, nitriles, and oxygen bearing constituents, such as C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, HCN, HC3N, CO, and CO2 . Preliminary results on the distribution and opacity of haze in Titan s atmosphere are discussed.

  6. The Stable Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakir, D.

    2003-12-01

    When a bean leaf was sealed in a closed chamber under a lamp (Rooney, 1988), in two hours the atmospheric CO2 in the microcosm reached an isotopic steady state with a 13C abundance astonishingly similar to the global mean value of atmospheric CO2 at that time (-7.5‰ in the δ13C notation introduced below). Almost concurrently, another research group sealed a suspension of asparagus cells in a different type of microcosm in which within about two hours the atmospheric O2 reached an isotopic steady state with 18O enrichment relative to water in the microcosm that was, too, remarkably similar to the global-scale offset between atmospheric O2 and mean ocean water (21‰ versus 23.5‰ in the δ18O notation introduced below; Guy et al., 1987). These classic experiments capture some of the foundations underlying the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 and O2. First, in both cases the biological system rapidly imposed a unique isotopic value on the microcosms' atmosphere via their massive photosynthetic and respiratory exchange of CO2 and O2. Second, in both cases the biological system acted on materials with isotopic signals previously formed by the global carbon and hydrological cycles. That is, the bean leaf introduced its previously formed organic matter (the source of the CO2 respired into microcosm's atmosphere), and the asparagus cells were introduced complete with local tap water (from which photosynthesis released molecular oxygen). Therefore, while the isotopic composition of the biological system used was slave to long-term processes, intense metabolic processes centered on few specific enzymes (Yakir, 2002) dictated the short-term atmospheric composition.In a similar vein, on geological timescales of millions of years, the atmosphere and its isotopic composition are integral parts of essentially a single dynamic ocean-atmosphere-biosphere system. This dynamic system exchanges material, such as carbon and oxygen, with the sediments and the lithosphere via

  7. Dynamics of the Venus atmospheric superrotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Masahiro

    It has been shown by Takagi and Matsuda (2006, 2007) that the thermal tides excited at the cloud levels propagate downward to the ground, and induce mean flow in the opposite direction to the Venus rotation at about 0-10 km levels. Surface friction acting on this counter flow can provide the Venus atmosphere with net angular momentum required for its superrotation. By using a nonlinear dynamical model, it has been confirmed that this mechanism generates the atmospheric superrotation extending from the ground to 80 km, whose vertical structure is consistent with observations. However, a mean zonal component of the solar heating is excluded in this model. Numerical experiments with the mean zonal solar heating imply that dynamical effects of the mean meridional circulation cannot be neglected. It is also necessary to construct a radiation scheme suitable for the Venus atmosphere with enormous optical depth. We are currently working on these tasks.

  8. Titan's upper atmospheric structure and ionospheric composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westlake, Joseph H.

    This Dissertation investigates the density structure of the neutral upper atmosphere and the composition of the ionosphere of Titan through Cassini observations. The highly extended atmosphere of Titan consists primarily of N2, CH4, and H2. The focus is on data extracted from the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard Cassini. The INMS, which is fundamentally a quadrupole mass spectrometer, measures the abundance of neutral and ion components with masses of 1--8 and 12--99 Da. The CAPS instrument consists of three subsystems of which the Ion Beam Spectrometer (CAPS-IBS) is used in this study to derive mass spectra of thermal ions up to 400 Da. in mass in Titan's ionosphere. From measurements of molecular nitrogen in Titan's upper atmosphere an atmospheric scale height is derived implying an effective temperature. From an analysis of 29 targeted flybys of Titan we find that the thermosphere is isothermal from an altitude of 1050 km to the exobase height with an average effective temperature of 153 K. The scale height, and hence the effective temperature, is found to be highly variable. We assess this variability against the relevant geospatial, solar, and magnetospheric parameters to determine which are highly correlated to the effective temperatures. Titan's thermospheric temperature is found to be controlled by variations in the magnetospheric plasma environment. No correlation is found to exist with respect to geospatial parameters (i.e., latitude or longitude) and anti-correlation is found with solar parameters implying that Titan's nightside is hotter than its dayside. Furthermore, Titan's thermosphere is found to respond to plasma forcings on timescales less than one Titan day. To investigate the composition of Titan's ionosphere we present a 1D photochemical model of Titan's dayside ionosphere constrained by Cassini measurements. We show that the production of the primary products of

  9. CIDGA - Coupling of Interior Dynamic models with Global Atmosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, Lena; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Breuer, Doris

    2010-05-01

    Atmosphere temperatures and in particular the surface temperatures mostly depend on the solar heat flux and the atmospheric composition. The latter can be influenced by interior processes of the planet, i.e. volcanism that releases greenhouse gases such as H2O, CO2 and methane into the atmosphere and plate tectonics through which atmospheric CO2 is recycled via carbonates into the mantle. An increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere results in an increase of the surface temperature. Changes in the surface temperature on the other hand may influence the cooling behaviour of the planet and hence influence its volcanic activity [Phillips et al., 2001]. This feedback relation between mantle convection and atmosphere is not very well understood, since until now mostly either the interior dynamic of a planet or its atmosphere was investigated separately. 2D or 3D mantle convection models to the authors' knowledge haven't been coupled to the atmosphere so far. We have used the 3D spherical simulation code GAIA [Hüttig et al., 2008] including partial melt production and coupled it with the atmosphere module CIDGA using a gray greenhouse model for varying H2O concentrations. This way, not only the influence of mantle dynamics on the atmosphere can be investigated, but also the recoupling effect, that the surface temperature has on the mantle dynamics. So far, we consider one-plate planets without crustal and thus volatile recycling. Phillips et al. [2001] already investigated the coupling effect of the surface temperature on mantle dynamics by using simple parameterized convection models for Venus. In their model a positive feedback mechanism has been observed, i.e., an increase of the surface temperature leads to an increase of partial melt and hence an increase of atmosphere density and surface temperature. Applying our model to Venus, we show that an increase of surface temperature leads not only to an increase of partial melt in the mantle; it also

  10. COMPOSITIONS OF HOT SUPER-EARTH ATMOSPHERES: EXPLORING KEPLER CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Miguel, Y.; Kaltenegger, L.; Fegley, B.; Schaefer, L.

    2011-12-15

    This paper outlines a simple approach to evaluate the atmospheric composition of hot rocky planets by assuming different types of planetary composition and using corresponding model calculations. To explore hot atmospheres above 1000 K, we model the vaporization of silicate magma and estimate the range of atmospheric compositions according to the planet's radius and semi-major axis for the Kepler 2011 February data release. Our results show five atmospheric types for hot, rocky super-Earth atmospheres, strongly dependent on the initial composition and the planet's distance to the star. We provide a simple set of parameters that can be used to evaluate atmospheric compositions for current and future candidates provided by the Kepler mission and other searches.

  11. Atmospheric accelerations and the stability of dynamic supergiant atmospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; de Jager, C.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to study instability regions in the HR diagram, through a calculation of the atmospheric accelerations for spherically symmetric stars, in dynamic equilibrium, without using detailed atmospheric models. The input data are five primary data, viz.: the stellar luminosity L, the effective temperature T_eff_, the mass M, the rate of mass loss ˙(M), and the microturbulent velocity component ζmu_, while we assume the temperature for a reference atmospheric layer, an assumption that appears not to be critical. An iterative solution of the momentum equation, simultaneous with some other equations, yields values for the various accelerations acting on a stellar atmosphere and their algebraic sum g_eff_', the predicted effective acceleration. In the first part of the paper we compare this latter quantity with the g_eff_-value derived observationally from spectral studies of nine program stars and we find overall fair agreement. This supports the method as well as the values of the five input data. In part 2 we determine g'_eff_ in same way for the whole upper part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram by using statistical primary data on the mass (based on evolutionary calculations), on mass-loss and on microturbulence (shock-strengths). We find as a fairly general rule that, as stars move along their evolutionary track, and for time scales longer than the dynamic time scale of the atmosphere, the atmosphere continuously adapts to the new (L,T_eff_)-values and essentially remains stable. Current practice of determining the stability limit of stellar atmospheres by extrapolating hydrostatic models to the Eddington limit is not justified by this study. There is one exception: we find a small area around T_eff_=8300K and log(L/Lsun_)=5.7, where no solution is possible for evolved stars on their blueward evolutionary track; the stars in this area have in any case effective accelerations <1mm/s^2^: the "Yellow Evolutionary Void". In the third part we

  12. Helicity in dynamical processes in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgansky, Michael; Maksimenkov, Leonid; Khapaev, Alexey; Chkhetiani, Otto

    2016-04-01

    In modern geophysical fluid dynamics and dynamic meteorology, a notable interest is observed to the notion of helicity ("kinetic helicity" to be distinguished from "magnetic helicity" widely used in magnetohydrodynamics, astrophysics and Solar physics), which is defined by the scalar product of 3D vectors of velocity and vorticity. In this contribution, we bring together different, both known in the literature and novel formulations of the helicity balance equation, by also taking into account the effects of air compressibility and Earth rotation. Equations and relationships are presented that are valid under different approximations customarily made in the dynamic meteorology, e.g. Boussinesq approximation, quasi-static approximation, quasi-geostrophic approximation. An emphasis is placed on the helicity budget analysis in large-scale atmospheric motions. An explicit expression is presented for the rate of helicity injection from the free atmosphere into a non-linear Ekman boundary layer. This injection is shown to be exactly balanced by the helicity viscous destruction within the boundary layer. It is conjectured that this helicity injection may characterize the intensity of atmospheric circulation in extratropical latitudes of both terrestrial hemispheres. Examples are provided based on re-analyses data. Vertical distribution of helicity and superhelicity in different Ekman boundary layers is also discussed.

  13. Dust particle dynamics in atmospheric dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izvekova, Yulia; Popel, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Dust particle dynamics is modeled in the Dust Devils (DDs). DD is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 100 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall) in Earth's atmosphere. We develop methods for the description of dust particle charging in DDs, discuss the ionization processes in DDs, and model charged dust particle motion. Our conclusions are consistent with the fact that DD can lift a big amount of dust from the surface of a planet into its atmosphere. On the basis of the model we perform calculations and show that DDs are important mechanism for dust uplift in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Influence of DD electric field on dynamics of dust particles is investigated. It is shown that influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is significant near the ground. At some altitude (more then a quarter of the height of DD) influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is negligible. For the calculation of the dynamics of dust electric field can be approximated by effective dipole located at a half of the height of DD. This work was supported by the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  14. HPC simulations of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadzhev, Georgi; Ganev, Kostadin; Miloshev, Nikolay; Syrakov, Dimiter; Prodanova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. The system consists of three components: MM5 - the 5th generation PSU/NCAR Meso-meteorological Model used as meteorological pre-processor; CMAQ - the Community Multiscale Air Quality System CMAQ; SMOKE - the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modelling System - the emission model. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The air pollution pattern is formed as a result of interaction of different processes, so knowing the contribution of each for different meteorological conditions and given emission spatial configuration and temporal behaviour could be interesting. Therefore the Models-3 'Integrated Process Rate Analysis' option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment - calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble, which makes it possible

  15. Morphology, composition, and atmospheric processing of soot particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowik, Jay G.

    Combustion-generated soot aerosols play an important role in climate forcing due to their strong light-absorbing properties. Quantitative measurement of BC is challenging because BC often occurs in highly non-spherical soot particles of complex morphology. The task is further complicated because of the lack of an unambiguous chemical definition of the material. Here we present the development and application of a new technique for determining particle morphology and composition. Simultaneous measurements of mobility diameter, vacuum aerodynamic diameter, and non-refractory composition were used to determine the particle mass, volume, density, composition, dynamic shape factor, and fractal dimension. Under certain conditions, particle surface area and the number and size of the primary spherules composing the soot fractal aggregates were also determined. The particle characterization technique described above was applied to the following four studies: (1) Characterization of flame-generated soot particles. Depending on flame conditions, either fractal or near-spherical particles were generated and their properties interpreted in terms of the mechanism for soot formation. (2) Coating and denuding experiments were performed on soot particles. The results yielded information about morphology changes to the entire soot particle and to the internal black carbon structure due to atmospheric processing. The denuding experiments also provided particle surface area, which was used to determine the atmospheric lifetime of fractal soot particles relative to spheres. (3) An inter-comparison study of instruments measuring the black carbon content of soot particles was conducted. The detailed characterization of soot particles enabled a number of assumptions about the operation of the selected instruments to be tested. (4) Ambient particles were sampled in Mexico City. In the early morning, ambient particles were detected with a fractal morphology similar to that of diesel

  16. The Stable Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakir, D.

    2003-12-01

    When a bean leaf was sealed in a closed chamber under a lamp (Rooney, 1988), in two hours the atmospheric CO2 in the microcosm reached an isotopic steady state with a 13C abundance astonishingly similar to the global mean value of atmospheric CO2 at that time (-7.5‰ in the δ13C notation introduced below). Almost concurrently, another research group sealed a suspension of asparagus cells in a different type of microcosm in which within about two hours the atmospheric O2 reached an isotopic steady state with 18O enrichment relative to water in the microcosm that was, too, remarkably similar to the global-scale offset between atmospheric O2 and mean ocean water (21‰ versus 23.5‰ in the δ18O notation introduced below; Guy et al., 1987). These classic experiments capture some of the foundations underlying the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 and O2. First, in both cases the biological system rapidly imposed a unique isotopic value on the microcosms' atmosphere via their massive photosynthetic and respiratory exchange of CO2 and O2. Second, in both cases the biological system acted on materials with isotopic signals previously formed by the global carbon and hydrological cycles. That is, the bean leaf introduced its previously formed organic matter (the source of the CO2 respired into microcosm's atmosphere), and the asparagus cells were introduced complete with local tap water (from which photosynthesis released molecular oxygen). Therefore, while the isotopic composition of the biological system used was slave to long-term processes, intense metabolic processes centered on few specific enzymes (Yakir, 2002) dictated the short-term atmospheric composition.In a similar vein, on geological timescales of millions of years, the atmosphere and its isotopic composition are integral parts of essentially a single dynamic ocean-atmosphere-biosphere system. This dynamic system exchanges material, such as carbon and oxygen, with the sediments and the lithosphere via

  17. Dynamic model of the Earth's upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slowey, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    An initial modification to the MSF/J70 Thermospheric Model, in which the variations due to sudden geomagnetic disturbances upon the Earth's upper atmospheric density structure were modeled is presented. This dynamic model of the geomagnetic variation included is an improved version of one which SAO developed from the analysis of the ESRO 4 mass spectrometer data that was incorporated in the Jacchia 1977 model. The variation with geomagnetic local time as well as with geomagnetic latitude are included, and also the effects due to disturbance of the temperature profiles in the region of energy deposition.

  18. The Dynamics of the Atmospheric Radiation Environment at Aviation Altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, Epaminondas G.

    2004-01-01

    Single Event Effects vulnerability of on-board computers that regulate the: navigational, flight control, communication, and life support systems has become an issue in advanced modern aircraft, especially those that may be equipped with new technology devices in terabit memory banks (low voltage, nanometer feature size, gigabit integration). To address this concern, radiation spectrometers need to fly continually on a multitude of carriers over long periods of time so as to accumulate sufficient information that will broaden our understanding of the very dynamic and complex nature of the atmospheric radiation environment regarding: composition, spectral distribution, intensity, temporal variation, and spatial variation.

  19. Lunar atmospheric composition results from Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, J. H.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Johnson, F. S.; Evans, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 17 mass spectrometer has confirmed the existence of helium, neon, argon, and possibly molecular hydrogen in the lunar atmosphere. Helium and neon concentrations are in agreement with model predictions based on the solar wind as a source and their being noncondensable gases. Ar-40 and Ar-36 both exhibit a predawn enhancement which indicates that they are condensable gases on the nightside and are re-released into the atmosphere at the sunrise terminator. Hydrogen probably exists in the lunar atmosphere in the molecular rather than atomic state, having been released from the surface in the molecular form. Total nighttime gas concentration of known species in the lunar atmosphere is 200,000 molecules/cu cm.

  20. Isotopic composition of atmospheric hydrogen and methane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bainbridge, A.E.; Suess, H.E.; Friedman, I.

    1961-01-01

    IN a recent communication, Bishop and Taylor1 express the opinion that the tritium concentration of free hydrogen in the atmosphere has been rising over the past ten years, with a doubling time of approximately 18 months. The authors suspect that artificial tritium was released into the atmosphere several years before the Castle test series in 1954, which is commonly assumed to have led to the first pronounced rise in the tritium concentration of terrestrial surface water. Bishop and Taylor's communication includes a diagram of the logarithms of all the experimentally determined tritium values in free atmospheric hydrogen plotted against time. The plot shows that the values follow a straight line that includes the first value obtained by Faltings and Harteck2 on atmospheric hydrogen collected in 1948. ?? 1961 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. Stellar occultations. [for composition and thermal structure of Titan atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is important that future occultations by Titan be predicted well in advance, and imperative that they be observed adequately. Stellar occultations can yield reliable temperature/number density profiles of Titan's upper atmosphere near the density level. The temperature profiles can be used to discriminate between atmospheric compositions having high mean molecular weights, and those having low mean molecular weights. Detection of spikes at several wavelengths with high time resolution gives useful limits on the helium content of the atmosphere.

  2. Geomagnetic Disturbances Caused by Internal Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneman, G.

    1984-01-01

    It is commonly believed that geomagnetic disturbances are caused by external influences connected with the solar wind. The 27-day recurrence of perturbations seems to be a strong hint for this interaction. But frequently geomagnetic disturbances occur without any relation to sunspot numbers or radiowave fluxes. This was one of the reasons for introducing hypothetical M-regions on the Sun and their relation to solar wind activities. Only one half of the variance of the geomagnetic AL-index could be related to the solar wind. Therefore it is concluded that internal processes of the magnetosphere were responsible for additional geomagnetic activity. Arguments, which might lead to the suggestion of geomagnetic disturbances as being caused by internal atmospheric dynamics are discussed and a rather preliminary scenario of those processes is proposed.

  3. Dynamics investigation in the Venus upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, A.; Altieri, F.; Shakun, A.; Zasova, L.; Piccioni, G.; Bellucci, G.

    The O_2 nightglow emissions in the infrared spectral range are important features to investigate dynamics at the mesospheric altitudes, in the planetary atmosphere. In this work, we analyzed the profiles obtained at limb by the VIRTIS spectrometer on board the Venus Express mission, acquired during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15 to investigate possible gravity waves characteristics at the airglow altitudes. Indeed, several profiles present double peaked structures that can be interpreted as due to gravity waves. In analogy to the Earth's and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O_2 nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation, in order to support this thesis and derive the waves properties. We discuss results from 30 profiles showing double peaked structures, focusing on vertical wavelength and wave amplitude of the possible gravity waves. On average, the double peaked profiles are compatible with the effects of gravity waves with a vertical wavelength ranging between 7 and 16 km, and wave amplitude of 3-14%. A comparison with gravity waves properties in the Mars and Earth's atmospheres, using the same theory, is also proposed \\citep{altieri_2014}. \\ The research is supported by ASI (contract ASI-INAF I/050/10/0).

  4. Composition and Detection of Europa's Sputter-Induced Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Burger, M. H.; Cassidy, T. A.; Leblanc, F.; Marconi, M. L.; Smyth, W. H.

    2007-12-01

    Europa has an extremely tenuous atmosphere that appears to be marginally collisional, so that species ejected from the surface with sufficient energy have a high probability of escape. Such an atmosphere is often referred to as a surface boundary-layer atmosphere. That is, as at Mercury, the Moon and Ganymede, the interaction of the ambient gas with the surface determines the composition, local column density, and morphology of the atmosphere. Since gas phase species are often more readily identified both in situ and by remote sensing, Europa's atmosphere is of interest as an extension of Europa's surface. Since Europa is imbedded in the Jovian magnetosphere and is not protected from the solar EUV flux, radiolytic, photolytic and stimulated desorption processes populate the atmosphere with atoms and molecules ejected from Europa's surface. These processes are often lumped together using the words 'sputter-produced' atmosphere. Early laboratory sputtering data by Brown, Lanzerotti and co-workers were used to predict the principal atmospheric component, O2, and its average column density. Since H2 loss accompanies the formation and ejection of O2 from ice and H2 escapes readily, the atmospheric formation process also efficiently populates the Jovian magnetosphere. In fact the extension of Europa's atmosphere as a gas torus gravitationally bound to Jupiter and only perturbed by Europa contains more of Europa's ejected surface material than the gravitationally bound atmosphere. In addition to O2, Na and K have been identified. Here we review the modeling of Europa's sputter produced atmosphere and ionosphere. Our principal interest is in the morphology of the atmosphere and the relationship between the composition and Europa's local surface composition. The possibility of detection by an orbiting spacecraft is considered as is the relevance of such detections to Europa's putative subsurface ocean.

  5. Some numerically studies of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadzhev, G. K.; Ganev, K. G.; Prodanov, M.; Syrakov, D. E.; Miloshev, N. G.; Georgiev, G. J.

    2013-10-01

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. The system consists of three components: MM5 - the 5th generation PSU/NCAR Meso-meteorological Model used as meteorological pre-processor; CMAQ - the Community Multiscale Air Quality System CMAQ; SMOKE - the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modelling System - the emission model [4]. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The air pollution pattern is formed as a result of interaction of different processes, so knowing the contribution of each for different meteorological conditions and given emission spatial configuration and temporal behaviour could be interesting. Therefore the Models-3 "Integrated Process Rate Analysis" option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment - calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble.

  6. Planetary Atmosphere Dynamics and Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David H.

    1996-01-01

    This research program has dealt with two projects in the field of planetary atmosphere dynamics and radiative energy transfer, one theoretical and one experimental. The first project, in radiative energy transfer, incorporated the capability to isolate and quantify the contribution of individual atmospheric components to the Venus radiative balance and thermal structure to greatly improve the current understanding of the radiative processes occurring within the Venus atmosphere. This is possible by varying the mixing ratios of each gas species, and the location, number density and aerosol size distributions of the clouds. This project was a continuation of the work initiated under a 1992 University Consortium Agreement. Under the just completed grant, work has continued on the use of a convolution-based algorithm that provided the capability to calculate the k coefficients of a gas mixture at different temperatures, pressures and spectral intervals from the separate k-distributions of the individual gas species. The second primary goal of this research dealt with the Doppler wind retrieval for the Successful Galileo Jupiter probe mission in December, 1995. In anticipation of the arrival of Galileo at Jupiter, software development continued to read the radioscience and probe/orbiter trajectory data provided by the Galileo project and required for Jupiter zonal wind measurements. Sample experiment radioscience data records and probe/orbiter trajectory data files provided by the Galileo Radioscience and Navigation teams at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, respectively, were used for the first phase of the software development. The software to read the necessary data records was completed in 1995. The procedure by which the wind retrieval takes place begins with initial consistency checks of the raw data, preliminary data reductions, wind recoveries, iterative reconstruction of the probe descent profile, and refined wind recoveries. At each stage of the wind recovery

  7. Chapter 13. Atmospheric Dynamics and Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Baines, K. H.; Bird, M. K.; Tokano, T.

    2009-01-01

    Titan, after Venus, is the second example in the solar system of an atmosphere with a global cyclostrophic circulation, but in this case a circulation that has a strong seasonal modulation in the middle atmosphere. Direct measurement of Titan's winds, particularly observations tracking the Huygens probe at 10 deg S, indicate that the zonal winds are mostly in the sense of the satellite's rotation. They generally increase with altitude and become cyclostrophic near 35 km above the surface. An exception to this is a sharp minimum centered near 75 km, where the wind velocity decreases to nearly zero. Zonal winds derived from temperatures retrieved from Cassini orbiter measurements, using the thermal wind equation, indicate a strong winter circumpolar vortex, with maximum winds of 190 m/s at mid northern latitudes near 300 km. Above this level, the vortex decays. Curiously, the stratospheric zonal winds and temperatures in both hemispheres are symmetric about a pole that is offset from the surface pole by about 4 deg. The cause of this is not well understood, but it may reflect the response of a cyclostrophic circulation to the onset between the equator, where the distance to the rotation axis is greatest, and the seasonally varying subsolar latitude. The mean meridional circulation can be inferred from the temperature field and the meridional distribution of organic molecules and condensates and hazes. Both the warm temperatures near 400 km and the enhanced concentration of several organic molecules suggest subsidence in the north polar region during winter and early spring. Stratospheric condensates are localized at high northern latitudes, with a sharp cut-off near 50 deg N. Titan's winter polar vortex appears to share many of the same characteristics of isolating high and low-latitude air masses as do the winter polar vortices on Earth that envelop the ozone holes. Global mapping of temperatures, winds, and composition in the troposphere, by contrast, is incomplete

  8. Parachute Dynamic Stability Variations Due to Atmospheric Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginn, J. M.; Braun, R. D.; Clark, I. G.

    2014-06-01

    Apparent inertia effects on parachute dynamics are investigated. Both static and dynamic stability are examined as a function of apparent inertia parameters. Conclusions are drawn describing changes in stability based on atmospheric density.

  9. Clouds Composition in Super-Earth Atmospheres: Chemical Equilibrium Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Mbarek, Rostom

    2015-12-01

    Attempts to determine the composition of super-Earth atmospheres have so far been plagued by the presence of clouds. Yet the theoretical framework to understand these clouds is still in its infancy. For the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b, KCl, Na2S, and ZnS have been proposed as condensates that would form under the condition of chemical equilibrium, if the planet’s atmosphere has a bulk composition near solar. Condensation chemistry calculations have not been presented for a wider range of atmospheric bulk composition that is to be expected for super-Earth exoplanets. Here we provide a theoretical context for the formation of super-Earth clouds in atmospheres of varied composition by determining which condensates are likely to form, under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We model super-Earth atmospheres assuming they are formed by degassing of volatiles from a solid planetary core of chondritic material. Given the atomic makeup of these atmospheres, we minimize the global Gibbs free energy of over 550 gases and condensates to obtain the molecular composition of the atmospheres over a temperature range of 350-3,000 K. Clouds should form along the temperature-pressure boundaries where the condensed species appear in our calculations. The super-Earth atmospheres that we study range from highly reducing to oxidizing and have carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratios that are both sub-solar and super-solar, thereby spanning a diverse range of atmospheric composition that is appropriate for low-mass exoplanets. Some condensates appear across all of our models. However, the majority of condensed species appear only over specific ranges of H:O and C:O ratios. We find that for GJ 1214b, KCl is the primary cloud-forming condensate at solar composition, in agreement with previous work. However, for oxidizing atmospheres, where H:O is less than unity, K2SO4 clouds form instead. For carbon-rich atmospheres with super-solar C:O ratios, graphite clouds additionally appear. At

  10. Interior and its implications for the atmosphere. [effects of Titan interior structure on its atmospheric composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The bulk composition and interior structure of Titan required to explain the presence of a substantial methane atmosphere are shown to imply the presence of solid CH4 - 7H2O in Titan's primitive material. Consideration of the possible composition and structure of the present atmosphere shows plausible grounds for considering models with total atmospheric pressures ranging from approximately 20 mb up to approximately 1 kb. Expectations regarding the physical state of the surface and its chemical composition are strongly conditioned by the mass of atmosphere believed to be present. A surface of solid CH4, liquid CH4 solid, CH4 hydrate, H2O ice, aqueous NH3 solution, or even a non-surface of supercritical H2O-NH3-CH4 fluid could be rationalized.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics and predictability in the atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Ghil, M.; Kimoto, M.; Neelin, J.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Systematic applications of nonlinear dynamics to studies of the atmosphere and climate are reviewed for the period 1987-1990. Problems discussed include paleoclimatic applications, low-frequency atmospheric variability, and interannual variability of the ocean-atmosphere system. Emphasis is placed on applications of the successive bifurcation approach and the ergodic theory of dynamical systems to understanding and prediction of intraseasonal, interannual, and Quaternary climate changes.

  12. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION AND COMPOSITION OF GJ1214b

    SciTech Connect

    Menou, Kristen

    2012-01-15

    The exoplanet GJ1214b presents an interesting example of compositional degeneracy for low-mass planets. Its atmosphere may be composed of water, super-solar or solar metallicity material. We present atmospheric circulation models of GJ1214b for these three compositions, with explicit gray radiative transfer and an optional treatment of MHD bottom drag. All models develop strong, superrotating zonal winds ({approx}1-2 km s{sup -1}). The degree of eastward heat advection, which can be inferred from secondary eclipse and thermal phase curve measurements, varies greatly between the models. These differences are understood as resulting from variations in the radiative times at the thermal photosphere, caused by separate molecular weight and opacity effects. Our GJ1214b models illustrate how atmospheric circulation can be used as a probe of composition for similar tidally locked exoplanets in the mini-Neptune/waterworld class.

  13. Linking atmospheric composition data across data types and national boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Martin; Lyapina, Olga; Schröder, Sabine; Stein, Olaf; Mallmann, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The field of atmospheric composition research involves the management of data sources from various disciplines such as meteorology, chemistry, (radiation) physics, emission inventories, etc. The output from global and regional chemistry climate models, chemistry transport models, and air quality models presents considerable challenges due to the manifold variables of interest and the multitude of diagnostics needed in order to interpret the results. Furthermore, many observations of atmospheric composition exist from different platforms involving different geometries, time resolutions, size spectra, etc. Due to the fact that few observation networks are globally coordinated, various representations of data formats and metadata definitions exist. For example, there is no unique agreement on chemical species names and in many networks, national languages are used to document the data. We will present a summary of the issues involving global interoperability of atmospheric composition data including the aspects of data volume, data compexity and metadata standardisation, and we will demonstrate various activities carried out in Jülich and internationally to overcome these challenges. Specifically, we will describe the current implementation and plans for the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service boundary condition service (http://ows-server.iek.fz-juelich.de), the design of the JOIN web interface (https://join.fz-juelich.de), and the activities for building an ontology of atmospheric composition vocabulary (https://ontology.geodab.eu/).

  14. A Community-oriented CEOS Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernonville, S.; Goussev, O.; Falke, S.; Lindsay, F.; Lynnes, C. S.; Yang, W.; Zhao, P.; Johnson, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) and the Workgroup for Information Systems and Services (WGISS) within the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is developing a portal to support interoperability among the atmospheric composition research and applications communities. The CEOS Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is defining approaches for providing data access, tools and contextual guidance for an international suite of remote sensing datasets. An initial prototype provides access to data services and analysis tools hosted by the World Data Center for Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (WDC-RSAT), NASA's Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and DataFed. Distributed access to data is implemented via interoperability standards, including the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS). A fundamental aspect to the design, implementation and evolution of the ACP is community collaboration. The portal is intended as a community resource that is created through collaboration across remotely sensed atmospheric composition data organizations and used by a variety of groups across the climate, air quality, and stratospheric ozone domains. The implementation of interoperability standards in the ACP has involved coordination on identifying the most applicable standards and the definition of community-specific conventions to ensure consistent adoption of standards. This presentation includes an overview of the ACP, its community oriented approach, and use of community-conventions in achieving standards-based interoperability.

  15. Impact dynamics research on composite transport structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental and analytical efforts being undertaken to investigate the response of composite and aluminum structures under crash loading conditions were reviewed. A Boeing 720 airplane was used in the controlled-impact demonstration test. Energy absorption of composite materials, the tearing of fuselage skin panels, the friction and abrasion behavior of composite skins, and the crushing behavior and dynamic response of composite beams were among the topics addressed.

  16. Impact dynamics research on composite transport structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental and analytical efforts being undertaken to investigate the response of composite and aluminum structures under crash loading conditions were reviewed. A Boeing 720 airplane was used in the controlled-impact demonstration test. Energy absorption of composite materials, the tearing of fuselage skin panels, the friction and abrasion behavior of composite skins, and the crushing behavior and dynamic response of composite beams were among the topics addressed.

  17. Modeling the effects of atmospheric emissions on groundwater composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    A composite model of atmospheric, unsaturated and groundwater transport is developed to evaluate the processes determining the distribution of atmospherically derived contaminants in groundwater systems and to test the sensitivity of simulated contaminant concentrations to input parameters and model linkages. One application is to screen specific atmospheric emissions for their potential in determining groundwater age. Temporal changes in atmospheric emissions could provide a recognizable pattern in the groundwater system. The model also provides a way for quantifying the significance of uncertainties in the tracer source term and transport parameters on the contaminant distribution in the groundwater system, an essential step in using the distribution of contaminants from local, point source atmospheric emissions to examine conceptual models of groundwater flow and transport.

  18. Earth-atmosphere evolution based on new determination of Devonian atmosphere Ar isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Finlay M.; Mark, Darren F.; Gandanger, Pierre; McConville, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The isotopic composition of the noble gases, in particular Ar, in samples of ancient atmosphere trapped in rocks and minerals provides the strongest constraints on the timing and rate of Earth atmosphere formation by degassing of the Earth's interior. We have re-measured the isotopic composition of argon in the Rhynie chert from northeast Scotland using a high precision mass spectrometer in an effort to provide constraints on the composition of Devonian atmosphere. Irradiated chert samples yield 40Ar/36Ar ratios that are often below the modern atmosphere value. The data define a 40Ar/36Ar value of 289.5 ± 0.4 at K/36Ar = 0. Similarly low 40Ar/36Ar are measured in un-irradiated chert samples. The simplest explanation for the low 40Ar/36Ar is the preservation of Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar in the chert, with the intercept value in 40Ar-39Ar-36Ar space representing an upper limit. In this case the Earth's atmosphere has accumulated only 3% (5.1 ± 0.4 ×1016 mol) of the total 40Ar inventory since the Devonian. The average accumulation rate of 1.27 ± 0.09 ×108 mol40Ar/yr overlaps the rate over the last 800 kyr. This implies that there has been no resolvable temporal change in the outgassing rate of the Earth since the mid-Palaeozoic despite the likely episodicity of Ar degassing from the continental crust. Incorporating the new Devonian atmosphere 40Ar/36Ar into the Earth degassing model of Pujol et al. (2013) provides the most precise constraints on atmosphere formation so far. The atmosphere formed in the first ∼100 Ma after initial accretion during a catastrophic degassing episode. A significant volume of 40Ar did not start to accumulate in the atmosphere until after 4 Ga which implies that stable K-rich continental crust did not develop until this time.

  19. Dynamical variability in Saturn Equatorial Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Rojas, J. F.; French, R. G.; Grupo Ciencias Planetarias Team

    2003-05-01

    Historical ground-based and recent HST observations show that Saturn's Equatorial Atmosphere is the region where the most intense large-scale dynamical variability took place at cloud level in the planet. Large-scale convective storms (nicknamed the ``Great White Spots") occurred in 1876, 1933 and 1990. The best studied case (the 1990 storm), produced a dramatic change in the cloud aspect in the years following the outburst of September 1990. Subsequently, a new large storm formed in 1994 and from 1996 to 2002 our HST observations showed periods of unusual cloud activity in the southern part of the Equator. This contrast with the aspect observed during the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters in 1980 and 1981 when the Equator was calm, except for some mid-scale plume-like features seen in 1981. Cloud-tracking of the features have revealed a dramatic slow down in the equatorial winds from maximum velocities of ˜ 475 m/s in 1980-1981 to ˜ 275 m/s during 1996-2002, as we have recently reported in Nature, Vol. 423, 623 (2003). We discuss the possibility that seasonal and ring-shadowing effects are involved in generating this activity and variability. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Spanish MCYT PNAYA 2000-0932. SPH acknowledges a PhD fellowship from the Spanish MECD and RH a post-doc fellowship from Gobierno Vasco. RGF was supported in part by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program NAG5-10197 and STSCI Grant GO-08660.01A.

  20. The isotopic composition of atmospheric oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, Boaz; Barkan, Eugeni

    2011-09-01

    Atmospheric O2 is almost 24‰ more enriched in 18O than seawater, and this enrichment is known as the Dole effect. For a long time it has been accepted that there is no oxygen isotope fractionation in photosynthesis, and thus the Dole effect should be the result of preferential terrestrial and marine respiratory consumption of 16O over 18O, and also several permil enrichment of leaf water from which terrestrial photosynthesis produces 18O enriched O2. This concept has led to the understanding that the record of past Dole effect variations was strongly affected by changes in the ratio of photosynthetic production between land and sea. However, recent studies in our lab have led to two major new observations: (1) O2 produced by certain marine phytoplankton, representing important groups of primary producers, is significantly enriched (up to 6‰) in 18O with respect to the substrate seawater and (2) effective oxygen isotope fractionation in soil respiration is considerably smaller than the intrinsic respiratory fractionation. Here we take these two observations into account and show that the magnitudes of the terrestrial and marine components of the Dole effect are close, and both are close to the measured Dole effect. As a result, the magnitude of the global Dole effect should not be sensitive to past changes in the ratio of land-to-sea photosynthetic rates. Instead of the land-sea control, variations in low-latitude hydrology, and possibly changes of fractionations in the marine biosphere, are more important in regulating the magnitude of the Dole effect and its past variations.

  1. Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (ACDISC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, S.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's GSFC Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information and Data Services Center (DISC) manages the archive, distribution and data access for atmospheric composition data from AURA'S OMI, MLS, and hopefully one day, HIRDLS instruments, as well as heritage datasets from TOMS, UARS, MODIS, and AIRS. This data is currently archived in the GES Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The GES DISC has begun the development of a community driven data management system that's sole purpose is to manage and provide value added services to NASA's Atmospheric Composition (AC) Data. This system, called the Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (ACDISC) will provide access all AC datasets from the above mentioned instruments, as well as AC datasets residing at remote archive sites (e.g, LaRC DAAC) The goals of the ACDISC are to: 1) Provide a data center for Atmospheric Scientists, guided by Atmospheric Scientists; 2) Be absolutely responsive to the data and data service needs of the Atmospheric Composition (AC) community; 3) Provide services (i.e., expertise) that will facilitate the effortless access to and usage of AC data; 4) Collaborate with AC scientists to facilitate the use of data from multiple sensors for long term atmospheric research. The ACDISC is an AC specific, user driven, multi-sensor, on-line, easy access archive and distribution system employing data analysis and visualization, data mining, and other user requested techniques that facilitate science data usage. The purpose of this presentation is to provide the evolution path that the GES DISC in order to better serve AC data, and also to receive continued community feedback and further foster collaboration with AC data users and providers.

  2. Atmosphere composition of quiescent accreting neutron stars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servillat, M.

    2012-12-01

    Through the study of the quiescent X-ray emission of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries it is possible to constrain the equation of state of dense matter. However, the chemical composition of the neutron star atmosphere is still uncertain. Using deep Chandra observations, we report the detailed spectral analysis of a neutron star in the globular cluster M28. For the first time for this kind of object, different atmosphere models composed of hydrogen, helium or carbon are used. The carbon model can be ruled out, and the derived mass and radius are clearly distinct depending on the composition of the atmosphere, leading to different constraints on the equation of state. We compare those results with the other similar neutron stars studied with a hydrogen atmosphere model only and show that a helium model could be relevant in many cases. Measurements of neutron star masses/radii by spectral fitting should consider the possibility of heavier element atmospheres, which produce larger masses/radii for the same data, unless the composition of the accretor is known independently.

  3. Theoretical and experimental investigations of upper atmosphere dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, R. G.; Edwards, H. D.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of the significant contributions made to the understanding of the dynamics of the Earth's upper atmosphere is presented, including the addition of winds and diffusion to the semi-empirical Global Reference Atmospheric Model developed for the design phase of the Space Shuttle, reviews of turbulence in the lower thermosphere, the dynamics of the equatorial mesopause, stratospheric warming effects on mesopause level dynamics, and the relevance of these studies to the proposed Middle Atmosphere Program (1982-85). A chronological bibliography, with abstracts of all papers published, is also included.

  4. Automated Atmospheric Composition Dataset Level Metadata Discovery. Difficulties and Surprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strub, R. F.; Falke, S. R.; Kempler, S.; Fialkowski, E.; Goussev, O.; Lynnes, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is an aggregator and curator of information related to remotely sensed atmospheric composition data and analysis. It uses existing tools and technologies and, where needed, enhances those capabilities to provide interoperable access, tools, and contextual guidance for scientists and value-adding organizations using remotely sensed atmospheric composition data. The initial focus is on Essential Climate Variables identified by the Global Climate Observing System - CH4, CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2 and aerosols. This poster addresses our efforts in building the ACP Data Table, an interface to help discover and understand remotely sensed data that are related to atmospheric composition science and applications. We harvested GCMD, CWIC, GEOSS metadata catalogs using machine to machine technologies - OpenSearch, Web Services. We also manually investigated the plethora of CEOS data providers portals and other catalogs where that data might be aggregated. This poster is our experience of the excellence, variety, and challenges we encountered.Conclusions:1.The significant benefits that the major catalogs provide are their machine to machine tools like OpenSearch and Web Services rather than any GUI usability improvements due to the large amount of data in their catalog.2.There is a trend at the large catalogs towards simulating small data provider portals through advanced services. 3.Populating metadata catalogs using ISO19115 is too complex for users to do in a consistent way, difficult to parse visually or with XML libraries, and too complex for Java XML binders like CASTOR.4.The ability to search for Ids first and then for data (GCMD and ECHO) is better for machine to machine operations rather than the timeouts experienced when returning the entire metadata entry at once. 5.Metadata harvest and export activities between the major catalogs has led to a significant amount of duplication. (This is currently being addressed) 6.Most (if not

  5. Titan's atmospheric composition: from Voyager to Cassini and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.

    2007-12-01

    Titan's atmosphere was revealed by the Voyager missions in the 80s. The trace composition was in particular inferred from infrared spectra by the V1/IRIS Spectrometer. ISO gave us an opportunity to further explore this exciting milieu in 1997 (Coustenis et al., 1998; 2003) and brought the discovery of new molecules : H2O and C6H6. Our understanding of Titan's atmospheric chemical composition has recently been enhanced by the data returned by the Cassini instruments. Spectra recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard the Cassini spacecraft have been processed from the Titan flybys spanning three years now since SOI (Flasar et al., 2005; Teanby et al., 2006, Vinatier et al., 2006; Nixon et al., 2006; Coustenis et al., 2007). The spectra characterize various regions on Titan from 85°S to 80°N with a variety of emission angles. We have studied the emission observed in the CIRS detector arrays (covering the 10-1500 cm-1 spectral range with apodized resolutions of 2.54 or 0.53 cm-1). We have used temperature profiles retrieved from the inversion of the emission observed in the methane band at 1304 cm-1 and a line-by-line radiative transfer code to infer the abundances of the trace constituents and some of their isotopes in Titan's stratosphere (Coustenis et al., 2007a). The composite spectra show several signatures of previously identified molecules: hydrocarbons, nitriles, H2O and CO2. Besides these well-known trace species, a firm detection of benzene (C6H6) is provided by CIRS at 674 cm-1 and allows for the study of its latitudinal variations. No longitudinal variations were found for any of the gases. Information is retrieved on the meridional variations of the trace constituents and tied to predictions by dynamical-photochemical models (Hourdin et al., 2004; Lavvas et al., 2007). Molecules showing a significant enhancement at northern latitudes are the nitriles (HC3N, HCN) and the complex hydrocarbons (C4H2, C3H4). The D/H ratio on Titan was

  6. Historical aspects of radar atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Susumu

    1989-01-01

    A review of the history of radar techniques which have been applied to atmospheric observation is given. The author starts with ionosphere observation with the ionosonde, symbolizing as it does the earliest history of radar observation, and proceeds to later developments in radar observation such as the use of partial reflection, meteor, and incoherent scatter radars. Mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars are discussed in terms of lower atmosphere observation.

  7. Current Scientific Issues in Large Scale Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. L. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Topics in large scale atmospheric dynamics are discussed. Aspects of atmospheric blocking, the influence of transient baroclinic eddies on planetary-scale waves, cyclogenesis, the effects of orography on planetary scale flow, small scale frontal structure, and simulations of gravity waves in frontal zones are discussed.

  8. Changes in composition of atmospheric resid upon hydrodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilenko, G.V.; Belan, G.B.; Muchinskii, Y.D.; Polyakova, A.A.

    1984-03-01

    This article examines an atmospheric resid from Romashkino crude before and after hydrodesulfurization in order to show how high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) can be applied to high-molecular-weight organic sulfur compounds and aromatic compounds. The original atmospheric resid and a hydrodesulfurized boiler fuel were subjected to adsorptive separation into fractions. Results are presented from an investigation of the fractions that are the most complex in composition, the ''heavy aromatic'' concentrates, the yields of which before and after hydrodesulfurization were 35% and 25.8% by weight on the original atmospheric resid. The data indicate that in the process of hydrodesulfurization, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings is followed by the splitting of the naphthenic rings. The homologue composition was determined along with the group composition. The distribution curves were investigated for the alkyl ions C /SUB n/ H/sup +/ /SUB 2n+1/ in the singlet monoisotope mass spectra. The number of alkyl substituents on the ring from the structure of the mass spectrum in the region of pseudomolecular ions is calculated. It is concluded that in the hydrodesulfurization of an atmospheric resid from Romashkino crude, hydroaromatic hydrocarbons and polythiaalkanes are removed, and alkylaromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives of pyrene, chrysene, benzothiophene, and dibenzothiophene are accumulated.

  9. Isotopic composition of precipitation during different atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenčič, Mihael; Kononova, Nina; Vreča, Polona

    2016-04-01

    Precipitation generating processes depend on atmospheric circulation patterns and consequently it is expected that its water stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen is related to them. Precipitation generated at similar atmospheric circulation patterns should have similar empirical distribution of δ2H and δ18O values. There are several approaches in which atmospheric circulation patterns are classified as elementary air circulation mechanisms - ECM; in our approach we have applied Dzerdzeevskii classification. Two types of models of relation between ECM and isotopic composition of precipitation are proposed; first is based on the linear combination of δ2H and δ18O values with precipitation amount weighted average (Brenčič et al., 2015) and the second new one is based on the multiple regression approach. Both approaches make possible also to estimate empirical distributions' dispersion parameters. Application of the models is illustrated on the precipitation records from Ljubljana and Portorož GNIP stations, Slovenia. Estimated values of the parameters for empirical distributions of δ2H and δ18O of each ECM subtype have shown that calculated estimates are reasonable. Brenčič, M., Kononova, N.K., Vreča, P., 2015: Relation between isotopic composition of precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns. Journal of Hydrology 529, 1422-1432: doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.08.040

  10. Pioneer 10 Jupiter atmospheric definition results: A summary. [Jupiter atmosphere composition measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, J.; Kliore, A.

    1974-01-01

    The various entry probes for measuring outer planetary atmospheric compositions are discussed. Considered are chemical components and physical accumulation processes observable by spectroscopic studies, as well as pressure gauges, temperature gauges, accelerometers, nephelometers, and visible and infrared sensors for determining abundances.

  11. Atmospheric dynamics on strongly irradiated Jovian planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langton, Jonathan

    In this dissertation, I examine the response of a Jovian atmosphere to time- dependent, spatially varying radiative forcing. Particular attention is give to those irradiation regimes appropriate to known extrasolar planets, with an emphasis on observationally verifiable predictions based upon known parameters, rather than exploration of a wide range of parameter space, of which only a small portion may be physically relevant. To this end, I have developed a two-dimensional radiative-hydrodynamic model appropriate to the simulation of the infrared photosphere of a strongly irradiated giant planet. The choice of a two-dimensional model is motivated by the fact that the infrared photosphere on these planets is expected to lie in the radiative zone, so that vertical flow is negligible. My model traces the evolution of atmospheric flow, temperature distribution, and emitted thermal radiation in response to the incident stellar radiation, and provides both the capability to produce photorealistic visualizations of extrasolar planets and the opportunity to compare predicted infrared emissions to those observed using space-based infrared telescopes. Despite the utility of a well-formed two-dimensional atmospheric model, a three-dimensional treatment is eventually necessary to obtain a full understanding of the behavior of exoplanetary atmospheres. While the full deployment of such a model is beyond the scope of this thesis, I partially develop the computational framework necessary for the treatment of irradiation in a three-dimensional atmosphere.

  12. The San Marco 3 neutral atmosphere composition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelz, D. T.; Newton, G. P.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Clem, T. D.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental instrumentation of the San Marco 3 satellite is described along with the calibration and operation. The instrumentation for the following experiments was included: an air density experiment for measuring the instantaneous drag force, and thus the neutral particle total mass density; a neutral atmosphere composition experiment for measuring the densities of helium, atomic and molecular oxygen, molecular nitrogen and argon; and a neutral atmosphere temperature experiment to determine the gas kinetic temperature by measuring molecular nitrogen density variations in an orificed spherical chamber as a function of angle of attack.

  13. Exploration Spacecraft and Space Suit Internal Atmosphere Pressure and Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Kevin; Duffield, Bruce; Jeng, Frank; Campbell, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The design of habitat atmospheres for future space missions is heavily driven by physiological and safety requirements. Lower EVA prebreathe time and reduced risk of decompression sickness must be balanced against the increased risk of fire and higher cost and mass of materials associated with higher oxygen concentrations. Any proposed increase in space suit pressure must consider impacts on space suit mass and mobility. Future spacecraft designs will likely incorporate more composite and polymeric materials both to reduce structural mass and to optimize crew radiation protection. Narrowed atmosphere design spaces have been identified that can be used as starting points for more detailed design studies and risk assessments.

  14. Predictability of upper-atmospheric density and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, J. M.; Hickman, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Empirical models of upper-atmospheric density and composition are employed in a number of areas, ranging from basic research in atmospheric and ionospheric physics to practical applications in satellite ephemeris prediction. Such models are based on various kinds of data sets and have varying levels of complexity, strengths, and weaknesses. The characteristics of several of the widely used models are described and studies in which the predictions of these models were compared with observational data are reviewed. The relative advantages and limitations of the models in current use are discussed as well as ways in which the models might be improved.

  15. Dynamics of atmospheres with a non-dilute condensible component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Ding, Feng

    2016-06-01

    The diversity of characteristics for the host of recently discovered exoplanets opens up a great deal of fertile new territory for geophysical fluid dynamics, particularly when the fluid flow is coupled to novel thermodynamics, radiative transfer or chemistry. In this paper, we survey one of these new areas-the climate dynamics of atmospheres with a non-dilute condensible component, defined as the situation in which a condensible component of the atmosphere makes up a substantial fraction of the atmospheric mass within some layer. Non-dilute dynamics can occur for a wide range of condensibles, generically applying near both the inner and the outer edges of the conventional habitable zone and in connection with runaway greenhouse phenomena. It also applies in a wide variety of other planetary circumstances. We first present a number of analytical results developing some key features of non-dilute atmospheres, and then show how some of these features are manifest in simulations with a general circulation model adapted to handle non-dilute atmospheres. We find that non-dilute atmospheres have weak horizontal temperature gradients even for rapidly rotating planets, and that their circulations are largely barotropic. The relative humidity of the condensible component tends towards 100% as the atmosphere becomes more non-dilute, which has important implications for runaway greenhouse thresholds. Non-dilute atmospheres exhibit a number of interesting organized convection features, for which there is not yet any adequate theoretical understanding.

  16. Predicting the Atmospheric Composition of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, A. G.; Moses, J. I.; Friedson, A. J.; Fegley, B., Jr.; Marley, M. S.; Lodders, K.

    2004-01-01

    To date, approximately 120 planet-sized objects have been discovered around other stars, mostly through the radial-velocity technique. This technique can provide information about a planet s minimum mass and its orbital period and distance; however, few other planetary data can be obtained at this point in time unless we are fortunate enough to find an extrasolar giant planet that transits its parent star (i.e., the orbit is edge-on as seen from Earth). In that situation, many physical properties of the planet and its parent star can be determined, including some compositional information. Our prospects of directly obtaining spectra from extrasolar planets may improve in the near future, through missions like NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder. Most of the extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) discovered so far have masses equal to or greater than Jupiter's mass, and roughly 16% have orbital radii less than 0.1 AU - extremely close to the parent star by our own Solar-System standards (note that Mercury is located at a mean distance of 0.39 AU and Jupiter at 5.2 AU from the Sun). Although all EGPs are expected to have hydrogen-dominated atmospheres similar to Jupiter, the orbital distance can strongly affect the planet's temperature, physical, chemical, and spectral properties, and the abundance of minor, detectable atmospheric constituents. Thermochemical equilibrium models can provide good zero-order predictions for the atmospheric composition of EGPs. However, both the composition and spectral properties will depend in large part on disequilibrium processes like photochemistry, chemical kinetics, atmospheric transport, and haze formation. We have developed a photochemical kinetics, radiative transfer, and 1-D vertical transport model to study the atmospheric composition of EGPs. The chemical reaction list contains H-, C-, O-, and N-bearing species and is designed to be valid for atmospheric temperatures ranging from 100-3000 K and pressures up to 50 bar. Here we examine

  17. Nitrogen isotopic composition and density of the Archean atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Marty, Bernard; Zimmermann, Laurent; Pujol, Magali; Burgess, Ray; Philippot, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the atmosphere's composition during the Archean eon is fundamental to unraveling ancient environmental conditions. We show from the analysis of nitrogen and argon isotopes in fluid inclusions trapped in 3.0- to 3.5-billion-year-old hydrothermal quartz that the partial pressure of N2 of the Archean atmosphere was lower than 1.1 bar, possibly as low as 0.5 bar, and had a nitrogen isotopic composition comparable to the present-day one. These results imply that dinitrogen did not play a significant role in the thermal budget of the ancient Earth and that the Archean partial pressure of CO2 was probably lower than 0.7 bar.

  18. Paleosols and their relevance to Precambrian atmospheric composition

    PubMed

    Palmer, J A; Phillips, G N; McCarthy, T S

    1989-01-01

    Various paleosols have been reported from within the Witwatersrand and Ventersdorp Supergroups, South Africa. They were studied in an attempt to constrain the amount of oxygen available in the atmosphere during deposition of the gold- and uranium-bearing Witwatersrand conglomerates. The majority of these horizons do not have any physical characteristics of paleosols, and none of them have a chemistry consistent with weathering, suggesting they have been subjected to modification by later alteration processes. A similar chemistry, indicating overprinting of any original soil chemistry, has been reported from paleosols elsewhere (Elliot Lake region, Canada; Hekpoort basalt, South Africa), but it does not appear that significant cognizance has been taken of this fact when using these paleosols to determine the composition of the Precambrian atmosphere. It is concluded here that characteristics previously attributed to Precambrian weathering in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere are better explained by post-burial, hydrothermal alteration along lithological contacts.

  19. Fire Influences on Atmospheric Composition, Air Quality, and Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Field, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Fires impact atmospheric composition through their emissions, which range from long-lived gases to short-lived gases and aerosols. Effects are typically larger in the tropics and boreal regions but can also be substantial in highly populated areas in the northern mid-latitudes. In all regions, fire can impact air quality and health. Similarly, its effect on large-scale atmospheric processes, including regional and global atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing, can be substantial, but this remains largely unexplored. The impacts are primarily realised in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere but can also be noticeable in upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region, for the most intense fires. In this review, we summarise the recent literature on findings related to fire impact on atmospheric composition, air quality and climate. We explore both observational and modelling approaches and present information on key regions and on the globe as a whole. We also discuss the current and future directions in this area of research, focusing on the major advances in emission estimates, the emerging efforts to include fire as a component in Earth system modelling and the use of modelling to assess health impacts of fire emissions.

  20. Dynamic Data-Driven Event Reconstruction for Atmospheric Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Kosovic, B; Belles, R; Chow, F K; Monache, L D; Dyer, K; Glascoe, L; Hanley, W; Johannesson, G; Larsen, S; Loosmore, G; Lundquist, J K; Mirin, A; Neuman, S; Nitao, J; Serban, R; Sugiyama, G; Aines, R

    2007-02-22

    Accidental or terrorist releases of hazardous materials into the atmosphere can impact large populations and cause significant loss of life or property damage. Plume predictions have been shown to be extremely valuable in guiding an effective and timely response. The two greatest sources of uncertainty in the prediction of the consequences of hazardous atmospheric releases result from poorly characterized source terms and lack of knowledge about the state of the atmosphere as reflected in the available meteorological data. In this report, we discuss the development of a new event reconstruction methodology that provides probabilistic source term estimates from field measurement data for both accidental and clandestine releases. Accurate plume dispersion prediction requires the following questions to be answered: What was released? When was it released? How much material was released? Where was it released? We have developed a dynamic data-driven event reconstruction capability which couples data and predictive models through Bayesian inference to obtain a solution to this inverse problem. The solution consists of a probability distribution of unknown source term parameters. For consequence assessment, we then use this probability distribution to construct a ''''composite'' forward plume prediction which accounts for the uncertainties in the source term. Since in most cases of practical significance it is impossible to find a closed form solution, Bayesian inference is accomplished by utilizing stochastic sampling methods. This approach takes into consideration both measurement and forward model errors and thus incorporates all the sources of uncertainty in the solution to the inverse problem. Stochastic sampling methods have the additional advantage of being suitable for problems characterized by a non-Gaussian distribution of source term parameters and for cases in which the underlying dynamical system is non-linear. We initially developed a Markov Chain Monte

  1. The molecular dynamics of atmospheric reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanyi, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information about the chemistry of the upper atmosphere took the form of quantitative data concerning the rate of reaction into specified states of product vibration, rotation and translation for exothermic reaction, as well as concerning the rate of reaction from specified states of reagent vibration, rotation and translation for endothermic reaction. The techniques used were variants on the infrared chemiluminescence method. Emphasis was placed on reactions that formed, and that removed, vibrationally-excited hydroxyl radicals. Fundamental studies were also performed on exothermic reactions involving hydrogen halides.

  2. Probabilistic Dynamic Buckling of Smart Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to evaluate the deterministic and nondeterministic dynamic buckling of smart composite shells. The combined use of composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right below the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 10 percent at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load while uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects. For the specific shell considered in this evaluation, the use of smart composite material is not recommended because the shell buckling resistance can be improved by simply re-arranging the orientation of the outer plies, as shown in the dynamic buckling analysis results presented in this report.

  3. Probabilistic Dynamic Buckling of Smart Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib H.

    2007-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to evaluate the deterministic and nondeterministic dynamic buckling of smart composite shells. The combined use of intraply hybrid composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right next to the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 10% at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load while uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects. For the specific shell considered in this evaluation, the use of smart composite material is not recommended because the shell buckling resistance can be improved by simply re-arranging the orientation of the outer plies, as shown in the dynamic buckling analysis results presented in this report.

  4. Sharing is Winning: Cooperative Learning about Atmospheric Composition Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.

    2010-09-01

    This contribution presents evolving good practice in disseminating the body of know-how, skills and competencies within the networked community of atmospheric scientists as established in ACCENT. The promotion of early-career scientists, and encouraging the next generation to move into the field were among the key issues addressed by the "Training and Education" programme in the European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT). Dissemination avenues include a virtual knowledge train carrying the wealth of high-quality scientific learning material developed with experts involved in the ACCENT network. Learning opportunities on current research in atmospheric composition change in Europe were also created during face-to-face training workshops. Real-life examples of pressing air quality issues were addressed in meetings with stakeholder groups that offered opportunities for mutual learning in inspiring partnerships. In order to increase the expertise in atmospheric composition change across Europe, activities were organized with the general public (e.g., Café Scientifique), where the participating early-career scientists were confronted with questions from lay people. For interested teachers, didactic translations of compact overviews on air quality science topics developed in ACCENT offer links with the typical European science curriculum and go beyond school book content. Some of the educational events, methods and tools are described in a booklet published in 2009 ("We Care for Clean Air!", ISBN 978-88-95665-01-6). The electronic version and all training material can be downloaded from www.accent-network.org/portal/education - a valuable resource for teachers and learners around the globe.

  5. Application of atmospheric pressure plasma in polymer and composite adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hang

    An atmospheric pressure helium and oxygen plasma was used to investigate surface activation and bonding in polymer composites. This device was operated by passing 1.0-3.0 vol% of oxygen in helium through a pair of parallel plate metal electrodes powered by 13.56 or 27.12 MHz radio frequency power. The gases were partially ionized between the capacitors where plasma was generated. The reactive species in the plasma were carried downstream by the gas flow to treat the substrate surface. The temperature of the plasm gas reaching the surface of the substrate did not exceed 150 °C, which makes it suitable for polymer processing. The reactive species in the plasma downstream includes ~ 1016-1017 cm-3 atomic oxygen, ~ 1015 cm-3 ozone molecule, and ~ 10 16 cm-3 metastable oxygen molecule (O2 1Deltag). The substrates were treated at 2-5 mm distance from the exit of the plasma. Surface properties of the substrates were characterized using water contact angle (WCA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Subsequently, the plasma treated samples were bonded adhesively or fabricated into composites. The increase in mechanical strength was correlated to changes in the material composition and structure after plasma treatment. The work presented hereafter establishes atmospheric pressure plasma as an effective method to activate and to clean the surfaces of polymers and composites for bonding. This application can be further expanded to the activation of carbon fibers for better fiber-resin interactions during the fabrication of composites. Treating electronic grade FR-4 and polyimide with the He/O2 plasma for a few seconds changed the substrate surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, which allowed complete wetting of the surface by epoxy in underfill applications. Characterization of the surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows formation of oxygenated functional groups, including hydroxyl, carbonyl, and

  6. Dynamic response of damaged angleplied fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.; Lark, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of low level damage induced by monotonic load, cyclic load and/or residual stresses on the vibration frequencies and damping factors of fiber composite angleplied laminates were investigated. Two different composite systems were studied - low modulus fiber and ultra high modulus fiber composites. The results obtained show that the frequencies and damping factors of angleplied laminates made from low modulus fiber composites are sensitive to low level damage while those made from ultra high modulus composites are not. Vibration tests may not be sufficiently sensitive to assess concentrated local damage in angleplied laminates. Dynamic response determined from low-velocity impact coupled with the Fast Fourier Transform and packaged in a minicomputer can be a convenient procedure for assessing low-level damage.

  7. Vesper - Venus Chemistry and Dynamics Orbiter - A NASA Discovery Mission Proposal: Submillimeter Investigation of Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Vesper conducts a focused investigation of the chemistry and dynamics of the middle atmosphere of our sister planet- from the base of the global cloud cover to the lower thermosphere. The middle atmosphere controls the stability of the Venus climate system. Vesper determines what processes maintain the atmospheric chemical stability, cause observed variability of chemical composition, control the escape of water, and drive the extreme super-rotation. The Vesper science investigation provides a unique perspective on the Earth environment due to the similarities in the middle atmosphere processes of both Venus and the Earth. Understanding key distinctions and similarities between Venus and Earth will increase our knowledge of how terrestrial planets evolve along different paths from nearly identical initial conditions.

  8. ATMOSPHERIC RETRIEVAL FOR SUPER-EARTHS: UNIQUELY CONSTRAINING THE ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION WITH TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara

    2012-07-10

    We present a retrieval method based on Bayesian analysis to infer the atmospheric compositions and surface or cloud-top pressures from transmission spectra of exoplanets with general compositions. In this study, we identify what can unambiguously be determined about the atmospheres of exoplanets from their transmission spectra by applying the retrieval method to synthetic observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b. Our approach to inferring constraints on atmospheric parameters is to compute their joint and marginal posterior probability distributions using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique in a parallel tempering scheme. A new atmospheric parameterization is introduced that is applicable to general atmospheres in which the main constituent is not known a priori and clouds may be present. Our main finding is that a unique constraint of the mixing ratios of the absorbers and two spectrally inactive gases (such as N{sub 2} and primordial H{sub 2}+ He) is possible if the observations are sufficient to quantify both (1) the broadband transit depths in at least one absorption feature for each absorber and (2) the slope and strength of the molecular Rayleigh scattering signature. A second finding is that the surface pressure or cloud-top pressure can be quantified if a surface or cloud deck is present at low optical depth. A third finding is that the mean molecular mass can be constrained by measuring either the Rayleigh scattering slope or the shapes of the absorption features, thus enabling one to distinguish between cloudy hydrogen-rich atmospheres and high mean molecular mass atmospheres. We conclude, however, that without the signature of molecular Rayleigh scattering-even with robustly detected infrared absorption features (>10{sigma})-there is no reliable way to tell from the transmission spectrum whether the absorber is a main constituent of the atmosphere or just a minor species with a mixing ratio of X{sub abs} < 0.1%. The retrieval method leads us to a

  9. Composition and evolution of the atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Thomas (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The contract year started by analyzing Jovian atmospheric data acquired by the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS). Two Venus hydrogen projects got underway as well. The first study strives to understand how to reconcile the standard treatment of the evolution of the H2O and HDO resevoirs on Venus over 4.5 Gyr in the presence of H and D escape and injection by comets. The second study is calculating the charge exchange contribution to hydrogen loss rates, using realistic models for exospheric H, H(+), D, D(+), and ion temperature from PV data. This report includes the following papers as attachments and supporting data: 'The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer: Composition of Jupiter's Atmosphere'; 'Chemical Composition Measurements of the Atmosphere of Jupiter with the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer'; 'Ion/Neutral Escape of Hydrogen and Deuterium: Evolution of Water'; 'Hydrogen and Deuterium in the Thermosphere of Venus: Solar Cycle Variations and Escape'; and 'Solar Cycle Variations in H(+) and D(+) Densities in the Venus Ionosphere: Implications for Escape'.

  10. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    SciTech Connect

    Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions.

  11. Effects of eustatic sea-level change, ocean dynamics, and nutrient utilization on atmospheric pCO2 and seawater composition over the last 130 000 years: a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallmann, K.; Schneider, B.; Sarnthein, M.

    2016-02-01

    -level rise led to a gradual decline in nutrient, DIC, and TA stocks, a slow change due to the large size and extended residence times of dissolved chemical species in the ocean. Thus, the rapid deglacial rise in pCO2 can be explained by fast changes in ocean dynamics and nutrient utilization whereas the gradual pCO2 rise over the Holocene may be linked to the slow drop in nutrient and TA stocks that continued to promote an ongoing CO2 transfer from the ocean into the atmosphere.

  12. Atmospheric composition and climate on the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Kasting, James F; Howard, M Tazewell

    2006-10-29

    Oxygen isotope data from ancient sedimentary rocks appear to suggest that the early Earth was significantly warmer than today, with estimates of surface temperatures between 45 and 85 degrees C. We argue, following others, that this interpretation is incorrect-the same data can be explained via a change in isotopic composition of seawater with time. These changes in the isotopic composition could result from an increase in mean depth of the mid-ocean ridges caused by a decrease in geothermal heat flow with time. All this implies that the early Earth was warm, not hot.A more temperate early Earth is also easier to reconcile with the long-term glacial record. However, what triggered these early glaciations is still under debate. The Paleoproterozoic glaciations at approximately 2.4Ga were probably caused by the rise of atmospheric O2 and a concomitant decrease in greenhouse warming by CH4. Glaciation might have occurred in the Mid-Archaean as well, at approximately 2.9Ga, perhaps as a consequence of anti-greenhouse cooling by hydrocarbon haze. Both glaciations are linked to decreases in the magnitude of mass-independent sulphur isotope fractionation in ancient rocks. Studying both the oxygen and sulphur isotopic records has thus proved useful in probing the composition of the early atmosphere.

  13. LEOMAC: A Future 'Global Atmospheric Composition Mission' (CACM) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livesey, Nathaniel; Santee, Michelle; Stek, Paul; Waters, Joe; Levelt, Pieternel; Veefkind, Pepijn; Kumer, Jack; Roche, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    Resolution of important outstanding questions in air quality, climate change and ozone layer stability demands global observations of multiple chemical species with high horizontal and vertical resolution from the boundary layer to the stratopause. We present a mission concept that delivers the needed atmospheric composition observations, along with cloud ice and water vapor data needed for improvements in climate and weather forecasting models. The mission comprises ultraviolet and infrared nadir and microwave limb viewing instruments observing wide swaths each orbit. We review the scientific goals of the mission and the measurement capabilities this concept will deliver. We describe how precessing orbits offer significant improvements in temporal resolution and diurnal coverage compared to sun-synchronous orbits. Such improvements are needed to quantify the impact of critical 'fast processes' such as deep convection on the composition and radiative properties of the upper troposphere, a region where water vapor and ozone are strong but poorly understood greenhouse gases. This concept can serve as the 'Global Atmospheric Composition Mission' (GACM) recently recommended by the National Academy of Sciences decadal survey as one of 17 priority earth science missions for the coming decade.

  14. Atmospheric composition and climate on the early Earth

    PubMed Central

    Kasting, James F; Howard, M. Tazewell

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen isotope data from ancient sedimentary rocks appear to suggest that the early Earth was significantly warmer than today, with estimates of surface temperatures between 45 and 85°C. We argue, following others, that this interpretation is incorrect—the same data can be explained via a change in isotopic composition of seawater with time. These changes in the isotopic composition could result from an increase in mean depth of the mid-ocean ridges caused by a decrease in geothermal heat flow with time. All this implies that the early Earth was warm, not hot. A more temperate early Earth is also easier to reconcile with the long-term glacial record. However, what triggered these early glaciations is still under debate. The Paleoproterozoic glaciations at approximately 2.4 Ga were probably caused by the rise of atmospheric O2 and a concomitant decrease in greenhouse warming by CH4. Glaciation might have occurred in the Mid-Archaean as well, at approximately 2.9 Ga, perhaps as a consequence of anti-greenhouse cooling by hydrocarbon haze. Both glaciations are linked to decreases in the magnitude of mass-independent sulphur isotope fractionation in ancient rocks. Studying both the oxygen and sulphur isotopic records has thus proved useful in probing the composition of the early atmosphere. PMID:17008214

  15. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF ORBITAL AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspi, Yohai; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-05-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super-Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggest that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super-Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone—including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks—depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, patterns of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, stellar flux, atmospheric mass, surface gravity, optical thickness, and planetary radius affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global climate.

  16. Relation between isotopic composition of precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenčič, Mihael; Kononova, Nina K.; Vreča, Polona

    2015-10-01

    Precipitation generating processes depend on atmospheric circulation patterns and consequently it is expected that its water stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen is related to them. Precipitation generated at similar atmospheric circulation patterns should have similar empirical distribution of δ2H and δ18O values. Mathematical model based on the linear combination of δ2H and δ18O values and on precipitation amount weighted average related to elementary air circulation mechanisms - ECM is proposed. The model enables estimation of average δ2H and δ18O values and their standard deviation for the precipitation generated at distinctive atmospheric circulation patterns. Approach in which atmospheric circulation patterns were classified as ECM based on the Dzerdzeevskii classification was applied. Application of the model is illustrated on the long term precipitation record from Ljubljana GNIP station Slovenia. Estimated values of the parameters for empirical distributions of δ2H and δ18O of each ECM subtype have shown that calculated estimates are reasonable. Further applications of the proposed model enable new insight into the understanding of isotopes spatial and temporal distribution in precipitation important also for better understanding of climate proxies.

  17. A compositing approach for preserving signifigant features in atmospheric profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R. )

    1993-03-01

    Composite profiles of thermodynamic and kinematic variables are prepared to represent the characteristics of the environment within which a particular atmospheric phenomenon occurs. During the averaging process, it is desirable to retain the dominant features and associated gradients found in the individual profiles so that representative values of quantities such as flux parameters, energy budgets, convective available ptoential energy, and various stability indices can be computed from the composite profiles. The conventional compositing approach, where averages are computed at common heights, reduces or even smooths out a significant feature when the height and vertical extent of the feature differ from one individual file to the next. To retain a desirable feature in the composite profile, it is necessary to compute averages at the heights where the feature occurs and to compute the average height of the feature itself. As an example ot the capabilities of this scaling or feature-preserving approach, the technique was applied to a set of 33 hodographs from supercell thunderstorm environments as documented in the literature. The feature-preserving technique retained realistic wind-shear values, including a midaltitude minimum-shear layer that disappeared when the conventional compositing technique was used. 44 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Simulation of Venus Atmosphere Dynamics With an Earth Climate GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, H. F.; Schubert, G.; Covey, C. C.; Grossman, A.

    2008-12-01

    We describe the results of initial simulations of the Venusian atmosphere, using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). The CAM model is a descendant of the NCAR Community Climate Model, and is defined as one of two "high-end" models designated by the US Climate Change Science Program for basic research. It may also be the most widely used 3D climate model in the US. CAM has grown substantially in complexity and Earth-specificity since the original version was released in 1983, and many of these Earth based physics parameterizations need to be adjusted to simulate the Venus atmosphere. Other groups are adapting CAM to simulate the atmospheres of Mars and Titan, thereby promising CAM simulation for all four terrestrial planets known to have substantial atmospheres. Studying these worlds together will provide calibration of Earth-centric studies of climate changes like global warming. It will also provide context for future searches for Earth-like planets orbiting other stars. In this work we will focus on Venus. The Venus atmosphere represents an extreme environment, strongly influenced by the greenhouse effect, and studying the Venus atmosphere may therefore be relevant to the possible future direction of the Earth's climate. The dynamical processes which occur in the Venusian atmosphere are not well understood, including the cause of the strong superrotation of the atmosphere, in which the planetary surface rotates with a period of around 243 days, but the atmosphere near the cloud tops has a rotational period of only around 4 days. We show the results of initial simulations of the dynamics of the Venus atmosphere, using a version of the CAM model with most of the Earth related processes, such as the cloud physics, removed. A simplified form of heating has been applied, similar to the thermal forcing approach used recently by other authors. We investigate the sensitivity of the model results to changes in the physics parameterizations we have used, including

  19. Jupiter's atmospheric composition from the Cassini thermal infrared spectroscopy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunde, V. G.; Flasar, F. M.; Jennings, D. E.; Bezard, B.; Strobel, D. F.; Conrath, B. J.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N.; Achterberg, R. K.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Irwin, P.; Brasunas, J. C.; Pearl, J. C.; Smith, M. D.; Orton, G. S.; Gierasch, P. J.; Spilker, L. J.; Carlson, R. C.; Mamoutkine, A. A.; Calcutt, S. B.; Read, P. L.; Taylor, F. W.; Fouchet, T.; Parrish, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer observed Jupiter in the thermal infrared during the swing-by of the Cassini spacecraft. Results include the detection of two new stratospheric species, the methyl radical and diacetylene, gaseous species present in the north and south auroral infrared hot spots; determination of the variations with latitude of acetylene and ethane, the latter a tracer of atmospheric motion; observations of unexpected spatial distributions of carbon dioxide and hydrogen cyanide, both considered to be products of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts; characterization of the morphology of the auroral infrared hot spot acetylene emission; and a new evaluation of the energetics of the northern auroral infrared hot spot.

  20. Surface ices and the atmospheric composition of pluto.

    PubMed

    Owen, T C; Roush, T L; Cruikshank, D P; Elliot, J L; Young, L A; de Bergh, C; Schmitt, B; Geballe, T R; Brown, R H; Bartholomew, M J

    1993-08-01

    Observations of the 1.4- to 2.4-micrometer spectrum of Pluto reveal absorptions of carbon monoxide and nitrogen ices and confirm the presence of solid methane. Frozen nitrogen is more abundant than the other two ices by a factor of about 50; gaseous nitrogen must therefore be the major atmospheric constituent. The absence of carbon dioxide absorptions is one of several differences between the spectra of Pluto and Triton in this region. Both worlds carry information about the composition of the solar nebula and the processes by which icy planetesimals formed.

  1. Surface ices and the atmospheric composition of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T. C.; Roush, T. L.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Elliot, J. L.; Young, L. A.; de Bergh, C.; Schmitt, B.; Geballe, T. R.; Brown, R. H.; Bartholomew, M. J.

    1993-08-01

    Observations of the 1.4- to 2.4-micrometer spectrum of Pluto reveal absorptions of carbon monoxide and nitrogen ices and confirm the presence of solid methane. Frozen nitrogen is more abundant than the other two ices by a factor of about 50; gaseous nitrogen must therefore be the major atmospheric constituent. The absence of carbon dioxide absorptions is one of several differences between the spectra of Pluto and Triton in this region. Both worlds carry information about the composition of the solar nebula and the processes by which icy planetesimals formed.

  2. Surface ices and the atmospheric composition of Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Tobias C.; Roush, Ted L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Elliot, James L.; Young, Leslie A.; De Bergh, Catherine; Schmitt, Bernard; Geballe, Thomas R.; Brown, Robert H.; Bartholomew, Mary J.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of the 1.4- to 2.4-micrometer spectrum of Pluto reveal absorptions of carbon monoxide and nitrogen ices and confirm the presence of solid methane. Frozen nitrogen is more abundant than the other two ices by a factor of about 50; gaseous nitrogen must therefore be the major atmospheric constituent. The absence of carbon dioxide absorptions is one of several differences between the spectra of Pluto and Triton in this region. Both worlds carry information about the composition of the solar nebula and the processes by which icy planetesimals formed.

  3. Towards an exploitation of IAGOS atmospheric composition measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julia; Gerbig, Christoph; Petzold, Andreas; Zahn, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    IAGOS, In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System, has installed instrumentation on a growing fleet of commercial airliners in order to continuously monitor atmospheric composition around the globe. IAGOS is providing accurate in situ observations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), reactive gases, aerosols, and cloud particles at high spatial resolution in the free atmosphere, thereby covering the essential climate variables (ECVs) for atmospheric composition as designated by the GCOS programme (Implementation Plan for the Global Observing System for Climate in Support of the UNFCCC, 2010). The greenhouse gas measurements made by IAGOS will be submitted to the WMO/GAW World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG). Within the EU FP7 project IGAS (IAGOS for the GMES Atmospheric Service), the links between this new data stream and scientific users, including the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service, are being improved. This includes the provision of measurements in both near-real-time and delayed mode, and improved accessibility to the data through linkages to the databases of both the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) flight campaign archive and the Copernicus data archive. Work has been undertaken to investigate the use of the near-real-time profile measurements in order to correct bias in satellite measurements assimilated by the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service. Documentation of the QA/QC procedures and measurement techniques for each instrument have been formalized and reviewed by external experts, to provide users with a measurement traceable to WMO standards. The representativeness of the measurements has been assessed, to better interpret results in polluted regions and near the tropopause. The potential impact of the GHG measurements on regional scale flux inversions has been quantified, which is relevant for ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observing System). Finally, tools have been developed to use the measurements for validation of satellite column

  4. Saturn's Atmospheric Composition from Observations by the Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Young, M.; LeClair, A. C.; Achterberg, R. K.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal emission infrared observation of Saturn s atmosphere are being made by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard the Cassini spacecraft since its insertion in Saturn s orbit on July 2nd, 2004. The measurements made in both limb and nadir modes of observations consist of infrared spectra in the 10-1400/cm region with a variable spectral resolution of 0.53/cm and 2.8/cm, and exhibit rotational and vibrational spectral features that may be analyzed for retrieval of the thermal structure and constituent distribution of Saturn s atmosphere. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of the CIRS infrared observed spectra for retrieval of Saturn s atmospheric composition focusing on the distributions of some selected hydrocarbons, phosphine, ammonia, and possible determination of the isotopic ratios of some species with sufficiently strong isolated spectral features. A comparison of the retrieved constituent distributions with the available data in the literature will be made.

  5. Saturn's atmospheric composition from observations by the Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Mian; Young, Madison M.; Leclair, Andre C.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Flasar, F. Michael; Kunde, Virgil G.

    Thermal emission infrared observations of Saturn's atmosphere have been made by the Compos-ite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard the Cassini spacecraft since its insertion into Saturn's orbit on July 2nd, 2004. The measurements made in both limb and nadir mode of observa-tions consist of infrared spectra in the 10-1400 cm-1 region with a variable spectral resolution of 0.53 cm-1 and 2.8 cm-1 , and exhibit rotational and vibrational spectral features that may be analyzed for retrieval of the thermal structure and constituent distribution of Saturn's at-mosphere. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis of the CIRS infrared observed spectra for retrieval of Saturn's atmospheric composition focusing on the distributions of some selected hydrocarbons, phosphine, ammonia, and possible determination of the isotopic ratios of some species with sufficiently strong isolated spectral features. A comparison of the retrieved constituent distributions with the available data in the literature will be made.

  6. Composition of quantum states and dynamical subadditivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roga, Wojciech; Fannes, Mark; Życzkowski, Karol

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a composition of quantum states of a bipartite system which is based on the reshuffling of density matrices. This non-Abelian product is associative and stems from the composition of quantum maps acting on a simple quantum system. It induces a semi-group in the subset of states with maximally mixed partial traces. Subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy with respect to this product is proved. It is equivalent to subadditivity of the entropy of bistochastic maps with respect to their composition, where the entropy of a map is the entropy of the corresponding state under the Jamiołkowski isomorphism. Strong dynamical subadditivity of a concatenation of three bistochastic maps is established. Analogous bounds for the entropy of a composition are derived for general stochastic maps. In the classical case they lead to new bounds for the entropy of a product of two stochastic matrices.

  7. Validation of Atmospheric Dynamics (VADY) - connections between planetary waves and atmospheric circulation types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Benjamin; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The climate research program "Medium-range Climate Predictions" (MiKlip), funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in Germany (BMBF), has the aim to develop a climate model system (MPI-ESM) that can provide reliable decadal predictions of climate, including extreme weather events. A substantial part of the development process is a comprehensive model validation. Within MiKlip, it includes comparisons of model simulations and observations in order to allow statements about the performance of the model and to give particular recommendations for the further development of the model. The research project "Validation of Atmospheric Dynamics" (VADY), conducted by the cooperation partners "Institute of Geography at the University of Augsburg" (IGUA) and the "German Aerospace Centre" (DLR), contributes to model validation within MiKlip with a special focus on atmospheric waves and circulation dynamics. Within the framework of VADY, DLR validates the representation of atmospheric waves on different levels and scales based on suitable activity indices (e.g. the so-called large-scale dynamical activity index (LDAI), which is a measure for the activity of planetary waves). The focus of IGUA is on the model validation with respect to the representation of atmospheric circulation types, dynamical modes and the teleconnectivity of the atmospheric circulation. Currently, the connection between LDAI and atmospheric circulation types on different levels and for different seasons in the North Atlantic-European region is analysed by considering, in particular, the North Atlantic Oscillation. Results will be shown for the connection between LDAI and atmospheric circulation types and subsequently for the representation of the identified connections in the decadal-prediction model system of MPI-ESM.

  8. Dynamic Probabilistic Instability of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2009-01-01

    A computationally effective method is described to evaluate the non-deterministic dynamic instability (probabilistic dynamic buckling) of thin composite shells. The method is a judicious combination of available computer codes for finite element, composite mechanics and probabilistic structural analysis. The solution method is incrementally updated Lagrangian. It is illustrated by applying it to thin composite cylindrical shell subjected to dynamic loads. Both deterministic and probabilistic buckling loads are evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. A universal plot is obtained for the specific shell that can be used to approximate buckling loads for different load rates and different probability levels. Results from this plot show that the faster the rate, the higher the buckling load and the shorter the time. The lower the probability, the lower is the buckling load for a specific time. Probabilistic sensitivity results show that the ply thickness, the fiber volume ratio and the fiber longitudinal modulus, dynamic load and loading rate are the dominant uncertainties in that order.

  9. Observing the atmospheric composition with the IASI/MetOp satellite: emissions, composition and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.; George, M.; Clarisse, L.; Hurtmans, D.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Razavi, A.

    2010-12-01

    Among the available remote sensing data to monitor the atmospheric composition, IASI, the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer flying onboard the MetOp satellite since 2006, offers unprecedented possibilities for sounding the troposphere in near-real time and for capturing sudden changes in the atmosphere with a global coverage. This presentation will review the capabilities of IASI to contribute to several aspects of atmospheric chemistry, such as the identification of local and regional sources to improve emission inventories, the tracking of long-range transport of pollution, and the detection of unexpected events such as large fires or volcanic plumes. Illustrations will be provided for carbon monoxide, methanol, ammonia, and ash/sulfur dioxide from volcanoes. The sensitivity and errors inherent to satellite sounding in the infrared spectral range will also be discussed.

  10. Investigations of atmospheric dynamics using a CW Doppler sounder array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    A three-dimensional CW Doppler sounding system currently under operation at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama is described. The properties of the neutral atmosphere are discussed along with the theory of Doppler sounding technique. Methods of data analyses used to investigate the dynamical phenomena at the ionospheric heights are presented and suggestions for future investigations provided.

  11. Argon isotopic composition of Archaean atmosphere probes early Earth geodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Magali; Marty, Bernard; Burgess, Ray; Turner, Grenville; Philippot, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the growth rate of the continental crust through time is a fundamental issue in Earth sciences. The isotopic signatures of noble gases in the silicate Earth (mantle, crust) and in the atmosphere afford exceptional insight into the evolution through time of these geochemical reservoirs. However, no data for the compositions of these reservoirs exists for the distant past, and temporal exchange rates between Earth's interior and its surface are severely under-constrained owing to a lack of samples preserving the original signature of the atmosphere at the time of their formation. Here, we report the analysis of argon in Archaean (3.5-billion-year-old) hydrothermal quartz. Noble gases are hosted in primary fluid inclusions containing a mixture of Archaean freshwater and hydrothermal fluid. Our analysis reveals Archaean atmospheric argon with a (40)Ar/(36)Ar value of 143 ± 24, lower than the present-day value of 298.6 (for which (40)Ar has been produced by the radioactive decay of the potassium isotope (40)K, with a half-life of 1.25 billion years; (36)Ar is primordial in origin). This ratio is consistent with an early development of the felsic crust, which might have had an important role in climate variability during the first half of Earth's history.

  12. Dynamics of the atmosphere. [spacecraft observations of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elson, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of and possible explanations for the dynamics of the Venus atmosphere as revelaed by Pioneer Venus and the Venera spacecraft are discussed. An important observation was that the entire atmosphere moves in the same retrograde (westward) direction at average speeds of up to about 110 m/sec, which may be explained by zonal jets arising from interactions of meridional cells, viscosity and solar heating. Atmospheric thermal tides, temperature and wind perturbations caused by solar heating were also observed which may have influences on tidal winds and warming at the poles. In addition, atmospheric waves with periods of 5.3 and 2.9 earth days have been detected between the Venus cloud tops, and calculations of baroclinically unstable waves on Venus have been made with a general circulation model.

  13. Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Composition on LIBS

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Jeremy J.; Scott, Jill R.; Effenberger, A. J. Jr.

    2014-03-01

    Most LIBS experiments are conducted at standard atmospheric pressure in air. However, there are LIBS studies that vary the pressure and composition of the gas. These studies have provided insights into fundamentals of the mechanisms that lead to the emission and methods for improving the quality of LIBS spectra. These atmospheric studies are difficult because the effects of pressure and gas composition and interconnected, making interpretation of the results difficult. The influence of pressures below and above 760 Torr have been explored. Performing LIBS on a surface at reduced pressures (<760 Torr) can result in enhanced spectra due to higher resolution, increased intensity, improved signal-to-noise (S/N), and increased ablation. Lower pressures produce increased resolution because the line width in LIBS spectra is predominantly due to Stark and Doppler broadening. Stark broadening is primarily caused from collisions between electrons and atoms, while Doppler broadening is proportional to the plasma temperature. Close examination using a high resolution spectrometer reveals that spectra show significant peak broadening and self-absorption as pressures increase, especially for pressures >760 Torr. During LIBS plasma expansion, energy is lost to the surrounding atmosphere, which reduces the lifetime of the laser plasma. Therefore, reducing the pressure increases the lifetime of the plasma, allowing more light from the laser plasma to be collected; thus, increasing the observed signal intensity. However, if pressures are too low (<10 Torr), then there is a steep drop in LIBS spectral intensity. This loss in intensity is mostly due to a disordered plasma that results from the lack of sufficient atmosphere to provide adequate confinement. At reduced pressures, the plasma expands into a less dense atmosphere, which results in a less dense shock wave. The reduced density in the shock wave results in reduced plasma shielding, allowing more photons to reach the sample

  14. Measured Spacecraft Dynamic Effects on Atmospheric Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Gell, David A.; Lay, Richard R.

    1997-01-01

    On September 1991, NASA launched the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. In addition to its atmospheric science mission, spacecraft dynamic effects on science measurements were analyzed. The investigation included two in-flight experiments to determine how each on-board instrument, subsystem and environmental disturbance contributed to the spacecraft dynamic response and how these disturbances affected science measurements. Three case studies are presented which show the impact of spacecraft dynamic response on science measurements. In the first case, correlation of independent atmospheric meridional wind measurements taken by two instruments with the spacecraft dynamic response demonstrated that excessive vibration (exceeding instrument pointing requirements) resulted in wind measurement disagreement. In the second case, solar array disturbances produced a spacecraft response signature on radiometer measurements. The signature explicitly demonstrated that if an instrument has sufficient spatial and temporal resolution, spacecraft dynamic response could impact measurements. In the final case, correlation of an instrument's fine sun sensor data and CO2 measurements demonstrated the effect of temporal and spatial sampling resolution and active pointing control on science measurements. The sun sensor had a frequency modulated characteristic due to spacecraft vibration and the periodic scanning of another instrument which was not present on the CO2 measurements.

  15. Lobe dynamics and homoclinic tangles in atmospheric flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, S.; Ross, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, dynamical system theorists have been developing methods to study structures that govern the dynamics of atmospheric and oceanic flows. The primary concern for these flows are the finite time nature and the arbitrary time dependence in contrast to classical dynamical systems. Recent work on 2D quasi-horizontal approximations of atmospheric motion have demonstrated that there are aperiodic, finite-time analogs of homoclinic tangles and lobe dynamics, e.g., around hurricane boundaries. The tools used have been coherent structure boundaries based on ridges of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field calculated from integrated particle trajectories. There are some ambiguities in the FTLE-based approach which suggests other methods should be attempted. In this work, we apply methods based on Lagrangian descriptors (due to Mancho and co-workers) to locate distinguished hyperbolic trajectories (DHTs) and generate corresponding finite-time stable and unstable manifolds to study lobe dynamics, as applied to atmospheric flow as well as fluid experiments. We compare the Lagrangian descriptor approach with the FTLE-based approach.

  16. Simulation of cold atmospheric plasma component composition and particle densities in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsanov, Gennady; Chirtsov, Alexander; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy

    2015-11-01

    Recently discharges in air at atmospheric pressure were the subject of numerous studies. Of particular interest are the cold streams of air plasma, which contains large amounts of chemically active species. It is their action can be decisive in the interaction with living tissues. Therefore, in addition to its physical properties, it is important to know the component composition and particle densities. The goal was to develop a numerical model of atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge in air with the definition of the component composition of plasma. To achieve this goal the task was divided into two sub-tasks, in the first simulated microdischarge atmospheric pressure in air using a simplified set of plasma chemical reactions in order to obtain the basic characteristics of the discharge, which are the initial approximations in the problem of the calculation of the densities with detailed plasma chemistry, including 53 spices and over 600 chemical reactions. As a result of the model was created, which can be adapted for calculating the component composition of plasma of various sources. Calculate the density of particles in the glow microdischarges and dynamics of their change in time.

  17. Simulation of cold atmospheric plasma component composition and particle densities in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsanov, Gennady; Bekasov, Vladimir; Eliseev, Stepan; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Sisoev, Sergey

    2015-11-01

    Recently discharges in air at atmospheric pressure were the subject of numerous studies. Of particular interest are the cold streams of air plasma, which contains large amounts of chemically active species. It is their action can be decisive in the interaction with living tissues. Therefore, in addition to its physical properties, it is important to know the component composition and particle densities. The goal was to develop a numerical model of atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge in air with the definition of the component composition of plasma. To achieve this goal the task was broken down into two sub-tasks, in the first simulated microdischarge atmospheric pressure in air using a simplified set of plasma chemical reactions in order to obtain the basic characteristics of the discharge, which are the initial approximations in the problem of the calculation of the densities with detailed plasma chemistry, including 53 spices and over 600 chemical reactions. As a result of the model was created, which can be adapted for calculating the component composition of plasma of various sources. Calculate the density of particles in the glow microdischarges and dynamics of their change in time.

  18. Pivotal roles of phyllosphere microorganisms at the interface between plant functioning and atmospheric trace gas dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bringel, Françoise; Couée, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The phyllosphere, which lato sensu consists of the aerial parts of plants, and therefore primarily, of the set of photosynthetic leaves, is one of the most prevalent microbial habitats on earth. Phyllosphere microbiota are related to original and specific processes at the interface between plants, microorganisms and the atmosphere. Recent –omics studies have opened fascinating opportunities for characterizing the spatio-temporal structure of phyllosphere microbial communities in relation with structural, functional, and ecological properties of host plants, and with physico-chemical properties of the environment, such as climate dynamics and trace gas composition of the surrounding atmosphere. This review will analyze recent advances, especially those resulting from environmental genomics, and how this novel knowledge has revealed the extent of the ecosystemic impact of the phyllosphere at the interface between plants and atmosphere. Highlights • The phyllosphere is one of the most prevalent microbial habitats on earth. • Phyllosphere microbiota colonize extreme, stressful, and changing environments. • Plants, phyllosphere microbiota and the atmosphere present a dynamic continuum. • Phyllosphere microbiota interact with the dynamics of volatile organic compounds and atmospheric trace gasses. PMID:26052316

  19. Pivotal roles of phyllosphere microorganisms at the interface between plant functioning and atmospheric trace gas dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bringel, Françoise; Couée, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The phyllosphere, which lato sensu consists of the aerial parts of plants, and therefore primarily, of the set of photosynthetic leaves, is one of the most prevalent microbial habitats on earth. Phyllosphere microbiota are related to original and specific processes at the interface between plants, microorganisms and the atmosphere. Recent -omics studies have opened fascinating opportunities for characterizing the spatio-temporal structure of phyllosphere microbial communities in relation with structural, functional, and ecological properties of host plants, and with physico-chemical properties of the environment, such as climate dynamics and trace gas composition of the surrounding atmosphere. This review will analyze recent advances, especially those resulting from environmental genomics, and how this novel knowledge has revealed the extent of the ecosystemic impact of the phyllosphere at the interface between plants and atmosphere. Highlights • The phyllosphere is one of the most prevalent microbial habitats on earth. • Phyllosphere microbiota colonize extreme, stressful, and changing environments. • Plants, phyllosphere microbiota and the atmosphere present a dynamic continuum. • Phyllosphere microbiota interact with the dynamics of volatile organic compounds and atmospheric trace gasses.

  20. Dynamical ocean-atmospheric drivers of floods and droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigão, Rui A. P.; Hall, Julia

    2014-05-01

    The present study contributes to a better depiction and understanding of the "facial expression" of the Earth in terms of dynamical ocean-atmospheric processes associated to both floods and droughts. For this purpose, the study focuses on nonlinear dynamical and statistical analysis of ocean-atmospheric mechanisms contributing to hydrological extremes, broadening the analytical hydro-meteorological perspective of floods and hydrological droughts to driving mechanisms and feedbacks at the global scale. In doing so, the analysis of the climate-related causality of hydrological extremes is not limited to the synoptic situation in the region where the events take place. Rather, it goes further in the train of causality, peering into dynamical interactions between planetary-scale ocean and atmospheric processes that drive weather regimes and influence the antecedent and event conditions associated to hydrological extremes. In order to illustrate the approach, dynamical ocean-atmospheric drivers are investigated for a selection of floods and droughts. Despite occurring in different regions with different timings, common underlying mechanisms are identified for both kinds of hydrological extremes. For instance, several analysed events are seen to have resulted from a large-scale atmospheric situation consisting on standing planetary waves encircling the northern hemisphere. These correspond to wider vortices locked in phase, resulting in wider and more persistent synoptic weather patterns, i.e. with larger spatial and temporal coherence. A standing train of anticyclones and depressions thus encircled the mid and upper latitudes of the northern hemisphere. The stationary regime of planetary waves occurs when the mean eastward zonal flow decreases up to a point in which it no longer exceeds the westward phase propagation of the Rossby waves produced by the latitude-varying Coriolis effect. The ocean-atmospheric causes for this behaviour and consequences on hydrological

  1. Ar Atmosphere: Implications for Structure and Composition of Mercury's Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the possibilities of sustaining an argon atmosphere by diffusion from the upper 10 km of crust, and alternatively by effusion from a molten or previously molten area at great depth . Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in surface-bounded exospheres is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon, Mercury and probably Europa is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the body. Argon content will be a function of K content, temperature, grain size distribution, connected pore volume and possible seismic activity. Although Mercury and the Moon differ in many details, we can train the solutions to diffusion equations to predict the average lunar atmosphere. Then these parameters can be varied for Hermean conditions. Assuming a lunar crustal potassium abundance of 300 ppm, the observed argon atmosphere requires equilibrium between the argon production in the upper 9 Km of the moon (1.135 x 10(exp -3) cm(exp -3) s(exp -1)) and its loss. Hodges et al. conclude that this loss rate and the observed time variability requires argon release through seismic activity, tapping a deep argon source. An important observation is that the extreme surface of the Moon is enhanced in argon rather than depleted, as one would expect from outgassing of radiogenic argon. Manka and Michel concluded that ion implantation explains the surface enhancement of Ar-40. About half of the argon ions produced in the lunar atmosphere would return to the surface, where they would become embedded in the rocks. Similarly, at Mercury we expect the surface rocks to be enhanced in Ar-40 wherever

  2. An exploration of Saturn's atmospheric dynamics with Global Climate Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Aymeric; Guerlet, Sandrine; Indurain, Mikel; Meurdesoif, Yann; Millour, Ehouarn; Sylvestre, Mélody; Dubos, Thomas; Fouchet, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    A decade of Cassini observations has yielded a new vision on the dynamical phenomena in Saturn's troposphere and stratosphere. Several puzzling signatures (equatorial oscillations with a period of about half a Saturn year, interhemispheric circulations affecting the hydrocarbons' distribution, including possible effects of rings shadowing, sudden warming associated with the powerful 2010 Great White Spot) cannot be explained by current photochemical and radiative models, which do not include dynamics. We therefore suspect that 1. the observed anomalies arise from large-scale dynamical circulations and 2. those large-scale dynamical motions are driven by atmospheric waves, eddies, and convection, in other words fundamental mechanisms giving birth to, e.g., the Quasi-Biennal Oscillation and Brewer-Dobson circulation in the Earth's middle atmosphere. We explore the plausibility of this scenario using our new Global Climate Modeling (GCM) for Saturn. To build this model, we firstly formulated dedicated physical parameterizations for Saturn's atmosphere, with a particular emphasis on radiative computations (using a correlated-k radiative transfer model, with radiative species and spectral discretization tailored for Saturn) aimed at both efficiency and accuracy, and validated them against existing Cassini observations. A second step consisted in coupling this radiative model to an hydrodynamical solver to predict the three-dimensional evolution of Saturn's tropospheric and stratospheric flow. We will provide an analysis of the first results of those dynamical simulations, with a focus on the development of baroclinic and barotropic instability, on eddy vs. mean flow interactions, and how this could relate to the enigmatic signatures observed by Cassini. Preliminary high-resolution simulations with a new icosahedral dynamical solver adapted to high-performance computing will also be analyzed. Perspectives are twofold: firstly, broadening our fundamental knowledge of

  3. Reaction Profiles and Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Cyanide Radical Reactions Relevant to Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinidad Pérez-Rivera, Danilo; Romani, Paul N.; Lopez-Encarnacion, Juan Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Titan's atmosphere is arguably the atmosphere of greatest interest that we have an abundance of data for from both ground based and spacecraft observations. As we have learned more about Titan's atmospheric composition, the presence of pre-biotic molecules in its atmosphere has generated more and more fascination about the photochemical process and pathways it its atmosphere. Our computational laboratory has been extensively working throughout the past year characterizing nitrile synthesis reactions, making significant progress on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions of .CN with the hydrocarbons acetylene (C2H2), propylene (CH3CCH), and benzene (C6H6), developing a clear picture of the mechanistic aspects through which these three reactions proceed. Specifically, first principles calculations of the reaction profiles and molecular dynamics studies for gas-phase reactions of .CN and C2H2, .CN and CH3CCH, and .CN and C6H6 have been carried out. A very accurate determination of potential energy surfaces of these reactions will allow us to compute the reaction rates which are indispensable for photochemical modeling of Titan's atmosphere.The work at University of Puerto Rico at Cayey was supported by Puerto Rico NASA EPSCoR IDEAS-ER program (2015-2016) and DTPR was sponsored by the Puerto Rico NASA Space Grant Consortium Fellowship. *E-mail: juan.lopez15@upr.edu

  4. Role of Megafauna and Frozen Soil in the Atmospheric CH4 Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zimov, Sergey; Zimov, Nikita

    2014-01-01

    Modern wetlands are the world’s strongest methane source. But what was the role of this source in the past? An analysis of global 14C data for basal peat combined with modelling of wetland succession allowed us to reconstruct the dynamics of global wetland methane emission through time. These data show that the rise of atmospheric methane concentrations during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition was not connected with wetland expansion, but rather started substantially later, only 9 thousand years ago. Additionally, wetland expansion took place against the background of a decline in atmospheric methane concentration. The isotopic composition of methane varies according to source. Owing to ice sheet drilling programs past dynamics of atmospheric methane isotopic composition is now known. For example over the course of Pleistocene-Holocene transition atmospheric methane became depleted in the deuterium isotope, which indicated that the rise in methane concentrations was not connected with activation of the deuterium-rich gas clathrates. Modelling of the budget of the atmospheric methane and its isotopic composition allowed us to reconstruct the dynamics of all main methane sources. For the late Pleistocene, the largest methane source was megaherbivores, whose total biomass is estimated to have exceeded that of present-day humans and domestic animals. This corresponds with our independent estimates of herbivore density on the pastures of the late Pleistocene based on herbivore skeleton density in the permafrost. During deglaciation, the largest methane emissions originated from degrading frozen soils of the mammoth steppe biome. Methane from this source is unique, as it is depleted of all isotopes. We estimated that over the entire course of deglaciation (15,000 to 6,000 year before present), soils of the mammoth steppe released 300–550 Pg (1015 g) of methane. From current study we conclude that the Late Quaternary Extinction significantly affected the global

  5. Role of megafauna and frozen soil in the atmospheric CH4 dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zimov, Sergey; Zimov, Nikita

    2014-01-01

    Modern wetlands are the world's strongest methane source. But what was the role of this source in the past? An analysis of global 14C data for basal peat combined with modelling of wetland succession allowed us to reconstruct the dynamics of global wetland methane emission through time. These data show that the rise of atmospheric methane concentrations during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition was not connected with wetland expansion, but rather started substantially later, only 9 thousand years ago. Additionally, wetland expansion took place against the background of a decline in atmospheric methane concentration. The isotopic composition of methane varies according to source. Owing to ice sheet drilling programs past dynamics of atmospheric methane isotopic composition is now known. For example over the course of Pleistocene-Holocene transition atmospheric methane became depleted in the deuterium isotope, which indicated that the rise in methane concentrations was not connected with activation of the deuterium-rich gas clathrates. Modelling of the budget of the atmospheric methane and its isotopic composition allowed us to reconstruct the dynamics of all main methane sources. For the late Pleistocene, the largest methane source was megaherbivores, whose total biomass is estimated to have exceeded that of present-day humans and domestic animals. This corresponds with our independent estimates of herbivore density on the pastures of the late Pleistocene based on herbivore skeleton density in the permafrost. During deglaciation, the largest methane emissions originated from degrading frozen soils of the mammoth steppe biome. Methane from this source is unique, as it is depleted of all isotopes. We estimated that over the entire course of deglaciation (15,000 to 6,000 year before present), soils of the mammoth steppe released 300-550 Pg (10(15) g) of methane. From current study we conclude that the Late Quaternary Extinction significantly affected the global

  6. Dynamic based damage detection in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sauvik; Ricci, Fabrizio; Baid, Harsh; Mal, Ajit K.

    2009-03-01

    Advanced composites are being used increasingly in state-of-the-art aircraft and aerospace structures. In spite of their many advantages, composite materials are highly susceptible to hidden flaws that may occur at any time during the life cycle of a structure, and if undetected, may cause sudden and catastrophic failure of the entire structure. This paper is concerned with the detection and characterization of hidden defects in composite structures before they grow to a critical size. A methodology for automatic damage identification and localization is developed using a combination of vibration and wave propagation data. The structure is assumed to be instrumented with an array of actuators and sensors to excite and record its dynamic response, including vibration and wave propagation effects. A damage index, calculated from the measured dynamical response of the structure in a previous (reference) state and the current state, is introduced as a determinant of structural damage. The indices are used to identify low velocity impact damages in increasingly complex composite structural components. The potential application of the approach in developing health monitoring systems in defects-critical structures is indicated.

  7. Interpretation of Titan's atmospheric composition measured by Cassini-Huygens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobie, G.; Gautier, D.; Hersant, F.; Lunine, J. I.

    2008-09-01

    ABSTRACT The GCMS instrument aboard the Huygens probe has measured the composition of Titan's atmosphere [1] and detected for the first time 36Ar and 40Ar, but no Xe and Kr. Assuming that planetesimals which formed the satellite originated from the cold solar nebula around 10 AU, we predict, on the basis of our interpretation of the CNS enrichments in Saturn [2], that they must have contained silicates, H2O ice, CO2, CH4, H2S, NH3 and some amount of noble gases. Using the evolution model of Tobie et al. [3], we have determined the fate of the different volatile species present in Titan's interior and in the atmosphere from the accretion to present time. At the end of accretion, most of the region outward of this proto-corewas warmliquid water (T > 300K), in which gas compound has very low solubility, and so potentially very large amounts of volatiles, notably methane, ended up in the primitive atmosphere and on the surface. During that early epoch, the composition of the hot-proto atmosphere should have reflected the composition of the planetesimals. The atmosphere at that time was probablymainly composed of H2O, NH3, CO2, CH4, H2S, which strongly contrasts with the nitrogen dominating atmosphere we have on Titan today. Early escape, photolysis, impact-driven chemistry and progressive condensation to the surface of the different species initially present in the primitive atmosphere gradually change the composition of the atmosphere, so that most of the primordial gas compound disappeared fromthe atmosphere. After that catastrophic early epoch, only the inner undifferentiated portion of Titans interior was able to hold primordial volatiles. These volatile species were released fromthe deep interior when internal differentiation occured, roughly 0.5 Gyr after accretion. Depending on their ability to interact with water molecules, each species follow a different evolutionnary pathway. For pressure conditions occurringwithin Titan, we show thatmost of the volatile

  8. Multispecies population dynamics of prebiotic compositional assemblies.

    PubMed

    Markovitch, Omer; Lancet, Doron

    2014-09-21

    Present life portrays a two-tier phenomenology: molecules compose supramolecular structures, such as cells or organisms, which in turn portray population behaviors, including selection, evolution and ecological dynamics. Prebiotic models have often focused on evolution in populations of self-replicating molecules, without explicitly invoking the intermediate molecular-to-supramolecular transition. Here, we explore a prebiotic model that allows one to relate parameters of chemical interaction networks within molecular assemblies to emergent population dynamics. We use the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, which simulates the network dynamics within amphiphile-containing molecular assemblies, and exhibits quasi-stationary compositional states termed compotype species. These grow by catalyzed accretion, divide and propagate their compositional information to progeny in a replication-like manner. The model allows us to ask how molecular network parameters influence assembly evolution and population dynamics parameters. In 1000 computer simulations, each embodying different parameter set of the global chemical interaction network parameters, we observed a wide range of behaviors. These were analyzed by a multi species logistic model often used for analyzing population ecology (r-K or Lotka-Volterra competition model). We found that compotypes with a larger intrinsic molecular repertoire show a higher intrinsic growth (r) and lower carrying capacity (K), as well as lower replication fidelity. This supports a prebiotic scenario initiated by fast-replicating assemblies with a high molecular diversity, evolving into more faithful replicators with narrower molecular repertoires. PMID:24831416

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

  10. Spin dynamics in driven composite multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zidong; Grimson, Malcolm J.

    2015-09-01

    A spin dynamics approach has been used to study the behavior of the magnetic spins and the electric pseudo-spins in a 1-D composite multiferroic chain with a linear magneto-electric coupling at the interface. The response is investigated with either external magnetic or electric fields driving the system. The spin dynamics is based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. A Gaussian white noise is later added into the dynamic process to include the thermal effects. The interface requires a closer inspection of the magneto-electric effects. Thus, we construct a 2-D ladder model to describe the behavior of the magnetic spins and the electric pseudo-spins with different magneto-electric couplings.

  11. Spin dynamics in driven composite multiferroics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zidong Grimson, Malcolm J.

    2015-09-28

    A spin dynamics approach has been used to study the behavior of the magnetic spins and the electric pseudo-spins in a 1-D composite multiferroic chain with a linear magneto-electric coupling at the interface. The response is investigated with either external magnetic or electric fields driving the system. The spin dynamics is based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. A Gaussian white noise is later added into the dynamic process to include the thermal effects. The interface requires a closer inspection of the magneto-electric effects. Thus, we construct a 2-D ladder model to describe the behavior of the magnetic spins and the electric pseudo-spins with different magneto-electric couplings.

  12. An Intercomparison of 10 Atmospheric Model Dynamical Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonowski, C.; Lauritzen, P. H.; Taylor, M. A.; Nair, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    The poster introduces an idealized test suite for the dynamical cores of Atmospheric General Circulation Models (GCMs) and presents results of the broadest dynamical core intercomparison project ever conducted to date. The intercomparison project was held at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, in June 2008. It was part of the NCAR Advanced Study Program's Summer Colloquium that not only surveyed the latest developments in numerical methods for dynamical cores but also hosted 10 modeling groups, key lecturers and 40 students for a two-week time period. The participating models represent a wide spectrum of numerical approaches and computational grids like latitude-longitude grids, Gaussian, icosahedral and cubed-sphere meshes. The comparison reveals new insights into the characteristics of the model simulations which include the diffusion and conservation properties. These were assessed via six deterministic dynamical core test cases run by the student group. The test hierarchy is now suggested as the starting point for a standard dynamical core test suite and serves as a launch pad for an even broader community driven dynamical core intercomparison experiment.

  13. Interpretation of Titan's atmospheric composition measured by Cassini-Huygens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobie, G.; Gautier, D.; Hersant, F.; Lunine, J. I.

    2008-09-01

    ABSTRACT The GCMS instrument aboard the Huygens probe has measured the composition of Titan's atmosphere [1] and detected for the first time 36Ar and 40Ar, but no Xe and Kr. Assuming that planetesimals which formed the satellite originated from the cold solar nebula around 10 AU, we predict, on the basis of our interpretation of the CNS enrichments in Saturn [2], that they must have contained silicates, H2O ice, CO2, CH4, H2S, NH3 and some amount of noble gases. Using the evolution model of Tobie et al. [3], we have determined the fate of the different volatile species present in Titan's interior and in the atmosphere from the accretion to present time. At the end of accretion, most of the region outward of this proto-corewas warmliquid water (T > 300K), in which gas compound has very low solubility, and so potentially very large amounts of volatiles, notably methane, ended up in the primitive atmosphere and on the surface. During that early epoch, the composition of the hot-proto atmosphere should have reflected the composition of the planetesimals. The atmosphere at that time was probablymainly composed of H2O, NH3, CO2, CH4, H2S, which strongly contrasts with the nitrogen dominating atmosphere we have on Titan today. Early escape, photolysis, impact-driven chemistry and progressive condensation to the surface of the different species initially present in the primitive atmosphere gradually change the composition of the atmosphere, so that most of the primordial gas compound disappeared fromthe atmosphere. After that catastrophic early epoch, only the inner undifferentiated portion of Titans interior was able to hold primordial volatiles. These volatile species were released fromthe deep interior when internal differentiation occured, roughly 0.5 Gyr after accretion. Depending on their ability to interact with water molecules, each species follow a different evolutionnary pathway. For pressure conditions occurringwithin Titan, we show thatmost of the volatile

  14. Infrasound monitoring, acoustic-gravity waves and global atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E.; Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Farges, T.

    2008-12-01

    For the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty, the International Monitoring System has been developed. As part of this system, the infrasound network provides an unique opportunity to monitor continuously pressure waves in the atmosphere. Such infrasonic waves propagate in the channel formed by the temperature and wind gradients of the atmosphere. Long term observations provide information about the evolution of the propagation conditions and then of atmospheric parameters. The monitoring of continuous sources, as ocean swell, gives the characteristics of the stratospheric wave channel submitted to stratospheric warming effects. Large scale gravity waves, which are also observed by the network, produce a forcing of the stratosphere at low and middle latitudes and long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation towards high latitudes, leading to fluctuations in the strength of the polar vortex. These fluctuations move down to the lower stratosphere with possible effects on the tropospheric temperature. Gravity wave monitoring in Antarctica reveals a gravity wave system probably related to the wind effect over mountains. At mid latitudes an additional main sources of disturbances is the thunderstorm activity. The infrasound monitoring system allows a better knowledge of the atmospheric wave systems and of the dynamics of the atmosphere. In return this better knowledge of the wave systems allow a better identification of the possible explosion signals in the background of the atmospheric waves and then to improve the discrimination methods

  15. Lidar determination of the composition of atmosphere aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the feasibility of using DIfferential SCatter (DISC) lidar to measure the composition of atmospheric aerosols are described. This technique involves multiwavelength measurements of the backscatter cross section of aerosols in the middle infrared, where a number of materials display strong restrahlen features that significantly modulate the backscatter spectrum. The theoretical work indicates that a number of materials of interest, including sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, and silicates, can be discriminated among with a CO2 lidar. An initial evaluation of this procedure was performed in which cirrus clouds and lower altitude tropospheric aerosols were developed. The observed ratio spectrum of the two types of aerosol displays structure that is in crude accord with theoretical expectations.

  16. Effects of cirrus composition on atmospheric radiation budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, Stefan; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    1988-01-01

    A radiative transfer model that can be used to determine the change in solar and infrared fluxes caused by variations in the composition of cirrus clouds was used to investigate the importance of particle size and shape on the radiation budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. Even though the cloud optical thickness dominates the radiative properties of ice clouds, the particle size and nonsphericity of ice crystals are also important in calculations of the transfer of near-IR solar wavelengths. Results show that, for a given optical thickness, ice clouds composed of larger particles would produce larger greenhouse effects than those composed of smaller particles. Moreover, spherical particles with equivalent surface areas, frequently used for ice crystal clouds, would lead to an overestimation of the greenhouse effect.

  17. A study on major inorganic ion composition of atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Salve, P R; Krupadam, R J; Wate, S R

    2007-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected from Akola and Buldana region covering around 40 sqkm area during October-November 2002 and were analyzed for ten major inorganic ions namely F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-), PO4(2-), Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ using ion chromatographic technique. The average mass of aerosols was found to be 225.81 microg/m3 with standard deviation of 31.29 and average total water soluble load of total cations and anions was found to be 4.32 microg/m3. The concentration of ions in samples showed a general pattern as SO4(2-) > NO3- > Cl- > PO4(2-) > F- for anions and Na+ > Ca2+ > NH4+ > Mg2+ > K+ for cations. The overall composition of the aerosols was taken into account to identify the sources. The trend showed higher concentration of sodium followed by calcium, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate and ammoinum and found to be influenced by terrestrial sources. The presence of SO4(2-) and NO3- in aerosols may be due to re-suspension of soil particles. Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- are to be derived from soil materials. The presence of NH4+ may be attributed to the reaction of NH3 vapors with acidic gases may react or condense on an acidic particle surface of anthropogenic origin. The atmospheric aerosol is slightly acidic due to neutralization of basicity by SO2 and NO(x).

  18. The Galileo probe mass spectrometer: composition of Jupiter's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Carignan, G. R.; Donahue, T. M.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Hartle, R. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Owen, T. C.; Spencer, N. W.; Way, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    The composition of the jovian atmosphere from 0.5 to 21 bars along the descent trajectory was determined by a quadrupole mass spectrometer on the Galileo probe. The mixing ratio of He (helium) to H2 (hydrogen), 0.156, is close to the solar ratio. The abundances of methane, water, argon, neon, and hydrogen sulfide were measured; krypton and xenon were detected. As measured in the jovian atmosphere, the amount of carbon is 2.9 times the solar abundance relative to H2, the amount of sulfur is greater than the solar abundance, and the amount of oxygen is much less than the solar abundance. The neon abundance compared with that of hydrogen is about an order of magnitude less than the solar abundance. Isotopic ratios of carbon and the noble gases are consistent with solar values. The measured ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) of (5 +/- 2) x 10(-5) indicates that this ratio is greater in solar-system hydrogen than in local interstellar hydrogen, and the 3He/4He ratio of (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(-4) provides a new value for protosolar (solar nebula) helium isotopes. Together, the D/H and 3He/4He ratios are consistent with conversion in the sun of protosolar deuterium to present-day 3He.

  19. Subcycled dynamics in the Spectral Community Atmosphere Model, version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Mark; Evans, Katherine J; Hack, James J; Worley, Patrick H

    2010-01-01

    To gain computational efficiency, a split explicit time integration scheme has been implemented in the CAM spectral Eulerian dynamical core. In this scheme, already present in other dynamical core options within the Community Atmosphere Model, version 4 (CAM), the fluid dynamics portion of the model is subcycled to allow a longer time step for the parameterization schemes. The physics parameterization of CAM is not subject to the stability restrictions of the fluid dynamics, and thus finer spatial resolutions of the model do not require the physics time step to be reduced. A brief outline of the subcycling algorithm implementation and resulting model efficiency improvement is presented. A discussion regarding the effect of the climate statistics derived from short model runs is provided.

  20. Structure and Composition of the Neutral Upper Atmosphere of Mars from the MAVEN NGIMS Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Benna, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Stone, S. W.; Elrod, M. K.; Fox, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) on the MAVEN mission is designed to characterize the state of the upper atmosphere and its response to perturbations from the sun and from lower atmosphere. These measurements complement other instruments on the MAVEN spacecraft and support the MAVEN science goal [Jakosky et al., 2015] of understanding atmospheric escape and over the course of martian history. We report NGIMS measurements of the neutral composition of multiple atomic and molecular species over hundreds of orbits since the science phase of this mission began late in 2014. Ion measurements from NGIMS are reported separately in other contributions to this session. The wide dynamic range, the high temporal resolution, and the use of two different ion source configurations of the NGIMS instrument [Mahaffy et al., 2014] allows neutral density structure and its variability to be characterized in detail. Large amplitude wave structure is observed on the lowest altitude portion of many orbits that dissipates at higher altitudes. Although this structure puts scatter in the retrieval of scale height temperatures these are nevertheless robustly secured by averaging over several orbits. The variability of the upper atmosphere temperature with latitude and local solar time is reported. The deep dip campaign approach to the homopause allows the mixing ratio of the major gases in the lower atmosphere to be measured. We compare these mixing ratios with those reported by the Sample Analysis at Mars investigation and previous Viking measurements. Jakosky, B. M., et al. (2015), The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) Mission, Space Sci Rev, 21. Mahaffy, P. R., et al. (2014), The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission, Space Sci Rev, 185, DOI: 10.1007/s11214-11014-10091-11211.

  1. Large Deformation Dynamic Bending of Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derian, E. J.; Hyer, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load. The beams were loaded with a moderate eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied to determine potential differences between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different laminate types were tested. The beams tested were 23 in. by 2 in. and generally 30 plies thick. The beams were loaded dynamically with a gravity-driven impactor traveling at 19.6 ft/sec and quasi-static tests were conducted on identical beams in a displacement controlled manner. For laminates of practical interest, the failure modes under static and dynamic loadings were identical. Failure in most of the laminate types occurred in a single event involving 40% to 50% of the plies. However, failure in laminates with 300 or 150 off-axis plies occurred in several events. All laminates exhibited bimodular elastic properties. The compressive flexural moduli in some laminates was measured to be 1/2 the tensile flexural modulus. No simple relationship could be found among the measured ultimate failure strains of the different laminate types. Using empirically determined flexural properties, a finite element analysis was reasonably accurate in predicting the static and dynamic deformation response.

  2. Large Deformation Dynamic Bending of Composite Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derian, E. J.; Hyer, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load. The beams were loaded with a moderate eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied to determine potential differences between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different laminate types were tested. The beams were loaded dynamically with a gravity driven impactor traveling at 19.6 ft/sec and quasi-static tests were conducted on identical beams in a displacement controlled manner. For laminates of practical interest, the failure modes under static and dynamic loadings were identical. Failure in most of the laminate types occurred in a single event involving 40% to 50% of the plies. However, failure in laminates with 30 deg or 15 deg off-axis plies occured in several events. All laminates exhibited bimodular elastic properties. Using empirically determined flexural properties, a finite element analysis was reasonably accurate in predicting the static and dynamic deformation response.

  3. On the structure and dynamics of the Martian middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDunn, Tamara Lea

    The martian middle atmosphere (˜50-130 km altitude) is notoriously understudied, yet important for several reasons. It passes upward propagating planetary waves, gravity waves, and thermal tides from the lower atmosphere to the upper atmosphere. It also communicates the seasonal and dust-heating driven expansion and contraction of the lower atmosphere to the upper atmosphere. The middle atmosphere itself can be affected by and affect these dynamical processes. Characterization of this coupling region is therefore necessary if we are to fully understand the lower and upper atmospheres. It is also important for ensuring the safety of spacecraft that pass through this region. In part one of this thesis we characterize the nightside density and thermal structure in the 80-130 km altitude region as observed by stellar occultations. The nightside mesopause ranges from warm and high (115 K at 118 km) over the tropics during southern summer to cool and low (105 K at 103 km) over middle-southern winter latitudes. Using a general circulation model we find that the temperature and density of the 80-130 km region is significantly affected by even short-term increases in lower atmospheric dust loading. In part two, we quantitatively characterize dynamical polar warming (PW) over three martian years. Unexpectedly we find that during a typical dust year the magnitude of PW is larger during the Ls = 180° equinox than during northern winter, and it is comparable during southern winter and northern winter. Moreover, during equinoxes, the magnitude of PW is larger in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere. Results from this work provide quantitative constraints for model calculations of middle-atmosphere temperatures and winds. We close with part three, in which we use a general circulation model to investigate the role that the forcings generated by dust heating and by gravity wave momentum deposition play in producing the observed PW trends from

  4. Ice Phase Transitions by Atmospheric Aerosol Particles of Varied Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Archuleta, C. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Thomson, D. S.

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes laboratory and field study measurements of water uptake and ice nucleation by surrogate and real atmospheric aerosol particles. Laboratory measurements of water uptake are made using a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and a cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) instrument operating at 20 to 30 \\deg C. Measurements of ice nucleation are made using a continuous flow ice-thermal diffusion chamber (CFDC) operated to -60 \\deg C for relevance toward understanding cirrus cloud formation. Extending earlier laboratory studies of single composition aerosols, we are investigating water uptake and ice nucleation rates and mechanisms by mixed aerosols of various types, including sulfate-nitrate, sulfate-organic, mineral oxide-sulfate and black carbon-sulfate types. Methodologies will be described and results will be summarized. Field measurements are planned to study heterogeneous and homogeneous ice nucleation by free tropospheric aerosols at a high altitude laboratory. The field study will include measurements of the compositions of aerosols that activate ice formation by homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms. This aspect of the study will be facilitated by interfacing the CFDC to the PALMS (Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry) instrument. This combined instrument system was tested in the laboratory to quantify sampling efficiencies and validate specificity for sampling ice nucleus aerosol particles. Initial field data, if available at conference time, will be compared and contrasted with the results obtained for laboratory surrogate particles.

  5. Goddard Atmospheric Composition Data Center: Aura Data and Services in One Place

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.; Gerasimov, I.; Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Goddard Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (AC-DISC) is a portal to the Atmospheric Composition specific, user driven, multi-sensor, on-line, easy access archive and distribution system employing data analysis and visualization, data mining, and other user requested techniques for the better science data usage. It provides convenient access to Atmospheric Composition data and information from various remote-sensing missions, from TOMS, UARS, MODIS, and AIRS, to the most recent data from Aura OMI, MLS, HIRDLS (once these datasets are released to the public), as well as Atmospheric Composition datasets residing at other remote archive site.

  6. Determination of the combined isotopic composition of atmospheric methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterworth, Anna Lucy

    Methane is an important global warming gas, present in the atmosphere at a concentration of 1.714 ppmv. Its concentration has more than doubled since the start of the industrial revolution and the increase is generally acknowledged to be due to human activities. The continued rise in concentration of methane is believed to be contributing to an increase in mean global temperature. Recently, the global budget of methane has been constrained by balancing the magnitude and isotopic signature of the sources and sinks with the measured tropospheric abundance and isotopic composition. The dual element stable isotopic composition (δ13C and /delta D) of methane may be used to characterise different sources of methane. Traditional methods of determining the δ13C value and the /delta D value of methane require large sample sizes. An alternative approach to investigating the stable isotopic composition of methane was to determine the combined ratio of 13CH4 and 12CH3D (mass 17) relative to 12CH4 (mass 16) and quote the results on a δ17M scale. A static-vacuum mass spectrometer has been developed specifically for the determination of the 17M/16M ratio of sub- nanomole quantities of methane with a δ17M precision of [/pm]0.2/ /perthous. An on-line sample preparation technique has also been developed to separate the methane from 10 ml of air and provide a pure, dry, ~300 picomole methane sample for isotope ratio determination. The overall δ17M precision of the analysis of the methane in air samples was [<][/pm]0.5/ /perthous. A number of sources of atmospheric methane have been investigated, demonstrating that sources may be distinguished from each other on the δ17M scale. The very small sample requirements for the instrument permitted a simple air sampling procedure to be employed, which was particularly useful for collecting air samples in remote locations. Air samples, containing methane emitted by termites, were collected from a tropical rainforest. The methane produced

  7. Composition of Atmospheric Dust from Qatar in the Arabian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Ansari, I. S.; Abdel-Moati, M.; Al-Ansi, M.; Paul, B.; Nelson, A.; Turner, J.; Murray, J. W.; Alfoldy, B. Z.; Mahfouz, M. M. K.; Giamberini, M.

    2015-12-01

    Samples of atmospheric dust from Qatar have been collected and analyzed for major and trace elemental composition. Twenty-one samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 from Doha, Al Khor, Katara, Sealine, and Al Waab by a variety of techniques. Some samples were collected during the megastorms that occurred in April 2015. Back trajectories were determined for each sample using the NOAA HYSPLIT model over a 50 hour time interval. Our samples were about equally divided between northerly (n=12; northern Saudi Arabia, Kuwait or Iraq) and southerly (n=8; SE Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Oman) sources. One sample originated directly westward, in Saudi Arabia. Samples were microwave-assisted total acid digested (HF+HCl+HNO3) and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). There are only 12 out of 23 elements for which the Qatari dust was enriched relative to upper continental crust (UCC). Calcium was especially enriched at 400% relative to UCC. About 33% of the total sample mass was CaCO3, reflecting the composition of surface rocks in the source areas. Of the elements typically associated with anthropogenic activity, Ag, Ni and Zn were the most enriched relative to UCC, with enrichment factors of 182%, 233% and 209%, respectively. Others like Pb and V were not significantly enriched, with enrichment factors of 25% and 3%, respectively. The major elements Al, Mn and Fe were depleted relative to UCC because of the strong enrichment in CaCO3, with enrichment factors of -58%, -35% and -45% respectively. We separately averaged the samples with northern and southern origins to see if composition could be used to identify source. Only three elements had a statistical difference. Pb and Na were higher in the samples from the Se while Cr was higher in those from the north.

  8. On the Dynamic Stability of Cool Supergiant Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, A.

    2001-09-01

    We have developed a new formalism to compute the thermodynamic coefficient Γ1 in the theory of stellar and atmospheric stability. We generalize the classical derivation of the first adiabatic index, which is based on the assumption of thermal ionization and equilibrium between gas and radiation temperature, toward an expression that incorporates photoionization due to radiation with a temperature Trad different from the local kinetic gas temperature. Our formalism considers the important non-LTE conditions in the extended atmospheres of supergiant stars. An application to the Kurucz grid of cool supergiant atmospheres demonstrates that models with Trad~=Teff between 6500 and 7500 K become most unstable against dynamic perturbations, according to Ledoux' stability integral <Γ1>. This results from Γ1 and <Γ1> acquiring very low values, below 4/3, throughout the entire stellar atmosphere, which causes very high gas compression ratios around these effective temperatures. Based on detailed non-LTE calculations, we discuss atmospheric instability of pulsating massive yellow supergiants, such as the hypergiant ρ Cas (Ia+), which exist in the extension of the Cepheid instability strip, near the Eddington luminosity limit.

  9. Dynamic mechanical properties of an inlay composite.

    PubMed

    Dionysopoulos, P; Watts, D C

    1989-06-01

    A visible light-cured composite resin (Brilliant DI) has been studied over a wide range of temperature and frequency by a dynamic mechanical flexural method. The derived data of logarithmic modulus and loss tangent (tan delta) show considerable changes following a secondary-cure process applied to the material. This involved the application of heat and intense light with temperatures rising to 120 degrees C in 7 min. Following this oven-cure the resin phase exhibited enhanced stiffness with the activation-energy barrier for molecular motion at the glass-transition rising from 220 to 291 kJ/mol. This study clarifies the nature and extent of the internal molecular changes which may be produced in the fabrication of a composite inlay.

  10. Simulation of all-scale atmospheric dynamics on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Szmelter, Joanna; Xiao, Feng

    2016-10-01

    The advance of massively parallel computing in the nineteen nineties and beyond encouraged finer grid intervals in numerical weather-prediction models. This has improved resolution of weather systems and enhanced the accuracy of forecasts, while setting the trend for development of unified all-scale atmospheric models. This paper first outlines the historical background to a wide range of numerical methods advanced in the process. Next, the trend is illustrated with a technical review of a versatile nonoscillatory forward-in-time finite-volume (NFTFV) approach, proven effective in simulations of atmospheric flows from small-scale dynamics to global circulations and climate. The outlined approach exploits the synergy of two specific ingredients: the MPDATA methods for the simulation of fluid flows based on the sign-preserving properties of upstream differencing; and the flexible finite-volume median-dual unstructured-mesh discretisation of the spatial differential operators comprising PDEs of atmospheric dynamics. The paper consolidates the concepts leading to a family of generalised nonhydrostatic NFTFV flow solvers that include soundproof PDEs of incompressible Boussinesq, anelastic and pseudo-incompressible systems, common in large-eddy simulation of small- and meso-scale dynamics, as well as all-scale compressible Euler equations. Such a framework naturally extends predictive skills of large-eddy simulation to the global atmosphere, providing a bottom-up alternative to the reverse approach pursued in the weather-prediction models. Theoretical considerations are substantiated by calculations attesting to the versatility and efficacy of the NFTFV approach. Some prospective developments are also discussed.

  11. A transition in the cloud composition of hot Jupiters atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, Vivien; Jonathan, Fortney; Showman, Adam P.; Marley, Mark; Morley, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Over a large range of equilibrium temperatures clouds seem to dominate the transmission spectrum of Hot Jupiters atmospheres and no trend allowing the classification of these objects have yet emerged. Recently observations of the light reflected by Hot Jupiters atmospheres shed a new light on the cloud distribution on the dayside of these planets : for a handful of planets clouds are more abundant on the western than on the eastern side of the dayside hemisphere and, more importantly, this asymmetry depends on the equilibrium temperature of the planet.Here we use a grid of 3D global circulation models to show that a single cloud species is unable to explain the recent Kepler observations. The cloud asymmetry on the dayside is a strong function of the condensation temperature of the cloud species which allow us to determine the composition of the clouds present in these planets. We show that a transition between silicate clouds and sulfide clouds appear at equilibrium temperatures of 1600K. A mechanism such as the presence of a deep cold trap is necessary to explain this transi- tion. Furthermore, we show that the western limb temperature is always cold, independently of the equilibrium temperature of the planet, allowing cloud particles to form even in the most irradiated planets as seen in the observations.Our results provide the first evidence for a transition in the cloud species of hot Jupiters similar to the L/T Brown Dwarf transition. We showed that inhomogeneous dayside and limbs cloud coverage are expected what should affect the retrieved molecular abundances from emission and transmission spectra of these planets.

  12. The CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC), an Integrated Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Langen, J.; Zehner, C.

    2008-05-01

    The Atmospheric Composition (AC) Constellation is one of four pilot projects initiated by the Committee for Earth Observations Systems (CEOS) to bring about technical/scientific cooperation among space agencies that meet the goals of GEO and comply with the CEOS member agencies national programs. The Constellation concept has been endorsed in the GEO Work Plan, 2007-2009. The AC Constellation goal is to collect and deliver data to develop and improve monitoring, assessment and predictive capabilities for changes in the ozone layer, air quality and climate forcing associated with changes in the environment. These data will support five of the nine GEO SBAs: Health, Energy, Climate, Hazards, and Ecosystems. At the present time ESA, EC, CSA, CNES, JAXA, DLR, NIVR, NASA, NOAA and Eumetsat are participating in the Constellation study, and have major assets in orbit including 17 instruments on seven platforms. One goal of the Constellation study is to identify missing capabilities that will result when the present orbiting research satellites missions end and those not included in the next generation operational missions. Missing observations include very accurate and high spatial resolution measurements needed to be to track trends in atmospheric composition and understand their relationship to climate change. The following are the top level objectives for the AC Constellation Concept Study: • Develop a virtual constellation of existing and upcoming missions using synergies among the instruments and identify missing capabilities. • Study advanced architecture with new space assets and varying orbits with expectations that new technology could also be brought forward to best meet user requirements • Data system interoperability to insure that data are useful, properly targeted, and easily accessible. To demonstrate that the Constellation concept can provide value added data products, the ACC has initiated the three projects that are being supported by the

  13. Composition of LHB Comets and Their Influence on the Early Earth Atmosphere Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornow, C.; Kupper, S.; Ilgner, M.; Kuehrt, E.; Motschmann, U.

    2011-01-01

    Two main processes were responsible for the composition of this atmosphere: chemical evolution of the volatile fraction of the accretion material forming the planet and the delivery of gasses to the planetary surface by impactors during the late heavy bombardment (LHB). The amount and composition of the volatile fraction influences the outgassing of the Earth mantle during the last planetary formation period. A very weakened form of outgassing activity can still be observed today by examining the composition of volcanic gasses. An enlightenment of the second process is based on the sparse records of the LHB impactors resulting from the composition of meteorites, observed cometary comas, and the impact material found on the Moon. However, for an assessment of the influence of the outgassing on the one hand and the LHB event on the other, one has to supplement the observations with numerical simulations of the formation of volatiles and their incorporation into the accretion material which is the precursors of planetary matter, comets and asteroids. These simulations are performed with a combined hydrodynamic-chemical model of the solar nebula (SN). We calculate the chemical composition of the gas and dust phase of the SN. From these data, we draw conclusions on the upper limits of the water content and the amount of carbon and nitrogen rich volatiles incorporated later into the accretion material. Knowing these limits we determine the portion of major gas compounds delivered during the LHB and compare it with the related quantities of the outgassed species.

  14. Dynamic damage in carbon-fibre composites.

    PubMed

    Bourne, N K; Parry, S; Townsend, D; Withers, P J; Soutis, C; Frias, C

    2016-07-13

    The Taylor test is used to determine damage evolution in carbon-fibre composites across a range of strain rates. The hierarchy of damage across the scales is key in determining the suite of operating mechanisms and high-speed diagnostics are used to determine states during dynamic loading. Experiments record the test response as a function of the orientation of the cylinder cut from the engineered multi-ply composite with high-speed photography and post-mortem target examination. The ensuing damage occurs during the shock compression phase but three other tensile loading modes operate during the test and these are explored. Experiment has shown that ply orientations respond to two components of release; longitudinal and radial as well as the hoop stresses generated in inelastic flow at the impact surface. The test is a discriminant not only of damage thresholds but of local failure modes and their kinetics. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. PMID:27242311

  15. Dynamic damage in carbon-fibre composites.

    PubMed

    Bourne, N K; Parry, S; Townsend, D; Withers, P J; Soutis, C; Frias, C

    2016-07-13

    The Taylor test is used to determine damage evolution in carbon-fibre composites across a range of strain rates. The hierarchy of damage across the scales is key in determining the suite of operating mechanisms and high-speed diagnostics are used to determine states during dynamic loading. Experiments record the test response as a function of the orientation of the cylinder cut from the engineered multi-ply composite with high-speed photography and post-mortem target examination. The ensuing damage occurs during the shock compression phase but three other tensile loading modes operate during the test and these are explored. Experiment has shown that ply orientations respond to two components of release; longitudinal and radial as well as the hoop stresses generated in inelastic flow at the impact surface. The test is a discriminant not only of damage thresholds but of local failure modes and their kinetics. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'.

  16. The influence of leaf-atmosphere NH3(g ) exchange on the isotopic composition of nitrogen in plants and the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Berry, Joseph A

    2013-10-01

    The distribution of nitrogen isotopes in the biosphere has the potential to offer insights into the past, present and future of the nitrogen cycle, but it is challenging to unravel the processes controlling patterns of mixing and fractionation. We present a mathematical model describing a previously overlooked process: nitrogen isotope fractionation during leaf-atmosphere NH3(g ) exchange. The model predicts that when leaf-atmosphere exchange of NH3(g ) occurs in a closed system, the atmospheric reservoir of NH3(g ) equilibrates at a concentration equal to the ammonia compensation point and an isotopic composition 8.1‰ lighter than nitrogen in protein. In an open system, when atmospheric concentrations of NH3(g ) fall below or rise above the compensation point, protein can be isotopically enriched by net efflux of NH3(g ) or depleted by net uptake. Comparison of model output with existing measurements in the literature suggests that this process contributes to variation in the isotopic composition of nitrogen in plants as well as NH3(g ) in the atmosphere, and should be considered in future analyses of nitrogen isotope circulation. The matrix-based modelling approach that is introduced may be useful for quantifying isotope dynamics in other complex systems that can be described by first-order kinetics. PMID:23452149

  17. The influence of leaf-atmosphere NH3(g ) exchange on the isotopic composition of nitrogen in plants and the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Berry, Joseph A

    2013-10-01

    The distribution of nitrogen isotopes in the biosphere has the potential to offer insights into the past, present and future of the nitrogen cycle, but it is challenging to unravel the processes controlling patterns of mixing and fractionation. We present a mathematical model describing a previously overlooked process: nitrogen isotope fractionation during leaf-atmosphere NH3(g ) exchange. The model predicts that when leaf-atmosphere exchange of NH3(g ) occurs in a closed system, the atmospheric reservoir of NH3(g ) equilibrates at a concentration equal to the ammonia compensation point and an isotopic composition 8.1‰ lighter than nitrogen in protein. In an open system, when atmospheric concentrations of NH3(g ) fall below or rise above the compensation point, protein can be isotopically enriched by net efflux of NH3(g ) or depleted by net uptake. Comparison of model output with existing measurements in the literature suggests that this process contributes to variation in the isotopic composition of nitrogen in plants as well as NH3(g ) in the atmosphere, and should be considered in future analyses of nitrogen isotope circulation. The matrix-based modelling approach that is introduced may be useful for quantifying isotope dynamics in other complex systems that can be described by first-order kinetics.

  18. Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Dynamics with Constant Bowen Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porporato, Amilcare

    2009-08-01

    Motivated by the observation that the diurnal evolution of sensible and latent heat fluxes tends to maintain a constant Bowen ratio, we derive approximate solutions of the ordinary differential equations of a simplified atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) model. Neglecting the early morning transition, the potential temperature and specific humidity of the mixed layer are found to be linearly related to the ABL height. Similar behaviour is followed by the inversion strengths of temperature and humidity at the top of the ABL. The potential temperature of the mixed layer depends on the entrainment parameter and the free-atmosphere temperature lapse rate, while the specific humidity also depends on the free-atmosphere humidity lapse rate and the Bowen ratio. The temporal dynamics appear only implicitly in the evolution of the height of the boundary layer, which in turn depends on the time-integrated surface sensible heat flux. Studying the limiting behaviour of the Bowen ratio for very low and very large values of net available energy, we also show how the tendency to maintain constant Bowen ratio during midday hours stems from its relative insensitivity to the atmospheric conditions for large values of net available energy. The analytical expression for the diurnal evolution of the ABL obtained with constant Bowen ratio is simple and provides a benchmark for the results of more complex models.

  19. Atmospheric pressure plasma assisted calcination of composite submicron fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvecká, Veronika; Kováčik, Dušan; Tučeková, Zlata; Zahoranová, Anna; Černák, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    The plasma assisted calcination of composite organic/inorganic submicron fibers for the preparation of inorganic fibers in submicron scale was studied. Aluminium butoxide/polyvinylpyrrolidone fibers prepared by electrospinning were treated using low-temperature plasma generated by special type of dielectric barrier discharge, so called diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) at atmospheric pressure in ambient air, synthetic air, oxygen and nitrogen. Effect of plasma treatment on base polymer removal was investigated by using Attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Influence of working gas on the base polymer reduction was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and CHNS elemental analysis. Changes in fibers morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High efficiency of organic template removal without any degradation of fibers was observed after plasma treatment in ambient air. Due to the low-temperature approach and short exposure time, the plasma assisted calcination is a promising alternative to the conventional thermal calcination. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  20. Composition and dynamics of plasma in Saturn's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Young, D T; Berthelier, J-J; Blanc, M; Burch, J L; Bolton, S; Coates, A J; Crary, F J; Goldstein, R; Grande, M; Hill, T W; Johnson, R E; Baragiola, R A; Kelha, V; McComas, D J; Mursula, K; Sittler, E C; Svenes, K R; Szegö, K; Tanskanen, P; Thomsen, M F; Bakshi, S; Barraclough, B L; Bebesi, Z; Delapp, D; Dunlop, M W; Gosling, J T; Furman, J D; Gilbert, L K; Glenn, D; Holmlund, C; Illiano, J-M; Lewis, G R; Linder, D R; Maurice, S; McAndrews, H J; Narheim, B T; Pallier, E; Reisenfeld, D; Rymer, A M; Smith, H T; Tokar, R L; Vilppola, J; Zinsmeyer, C

    2005-02-25

    During Cassini's initial orbit, we observed a dynamic magnetosphere composed primarily of a complex mixture of water-derived atomic and molecular ions. We have identified four distinct regions characterized by differences in both bulk plasma properties and ion composition. Protons are the dominant species outside about 9 RS (where RS is the radial distance from the center of Saturn), whereas inside, the plasma consists primarily of a corotating comet-like mix of water-derived ions with approximately 3% N+. Over the A and B rings, we found an ionosphere in which O2+ and O+ are dominant, which suggests the possible existence of a layer of O2 gas similar to the atmospheres of Europa and Ganymede.

  1. Satellite Observations for Detecting and Tracking Changes in Atmospheric Composition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The international scientific community's Integrated Global Atmosphere Chemistry Observation System report outlined a plan for ground-based, airborne and satellite Measurements, and models to integrate the observations into a 4-dimensional representation of the atmosphere (space a...

  2. Fractionation of the Early Terrestrial Atmospheres: Dynamical Escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrodynamic escape may have played a significant role in the early fractionation of the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets. This possibility has been demonstrated in the last two decades by numerous models that show radial, transonic flow of hydrogen can occur in the presence of sufficient solar EUV Hydrodynamic escape may have played a significant role in the early fractionation of the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets. This possibility has been demonstrated in the last two decades by numerous models that show radial, transonic flow of hydrogen can occur in the presence of sufficient solar EUV flux, thought to exist in the first 500 My. The models show that the larger the solar flux the greater the mass of the fractionating species, which are accelerated to escape speeds by the hydrogen wind through drag processes. As the atmospheres evolve and the solar EUV flux wanes, the maximum mass of flowing gas constituents decreases until all gases become static. We show that fractionation can continue beyond this point when non-radial flow and dynamically enhanced Jeans escape are considered. For example, the early terrestrial atmospheres are thought to have had large hydrogen contents, resulting in exobase altitudes of a planetary radius or more. In this case, rotational speeds at the exobases of Earth and Mars would be large enough so that light constituents would "spin" off and fractionate, especially at equatorial latitudes. Also, in the presence of transonic flow of hydrogen only, non-radial expansion throws heavier gases to high altitudes in the exosphere, accompanied by strong bulk speeds at the exobase, which results in enhanced thermal escape fluxes and fractionation. flux, thought to exist in the first 500 My. The models show that the larger the solar flux the greater the mass of the fractionating species, which are accelerated to escape speeds by the hydrogen wind through drag processes. As the atmospheres evolve and the solar EUV flux wanes, the

  3. Study of the dynamics of meteoroids through the Earth's atmosphere and retrieval of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadalupe Cordero Tercero, Maria; Farah-Simon, Alejandro; Velázquez-Villegas, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    When a comet , asteroid or meteoroid impact with a planet several things can happen depending on the mass, velocity and composition of the impactor, if the planet or moon has an atmosphere or not, and the angle of impact. On bodies without an atmosphere like Mercury or the Moon, every object that strikes their surfaces produces impact craters with sizes ranging from centimeters to hundreds and even thousands of kilometers across. On bodies with an atmosphere, this encounter can produce impact craters, meteorites, meteors and fragmentation. Each and every one of these phenomena is interesting because they provide information about the surfaces and the geological evolution of solar system bodies. Meteors (shooting stars) are luminous wakes on the sky due to the interaction between the meteoroid and the Earth's atmosphere. A meteoroid is asteroidal or cometary material ranging in size from 2 mm to a few tens of meters. The smallest tend to evaporate at heights between 80 and 120 km. Objects of less than 2 mm are called micrometeorites. If the meteor brightness exceeds the brightness of Venus, the phenomenon is called a bolide or fireball. If a meteoroid, or a fragment of it, survives atmospheric ablation and it can be recovered on the ground, that piece is called a meteorite. Most meteoroids 2 meters long fragment suddenly into the atmosphere, it produces a shock wave that can affect humans and their environment like the Chelyabinsk event occurred on February 15, 2013 an two less energetic events in Mexico in 2010 and 2011. To understand the whole phenomenon, we proposed a video camera network for observing meteors. The objectives of this network are to: a) contribute to the study of the fragmentation of meteoroids in the Earth's atmosphere, b) determine values of important physical parameters; c ) study seismic waves produced by atmospheric shock waves, d) study the dynamics of meteoroids and f ) recover and study meteorites. During this meeting, the academic

  4. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF BROWN DWARFS AND DIRECTLY IMAGED GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, Adam P.; Kaspi, Yohai

    2013-10-20

    A variety of observations provide evidence for vigorous motion in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets. Motivated by these observations, we examine the dynamical regime of the circulation in the atmospheres and interiors of these objects. Brown dwarfs rotate rapidly, and for plausible wind speeds, the flow at large scales will be rotationally dominated. We present three-dimensional, global, numerical simulations of convection in the interior, which demonstrate that at large scales, the convection aligns in the direction parallel to the rotation axis. Convection occurs more efficiently at high latitudes than low latitudes, leading to systematic equator-to-pole temperature differences that may reach ∼1 K near the top of the convection zone. The interaction of convection with the overlying, stably stratified atmosphere will generate a wealth of atmospheric waves, and we argue that, as in the stratospheres of planets in the solar system, the interaction of these waves with the mean flow will cause a significant atmospheric circulation at regional to global scales. At large scales, this should consist of stratified turbulence (possibly organizing into coherent structures such as vortices and jets) and an accompanying overturning circulation. We present an approximate analytic theory of this circulation, which predicts characteristic horizontal temperature variations of several to ∼50 K, horizontal wind speeds of ∼10-300 m s{sup –1}, and vertical velocities that advect air over a scale height in ∼10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} s. This vertical mixing may help to explain the chemical disequilibrium observed on some brown dwarfs. Moreover, the implied large-scale organization of temperature perturbations and vertical velocities suggests that near the L/T transition, patchy clouds can form near the photosphere, helping to explain recent observations of brown-dwarf variability in the near-IR.

  5. Experiments of reconstructing discrete atmospheric dynamic models from data (I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhenshan; Zhu, Yanyu; Deng, Ziwang

    1995-03-01

    In this paper, we give some experimental results of our study in reconstructing discrete atmospheric dynamic models from data. After a great deal of numerical experiments, we found that the logistic map, x n + 1 = 1- μx {2/n}, could be used in monthly mean temperature prediction when it was approaching the chaotic region, and its predictive results were in reverse states to the practical data. This means that the nonlinear developing behavior of the monthly mean temperature system is bifurcating back into the critical chaotic states from the chaotic ones.

  6. Dynamical vegetation-atmosphere modelling of the boreal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hui; Stordal, Frode; Berntsen, Terje K.; Bryn, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation interacts with climate on seasonal to inter-annual time scales through albedo, roughness, evapotranspiration, CO2 sequestration and by influencing snow accumulation and ablation. The Scandinavian mountains and high latitudes is a hot spot for land-atmosphere feedback, as the future's increased winter minimum temperature supports a boreal tree line advance, lowering the surface albedo. The northern ecosystem is dominated by mires, boreal forests and alpine heaths, in addition to agricultural land. Model studies have shown that vegetation-climate feedbacks are strong enough to lead to regime shifts in vegetation and local climate in boreal regions. Biogeophysical factors, such as albedo, the Bowen ratio, and surface roughness, are all involved in these feedbacks, and they are also altered by land use change such as reforestation. For calculations of the dynamical coupling between the atmosphere and the vegetation we have used the Earth System Model NorESM, which includes several advanced features in its land surface model (CLM4.5), such as the inclusion of the radiative forcing due to black carbon and dust deposit onto snow, improved representation of fire, permafrost and its hydrological impact, a new snow cover fraction parameterization reflecting the hysteresis in fractional snow cover for a given snow depth between accumulation and melt phases, as well as dynamic vegetation coupled with carbon-nitrogen cycles. These new features improve the representation of surface albedo feedback in Arctic. We have performed experiments with coupled as well fixed ocean for the current as a quadrupled atmospheric CO2 situation. This model configuration is used to study changes in vegetation in a high end radiative forcing case. It is contrasted with an experiment where vegetation dynamics is neglected. Changes in the features of the vegetation along with surface fluxes, albedo and atmospheric temperatures are analysed, with main emphasis on the boreal zone. In

  7. Wake Dynamics in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markfort, Corey D.

    The goal of this research is to advance our understanding of atmospheric boundary layer processes over heterogeneous landscapes and complex terrain. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is a relatively thin (˜ 1 km) turbulent layer of air near the earth's surface, in which most human activities and engineered systems are concentrated. Its dynamics are crucially important for biosphere-atmosphere couplings and for global atmospheric dynamics, with significant implications on our ability to predict and mitigate adverse impacts of land use and climate change. In models of the ABL, land surface heterogeneity is typically represented, in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, as changes in aerodynamic roughness length and surface heat and moisture fluxes. However, many real landscapes are more complex, often leading to massive boundary layer separation and wake turbulence, for which standard models fail. Trees, building clusters, and steep topography produce extensive wake regions currently not accounted for in models of the ABL. Wind turbines and wind farms also generate wakes that combine in complex ways to modify the ABL. Wind farms are covering an increasingly significant area of the globe and the effects of large wind farms must be included in regional and global scale models. Research presented in this thesis demonstrates that wakes caused by landscape heterogeneity must be included in flux parameterizations for momentum, heat, and mass (water vapor and trace gases, e.g. CO2 and CH4) in ABL simulation and prediction models in order to accurately represent land-atmosphere interactions. Accurate representation of these processes is crucial for the predictions of weather, air quality, lake processes, and ecosystems response to climate change. Objectives of the research reported in this thesis are: 1) to investigate turbulent boundary layer adjustment, turbulent transport and scalar flux in wind farms of varying configurations and develop an improved

  8. Improvements to our Understanding of Toronto-Area Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, Cynthia

    Using eleven years of trace gas column measurements at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO), along with data from complementary sources, such as satellites, surface in situ measurements, and nearby rural column measurements, this thesis aims to improve our understanding of the sources of air pollution and the causes of variability in atmospheric composition over the Toronto area. The relative influence of chemical production and direct emissions on Toronto-area O3 and CO were determined using GEOS-Chem model simulations. 28 pollution events (defined as enhanced O3 or CO lower-tropospheric (0-5 km) columns that coincided with surface O3 exceedances) were found in the TAO dataset between 2002 and 2010. O3 columns over Toronto during pollution events are influenced by urban and industrial anthropogenic NOx emissions, biogenic isoprene emissions from the eastern United States, and soil NOx emissions from the mid- and western United States. During pollution events, Toronto CO columns are greatly influenced by nearby fossil fuel emissions and isoprene oxidation. C2H6 columns are often enhanced during pollution events, as the sources of C2H6 are similar to those of O3 and CO. HCN columns are assumed to be enhanced in biomass burning plumes, and thus, aid in identifying transport of biomass burning emissions over Toronto. Sensitivity to meteorological conditions was examined as well, and five case studies were presented in detail. Passage of the polar vortex over the Toronto area was determined by increases in scaled potential vorticity (PV) that coincide with outliers in the HF stratospheric time series. Confirmed with polar PV maps and reductions in N2O stratospheric columns, 53 polar intrusion events were identified in the 2002 to 2013 TAO time series. The effect on HF, HCl, O3, and N 2O was studied, and we found these events caused a significant increase in HF-column winter/spring variability, and a small increase (on average) in stratospheric O3

  9. Dynamic mechanical analysis of fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, K. E.

    1979-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical and thermal properties were determined for unidirectional epoxy/glass composites at various fiber orientation angles. Resonant frequency and relative logarithmic decrement were measured as functions of temperature. In low angle and longitudinal specimens a transition was observed above the resin glass transition temperature which was manifested mechanically as an additional damping peak and thermally as a change in the coefficient of thermal expansion. The new transition was attributed to a heterogeneous resin matrix induced by the fiber. The temperature span of the glass-rubber relaxation was found to broaden with decreasing orientation angle, reflecting the growth of fiber contribution and exhibiting behavior similar to that of Young's modulus. The change in resonant frequency through the glass transition was greatest for samples of intermediate fiber angle, demonstrating behavior similar to that of the longitudinal shear modulus.

  10. Estimation of Dynamical Parameters in Atmospheric Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenig, Mark O.

    2004-01-01

    In this study a new technique is used to derive dynamical parameters out of atmospheric data sets. This technique, called the structure tensor technique, can be used to estimate dynamical parameters such as motion, source strengths, diffusion constants or exponential decay rates. A general mathematical framework was developed for the direct estimation of the physical parameters that govern the underlying processes from image sequences. This estimation technique can be adapted to the specific physical problem under investigation, so it can be used in a variety of applications in trace gas, aerosol, and cloud remote sensing. The fundamental algorithm will be extended to the analysis of multi- channel (e.g. multi trace gas) image sequences and to provide solutions to the extended aperture problem. In this study sensitivity studies have been performed to determine the usability of this technique for data sets with different resolution in time and space and different dimensions.

  11. Composition of early planetary atmospheres - I. Connecting disc astrochemistry to the formation of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cridland, A. J.; Pudritz, R. E.; Alessi, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a model of the early chemical composition and elemental abundances of planetary atmospheres based on the cumulative gaseous chemical species that are accreted on to planets forming by core accretion from evolving protoplanetary discs. The astrochemistry of the host disc is computed using an ionization-driven, non-equilibrium chemistry network within viscously evolving disc models. We accrete gas giant planets whose orbital evolution is controlled by planet traps using the standard core accretion model and track the chemical composition of the material that is accreted on to the protoplanet. We choose a fiducial disc model and evolve planets in three traps - water ice line, dead zone and heat transition. For a disc with a lifetime of 4.1 Myr, we produce two hot Jupiters (M = 1.43, 2.67 MJupiter, r = 0.15, 0.11 au) in the heat transition and ice line trap and one failed core (M = 0.003 MJupiter, r = 3.7 au) in the dead zone. These planets are found with mixing ratios for CO and H2O of 1.99 × 10-4 and 5.0 × 10-4, respectively, for both hot Jupiters. Additionally, for these planets we find CO2 and CH4, with mixing ratios of 1.8 × 10-6 → 9.8 × 10-10 and 1.1 × 10-8 → 2.3 × 10-10, respectively. These ranges correspond well with the mixing ratio ranges that have been inferred through the detection of emission spectra from hot Jupiters by multiple authors. We compute a carbon-to-oxygen ratio of 0.227 for the ice line planet and 0.279 for the heat transition planet. These planets accreted their gas inside the ice line, hence the sub-solar C/O.

  12. Active Upper-atmosphere Chemistry and Dynamics from Polar Circulation Reversal on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teanby, Nicholas A.; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Nixon, Conor A.; DeKok, Remco; Vinatier, Sandrine; Coustenis, Athena; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Calcutt, Simon B.; Flasar, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Saturn's moon Titan has a nitrogen atmosphere comparable to Earth's, with a surface pressure of 1.4 bar. Numerical models reproduce the tropospheric conditions very well but have trouble explaining the observed middle-atmosphere temperatures, composition and winds. The top of the middle-atmosphere circulation has been thought to lie at an altitude of 450 to 500 kilometres, where there is a layer of haze that appears to be separated from the main haze deck. This 'detached' haze was previously explained as being due to the colocation of peak haze production and the limit of dynamical transport by the circulation's upper branch. Herewe report a build-up of trace gases over the south pole approximately two years after observing the 2009 post-equinox circulation reversal, from which we conclude that middle-atmosphere circulation must extend to an altitude of at least 600 kilometres. The primary drivers of this circulation are summer-hemisphere heating of haze by absorption of solar radiation and winter-hemisphere cooling due to infrared emission by haze and trace gases; our results therefore imply that these effects are important well into the thermosphere (altitudes higher than 500 kilometres). This requires both active upper-atmosphere chemistry, consistent with the detection of high-complexity molecules and ions at altitudes greater than 950 kilometres, and an alternative explanation for the detached haze, such as a transition in haze particle growth from monomers to fractal structures.

  13. Active upper-atmosphere chemistry and dynamics from polar circulation reversal on Titan.

    PubMed

    Teanby, Nicholas A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Nixon, Conor A; de Kok, Remco; Vinatier, Sandrine; Coustenis, Athena; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Calcutt, Simon B; Flasar, F Michael

    2012-11-29

    Saturn's moon Titan has a nitrogen atmosphere comparable to Earth's, with a surface pressure of 1.4 bar. Numerical models reproduce the tropospheric conditions very well but have trouble explaining the observed middle-atmosphere temperatures, composition and winds. The top of the middle-atmosphere circulation has been thought to lie at an altitude of 450 to 500 kilometres, where there is a layer of haze that appears to be separated from the main haze deck. This 'detached' haze was previously explained as being due to the co-location of peak haze production and the limit of dynamical transport by the circulation's upper branch. Here we report a build-up of trace gases over the south pole approximately two years after observing the 2009 post-equinox circulation reversal, from which we conclude that middle-atmosphere circulation must extend to an altitude of at least 600 kilometres. The primary drivers of this circulation are summer-hemisphere heating of haze by absorption of solar radiation and winter-hemisphere cooling due to infrared emission by haze and trace gases; our results therefore imply that these effects are important well into the thermosphere (altitudes higher than 500 kilometres). This requires both active upper-atmosphere chemistry, consistent with the detection of high-complexity molecules and ions at altitudes greater than 950 kilometres, and an alternative explanation for the detached haze, such as a transition in haze particle growth from monomers to fractal structures.

  14. The Atmosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1983-01-01

    The composition and dynamics of the earth's atmosphere are discussed, considering the atmosphere's role in distributing the energy of solar radiation received by the earth. Models of this activity which help to explain climates of the past and predict those of the future are also considered. (JN)

  15. The atmospheres of the earth and the other planets: Origin, evolution and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1988-01-01

    The current understanding of the composition, chemistry, and structure of the atmospheres of the other planets and the origin, early history, and evolution of the earth's atmosphere is reviewed. The information on the atmospheres of the other planets is based on the successful Mariner, Viking, Pioneer, and Voyager missions to these planets. The information on the origin, early history, and evolution of the atmosphere, which is somewhat speculative, is largely based on numerical studies with geochemical and photochemical models.

  16. Neutral atmosphere composition from SOIR measurements on board Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahieux, A.; Drummond, R.; Wilquet, V.; Vandaele, A. C.; Federova, A.; Belyaev, D.; Korablev, O.; Villard, E.; Montmessin, F.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2009-04-01

    The SOIR instrument performs solar occultation measurements in the IR region (2.2 - 4.3 m) at a resolution of 0.12 cm-1, the highest on board Venus Express. It combines an echelle spectrometer and an AOTF (Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter) for the order selection [1,2]. The wavelength range probed by SOIR allows a detailed chemical inventory of the Venus atmosphere above the cloud layer with an emphasis on vertical distribution of the gases. Measurements of HDO, H2O, HCl, HF, CO and CO2 vertical profiles have been routinely performed, as well as those of their isotopologues [3,4]. We will discuss the improvements introduced in the analysis algorithm of the SOIR spectra. This discussion will be illustrated by presenting new results of retrievals of minor constituents of the Venus mesosphere, in terms of vertical profiles and geographical distribution. CO2 is the major constituent of the Venus atmosphere and was therefore observed in many solar occultations, leading to a good geographical coverage, although limited by the geometry of the orbit. Depending on the abundance of the absorbing isotopologue and on the intensity of the band measured, we will show that the SOIR instrument is able to furnish CO2 vertical profiles ranging typically from 65 to 150 km, reaching in some conditions 185 km altitude. This information is important in the frame of compiling, in collaboration with other teams, a new Venus Atmosphere Model. 1. A. Mahieux, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, D. Fussen, N. Mateshvili, E. Neefs, D. Nevejans, B. Ristic, A. C. Vandaele, V. Wilquet, D. Belyaev, A. Fedorova, O. Korablev, E. Villard, F. Montmessin and J.-L. Bertaux, "In-Flight performance and calibration of SPICAV SOIR on board Venus Express", Applied Optics 47 (13), 2252-65 (2008). 2. D. Nevejans, E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J.-P. Dubois and E. Villard, "Compact high

  17. Dynamical model for light composite fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derman, Emanuel

    1981-04-01

    A simple dynamical model for the internal structure of the three light lepton and quark generations (νe,e,u,d), (νμ,μ,c,s), and (ντ,τ,t,b) is proposed. Each generation is constructed of only one fundamental massive generation F=(L∘,L-,U,D) with the same (SU3)c×SU2×U1 quantum numbers as the light generations, bound to a core of one or more massive Higgs bosons H, where H is the single physical Higgs boson necessary for spontaneous symmetry breaking in the standard model. For example, e-=[L-H], μ-=[L-HH], τ-=[L-HHH]. It is shown that the known binding force due to H exchange is attractive and strong enough to produce light bound states. Dynamical calculations for the bound-state composite fermions using the Bethe-Salpeter equation, together with some phenomenological imput, suggest MH~16 TeV and MF~100 GeV. It is likely that such bound states can have properties compatible with the up to now apparently elementary appearance of known fermions, for example, their Dirac magnetic moments and absence of intergeneration radiative decays (such as μ-->eδ). Phenomenological consequences and tests of the model are discussed.

  18. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite In-Flight Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.

    1997-01-01

    Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite flight data from the first 737 days after launch (September 1991) was used to investigate spacecraft disturbances and responses. The investigation included two in-flight dynamics experiments (approximately three orbits each). Orbital and configuration influences on spacecraft dynamic response were also examined. Orbital influences were due to temperature variation from crossing the Earth's terminator and variation of the solar incident energy as the orbit precessed. During the terminator crossing, the rapid ambient temperature change caused the spacecraft's two flexible appendages to experience thermal elastic bending (thermal snap). The resulting response was dependent upon the orientation of the solar array and the solar incident energy. Orbital influences were also caused by on-board and environmental disturbances and spacecraft configuration changes resulting in dynamic responses which were repeated each orbit. Configuration influences were due to solar array rotation changing spacecraft modal properties. The investigation quantified the spacecraft dynamic response produced by the solar array and high gain antenna harmonic drive disturbances. The solar array's harmonic drive output resonated two solar array modes. Friction in the solar array gear drive provided sufficient energy dissipation which prevented the solar panels from resonating catastrophically; however, the solar array vibration amplitude was excessively large. The resulting vibration had a latitude-specific pattern.

  19. Deciphering Jupiter's atmospheric dynamics using the upcoming Juno gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, Yohai; Galanti, Eli

    2016-07-01

    This summer, the Juno spacecraft will arrive at Jupiter in course for close flybys of the planet, obtaining a high precision gravity spectrum of Jupiter. This data can be used to estimate the depth of Jupiter's observed cloud-level wind, and decipher the possible internal flows, that might be decoupled from the surface wind. In this talk, we discuss the Juno gravity experiment, and the possible outcomes with regard to the flows on Jupiter. We show several ways in which the gravity spectrum might be used to study the large scale flows: 1. measurements of the high order even harmonics which beyond J10 are dominated by the dynamics; 2. measurements of odd gravity harmonics which have no contribution from a static planet, and therefore are a pure signature of dynamics; 3. upper limits on the depth of the surface flow can be obtained by comparing low order even harmonics from dynamical models to the difference between the measured low order even harmonics and the largest possible values of a static planet; 4. direct latitudinally varying measurements of the gravity field exerted on the spacecraft. We will discuss how these methods may be applied given the expected sensitivities of the Juno gravity experiment. In addition, we present an inverse adjoint model, which allows given the gravity data, to infer the flows that produce it. This will allow, hopefully, to make significant progress in one of the longest-standing question in planetary atmospheric dynamics regarding the nature of the flows on the giant planets.

  20. Evolution dynamics of tropical ocean-atmosphere annual cycle variability

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, S.; Chao, Y.

    1996-12-01

    The structure of ocean-atmosphere annual cycle variability is extracted from the revised Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set SSTs, surface winds, and the latent heat (LH) and net shortwave (SW) surface fluxes using the covariance-based rotated principal component analysis method. The coupled annual cycle variability is concisely described using two modes that are in temporal quadrature. The first, peaking in June/July (and December/January), represents monsoonal flow onto Indochina, Central America, and western Africa. The second mode peaks in September/October and March/April when it represents the extreme phases of the SST annual cycle in the eastern oceans. Analysis of the surface momentum balance in the Pacific cold tongue core shows the equatorial flow, and in particular the zonal wind, to be dynamically consistent with the SST gradient during both the cold tongue`s nascent (June/July) and mature (September/October) phases; the dynamical consistency improves when the impact of nearsurface static stability variation on horizontal momentum dissipation is also considered. Evolution structure of the extracted annual cycle, moreover, shows the easterly wind tendency to lead SST cooling in the off-coastal zone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the Pacific cold tongue westward expansion results from local interaction of the zonal wind and zonal SST gradient, as encapsulated in the proposed {open_quotes}westward expansion hypothesis{close_quotes} - a simple analytic model of which is also presented. 29 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Ionosphere-Earth current density affecting clouds and atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, Brian; Burns, Gary

    Ionosphere-Earth current density affecting clouds and atmospheric dynamics Correlations of atmospheric dynamics, cloud cover, and precipitation with changes in external and internal inputs that affect the downward ionosphere-earth current density, Jz, through the atmosphere have been reported on day-to-day, decadal, century and longer timescales. Such inputs are changes in the cosmic ray flux; in the interplanetary electric field; in solar energetic particles; in relativistic electron precipitation; and in the upward current output of global thunderstorm activity. The interplanetary electric field and relativistic electron and thunderstorm inputs affect Jz while not changing the tropospheric ionization rate, thus ruling out ion-mediated nucleation as the mechanism affecting the cloud processes. Modeling suggests that charge modulation of aerosol scavenging (CMAS) in clouds affects cloud microphysics and can account for the correlations. The CMAS effects are different for cold clouds as compared to warm clouds, and vary with the size of the condensation nuclei and ice-forming nuclei. CMAS effects on cold and warm cloud lifetimes can account for observed changes in cloud cover on day-to-day and decadal time scales. CMAS effects on precipitation from cold clouds can account for increases in winter storm vorticity in cyclogenesis regions. Increases in cyclonic vorticity in these regions generates anticyclonic blocking a half Rossby wavelength downstream. These affect storm tracks and the advection of cold Arctic air in winter onto the continents. Observations, theory and modeling of cloud microphysics supporting these chains of processes will be reviewed, but the needed modeling of resolved clouds and their insertion into GCMs is complex and demanding, and has yet to be undertaken.

  2. Upper atmosphere research satellite program. [to study the chemistry energetics, and dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A satellite program to conduct research on the chemistry, energetics, and dynamics of the upper atmosphere was developed. The scientific goals of the Upper Atmospheric Research Program, the program requirements, and the approach toward meeting those requirements are outlined. An initial series of two overlapping spacecraft missions is described. Both spacecraft are launched and recovered by the STS, one in the winter of 1983 at a 56 deg inclination, and the other a year later at a 70 deg inclination. The duration of each mission is 18 months, and each carries instruments to make global measurements of the temperature, winds, composition, irradation, and radiance in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere between the tropopause and 120 km altitude. The program requires a dedicated ground-based data system and a science team organization that leads to a strong interaction between the experiments and theory. The program includes supportive observations from other platforms such as rockets, balloons, and the Spacelab.

  3. Neutral Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Strobel, D. F.; Moses, J. I.; Waite, J. H.; Crovisier, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Roble, R. G.

    This paper summarizes the understanding of aeronomy of neutral atmospheres in the solar system, discussing most planets as well as Saturn's moon Titan and comets. The thermal structure and energy balance is compared, highlighting the principal reasons for discrepancies amongst the atmospheres, a combination of atmospheric composition, heliocentric distance and other external energy sources not common to all. The composition of atmospheres is discussed in terms of vertical structure, chemistry and evolution. The final section compares dynamics in the upper atmospheres of most planets and highlights the importance of vertical dynamical coupling as well as magnetospheric forcing in auroral regions, where present. It is shown that a first order understanding of neutral atmospheres has emerged over the past decades, thanks to the combined effects of spacecraft and Earth-based observations as well as advances in theoretical modeling capabilities. Key gaps in our understanding are highlighted which ultimately call for a more comprehensive programme of observation and laboratory measurements.

  4. Neutral Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Strobel, D. F.; Moses, J. I.; Waite, J. H.; Crovisier, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Roble, R. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper summarizes the understanding of aeronomy of neutral atmospheres in the solar system, discussing most planets as well as Saturn’s moon Titan and comets. The thermal structure and energy balance is compared, highlighting the principal reasons for discrepancies amongst the atmospheres, a combination of atmospheric composition, heliocentric distance and other external energy sources not common to all. The composition of atmospheres is discussed in terms of vertical structure, chemistry and evolution. The final section compares dynamics in the upper atmospheres of most planets and highlights the importance of vertical dynamical coupling as well as magnetospheric forcing in auroral regions, where present. It is shown that a first order understanding of neutral atmospheres has emerged over the past decades, thanks to the combined effects of spacecraft and Earth-based observations as well as advances in theoretical modeling capabilities. Key gaps in our understanding are highlighted which ultimately call for a more comprehensive programme of observation and laboratory measurements.

  5. Dynamics of the atmospheres of the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gierasch, Peter J.; Conrath, Barney J.

    1992-01-01

    Current knowledge about dynamics and the thermal structure of the outer planets is reviewed with the aim of identifying important measurements which should be made in the post-Voyager era. The existence of jets and cloud bands is the puzzle that underlies all others. The discussion focuses on the particular case of Jupiter because the documentation is the most complete. It is argued that the gross dynamical parameters of the outer planetary atmospheres are the keys to their behaviors, rather than the particular specifics of radiative forcing, cloud distributions, or thermodynamic transformations. Voyager data has shown that the jet systems decay with height in the region above the visible clouds. Therefore, the highest priority must be given to establishing dynamical parameters that characterize levels within and beneath the clouds. These require the determination of the deep structure of the jets, of the density stratification, and of the horizontal density contrasts. The deep regions are not easily accessible and these measurements present challenging opportunities. Indirect inferences about the controlling processes may sometimes be possible by observing waves and other activity in the more easily accessible stratosphere.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of the atmospheric pollutants in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, Alejandro; Barrera-Ferrer, Amilcar; Angulo-Brown, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City (MZMC) is a serious problem with social, economical and political consequences, in virtue that it is the region which concentrates both the greatest country population and a great part of commercial and industrial activities. According to the World Health Organization, maximum permissible concentrations of atmospheric pollutants are exceeded frequently. In the MZMC, the environmental monitoring has been limited to criteria pollutants, named in this way due to when their levels are measured in the atmosphere, they indicate in a precise way the air quality. The Automatic Atmospheric Monitoring Network monitors and registers the values of pollutants concentration in air in the MZMC. Actually, it is integrated by approximately 35 automatic-equipped remote stations, which report an every-hour register. Local and global invariant quantities have been widely used to describe the fractal properties of diverse time series. In the study of certain time series, many times it is assumed that they are monofractal, which means that they can be described only with one fractal dimension. But this hypothesis is unrealistic because a lot of time series are heterogeneous and non stationary, so their scaling properties are not the same throughout time and therefore they may require more fractal dimensions for their description. Complexity of the atmospheric pollutants dynamics suggests us to analyze its time series of hourly concentration registers with the multifractal formalism. So, in this work, air concentration time series of MZMC criteria pollutants were studied with the proposed method. The chosen pollutants to perform this analysis are ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and PM10 (particles less than 10 micrometers). We found that pollutants air concentration time series are multifractal. When we calculate the degree of multifractality for each time series we know that while more

  7. Thermal balance of the lower Venus atmosphere: radiative and dynamical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasenko, T. S.; Rodin, A. V.

    2003-04-01

    The current state and recent evolution of Venus climate is believed to be controlled by greenhouse effect variations in response to modified composition of the atmosphere. The quantitative assessment of the thermal regime of the lower Venus atmosphere is, however, highly complicated due to major uncertaintues in its spectral properties, in particular, spectral line profile, which shape is dependent on temperature, pressure, and specific molecular transition. We present a comprehensive, high-resolution model of the thermal radiation and 1D calculations of the thermal balance, involving both radiative and dynamical heat transfer. Spectroscopic model is based on the war-wing approximation for molecular absorption, and self-consistent micorphysical model of the cloud layer. In the lower atmospheric layers simulated radiative fluxes are concentrated within the windows in between absorption bands and reveal high sensitivity to the far-wing spectral line formfactor. Radiation flux effectively generated at 30-40 km is absorbed at the lower boundary of the cloud deck, with the excess heat being removed by convection and large-scale circulation. Sensitivities of the thermal state and dynamical fluxes to minor constituents and aerosol properties are explored. This work has been supported by RFBR grant #01-02-17481

  8. Diurnal and Inter-day Variation in Atmospheric Microbial Community Diversity and Composition at Mt. Bachelor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womack, A. M.; Bowers, R. M.; Jaffe, D. A.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    The atmosphere is often considered an extreme microbial environment with limited water and resource availability and high levels of UV radiation. Despite these extremes, diverse assemblages of microorganisms have been sampled from the atmosphere. The study of temporal variation of atmospheric microbial communities has led to an increased understanding of the role of dispersal from source environments in structuring these communities. Seasonal variation in overall community composition and in the relative abundances of specific taxonomic groups is thought be related to seasonal changes in local sources environments (i.e. snow cover, leaf surfaces). However, studies on shorter time scales have yielded conflicting results including communities that are highly variable from day to day and communities that are relatively stable across days. It is unknown if there are diurnal changes in airborne community composition and how changes may be related to atmospheric dynamics and inputs of microbes into the atmosphere. In this study, sampling of airborne bacterial communities was conducted at Mt. Bachelor Observatory from 8/12/13 - 8/17/13. Samples were collected onto filters at 4-hour intervals for the duration of the sampling campaign resulting in 30 total samples. DNA was extracted from the filters, and bacterial community composition was determined by sequencing partial 16S genes. Various environmental and meteorological data were also collected. Community composition varied between day and night samples but not across days. The relative abundances of five species including two members each from the phyla Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were found to have significant diurnal periodicity. Community richness varied across days and was greater is day versus night samples. These findings demonstrate that bacterial communities in the atmosphere are variable over multiple timescales, and diurnal variation may be more pronounced than variation across days under some conditions.

  9. Predictions of the Atmospheric Composition of GJ 1132b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Laura; Wordsworth, Robin D.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Sasselov, Dimitar

    2016-10-01

    GJ 1132b is a nearby Earth-sized exoplanet transiting an M dwarf, and is among the most highly characterizable small exoplanets currently known. In this paper, we study the interaction of a magma ocean with a water-rich atmosphere on GJ 1132b and determine that it must have begun with more than 5 wt% initial water in order to still retain a water-based atmosphere. We also determine the amount of O2 that can build up in the atmosphere as a result of hydrogen dissociation and loss. We find that the magma ocean absorbs at most ∼10% of the O2 produced, whereas more than 90% is lost to space through hydrodynamic drag. The most common outcome for GJ 1132b from our simulations is a tenuous atmosphere dominated by O2, though, for very large initial water abundances, atmospheres with several thousands of bars of O2 are possible. A substantial steam envelope would indicate either the existence of an earlier H2 envelope or low XUV flux over the system’s lifetime. A steam atmosphere would also imply the continued existence of a magma ocean on GJ 1132b. Further modeling is needed to study the evolution of CO2 or N2-rich atmospheres on GJ 1132b.

  10. The atmospheric circulation of the super Earth GJ 1214b: Dependence on composition and metallicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Fortney, J. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.

    2014-04-20

    We present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models of GJ 1214b, a 2.7 Earth-radius, 6.5 Earth-mass super Earth detected by the MEarth survey. Here we explore the planet's circulation as a function of atmospheric metallicity and atmospheric composition, modeling atmospheres with a low mean molecular weight (MMW; i.e., H{sub 2}-dominated) and a high MMW (i.e., water- and CO{sub 2}-dominated). We find that atmospheres with a low MMW have strong day-night temperature variations at pressures above the infrared photosphere that lead to equatorial superrotation. For these atmospheres, the enhancement of atmospheric opacities with increasing metallicity lead to shallower atmospheric heating, larger day-night temperature variations, and hence stronger superrotation. In comparison, atmospheres with a high MMW have larger day-night and equator-to-pole temperature variations than low MMW atmospheres, but differences in opacity structure and energy budget lead to differences in jet structure. The circulation of a water-dominated atmosphere is dominated by equatorial superrotation, while the circulation of a CO{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere is instead dominated by high-latitude jets. By comparing emergent flux spectra and light curves for 50× solar and water-dominated compositions, we show that observations in emission can break the degeneracy in determining the atmospheric composition of GJ 1214b. The variation in opacity with wavelength for the water-dominated atmosphere leads to large phase variations within water bands and small phase variations outside of water bands. The 50× solar atmosphere, however, yields small variations within water bands and large phase variations at other characteristic wavelengths. These observations would be much less sensitive to clouds, condensates, and hazes than transit observations.

  11. The chemical composition and climatology of the earth's early atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson-Sellers, A.

    1983-01-01

    The earth's climate as it relates to the evolution of life is discussed.. Seven fundamental characteristics of the early evolutionary environment are examined, including a carbon dioxide and water vapor atmosphere, atmospheric mass between 500 and 1000 mb, a global hydrosphere, lowered solar luminosity, hospitable average global temperatures, a convectively active atmosphere, and trace gases. The influence of the early earth's extensive hydrosphere on the origin of life is considered. The warming of that hydrosphere due to radiative fluxes and the greenhouse effect is examined, and the nature of the feedback between clouds and climate is addressed.

  12. Formaldehyde Concentration Dynamics of the International Space Station Cabin Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Formaldehyde presents a significant challenge to maintaining cabin air quality on board crewed spacecraft. Generation sources include offgassing from a variety of non-metallic materials as well as human metabolism. Because generation sources are pervasive and human health can be affected by continual exposure to low concentrations, toxicology and air quality control engineering experts jointly identified formaldehyde as a key compound to be monitored as part the International Space Station's (ISS) environmental health monitoring and maintenance program. Data acquired from in-flight air quality monitoring methods are the basis for assessing the cabin environment's suitability for long-term habitation and monitoring the performance of passive and active controls that are in place to minimize crew exposure. Formaldehyde concentration trends and dynamics served in the ISS cabin atmosphere are reviewed implications to present and future flight operations discussed.

  13. Atmospheric structure and dynamics: the spatial and temporal domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, G. M.

    2013-05-01

    Multi-wavelength studies of M supergiants have revealed atmospheric structures with a large range of spatial and temporal scales. Focusing on Betelgeuse, these scales and their perplexing connections from the photosphere to the interstellar medium are reviewed. Of particular current interest is the dynamic origin of the ubiquitous and relatively dust-free mass loss. Is it multiple plumes of convection driven ejecta, episodic ejection of molecular reservoirs, or a more steady and uniform flow? With powerful new facilities such as the VLT and ALMA we may begin to understand the connections and answer such puzzles, but ultimately detailed studies of a sample of M supergiants will be needed to disentangle the physics from the stars' personalities.

  14. Strong dynamics, composite Higgs and the conformal window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogradi, Daniel; Patella, Agostino

    2016-08-01

    We review recent progress in the lattice investigations of near-conformal non-Abelian gauge theories relevant for dynamical symmetry breaking and model building of composite Higgs models. The emphasis is placed on the mass spectrum and the running renormalized coupling. The role of a light composite scalar isosinglet particle as a composite Higgs particle is highlighted.

  15. Southeast Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled along 20˚S during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.; Kleinman, L.; Coe, H.; Clarke, A.; Bretherton, C.; Wood, R.; Abel, S. J.; Barrett, P.; Brown, P.; George, R.; Freitag, S.; McNaughton, C.; Howell, S.; Shank, L.; Kapustin, V.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Toniazzo, T.; Krejci, R.; Fochesatto, J.; Shaw, G.; Krecl, P.; Brooks, B.; McKeeking, G.; Bower, K. N.; Williams, P. I.; Crosier, J.; Crawford, I.; Connolly, P.; Covert, D.; Bandy, A. R.

    2011-01-10

    The VAMOS Ocean-Climate-Atmosphere-Land Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was conducted from 15 October to 15 November 2008 in the South East Pacific region to investigate interactions between land, sea and atmosphere in this unique tropical eastern ocean environment and to improve the skill of global and regional models in representing the region. This study synthesises selected aircraft, ship and surface site observations from VOCALS-REx to statistically summarise and characterise the atmospheric composition and variability of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and Free Troposphere (FT) along the 20{sup o} S parallel between 70{sup o} W and 85{sup o} W. Significant zonal gradients in mean MBL sub-micron aerosol particle size and composition, carbon monoxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide were seen over the campaign, with a generally more variable and polluted coastal environment and a less variable, more pristine remote maritime regime. Gradients are observed to be associated with strong gradients in cloud droplet number. The FT is often more polluted in terms of trace gases than the MBL in the mean; however increased variability in the FT composition suggests an episodic nature to elevated concentrations. This is consistent with a complex vertical interleaving of airmasses with diverse sources and hence pollutant concentrations as seen by generalised back trajectory analysis, which suggests contributions from both local and long-range sources. Furthermore, back trajectory analysis demonstrates that the observed zonal gradients both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere are characteristic of marked changes in airmass history with distance offshore - coastal boundary layer airmasses having been in recent contact with the local land surface and remote maritime airmasses having resided over ocean for in excess of ten days. Boundary layer composition to the east of 75{sup o} W was observed to be dominated by coastal emissions from sources to the west of the Andes

  16. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A. M.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Schrijver, C. J.; Aia Team

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly AIA on SDO will provide revolutionary coverage of the entire visible solar hemisphere observed from photospheric to coronal temperatures at 1-arcsecond resolution with a characteristic cadence of 10 seconds for each channel The AIA comprises four dual normal-incidence telescopes that enable it to cycle through a set of EUV channels centered on strong emission lines of iron ranging from Fe IX through XXIII and helium 304A plus two UV channels near 1600A and a broad band visible channel Combined with the vector- magnetic imagery from SDO HMI the AIA observations will significantly further our understanding of the dynamics of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere and heliosphere both in quiescent and eruptive stages The comprehensive thermal coverage of the corona will open new avenues of study for coronal energetics and seismology which will benefit from the excellent calibration against the SDO EVE spectral irradiance measurements The AIA data will be easily accessible on the web with a time delay that is expected to be of the order of 15 minutes to 1 hour Users will be able to browse the data through summary web pages that are complemented by a comprehensive metadata catalog Data analysis will be supported through the freely available SolarSoft libraries and through modules in a flexible evolving pipeline data-analysis system to be operated at the AIA-HMI Joint Science Operations Center We plan to incorporate feature recognition software automated movie making coronal field modeling

  17. Novel atmospheric plasma enhanced chitosan nanofiber/gauze composite wound dressings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrospun chitosan nanofibers were deposited onto atmospheric plasma treated cotton gauze to create a novel composite bandage with higher adhesion, better handling properties, enhanced bioactivity, and moisture management. Plasma treatment of the gauze substrate was performed to improve the durabi...

  18. Dynamics of magnetic bright points in the lower solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarzadeh, Shahin

    2013-08-01

    In this thesis we have investigated the structure and dynamics of small-scale magnetic bright points (MBPs) in quiet, internetwork regions of the lower solar atmosphere. Such MBPs are associated with small-scale, intense (generally kG) magnetic elements. The internetwork (IN) areas cover the largest fraction of the solar surface and it has been argued that the IN may contain most of the existing unsigned magnetic flux on the surface at any given time. However, the distribution of the magnetic field's properties in the IN regions is still being debated. Thus, only recently has the presence of kG fields in the IN been confirmed of which the studied MBPs are thought to be manifestations. In addition, interaction between intense magnetic features and convective flows on the solar surface (in particular in IN areas) have been proposed to excite waves which can carry energy to the upper solar atmosphere. The properties of these waves and their contribution to the heating of the upper solar atmosphere is still unclear. Moreover, the migration of the small magnetic elements owing to the convective flows/turbulence is not known (due to, e.g., lack of high spatial and temporal resolution observations not affected by seeing). We used high spatial and temporal resolution observations, obtained by the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory, to address the above issues. We concentrate on the study of the smallest MBPs visible in the data; whose apparent lack of internal fine-structure facilitates their precise location and tracking in time-series of images. The analyses were performed using an algorithm we developed to identify, locate and track the MBPs as well as to determine their physical properties at any given time. These findings have implications for, e.g., our understanding of the heating mechanisms in the higher layers of the solar atmosphere, estimates of the solar magnetic flux as well as the structure of the convection flows (within a supergranule) advecting small

  19. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutty, Prasad; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Blood, Eric M.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Shoenenberger, Mark; Dutta, Soumyo

    2015-01-01

    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator, which is part of the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology development project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and Supersonic Parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. This test was used to validate the test architecture for future missions. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, atmosphere, and aerodynamics. The results of the reconstruction show significantly higher lofting of the trajectory, which can partially be explained by off-nominal booster motor performance. The reconstructed vehicle force and moment coefficients fall well within pre-flight predictions. A parameter identification analysis indicates that the vehicle displayed greater aerodynamic static stability than seen in pre-flight computational predictions and ballistic range tests.

  20. GEO-CAPE: The Next Big Thing in Atmospheric Composition Measurement for NASA?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Janz, S.; Gleason, J. F.; Bhartia, P. K.; Caffrey, R. T.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Fishman, J.

    2008-05-01

    The U.S. National Research Council's recent decadal survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space, has recommended the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission for launch in the 2013- 2016 time period. This is the only new mission recommended for NASA to measure atmospheric reactive gas composition in the next decade. GEO-CAPE science objectives include coastal ocean dynamics and biophysics as well as sources, transport, and chemistry of atmospheric pollution. Objectives for the terrestrial biosphere should also be considered. The notional payload includes a medium-resolution (~7 km) continental-scanning UV-Visible spectrometer, a very high-resolution (~250 m) programmable UV-Vis-NearIR event imager, and a CO mapper operating in both reflected sunlight and thermal emission bands. The satellite is planned to be deployed in geostationary/geosynchronous orbit over the continental U.S. Key capabilities are to continuously sample processes that occur rapidly (1-3 hour time scales) at relatively small spatial scales. The very high-resolution, geosynchronous multi-disciplinary observatory would be a shared resource for regular observations, special observing studies, and emergencies. This presentation will examine the science measurement requirements for GEO-CAPE, offer some possible instrument implementation options, and summarize the overall scope of the mission in terms of technology readiness, algorithm and data analysis challenges, and size-weight-cost feasibility issues.

  1. Venus lower atmospheric composition - Analysis by gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, V. I.; Carle, G. C.; Woeller, F.; Pollack, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    The first gas chromatographic analysis of the lower atmosphere of Venus is reported. Three atmospheric samples were analyzed. The third of these samples showed carbon dioxide (96.4 percent), molecular nitrogen (3.41 percent), water vapor (0.135 percent), molecular oxygen (69.3 ppm), argon (18.6 ppm), neon (4.31 ppm), and sulfur dioxide (186 ppm). The amounts of water vapor and sulfur dioxide detected are roughly compatible with the requirements of greenhouse models of the high surface temperature of Venus. The large positive gradient of sulfur dioxide, molecular oxygen, and water vapor from the cloud tops to their bottoms, as implied by Earth-based observations and these results, gives added support for the presence of major quantities of aqueous sulfuric acid in the clouds. A comparison of the inventory of inert gases found in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars suggests that these components are due to outgassing from the planetary interiors.

  2. Venus lower atmospheric composition: preliminary results from pioneer venus.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, J H; Hodges, R R; McElroy, M B; Donahue, T M; Kolpin, M

    1979-02-23

    Initial examination of data from the neutral mass spectrometer on the Pioneer Venus sounder probe indicates that the abundances of argon-36, argon-38, and neon-20 in the Venus atmosphere are much higher than those of the corresponding gases in Earth's atmosphere, although the abundance of radiogenic argon-40 is apparently similar for both planets. The lower atmosphere of Venus includes significant concentrations of various gaseous sulfur compounds. The inlet leak to the mass spectrometer was temporarily blocked by an apparently liquid component of the Venus clouds during passage through the dense cloud layer. Analysis of gases released during the evaporation of the droplets shows the presence of water vapor to some compound or compounds of sulfur.

  3. Dynamics of the middle atmosphere as observed by the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E.

    2015-12-01

    It has been strongly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of this coupling occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary and gravity waves. However, limited observations prevent to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The main challenge of the ARISE (Atmospheric dynamics InfraStructure in Europe) project is to combine existing national and international observation networks including: the International infrasound monitoring system developed for the CTBT (Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) verification, the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes) lidar network, European observation infrastructures at mid latitudes (OHP observatory), tropics (Maïdo observatory), high latitudes (ALOMAR and EISCAT), infrasound stations which form a dense European network and satellites. The ARISE network is unique by its coverage (polar to equatorial regions in the European longitude sector), its altitude range (from troposphere to mesosphere and ionosphere) and the involved scales both in time (from seconds to tens of years) and space (from tens of meters to thousands of kilometers). Advanced data products are produced with the scope to assimilate data in the Weather Prediction models to improve future forecasts over weeks and seasonal time scales. ARISE observations are especially relevant for the monitoring of extreme events such as thunderstorms, volcanoes, meteors and at larger scales, deep convection and stratospheric warming events for physical processes description and study of long term evolution with climate change. Among the applications, ARISE fosters integration of innovative methods for remote detection of non-instrumented volcanoes including distant eruption characterization to provide notifications with reliable confidence indices to the

  4. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, Alan M.; AIA Team

    2006-06-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on SDO will provide revolutionary coverage of the entire visible solar hemisphere, observed from photospheric to coronal temperatures, at 1-arcsecond resolution, with a characteristic cadence of 10 seconds for each channel. The AIA comprises four dual normal-incidence telescopes that enable it to cycle through a set of EUV channels centered on strong emission lines of iron (ranging from Fe IX through XXIII) and helium (304A), plus two UV channels near 1600A and a broad band visible channel. Combined with the (vector-)magnetic imagery from SDO/HMI, the AIA observations will significantly further our understanding of the dynamics of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere and heliosphere, both in quiescent and eruptive stages. The comprehensive thermal coverage of the corona will open new avenues of study for coronal energetics and seismology, which will benefit from the excellent calibration against the SDO/EVE spectral irradiance measurements. The AIA data will be easily accessible on the web, with a time delay that is expected to be of the order of 15 minutes to 1 hour. Users will be able to browse the data through summary web pages that are complemented by a comprehensive metadata catalog. Data analysis will be supported through the freely available SolarSoft libraries and through modules in a flexible, evolving pipeline data analysis system to be operated at the AIA-HMI Joint Science Operations Center. We plan to incorporate feature recognition software, automated movie making, coronal field modeling, and other supporting analysis software. We invite the broad ILWS community to contact us with ideas to collaborate on any aspect of the AIA Investigation. Details on the AIA instrument, the Science Investigation, and related news can be found at http://aia.lmsal.com.

  5. Topographic Influence and Atmospheric Dynamics in the Indian Wells Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uher, Erich J.

    Indian Wells Valley (IWV) is home to the China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS) whose operations necessitate regional forecasting and weather analysis relevant to aviation and plume release scenarios. In order to better understand the terrain influenced mesoscale circulations in the varied complex terrain of Indian Wells Valley surrounding Ridgecrest, four seasonal WRF simulations were analyzed using linear shallow water theory and nonlinear theory for flows over two-dimensional mountains. The goal is to better understand the relationships between atmospheric dynamical processes and the wind/thermal structure of the mesoscale at Indian Wells Valley. This will involve exploring relationships linking theoretical meteorology in complex terrain and advanced high resolution atmospheric modeling in this region. The WRF simulation results show several distinct circulations which rely on the interaction between complex terrain and the background weather conditions: 1) In calm synoptic conditions, diurnal processes guide the evolution of boundary layer stability and slope flows. 2) In periods of greatest seasonal surface heating (i.e. summer), the pressure gradient across the Sierra Nevada drives near surface westerlies across IWV. 3) In conditions with strong synoptic scale increase in stability and meridional winds across the Sierra Nevada, a downslope windstorm can develop in IWV. The downslope winds and compensatory gravity wave activity over IWV will conclude once there is a significant change in conditions aloft, or an increase in convective instability at the surface of IWV which prevents air aloft from sinking towards the surface. These results provide a better understanding of the mesoscale meteorology in this region and improve forecast and analysis for plume transport and aviation needs while also laying the groundwork for future projects managing environmental concerns in this region.

  6. Dynamic crack arrest in ceramics and ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Yang, K. H.

    1989-01-01

    The results of past dynamic crack arrest experiments involving structural ceramics and ceramic composites are reviewed and analyzed. The lack of dynamic crack arrest in very brittle materials is discussed and contrasted with dynamic crack arrest in somewhat brittle metallic and polymeric materials. Numerical analyses show that the lack of crack arrest is due to reduced dynamic fracture resistance of the material and is not due to the kinetic energy.

  7. Dynamic oxygenation of the early atmosphere and oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Timothy W.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Reinhard, Christopher T.

    2014-05-01

    The traditional view of the oxygenation of the early atmosphere and oceans depicts irreversibly rising abundances in two large steps: one at the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) ca. 2.3-2.4 billion years ago (Ga) and another near the end of the Neoproterozoic. This talk will explore how the latest data challenge this paradigm. Recent results reveal a far more dynamic history of early oxygenation, one with both rising and falling levels, long periods of sustained low concentrations even after the GOE, complex feedback relationships that likely coupled nutrients and ocean redox, and dramatic changes tied through still-emerging cause-and-effect relationships to first-order tectonic, climatic, and evolutionary events. In the face of increasing doubt about the robustness of organic biomarker records from the Archean, researchers are increasingly reliant on inorganic geochemical proxies for the earliest records of oxygenic photosynthesis. Proxy data now suggest oxygenesis at ca. 3.0 Ga with a likelihood of local oxygen build up in the surface ocean long before the GOE, as well as low (and perhaps transient) accumulation in the atmosphere against a backdrop of mostly less than ca. 0.001% of the present atmospheric concentration. By the GOE, the balance between oxygen sources and sinks shifted in favor of persistent accumulation, although sedimentary recycling of non-mass-dependent sulfur isotope signatures allows for the possibility of rising and falling atmospheric oxygen before the GOE as traditionally defined by the sulfur isotope record. Recycling may also hinder our ability to precisely date the transition to permanent oxygen accumulation beyond trace levels. Diverse data point to a dramatic increase in biospheric oxygen following the GOE, coincident with the largest positive carbon isotope excursion in Earth history, followed by an equally dramatic drop. This decline in Earth surface redox potential ushered in more than a billion years of dominantly low oxygen levels in

  8. Microbiome of the upper troposphere: Species composition and prevalence, effects of tropical storms, and atmospheric implications

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon-Rodriguez, Natasha; Lathem, Terry L.; Rodriguez-R, Luis M.; Barazesh, James M.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Bergin, Michael; Nenes, Athanasios; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.

    2013-01-01

    The composition and prevalence of microorganisms in the middle-to-upper troposphere (8–15 km altitude) and their role in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions represent important, unresolved questions for biological and atmospheric science. In particular, airborne microorganisms above the oceans remain essentially uncharacterized, as most work to date is restricted to samples taken near the Earth’s surface. Here we report on the microbiome of low- and high-altitude air masses sampled onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration DC-8 platform during the 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes campaign in the Caribbean Sea. The samples were collected in cloudy and cloud-free air masses before, during, and after two major tropical hurricanes, Earl and Karl. Quantitative PCR and microscopy revealed that viable bacterial cells represented on average around 20% of the total particles in the 0.25- to 1-μm diameter range and were at least an order of magnitude more abundant than fungal cells, suggesting that bacteria represent an important and underestimated fraction of micrometer-sized atmospheric aerosols. The samples from the two hurricanes were characterized by significantly different bacterial communities, revealing that hurricanes aerosolize a large amount of new cells. Nonetheless, 17 bacterial taxa, including taxa that are known to use C1–C4 carbon compounds present in the atmosphere, were found in all samples, indicating that these organisms possess traits that allow survival in the troposphere. The findings presented here suggest that the microbiome is a dynamic and underappreciated aspect of the upper troposphere with potentially important impacts on the hydrological cycle, clouds, and climate. PMID:23359712

  9. Microbiome of the upper troposphere: species composition and prevalence, effects of tropical storms, and atmospheric implications.

    PubMed

    DeLeon-Rodriguez, Natasha; Lathem, Terry L; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Barazesh, James M; Anderson, Bruce E; Beyersdorf, Andreas J; Ziemba, Luke D; Bergin, Michael; Nenes, Athanasios; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2013-02-12

    The composition and prevalence of microorganisms in the middle-to-upper troposphere (8-15 km altitude) and their role in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions represent important, unresolved questions for biological and atmospheric science. In particular, airborne microorganisms above the oceans remain essentially uncharacterized, as most work to date is restricted to samples taken near the Earth's surface. Here we report on the microbiome of low- and high-altitude air masses sampled onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration DC-8 platform during the 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes campaign in the Caribbean Sea. The samples were collected in cloudy and cloud-free air masses before, during, and after two major tropical hurricanes, Earl and Karl. Quantitative PCR and microscopy revealed that viable bacterial cells represented on average around 20% of the total particles in the 0.25- to 1-μm diameter range and were at least an order of magnitude more abundant than fungal cells, suggesting that bacteria represent an important and underestimated fraction of micrometer-sized atmospheric aerosols. The samples from the two hurricanes were characterized by significantly different bacterial communities, revealing that hurricanes aerosolize a large amount of new cells. Nonetheless, 17 bacterial taxa, including taxa that are known to use C1-C4 carbon compounds present in the atmosphere, were found in all samples, indicating that these organisms possess traits that allow survival in the troposphere. The findings presented here suggest that the microbiome is a dynamic and underappreciated aspect of the upper troposphere with potentially important impacts on the hydrological cycle, clouds, and climate.

  10. Optimization of the sintering atmosphere for high-density hydroxyapatite–carbon nanotube composites

    PubMed Central

    White, Ashley A.; Kinloch, Ian A.; Windle, Alan H.; Best, Serena M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite–carbon nanotube (HA–CNT) composites have the potential for improved mechanical properties over HA for use in bone graft applications. Finding an appropriate sintering atmosphere for this composite presents a dilemma, as HA requires water in the sintering atmosphere to remain phase pure and well hydroxylated, yet CNTs oxidize at the high temperatures required for sintering. The purpose of this study was to optimize the atmosphere for sintering these composites. While the reaction between carbon and water to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen at high temperatures (known as the ‘water–gas reaction’) would seem to present a problem for sintering these composites, Le Chatelier's principle suggests this reaction can be suppressed by increasing the concentration of carbon monoxide and hydrogen relative to the concentration of carbon and water, so as to retain the CNTs and keep the HA's structure intact. Eight sintering atmospheres were investigated, including standard atmospheres (such as air and wet Ar), as well as atmospheres based on the water–gas reaction. It was found that sintering in an atmosphere of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, with a small amount of water added, resulted in an optimal combination of phase purity, hydroxylation, CNT retention and density. PMID:20573629

  11. Optimization of the sintering atmosphere for high-density hydroxyapatite-carbon nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    White, Ashley A; Kinloch, Ian A; Windle, Alan H; Best, Serena M

    2010-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT) composites have the potential for improved mechanical properties over HA for use in bone graft applications. Finding an appropriate sintering atmosphere for this composite presents a dilemma, as HA requires water in the sintering atmosphere to remain phase pure and well hydroxylated, yet CNTs oxidize at the high temperatures required for sintering. The purpose of this study was to optimize the atmosphere for sintering these composites. While the reaction between carbon and water to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen at high temperatures (known as the 'water-gas reaction') would seem to present a problem for sintering these composites, Le Chatelier's principle suggests this reaction can be suppressed by increasing the concentration of carbon monoxide and hydrogen relative to the concentration of carbon and water, so as to retain the CNTs and keep the HA's structure intact. Eight sintering atmospheres were investigated, including standard atmospheres (such as air and wet Ar), as well as atmospheres based on the water-gas reaction. It was found that sintering in an atmosphere of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, with a small amount of water added, resulted in an optimal combination of phase purity, hydroxylation, CNT retention and density. PMID:20573629

  12. Active upper-atmosphere chemistry and dynamics from polar circulation reversal on Titan.

    PubMed

    Teanby, Nicholas A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Nixon, Conor A; de Kok, Remco; Vinatier, Sandrine; Coustenis, Athena; Sefton-Nash, Elliot; Calcutt, Simon B; Flasar, F Michael

    2012-11-29

    Saturn's moon Titan has a nitrogen atmosphere comparable to Earth's, with a surface pressure of 1.4 bar. Numerical models reproduce the tropospheric conditions very well but have trouble explaining the observed middle-atmosphere temperatures, composition and winds. The top of the middle-atmosphere circulation has been thought to lie at an altitude of 450 to 500 kilometres, where there is a layer of haze that appears to be separated from the main haze deck. This 'detached' haze was previously explained as being due to the co-location of peak haze production and the limit of dynamical transport by the circulation's upper branch. Here we report a build-up of trace gases over the south pole approximately two years after observing the 2009 post-equinox circulation reversal, from which we conclude that middle-atmosphere circulation must extend to an altitude of at least 600 kilometres. The primary drivers of this circulation are summer-hemisphere heating of haze by absorption of solar radiation and winter-hemisphere cooling due to infrared emission by haze and trace gases; our results therefore imply that these effects are important well into the thermosphere (altitudes higher than 500 kilometres). This requires both active upper-atmosphere chemistry, consistent with the detection of high-complexity molecules and ions at altitudes greater than 950 kilometres, and an alternative explanation for the detached haze, such as a transition in haze particle growth from monomers to fractal structures. PMID:23192150

  13. Effects of Chemical Abundances on the Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarque, Pierre; Basu, S.; Robinson, F.; Hunter, C.; Kallinger, T.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a comparison between two three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamical (3D RHD) simulations of the solar outer layers using the Grevesse & Sauval (1998; GS98) and the Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval (2005; AGS05) mixtures, respectively. The AGS05 mixture is a revision of the solar abundance mixture using a model atmosphere based on the stratification and dynamics of a solar 3D RHD simulation performed with the GS98 mixture, using the code of Stein & Nordlund (1989, 1998). Our simulations use the same code, and physically realistic treatment of radiative opacities and equation of state as Robinson et al. (2003). A comparison between our GS98 and AGS05 3D simulations shows differences both in the mean vertical temperature gradient and in the turbulent velocity field in the line forming region of the solar atmosphere. The whole superadiabatic layer (SAL) in the AGS05 simulation, including its peak, is shifted outward with respect to the GS98 SAL. Turbulent velocities, critical for absorption line profile calculations, are larger in the AGS05 simulation by about 10%. Since opacities for the AGS05 mixture are lower than those for the GS98 mixture, the T-τ relations derived from the two simulations are different. At 5000K, τ obtained from the GS98 simulation is about 30% larger than that obtained from the AGS05 simulation. These results show the importance of preserving self consistency in the chemical abundances between the model atmosphere and the 3D HRD simulation. When deriving the solar abundances, one must iterate the chemical composition in the model atmosphere, and hence in the 3D simulation on which the atmosphere is based. This research was supported in part by NASA/ATP grant NAG5-13299 (PD and FR) and NSF grant ATM 0348837 to SB.

  14. Atmospheric-Pressure Processed Silver Nanowire (Ag-NW)/ZnO Composite Transparent Conducting Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, John D.; Aggarwal, Shruti; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Ginley, David S.

    2015-06-14

    Composite transparent contacts (TCs) based on metal nanowires and metal oxide matrix materials hold great promise for high performance transparent contacts for photovoltaics and opto-electronic technologies with the potential of all-atmospheric pressure processing. The metal nanowire mesh can provide both electrical conductivity and mechanical robustness against bending while the matrix material can both control the electrical interface and protect the metal nanowires. Here, we demonstrate all atmospheric pressure processed Ag-NW/ZnO composite TCs that are 90% transparent in the visible with sheet resistance Rs ~= 10 Ohms/sq. In addition, the composite TCs have higher infrared transmission than conventional TCO films with the same sheet resistance.

  15. Atmospheric composition as a potential taphonomic filter for the fossil leaf record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Karen; Haworth, Matthew; McElwain, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Controlled environment chambers provide a unique opportunity to investigate plant responses to simulated palaeoatmospheric compositions that reflect previous periods of Earth history. One potentially important role of atmospheric composition that has not been considered in detail, is how it may affect plant preservation in the fossil record. Previous work has shown that plants, particularly angiosperms, have a tendency to increase leaf mass per area (LMA) when grown in above-ambient CO2. We tested the response of six nearest living equivalent taxa for Mesozoic floras to a range of simulated Mesozoic palaeoatmospheric treatments in controlled environment chambers. Exposure to high CO2 (~1,500 ppm) led to a statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase in LMA in four out of 6 species and exposure to high CO2 and low O2 (~13%) led to a statistically significant (p < 0.001) increase in LMA in all six species. These findings suggest that atmospheric composition has a highly significant impact on LMA. If this is also the case in fossil floras, then this suggests that atmospheric composition may influence leaf preservation potential in the fossil record. Based on these results, we put forward the hypothesis that atmospheric composition is an important taphonomic filter of the fossil leaf record. Further research is now required to test the significance of atmospheric composition versus other well-known taphonomic filters.

  16. Mass spectrometers for studying the ionic and neutral composition of the upper layers of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutov, M. D.

    1984-04-01

    The investigation of the ionic and neutral composition of the upper layers of the atmosphere and outer space which is of interest for solving theoretical and applied problems of astrophysics, geophysics, space biology, and other closely-tied areas of science is discussed. The upper layers of the atmosphere are of practical significance for launching rockets and artificial satellites, for which the nature of movement depends on the structure and composition of the atmosphere. The study of the chemical composition of the ionosphere, the degree of ionization of the upper layers of the atmosphere at different latitudes and different times of day, and the dependence of ionization on the action of ultraviolet and corpuscular radiation is necessary to study the processes of the propagation of radio waves, and to explain the chemical and photochemical reaction which cause the ionosphere to exist. The most modern methods of study the composition of the mass spectral method which is a direct method and is especially valuable at great altitudes to study the composition of the upper atmosphere is considered. The mass spectrometric method is the only one to analyze the composition of ionizing gases.

  17. Martian atmospheric photochemistry and composition during periods of low obliquity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, B. L.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    During periods of low obliquity, previous work has shown that martian CO2 partial pressures decreased to 0.1 mbar; CO2 partial pressures decreased to 0.02 mbar prior to the formation of the Tharsis bulge. The permanent polar caps act as a cold trap and projected global average water vapor abundances drop to possibly as low as 0.00001 precipitable micron. As a result, the odd hydrogen catalytic cycle would not be effective at recombining CO and O back into CO2, and as much as 0.12 mbar of CO and 0.06 mbar of O2 could exist. These increased abundances would radically affect surface oxidation, change the lower atmospheric thermal structure, and completely alter the upper atmosphere.

  18. Seasonal Variations in Triton's Atmospheric Mass and Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Condensed phases of gases which make up the bulk of Triton's atmosphere are likely to exist on Triton's surface in the form of solid or liquid polar caps which extend as far as 55 deg from the poles. The mass of Triton's atmosphere is governed by the energy balance between the sunlight these caps absorb and the heat they radiate to space. The polar cap temperatures should be approximately equal and uniform over their surfaces. Because of the rapid precession of Triton's orbit about Neptune's pole, the insolation and, therefore, the temperature of the polar caps must vary in a complex fashion. The variations in the temperature of the polar caps will also cause seasonal variations in the mixing ratio of the volatile atmospheric gases owing to the different behaviors of their saturation vapor pressures with temperature. Triton's visible hemisphere is approaching a major southern summer with solstices. If the polar caps are not too thin a dramatic increase in the CH4 column abundance would occur.

  19. Venus lower atmospheric composition: analysis by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Oyama, V I; Carle, G C; Woeller, F; Pollack, J B

    1979-02-23

    The first gas chromatographic analysis of the lower atmosphere of Venus is reported. Three atmospheric samples were analyzed. The third of these samples showed carbon dioxide (96.4 percent), molecular nitrogen (3.41 percent), water vapor (0.135 percent), molecular oxygen [69.3 parts per million (ppm)], argon (18.6 ppm), neon (4.31 ppm), and sulfuir dioxide (186 ppm). The amounts of water vapor and sulfur dioxide detected are roughly compatible with the requirements of greenhouse models of the high surface temperature of Venus. The large positive gradient of sulfur dioxide, molecular oxygen, and water vapor from the clould tops to their bottoms, as implied by Earth-based observations and these resuilts, gives added support for the presence of major quantities of aqueous sulfuric acid in the clouds. A comparison of the inventory of inert gases found in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars suggests that these components are due to outgassing from the planetary interiors.

  20. Venus lower atmospheric composition: analysis by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Oyama, V I; Carle, G C; Woeller, F; Pollack, J B

    1979-02-23

    The first gas chromatographic analysis of the lower atmosphere of Venus is reported. Three atmospheric samples were analyzed. The third of these samples showed carbon dioxide (96.4 percent), molecular nitrogen (3.41 percent), water vapor (0.135 percent), molecular oxygen [69.3 parts per million (ppm)], argon (18.6 ppm), neon (4.31 ppm), and sulfuir dioxide (186 ppm). The amounts of water vapor and sulfur dioxide detected are roughly compatible with the requirements of greenhouse models of the high surface temperature of Venus. The large positive gradient of sulfur dioxide, molecular oxygen, and water vapor from the clould tops to their bottoms, as implied by Earth-based observations and these resuilts, gives added support for the presence of major quantities of aqueous sulfuric acid in the clouds. A comparison of the inventory of inert gases found in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars suggests that these components are due to outgassing from the planetary interiors. PMID:17833004

  1. Dynamical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols over IG region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manish; Singh, Ramesh P.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-05-01

    The dynamical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic (IG) region are primarily dependent on the geographical settings and meteorological conditions. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out over three different cities i.e. Kanpur, Greater Noida and Amritsar during 2010-2013. Level-3 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) terra daily global grid product with spatial resolution of 1° × 1° shows the mean AOD at 500 nm wavelength value of 0.73, 0.70 and 0.67 with the standard deviation of 0.43, 0.39 and 0.36 respectively over Amritsar, Greater Noida and Kanpur. Our detailed analysis shows characteristic behavior of aerosols from west to east in the IG region depending upon the proximity of desert regions of Arabia. We have observed large influx of dusts from the Thar desert and Arabia peninsula during pre-monsoon season (April-June), highly affecting Amritsar which is close to the desert region.

  2. COMPOSITIONAL DIVERSITY IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF HOT NEPTUNES, WITH APPLICATION TO GJ 436b

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, J. I.; Line, M. R.; Visscher, C.; Richardson, M. R.; Nettelmann, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Barman, T. S.; Stevenson, K. B.; Madhusudhan, N.

    2013-11-01

    Neptune-sized extrasolar planets that orbit relatively close to their host stars—often called {sup h}ot Neptunes{sup —}are common within the known population of exoplanets and planetary candidates. Similar to our own Uranus and Neptune, inefficient accretion of nebular gas is expected produce hot Neptunes whose masses are dominated by elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. At high atmospheric metallicities of 10-10,000 times solar, hot Neptunes will exhibit an interesting continuum of atmospheric compositions, ranging from more Neptune-like, H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres to more Venus-like, CO{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres. We explore the predicted equilibrium and disequilibrium chemistry of generic hot Neptunes and find that the atmospheric composition varies strongly as a function of temperature and bulk atmospheric properties such as metallicity and the C/O ratio. Relatively exotic H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, and even O{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres are possible for hot Neptunes. We apply our models to the case of GJ 436b, where we find that a CO-rich, CH{sub 4}-poor atmosphere can be a natural consequence of a very high atmospheric metallicity. From comparisons of our results with Spitzer eclipse data for GJ 436b, we conclude that although the spectral fit from the high-metallicity forward models is not quite as good as the best fit obtained from pure retrieval methods, the atmospheric composition predicted by these forward models is more physically and chemically plausible in terms of the relative abundance of major constituents. High-metallicity atmospheres (orders of magnitude in excess of solar) should therefore be considered as a possibility for GJ 436b and other hot Neptunes.

  3. Compositional Diversity in the Atmospheres of Hot Neptunes, with Application to GJ 436b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, J. I.; Line, M. R.; Visscher, C.; Richardson, M. R.; Nettelmann, N.; Fortney, J. J.; Barman, T. S.; Stevenson, K. B.; Madhusudhan, N.

    2013-11-01

    Neptune-sized extrasolar planets that orbit relatively close to their host stars—often called "hot Neptunes"—are common within the known population of exoplanets and planetary candidates. Similar to our own Uranus and Neptune, inefficient accretion of nebular gas is expected produce hot Neptunes whose masses are dominated by elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. At high atmospheric metallicities of 10-10,000 times solar, hot Neptunes will exhibit an interesting continuum of atmospheric compositions, ranging from more Neptune-like, H2-dominated atmospheres to more Venus-like, CO2-dominated atmospheres. We explore the predicted equilibrium and disequilibrium chemistry of generic hot Neptunes and find that the atmospheric composition varies strongly as a function of temperature and bulk atmospheric properties such as metallicity and the C/O ratio. Relatively exotic H2O, CO, CO2, and even O2-dominated atmospheres are possible for hot Neptunes. We apply our models to the case of GJ 436b, where we find that a CO-rich, CH4-poor atmosphere can be a natural consequence of a very high atmospheric metallicity. From comparisons of our results with Spitzer eclipse data for GJ 436b, we conclude that although the spectral fit from the high-metallicity forward models is not quite as good as the best fit obtained from pure retrieval methods, the atmospheric composition predicted by these forward models is more physically and chemically plausible in terms of the relative abundance of major constituents. High-metallicity atmospheres (orders of magnitude in excess of solar) should therefore be considered as a possibility for GJ 436b and other hot Neptunes.

  4. Dynamics and Predictability of Deep Propagating Atmospheric Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, J.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, R.; Eckermann, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    An overview will be provided of the first field campaign that attempts to follow deeply propagating gravity waves (GWs) from their tropospheric sources to their mesospheric breakdown. The DEEP propagating gravity WAVE experiment over New Zealand (DEEPWAVE-NZ) is a comprehensive, airborne and ground-based measurement and modeling program focused on providing a new understanding of GW dynamics and impacts from the troposphere through the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). This program will employ the new NSF/NCAR GV (NGV) research aircraft from a base in New Zealand in a 6-week field measurement campaign in June-July 2014. The NGV will be equipped with new lidar and airglow instruments for the DEEPWAVE measurement program, providing temperatures and vertical winds spanning altitudes from immediately above the NGV flight altitude (~13 km) to ~100 km. The region near New Zealand is chosen since all the relevant GW sources occur strongly here, and upper-level winds in austral winter permit GWs to propagate to very high altitudes. Given large-amplitude GWs that propagate routinely into the MLT, the New Zealand region offers an ideal natural laboratory for studying these important GW dynamics and effects impacting weather and climate over a much deeper atmospheric layer than previous campaigns have attempted (0-100 km altitude). The logistics of making measurements in the vicinity of New Zealand are potentially easier than from the Andes and Drake Passage region. A suite of GW-focused modeling and predictability tools will be used to guide NGV flight planning to GW events of greatest scientific significance. These models will also drive scientific interpretation of the GW measurements, together providing answers to the key science questions posed by DEEPWAVE about GW dynamics, morphology, predictability and impacts from 0-100 km. Preliminary results will be presented from high-resolution and adjoint models applied over areas featuring deep wave propagation. The high

  5. Observations and Modeling of Solar Flare Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Solar flares are one of the most energetic events in solar atmosphere, which last minutes to tens of minutes. The eruption of a solar flare involves energy release, plasma heating, particle acceleration, mass flows, waves, etc. A solar flare releases a large amount of energy, and its emission spans a wide wavelength range. Solar flares are usually accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs); therefore they could significantly affect the space environments between the Earth and the Sun. At present, we do not fully understand the whole flare process. There are still many important questions to be resolved, such as when and where is the energy released? How long does the energy release last? What are the main ways of energy release? And how does the solar atmosphere respond to the energy release? To address these questions, we study in detail the flare heating and dynamic evolution. We first give a brief review of previous flare studies (Chapter 1), and introduce the observing instruments (Chapter 2) and the modeling method (Chapter 3) related to this thesis work. Then we use spectral data to investigate the chromospheric evaporation (Chapter 4). Based on the results, we further explore the flare heating problem. With observationally inferred heating functions, we model two flare loops, and compare the results with observations (Chapter 5). A consistency is achieved between modeling and observations. In addition, we model two different sets of flare loop systems with quite different heating profiles and dynamic evolutions (Chapter 6). The details are described as below. Firstly, we investigate the chromospheric evaporation in the flare on 2007 January 16 using line profiles observed by the Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode. Three points with different magnetic polarities at flare ribbons are analyzed in detail. We find that the three points show different patterns of upflows and downflows in the impulsive phase of the flare. The

  6. Transport composite fuselage technology: Impact dynamics and acoustic transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. C.; Balena, F. J.; Labarge, W. L.; Pei, G.; Pitman, W. A.; Wittlin, G.

    1986-01-01

    A program was performed to develop and demonstrate the impact dynamics and acoustic transmission technology for a composite fuselage which meets the design requirements of a 1990 large transport aircraft without substantial weight and cost penalties. The program developed the analytical methodology for the prediction of acoustic transmission behavior of advanced composite stiffened shell structures. The methodology predicted that the interior noise level in a composite fuselage due to turbulent boundary layer will be less than in a comparable aluminum fuselage. The verification of these analyses will be performed by NASA Langley Research Center using a composite fuselage shell fabricated by filament winding. The program also developed analytical methodology for the prediction of the impact dynamics behavior of lower fuselage structure constructed with composite materials. Development tests were performed to demonstrate that the composite structure designed to the same operating load requirement can have at least the same energy absorption capability as aluminum structure.

  7. Atmospheric structure and dynamics as the cause of ultraviolet markings in the clouds of Venus.

    PubMed

    Titov, Dmitry V; Taylor, Fredric W; Svedhem, Håkan; Ignatiev, Nikolay I; Markiewicz, Wojciech J; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

    2008-12-01

    When seen in ultraviolet light, Venus has contrast features that arise from the non-uniform distribution of unknown absorbers within the sulphuric acid clouds and seem to trace dynamical activity in the middle atmosphere. It has long been unclear whether the global pattern arises from differences in cloud top altitude (which was earlier estimated to be 66-72 km), compositional variations or temperature contrasts. Here we report multi-wavelength imaging that reveals that the dark low latitudes are dominated by convective mixing which brings the ultraviolet absorbers up from depth. The bright and uniform mid-latitude clouds reside in the 'cold collar', an annulus of cold air characterized by approximately 30 K lower temperatures with a positive lapse rate, which suppresses vertical mixing and cuts off the supply of ultraviolet absorbers from below. In low and middle latitudes, the visible cloud top is located at a remarkably constant altitude of 72 +/- 1 km in both the ultraviolet dark and bright regions, indicating that the brightness variations result from compositional differences caused by the colder environment rather than by elevation changes. The cloud top descends to approximately 64 km in the eye of the hemispheric vortex, which appears as a depression in the upper cloud deck. The ultraviolet dark circular streaks enclose the vortex eye and are dynamically connected to it.

  8. The dynamic atmospheres of red giant stars. Spectral synthesis in high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotny, W.

    2005-11-01

    Light is the only source of information we have to study distant stars. Our knowledge about the state of the matter inside stars has been gathered by analysing star light (photometry, spectroscopy, interferometry, polarimetry, etc.). Of central importance in this context are stellar atmospheres, which are the transition regions from the optically thick stellar interiors where the electromagnetic radiation is generated to the optically thin outer layers from where the photons can leave the star. However, the atmosphere of a star is not only the region where most of the observable radiation is emitted or in other words the layers which are "visible from outside". The atmosphere also leaves an imprint on the stellar spectrum as the radiation passes through, most of the line spectrum is formed there. Thus, the light serves as a probe for the physical processes within stellar atmospheres, especially spectroscopy is one of the major tools in stellar astrophysics. Applying the underlying physical principles in numerical simulations (model atmospheres, synthetic spectra) is the second -- complementary and necessary -- step towards a deeper understanding of stellar atmospheres and for deriving stellar parameters (e.g. T_eff, L, log g, chemical composition) of observed objects. This thesis is dedicated to the outer layers of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, which have rather remarkable properties compared to atmospheres of most other types of stars. AGB stars represent low- to intermediate mass stars at a late stage of their evolution. Forming a sub-group among all red giants, they exhibit large extensions, low effective temperatures and high luminosities. The evolutionary phase of the AGB -- complex but decisive for stellar evolution -- is characterised by several important phenomena as for example nucleo-synthesis in explosively burning shells (thermal pulses), convective processes (dredge up), large-amplitude pulsations with long periods or a pronounced mass loss. Red

  9. Dynamic Delamination Buckling In Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Chamis, Christos C.; Aiello, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Procedure for mathematical modeling of dynamic delamination buckling and propagation of delamination, with plate bending elements and multipoint constraints, developed and incorporated into finite-element computer program. Predicts time at which delamination buckling occurs, shape of dynamic-buckling mode, and strain-energy-release rate due to extension of delamination crack. Method extended to handle such other defects as transply and edge cracks.

  10. Isothermal evaporation of ethanol in a dynamic gas atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Milev, Adriyan S; Wilson, Michael A; Kannangara, G S Kamali; Feng, Hai; Newman, Phillip A

    2012-01-12

    Optimization of evaporation and pyrolysis conditions for ethanol are important in carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis. The activation enthalpy (ΔH(‡)), the activation entropy (ΔS(‡)), and the free energy barrier (ΔG(‡)) to evaporation have been determined by measuring the molar coefficient of evaporation, k(evap), at nine different temperatures (30-70 °C) and four gas flow rates (25-200 mL/min) using nitrogen and argon as carrier gases. At 70 °C in argon, the effect of the gas flow rate on k(evap) and ΔG(‡) is small. However, this is not true at temperatures as low as 30 °C, where the increase of the gas flow rate from 25 to 200 mL/min results in a nearly 6 times increase of k(evap) and decrease of ΔG(‡) by ~5 kJ/mol. Therefore, at 30 °C, the effect of the gas flow rate on the ethanol evaporation rate is attributed to interactions of ethanol with argon molecules. This is supported by simultaneous infrared spectroscopic analysis of the evolved vapors, which demonstrates the presence of different amounts of linear and cyclic hydrogen bonded ethanol aggregates. While the amount of these aggregates at 30 °C depends upon the gas flow rate, no such dependence was observed during evaporation at 70 °C. When the evaporation was carried out in nitrogen, ΔG(‡) was almost independent of the evaporation temperature (30-70 °C) and the gas flow rate (25-200 mL/min). Thus the evaporation of ethanol in a dynamic gas atmosphere at different temperatures may go via different mechanisms depending on the nature of the carrier gas.

  11. Sequential composition of dynamically dexterous robot behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Burridge, R.R.; Rizzi, A.A.; Koditschek, D.E.

    1999-06-01

    The authors report on efforts to develop a sequential robot controller-composition technique in the context of dexterous batting maneuvers. A robot with a flat paddle is required to strike repeatedly at a thrown ball until the ball is brought to rest on the paddle at a specified location. The robot`s reachable workspace is blocked by an obstacle that disconnects the free space formed when the ball and paddle remain in contact, forcing the machine to let go for a time to bring the ball to the desired state. The controller compositions the authors create guarantee that a ball introduced in the safe workspace remains there and is ultimately brought to the goal. They report on experimental results from an implementation of these formal composition methods, and present descriptive statistics characterizing the experiments.

  12. Atmospheric composition change research: Time to go post-normal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães Pereira, Ângela; Raes, Frank; De Sousa Pedrosa, Tiago; Rosa, Paulo; Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Ferreira, Francisco; Querol, Xavier; Rea, John

    For more than two decades a number of frameworks for scientific knowledge production are being proposed by science and technology researchers. They all advocate an extended involvement of non-specialists, in particular when it comes to knowledge production applicable to practical societal problems. We look to what extent these new frameworks have taken ground within a particular research community: the ACCENT Network of Excellence which coordinates European atmospheric chemistry and physics research applicable to air pollution and climate change. We did so by stimulating a debate through a "blog", a survey and in-depth interviews with ACCENT scientists about the interaction between science, policy making and civil society, to which a great deal of ACCENT member contributed in writing or verbally. Most of them had interactions with policy makers and/or the general public, and they generally believe that interactions with spheres other than the scientific are needed. While such interactions give personal insight and satisfaction, they seem to have little impact on the goals and the practice of the scientific work itself. Extended frameworks of science production that go beyond the disciplinary mode seem to emerge at the level of individual scientists, yet they still need to find their way to the level of scientific project management. In this paper we discuss the justifications and barriers to implement a higher degree of extended knowledge integration in applied science projects such as ACCENT. It is felt that the community of atmospheric chemists and physicists is mature for such an implementation and recommendations are given to help and make this happen.

  13. Radiolytic Model for Chemical Composition of Europa's Atmosphere and Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2004-01-01

    The overall objective of the present effort is to produce models for major and selected minor components of Europa s neutral atmosphere in 1-D versus altitude and in 2-D versus altitude and longitude or latitude. A 3-D model versus all three coordinates (alt, long, lat) will be studied but development on this is at present limited by computing facilities available to the investigation team. In this first year we have focused on 1-D modeling with Co-I Valery Shematovich s Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code for water group species (H2O, O2, O, OH) and on 2-D with Co-I Mau Wong's version of a similar code for O2, O, CO, CO2, and Na. Surface source rates of H2O and O2 from sputtering and radiolysis are used in the 1-D model, while observations for CO2 at the Europa surface and Na detected in a neutral cloud ejected from Europa are used, along with the O2 sputtering rate, to constrain source rates in the 2-D version. With these separate approaches we are investigating a range of processes important to eventual implementation of a comprehensive 3-D atmospheric model which could be used to understand present observations and develop science requirements for future observations, e.g. from Earth and in Europa orbit. Within the second year we expect to merge the full water group calculations into the 2-D version of the DSMC code which can then be extended to 3-D, pending availability of computing resources. Another important goal in the second year would be the inclusion of sulk and its more volatile oxides (SO, SO2).

  14. Understanding the formation and composition of hazes in planetary atmospheres that contain carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörst, S. M.; Yoon, Y. H.; Hicks, R. K.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    Measurements from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) have revealed the presence of molecules in Titan's ionosphere with masses in excess of hundreds of amu. Negative ions with mass/charge (m/z) up to 10,000 amu/q [1] and positive ions with m/z up to 400 amu/q [2] have been detected. CAPS has also observed O+ flowing into Titan's upper atmosphere [3], which appears to originate from Enceladus and is likely the source of oxygen bearing molecules in Titan's atmosphere [4]. The observed O+ is deposited in the region now known to contain large organic molecules. A recent Titan atmosphere simulation experiment has shown that incorporation of oxygen into Titan aerosol analogues results in the formation of all five nucleotide bases and the two smallest amino acids, glycine and alanine [5]. Similar chemical processes may have occurred in the atmosphere of the early Earth, or in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets; atmospheric aerosols may be an important source of the building blocks of life. Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in determining the radiation budget of an atmosphere and can also provide a wealth of organic material to the surface. The presence of atmospheric aerosols has been invoked to explain the relatively featureless spectrum of HD 189773b, including the lack of predicted atmospheric Na and K spectral lines [9]. The majority of the O+ precipitating into Titan's atmosphere forms CO (O(3P)+CH3 -> CO+H2+H) [4]. CO has also been detected in the atmospheres of a number of exoplanets including HD 189733b, HD 209458b, and WASP-12b [6-8]. It is therefore important to understand the role CO plays in the formation and composition of hazes in planetary atmospheres. Using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) (see e.g. [10]) we have obtained in situ composition measurements of aerosol particles (so-called "tholins") produced in N2/CH4/CO gas mixtures subjected to either FUV radiation (deuterium lamp, 115-400 nm) or a

  15. The effect of fuel composition on flame dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Adam G.; Vandsburger, Uri

    2007-10-15

    As fuel sources diversify, the gas turbine industry is under increasing pressure to develop fuel-flexible plants, able to use fuels with a variety of compositions from a large range of sources. However, the dynamic characteristics vary considerably with composition, in many cases altering the thermoacoustic stability of the combustor. We compare the flame dynamics, or the response in heat release rate of the flame to acoustic perturbations, of the three major constituents of natural gas: methane, ethane, and propane. The heat release rate is quantified using OH* chemiluminescence and product gas temperature. Gas temperature is measured by tracking the absorption of two high-temperature water lines, via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. The flame dynamics of the three fuels differ significantly. The changes in flame dynamics due to variations in fuel composition have the potential to have a large effect on the thermoacoustic stability of the combustor. (author)

  16. The long-term carbon cycle, fossil fuels and atmospheric composition.

    PubMed

    Berner, Robert A

    2003-11-20

    The long-term carbon cycle operates over millions of years and involves the exchange of carbon between rocks and the Earth's surface. There are many complex feedback pathways between carbon burial, nutrient cycling, atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen, and climate. New calculations of carbon fluxes during the Phanerozoic eon (the past 550 million years) illustrate how the long-term carbon cycle has affected the burial of organic matter and fossil-fuel formation, as well as the evolution of atmospheric composition.

  17. Subarctic atmospheric aerosol composition: 1. Ambient aerosol characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Beth; Herich, Hanna; Kammermann, Lukas; Gross, Deborah S.; Ameth, Almut; Holst, Thomas; Lohmann, U.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2009-07-10

    Sub-Arctic aerosol was sampled during July 2007 at the Abisko Research Station Stordalen field site operated by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Located in northern Sweden at 68º latitude and 385 meters above sea level (msl), this site is classified as a semi-continuous permafrost mire. Number density, size distribution, cloud condensation nucleus properties, and chemical composition of the ambient aerosol were determined. Backtrajectories showed that three distinct airmasses were present over Stordalen during the sampling period. Aerosol properties changed and correlated with airmass origin to the south, northeast, or west. We observe that Arctic aerosol is not compositionally unlike that found in the free troposphere at mid-latitudes. Internal mixtures of sulfates and organics, many on insoluble biomass burning and/or elemental carbon cores, dominate the number density of particles from ~200 to 2000 nm aerodynamic diameter. Mineral dust which had taken up gas phase species was observed in all airmasses. Sea salt, and the extent to which it had lost volatile components, was the aerosol type that most varied with airmass.

  18. Dynamics of elastic nonlinear rotating composite beams with embedded actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorashi, Mehrdaad

    2009-08-01

    A comprehensive study of the nonlinear dynamics of composite beams is presented. The study consists of static and dynamic solutions with and without active elements. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Numerical solutions for the steady state and transient responses have been obtained. It is shown that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. The effect of perturbing the steady state solution has also been calculated and the results are shown to be compatible with those of the accelerating beam analysis. Next, the coupled flap-lag rigid body dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and subjected to aerodynamic forces is formulated. The solution to this rigid-body problem is then used, together with the finite difference method, in order to produce the nonlinear elasto-dynamic solution of an accelerating articulated beam. Next, the static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded Anisotropic Piezo-composite Actuators (APA) are presented. The effect of activating actuators at various directions on the steady state force and moments generated in a rotating composite beam has been presented. With similar results for the transient response, this analysis can be used in controlling the response of adaptive rotating beams.

  19. Thermo-dynamic characteristics of NITINOL-reinforced composite beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baz, A.; Ro, J.

    The fundamental principles governing the operation of NITINOL-reinforced composite beams are investigated by determining the individual contributions of the composite matrix, the NITINOL fibers, and the shape memory effect to the overall dynamic performance of the beams. The effect of the temperature distribution inside the composite, which results from the activation of a small subset of the NITINOL fibers, on the overall performance of the entire beam was investigated theoretically and experimentally. Particular attention was given to the effects of intentional electrical heating of a selected subset of NITINOL fibers, and the associated thermal energy propagating through the composite, on the unintentional thermal activation of additional subsets of the fibers.

  20. Investigation of the small-scale structure and dynamics of Uranus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, Von R.; Hinson, David P.

    1991-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report of the Uranus Analysis Program. Papers and/or abstracts resulting from this research are presented. The following topics are covered: (1) past and future of radio occultation studies of planetary atmospheres; (2) equatorial waves in the stratosphere of Uranus; (3) the atmosphere of Uranus- results of radio occultation measurements with Voyager 2; (4) Uranus' atmospheric dynamics and circulation; (5) small-scale structure and dynamics in the atmosphere of Uranus; (6) evidence for inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere of Uranus derived from Voyager 2 radio occultation data; and (7) planetary waves in the equatorial stratosphere of Uranus.

  1. Integration of ice core, marine and terrestrial records: new insights into Holocene atmospheric circulation dynamics over NW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muschitiello, F.; Hammarlund, D.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed the oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope composition of lacustrine carbonates (Chara sp. and Bithynia tentaculata) from a lake sediment sequence (Lake Bjärsträsk) on the island of Gotland, southern Sweden. Our new isotopic records show a significant consistency with existing regional climatic reconstructions, as well as with paleorecords reflecting large-scale circulation dynamics. By comparing our data to ice core records from Greenland and to regional- and global-scale terrestrial and marine climate records, we explore potential couplings of Mid- and Late Holocene extreme summer climate conditions in northwestern Europe to orbital forcing and low-latitude atmospheric circulation dynamics. Specifically, we discuss the relationship between long-term changes in the position of the North Atlantic subtropical front and the frequency of summer blocking anticyclones over southern Sweden. Furthermore, we tentatively outline the spatial structure of predominant modes of atmospheric variability over the North Atlantic sector throughout the Holocene.

  2. Effect of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment condition on adhesion of ramie fibers to polypropylene for composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Manolache, Sorin; Qiu, Yiping; Sarmadi, Majid

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the interfacial adhesion between hydrophilic ramie fibers and hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) matrices, ramie fibers are modified by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with our continuous ethanol flow technique in helium environment. A central composite design of experiments with different plasma processing parameter combinations (treatment current, treatment time and ethanol flow rate) is applied to find the most influential parameter and to obtain the best modification effect. Field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows the roughened surfaces of ramie fibers from the treated groups due to plasma etching effect. Dynamic contact angle analysis (DCAA) demonstrates that the wettability of the treated fibers drastically decreases. Microbond pullout test shows that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between treated ramie fibers and PP matrices increases significantly. Residual gas analysis (RGA) confirms the creation of ethyl groups during plasma treatment. This study shows that our continuous ethanol flow technique is effective in the plasma modification process, during which the ethanol flow rate is the most influential parameter but all parameters have simultaneous influence on plasma modification effect of ramie fibers.

  3. Dynamic tests of composite panels of an aircraft wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splichal, Jan; Pistek, Antonin; Hlinka, Jiri

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes the analysis of aerospace composite structures under dynamic loading. Today, it is common to use design procedures based on assumption of static loading only, and dynamic loading is rarely assumed and applied in design and certification of aerospace structures. The paper describes the application of dynamic loading for the design of aircraft structures, and the validation of the procedure on a selected structure. The goal is to verify the possibility of reducing the weight through improved design/modelling processes using dynamic loading instead of static loading. The research activity focuses on the modelling and testing of a composite panel representing a local segment of an aircraft wing section, investigating in particular the buckling behavior under dynamic loading. Finite Elements simulation tools are discussed, as well as the advantages of using a digital optical measurement system for the evaluation of the tests. The comparison of the finite element simulations with the results of the tests is presented.

  4. Dynamics of atmospheric-methane oxidation in glacier-forefield soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiri, Eleonora; Nauer, Philipp A.; Rainer, Edda-Marie; Henneberger, Ruth; Zeyer, Josef; Schroth, Martin H.

    2015-04-01

    Mature upland soils are currently considered the sole terrestrial sink for atmospheric methane (CH4). But little is known about CH4 dynamics in young, developing soil ecosystems such as glacier forefields formed by progressive glacial retreat. Glacier forefields are situated on diverse bedrock types, exhibit a continuum of soil age (chronosequence), and are comprised of various geomorphological landforms, which may differ in physicochemical properties. These features may affect activity and community structure of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) catalyzing atmospheric CH4 oxidation. Moreover, MOB activity and community structure may be affected by environmental parameters subject to seasonal variability such as soil temperature, water content, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to assess spatial and seasonal variability in atmospheric CH4 oxidation in glacier-forefield soils derived from siliceous and calcareous bedrock. Specifically, we quantified soil-atmosphere CH4 flux and CH4 oxidation activity using the soil-gas-profile method and static flux chambers in soils of different age and belonging to different landforms. In these soils MOB abundance and variation in community structure were assessed by targeting the functional gene pmoA using quantitative PCR, TRFLP-based cluster analysis, and high-throughput DNA-sequencing technology. Seasonal variability in atmospheric CH4 oxidation was assessed based on the same attributes measured with high temporal resolution throughout one snow-free season. Most glacier-forefield soils acted as a sink for atmospheric CH4 regardless of bedrock type, and CH4 flux (-0.082 to -2.2 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) and MOB abundance (2.4×103 to 5.5×105 pmoA genecopies (g soil w.w.)-1) increased significantly with soil age. Cluster analysis revealed variations in MOB community composition related to bedrock type rather than soil age, suggesting that distinct MOB communities provided a similar ecosystem service in soils on

  5. Energy balance and plume dynamics in Triton's lower atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Yelle, R.V.; Lunine, J.I.; Hunten, D.M. )

    1991-02-01

    The present study of the thermal balance-affecting relationships among Triton lower atmosphere thermal conduction, eddy mixing, condensation, and radiative heating indicates that, while the temperature gradient is negative in the lower atmosphere, it becomes positive at higher altitudes due to the downward conduction of ionospheric heat. This temperature profile is essentially consistent with radio-occultation experiment data; the geyser-like plumes observed by Voyager suggest that the Trioton atmosphere's convective and conductive regions join near 10-km altitude, and that the values inferred for the eddy diffusion and heat-transport coefficients indicate a profile reminiscent of the earth's. 28 refs.

  6. Energy balance and plume dynamics in Triton's lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yelle, Roger V.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Hunten, Donald M.

    1991-01-01

    The present study of the thermal balance-affecting relationships among Triton lower atmosphere thermal conduction, eddy mixing, condensation, and radiative heating indicates that, while the temperature gradient is negative in the lower atmosphere, it becomes positive at higher altitudes due to the downward conduction of ionospheric heat. This temperature profile is essentially consistent with radio-occultation experiment data; the geyser-like plumes observed by Voyager suggest that the Trioton atmosphere's convective and conductive regions join near 10-km altitude, and that the values inferred for the eddy diffusion and heat-transport coefficients indicate a profile reminiscent of the earth's.

  7. Crossed molecular beam studies of atmospheric chemical reaction dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingsong

    1993-04-01

    The dynamics of several elementary chemical reactions that are important in atmospheric chemistry are investigated. The reactive scattering of ground state chlorine or bromine atoms with ozone molecules and ground state chlorine atoms with nitrogen dioxide molecules is studied using a crossed molecular beams apparatus with a rotatable mass spectrometer detector. The Cl + O{sub 3} {yields} ClO + O{sub 2} reaction has been studied at four collision energies ranging from 6 kcal/mole to 32 kcal/mole. The derived product center-of-mass angular and translational energy distributions show that the reaction has a direct reaction mechanism and that there is a strong repulsion on the exit channel. The ClO product is sideways and forward scattered with respect to the Cl atom, and the translational energy release is large. The Cl atom is most likely to attack the terminal oxygen atom of the ozone molecule. The Br + O{sub 3} {yields} ClO + O{sub 2} reaction has been studied at five collision energies ranging from 5 kcal/mole to 26 kcal/mole. The derived product center-of-mass angular and translational energy distributions are quite similar to those in the Cl + O{sub 3} reaction. The Br + O{sub 3} reaction has a direct reaction mechanism similar to that of the Cl + O{sub 3} reaction. The electronic structure of the ozone molecule seems to play the central role in determining the reaction mechanism in atomic radical reactions with the ozone molecule. The Cl + NO{sub 2} {yields} ClO + NO reaction has been studied at three collision energies ranging from 10.6 kcal/mole to 22.4 kcal/mole. The center-of-mass angular distribution has some forward-backward symmetry, and the product translational energy release is quite large. The reaction proceeds through a short-lived complex whose lifetime is less than one rotational period. The experimental results seem to show that the Cl atom mainly attacks the oxygen atom instead of the nitrogen atom of the NO{sub 2} molecule.

  8. Simulation of the impact of thunderstorm activity on atmospheric gas composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyshlyaev, S. P.; Mareev, E. A.; Galin, V. Ya.

    2010-08-01

    A chemistry-climate model of the lower and middle atmosphere has been used to estimate the sensitivity of the atmospheric gas composition to the rate of thunderstorm production of nitrogen oxides at upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric altitudes. The impact that nitrogen oxides produced by lightning have on the atmospheric gas composition is treated as a subgrid-scale process and included in the model parametrically. The natural uncertainty in the global production rate of nitrogen oxides in lightning flashes was specified within limits from 2 to 20 Tg N/year. Results of the model experiments have shown that, due to the variability of thunderstorm-produced nitrogen oxides, their concentration in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere can vary by a factor of 2 or 3, which, given the influence of nitrogen oxides on ozone and other gases, creates the potential for a strong perturbation of the atmospheric gas composition and thermal regime. Model calculations have shown the strong sensitivity of ozone and the OH hydroxyl to the amount of lightning nitrogen oxides at different atmospheric altitudes. These calculations demonstrate the importance of nitrogen oxides of thunderstorm origin for the balance of atmospheric odd ozone and gases linked to it, such as ozone and hydroxyl radicals. Our results demonstrate that one important task is to raise the accuracy of estimates of the rate of nitrogen oxide production by lightning discharges and to use physical parametrizations that take into account the local lightning effects and feedbacks arising in this case rather than climatological data in models of the gas composition and general circulation of the atmosphere.

  9. A comparison of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn: deep atmospheric composition, cloud structure, vertical mixing, and origin.

    PubMed

    Atreya, S K; Wong, M H; Owen, T C; Mahaffy, P R; Niemann, H B; de Pater, I; Drossart, P; Encrenaz, T h

    1999-01-01

    We present our current understanding of the composition, vertical mixing, cloud structure and the origin of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Available observations point to a much more vigorous vertical mixing in Saturn's middle-upper atmosphere than in Jupiter's. The nearly cloud-free nature of the Galileo probe entry site, a 5-micron hotspot, is consistent with the depletion of condensable volatiles to great depths, which is attributed to local meteorology. Somewhat similar depletion of water may be present in the 5-micron bright regions of Saturn also. The supersolar abundances of heavy elements, particularly C and S in Jupiter's atmosphere and C in Saturn's, as well as the progressive increase of C from Jupiter to Saturn and beyond, tend to support the icy planetesimal model of the formation of the giant planets and their atmospheres. However, much work remains to be done, especially in the area of laboratory studies, including identification of possible new microwave absorbers, and modelling, in order to resolve the controversy surrounding the large discrepancy between Jupiter's global ammonia abundance, hence the nitrogen elemental ratio, derived from the earth-based microwave observations and that inferred from the analysis of the Galileo probe-orbiter radio attenuation data for the hotspot. We look forward to the observations from Cassini-Huygens spacecraft which are expected to result not only in a rich harvest of information for Saturn, but a better understanding of the formation of the giant planets and their atmospheres when these data are combined with those that exist for Jupiter.

  10. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Aiona, Paige K.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2014-09-02

    Sources, optical properties, and chemical composition of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) aerosol are uncertain, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties of BrC may change significantly during its atmospheric aging. We examined the effect of solar photolysis on the molecular composition, mass absorption coefficient, and fluorescence of secondary organic aerosol prepared by high-NOx photooxidation of naphthalene (NAP SOA). The aqueous solutions of NAP SOA was observed to photobleach with an effective half-time of ~15 hours (with sun in its zenith) for the loss of the near-UV (300 -400 nm) absorbance. The molecular composition of NAP SOA was significantly modified by photolysis, with the average SOA formula changing from C14.1H14.5O5.1N0.08 to C11.8H14.9O4.5N0.02 after 4 hours of irradiation. The average O/C ratio did not change significantly, however, suggesting that it is not a good metric for assessing the extent of photolysis-driven aging in NAP SOA (and in BrC in general). In contrast to NAP SOA, the photolysis of BrC material produced by aqueous reaction of limonene+O3 SOA (LIM/O3 SOA) with ammonium sulfate was much faster, but it did not result in a significant change in the molecular level composition. The characteristic absorbance of the aged LIM/O3 SOA in the 450-600 nm range decayed with an effective half-time of <0.5 hour. This result emphasizes the highly variable and dynamic nature of different types of atmospheric BrC.

  11. Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols between Moscow and Vladivostok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuokka, S.; Teinilä, K.; Saarnio, K.; Aurela, M.; Sillanpää, M.; Hillamo, R.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Vartiainen, E.; Kulmala, M.; Skorokhod, A. I.; Elansky, N. F.; Belikov, I. B.

    2007-05-01

    The TROICA-9 expedition (Trans-Siberian Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) was carried out at the Trans-Siberian railway between Moscow and Vladivostok in October 2005. Measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were made from an observatory carriage connected to a passenger train. Black carbon (BC) concentrations in fine particles (PM2.5, aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm) were measured with an aethalometer using a five-minute time resolution. Concentrations of inorganic ions and some organic compounds (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, oxalate and methane sulphonate) were measured continuously by using an on-line system with a 15-min time resolution. In addition, particle volume size distributions were determined for particles in the diameter range 3-850 nm using a 10-min. time resolution. The continuous measurements were completed with 24-h. PM2.5 filter samples which were stored in a refrigerator and later analyzed in chemical laboratory. The analyses included mass concentrations of PM2.5, ions, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn). The mass concentrations of PM2.5 varied in the range of 4.3-34.8 μg m-3 with an average of 21.6 μg m-3. Fine particle mass consisted mainly of BC (average 27.6%), SO42- (13.0%), NH4+ (4.1%), and NO3- (1.4%). One of the major constituents was obviously also organic carbon which was not determined. The contribution of BC was high compared with other studies made in Europe and Asia. High concentrations of ions, BC and particle volume were observed between Moscow and roughly 4000 km east of it, as well as close to Vladivostok, primarily due to local anthropogenic sources. In the natural background area between 4000 and 7200 km distance from Moscow, observed concentrations were low, even though there were local particle sources, such as forest fires, that increased occasionally concentrations. The

  12. A nonsteady one-dimensional theoretical model of Mars' neutral atmospheric composition between 30 and 200 km

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigo, R.; Garcia-Alvarez, E.; Lopez-Gonzalez, M.J.; Lopez-Moreno, J.J. )

    1990-08-30

    There has been a big advance in the knowledge of the composition of the atmosphere of the planet Mars since its exploration by different missions in the 1970s, and this will be deeply increased in the following years as the upcoming programs to Mars develop. In this context, the authors have elaborated a model of the Mars' neutral atmosphere including the following compounds: O({sup 3}P), O({sup 1}D), O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, H, H{sub 2}, OH, H{sub 2}O, HO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2}, between 30 and 200 km of altitude. The model is carried out for middle latitudes in equinox conditions and with moderate solar activity and provides the day-to-night evolution of the atmosphere. The scarcity of observations corresponding to the nightside of the planet has made it necessary to calculate the atmospheric temperature profile based on the available observations and on theoretical estimations. The model includes a detailed treatment of both the photochemical and the dynamical processes. In this sense, the most recent values of the reaction rates and photodissociation cross sections have been used, and a new height profile of the eddy diffusion coefficient has been computed which is able to explain the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide. The concentration profiles obtained show, in general, a very good agreement with the available experimental measurements.

  13. Martian Chronology and Atmospheric Composition: In Situ Measurements versus Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.

    2008-01-01

    I examine two significant issues of martian science from the point of view of in situ measurements by robotic spacecraft versus sample return and analysis in terrestrial labs. (1) To define martian history, ages of geological processes and surface features are required. Estimated ages from surface crater densities have limitations, and the ages measured for martian meteorites cannot be associated with specific martian locales. Whereas returned martian rocks could be accurately dated, some have suggested sending a robotic spacecraft to Mars to measure rock ages using the classical K- Ar-40 technique, considered the easiest to implement. (2) To understand the evolution of the martian atmosphere and its interactions with the surface, requires precise measurements of atmospheric composition. A significant amount of information has derived from measurements by Viking and of martian meteorites. Instrumentation on the Mars Science Lander (MSL) spacecraft to be launched in the near future promises to determine atmospheric composition even more precisely. If MSL is successful, which questions about atmospheric composition will remain and thus will require atmospheric sample return to answer?

  14. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. I. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS VIA THE SHALLOW WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, Kevin; Workman, Jared E-mail: jworkman@coloradomesa.edu

    2014-08-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  15. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. I. Atmospheric Dynamics via the Shallow Water System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Kevin; Workman, Jared

    2014-08-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  16. Atmospheric aerosols: A literature summary of their physical characteristics and chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains a summary of 199 recent references on the characterization of atmospheric aerosols with respect to their composition, sources, size distribution, and time changes, and with particular reference to the chemical elements measured by modern techniques, especially activation analysis.

  17. Review of the study of nonlinear atmospheric dynamics in China (1999 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Yina; Feng, Guolin; Liu, Shida; Liu, Shikuo; Luo, Dehai; Huang, Sixun; Lu, Weisong; Chou, Jifan

    2004-06-01

    Researches on nonlinear atmospheric dynamics in China (1999 2002) are briefly surveyed. This review includes the major achievements in the following branches of nonlinear dynamics: nonlinear stability theory, nonlinear blocking dynamics, 3D spiral structure in the atmosphere, traveling wave solution of the nonlinear evolution equation, numerical predictability in a chaotic system, and global analysis of climate dynamics. Some applications of nonlinear methods such as hierarchy structure of climate and scaling invariance, the spatial-temporal series predictive method, the nonlinear inverse problem, and a new difference scheme with multi-time levels are also introduced.

  18. Processing and dynamic testing of Al/W granular composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Po-Hsun; Lee, Chien-Wei; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2012-03-01

    High density Al-W granular/porous composites were fabricated using Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIPing) and CIPing with subsequent Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPing) with vacuum encapsulation. All samples had an identical weight ratio of Al and W components but different porosities due to different processing procedures. Their quasistatic and dynamic strength and fracture behavior were investigated at strain rate about 10-3 1/s and 300 1/s, respectively. Sizes of W and Al particles, bonding between Al particles and morphology of W inclusions had a strong effect on dynamic strength and shear instability of the investigated granular composites.

  19. Global climate modeling of Saturn's atmosphere: exploration of seasonal variability and stratospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, A.; Guerlet, S.; Millour, E.; Sylvestre, M.; Fouchet, T.; Wordsworth, R.; Leconte, J.; Forget, F.; Hourdin, F.

    2013-12-01

    A leap forward on our knowledge of Saturn's stratosphere has resulted from the combination of orbital observations on board the Cassini spacecraft and state-of-the-art ground-based observations. Maps of temperature and hydrocarbons in Saturn's stratosphere revealed puzzling anomalies: equatorial oscillations with a period of about half a Saturn year, meridional circulations affecting the hydrocarbons' distribution, including possible effects of rings shadowing, "beacons" associated with the powerful 2010 Great White Spot. Those signatures, reminiscent of fundamental wave-driven phenomena in the Earth's middle atmosphere (e.g., Quasi-Biennal Oscillation, Brewer-Dobson circulation), cannot be reproduced by 1D photochemical and radiative models. This motivated us to develop a complete 3D General Circulation Model (GCM) for Saturn, based on the LMDz hydrodynamical core, to explore the circulation, seasonal variability, and wave activity in Saturn's atmosphere. In order to closely reproduce Saturn's radiative forcing, a particular emphasis was put in obtaining fast and accurate radiative transfer calculations. Our radiative model uses correlated-k distributions and spectral discretization tailored for Saturn's atmospheric composition (methane, ethane, acetylene). In addition to this, we include CIA absorption (hydrogen and helium), internal heat flux, ring shadowing, and aerosols. A systematic study is carried out on the sensitivity of the model to spectral discretization, spectroscopic databases, and aerosol scenarios (varying particle sizes, opacities and vertical structures). Temperature fields obtained with this new radiative equilibrium model are compared to that inferred from Cassini/CIRS observations. In the troposphere, our model reproduces the observed temperature knee caused by heating at the top of the tropospheric aerosol layer. In the lower stratosphere, the overall meridional gradient between the summer and the winter hemispheres agrees with observations

  20. Ion composition and dynamics at comet Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsiger, H.; Altwegg, K.; Buhler, F.; Geiss, J.; Ghielmetti, A. G.; Goldstein, B. E.; Goldstein, R.; Huntress, W. T.; Ip, W.-H.; Lazarus, A. J.; Meier, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Rettenmund, U.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.; Sharp, R. D.; Shelly, E. G.; Ungstrup, E.; Young, D. T.

    1986-05-01

    The ion mass spectrometer aboard the Giotto spacecraft measured the composition and velocity distributions of cometary ions at distances of ≡7.5x106 to ≡1,300 km from the nucleus of comet Halley. Well outside the bow shock, pick-up cometary H+ ions were found. Heavier ions (C+, H2O+-group, CO+ and S+) have been identified at ≤3x105km. Solar-wind He2+ was found throughout the coma to as close as ≡5,000 km; He+ produced by charge exchange was seen inside ≡2x105km. Deeper within the coma the main cometary hot-ion species identified were H+, H2+, C+, O+, OH+, H2O+, H3O+, CO+ and S+.

  1. Dynamic response and noise transmission of discretely stiffened composite panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyrintzis, Constantinos S.; Vaicatis, Rimas

    The surface protection systems of aerospace and aircraft structures are often constructed from discretely stiffened composite panels. This paper presents an analytical study of the dynamic response and structure-borne sound transmission of these structures due to random loading conditions. A generalized transfer matrix procedure is developed to obtain the required dynamic response solution. Modal decomposition is used to predict the interior noise transmission. Numerical results are presented for acousto-structural applications.

  2. Improved ambiguity resolution for URTK with dynamic atmosphere constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Weiming; Liu, Wenjian; Zou, Xuan; Li, Zongnan; Chen, Liang; Deng, Chenlong; Shi, Chuang

    2016-06-01

    Raw observation processing method with prior knowledge of ionospheric delay could strengthen the ambiguity resolution (AR), but it does not make full use of the relatively longer wavelength of wide-lane (WL) observation. Furthermore, the accuracy of calculated atmospheric delays from the regional augmentation information has quite different in quality, while the atmospheric constraint used in the current methods is usually set to an empirical value. A proper constraint, which matches the accuracy of calculated atmospheric delays, can most effectively compensate the residual systematic biases caused by large inter-station distances. Therefore, the standard deviation of the residual atmospheric parameters should be fine-tuned. This paper presents an atmosphere-constrained AR method for undifferenced network RTK (URTK) rover, whose ambiguities are sequentially fixed according to their wavelengths. Furthermore, this research systematically analyzes the residual atmospheric error and finds that it mainly varies along the positional relationship between the rover and the chosen reference stations. More importantly, its ionospheric part of certain location will also be cyclically influenced every day. Therefore, the standard deviation of residual ionospheric error can be modeled by a daily repeated cosine or other functions with the help of data one day before, and applied by rovers as pseudo-observation. With the data collected at 29 stations from a continuously operating reference station network in Guangdong Province (GDCORS) in China, the efficiency of the proposed approach is confirmed by improving the success and error rates of AR for 10-20 % compared to that of the WL-L1-IF one, as well as making much better positioning accuracy.

  3. Comparison of Fully-Compressible Equation Sets for Atmospheric Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the equation for the conservation of energy used in atmospheric models is based on potential temperature and is used in place of the total energy conservation. This paper compares the application of the two equations sets for both the Euler and the Navier-Stokes solutions using several benchmark test cases. A high-resolution wave-propagation method which accurately takes into account the source term due to gravity is used for computing the non-hydrostatic atmospheric flows. It is demonstrated that there is little to no difference between the results obtained using the two different equation sets for Euler as well as Navier-Stokes solutions.

  4. Dynamic gold nanoparticle, polymer-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, Millicent; Junghans, Ann; Hayden, Steven; Majeski, Jaroslaw; CINT, Lujan Team

    2014-03-01

    Artificial polymer-based biomembranes may serve as a foundational architecture for the integration and spatial organization of metal nanoparticles forming functional nanocomposites. Nonionic triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO), lipid-based gels, containing Au nanoparticles (NPs) can be prepared by either external doping of the preformed nanoparticles or by in-situ reduction of Au 3+. Neutron reflectivity on quartz supported thin films of the Au NP -doped polymer-based biomembranes was used to determine the location of the Au. The nanoparticles were found to preferentially reside within the ethylene oxide chains located at the interface of the bulk water channels and the amphiphile bilayers. The embedded Au nanoparticles can act as localized heat sinks, inducing changes in the polymer conformation. The collective, thermally-triggered expansion and contraction of the EO chains modulate the mesophase structure of the gels. Synchrotron X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to monitor mesophase structure as a function of both temperature and photo-irradiation. These studies represent a first step towards designingexternally-responsive polymer-nanoparticle composites.

  5. Doppler lidar studies of atmospheric wind field dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardesty, R. M.; Post, M. J.; Lawrence, T. R.; Hall, F. F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    For the past 5 years the Wave Propagation Lab. has operated a pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar system to evaluate coherent laser radar technology and to investigate applications of the technique in atmospheric research. The capability of the system to provide measurements of atmospheric winds, backscatter, and water vapor has been extensively studied over this period. Because Doppler lidar can measure atmospheric wind structure in the clear air without degradation by terrain features, it offers a unique capability as a research tool for studies of many transient or local scale atmospheric events. This capability was demonstrated in recent field experiments near Boulder, Colo. and Midland, Tex., in which the lidar clearly depicted the wind field structure associated with several types of phenomena, including thunderstorm microbursts, valley drainage flow, and passage of a dryline front. To improve sensitivity during the periods of low aerosol backscatter, the system has recently been upgraded with new transmitter/receiver hardware. The upgraded system, which transmit 2 J per pulse of output energy at a rate of 50 Hz and incorporates computer control for automated operation, underwent calibration testing during the spring of 1986.

  6. The Dynamics and Structure of Titan's Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Titan, after Venus, is the second example in the solar system of an atmosphere with a global cyclostrophic circulation. The origin and maintenance of these superrotating atmospheres is not well understood, but Titan has a strong seasonal modulation in the middle atmosphere, and the seasonal changes in the winds may offer clues. The pole in winter and early spring is characterized by temperatures 20-30 K cooler at 100-170 km than those at low latitudes, and strong circumpolar winds as high as 190 m/s at 200-250 km. At these levels the polar region is characterized by enhanced concentrations of several organic gases, and also detectable condensates. All this suggests that the polar vortex provides a mixing barrier between winter polar and lower-latitude air masses, analogous to the winter polar vortices on Earth. Because the concentrations of organic gases increase with altitude in the middle atmosphere, the observed enhancements suggest subsidence over the winter pole. Consistent with this are the observed temperatures approx.200 K at the winter-polar stratopause (280 km), making it the warmest part of the atmosphere. The warm stratopause likely results from adiabatic heating associated with the subsidence. Recent observations in late northern winter and early spring indicate that the warm anomaly at the winter-polar stratopause is weakening, and the strong zonal winds are weakening. Curiously, the stratospheric zonal winds and temperatures in both hemispheres are symmetric about a pole that is offset from the surface pole by 4 degrees. The cause of this is not well understood, but it may reflect the response of a cyclostrophic circulation to the offset between the equator, where the distance to the rotation axis is greatest, and the seasonally varying subsolar latitude.

  7. Using the Internet to Disseminate Educational Material on Atmospheric Composition Change in ACCENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.

    2005-12-01

    ACCENT (2004-08) is a Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change in Framework Programme VI of the European Union (www.accent-network.org). The task "Training and Education" aims at preparing the next generation of atmospheric scientists (up to 3 years after completion of a Ph.D.) for the future of scientific endeavour in the field. Educational events, courses, and training workshops will be offered both on subjects in the field of atmospheric composition change and on essential skills (e.g., communication, networking, interdisciplinarity), and will be paralleled by leadership sessions and Science Cafes to increase the expertise to a common level across Europe (including Accession countries). Integration of female scientists, and (young) scientists from newly associated and emerging countries will be realized through specific schemes (e.g., mentoring, fellowships). Training and Education in ACCENT also aims at triggering the use of New Information and Communication Technologies (NICT). Examples will be presented on the varied use of NICT to disseminate educational material on atmospheric composition change, both at the undergraduate and at the postgraduate level, and to teachers.

  8. Adhesion enhancement of Al coatings on carbon/epoxy composite surfaces by atmospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulon, J. F.; Tournerie, N.; Maillard, H.

    2013-10-01

    Adhesion strengths between aluminium thin film coatings and manufactured carbon/epoxy composite surfaces were measured by assessing fracture tensile strengths using pull-off tests. The effect of the substrate roughness (nm to μm) of these composite surfaces on adhesion was studied by examining the surface free energies and adhesion strengths. The adhesion strengths of the coatings varied significantly. To improve the coating adhesion, each composite surface was treated with atmospheric plasma prior to deposition, which resulted in an increase in the surface free energy from approximately 40 mJ/m2 to 70 mJ/m2 because the plasma pretreatment led to the formation of hydrophilic Csbnd O and Cdbnd O bonds on the composite surfaces, as demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The adhesion strengths of the coatings were enhanced for all surface roughnesses studied. In our study, the effect of mechanical adhesion due to roughness was separated from the effect of modifying the chemical bonds with plasma activation. The adhesion ability of the pure resin was relatively weak. Increasing the surface roughness largely improved the adhesion of the resin surface. Plasma treatment of the pure resin also increased the surface adhesion. Our study shows that plasma activation effectively enhances the adhesion of manufactured composites, even when the surface roughness is on the order of microns. The ageing of the surface activation was also investigated, and the results demonstrate that atmospheric plasma has potential for use in the pretreatment of composite materials.

  9. Composition of the earth's atmosphere by shock-layer radiometry during the PAET entry probe experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, E. E.; Arnold, J. O.; Page, W. A.; Reynolds, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A determination of the composition of the earth's atmosphere obtained from onboard radiometer measurements of the spectra emitted from the bow shock layer of a high-speed entry probe is reported. The N2, O2, CO2, and noble gas concentrations in the earth's atmosphere were determined to good accuracy by this technique. The results demonstrate unequivocally the feasibility of determining the composition of an unknown planetary atmosphere by means of a multichannel radiometer viewing optical emission from the heated atmospheric gases in the region between the bow shock wave and the vehicle surface. The spectral locations in this experiment were preselected to enable the observation of CN violet, N2(+) first negative and atomic oxygen emission at 3870, 3910, and 7775 A, respectively. The atmospheric gases were heated and compressed by the shock wave to a peak temperature of about 6100 K and a corresponding pressure of 0.4 atm. Complete descriptions of the data analysis technique and the onboard radiometer and its calibration are given.

  10. SIMULATION OF SUMMER-TIME DIURNAL BACTERIAL DYNAMICS IN THE ATMOSPHERIC SURFACE LAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model was prepared to simulate the observed concentration dynamics of culturable bacteria in the diurnal summer atmosphere at a Willamette River Valley, Oregon location. The meteorological and bacterial mechanisms included in a dynamic null-dimensional model with one-second tim...

  11. Phase stability and dynamics of entangled polymer-nanoparticle composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-06-10

    Nanoparticle–polymer composites, or polymer–nanoparticle composites (PNCs), exhibit unusual mechanical and dynamical features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer. Here, we harness favourable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and free, host polymer chains to create model PNCs, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in high molecular weight entangled polymers. Investigation of the mechanical properties of these model PNCs reveals that the nanoparticles have profound effects on the host polymer motions on all timescales. On short timescales, nanoparticles slow-down local dynamics of the host polymer segments and lower the glass transition temperature. On intermediate timescales, where polymer chain motion is typically constrained by entanglements with surrounding molecules, nanoparticles provide additional constraints, which lead to an early onset of entangled polymer dynamics. Finally, on long timescales, nanoparticles produce an apparent speeding up of relaxation of their polymer host.

  12. Extracting Compositional Variation from THEMIS Data for Features with Large Topography on Mars Via Atmospheric Equalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. S.; Drake, J. S.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a means of equalizing the atmospheric signature in Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) infrared data over regions with large topography such as the Valles Marineris (VM). This equalization allows for the analysis of compositional variations in regions that previously have been difficult to study because of the large differences in atmospheric path length that result from large changes in surface elevation. Specifically, our motivation for this study is to examine deposits that are small at the scales observable by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard Mars Global Surveyor, but which are more readily resolved with THEMIS.

  13. Exploration of the link between Emiliania huxleyi bloom dynamics and aerosol fluxes to the lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainic, M.

    2013-12-01

    shells are emitted as aerosols, but also that aerosol type and therefore chemical composition, microphysical and optical properties depend on the stage of the bloom growth. Unraveling the atmospheric signature of algal bloom dynamics in the ocean will provide novel insights into its ecological and climatic roles.

  14. Atmospheric Dynamics on Uranus in the millimeter and sub-millimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonwald, Anna; Hofstadter, Mark; Butler, Bryan J.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Moullet, Arielle

    2016-10-01

    Characterizing the atmospheric dynamics of Uranus is important to understand its structure, evolution, and energetics. In addition, most of the exoplanets discovered to date are roughly the same size and mass as our solar system's ice giants, therefore a fuller understanding of Uranus will aid in the study of exoplanets. Most observations of Uranus's atmospheric dynamics are derived from infrared observations, but these observations probe to a depth of only a few bars. In contrast, radio wavelength observations can probe up to tens of bars. Early cm-wavelength observations in the 1980's and 1990's from the Very Large Array (VLA) showed enhanced brightness temperatures at the South Pole [1], inferred to be due to a deep Hadley cell circulation [2]. Observations with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) hinted at similar structure, but the signal-to-noise ratio was limiting [3]. The vertical extent of this Hadley cell is an important parameter and can help our understanding of the the circulation itself and the chemical species involved in that circulation; mm-wavelength observations similar to those from the VLA would help determine this. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), a sensitive array for mm and submm-wavelength observations, the vertical extent of this circulation can be constrained. We utilized publicly available calibration data at wavelengths of 0.8 and 1.3 mm from October 2011 to December 2012 and combined them to make the most sensitive images of Uranus to date at these wavelengths. Due to the sensitivity of these wavelengths at the 1-5 bar depth on Uranus, and the ability to express variations of brightness temperature latitudinally, we see clear brightness temperature enhancements at the North Pole at both wavelengths and hints of similar enhancements at far southern latitudes. This indicates that the circulation penetrates at least as high as 1 bar. We will discuss the observed features' implications for the composition and temperature

  15. Parameterized rotating convection for core and planetary atmosphere dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.

    1991-04-01

    New types of convective instability and associated nonlinear phenomena in rapidly rotating spherical systems have been discovered through numerical simulations. The Prandtl number, defined as the ratio of the viscous and thermal diffusivities of a fluid, Pr = nu/kappa, plays a crucial role in determining the fundamental features of both the instabilities and the corresponding nonlinear convection. The results shed new light on regimes of convection in the earth's core and the atmospheres of the major planets.

  16. Ionospheric manifestations of earthquakes and tsunamis in a dynamic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, Oleg A.; Zabotin, Nikolay A.; Zabotina, Liudmila

    2015-04-01

    Observations of the ionosphere provide a new, promising modality for characterizing large-scale physical processes that occur on land and in the ocean. There is a large and rapidly growing body of evidence that a number of natural hazards, including large earthquakes, strong tsunamis, and powerful tornadoes, have pronounced ionospheric manifestations, which are reliably detected by ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. As the focus shifts from detecting the ionospheric features associated with the natural hazards to characterizing the hazards for the purposes of improving early warning systems and contributing to disaster recovery, it becomes imperative to relate quantitatively characteristics of the observed ionospheric disturbances and the underlying natural hazard. The relation between perturbations at the ground level and their ionospheric manifestations is strongly affected by parameters of the intervening atmosphere. In this paper, we employ the ray theory to model propagation of acoustic-gravity waves in three-dimensionally inhomogeneous atmosphere. Huygens' wavefront-tracing and Hamiltonian ray-tracing algorithms are used to simulate propagation of body waves from an earthquake hypocenter through the earth's crust and ocean to the upper atmosphere. We quantify the influence of temperature stratification and winds, including their seasonal variability, and air viscosity and thermal conductivity on the geometry and amplitude of ionospheric disturbances that are generated by seismic surface waves and tsunamis. Modeling results are verified by comparing observations of the velocity fluctuations at altitudes of 150-160 km by a coastal Dynasonde HF radar system with theoretical predictions of ionospheric manifestations of background infragravity waves in the ocean. Dynasonde radar systems are shown to be a promising means for monitoring acoustic-gravity wave activity and observing ionospheric perturbations due to earthquakes and tsunamis. We will discuss

  17. Impact ejecta dynamics in an atmosphere - Experimental results and extrapolations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that the impacts of 0.635-cm aluminum projectiles at 6 km/sec into fine pumice dust, at 1 atm, generate a ball of ionized gas behind an expanding curtain of upward moving ejecta. The gas ball forms a toroid which dissolves as it is driven along the interior of the ejecta curtain, by contrast to near-surface explosions in which a fireball envelops early-time crater growth. High frame rate Schlieren photographs show that the atmosphere at the base of the ejecta curtain is initially turbulent, but later forms a vortex. These experiments suggest that although small size ejecta may be decelerated by air drag, they are not simply lofted and suspended but become incorporated in an ejecta cloud that is controlled by air flow which is produced by the response of the atmosphere to the impact. The extrapolation of these results to large body impacts on the earth suggests such contrasts with laboratory experiments as a large quantity of impact-generated vapor, the supersonic advance of the ejecta curtain, the lessened effect of air drag due to the tenuous upper atmosphere, and the role of secondary cratering.

  18. Composition and effects of inhalable size fractions of atmospheric aerosols in the polluted atmosphere: part I. PAHs, PCBs and OCPs and the matrix chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Landlová, Linda; Cupr, Pavel; Franců, Juraj; Klánová, Jana; Lammel, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) abundance, mass size distribution (MSD) and chemical composition are parameters relevant for human health effects. The MSD and phase state of semivolatile organic pollutants were determined at various polluted sites in addition to the PM composition and MSD. The distribution pattern of pollutants varied from side to side in correspondence to main particle sources and PM composition. Levels of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were 1-30 ng m(-3) (corresponding to 15-35 % of the total, i.e., gas and particulate phase concentrations), of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were 2-11 pg m(-3) (4-26 % of the total) and of DDT compounds were 2-12 pg m(-3) (4-23 % of the total). The PM associated amounts of other organochlorine pesticides were too low for quantification. The organics were preferentially found associated with particles <0.45 μm of aerodynamic equivalent diameter. The mass fractions associated with sub-micrometer particles (PM0.95) were 73-90 %, 34-71 % and 36-81 % for PAHs, PCBs and DDT compounds, respectively. The finest particles fraction had the highest aerosol surface concentration (6.3-29.7)×10(-6) cm(-1) (44-70 % of the surface concentration of all size fractions). The data set was used to test gas-particle partitioning models for semivolatile organics for the first time in terms of the organics' MSD and size-dependent PM composition. The results of this study prove that at the various sites particles with diverse size, matrix composition, amount of contaminants and toxicological effects occur. Legislative regulation based on gravimetric determination of PM mass can clearly be insufficient for assessment.

  19. On the relationship between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics and chemistry at mid-latitudes - Part 1: Statistical models and spatial fingerprints of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, L.; Rieder, H. E.; Ribatet, M.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Di Rocco, S.; Davison, A. C.; Peter, T.

    2012-05-01

    We use models for mean and extreme values of total column ozone on spatial scales to analyze "fingerprints" of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry on long-term ozone changes at northern and southern mid-latitudes. The r-largest order statistics method is used for pointwise analysis of extreme events in low and high total ozone (termed ELOs and EHOs, respectively). For the corresponding mean value analysis a pointwise autoregressive moving average model (ARMA) is used. The statistical models include important atmospheric covariates to describe the dynamical and chemical state of the atmosphere: the solar cycle, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), ozone depleting substances (ODS) in terms of equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO), the El~Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and aerosol load after the volcanic eruptions of El Chichón and Mt. Pinatubo. The influence of the individual covariates on mean and extreme levels in total column ozone is derived on a grid cell basis. The results show that "fingerprints", i.e., significant influence, of dynamical and chemical features are captured in both the "bulk" and the tails of the ozone distribution, respectively described by means and EHOs/ELOs. While results for the solar cycle, QBO and EESC are in good agreement with findings of earlier studies, unprecedented spatial fingerprints are retrieved for the dynamical covariates.

  20. The microbiome of the upper troposphere: species composition and prevalence, effects of tropical storms, and atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, A.; DeLeon-Rodriguez, N.; Lathem, T. L.; Rodriguez-Rojas, L. M.; Barazesh, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bergin, M. H.; Konstantinidis, K.

    2012-12-01

    The composition and prevalence of microorganisms in the middle to upper troposphere (8-15 km altitude) and their role in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions represent important, unresolved questions for biological and atmospheric science. Here we report on the microbiome of low and high altitude air masses sampled onboard the NASA DC-8 platform during the 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in the Caribbean Sea. The samples were collected in cloudy and cloud-free air masses, before, during, and after two major tropical hurricanes, Earl and Karl. Quantitative PCR and microscopy revealed that viable bacterial cells represented on average around 20% of the total particles in the 0.25-1μm diameter range and were at least an order of magnitude more abundant compared to fungal cells, suggesting that bacteria represent an important and underestimated fraction of micron-sized atmospheric aerosols. The samples from the two hurricanes were characterized by significantly different bacterial communities, revealing that hurricanes aerosolize a large amount of new cells. Nonetheless, 17 bacterial taxa, including taxa that are known to utilize C1-C4 carbon compounds present in the atmosphere, were found in all samples, indicating that these organisms have developed adaptations to survive in the troposphere. The findings presented here suggest that the microbiome is a dynamic and underappreciated aspect of the upper troposphere with potentially profound impacts on the water cycle, clouds, and climate.

  1. The Structure and Dynamics of Titan's Middle Atmosphere and Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F.M.; Achterberg, R.K.; Schinder, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Titan, after Venus, is the second example in the solar system of an atmosphere with a global cyclostrophic circulation. The origin and maintenance of these superrotating atmospheres is not well understood, but Titan has a strong seasonal modulation in the middle atmosphere, and the seasonal changes in the winds may offer clues. The pole in winter and early spring is characterized by temperatures 20-30 K cooler at 140-170 km than those at low latitudes, and strong circumpolar winds as high as 190 m/s at 200- 250 km. At these levels the polar region is characterized by enhanced concentrations of several organic gases, and also detectable condensates. All this suggests that the polar vortex provides a mixing barrier between winter polar and lower-latitude air masses, analogous to the polar ozone holes on Earth. Because the concentrations of organic gases increase with altitude in the middle atmosphere, the observed enhancements suggest subsidence over the winter pole. Consistent with this are the observed temperatures approximately 200 K at the winter-polar stratopause (280 km), making it the warmest part of the atmosphere. The warm stratopause likely results from adiabatic heating associated with the subsidence. Recent observations in late northern winter and early spring indicate that the warm anomaly at the winter-polar stratopause is weakening;. In contrast to the middle atmosphere, latitude contrasts in tropospheric temperatures are muted. During the northern winter season, they were approximately 5 K at the tropopause and 3 K or less near the surface, being coldest at high northern latitudes. This is understandable in terms of the long radiative relaxation times in the troposphere, compared to times that are much shorter than a season in the upper stratosphere and higher. Curiously, the transition between the small meridional contrast (and presumably seasonal variations) in temperatures observed in the troposphere and the large variations observed at higher

  2. Effect of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on the protein composition of cereal grain.

    PubMed

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-07-16

    The present study investigates effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on protein composition of maize, wheat, and barley grain, especially on the fractions prolamins and glutelins. Cereals were grown at different atmospheric CO2 concentrations to simulate future climate conditions. Influences of two nitrogen fertilization levels were studied for wheat and barley. Enriched CO2 caused an increase of globulin and B-hordein of barley. In maize, the content of globulin, α-zein, and LMW polymers decreased, whereas total glutelin, zein, δ-zein, and HMW polymers rose. Different N supplies resulted in variations of barley subfractions and wheat globulin. Other environmental influences showed effects on the content of nearly all fractions and subfractions. Variations in starch-protein bodies caused by different CO2 treatments could be visualized by scanning electron microscopy. In conclusion, climate change would have impacts on structural composition of proteins and, consequently, on the nutritional value of cereals.

  3. Learning about Atmospheric Composition Change within a Network of Excellence: a Synthesis of ACCENT "Training & Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuepbach, E.; Uherek, E.; Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A.

    2009-04-01

    The fast move towards a knowledge-based society poses sweeping challenges to science education worldwide. Being a new instrument under EU funding mode, the Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change (ACCENT; www.accent-network.org) seeks to meet these challenges, and to explore novel ways for learning and teaching. The Task Training and Education (T&E) in ACCENT has developed an «Integrated Learning Environment» (ILE) aimed at serving the learner's needs (beginners, advanced learners). It focuses on interactivity and problem-based learning, and incorporates multifaceted learning opportunities like debates with stakeholders. A virtual knowledge train connects knowledge on atmospheric composition change across the world. Evolving good practice in ACCENT T&E are compiled in a Handbook.

  4. Venus - Chemical weathering of igneous rocks and buffering of atmospheric composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozette, S.; Lewis, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Data from the Pioneer Venus radar mapper, combined with measurements of wind velocity and atmospheric composition, suggest that surface erosion on Venus varies with altitude. Calcium- and magnesium-rich weathering products are produced at high altitudes by gas-solid reactions with igneous minerals, then removed into the hotter lowlands by surface winds. These fine-grained weathering products may then rereact with the lower atmosphere and buffer the composition of the observed gases carbon dioxide, water vapor, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen fluoride in some regions of the surface. This process is a plausible mechanism for the establishment in the lowlands of a calcium-rich mineral assemblage, which had previously been found necessary for the buffering of these species.

  5. Venus: chemical weathering of igneous rocks and buffering of atmospheric composition.

    PubMed

    Nozette, S; Lewis, J S

    1982-04-01

    Data from the Pioneer Venus radar mapper, combined with measurements of wind velocity and atmospheric composition, suggest that surface erosion on Venus varies with altitude. Calcium- and magnesium-rich weathering products are produced at high altitudes by gas-solid reactions with igneous minerals, then removed into the hotter lowlands by surface winds. These fine-grained weathering products may then rereact with the lower atmosphere and buffer the composition of the observed gases carbon dioxide, water vapor, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen fluoride in some regions of the surface. This process is a plausible mechanism for the establishment in the lowlands of a calcium-rich mineral assemblage, which had previously been found necessary for the buffering of these species.

  6. Geostationary atmospheric composition observations from the NASA Decadal Survey GEO-CAPE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Iraci, L. T.

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the science definition work that is being performed in preparation for the NASA Decadal Survey GEO-CAPE mission. To serve the atmospheric composition community, GEO-CAPE will make a suite of trace gas and aerosol measurements from geostationary orbit concentrating on North America with high spatiotemporal resolution. This will provide unique insights into pollutant sources, transport, chemical transformations and climate impact. In addition to significantly improved understanding of the underlying processes determining atmospheric composition, GEO-CAPE observations will also find direct societal application for air quality management and forecasting. The paper will also discuss the potential phased implementation of this mission as a series of hosted payloads, and GEO-CAPE as the U.S. contribution to a constellation of geostationary platforms to achieve continuous coverage at northern mid-latitudes by the turn of the decade.

  7. INMS-derived composition of Titan's upper atmosphere: Analysis methods and model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Brian A.; Waite, J. Hunter; Mandt, Kathleen E.; Westlake, Joseph; Bell, Jared; Gell, David A.

    2009-12-01

    The Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) has recorded full altitude profile data from 20 low-altitude Titan encounters during the nominal mission (July 2004-2008). These encounters were TA, T5, T16, T18, T19, T21, T23, T25, T26, T28, T29, T30, T32, T36, T37, T39, T40, T41, T42, and T43. In this work we present an analysis of the data observed by INMS during these encounters to derive the neutral composition of Titan's upper atmosphere between 1000 and 1100 km. Analysis methods are described for the determination and correction of instrument effects as well as the composition derivation processes. Results are compared to independent INMS analysis efforts and a selected survey of photochemical models of Titan's upper atmosphere.

  8. Dynamic Data-Driven Event Reconstruction for Atmospheric Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Mirin, A; Serban, R; Kosovic, B

    2005-03-14

    This is a collaborative LDRD Exploratory Research project involving four directorates--Energy & Environment, Engineering, NAI and Computation. The project seeks to answer the following critical questions regarding atmospheric releases--''How much material was released? When? Where? and What are the potential consequences?'' Inaccurate estimation of the source term can lead to gross errors, time delays during a crisis, and even fatalities. We are developing a capability that seamlessly integrates observational data streams with predictive models in order to provide the best possible estimates of unknown source term parameters, as well as optimal and timely situation analyses consistent with both models and data. Our approach utilizes Bayesian inference and stochastic sampling methods (Markov Chain and Sequential Monte Carlo) to reformulate the inverse problem into a solution based on efficient sampling of an ensemble of predictive simulations, guided by statistical comparisons with data. We are developing a flexible and adaptable data-driven event-reconstruction capability for atmospheric releases that provides (1) quantitative probabilistic estimates of the principal source-term parameters (e.g., the time-varying release rate and location); (2) predictions of increasing fidelity as an event progresses and additional data become available; and (3) analysis tools for sensor network design and uncertainty studies. Our computational framework incorporates multiple stochastic algorithms, operates with a range and variety of atmospheric models, and runs on multiple computer platforms, from workstations to large-scale computing resources. Our final goal is a multi-resolution capability for both real-time operational response and high fidelity multi-scale applications.

  9. Non-Deterministic Dynamic Instability of Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib H.

    2004-01-01

    A computationally effective method is described to evaluate the non-deterministic dynamic instability (probabilistic dynamic buckling) of thin composite shells. The method is a judicious combination of available computer codes for finite element, composite mechanics, and probabilistic structural analysis. The solution method is incrementally updated Lagrangian. It is illustrated by applying it to thin composite cylindrical shell subjected to dynamic loads. Both deterministic and probabilistic buckling loads are evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. A universal plot is obtained for the specific shell that can be used to approximate buckling loads for different load rates and different probability levels. Results from this plot show that the faster the rate, the higher the buckling load and the shorter the time. The lower the probability, the lower is the buckling load for a specific time. Probabilistic sensitivity results show that the ply thickness, the fiber volume ratio and the fiber longitudinal modulus, dynamic load and loading rate are the dominant uncertainties, in that order.

  10. Change of the dynamics of heavy metals concentration in atmospheric precipitation in chatkal nature reservation of the republic of uzbekistan as anthropogenic index of the atmospheric pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, T.; Tolkacheva, G.

    2003-04-01

    At present the investigation of the chemical composition of precipitation is a very actual task in the monitoring of environmental pollution. It is known that heavy metals can be the indices of the anthropogenic atmospheric pollution. The emissions from the mining enterprises, of non-ferrous metallurgy, of chemical industry, from heat-and-power production plants, from transport vehicles fare the sources of the heavy metals ingress into the atmosphere. Their emissions in atmosphere form fine-disperse aerosol fractions and afterwards they fall down together with precipitation onto the underlying surface. Heavy metals have the property of accumulation in environmental objects, which disturbs its ecological balance. One of the problems of the study of the influence of heavy metals pollution on the environment is their travel with the air masses of different origin on large distance. In this concern it is interesting to study the content of the heavy metals in atmospheric aerosols and precipitation in the background zones. Chatkal nature reservation on the territory of Tashkent province presents such background point. For the estimation of the level of atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and evaluation of the possible impact on the background level of air pollution of Chatkal nature reservation by anthropogenic sources (industrial cities of the capital province of Uzbekistan) the data analysis was carried out by the Administration of Environment Pollution Monitoring (AEPM) of hydrometeorological service of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is necessary to mention that Chatkal biospheric nature reservation is situated in 100 km from Tashkent (the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan) and in 60 km from Almalyk (the biggest centre of mining-metallurgical and chemical industry of the republic). The station of the complex background monitoring of atmospheric pollution (SCBM) is situated on the territory of this nature reservation. This area is characterized by a typical

  11. Atmospheric turbulence parameters for modeling wind turbine dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, W. E.; Thresher, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    A model which can be used to predict the response of wind turbines to atmospheric turbulence is given. The model was developed using linearized aerodynamics for a three-bladed rotor and accounts for three turbulent velocity components as well as velocity gradients across the rotor disk. Typical response power spectral densities are shown. The system response depends critically on three wind and turbulence parameters, and models are presented to predict desired response statistics. An equation error method, which can be used to estimate the required parameters from field data, is also presented.

  12. Mission Objectives Of The Atmospheric Composition Related Sentinels S5p, S4, And S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingmann, Paul; Veihelmann, Ben; Langen, Jorg; Meijer, Yasjka

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry observations from space have been made for over 30 years, in the beginning mainly by US missions. These missions have always been motivated by the concern about a number of environmental issues. At present European instruments like GOME-2 on MetOp/EPS-A and -B and OMI on NASA's Aura are in space and, despite being designed for research purposes, perform routine observations. The space instruments have helped improving our understanding of processes that govern stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change and the transport of pollutants. However, long-term continuous time series of atmospheric trace gas data have been limited to stratospheric ozone and a few related species. According to current planning, meteorological satellites will maintain these observations over the next decade. They will also add some measurements of tropospheric trace gases critical for climate forcing. However, as their measurements have been motivated by meteorology, vertical sensitivities and accuracies are marginal for atmospheric chemistry applications. With the exception of stratospheric ozone, reliable long-term space-based monitoring of atmospheric constituents with quality attributes sufficient to serve atmospheric chemistry applications still need to be established. The need for a GMES atmospheric service (GAS), its scope and high level requirements were laid down in an orientation papers organised by the European Commission and then updated by an Implementation Group (IG) [1], backed by four working groups, advising the Commission on scope, architecture, in situ and space requirements. The goal of GAS is to provide coherent information on atmospheric variables in support of European policies and for the benefit of European citizens. Services cover air quality, climate change/forcing, stratospheric ozone and solar radiation. To meet the needs of the user community atmospheric composition mission concepts for GEO and LEO have been defined usually referred to

  13. Carbon dioxide in the Paleozoic atmosphere: Evidence from carbon-isotope compositions of pedogenic carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Claudia I.; Driese, Steven G.; Seager, Paula G.

    1991-10-01

    Stable carbon-isotope compositions of pedogenic carbonate occurring in three clay-rich vertic paleosols within Paleozoic red-bed successions in central Pennsylvania provide a record of past pedogenic environments and can be used to estimate CO2 pressure (PCO2) of the Paleozoic atmosphere. The δ13C values of carbonate nodules from paleosols in the deltaic lower Bloomsburg Formation (Upper Silurian) reflect the contribution of carbon from marine groundwater or fossils, coupled with low biological activity. The δ13C values of carbonate rhizocretions from stratigraphically high paleosols in the Bloomsburg Formation, and in the alluvial Catskill (Upper Devonian) and Mauch Chunk (Upper Mississippian) Formations, suggest an extensive C3 flora and significant contribution of atmospheric CO2. Paleozoic atmospheric CO2 levels inferred from δ13C of pedogenic carbonate are significantly higher than present levels.

  14. Influence of Atmospheric Processes on the Solubility and Composition of Iron in Saharan Dust.

    PubMed

    Longo, Amelia F; Feng, Yan; Lai, Barry; Landing, William M; Shelley, Rachel U; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Violaki, Kalliopi; Ingall, Ellery D

    2016-07-01

    Aerosol iron was examined in Saharan dust plumes using a combination of iron near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and wet-chemical techniques. Aerosol samples were collected at three sites located in the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and Bermuda to characterize iron at different atmospheric transport lengths and time scales. Iron(III) oxides were a component of aerosols at all sampling sites and dominated the aerosol iron in Mediterranean samples. In Atlantic samples, iron(II and III) sulfate, iron(III) phosphate, and iron(II) silicates were also contributors to aerosol composition. With increased atmospheric transport time, iron(II) sulfates are found to become more abundant, aerosol iron oxidation state became more reduced, and aerosol acidity increased. Atmospheric processing including acidic reactions and photoreduction likely influence the form of iron minerals and oxidation state in Saharan dust aerosols and contribute to increases in aerosol-iron solubility. PMID:27286140

  15. The dynamic inelastic behavior in fiber reinforced composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Haberman, K.S.; Bennett, J.G.; Liu, Cheng

    1997-03-01

    Accurately simulating the complete dynamic behavior, elastic and inelastic, of engineering structures composed of fiber reinforced composite materials can be accomplished by integrating three components: (1) a physically based micromechanical material model that accounts for the experimentally observed mechanisms producing the inelastic behavior; (2) a dynamic three-dimensional continuum simulation capability in which the physically based micromechanical material model is incorporated; and (3) a complete set of robust dynamic experiments. These experiments are used (1) to establish the microstructural mechanisms that produce inelastic behavior and (2) to validate the dynamic simulation capability. This paper focuses on the implementation of a physically based micromechanical material model into an explicit 3D finite element code and shows the experimental comparison.

  16. Molecular composition of atmospheric aerosols from Halley Bay, Antarctica, using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Brough, Neil; Rincon, Angela; Jones, Anna; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica is one of the few pristine places to study natural processes of atmospheric aerosols and anthropogenic impacts on the clean remote atmosphere. Although stratospheric aerosol in Antarctica has now been explored in some detail because of the ozone depletion phenomenon, tropospheric aerosol particles in Antarctica remain very little studied. The main goal of this work is to identify in detail the organic chemical composition of aerosol from Halley Bay station, which is located on the Brunt Ice Shelf floating on the Weddell Sea in Antarctica. In this study we characterise the molecular composition of aerosols from three seasons (summer, autumn and winter in 2012) using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS). The technique provides high accuracy and high mass resolving power that allows determining unambiguous number of organic compounds present in complex organic mixtures (Noziere et al., 2015). The molecular composition interpretation was facilitated using visualisation methods (e.g. double bond equivalent, Van Krevelen diagrams, Kendrick mass analysis, and carbon oxidation state), which allowed to identify patterns, such as differences between sampling times and atmospheric processes. The majority of the identified compounds were attributed to nitrogen and sulphur containing species which exhibited very strong seasonal trends. Relatively large fraction (up to 30% of the total number of molecules) of these species contained very low hydrogen to carbon ratios (below 1) indicating that the site is impacted by anthropogenic emissions. Influences of the meteorological parameters and air mass trajectories on the molecular composition are discussed. Nozière et al., The Molecular Identification of Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere: State of the Art and Challenges, Chem. Rev., 115, 3920-3983, 2015.

  17. An Exact Solvable Model of Rocket Dynamics in Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, H.; Pinho, M. O.; Portes, D., Jr.; Santiago, A.

    2009-01-01

    In basic physics courses at undergraduate level, the dynamics of self-propelled bodies is presented as an example of momentum conservation law applied to systems with time-varying mass. However, is often studied the simple situation of free motion or the motion under the action of a constant gravitational field. In this work, we investigate the…

  18. The Influence of CO2 Admixtures on the Product Composition in a Nitrogen-Methane Atmospheric Glow Discharge Used as a Prebiotic Atmosphere Mimic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazankova, V.; Torokova, L.; Krcma, F.; Mason, N. J.; Matejcik, S.

    2016-11-01

    This work extends our previous experimental studies of the chemistry of Titan's atmosphere by atmospheric glow discharge. The Titan's atmosphere seems to be similarly to early Earth atmospheric composition. The exploration of Titan atmosphere was initiated by the exciting results of the Cassini-Huygens mission and obtained results increased the interest about prebiotic atmospheres. Present work is devoted to the role of CO2 in the prebiotic atmosphere chemistry. Most of the laboratory studies of such atmosphere were focused on the chemistry of N2 + CH4 mixtures. The present work is devoted to the study of the oxygenated volatile species in prebiotic atmosphere, specifically CO2 reactivity. CO2 was introduced to the standard N2 + CH4 mixture at different mixing ratio up to 5 % CH4 and 3 % CO2. The reaction products were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. This work shows that CO2 modifies the composition of the gas phase with the detection of oxygenated compounds: CO and others oxides. There is a strong influence of CO2 on increasing concentration other products as cyanide (HCN) and ammonia (NH3).

  19. The Influence of CO2 Admixtures on the Product Composition in a Nitrogen-Methane Atmospheric Glow Discharge Used as a Prebiotic Atmosphere Mimic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazankova, V.; Torokova, L.; Krcma, F.; Mason, N. J.; Matejcik, S.

    2016-04-01

    This work extends our previous experimental studies of the chemistry of Titan's atmosphere by atmospheric glow discharge. The Titan's atmosphere seems to be similarly to early Earth atmospheric composition. The exploration of Titan atmosphere was initiated by the exciting results of the Cassini-Huygens mission and obtained results increased the interest about prebiotic atmospheres. Present work is devoted to the role of CO2 in the prebiotic atmosphere chemistry. Most of the laboratory studies of such atmosphere were focused on the chemistry of N2 + CH4 mixtures. The present work is devoted to the study of the oxygenated volatile species in prebiotic atmosphere, specifically CO2 reactivity. CO2 was introduced to the standard N2 + CH4 mixture at different mixing ratio up to 5 % CH4 and 3 % CO2. The reaction products were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. This work shows that CO2 modifies the composition of the gas phase with the detection of oxygenated compounds: CO and others oxides. There is a strong influence of CO2 on increasing concentration other products as cyanide (HCN) and ammonia (NH3).

  20. Ion cyclotron waves at Io: Implications for torus composition and variations of Io atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2003-04-01

    When the flowing torus plasma encounters the upper atmosphere of Io, newly created ions are accelerated by the motional electric field. Many of these ions are reneutralized and form a spray of fast neutrals that travel far away from Io before being reionized and picked up into the torus. These ions have ring distributions able to provide free energy for wave growth via cyclotron resonance. Galileo data showed the existence of ion cyclotron waves in the Io torus, with frequencies near the gyrofrequencies of SO2+, SO+, and S+ ions. Wave characteristics change along each flyby, and from one orbit to another. The observed wave variability indicates that the Io torus is not uniform, and that ion pickup composition changes with time and space. As pickup ions originate from Io atmosphere, the wave variation suggests that the moon´s atmosphere is changing spatially as well as temporarily. We use kinetic dispersion analysis to estimate the densities in the torus for the three ring distributions that are needed to have either SO2+ (orbits I0 and I32) or SO+ (orbits I24, I25, and I27) waves as the dominant component, and S+ ion cyclotron instability above threshold. We infer from wave properties that the atmosphere of Io varies temporally throughout the mission but that it also has a spatial variation in composition at any instant of time.

  1. Static stability and thermal wind in an atmosphere of variable composition Applications to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    Radiometric measurements of the temperature of the south polar cap of Mars in winter have yielded values significantly below the expected 148 K. One proposed explanation for this result is a substantial reduction in the CO2 content of the atmosphere and a lowering of the mean molecule weight near the surface. The meteorological consequences of this explanation are explored by deriving a criterion for vertical static stability and a thermal wind law for an atmosphere of variable composition. The atmosphere proves to be statically unstable unless the anomaly in the CO2 mixing ratio extends to heights of tens of kilometers. The effect of varying molecular weight exceeds the effect of temperature gradient, producing shears with height of reversed sign. The shears are baroclinically unstable, and this instability would eradicate the latitudinal gradient of molecular weight. This inconsistency can be resolved by invoking a reasonable elevation of the central polar cap and by imposing an adequate zonal wind. It is concluded that if the explanation requiring a change in atmospheric composition is correct, it must be accompanied by other special circumstances to make it meteorologically consistent.

  2. Isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in a tropical marine boundary layer

    PubMed Central

    Savarino, Joel; Morin, Samuel; Erbland, Joseph; Grannec, Francis; Patey, Matthew D.; Vicars, William; Alexander, Becky; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term observations of the reactive chemical composition of the tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) are rare, despite its crucial role for the chemical stability of the atmosphere. Recent observations of reactive bromine species in the tropical MBL showed unexpectedly high levels that could potentially have an impact on the ozone budget. Uncertainties in the ozone budget are amplified by our poor understanding of the fate of NOx (= NO + NO2), particularly the importance of nighttime chemical NOx sinks. Here, we present year-round observations of the multiisotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in the tropical MBL at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory. We show that the observed oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate are compatible with nitrate formation chemistry, which includes the BrNO3 sink at a level of ca. 20 ± 10% of nitrate formation pathways. The results also suggest that the N2O5 pathway is a negligible NOx sink in this environment. Observations further indicate a possible link between the NO2/NOx ratio and the nitrogen isotopic content of nitrate in this low NOx environment, possibly reflecting the seasonal change in the photochemical equilibrium among NOx species. This study demonstrates the relevance of using the stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen of atmospheric nitrate in association with concentration measurements to identify and constrain chemical processes occurring in the MBL. PMID:23431201

  3. Isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in a tropical marine boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Savarino, Joel; Morin, Samuel; Erbland, Joseph; Grannec, Francis; Patey, Matthew D; Vicars, William; Alexander, Becky; Achterberg, Eric P

    2013-10-29

    Long-term observations of the reactive chemical composition of the tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) are rare, despite its crucial role for the chemical stability of the atmosphere. Recent observations of reactive bromine species in the tropical MBL showed unexpectedly high levels that could potentially have an impact on the ozone budget. Uncertainties in the ozone budget are amplified by our poor understanding of the fate of NOx (= NO + NO2), particularly the importance of nighttime chemical NOx sinks. Here, we present year-round observations of the multiisotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in the tropical MBL at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory. We show that the observed oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate are compatible with nitrate formation chemistry, which includes the BrNO3 sink at a level of ca. 20 ± 10% of nitrate formation pathways. The results also suggest that the N2O5 pathway is a negligible NOx sink in this environment. Observations further indicate a possible link between the NO2/NOx ratio and the nitrogen isotopic content of nitrate in this low NOx environment, possibly reflecting the seasonal change in the photochemical equilibrium among NOx species. This study demonstrates the relevance of using the stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen of atmospheric nitrate in association with concentration measurements to identify and constrain chemical processes occurring in the MBL.

  4. Isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in a tropical marine boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Savarino, Joel; Morin, Samuel; Erbland, Joseph; Grannec, Francis; Patey, Matthew D; Vicars, William; Alexander, Becky; Achterberg, Eric P

    2013-10-29

    Long-term observations of the reactive chemical composition of the tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) are rare, despite its crucial role for the chemical stability of the atmosphere. Recent observations of reactive bromine species in the tropical MBL showed unexpectedly high levels that could potentially have an impact on the ozone budget. Uncertainties in the ozone budget are amplified by our poor understanding of the fate of NOx (= NO + NO2), particularly the importance of nighttime chemical NOx sinks. Here, we present year-round observations of the multiisotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in the tropical MBL at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory. We show that the observed oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate are compatible with nitrate formation chemistry, which includes the BrNO3 sink at a level of ca. 20 ± 10% of nitrate formation pathways. The results also suggest that the N2O5 pathway is a negligible NOx sink in this environment. Observations further indicate a possible link between the NO2/NOx ratio and the nitrogen isotopic content of nitrate in this low NOx environment, possibly reflecting the seasonal change in the photochemical equilibrium among NOx species. This study demonstrates the relevance of using the stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen of atmospheric nitrate in association with concentration measurements to identify and constrain chemical processes occurring in the MBL. PMID:23431201

  5. The Structure and Dynamics of Titan's Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Achterberg, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    Titan's middle atmosphere is characterized by cyclostrophic winds and strong seasonal modulation. Cassini CIRS observations, obtained in northern winter, indicate that the stratosphere near l mbar is warmest at low latitudes, with the South Pole a few degrees colder and the North Pole approximately 20 K colder. Associated with the cold northern temperatures are strong circumpolar winds with speeds as high as 190 m/s. Within this vortex, the mixing ratios of several organic gases are enhanced relative to those at low latitudes. Comparison with Voyager thermal infrared measurements, obtained 25 years ago in northern spring, suggests that the enhancement currently observed will increase as the winter progresses. The stratopause height, increases from 0.1 mbar near the equator to 0.01 mbar near the North Pole, where it is the warmest part of the atmosphere, greater than 200 K. This implies subsidence at the pole, which is consistent with the enhanced organics observed. Condensate features, several still not identified, are also apparent in the infrared spectra at high northern latitudes. In many ways, the winter vortex observed on Titan, with cyclostrophic winds, resembles the polar winter vortices on the Earth, where the mean winds are geostrophic.

  6. The Atmospheric Dynamics of Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies of Jupiter and Saturn often emphasize their similarities, but recent observations have highlighted important differences. The stratospheres of both planets exhibit an equatorial oscillation reminiscent of that in Earth's middle atmosphere. Jupiter's oscillation has a 4-5 year period, not linked to its season, and it has been modeled as an analog to the terrestrial quasi-biennial oscillation, driven by the stresses associated with vertically propagating waves. Saturn's equatorial oscillation is nearly semiannual, but wave activity may still be a driver. Jupiter's internal rotation rate is inferred from its steady modulated radio emission. Saturn's internal rotation is more enigmatic. It has been inferred from the modulation of the body's kilometric radio emission, but this period has varied by 1% over the last 25 years. Saturn's equatorial winds are also puzzling, as those inferred from cloud tracking by Cassini and more recent HST observations are weaker than those from Voyager. Whether this is attributable to a difference in altitudes of the tracked clouds in winds with vertical shear or a real temporal change in the winds is not known. Both winter and summer poles of Saturn exhibit very compact circumpolar vortices with warm cores, indicating subsidence. Titan's middle atmosphere is characterized by global cyclostrophic winds, particularly the strong circumpolar vortex in the winter hemisphere. In many ways, the spatial distribution of temperature, gaseous constituents, and condensates is reminiscent of conditions in terrestrial winter vortices, albeit with different chemistry. The meridional contrast in Titan's tropospheric temperatures is small, only a few kelvins.

  7. Dynamic consolidation of aluminum-silicon carbide composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.H.; Korth, G.E.; Williamson, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic consolidation was investigated as a potential method for producing P/M metal matrix composites. In this study, 2124 aluminum powders were mixed with silicon carbide particulate and consolidated using explosives. Numerical simulations were performed to provide insight into the consolidation process and to aid in the selection of experimental conditions. The microstructure of the as-consolidated product was dependent upon processing variables. Careful control of the shock parameters allowed full density, crack free composites to be achieved in cylindrical geometries. Although full density was obtained, low fracture strengths suggested a lack of interparticle bonding, probably resulting from the limited ability to redistribute surface oxides during consolidation. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  8. A composite scheme for gas dynamics in Lagrangian coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Shashkov, M.; Wendroff, B.

    1999-04-10

    One cycle of a composite finite difference scheme is defined as several time steps of an oscillatory scheme such as Lax-Wendroff followed by one step of a diffusive scheme such as Lax-Friedrichs. The authors apply this idea to gas dynamics in Lagrangian coordinates. They show numerical results in two dimensions for Noh`s infinite strength shock problem and the Sedov blast wave problem, and for several one-dimensional problems including a Riemann problem with a contact discontinuity. For Noh`s problem the composite scheme produces a better result than that obtained with a more conventional Lagrangian code.

  9. Tracing changes in atmospheric sources of lead contamination using lead isotopic compositions in Australian red wine.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Evans, Andrew James

    2016-07-01

    Air quality data detailing changes to atmospheric composition from Australia's leaded petrol consumption is spatially and temporally limited. In order to address this data gap, wine was investigated as a potential proxy for atmospheric lead conditions. Wine spanning sixty years was collected from two wine regions proximal to the South Australian capital city, Adelaide, and analysed for lead concentration and lead and strontium isotopic composition for source apportionment. Maximum wine lead concentrations (328 μg/L) occur prior to the lead-in-air monitoring in South Australia in the later 1970s. Wine lead concentrations mirror available lead-in-air measurements and show a declining trend reflecting parallel reductions in leaded petrol emissions. Lead from petrol dominated the lead in wine ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.086; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.360) until the introduction of unleaded petrol, which resulted in a shift in the wine lead isotopic composition closer to vineyard soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.137; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.421). Current mining activities or vinification processes appear to have no impact with recent wine samples containing less than 4 μg/L of lead. This study demonstrates wine can be used to chronicle changes in environmental lead emissions and is an effective proxy for atmospherically sourced depositions of lead in the absence of air quality data.

  10. Tracing changes in atmospheric sources of lead contamination using lead isotopic compositions in Australian red wine.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Evans, Andrew James

    2016-07-01

    Air quality data detailing changes to atmospheric composition from Australia's leaded petrol consumption is spatially and temporally limited. In order to address this data gap, wine was investigated as a potential proxy for atmospheric lead conditions. Wine spanning sixty years was collected from two wine regions proximal to the South Australian capital city, Adelaide, and analysed for lead concentration and lead and strontium isotopic composition for source apportionment. Maximum wine lead concentrations (328 μg/L) occur prior to the lead-in-air monitoring in South Australia in the later 1970s. Wine lead concentrations mirror available lead-in-air measurements and show a declining trend reflecting parallel reductions in leaded petrol emissions. Lead from petrol dominated the lead in wine ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.086; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.360) until the introduction of unleaded petrol, which resulted in a shift in the wine lead isotopic composition closer to vineyard soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.137; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.421). Current mining activities or vinification processes appear to have no impact with recent wine samples containing less than 4 μg/L of lead. This study demonstrates wine can be used to chronicle changes in environmental lead emissions and is an effective proxy for atmospherically sourced depositions of lead in the absence of air quality data. PMID:27037773

  11. Source identification of Malaysian atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons nearby forest fires using molecular and isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Kumata, Hidetoshi; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Ishiwatari, Ryoshi; Takada, Hideshige

    We report measurements of molecular and carbon isotopic compositions of Malaysian atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoke haze from the 1997 Indonesian forest fire. Comparison of the carbon isotopic compositions ( δ13C) of individual PAHs from the smoke haze, with those from other PAHs sources (soot collected from gasoline and diesel vehicle muffler, woodburning smoke), enables us to discriminate among the diverse sources of atmospheric PAHs. Soot PAHs extracted from gasoline and diesel vehicles show heavy isotopic signatures with a large inter-species δ13C variation from -12.9‰ to -26.6‰, compared to soot PAHs extracted from woodburning smoke which are isotopically light, and have a small inter-species δ13C variation from -26.8‰ to -31.6‰. Values from -17.7‰ to -27.9‰ were obtained for the corresponding PAHs extracted from the smoke haze, indicating that they are derived mainly from automotive exhaust. Molecular and isotopic compositions of PAHs extracted from smoke haze were similar to those extracted from non-haze aerosol. Quantitative estimation shows that woodburning contribution to Malaysian atmospheric PAHs ranges from 25% to 35% with no relation to haze intensity, while automotive contribution ranges from 65% to 75%. These results suggest that the major contributor of PAHs in Malaysian air is automotive exhaust whether smoke haze is observed or not.

  12. Analysis of temporal variability in land-atmosphere interactions, boundary layer dynamics and chemistry during the 2012 PEGASOS field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzeveld, Laurens; Krol, Maarten; Bosveld, Fred; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Rohrer, Franz; Wahner, Andreas; Descari, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Surface and airborne measurements collected during the 2012 PEGASOS intensive field campaign over the Netherlands and the Po valley, Italy, offer an optimal source of information to further improve our knowledge on the role boundary layer exchange processes in atmospheric chemistry. The use of a zeppelin, sampling close to the surface ( ~50m) up to ~600m altitude and measuring in the early morning, provided detailed measurements of vertical gradients as well as the temporal evolution in chemical composition and relevant meteorological parameters. This allows more detailed analysis of the role of the morning transition and entrainment of residual air masses previously being identified to be essential to daytime chemical processing in the boundary layer. Analysis of these measurements is supported by the use of a number of modelling systems including a selection of 1-D model approaches. In addition, these 1-D models are applied to directly link the observations to the representation of these processes in the 3-D atmospheric chemistry models used to address the overall PEGASOS research goals. In this presentation, results of simulations with an 1-D chemistry-climate model system covering the full measurement period will be presented. Assimilation of meteorological and chemical composition re-analysis data as well as a detailed representation of atmosphere-biosphere and boundary layer exchange processes in this 1-D system allow to assess the role of local scale land-atmosphere interactions versus long-range transport during the PESOSAS field campaigns. In this presentation we will focus on an assessment to what extent daytime boundary layer dynamics and chemistry depends on the short- and more long-term history of the system, e.g., residual layer processing and the role of changes in soil moisture status on land-atmosphere interactions.

  13. Structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiabei; Yang, Xiu-Qun

    2015-12-01

    The structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system are examined in this study, using the NCEP/NCAR atmospheric reanalysis, HadISST SST and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation data for 1960-2010. The midlatitude decadal anomalies associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are identified, being characterized by an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low (high) pressure over a cold (warm) oceanic surface. Such a unique configuration of decadal anomalies can be maintained by an unstable ocean-atmosphere interaction mechanism in the midlatitudes, which is hypothesized as follows. Associated with a warm PDO phase, an initial midlatitude surface westerly anomaly accompanied with intensified Aleutian low tends to force a negative SST anomaly by increasing upward surface heat fluxes and driving southward Ekman current anomaly. The SST cooling tends to increase the meridional SST gradient, thus enhancing the subtropical oceanic front. As an adjustment of the atmospheric boundary layer to the enhanced oceanic front, the low-level atmospheric meridional temperature gradient and thus the low-level atmospheric baroclinicity tend to be strengthened, inducing more active transient eddy activities that increase transient eddy vorticity forcing. The vorticity forcing that dominates the total atmospheric forcing tends to produce an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low pressure north of the initial westerly anomaly, intensifying the initial anomalies of the midlatitude surface westerly and Aleutian low. Therefore, it is suggested that the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interaction can provide a positive feedback mechanism for the development of initial anomaly, in which the oceanic front and the atmospheric transient eddy are the indispensable ingredients. Such a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism is fundamentally responsible for the observed decadal anomalies in the midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere

  14. Structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiabei; Yang, Xiu-Qun

    2016-09-01

    The structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system are examined in this study, using the NCEP/NCAR atmospheric reanalysis, HadISST SST and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation data for 1960-2010. The midlatitude decadal anomalies associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are identified, being characterized by an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low (high) pressure over a cold (warm) oceanic surface. Such a unique configuration of decadal anomalies can be maintained by an unstable ocean-atmosphere interaction mechanism in the midlatitudes, which is hypothesized as follows. Associated with a warm PDO phase, an initial midlatitude surface westerly anomaly accompanied with intensified Aleutian low tends to force a negative SST anomaly by increasing upward surface heat fluxes and driving southward Ekman current anomaly. The SST cooling tends to increase the meridional SST gradient, thus enhancing the subtropical oceanic front. As an adjustment of the atmospheric boundary layer to the enhanced oceanic front, the low-level atmospheric meridional temperature gradient and thus the low-level atmospheric baroclinicity tend to be strengthened, inducing more active transient eddy activities that increase transient eddy vorticity forcing. The vorticity forcing that dominates the total atmospheric forcing tends to produce an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low pressure north of the initial westerly anomaly, intensifying the initial anomalies of the midlatitude surface westerly and Aleutian low. Therefore, it is suggested that the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interaction can provide a positive feedback mechanism for the development of initial anomaly, in which the oceanic front and the atmospheric transient eddy are the indispensable ingredients. Such a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism is fundamentally responsible for the observed decadal anomalies in the midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere

  15. Probing Ultracool Atmospheres and Substellar Interiors with Dynamical Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent

    2010-09-01

    After years of patient orbital monitoring, there is now a large sample of very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with precise { 5%} dynamical masses. These binaries represent the gold standard for testing substellar theoretical models. Work to date has identified problems with the model-predicted broad-band colors, effective temperatures, and possibly even luminosity evolution with age. However, our ability to test models is currently limited by how well the individual components of these highly prized binaries are characterized. To solve this problem, we propose to use NICMOS and STIS to characterize this first large sample of ultracool binaries with well-determined dynamical masses. We will use NICMOS multi-band photometry to measure the SEDs of the binary components and thereby precisely estimate their spectral types and effective temperatures. We will use STIS to obtain resolved spectroscopy of the Li I doublet at 6708 A for a subset of three binaries whose masses lie very near the theoretical mass limit for lithium burning. The STIS data will provide the first ever resolved lithium measurements for brown dwarfs of known mass, enabling a direct probe of substellar interiors. Our proposed HST observations to characterize the components of these binaries is much less daunting in comparison to the years of orbital monitoring needed to yield dynamical masses, but these HST data are equally vital for robust tests of theory.

  16. Dynamic Data-Driven Event Reconstruction for Atmospheric Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G; Kosovic, B; Hanley, W; Johannesson, G; Larsen, S; Loosmore, G; Lundquist, J; Mirin, A; Nitao, J; Serban, R; Dyer, K

    2004-10-13

    For atmospheric releases, event reconstruction answers the critical questions - How much material was released? When? Where? and What are the potential consequences? Inaccurate estimation of the source term can lead to gross errors, time delays during a crisis, and even fatalities. We are developing a capability that seamlessly integrates observational data streams with predictive models in order to provide the best possible estimates of unknown source term parameters, as well as optimal and timely situation analyses consistent with both models and data. Our approach utilizes Bayesian inference and stochastic sampling methods (Markov Chain and Sequential Monte Carlo) to reformulate the inverse problem into a solution based on efficient sampling of an ensemble of predictive simulations, guided by statistical comparisons with data.

  17. Minimal composite dynamics versus axion origin of the diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinaro, Emiliano; Sannino, Francesco; Vignaroli, Natascia

    2016-07-01

    ATLAS and CMS observe deviations from the expected background in the diphoton invariant mass searches of new resonances around 750 GeV. We show that a simple realization in terms of a new pseudoscalar state can accommodate the observations. The model leads to further footprints that can be soon observed. The new state can be interpreted both as an axion or as a highly natural composite state arising from minimal models of dynamical electroweak (EW) symmetry breaking. We further show how to disentangle the two scenarios. Beyond the possible explanation of the diphoton excess, the results show that it is possible to directly test and constrain composite dynamics via processes stemming from its distinctive topological sector.

  18. Retrieval of Mars' Upper Atmospheric Composition using Dayglow Observations by IUVS on MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correira, J.; Evans, J. S.; Stevens, M. H.; Lumpe, J. D., Jr.; Schneider, N. M.; Stewart, I. F.; Deighan, J.; Jain, S.; Chaffin, M.; Crismani, M. M. J.; Stiepen, A.; McClintock, B.; Holsclaw, G.; Lefèvre, F.; Lo, D.; Clarke, J. T.; Epavier, F.; Thiemann, E.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Bougher, S. W.; Bell, J. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Benna, M.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present direct retrievals of neutral and ion number densities in Mars's upper atmosphere using FUV and MUV dayglow observations from 130 - 200 km. Atmospheric composition is inferred using the Atmospheric Ultraviolet Radiance Integrated Code [Strickland et al., 1999] adapted to the Martian atmosphere [Evans et al., 2015]. For our retrievals we use emission features observed by IUVS on MAVEN under daytime conditions over both northern and southern hemispheres from October 2014 to September 2015. We use retrieved CO2 densities to derive temperature variability between 150 - 220 km. We also investigate the sensitivity of neutral and ion density retrievals to variability in solar irradiance, solar longitude, and local time. We compare our retrievals to predictions from the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model [MGITM, Bougher et al., 2015], as well as in situ measurements by the Neutral Gas Ionizing Mass Spectrometer [NGIMS, Mahaffy et al., 2014], and quantify the differences throughout the altitude region of interest. The N2/CO2 ratio is used to show that N2 is in the diffusively separated region of the Martian atmosphere with a mean mixing ratio that is consistent with model predictions from MGITM, as well as in situ measurements by Viking 1 & 2 [Nier and McElroy, 1977] and NGIMS.

  19. Small scale structure in the atmosphere: implications for chemical composition and observational methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, R L; Ball, S M; Shallcross, D E

    2005-01-01

    Non-linearities in chemical processes are recognised as being important in a number of areas of atmospheric science. In this paper we show simulations using an idealised plume model which describes the relaxation of an urban plume into the background atmosphere. As might be anticipated, the initial conditions of NOx, O3 and VOCs within the plume and background are important in determining the chemistry downstream of the source, but crucially for this study, the rate of mixing (on timescales appropriate to the real atmosphere) is found to alter the composition of the atmosphere significantly. The model shows that NO3 chemistry can play a major role in the oxidation of biogenic VOCs present in the background atmosphere. In addition, the reaction of hydrocarbons with NO3 potentially has important implications for NOy speciation because a significant fraction of organic nitrates thus formed are sufficiently long-lived to leave the planetary boundary layer. A particularly critical result of the model is that under certain NOx conditions, O3 surface deposition can be significantly inhibited, with consequent effects on the O3 budget.

  20. Chemical composition of surface films on glass windows and implications for atmospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Buuan; Diamond, Miriam L.; Simpson, André J.; Makar, Paul A.; Truong, Jennifer; Hernandez-Martinez, Nadia A.

    Atmospherically derived surface films that cover impervious surfaces in cities, have areas comparable to that of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The films compete with PM for sorption of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds and alter the functionality of urban surfaces. The determination of surface-film composition is therefore vital to understanding their role in mediating chemical fate and transport within cities. Here, we show the composition of urban surface films collected from windows in downtown Toronto (Ontario, Canada) to be comprised of ˜94% inorganic compounds of which 8% are sulfate, 7% nitrate and 18% metals. Approximately 5% of the urban film mass is organic carbon, with ˜35% of the organic carbon mass corresponding to carbohydrates, ˜35% aliphatics, ˜20% aromatics and ˜10% carbonyls. The composition of surface films differs significantly from that of PM, suggesting differential accumulation, depositional degradation, and/or processes within films differing from those affecting PM. A rigid polymeric component comprising a small fraction of the organic carbon was also found, which may suggest direct deposition from environmental sources, or possible secondary in situ reactions within the film. Here, we suggest a potential mechanism for the oxidation of surface films to form organic polymers via radical initiation processes. Thus, the composition of surface films has important implications for chemical fate of contaminants within cities and presents a significant aspect of contaminant uptake that has not been considered in many air-quality models.

  1. Higgs Discovery: Impact on Composite Dynamics Technicolor & eXtreme Compositeness Thinking Fast and Slow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannino, Francesco

    I discuss the impact of the discovery of a Higgs-like state on composite dynamics starting by critically examining the reasons in favour of either an elementary or composite nature of this state. Accepting the standard model interpretation I re-address the standard model vacuum stability within a Weyl-consistent computation. I will carefully examine the fundamental reasons why what has been discovered might not be the standard model Higgs. Dynamical electroweak breaking naturally addresses a number of the fundamental issues unsolved by the standard model interpretation. However this paradigm has been challenged by the discovery of a not-so-heavy Higgs-like state. I will therefore review the recent discovery1 that the standard model top-induced radiative corrections naturally reduce the intrinsic non-perturbative mass of the composite Higgs state towards the desired experimental value. Not only we have a natural and testable working framework but we have also suggested specic gauge theories that can realise, at the fundamental level, these minimal models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. These strongly coupled gauge theories are now being heavily investigated via first principle lattice simulations with encouraging results. The new findings show that the recent naive claims made about new strong dynamics at the electroweak scale being disfavoured by the discovery of a not-so-heavy composite Higgs are unwarranted. I will then introduce the more speculative idea of extreme compositeness according to which not only the Higgs sector of the standard model is composite but also quarks and leptons, and provide a toy example in the form of gauge-gauge duality.

  2. Atmospheric dynamics. Constrained work output of the moist atmospheric heat engine in a warming climate.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, F; Zika, J; Mudryk, L; Kushner, P J; Kjellsson, J; Döös, K

    2015-01-30

    Incoming and outgoing solar radiation couple with heat exchange at Earth's surface to drive weather patterns that redistribute heat and moisture around the globe, creating an atmospheric heat engine. Here, we investigate the engine's work output using thermodynamic diagrams computed from reanalyzed observations and from a climate model simulation with anthropogenic forcing. We show that the work output is always less than that of an equivalent Carnot cycle and that it is constrained by the power necessary to maintain the hydrological cycle. In the climate simulation, the hydrological cycle increases more rapidly than the equivalent Carnot cycle. We conclude that the intensification of the hydrological cycle in warmer climates might limit the heat engine's ability to generate work.

  3. Lunar atmosphere. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere.

    PubMed

    Colaprete, A; Sarantos, M; Wooden, D H; Stubbs, T J; Cook, A M; Shirley, M

    2016-01-15

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition.

  4. Atmospheric-pressure-plasma-jet sintered nanoporous AlN/CNT composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yi-Fan; Yeh, Po-Wei; Cheng, I.-Chun; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2016-07-01

    A nanoporous AlN-5 wt% CNT composite is successfully sintered using atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs). The AlN in an APPJ-sintered AlN/CNT composite shows a pure hexagonal [space group: P63mc] crystal structure. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) results indicate that the CN violet emission intensity rapidly increases and then decreases owing to the vigorous interaction between the nitrogen APPJ and the carbonaceous materials in the printed pastes. Because the vigorous interaction may over-burn the CNTs, the conductivity of AlN first increases and then decreases as the APPJ sintering duration increases. APPJ-sintered AlN/CNT composites exhibit good CF4 inductively coupled plasma erosion resistant property.

  5. Lunar atmosphere. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere.

    PubMed

    Colaprete, A; Sarantos, M; Wooden, D H; Stubbs, T J; Cook, A M; Shirley, M

    2016-01-15

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition. PMID:26678876

  6. The atmospheric structure and dynamical properties of Neptune derived from ground-based and IUE spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, K. H.; Smith, H. Wm.

    1990-05-01

    A wide range of recent full-disk spectral observations is used to constrain the atmospheric structure and dynamical properties of Neptune; analytical determinations are made of the abundances of such spectrally active gas species as the deep-atmosphere CH4 molar fraction and the mean ortho/para hydrogen ratio in the visible atmosphere, as well as stratospheric and tropospheric aerosol properties. Compared to Uranus, the greater abundance and shorter lifetimes of Neptunian particulates in the stratospheric region irradiated by the solar UV flux indicate that such radiation is the darkening agent of stratospheric aerosols on both planets.

  7. Understanding dynamics of large-scale atmospheric vortices with moist-convective shallow water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami, M.; Zeitlin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric jets and vortices which, together with inertia-gravity waves, constitute the principal dynamical entities of large-scale atmospheric motions, are well described in the framework of one- or multi-layer rotating shallow water models, which are obtained by vertically averaging of full “primitive” equations. There is a simple and physically consistent way to include moist convection in these models by adding a relaxational parameterization of precipitation and coupling precipitation with convective fluxes with the help of moist enthalpy conservation. We recall the construction of moist-convective rotating shallow water model (mcRSW) model and give an example of application to upper-layer atmospheric vortices.

  8. The atmospheric structure and dynamical properties of Neptune derived from ground-based and IUE spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Smith, Wm. Hayden

    1990-01-01

    A wide range of recent full-disk spectral observations is used to constrain the atmospheric structure and dynamical properties of Neptune; analytical determinations are made of the abundances of such spectrally active gas species as the deep-atmosphere CH4 molar fraction and the mean ortho/para hydrogen ratio in the visible atmosphere, as well as stratospheric and tropospheric aerosol properties. Compared to Uranus, the greater abundance and shorter lifetimes of Neptunian particulates in the stratospheric region irradiated by the solar UV flux indicate that such radiation is the darkening agent of stratospheric aerosols on both planets.

  9. Constraints on Earth degassing history from the argon isotope composition of Devonian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, F. M.; Mark, D.

    2012-04-01

    The primordial and radiogenic isotopes of the noble gases combine to make them a powerful tool for determining the time and tempo of the outgassing of the Earth's interior. The outgassing history of the Earth is largely constrained from measurements of the isotopic composition of He, Ne, Ar and Xe in samples of modern mantle, crust and atmosphere. There have been few unequivocal measurement of the isotopic composition of noble gases in ancient atmosphere. We have re-visited whether ancient Ar is trapped in the ~400 Ma Rhynie chert [1]. We have analysed samples of pristine Rhynie chert using the ARGUS multi-collector mass spectrometer calibrated against the new determination of atmospheric Ar isotope ratios [2]. 40Ar/36Ar ratios are low, with many lower than the modern air value (298.8). Importantly these are accompanied by atmospheric 38Ar/36Ar ratios indicating that the low 40Ar/36Ar are not due to mass fractionation. We conclude that the Rhynie chert has captured Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar. The data indicate that the Devonian atmosphere 40Ar/36Ar was at least 3 % lower than the modern air value. Thus the Earth's atmosphere has accumulated at least 5 ± 0.2 x 1016 moles of 40Ar in the last 400 million years, at an average rate of 1.24 ± 0.06 x 108 mol 40Ar/year. This overlaps the rate determined from ice cores for the last 800,000 years [3] and implies that there has been no resolvable temporal change in Earth outgassing rate since mid-Palaeozoic times. The new data require the Earth outgassed early, and suggests that pristine samples of Archaean and Proterozoic chert may prove useful as palaeo-atmosphere tracers. [1] G. Turner, J. Geol. Soc. London 146, 147-154 (1989) [2] D. Mark, F.M. Stuart, M. de Podesta, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 7494-7501 [3] M. Bender et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 105, 8232-8237 (2008)

  10. Atmospheric dynamics in Laboratory Biosphere with wheat and sweet potato crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Nelson, M.; Silvertone, S.; van Thillo, M.

    Laboratory Biosphere is a 40 m3 closed life system equipped with 12000 watts of high pressure sodium lamps over planting beds with 5.37 m2 of soil. Atmospheric composition changes due to photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide and corresponding production of oxygen or the reverse, respiration, are observed in short timeframes, eg. hourly. To focus on inherent characteristics of the crop as distinct from its area or the volume of the chamber, we report fixation and respiration rates in millimoles per hour per square meter of planted area. An 85 day crop of USU Apogee wheat under a 16 hour lighted / 8 hour dark regime peaked in fixation rate at about 100 mmol h-1 m-2 approximately 24 days after planting. Light intensity was about 840 mol m-2 s-1. Dark respiration peaked at about 31 mmol h-1 m-2 at the same time. Thereafter, both fixation and respiration declined toward zero as harvest time approached. A residual soil respiration rate of about 1.9 mmol h-1 m-2 was observed in the dark closed chamber for 100 days after the harvest. A 126 day crop of Tuskegee TU-82-155 sweet potato behaved quite differently. Under a 680 mol m-2 s-1, 18 hour lighted / 6 hour dark regime, fixation during lighted hours rose to a plateau ranging from about 27 to 48 mmol h-1 m-2 after 42 days and respiration settled into a range of 12 to 23 mmol h-1 m-2. These rates continued unabated until the harvest at 126 days, suggesting that tuber biomass production might have continued at about the same rate for some time beyond the harvest time that was exercised in this experiment. In both experiments CO2 levels were allowed to range widely from a few hundred ppm to about 3000 ppm, which permitted observation of fixation rates both at varying CO2 concentrations and at each number of days after planting. This enables plotting the fixation rate as a function of both variables. Understanding the atmospheric dynamics of individual crops will be essential for design and atmospheric management of more

  11. Atmospheric dynamics in the “Laboratory Biosphere” with wheat and sweet potato crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, William F.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Silverstone, S.; Van Thillo, M.

    Laboratory Biosphere is a 40-m 3 closed life system equipped with 12,000 W of high pressure sodium lamps over planting beds with 5.37 m 2 of soil. Atmospheric composition changes due to photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide and corresponding production of oxygen or the reverse, respiration, are observed in short timeframes, e.g., hourly. To focus on inherent characteristics of the crop as distinct from its area or the volume of the chamber, we report fixation and respiration rates in mmol h -1 m -2 of planted area. An 85-day crop of USU Apogee wheat under a 16-h lighted/8-h dark regime peaked in fixation rate at about 100 mmol h -1 m -2 approximately 24 days after planting. Light intensity was about 840 μmol m -2 s -1. Dark respiration peaked at about 31 mmol h -1 m -2 at the same time. Thereafter, both fixation and respiration declined toward zero as harvest time approached. A residual soil respiration rate of about 1.9 mmol h -1 m -2 was observed in the dark closed chamber for 100 days after the harvest. A 126-day crop of Tuskegee TU-82-155 sweet potato behaved quite differently. Under a 680 μmol m -2 s -1, 18-h lighted/6-h dark regime, fixation during lighted hours rose to a plateau ranging from about 27 to 48 mmol h -1 m -2 after 42 days and dark respiration settled into a range of 12-23 mmol h -1 m -2. These rates continued unabated until the harvest at 126 days, suggesting that tuber biomass production might have continued at about the same rate for some time beyond the harvest time that was exercised in this experiment. In both experiments CO 2 levels were allowed to range widely from a few hundred to about 3000 ppm, which permitted observation of fixation rates both at varying CO 2 concentrations and at each number of days after planting. This enables plotting the fixation rate as a function of both variables. Understanding the atmospheric dynamics of individual crops will be essential for design and atmospheric management of more complex CELSS which

  12. Dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to global temperature changes between 1850 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weile; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Changes in Earth's temperature have significant impacts on the global carbon cycle that vary at different time scales, yet to quantify such impacts with a simple scheme is traditionally deemed difficult. Here, we show that, by incorporating a temperature sensitivity parameter (1.64 ppm yr-1 °C-1) into a simple linear carbon-cycle model, we can accurately characterize the dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to anthropogenic carbon emissions and global temperature changes between 1850 and 2010 ( r 2 > 0.96 and the root-mean-square error < 1 ppm for the period from 1960 onward). Analytical analysis also indicates that the multiplication of the parameter with the response time of the atmospheric carbon reservoir (~12 year) approximates the long-term temperature sensitivity of global atmospheric CO2 concentration (~15 ppm °C-1), generally consistent with previous estimates based on reconstructed CO2 and climate records over the Little Ice Age. Our results suggest that recent increases in global surface temperatures, which accelerate the release of carbon from the surface reservoirs into the atmosphere, have partially offset surface carbon uptakes enhanced by the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and slowed the net rate of atmospheric CO2 sequestration by global land and oceans by ~30% since the 1960s. The linear modeling framework outlined in this paper thus provides a useful tool to diagnose the observed atmospheric CO2 dynamics and monitor their future changes.

  13. The dynamic response of carbon fiber-filled polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattelbaum, D. M.; Gustavsen, R. L.; Sheffield, S. A.; Stahl, D. B.; Scharff, R. J.; Rigg, P. A.; Furmanski, J.; Orler, E. B.; Patterson, B.; Coe, J. D.

    2012-08-01

    The dynamic (shock) responses of two carbon fiber-filled polymer composites have been quantified using gas gun-driven plate impact experimentation. The first composite is a filament-wound, highly unidirectional carbon fiber-filled epoxy with a high degree of porosity. The second composite is a chopped carbon fiber- and graphite-filled phenolic resin with little-to-no porosity. Hugoniot data are presented for the carbon fiber-epoxy (CE) composite to 18.6 GPa in the through-thickness direction, in which the shock propagates normal to the fibers. The data are best represented by a linear Rankine-Hugoniot fit: Us = 2.87 + 1.17 ×up(ρ0 = 1.536g/cm3). The shock wave structures were found to be highly heterogeneous, both due to the anisotropic nature of the fiber-epoxy microstructure, and the high degree of void volume. Plate impact experiments were also performed on a carbon fiber-filled phenolic (CP) composite to much higher shock input pressures, exceeding the reactants-to-products transition common to polymers. The CP was found to be stiffer than the filament-wound CE in the unreacted Hugoniot regime, and transformed to products near the shock-driven reaction threshold on the principal Hugoniot previously shown for the phenolic binder itself. [19] On-going research is focused on interrogating the direction-dependent dyanamic response and dynamic failure strength (spall) for the CE composite in the TT and 0∘ (fiber) directions.

  14. Three-dimensional dynamical and chemical modelling of the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    Progress in coding a 3-D upper atmospheric model and in modeling the ozone perturbation resulting from the shuttle booster exhaust is reported. A time-dependent version of a 2-D model was studied and the sulfur cycle in the stratosphere was investigated. The role of meteorology in influencing stratospheric composition measurements was also studied.

  15. Corona-like atmospheric escape from KBOs. I. Gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Amit; Podolak, Morris

    2009-08-01

    We show that for low temperatures ( T˜30 K) and small, but non-negligible, gravitational fields the hydrodynamic escape of gas can be treated by Parker's theory of coronal expansion [Parker, E.N., 1963. Interplanetary Dynamical Processes. Interscience Publishers, New York]. We apply this theory to gas escape from Kuiper belt objects. We derive limits on the density and radius of the bodies for which this theory is applicable, and show how the flow depends on the mean molecular weight and internal degrees of freedom of the gas molecules. We use these results to explain the CH 4 dichotomy seen on KBOs [Schaller, E.L., Brown, M.E., 2007. Astrophys. J., 659, L61-L64].

  16. Laboratory analogues simulating Titan's atmospheric aerosols: Compared chemical compositions of grains and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Nathalie; Jomard, François; Vigneron, Jackie; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Cernogora, Guy

    2016-09-01

    Two sorts of solid organic samples can be produced in laboratory experiments simulating Titan's atmospheric reactivity: grains in the volume and thin films on the reactor walls. We expect that grains are more representative of Titan's atmospheric aerosols, but films are used to provide optical indices for radiative models of Titan's atmosphere. The aim of the present study is to address if these two sorts of analogues are chemically equivalent or not, when produced in the same N2-CH4 plasma discharge. The chemical compositions of both these materials are measured by using elemental analysis, XPS analysis and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. The main parameter probed is the CH4/N2 ratio to explore various possible chemical regimes. We find that films are homogeneous but significantly less rich in nitrogen and hydrogen than grains produced in the same experimental conditions. This surprising difference in their chemical compositions could be explained by the efficient etching occurring on the films, which stay in the discharge during the whole plasma duration, whereas the grains are ejected after a few minutes. The higher nitrogen content in the grains possibly involves a higher optical absorption than the one measured on the films, with a possible impact on Titan's radiative models.

  17. The Sturgeon Falls paleosol and the composition of the atmosphere 1.1 Ga BP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zbinden, E. A.; Holland, H. D.; Feakes, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    A paleosol is exposed along the north bank of the Sturgeon River, some 25 km SW of Baraga, Michigan. The paleosol was developed on hydrothermally altered Keweenawan basalt and is overlain by the Jacobsville sandstone. Textures, mineralogy, and chemical composition change gradually upwards from unweathered metabasalt, through the paleosol, to the contact of the paleosol with the Jacobsville sandstone. Many of these changes are similar to those in modern soils developed on basaltic rocks. However, K has clearly been added to the paleosol, probably by solutions which had equilibrated with K-feldspar in the Jacobsville sandstone. The Keweenawan basalt was oxidized quite extensively during its conversion to greenstone. During weathering, the remaining Fe2+ was oxidized to Fe3+ and was retained in the paleosol. The composition of the parent greenstone and its change during weathering can be used to define an approximate lower limit to the ratio of the O2 pressure to the CO2 pressure in the atmosphere during the formation of the paleosol [formula: see text]. Free O2 must have been present in the atmosphere 1.1 Ga ago, but its partial pressure could have been 10(3) times lower than in the atmosphere today.

  18. Precessional forced extratropical North Pacific mode and associated atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Zhao, Ping; Jian, Zhimin; Xiao, Dong; Chen, Junming

    2014-06-01

    Using transient accelerated simulations of the Community Climate System Model version 3 and an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity as well as equilibrium experiments of the Community Earth System Model, we identified a response of the extratropical air-ocean coupled system to the precessional insolation changes at orbital timescales and named this extratropical response pattern as the North Pacific mode (NPM). Corresponding to the increased/decreased boreal winter/summer insolation at 22 ka (relative to 10-8 ka), the NPM is characterized by a western warm-eastern cold seesaw pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) over the extratropical North Pacific from November to April, a weakened winter Aleutian low and an anomalous anticyclonic circulation throughout the troposphere. This feature forms a barotropic warm-ridge response of tropospheric temperature and geopotential height to the precessional insolation. At the surface, rainfall increases over East Asia and the Northwest Pacific, which indicates a weakened East Asian winter monsoon, while drier conditions appear over the Northeast Pacific and the western coasts of North America. Associated with a negative phase of NPM is a weaker warming over the equatorial Pacific during winter. The increased winter insolation at precessional band not only induces the in-phase SST warming over the Northwest Pacific and the tropical Pacific, but also explains those extratropical atmospheric changes associated with NPM. The latter might be associated with the warm SST-induced tropospheric downstream ridge response through transient eddy activities. Besides the vital role of air-ocean interactions, the decreased summer insolation is also essential to the zonal SST seesaw of NPM at precessional band.

  19. Detecting the dynamical state of the atmosphere from the orbital decay of the ODERACS spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Arjun

    1996-01-01

    The orbital decay curve of a satellite having constant cross-sectional area and in circular orbit can furnish valuable information regarding the dynamical state of the atmosphere. It is shown that a rectilinear decay curve having constant downward slope (zero curvature) should indicate that the atmosphere was undergoing compression during that period. A decay curve having concavity upwards (positive curvature) will strongly indicate that the atmosphere was in a contracting phase. A decay curve with downward concavity (negative curvature) may indicate an expanding, a stationary or a contracting atmosphere. This theory, when applied to the orbital decay of the Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS) satellites, indicates that during the period from Day 90 through Day 240 in the year 1994, the atmosphere was very definitely in a compression mode. During this period, ODERACS Sphere 1 faced nearly constant densities while Sphere 6 actually encountered progressively smaller air densities as they descended. The atmospheric scale height as calculated from the orbital data of Spheres 1 and 6 diminished steadily during the same period. It is shown that Spheres 1 and 6 descended faster and slower respectively, than the level of constant air density equal to 5 x 10 kg/m . During a brief period from Day 240 through Day 290, the atmosphere reversed to a strongly expanding mode. Thereafter, the atmosphere reverted back to a compression mode from Day 290 through Day 390, 1994.

  20. The East African March-May Rainy Season: Associated Atmospheric Dynamics and Predictability over the 1968-97 Period.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camberlin, P.; Philippon, N.

    2002-05-01

    This paper focuses on the East African March-May `long rains.' Particularly, it investigates the atmospheric patterns associated to the March-May rainfall anomalies, then proposes a seasonal prediction model.In a preliminary step, in order to define a regional rainfall index, a new form of extended principal component analysis is performed, aimed at capturing both the spatial and intraseasonal rainfall coherence. What emerges is that although the long rains exhibit a low temporal coherence, calling for a separation between the months of March-April and May in teleconnection studies, they show a relatively strong spatial consistency over the Kenya-Uganda inland region.From composite analyses performed using NCEP-NCAR reanalyzed atmospheric data, three major signals appear for that region. Two are during March-April involving ENSO and the latitudinal location of the ITCZ, and ENSO interactions with the northern extratropical dynamics (by way of cool surges toward the Tropics and upper-ridge-trough systems). The third signal is the Asian monsoon in May. As shown using a rainfall index for Ethiopia, the interactions with the midlatitudes get stronger when considering rainfall farther to the north.The predictability study identifies four February indexes, involving several scales and several atmospheric and oceanic parameters, to serve as predictors in linear multiple regression (LMR) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models. The predictors, selected by a stepwise procedure, depict both regional (energy gradient and zonal wind) and remote dynamics (ENSO and 500-hPa geopotential height over the Near East): they are consistent with the signals shown in the synchronous composites. The robustness of the LMR and LDA models is demonstrated by the high linear error in probability space (LEPS) scores (44% for continuous variables and 51% for categorical variables) obtained on cross-validated results.

  1. [Composition characteristics of atmospheric volatile organic compounds in the urban area of Beibei District, Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Hao, Qing-ju; Ji, Dong-sheng; Zhang, Jun-ke; Liu, Zi-rui; Hu, Bo; Wang, Yue-si; Jiang, Chang-sheng

    2014-09-01

    In order to study the composition and distribution of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) in the atmosphere in the urban area of Beibei district, Chongqing, atmospheric samples were collected from March 2012 to February 2013 with special stainless steel cylinders, and analyzed with a three-stage preconcentration method coupled with GC-MS. 78 species of VOCs were detected in this study, of which there were 25 species of alkanes, 15 species of olefins, 28 species of aromatic hydrocarbons and 10 species of halogenated hydrocarbons. The results showed that the top seven species of VOCs according to the order of annual average concentration in the atmosphere of Beibei were: Dichloromethane (3. 08 x 10(-9) ) , Benzene (2. 09 x 10-9) , Isopentane (1. 85 x 10 -9) , Toluene (1. 51 x 10(-9)) , Propane (1. 51 x 10(-9)), m/p-xylene (1.43 x 10(-9)) and Styrene (1. 39 x 10-9). The concentration of TVOCs (Total Volatile Organic Compounds) in the atmosphere of Beibei was 33. 89 x 10 -9 during the measuring period, and the seasonal variation was obvious with the order of spring (42. 57 x 10 -9) > autumn (33.89 x 10-9) > winter (31.91 x 10 -9) > summer (27.04 x 10(-9)). In the composition of TVOCs, alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons provided the largest contribution to TVOCs (31.5% and 30.7% ) , followed by halogenated hydrocarbon, accounting for 27.4% , and the last one was olefins, with only 10.4%. By means of ozone formation potential, the analysis results showed that olefins and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were the two important materials which made the biggest contribution to the formation of ozone in the atmosphere of Beibei. We further analyzed the sources of VOCs in atmosphere of Beibei by the method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Vehicle exhaust was the biggest source and its contribution to VOCs was 50. 41%. The calculated results with T/B value also confirmed that traffic was the biggest source contributing to the VOCs in atmosphere of Beibei.

  2. Overview of atmospheric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rote, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Effluents from the transportation system are the major cause of Satellite Power System related atmospheric effects. These effects are discussed and include inadvertent weather modification, air quality degradation, compositional changes in the stratosphere and mesosphere, formation of noctilucent clouds, plasma density changes, airglow enhancements, and changes in composition and dynamics of the plasmasphere and magnetosphere.

  3. The role of planetary formation and evolution in shaping the composition of exoplanetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrini, D.; Nelson, R. P.; Barbieri, M.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last twenty years, the search for extrasolar planets has revealed the rich diversity of outcomes from the formation and evolution of planetary systems. In order to fully understand how these extrasolar planets came to be, however, the orbital and physical data we possess are not enough, and they need to be complemented with information about the composition of the exoplanets. Ground-based and space-based observations provided the first data on the atmospheric composition of a few extrasolar planets, but a larger and more detailed sample is required before we can fully take advantage of it. The primary goal of a dedicated space mission like the Exoplanet Characterization Observatory (EChO) proposal is to fill this gap and to expand the limited data we possess by performing a systematic survey of extrasolar planets. The full exploitation of the data that space-based and ground-based facilities will provide in the near future, however, requires knowledge about the sources and sinks of the chemical species and molecules that will be observed. Luckily, the study of the past history of the Solar System provides several indications about the effects of processes like migration, late accretion and secular impacts, and on the time they occur in the life of planetary systems. In this work we will review what is already known about the factors influencing the composition of planetary atmospheres, focusing on the case of gaseous giant planets, and what instead still need to be investigated.

  4. Chemical composition measurements of the atmosphere of Jupiter with the Galileo Probe mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Carignan, G. R.; Donahue, T. M.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Hartle, R. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Owen, T. C.; Spencer, N. W.

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo Probe entered the atmosphere of Jupiter on December 7, 1995. Measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere were obtained by the mass spectrometer during the descent over the 0.5 to 21 bar pressure region over a time period of approximately 1 hour. The sampling was either of atmospheric gases directly introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer through capillary leaks or of gas, which had been chemically processed to enhance the sensitivity of the measurement to trace species or noble gases. The analysis of this data set continues to be refined based on supporting laboratory studies on an engineering unit. The mixing ratios of the major constituents of the atmosphere hydrogen and helium have been determined as well as mixing ratios or upper limits for several less abundant species including: methane, water, ammonia, ethane, ethylene, propane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Analysis also suggests the presence of trace levels of other 3 and 4 carbon hydrocarbons, or carbon and nitrogen containing species, phosphine, hydrogen chloride, and of benzene. The data set also allows upper limits to be set for many species of interest which were not detected. Isotope ratios were measured for 3He/4He, D/H, 13C/12C, 20Ne/22Ne, 38Ar/36Ar and for isotopes of both Kr and Xe.

  5. Chemical composition measurements of the atmosphere of Jupiter with the Galileo Probe mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Niemann, H B; Atreya, S K; Carignan, G R; Donahue, T M; Haberman, J A; Harpold, D N; Hartle, R E; Hunten, D M; Kasprzak, W T; Mahaffy, P R; Owen, T C; Spencer, N W

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo Probe entered the atmosphere of Jupiter on December 7, 1995. Measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere were obtained by the mass spectrometer during the descent over the 0.5 to 21 bar pressure region over a time period of approximately 1 hour. The sampling was either of atmospheric gases directly introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer through capillary leaks or of gas, which had been chemically processed to enhance the sensitivity of the measurement to trace species or noble gases. The analysis of this data set continues to be refined based on supporting laboratory studies on an engineering unit. The mixing ratios of the major constituents of the atmosphere hydrogen and helium have been determined as well as mixing ratios or upper limits for several less abundant species including: methane, water, ammonia, ethane, ethylene, propane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Analysis also suggests the presence of trace levels of other 3 and 4 carbon hydrocarbons, or carbon and nitrogen containing species, phosphine, hydrogen chloride, and of benzene. The data set also allows upper limits to be set for many species of interest which were not detected. Isotope ratios were measured for 3He/4He, D/H, 13C/12C, 20Ne/22Ne, 38Ar/36Ar and for isotopes of both Kr and Xe. PMID:11541457

  6. Chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation on the south of Ukraine (Crimea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymenko, O.; Klymenko, M.

    The data of long monitoring of volume and chemical content of atmospheric precipitation in steppe Crimea near to the large plantations of fruit orchards are given The purpose of researches was detection of acid deposits establishment of connection them dI with chemical structure for the operative tracking behind a condition of air It was established that the sum of precipitations for year was increased basically at the summer deposits The annual volume-weighted logarithmic range of dI values were 4 83-5 73 in precipitation There were more less values in a cold season than in warm one The absolute minimum was equal 3 82 For the researched period mean dI values of atmospheric precipitation in a cold season gradually raised and in warm - was reduced and has reached the minimum in 2000-2001 years It resulted in damages of fruit plants during long term rains in vegetation period The dominant anion in atmospheric precipitation was SO 4 2- which content basically determined of them acidification The important role in this process also belongs to ions NO 3 - and Cl - Mean seasons concentrations of these ions tend to increase It probably may be connected both to distant distribution of emission and with local anthropogenic activity In connection with an establishment of atmospheric precipitation acidification and also incidental and casual phenomenon there is a necessity of their composition monitoring for agricultural areas near to the large fruit plantations for big number years during whole year

  7. Family Background and Problems at School and in Society: The Role of Family Composition, Emotional Atmosphere, and Parental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onatsu-Arvilommi, Tiina Pepita; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    1997-01-01

    Examines how family composition, size, and atmosphere; parental control; and the level of parental education and socioeconomic status are associated with children's problems at school. Shows that underachievers came from families with absent natural fathers, lower parental control, and negative atmosphere; overachievers came from intact families…

  8. On the relationship between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics and chemistry at mid-latitudes - Part 1: Statistical models and spatial fingerprints of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frossard, L.; Rieder, H. E.; Ribatet, M.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Di Rocco, S.; Davison, A. C.; Peter, T.

    2013-01-01

    We use statistical models for mean and extreme values of total column ozone to analyze "fingerprints" of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry on long-term ozone changes at northern and southern mid-latitudes on grid cell basis. At each grid cell, the r-largest order statistics method is used for the analysis of extreme events in low and high total ozone (termed ELOs and EHOs, respectively), and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model is used for the corresponding mean value analysis. In order to describe the dynamical and chemical state of the atmosphere, the statistical models include important atmospheric covariates: the solar cycle, the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), ozone depleting substances (ODS) in terms of equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO), the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and aerosol load after the volcanic eruptions of El Chichón and Mt. Pinatubo. The influence of the individual covariates on mean and extreme levels in total column ozone is derived on a grid cell basis. The results show that "fingerprints", i.e., significant influence, of dynamical and chemical features are captured in both the "bulk" and the tails of the statistical distribution of ozone, respectively described by mean values and EHOs/ELOs. While results for the solar cycle, QBO, and EESC are in good agreement with findings of earlier studies, unprecedented spatial fingerprints are retrieved for the dynamical covariates. Column ozone is enhanced over Labrador/Greenland, the North Atlantic sector and over the Norwegian Sea, but is reduced over Europe, Russia and the Eastern United States during the positive NAO phase, and vice-versa during the negative phase. The NAO's southern counterpart, the AAO, strongly influences column ozone at lower southern mid-latitudes, including the southern parts of South America and the Antarctic Peninsula, and the central southern mid-latitudes. Results

  9. Study of atmospheric dynamics and pollution in the coastal area of English Channel using clustering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmenten, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The problem of atmospheric contamination by principal air pollutants was considered in the industrialized coastal region of English Channel in Dunkirk influenced by north European metropolitan areas. MESO-NH nested models were used for the simulation of the local atmospheric dynamics and the online calculation of Lagrangian backward trajectories with 15-minute temporal resolution and the horizontal resolution down to 500 m. The one-month mesoscale numerical simulation was coupled with local pollution measurements of volatile organic components, particulate matter, ozone, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Principal atmospheric pathways were determined by clustering technique applied to backward trajectories simulated. Six clusters were obtained which describe local atmospheric dynamics, four winds blowing through the English Channel, one coming from the south, and the biggest cluster with small wind speeds. This last cluster includes mostly sea breeze events. The analysis of meteorological data and pollution measurements allows relating the principal atmospheric pathways with local air contamination events. It was shown that contamination events are mostly connected with a channelling of pollution from local sources and low-turbulent states of the local atmosphere.

  10. High-Order Shock-Capturing Methods for Modeling Dynamics of the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kosovichev, Alexander; Levy, Doron

    2004-01-01

    We use one-dimensional high-order central shock capturing numerical methods to study the response of various model solar atmospheres to forcing at the solar surface. The dynamics of the atmosphere is modeled with the Euler equations in a variable-sized flux tube in the presence of gravity. We study dynamics of the atmosphere suggestive of spicule formation and coronal oscillations. These studies are performed on observationally-derived model atmospheres above the quiet sun and above sunspots. To perform these simulations, we provide a new extension of existing second- and third- order shock-capturing methods to irregular grids. We also solve the problem of numerically maintaining initial hydrostatic balance via the introduction of new variables in the model equations and a careful initialization mechanism. We find several striking results: all model atmospheres respond to a single impulsive perturbation with several strong shock waves consistent with the rebound-shock model. These shock waves lift material and the transition region well into the initial corona, and the sensitivity of this lift to the initial impulse depends non-linearly on the details of the atmosphere model. We also reproduce an observed 3-minute coronal oscillation above sunspots compared to 5-minute oscillations above the quiet sun.

  11. Measurement of atmospheric composition by the ATMOS instrument from Table Mountain Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunson, Michael R.; Irion, Fredrick W.

    1991-01-01

    Following its first flight on board the Space Shuttle 'Challenger' as part of the Spacelab 3 payload, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument has been operated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Observatory (TMO; 34.4 deg N, 117.7 deg W, 2.23 km altitude) in the San Gabriel Mountains of Southern California. With the delay in the resumption of regular Shuttle flights, ATMOS has acquired a large number of high-quality, high-resolution infrared solar absorption spectra, spanning a period between late-1985 and mid-1990. These spectra are being analyzed to derive the column abundances of several atmospheric species including O3, HCl, HF, and HNO3. Although limited in temporal coverage, the preliminary results for these gases are discussed here in the context of the requirement and contribution to be made by similar instruments in detecting long term changes in stratospheric composition.

  12. The composition of the primitive atmosphere and the synthesis of organic compounds on the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L.

    1985-01-01

    The generally accepted theory for the origin of life on the Earth requires that a large variety of organic compounds be present to form the first living organisms and to provide the energy sources for primitive life either directly or through various fermentation reactions. This can provide a strong constraint on discussions of the formation of the Earth and on the composition of the primitive atmosphere. In order for substantial amounts of organic compounds to have been present on the prebiological Earth, certain conditions must have existed. There is a large body of literature on the prebiotic synthesis of organic compounds in various postulated atmospheres. In this mixture of abiotically synthesized organic compounds, the amino acids are of special interest since they are utilized by modern organisms to synthesize structural materials and a large array of catalytic peptides.

  13. Strength and dynamic characteristics analyses of wound composite axial impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jifeng; Olortegui-Yume, Jorge; Müller, Norbert

    2012-03-01

    A low cost, light weight, high performance composite material turbomachinery impeller with a uniquely designed blade patterns is analyzed. Such impellers can economically enable refrigeration plants to use water as a refrigerant (R718). A strength and dynamic characteristics analyses procedure is developed to assess the maximum stresses and natural frequencies of these wound composite axial impellers under operating loading conditions. Numerical simulation using FEM for two-dimensional and three-dimensional impellers was investigated. A commercially available software ANSYS is used for the finite element calculations. Analysis is done for different blade geometries and then suggestions are made for optimum design parameters. In order to avoid operating at resonance, which can make impellers suffer a significant reduction in the design life, the designer must calculate the natural frequency and modal shape of the impeller to analyze the dynamic characteristics. The results show that using composite Kevlar fiber/epoxy matrix enables the impeller to run at high tip speed and withstand the stresses, no critical speed will be matched during start-up and shut-down, and that mass imbalances of the impeller shall not pose a critical problem.

  14. Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Nickel-Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Morgana; Hanagud, Sathyanaraya; Thadhani, Naresh

    2005-07-01

    Epoxy-based composites reinforced with a mixture of micron-sized Ni and micron or nano-sized Al powders were fabricated as bulk materials by cast/curing. The structural/mechanical behavior of these materials was evaluated using elastic and plastic property measurements via static and dynamic compression tests performed on rod shaped samples. Reverse Taylor anvil-on-rod impact tests combined with velocity interferometry gave qualitative and quantitative information about the transient deformation and failure response of the composites. The material containing 20wt% epoxy and nano-sized Al powder showed the most superior mechanical properties in terms of elastic modulus, and static and dynamic compressive strength, and strain before fracture, as compared to the other reinforced cast materials. The results illustrate that nano-sized Al particles provide significant enhancement to strength of epoxy composites by dispersing in the epoxy and generating a nano-Al containing epoxy matrix with embedded Ni particles. Funding for this research was provided by AFOSR/MURI Grant No. F49620-02-1-0382.

  15. Reduction Dynamics of Doped Ceria, Nickel Oxide, and Cermet Composites Probed Using In Situ Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shearing, Paul R.; Brightman, Edward; Brett, Dan J. L.; Brandon, Nigel P.; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2016-01-01

    The redox properties of gadolinium doped ceria (CGO) and nickel oxide (NiO) composite cermets underpin the operation of solid oxide electrochemical cells. Although these systems have been widely studied, a full comprehension of the reaction dynamics at the interface of these materials is lacking. Here, in situ Raman spectroscopic monitoring of the redox cycle is used to investigate the interplay between the dynamic and competing processes of hydrogen spillover and water dissociation on the doped ceria surface. In order to elucidate these mechanisms, the redox process in pure CGO and NiO is studied when exposed to wet and dry hydrogen and is compared to the cermet behavior. In dry hydrogen, CGO reduces relatively rapidly via a series of intermediate phases, while NiO reduces via a single‐step process. In wet reducing atmospheres, however, the oxidation state of pure CGO is initially stabilized due to the dissociation of water by reduced Ce(III) and subsequent incorporation of oxygen into the structure. In the reduction process involving the composite cermet, the close proximity of the NiO improves the efficiency and speed of the composite reduction process. Although NiO is already incorporated into working cells, these observations suggest direct routes to further improve cell performance. PMID:27595058

  16. Reduction Dynamics of Doped Ceria, Nickel Oxide, and Cermet Composites Probed Using In Situ Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shearing, Paul R.; Brightman, Edward; Brett, Dan J. L.; Brandon, Nigel P.; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2016-01-01

    The redox properties of gadolinium doped ceria (CGO) and nickel oxide (NiO) composite cermets underpin the operation of solid oxide electrochemical cells. Although these systems have been widely studied, a full comprehension of the reaction dynamics at the interface of these materials is lacking. Here, in situ Raman spectroscopic monitoring of the redox cycle is used to investigate the interplay between the dynamic and competing processes of hydrogen spillover and water dissociation on the doped ceria surface. In order to elucidate these mechanisms, the redox process in pure CGO and NiO is studied when exposed to wet and dry hydrogen and is compared to the cermet behavior. In dry hydrogen, CGO reduces relatively rapidly via a series of intermediate phases, while NiO reduces via a single‐step process. In wet reducing atmospheres, however, the oxidation state of pure CGO is initially stabilized due to the dissociation of water by reduced Ce(III) and subsequent incorporation of oxygen into the structure. In the reduction process involving the composite cermet, the close proximity of the NiO improves the efficiency and speed of the composite reduction process. Although NiO is already incorporated into working cells, these observations suggest direct routes to further improve cell performance.

  17. Future possibilities in objective analysis and data assimilation for atmospheric dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.

    1985-01-01

    The role that dynamics plays in estimating the state of the atmosphere from incomplete and noisy data is reviewed. Objective analysis represents an attempt at relying mostly on the data and minimizing the role of dynamics in the estimation. Data assimilation tries to balance properly the roles of dynamical and observational information. Sequential estimation is presented as the proper framework for understanding this balance, and the Kalman filter as the ideal, optimal procedure for data assimilation. The optimal filter computes forecast error covariances of a given atmospheric model exactly, and hence data assimilation should be closely connected with predictability studies. This connection is described, and consequences drawn for currently active areas of the atmospheric and related sciences, namely, mesoscale meteorology, long range forecasting, and upper ocean dynamics. Possibilities offered by judicious data assimilation in understanding barotropic adjustment, a phenomenon that appears to play a crucial role in atmospheric behavior on the scale of weeks to months, and hence in long range forecasting are addressed.

  18. The Stratospheric Wind Ingrared Limb Sounder: Investigation of atmospheric dynamics and transport from Eos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccleese, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Infrared Limb Sounder (SWIRLS) is one of the instruments in the atmospheric sounder package to be flown by NASA on the Earth Observing System (EOS) B platform in the late 1990's. SWIRLS is designed to measure the horizontal vector wind field, atmospheric temperature, and the abundances and distributions of ozone and nitrous oxide in the middle atmosphere. These measurements will constitute a dynamical climatology of the stratosphere covering time scales ranging from diurnal to interannual. In addition, the SWIRLS investigation will quantify the physical mechanisms responsible for the structure and variations of stratospheric circulation and temperature fields, including the transport of species, particularly ozone, heat and momentum. Existing data sets lack the combination of accuracy, global and temporal coverage, spatial resoultion and simultaneity required to distinguish unambiguosly between the roles of dynamical and chemical processes in determining the current distribution of ozone and its evolution in the future. The measurement objectives, measurement approach, and instrumentation of SWIRLS is described.

  19. Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotope compositions of atmospheric sulfate in Baton Rouge, LA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Kathryn A.; Bao, Huiming

    Secondary atmospheric sulfates (SAS) is the ultimate oxidation product and sink for sulfur gases of biological, volcanic, and anthropogenic origins on Earth. Their presence in the atmosphere as aqueous or solid phases contributes to acid rain and climate change, thus, understanding SAS formation pathways is pertinent. There has been extensive measurement of δ34S values for SAS, which mainly aimed at source identification. Relatively fewer oxygen isotope compositions ( δ18O, Δ 17O), which are most useful for resolving competing oxidation pathways, were available, however. This study represents the first effort to characterize the Δ 17O, δ18O, and δ34S simultaneously for SAS in a tropospheric air shed. We measured a total of 20 samples collected in Baton Rouge (LA, USA) during a 600-day period. The isotope compositions for atmospheric sulfate range from +0.25‰ to +1.43‰ for Δ 17O, +11.8‰ to +19.3‰ for δ18O, and -1.4‰ to +3.8‰ for δ34S. No apparent correlation is found among Δ 17O, δ18O, or δ34S values. The Δ 17O has no seasonal variation and its values are consistent with an oxidation pathway dominated by aqueous H 2O 2. The δ18O and δ34S are within the range of those observed in other sites around the world and are not characteristic for Baton Rouge. Despite the huge variability in atmospheric condition among mid-latitude sites, the long-term average Δ 17O value for SAS appears to fall within a fairly narrow range from +0.6‰ to +0.8‰, which is ˜1‰ to 2‰ lower than those in polar sites.

  20. Carbon Observations from Geostationary Earth Orbit as Part of an Integrated Observing System for Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from the CHRONOS mission. The primary goal of this experiment is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from geostationary orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. CHRONOS observations would provide measurements not currently available or planned as part of a surface, suborbital and satellite integrated observing system for atmospheric composition over North America. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution, and CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth

  1. Deciphering the atmospheric composition of WASP-12b: A comprehensive analysis of its dayside emission

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Harrington, Joseph

    2014-08-10

    WASP-12b was the first planet reported to have a carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) greater than one in its dayside atmosphere. However, recent work to further characterize its atmosphere and confirm its composition has led to incompatible measurements and divergent conclusions. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ∼1'' from WASP-12 further complicates the analyses and subsequent interpretations. We present a uniform analysis of all available Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope secondary-eclipse data, including previously unpublished Spitzer measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The primary controversy in the literature has centered on the value and interpretation of the eclipse depth at 4.5 μm. Our new measurements and analyses confirm the shallow eclipse depth in this channel, as first reported by Campo and collaborators and used by Madhusudhan and collaborators to infer a carbon-rich composition. To explain WASP-12b's observed dayside emission spectrum, we implemented several recent retrieval approaches. We find that when we exclude absorption due to C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN, which are not universally considered in the literature, our models require implausibly large atmospheric CO{sub 2} abundances, regardless of the C/O. By including C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN in our models, we find that a physically plausible carbon-rich solution achieves the best fit to the available photometric and spectroscopic data. In comparison, the best-fit oxygen-rich models have abundances that are inconsistent with the chemical equilibrium expectations for hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and are 670 times less probable. Our best-fit solution is also 7.3 × 10{sup 6} times more probable than an isothermal blackbody model.

  2. Multi-Scale Compositionality: Identifying the Compositional Structures of Social Dynamics Using Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Huan-Kai; Marculescu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social media exhibit rich yet distinct temporal dynamics which cover a wide range of different scales. In order to study this complex dynamics, two fundamental questions revolve around (1) the signatures of social dynamics at different time scales, and (2) the way in which these signatures interact and form higher-level meanings. Method In this paper, we propose the Recursive Convolutional Bayesian Model (RCBM) to address both of these fundamental questions. The key idea behind our approach consists of constructing a deep-learning framework using specialized convolution operators that are designed to exploit the inherent heterogeneity of social dynamics. RCBM’s runtime and convergence properties are guaranteed by formal analyses. Results Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches both in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. Indeed, by applying the proposed method on two social network datasets, Twitter and Yelp, we are able to identify the compositional structures that can accurately characterize the complex social dynamics from these two social media. We further show that identifying these patterns can enable new applications such as anomaly detection and improved social dynamics forecasting. Finally, our analysis offers new insights on understanding and engineering social media dynamics, with direct applications to opinion spreading and online content promotion. PMID:25830775

  3. A compositional and dynamic model for face aging.

    PubMed

    Suo, Jinli; Zhu, Song-Chun; Shan, Shiguang; Chen, Xilin

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we present a compositional and dynamic model for face aging. The compositional model represents faces in each age group by a hierarchical And-Or graph, in which And nodes decompose a face into parts to describe details (e.g., hair, wrinkles, etc.) crucial for age perception and Or nodes represent large diversity of faces by alternative selections. Then a face instance is a transverse of the And-Or graph-parse graph. Face aging is modeled as a Markov process on the parse graph representation. We learn the parameters of the dynamic model from a large annotated face data set and the stochasticity of face aging is modeled in the dynamics explicitly. Based on this model, we propose a face aging simulation and prediction algorithm. Inversely, an automatic age estimation algorithm is also developed under this representation. We study two criteria to evaluate the aging results using human perception experiments: 1) the accuracy of simulation: whether the aged faces are perceived of the intended age group, and 2) preservation of identity: whether the aged faces are perceived as the same person. Quantitative statistical analysis validates the performance of our aging model and age estimation algorithm.

  4. Dynamic fracture of functionally graded magnetoelectroelastic composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stoynov, Y.; Dineva, P.

    2014-11-12

    The stress, magnetic and electric field analysis of multifunctional composites, weakened by impermeable cracks, is of fundamental importance for their structural integrity and reliable service performance. The aim is to study dynamic behavior of a plane of functionally graded magnetoelectroelastic composite with more than one crack. The coupled material properties vary exponentially in an arbitrary direction. The plane is subjected to anti-plane mechanical and in-plane electric and magnetic load. The boundary value problem described by the partial differential equations with variable coefficients is reduced to a non-hypersingular traction boundary integral equation based on the appropriate functional transform and frequency-dependent fundamental solution derived in a closed form by Radon transform. Software code based on the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is developed, validated and inserted in numerical simulations. The obtained results show the sensitivity of the dynamic stress, magnetic and electric field concentration in the cracked plane to the type and characteristics of the dynamic load, to the location and cracks disposition, to the wave-crack-crack interactions and to the magnitude and direction of the material gradient.

  5. Dynamic analysis of bi-stable composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconu, Cezar G.; Weaver, Paul M.; Arrieta, Andres F.

    2009-05-01

    The static and dynamic transitions between stable states for rectangular bi-stable laminated composite plates are considered. The laminated composite plates have nonsymmetric laminate configurations and are subjected to thermal curing in order to introduce residual stresses and to achieve bi-stability. As geometrically nonlinear effects occur, after curing, the plates are able to take multiple stable shapes at service or room temperature. A simple model for dynamic analysis of the snap-through phenomena is proposed based on strain field approximations for the plates. Hamilton's principle is applied in conjunction with the Rayleigh-Ritz method in order to achieve fast results. The model is used to evaluate the initial displacements for the stable states and also to investigate the static and dynamic transitions from one stable state to another. Parametric studies are carried out for various aspect ratios, laminate configurations and actuation loads and the results are compared with those obtained with finite element analysis in order to evaluate the accuracy of the model.

  6. A compositional and dynamic model for face aging.

    PubMed

    Suo, Jinli; Zhu, Song-Chun; Shan, Shiguang; Chen, Xilin

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we present a compositional and dynamic model for face aging. The compositional model represents faces in each age group by a hierarchical And-Or graph, in which And nodes decompose a face into parts to describe details (e.g., hair, wrinkles, etc.) crucial for age perception and Or nodes represent large diversity of faces by alternative selections. Then a face instance is a transverse of the And-Or graph-parse graph. Face aging is modeled as a Markov process on the parse graph representation. We learn the parameters of the dynamic model from a large annotated face data set and the stochasticity of face aging is modeled in the dynamics explicitly. Based on this model, we propose a face aging simulation and prediction algorithm. Inversely, an automatic age estimation algorithm is also developed under this representation. We study two criteria to evaluate the aging results using human perception experiments: 1) the accuracy of simulation: whether the aged faces are perceived of the intended age group, and 2) preservation of identity: whether the aged faces are perceived as the same person. Quantitative statistical analysis validates the performance of our aging model and age estimation algorithm. PMID:20075467

  7. Dynamically-Tunable Smart Composites Featuring Electro-Rheological Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Mukesh V.; Thompson, Brian S.

    1990-02-01

    A new generation of revolutionary multi-functional, dynamically-tunable, intelligent, ultra-advanced composite materials featuring electro-rheological fluids is proposed herein for the active continuum vibrational-control of structural systems. This paper reports on pioneering proof-of-concept experimental investigations focused on evaluating the elastodynamic transient and also the forced response characteristics of beams fabricated in this new class of materials. The results of these investigations clearly demonstrate the ability to dramatically change the vibrational characteristics of beam-like specimens fabricated in ultra-advanced composite materials by changing the electrical field imposed on the fluid domains. In addition, experimental results are presented which characterize the elastodynamic response of a connecting rod of a slider-crank mechanism fabricated in these ultra-advanced composite materials. Again, the combined forced and parametric responses are controlled by the voltage imposed on the electro-rheological fluid domain in the structure. The capability of these materials to interface with modern solid-state electronics can be exploited by extending the fundamental phenomenological work presented herein through the successful incorporation of intelligent sensor technologies and modern control strategies in order to significantly accelerate the evolution of these novel composite materials for the military and aerospace industries.

  8. A moist aquaplanet variant of the Held-Suarez test for atmospheric model dynamical cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, Diana R.; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2016-04-01

    A moist idealized test case (MITC) for atmospheric model dynamical cores is presented. The MITC is based on the Held-Suarez (HS) test that was developed for dry simulations on "a flat Earth" and replaces the full physical parameterization package with a Newtonian temperature relaxation and Rayleigh damping of the low-level winds. This new variant of the HS test includes moisture and thereby sheds light on the nonlinear dynamics-physics moisture feedbacks without the complexity of full-physics parameterization packages. In particular, it adds simplified moist processes to the HS forcing to model large-scale condensation, boundary-layer mixing, and the exchange of latent and sensible heat between the atmospheric surface and an ocean-covered planet. Using a variety of dynamical cores of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), this paper demonstrates that the inclusion of the moist idealized physics package leads to climatic states that closely resemble aquaplanet simulations with complex physical parameterizations. This establishes that the MITC approach generates reasonable atmospheric circulations and can be used for a broad range of scientific investigations. This paper provides examples of two application areas. First, the test case reveals the characteristics of the physics-dynamics coupling technique and reproduces coupling issues seen in full-physics simulations. In particular, it is shown that sudden adjustments of the prognostic fields due to moist physics tendencies can trigger undesirable large-scale gravity waves, which can be remedied by a more gradual application of the physical forcing. Second, the moist idealized test case can be used to intercompare dynamical cores. These examples demonstrate the versatility of the MITC approach and suggestions are made for further application areas. The new moist variant of the HS test can be considered a test case of intermediate complexity.

  9. The solar activity dependence of wave dynamical vertical coupling of atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, F. I.; Duggirala, P. R.; Lakshmi, T. V.; Reddy, M. A.; Veenadhari, B.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of oxygen dayglow emissions at OI 557.7, OI 630.0, and OI 777.4 nm showed that the wave dynamical vertical coupling of atmospheres is solar activity dependent. These emission intensities are obtained during January-March in the years 2011 and 2012 from Hyderabad (17.5oN, 78.5oE), India, using a high-spectral resolution multi-wavelength imaging echelle spectrograph (MISE). Spectral analysis of the variations revealed that oscillation periods near the atmospheric free-normal modes of 5, 10, 16, and 25 days (that are produced mainly in the troposphere) are found to register their presence in the upper atmospheric emission intensities. In an earlier study during high solar activity period (2001), the sunspot numbers (SSN) and the daily averaged OI 630.0 nm dayglow intensities were seen to be co-varying. In contrast, the variability in the dayglow emission intensities during relatively low solar activity period (2011) shows no or weaker correlation with that of the SSN but a greater similarity with that of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) strength. Whereas, oscillations of both lower atmospheric normal modes and those related to sunspot are found during moderate solar activity (2012). These results suggest that the upper atmosphere responds mainly to lower atmospheric forcing during low solar activity, to solar forcing during high solar activity, and to both lower atmosphere and solar forcings during moderate solar activity level. A statistical study of the shorter period variations in the gravity wave regime showed they are present in greater numbers in the thermosphere during higher solar activity, which is ascribed to be due to decreasing wave dissipation with increasing solar activity. These results will be presented in the context of short- and long-period wave dynamics in the whole atmosphere.

  10. Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Dynamics in a Simple Midlatitude Climate Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, David; Frankignoul, Claude; Marshall, John

    2001-09-01

    Midlatitude air-sea interactions are investigated by coupling a stochastically forced two-layer quasigeostrophic channel atmosphere to a simple ocean model. The stochastic forcing has a large-scale standing pattern to simulate the main modes of low-frequency atmospheric variability. When the atmosphere interacts with an oceanic mixed layer via surface heat exchanges, the white noise forcing generates an approximately red noise sea surface temperature (SST) response. As the SST adjusts to the air temperature changes at low frequency, thus decreasing the heat flux damping, the atmospheric spectra are slightly reddened, the power enhancement increasing with the zonal scale because of atmospheric dynamics. Decadal variability is enhanced by considering a first baroclinic oceanic mode that is forced by Ekman pumping and modulates the SST by entrainment and horizontal advection. The ocean interior is bounded at its eastern edge, and a radiation condition is used in the west. Primarily in wintertime conditions, a positive feedback takes place between the atmosphere and the ocean when the atmospheric response to the SST is equivalent barotropic. Then, the ocean interior modulates the SST in a way that leads to a reinforcement of its forcing by the wind stress, although the heat flux feedback is negative. The coupled mode propagates slowly westward with exponentially increasing amplitude, and it is fetch limited. The atmospheric and SST spectral power increase at all periods longer than 10 yr when the coupling with the ocean interior occurs by entrainment. When it occurs by advection, the power increase is primarily found at near-decadal periods, resulting in a slightly oscillatory behavior of the coupled system. Ocean dynamics thus leads to a small, but significant, long-term climate predictability, up to about 6 yr in advance in the entrainment case.

  11. Dynamic effects of interaction of composite projectiles with targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    The process of high-speed impact of projectiles against targets of finite thickness is experimentally investigated. Medium-hard steel plates are used as targets. The objective of this research is to carry out a comparative analysis of dynamic effects of interaction of various types of projectiles with targets, such as characteristics of destruction of the target, the state of the projectile behind the target, and particularities of the after-penetration stream of fragments after the target has been pierced. The projectiles are made of composites on the basis of tungsten carbide obtained by caking and the SHS-technology. To compare effectiveness of composite projectiles steel projectiles are used. Their effectiveness was estimated in terms of the ballistic limit. High density projectiles obtained by means of the SHS-technology are shown to produce results comparable in terms of the ballistic limit with high-strength projectiles that contain tungsten received by caking.

  12. SMA Hybrid Composites for Dynamic Response Abatement Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed constitutive model and a finite element formulation for predicting the thermomechanical response of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures is briefly described. Attention is focused on constrained recovery behavior in this study, but the constitutive formulation is also capable of modeling restrained or free recovery. Numerical results are shown for glass/epoxy panel specimens with embedded Nitinol actuators subjected to thermal and acoustic loads. Control of thermal buckling, random response, sonic fatigue, and transmission loss are demonstrated and compared to conventional approaches including addition of conventional composite layers and a constrained layer damping treatment. Embedded SMA actuators are shown to be significantly more effective in dynamic response abatement applications than the conventional approaches and are attractive for combination with other passive and/or active approaches.

  13. The puzzling chemical composition of GJ 436B'S atmosphere: Influence of tidal heating on the chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Agúndez, Marcelino; Selsis, Franck; Venot, Olivia; Iro, Nicolas

    2014-02-01

    The dissipation of the tidal energy deposited on eccentric planets may induce a heating of the planet that affects its atmospheric thermal structure. Here we study the influence of tidal heating on the atmospheric composition of the eccentric (e = 0.16) 'hot Neptune' GJ 436b, for which inconclusive chemical abundances are retrieved from multiwavelength photometric observations carried out during primary transit and secondary eclipse. We build up a one-dimensional model of GJ 436b's atmosphere in the vertical direction and compute the pressure-temperature and molecular abundances profiles for various plausible internal temperatures of the planet (up to 560 K) and metallicities (from solar to 100 times solar), using a radiative-convective model and a chemical model which includes thermochemical kinetics, vertical mixing, and photochemistry. We find that the CO/CH{sub 4} abundance ratio increases with metallicity and tidal heating, and ranges from 1/20 to 1000 within the ranges of metallicity and internal temperature explored. Water vapor locks most of the oxygen and reaches a very high abundance, whatever the metallicity and internal temperature of the planet. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O abundance ratio increases dramatically with metallicity, and takes values between 10{sup –5}-10{sup –4} with solar elemental abundances and ∼0.1 for a metallicity 100 times solar. None of the atmospheric models based on solid physical and chemical grounds provide a fully satisfactory agreement with available observational data, although the comparison of calculated spectra and observations seems to point to models with a high metallicity and efficient tidal heating, in which high CO/CH{sub 4} abundance ratios and warm temperatures in the dayside atmosphere are favored.

  14. The Puzzling Chemical Composition of GJ 436b's Atmosphere: Influence of Tidal Heating on the Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agúndez, Marcelino; Venot, Olivia; Selsis, Franck; Iro, Nicolas

    2014-02-01

    The dissipation of the tidal energy deposited on eccentric planets may induce a heating of the planet that affects its atmospheric thermal structure. Here we study the influence of tidal heating on the atmospheric composition of the eccentric (e = 0.16) "hot Neptune" GJ 436b, for which inconclusive chemical abundances are retrieved from multiwavelength photometric observations carried out during primary transit and secondary eclipse. We build up a one-dimensional model of GJ 436b's atmosphere in the vertical direction and compute the pressure-temperature and molecular abundances profiles for various plausible internal temperatures of the planet (up to 560 K) and metallicities (from solar to 100 times solar), using a radiative-convective model and a chemical model which includes thermochemical kinetics, vertical mixing, and photochemistry. We find that the CO/CH4 abundance ratio increases with metallicity and tidal heating, and ranges from 1/20 to 1000 within the ranges of metallicity and internal temperature explored. Water vapor locks most of the oxygen and reaches a very high abundance, whatever the metallicity and internal temperature of the planet. The CO2/H2O abundance ratio increases dramatically with metallicity, and takes values between 10-5-10-4 with solar elemental abundances and ~0.1 for a metallicity 100 times solar. None of the atmospheric models based on solid physical and chemical grounds provide a fully satisfactory agreement with available observational data, although the comparison of calculated spectra and observations seems to point to models with a high metallicity and efficient tidal heating, in which high CO/CH4 abundance ratios and warm temperatures in the dayside atmosphere are favored.

  15. Dynamics of a pulsed laser generated tin plasma expanding in an oxygen atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, F.; Fazio, E.; Neri, F.; Barletta, E.; Trusso, S.; Fazio, B.

    2005-10-01

    Semiconducting tin oxide can be successfully deposited by means of the laser ablation technique. In particular by ablating metallic tin in a controlled oxygen atmosphere, thin films of SnOx have been deposited. The partial oxygen pressure at which the films are deposited strongly influences both the stoichiometry and the structural properties of the films. In this work, we present a study of the expansion dynamics of the plasma generated by ablating a tin target by means of a pulsed laser using time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy and fast photography imaging of the expanding plasma. Both Sn I and Sn II optical emission lines have been observed from the time-integrated spectroscopy. Time resolved-measurements revealed the dynamics of the expanding plasma in the ambient oxygen atmosphere. Stoichiometry of the films has been determined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and correlated to the expansion dynamics of the plasma.

  16. Dynamics Explorer 1: Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer (EICS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelley, E. G.; Peterson, W. K.; Collin, H. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer (EICS) experiment was selected as part of the Dynamics Explorer (DE) Program. One of the primary goals of the DE program was to investigate in detail the plasma physics processes responsible for energizing thermal (approximately 1 eV) ionospheric ions and transporting them to the earth's plasma sheet and distant polar cap. The results of the EICS data analysis (including support of other investigators) and of the archiving efforts supported by this contract are summarized in this document. Also reported are some aspects of our operational support activities.

  17. Semi-volatile inorganic species: importance for atmospheric chemical composition on diurnal and seasonal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Hana; Mann, Graham; Arnold, Stephen; O'Connor, Fiona; Benduhn, Francois; Rumbold, Steven; Pringle, Kirsty

    2016-04-01

    Nitrate aerosol has become an important driver of reduced European air quality and climate forcing, following reductions in sulphate precursor emissions since the 1980s, and is expected to be more influential in future decades. Measurements from the European Integrated Project on Aerosol and Cloud Climate Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) field campaign have shown that semi-volatile aerosol species such as ammonium nitrate can comprise a major component of the sub-micron particulate matter, particularly in high pollution episodes. This presentation will assess the contribution of semi-volatile inorganic aerosol to diurnal and seasonal cycles in atmospheric chemical composition over Europe. We use the UM-UKCA composition-climate model, including the GLOMAP interactive aerosol microphysics module and a recently developed 'hybrid' dissolution solver (HyDis) to accurately represent size-resolved partitioning of ammonia and nitric acid to the particle phase. In particular, we evaluate simulated size-resolved composition variations over Europe through the diurnal cycle, comparing hourly model output to Aerosol Mass Spectrometer observations at several sites during 2008. We will present the results of this composition analysis, in addition to model evaluation from comparisons with European Monitoring for Environmental Protection (EMEP) network and EUCAARI field campaign observations.

  18. Unraveling the Dynamics of Aminopolymer/Silica Composites

    DOE PAGES

    Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Sakwa-Novak, Miles A.; Holewinski, Adam; Potter, Matthew E.; Rother, Gernot; Jones, Christopher W.; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2016-02-25

    Branched poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) encapsulated within mesoporous silica (SBA-15), has proven to be an eective sorbent for developing carbon capture technologies. However, the structure-property correlations which govern their adsorptive properties is not well understood. By combining coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and neutron scattering experiments we are able to construct, and validate, a detailed model of the dynamics and morphology of the conned polymer within the mesoporous support. By varying the simulation properties we are able to probe, for the rst time, the direct relationship between the structure of the polymer and the non-monotonic dynamics of the polymer as a function ofmore » monomer concentration within an adsorbing cylindrical pore. Overall the simulation results are in good agreement with quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) studies, suggesting an approach that can be a useful guide for understanding how to tune porous polymer composites for enhancing desired dynamical and structural behavior targeting enhanced carbon dioxide adsorption.« less

  19. Dynamic fiber debonding and push-out in model composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiaopeng

    2003-10-01

    When a crack propagates in a fiber-reinforced composite material, a substantial part of energy is dissipated in the debonding and sliding of the bridging fibers located behind the advancing crack front. Because of the important effect they have on the fracture toughness of a composite, these processes have been the subject of extensive experimental, analytical and numerical work. However, the vast majority of existing work on this topic has been limited to quasi-static loading situations. The few investigations performed on various composite systems involving higher loading rates seem to indicate that the fiber sliding process presents some unusual and sometimes contradictory rate-dependent characteristics. To enhance the current understanding of dynamic fiber debonding and push-out in model fiber-reinforced composites, a combined experimental and numerical investigation was carried out. A modified split Hopkinson pressure bar was used to perform high-rate fiber push-out experiments on an aluminum/epoxy model composite system. An axisymmetric cohesive/volumetric finite element scheme was developed to simulate the push-out process. Effects of several important parameters such as interfacial strength, interfacial fracture toughness and fiber/matrix friction coefficient were investigated. Interface cohesive properties were extracted by comparison between experimental and numerical results. The comparison between numerics and experiments was made as close as possible by (a) simulating the entire experimental apparatus; (b) using loading directly measured in the experiments as input to the finite element analysis (FEA) code; (c) using measured material properties in the FEA simulations; and (d) accounting for effects such as large deformations, residual stresses (through a quasi-static pre-loading scheme), spontaneous crack formation (through a cohesive failure formulation) and dynamic frictional sliding. Details of the physical process were discussed by numerically

  20. Observations of the Thermal Structure and Dynamics of the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, B. J.; Pearl, J. C.; Smith, M. D.; Banfield, D.; Christensen, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    Information on the thermal structure of the Martian atmosphere has been obtained using several different techniques, including in situ sounding from decent probes, radio occultations and infrared thermal emission measurements from orbiters, and earth based full-disk microwave measurements. Knowledge of the 3- dimensional atmospheric temperature field and its temporal variation provides an important observational approach to the study of the dynamics of the atmosphere. Comparison of the observed thermal structure with results from a Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) can be used to refine the model and provide greater insight into the physical processes controlling the dynamics of the atmosphere. Direct assimilation of the temperature observations into an MGCM can also be used to address similar goals. In addition, relatively simple diagnostic models can be applied to the data to directly obtain information on winds and other meteorological properties of the atmosphere. In this overview, we concentrate primarily on the structure retrieved from thermal emission measurements. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Effective low-order models for atmospheric dynamics and time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluhovsky, Alexander; Grady, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    The paper focuses on two interrelated problems: developing physically sound low-order models (LOMs) for atmospheric dynamics and employing them as novel time-series models to overcome deficiencies in current atmospheric time series analysis. The first problem is warranted since arbitrary truncations in the Galerkin method (commonly used to derive LOMs) may result in LOMs that violate fundamental conservation properties of the original equations, causing unphysical behaviors such as unbounded solutions. In contrast, the LOMs we offer (G-models) are energy conserving, and some retain the Hamiltonian structure of the original equations. This work examines LOMs from recent publications to show that all of them that are physically sound can be converted to G-models, while those that cannot lack energy conservation. Further, motivated by recent progress in statistical properties of dynamical systems, we explore G-models for a new role of atmospheric time series models as their data generating mechanisms are well in line with atmospheric dynamics. Currently used time series models, however, do not specifically utilize the physics of the governing equations and involve strong statistical assumptions rarely met in real data.

  2. Realistic Modeling of Multi-Scale MHD Dynamics of the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitiashvili, Irina; Mansour, Nagi N.; Wray, Alan; Couvidat, Sebastian; Yoon, Seokkwan; Kosovichev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Realistic 3D radiative MHD simulations open new perspectives for understanding the turbulent dynamics of the solar surface, its coupling to the atmosphere, and the physical mechanisms of generation and transport of non-thermal energy. Traditionally, plasma eruptions and wave phenomena in the solar atmosphere are modeled by prescribing artificial driving mechanisms using magnetic or gas pressure forces that might arise from magnetic field emergence or reconnection instabilities. In contrast, our 'ab initio' simulations provide a realistic description of solar dynamics naturally driven by solar energy flow. By simulating the upper convection zone and the solar atmosphere, we can investigate in detail the physical processes of turbulent magnetoconvection, generation and amplification of magnetic fields, excitation of MHD waves, and plasma eruptions. We present recent simulation results of the multi-scale dynamics of quiet-Sun regions, and energetic effects in the atmosphere and compare with observations. For the comparisons we calculate synthetic spectro-polarimetric data to model observational data of SDO, Hinode, and New Solar Telescope.

  3. Fractionation of oxygen isotopes by root respiration: Implications for the isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angert, Alon; Luz, Boaz

    2001-06-01

    The ratio of 18O/ 16O in atmospheric oxygen depends on the isotopic composition of the substrate water used in photosynthesis and on discrimination against 18O in respiratory consumption. The current understanding of the composition of air O 2 attributes the magnitude of the respiratory fractionation to biochemical mechanisms alone. Thus the discrimination against 18O is assumed as 18‰ in normal dark respiration and 25‰ to 30‰ in cyanide resistant respiration. Here we report new results on the fractionation of O 2 isotopes in root respiration. The isotopic fractionation was determined from the change in δ 18O of air due to partial uptake by roots in closed containers. The discrimination in these experiments was in the range of 11.9‰ to 20.0‰ with an average of 14.5‰. This average is significantly less than the known discrimination in dark respiration. A simple diffusion-respiration model was used to explain the isotopic discrimination in roots. Available data show that O 2 concentration inside roots is low due to slow diffusion. As a result, due to diffusion and biological uptake at the consumption site inside the root, the overall discrimination is small. Root respiration is an important component of the global oxygen uptake. Our new result that the discrimination against 18O is less than generally thought indicates that the mechanisms affecting δ 18O of atmospheric oxygen should be re-evaluated.

  4. Response of the global climate to changes in atmospheric chemical composition due to fossil fuel burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hameed, S.; Cess, R. D.; Hogan, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent modeling of atmospheric chemical processes (Logan et al, 1978; Hameed et al, 1979) suggests that tropospheric ozone and methane might significantly increase in the future as the result of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO, NO(x), and CH4 due to fossil fuel burning. Since O3 and CH4 are both greenhouse gases, increases in their concentrations could augment global warming due to larger future amounts of atmospheric CO2. To test the possible climatic impact of changes in tropospheric chemical composition, a zonal energy-balance climate model has been combined with a vertically averaged tropospheric chemical model. The latter model includes all relevant chemical reactions which affect species derived from H2O, O2, CH4, and NO(x). The climate model correspondingly incorporates changes in the infrared heating of the surface-troposphere system resulting from chemically induced changes in tropospheric ozone and methane. This coupled climate-chemical model indicates that global climate is sensitive to changes in emissions of CO, NO(x) and CH4, and that future increases in these emissions could augment global warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2.

  5. Impact of rocket exhaust plumes on atmospheric composition and climate ― an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Ch.; Schumann, U.; Graf, K.; Gottschaldt, K.-D.

    2013-03-01

    Rockets are the only direct anthropogenic emission sources into the upper atmosphere. Gaseous rocket emissions include CO, N2, H2, H2O, and CO2, while solid rocket motors (SRM) additionally inject significant amounts of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles and gaseous chlorine species into the atmosphere. These emissions strongly perturb local atmospheric trace gas and aerosol distributions. Here, previous aircraft measurements in various rocket exhaust plumes including several large space shuttle launch vehicles are compiled. The observed changes of the lower stratospheric composition in the near field are summarized. The injection of chlorine species and particles into the stratosphere can lead to ozone loss in rocket exhaust plumes. Local observations are compared with global model simulations of the effects of rocket emissions on stratospheric ozone concentrations. Large uncertainties remain concerning individual ozone loss reaction rates and the impact of small-scale plume effects on global chemistry. Further, remote sensing data from satellite indicate that rocket exhaust plumes regionally increase iron and water vapor concentrations in the mesosphere potentially leading to the formation of mesospheric clouds at 80- to 90-kilometer altitude. These satellite observations are summarized and the rocket emission inventory is compared with other natural and anthropogenic sources to the stratosphere such as volcanism, meteoritic material, and aviation.

  6. A moist aquaplanet variant of the Held–Suarez test for atmospheric model dynamical cores

    DOE PAGES

    Thatcher, Diana R.; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2016-04-04

    A moist idealized test case (MITC) for atmospheric model dynamical cores is presented. The MITC is based on the Held–Suarez (HS) test that was developed for dry simulations on “a flat Earth” and replaces the full physical parameterization package with a Newtonian temperature relaxation and Rayleigh damping of the low-level winds. This new variant of the HS test includes moisture and thereby sheds light on the nonlinear dynamics–physics moisture feedbacks without the complexity of full-physics parameterization packages. In particular, it adds simplified moist processes to the HS forcing to model large-scale condensation, boundary-layer mixing, and the exchange of latent and sensible heat betweenmore » the atmospheric surface and an ocean-covered planet. Using a variety of dynamical cores of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), this paper demonstrates that the inclusion of the moist idealized physics package leads to climatic states that closely resemble aquaplanet simulations with complex physical parameterizations. This establishes that the MITC approach generates reasonable atmospheric circulations and can be used for a broad range of scientific investigations. This paper provides examples of two application areas. First, the test case reveals the characteristics of the physics–dynamics coupling technique and reproduces coupling issues seen in full-physics simulations. In particular, it is shown that sudden adjustments of the prognostic fields due to moist physics tendencies can trigger undesirable large-scale gravity waves, which can be remedied by a more gradual application of the physical forcing. Second, the moist idealized test case can be used to intercompare dynamical cores. These examples demonstrate the versatility of the MITC approach and suggestions are made for further application areas. The new moist variant of the HS test can be considered a test case of intermediate complexity.« less

  7. Laboratory Simulations of Titan's Surface Composition and its Relation to Atmospheric Haze Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebree, Joshua A.; Schmitt, Angela M.; Trainer, Melissa G.; Li, Xiang; Pinnick, Veronica T.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Loeffler, Mark; Anderson, Carrie M.; Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2014-06-01

    The arrival of the Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn has led to the discovery of benzene at ppm levels, as well as large positive ions evocative of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Titan's atmosphere. Recently, the assignment of the band at 3.28 μm as observed by the Visual-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) to gas-phase PAHs provides further evidence that these molecules are prevalent on Titan. These observations suggest that aromatic reaction pathways play an important role in the photochemistry of Titan's atmosphere, in particular in the formation of large organic species. These aerosols eventually settle out of the atmosphere onto the surface of Titan giving rise to the different surface albedos that are observed by the VIMS instrument onboard Cassini. We will present results from a laboratory study of the UV irradiation of ppm-level aromatic precursors to understand their influence on the observable characteristics of Titan's surface. Spectroscopic measurements of our analog aerosols compare favorably to observations of Titan's haze by VIMS and by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) in the far-infrared. In addition, the broad aerosol emission feature centered at approximately 145 wn is of particular interest. From the broadness of this feature, we speculate that the emission is a blended composite of low-energy vibrations of large molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrogen containing counterparts, polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs). A further comparison of our aerosol spectra to the surface observations carried out by Cassini also shows a strong correlation between the aerosol makeup and the surface albedo of Titan. Using laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS techniques we confirm the presence of large (5+ rings) PAHs/PANHs in our aerosols and discuss possible formation pathways.

  8. Evolution of the composition isotopic of the continuum soil-plant-atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Bariac, T.; Jusserand, C.; Mariotti, A. )

    1990-02-01

    Intensive daily sampling of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was carried out to determine the vertical evolution of diurnal variation of the isotopic composition of (1) water in leaves from a maize canopy at the experimental site of Villeau, Eure et Loir (France) and (ii) water vapor in the atmosphere above and within the canopy. Applying some reasonable assumptions, the isotopic model of the transpiration process (I.M.T.) fits well the daily enrichment cycle of {sup 18}O and {sup 2}H in the leaf water sampled at different levels of the plants. The most important factors influencing the variations of {sup 18}O and {sup 2}H content are the relative humidity of the air and the kinetic enrichment factor occurring during transpiration. The discrepancies between the measured and the calculated values seem to be closely related to the differences between the isotopic composition of the water pools in the leaf. Without experimental data on the transpiration flux and the root water uptake, the I.M.T. allows a relatively precise determination of the nature (transient or stationary) of the isotopic state of the water in the leaf. When {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H present steady-state values, the water fluxes are always conservative in the transpiring pools of the leaf. When the heterogeneity of the pools of the leaf is taken into account, it appears that the leaf does not present systematically an instantaneous isotopic steady-state. The results reported here indicate that the assumption of the constancy of {epsilon}{sub k} values is invalid: the discrepancy in {epsilon}{sub k} values between the leaves at the top of the canopy and the other ones can be related to the increase of the turbulence of the atmosphere with height in the canopy.

  9. Isotopic composition for source identification of mercury in atmospheric fine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiang; Chen, Jiubin; Huang, Weilin; Fu, Pingqing; Guinot, Benjamin; Feng, Xinbin; Shang, Lihai; Wang, Zhuhong; Wang, Zhongwei; Yuan, Shengliu; Cai, Hongming; Wei, Lianfang; Yu, Ben

    2016-09-01

    The usefulness of mercury (Hg) isotopes for tracing the sources and pathways of Hg (and its vectors) in atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5) is uncertain. Here, we measured Hg isotopic compositions in 30 potential source materials and 23 PM2.5 samples collected in four seasons from the megacity Beijing (China) and combined the seasonal variation in both mass-dependent fractionation (represented by the ratio 202Hg / 198Hg, δ202Hg) and mass-independent fractionation of isotopes with odd and even mass numbers (represented by Δ199Hg and Δ200Hg, respectively) with geochemical parameters and meteorological data to identify the sources of PM2.5-Hg and possible atmospheric particulate Hg transformation. All PM2.5 samples were highly enriched in Hg and other heavy metals and displayed wide ranges of both δ202Hg (-2.18 to 0.51 ‰) and Δ199Hg (-0.53 to 0.57 ‰), as well as small positive Δ200Hg (0.02 to 0.17 ‰). The results indicated that the seasonal variation in Hg isotopic composition (and elemental concentrations) was likely derived from variable contributions from anthropogenic sources, with continuous input due to industrial activities (e.g., smelting, cement production and coal combustion) in all seasons, whereas coal combustion dominated in winter and biomass burning mainly found in autumn. The more positive Δ199Hg of PM2.5-Hg in spring and early summer was likely derived from long-range-transported Hg that had undergone extensive photochemical reduction. The study demonstrated that Hg isotopes may be potentially used for tracing the sources of particulate Hg and its vectors in the atmosphere.

  10. The Vega balloons - A tool for studying atmosphere dynamics on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremnev, R. S.; Selivanov, A. S.; Linkin, V. M.; Lipatov, A. N.; Tarnoruder, I. IA.; Puchkov, V. I.; Kustodiev, V. D.; Shurupov, A. A.; Ragent, B.; Preston, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Vega balloon experiment, designed to measure the dynamics of the Venus atmosphere, comprised the balloons themselves, their gondolas with on-board sensors and radio transmitters, and the radio telescope network on the earth. The structures and the physical parameters of the balloon probe are described, together with the instruments on the gondola, designed for the measurements of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and vertical wind flows, and illumination, as well as possible flashes of lightning. Consideration is also given to the formatting of the information flow for the individual parameters measured.

  11. Dynamic and static assessment of piezoelectric embedded composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Francois; Masson, Patrice; Mrad, Nezih

    2002-07-01

    The design of fully integrated structures, and especially of new generation composites with embedded sensors and actuators, now requires the development of adequate tools for predicting the static and the dynamic behavior of the structure as well as its life cycle. These tools will provide flexibility in assessing well-suited control strategies for optimum structural performance. As a first step towards the development of integrated computational tools for smart structures, this work validates both theoretically and experimentally the implementation under MSC/NASTRAN of a simplified multilayer tri-dimensional model based on the analogy between thermal strains and piezoelectric strains. Numerical results obtained from this model are first compared to results obtained from a reference finite element tri-dimensional piezoelectric code developed to assess the thermal analogy for different loading conditions. Experimental validation is also conducted on a clamped AS4/3501-6 carbon/epoxy composite beam structure excited at the clamped end by an embedded piezoelectric. Results obtained from vibration testing are assessed with the thermal analogy model using a large number of tri-dimensional elements in order to get a detailed representation of the different variables. Details for practical implementation of the embedment procedures are presented along with the adequate model prediction of the structure's dynamic behavior.

  12. Numerical Study of the Effects of Atmospheric and Wake Turbulence on Wind Turbine Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the atmospheric sciences community has been studying the effects of atmospheric stability and surface roughness on the planetary boundary layer for some time, their effects on wind turbine dynamics have not been well studied. In this study, we performed numerical experiments to explore some of the effects of atmospheric stability and surface roughness on wind turbine dynamics. We used large-eddy simulation to create atmospheric winds and compute the wind turbine flows, and we modeled the wind turbines as revolving and flexible actuator lines coupled to a wind turbine structural and system dynamic model. We examined the structural moments about the wind turbine blade, low-speed shaft, and nacelle; power production; and wake evolution when large 5-MW turbines are subjected to winds generated from low- and high-surface roughness levels representative of offshore and onshore conditions, respectively, and also neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions. In addition, we placed a second turbine 7 rotor diameters downwind of the first one so that we could explore wake effects under these different conditions. The results show that the turbulent structures generated within the atmospheric boundary layer wind simulations cause isolated loading events at least as significant as when a turbine is waked by an upwind turbine. The root-mean-square (RMS) turbine loads are consistently larger when the surface roughness is higher. The RMS blade-root out-of-plane bending moment and low-speed shaft torque are higher when the atmospheric boundary layer is unstable as compared with when it is neutral. However, the RMS yaw moments are either equal or reduced in the unstable case as compared with the neutral case. For a given surface roughness, the ratio of power produced by the downwind turbine relative to that of the upwind turbine is 15-20% higher when the conditions are unstable as compared with neutral. For a given atmospheric stability, this power ratio is 10% higher with

  13. MEP and planetary climates: insights from a two-box climate model containing atmospheric dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jupp, Tim E.; Cox, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    A two-box model for equator-to-pole planetary heat transport is extended to include simple atmospheric dynamics. The surface drag coefficient CD is treated as a free parameter and solutions are calculated analytically in terms of the dimensionless planetary parameters η (atmospheric thickness), ω (rotation rate) and ξ (advective capability). Solutions corresponding to maximum entropy production (MEP) are compared with solutions previously obtained from dynamically unconstrained two-box models. As long as the advective capability ξ is sufficiently large, dynamically constrained MEP solutions are identical to dynamically unconstrained MEP solutions. Consequently, the addition of a dynamical constraint does not alter the previously obtained MEP results for Earth, Mars and Titan, and an analogous result is presented here for Venus. The rate of entropy production in an MEP state is shown to be independent of rotation rate if the advective capability ξ is sufficiently large (as for the four examples in the solar system), or if the rotation rate ω is sufficiently small. The model indicates, however, that the dynamical constraint does influence the MEP state when ξ is small, which might be the case for some extrasolar planets. Finally, results from the model developed here are compared with previous numerical simulations in which the effect of varying surface drag coefficient on entropy production was calculated. PMID:20368254

  14. MEP and planetary climates: insights from a two-box climate model containing atmospheric dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jupp, Tim E; Cox, Peter M

    2010-05-12

    A two-box model for equator-to-pole planetary heat transport is extended to include simple atmospheric dynamics. The surface drag coefficient CD is treated as a free parameter and solutions are calculated analytically in terms of the dimensionless planetary parameters eta (atmospheric thickness), omega (rotation rate) and xi (advective capability). Solutions corresponding to maximum entropy production (MEP) are compared with solutions previously obtained from dynamically unconstrained two-box models. As long as the advective capability xi is sufficiently large, dynamically constrained MEP solutions are identical to dynamically unconstrained MEP solutions. Consequently, the addition of a dynamical constraint does not alter the previously obtained MEP results for Earth, Mars and Titan, and an analogous result is presented here for Venus. The rate of entropy production in an MEP state is shown to be independent of rotation rate if the advective capability xi is sufficiently large (as for the four examples in the solar system), or if the rotation rate omega is sufficiently small. The model indicates, however, that the dynamical constraint does influence the MEP state when xi is small, which might be the case for some extrasolar planets. Finally, results from the model developed here are compared with previous numerical simulations in which the effect of varying surface drag coefficient on entropy production was calculated. PMID:20368254

  15. MEP and planetary climates: insights from a two-box climate model containing atmospheric dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jupp, Tim E; Cox, Peter M

    2010-05-12

    A two-box model for equator-to-pole planetary heat transport is extended to include simple atmospheric dynamics. The surface drag coefficient CD is treated as a free parameter and solutions are calculated analytically in terms of the dimensionless planetary parameters eta (atmospheric thickness), omega (rotation rate) and xi (advective capability). Solutions corresponding to maximum entropy production (MEP) are compared with solutions previously obtained from dynamically unconstrained two-box models. As long as the advective capability xi is sufficiently large, dynamically constrained MEP solutions are identical to dynamically unconstrained MEP solutions. Consequently, the addition of a dynamical constraint does not alter the previously obtained MEP results for Earth, Mars and Titan, and an analogous result is presented here for Venus. The rate of entropy production in an MEP state is shown to be independent of rotation rate if the advective capability xi is sufficiently large (as for the four examples in the solar system), or if the rotation rate omega is sufficiently small. The model indicates, however, that the dynamical constraint does influence the MEP state when xi is small, which might be the case for some extrasolar planets. Finally, results from the model developed here are compared with previous numerical simulations in which the effect of varying surface drag coefficient on entropy production was calculated.

  16. Carbon Cycle and Vegetation Dynamics in the GFDL-Princeton University Coupled Atmosphere-Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevliakova, E.; Pacala, S. W.; Malyshev, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Caspersen, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    Modeling global interactions between the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere continues to pose a significant challenge, because of the tight and complex coupling of flows of water, energy, greenhouse gases, and ecosystem dynamics. We developed a comprehensive dynamic land surface model (LM3) able to simulate carbon and vegetation dynamics on time scales from minutes to centuries, as well as the exchange of water and energy among the land, LM3 predicts carbon dynamics in vegetation and soil in response to environmental conditions (weather, climate and soil type), ambient concentration of CO2, natural disturbances (e.g. fire), and anthropogenic land use changes (e.g. deforestation, agricultural cropland abandonment and forest management). A suite of the historical 300 years land cover change scenarios (developed at University of New Hampshire) is used to represent direct anthropogenic forcing on the terrestrial carbon system. Here we analyze the behavior of LM3 forced with observed atmospheric data and coupled with GFDL atmospheric circulation model AM2. The series of experiments indicates that our model adequately simulates climatic gradients of net primary productivity (NPP), leaf area index (LAI), biomass accumulation, evapotranspiration, and runoff. Additionally, analysis of the simulations suggests that anthropogenic land use has been a major forcing on the terrestrial carbon cycle, with large sources of CO2 caused primarily by deforestation and timber harvesting in the current tropics and past north temperate zone, and large current north temperate sinks caused primarily by secondary forest growth.

  17. Noble gas isotopic composition as a key reference parameter in a planetary atmospheric evolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozima, M.

    2010-12-01

    The isotopic composition of noble gases is a key reference parameter in discussing the evolution of planetary atmospheres. Currently, two widely occurring noble gas components are identified in the early solar system, one is the Solar Wind noble gas (SW-noble gas, hereafter) and another is the Q-noble gas in unaltered meteorites: both noble gases are characterized by their ubiquitous occurrence and high isotopic homogeneity. Since the SW-noble gas is directly ejected from the Sun, it has been assumed to be a good proxy of the average noble gas isotopic composition in the Sun, namely the solar noble gas. The systematic enrichment of the heavier isotopes in the Q-noble gas relative to the SW-noble gas is then commonly attributed to its isotopic fractionation from the SW-noble gas. However, the isotopic compositions of the SW-noble gas either implanted on lunar soils or trapped by artificial targets show considerable isotopic variation depending on the velocity of the Solar Wind. Therefore, it is important to examine how closely the SW-noble gas represents the indigenous solar noble gas component or the mean isotopic composition of noble gases of the Sun. Here we show that the isotopic composition of the SW-noble gas is substantially fractionated relative to the solar value, and therefore should not be used as a reference parameter. We further suggest that the post D-burning Q-noble gas (see below) is the better proxy of the solar noble gas, and this should be used as a reference of the Solar noble gas isotopic composition in discussing the planetary atmospheric evolution. The most distinct difference between the Q- and the SW-noble gas is apparent in a 3He/4He isotopic ratio: 4.64e-4 in Q-He [1], but 1.23e-4 in SW-He[2]. The difference is attributed to the conversion of deuteron (D) to 3He in the Sun, namely the D-burning [3], due to high temperature during the pre-main sequence stage of the Sun. With the use of recent data on D/H ratios from helio-seismology [4] and

  18. Modulating Exciton Dynamics in Composite Nanocrystals for Excitonic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Concina, Isabella; Manzoni, Cristian; Grancini, Giulia; Celikin, Mert; Soudi, Afsoon; Rosei, Federico; Zavelani-Rossi, Margherita; Cerullo, Giulio; Vomiero, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) represent one of the most promising materials for third-generation solar cells due to their potential to boost the photoconversion efficiency beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. Composite nanocrystals can challenge the current scenario by combining broad spectral response and tailored energy levels to favor charge extraction and reduce energy and charge recombination. We synthesized PbS/CdS QDs with different compositions at the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles assembled in a mesoporous film. The ultrafast photoinduced dynamics and the charge injection processes were investigated by pump-probe spectroscopy. We demonstrated good injection of photogenerated electrons from QDs to TiO2 in the PbS/CdS blend and used the QDs to fabricate solar cells. The fine-tuning of chemical composition and size of lead and cadmium chalcogenide QDs led to highly efficient PV devices (3% maximum photoconversion efficiency). This combined study paves the way to the full exploitation of QDs in next-generation photovoltaic (PV) devices.

  19. Solar Cycle Variability in Mean Thermospheric Composition and Temperature Induced by Atmospheric Tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M., Jr.; Forbes, J. M.; Hagan, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Vertically-propagating atmospheric thermal tides whose origins lie in Earth's lower atmosphere are now widely recognized as one of the dominant "meteorological" drivers of space weather. Many prior research efforts have focused on documenting and understanding the role that dissipating tides play in determining the longitudinal and seasonal variability associated with lower thermospheric winds, temperature, and constituent densities. However, considerably less attention has focused on understanding the potential solar cycle variability in the mean thermospheric state induced by the tides. In this paper we utilize the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM), forced with observationally-based tides at the model lower boundary from the Climatological Tidal Model of the Thermosphere (CTMT, from Oberheide et al. [2011]), to elucidate how the dissipating tides induce variations of up to 30 K in the zonal-mean thermosphere temperature between solar minimum and maximum. Numerical experiments are performed for the month of September and for solar minimum, medium, and maximum conditions in order to quantify the solar cycle variability associated with the different terms in the thermodynamic energy, major and minor neutral constituent continuity equations. Our analysis indicates that solar cycle variability in neutral temperatures results from a combination of net eddy heat transport effects and tidal modulation of net nitric oxide (NO) cooling. The chemical and dynamical pathways through which dissipating tides affect mean NO cooling differently at solar minimum and maximum are diagnosed.

  20. Composition and decomposition of soybean and sorghum tissues grown under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, F.P.; Wood, C.W.; Rogers, H.H.; Runion, G.B.; Prior, S.A.

    1996-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that changes in both quantity and quality of plant residue inputs to soils as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentration increases may alter carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) turnover rates and pool sizes. We determined the effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on plant tissue quality, and how modifications in tissue quality affect C and N mineralization. Soybean and sorghum were grown under elevated (704.96 {plus_minus} 0.33 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup {minus}1}) and ambient (357.44 {plus_minus} 0.12 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup {minus}1}) atmospheric CO{sub 2} in open-top chambers. Leaf and stem tissues were separated form harvested plants and analyzed for C,N, lignin, and cellulose. Tissues were applied to Norfolk loamy sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Typic Kandiudult) and aerobically incubated for 70-d to determine C and N mineralization, C turnover, relative N mineralization, and C/N mineralized. Elevated CO{sub 2} had no effect on plant residue C concentration, but N concentration of soybean leaves and stems and sorghum stems was reduced; however, CO{sub 2} enrichment increased C/N ratio and lignin concentration for only sorghum stems and soybean leaves, respectively. Source of plant residue (i.e., produced under either elevated or ambient CO{sub 2}) had no impact on soil C turnover, relative N mineralization, cumulative C and N mineralization, and C/N mineralized. These data suggest that increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} will have little effect on composition or decomposition of field crop residues. Thus, since CO{sub 2} enrichment results in increased photosynthetic C fixation, the possibility exists for increased soil C storage under field crops in an elevated CO{sub 2} world. 29 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Particle sizes and composition of Mars atmospheric dust based upon Viking and Mariner 9 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.; Gladstone, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Mars atmospheric dust can play an important role in the thermal structure of the Mars atmosphere during periods of high dust loading. However, the radiative properties of Mars atmospheric dust remain uncertain due to uncertain definitions of the dust composition and size distribution. The analysis by Toon et al., of Mariner 9 IRIS spectra during the 1971-1972 global dust storm indicated a reasonable match between the modeled 9-micron absorption of montmorillinite and the observed 9-micron absorption. Toon et al. also determined that an effective (cross-section weighted) mean radius of 2.5 microns (R(sub mode) = 0.4 microns) provided a consistent fit of montmorillinite to the IRIS dust spectra at 9 microns. Pollack et al. analyzed Viking lander observations of atmospheric extinction and scattering at visible-near IR wavelengths (0.5-1.0 microns), and obtained consistency with the Toon et al. dust size distribution when the effects of nonspherical particle shapes were included. An additional, minor (1 percent) component of visible-ultraviolet absorbing material was required to model the derived visible (0.86) and ultraviolet (0.4-0.6) single-scattering albedos of the dust, since montmorillinite does not absorb sufficiently in this wavelength region. A combined analysis of the Viking IRTM and Mariner 9 observations was conducted to reassess the model of Mars atmospheric ultraviolet-to-infrared measurements of dust absorption and scattering. The optical constants for palagonite are incorporated in a doubling-adding radiative transfer model of the Mars atmosphere to simulate Mariner 9 IRIS spectra as well as the Viking IRTM IR band observations. Visible and ultraviolet single-scattering albedos based on the Hansen and Travis Mie scattering code were also derived. A tentative conclusion is that smaller dust particles (R(sub mode) = 0.15 microns, cross-section weighted mean R = 1.2 microns) composed of palagonite provide a much improved fit to the Mariner 9 IRIS spectra

  2. Spectroscopic aspects of differential method for sounding gas composition of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuev, V. V.; Ippolitov, I. I.; Ponomarev, Y. N.

    1986-01-01

    The problems concerning the dynamics of populations of the sounded atmospheric gas molecule levels taking into account the nonmonochromatic character of radiation, durations of exciting and sounding pulses, rates of relaxation of excited vibration-rotation states population along different channels in a natural multicomponent mixture of gases and air were investigated. The problems of spectroscopic software, completeness and accuracy of the initial spectroscopic information, information on channels and rates of relaxation from the viewpoint of developing specific schemes of sounding are discussed. The values of deviations of vibration-rotation level populations of some atmospheric molecules from their equilibrium value at simultaneous action of double frequency radiation on the sounding path and the corresponding dynamic variation of lidar return amplitude were estimated. The importance of nonlinear spectrosopic effects in the lidar return value variation at sounding radiation frequency equaling the resonance frequency of vibration-rotation transition in the problem on sounding the humidity profiles and concentrations of gaseous pollutants was also estimated.

  3. Dynamic Response of a Stiffened Laminated Composite Plate Subjected to Blast Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkmen, H. S.; Mecitoğlu, Z.

    1999-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the experimental and numerical study of stiffened laminated composite plates exposed to a normal blast shock wave. For this purpose a detonation is developed from the reaction of LPG-O2mixtures in a long circular cylindrical shock tube. The detonation wave goes through into the atmosphere from the open end of the shock tube and acts as a blast load on the stiffened laminated composite plate which is placed in front of the detonation tube. Mounting of the target plate on a steel frame is designed with the object of providing clamped boundary conditions. The air blast pressure distribution is obtained by the use of quartz crystal pressure transducers placed on the wooden model. Strains are measured at the different points on the stiffened laminated composite plate and stiffener. In the experiment and analysis two different load cases are examined. Furthermore, a finite element modelling and analysis of the blast loaded stiffened composite plate are presented and the numerical results are compared with the experimental ones. An agreement is found between the experimental and finite element results in both linear and non-linear ranges. A good prediction is performed for the peak strain in the plate. However a discrepancy is shown between the measured and predicted strains on the stiffener because of the adhesive layer between the plate and stiffener. Prediction of the response frequency that has a great importance in the dynamic phenomena correlates well with the experimental results. The effects of stiffener and loading conditions on the dynamic behavior are examined. Large deformation effects are taken into account for the second loading condition.

  4. Dissipative Particle Dynamics modeling of nanorod-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khani, Shaghayegh; Maia, Joao

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen a plethora of experimental methods for fabricating nanorod-polymer composites with enhanced physical and mechanical properties. The macroscopic properties of the composites are directly related to the dispersion and organization of the nanoparticles in the matrix. For instance, a significant improvement in the properties of the nanorod-polymer composites is observed upon formation of a percolating network. Thus, controlling the structure of the nanoparticles in the matrix will advance the technology in the field. One way of doing this is by adjusting the chemical interactions which is done through grafting polymer chains on the surface of the rods. Although the enthalpic interactions play the major role in such systems other entropic variables such as the dimension of the rods, density of grafting and etc. may influence the final morphology of the system. The recent developments in the computational techniques have paved the road for further understanding of the controlled assembly of nanorods in polymer matrices. In this study, Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is employed in order to investigate the effect of enthalpic and entopic variables on the phase behavior of the nanorod-polymer composites. DPD is a coarse-grained mesoscale method which has been found very promising in simulating multi component systems. The interaction parameter between the components of the systems can be mapped onto the Flory-Huggins χ-parameter via well-known Groot-Warren expression. The main goal of this work is to provide a phase diagram that can be used to guide the experiments in designing new materials.

  5. A Petascale Non-Hydrostatic Atmospheric Dynamical Core in the HOMME Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Tufo, Henry

    2015-09-15

    The High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) is a framework for building scalable, conserva- tive atmospheric models for climate simulation and general atmospheric-modeling applications. Its spatial discretizations are based on Spectral-Element (SE) and Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. These are local methods employing high-order accurate spectral basis-functions that have been shown to perform well on massively parallel supercomputers at any resolution and scale particularly well at high resolutions. HOMME provides the framework upon which the CAM-SE community atmosphere model dynamical-core is constructed. In its current incarnation, CAM-SE employs the hydrostatic primitive-equations (PE) of motion, which limits its resolution to simulations coarser than 0.1 per grid cell. The primary objective of this project is to remove this resolution limitation by providing HOMME with the capabilities needed to build nonhydrostatic models that solve the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations.

  6. Characterization of Atmospheric Nitrate Dynamics in a Sub-Alpine Watershed Using Δ17O and δ15N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, I.; Savarino, J. P.; Clement, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Remote subalpine ecosystems are usually characterized by nutrient-poor soils (Körner, 2004; Seastedt et al., 2004), making them particularly susceptible to undergo changes due to increased atmospheric N deposition (Vitousek et al., 1997; Preunkert et al., 2003). Using Δ17O, a conserved tracer of atmospheric nitrate (NO3 atm) (Michalski et al., 2004; Tsunogai et al., 2010), and δ15N, indicator of NO3 biological sources (Kendall, 1998; Casciotti et al., 2009), we measured the seasonal variations of NO3 atm stable isotopic composition and concentration in several streams and soils originating from two sub-alpine watersheds in the French Alps. Our objective was to investigate whether or not NO3 atm impacts the soil N biogeochemical cycle by increasing nutrients availability for plants and bacteria. We coupled streams and soils measurements with snow-pits sampling and aerosols collection at the Lautaret Pass, to better emphasize the correlation between atmospheric deposition, soil retention and watersheds effluents response. Our results reveal that different temporal dynamics govern our study site: stream measurements show that in spring, snowmelt results in a NO3 atm impulse, accounting for ca. 31 % of the total stream NO3 budget; on the opposite in autumn, NO3 atm accounts only for ca. 3 % of the total stream NO3 budget, highlighting the presence of a NO3 bacterial pool (nitrification). We also inferred from the observed Δ17O variations two distinct phenomena in the spring/summer season: a fast snow run-off and a slower snow-water percolation. The later is believed to affect most the soil N cycle as it directly increases available NO3. Measured soil leachates and extracts confirm this hypothesis and point out the potential importance of anthropogenic N deposition as on average 7 to 10 % of the soil solutions NO3 derives directly from the atmosphere.

  7. Dynamic Mesh CFD Simulations of Orion Parachute Pendulum Motion During Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halstrom, Logan D.; Schwing, Alan M.; Robinson, Stephen K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the usage of computational fluid dynamics to study the effects of pendulum motion dynamics of the NASAs Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle parachute system on the stability of the vehicles atmospheric entry and decent. Significant computational fluid dynamics testing has already been performed at NASAs Johnson Space Center, but this study sought to investigate the effect of bulk motion of the parachute, such as pitching, on the induced aerodynamic forces. Simulations were performed with a moving grid geometry oscillating according to the parameters observed in flight tests. As with the previous simulations, OVERFLOW computational fluid dynamics tool is used with the assumption of rigid, non-permeable geometry. Comparison to parachute wind tunnel tests is included for a preliminary validation of the dynamic mesh model. Results show qualitative differences in the flow fields of the static and dynamic simulations and quantitative differences in the induced aerodynamic forces, suggesting that dynamic mesh modeling of the parachute pendulum motion may uncover additional dynamic effects.

  8. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Prusa, Joseph

    2012-05-08

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the physics of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer- reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  9. Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols Above a Pristine South East Asian Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.; Hamilton, J.; Chen, Q.; Martin, S.; Trembath, J.

    2009-04-01

    The tropics emit a huge amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Earth's atmosphere. The processes by which these gases are oxidised to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are currently not well understood or quantified. Intensive field measurements were carried out as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects around pristine rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first campaign of its type in a South East Asian rainforest. We present detailed organic aerosol composition measurements made using an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) at Bukit Atur, a Global Atmosphere Watch site located in the Danum Valley Conservation Area. This is a state-of-the-art field deployable instrument that can provide real time composition, mass loading and aerodynamic particle sizing information. In addition, the mass spectral resolution is sufficient to perform an analysis of the elemental composition of the organic species present. Other tools such as positive matrix factorisation (PMF) have been used to help assess the relative source contributions to the organic aerosol. A suite of supporting aerosol and gas phase measurements were made, including size resolved number concentration measurements with Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS), as well as absorption measurements made with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). The ground site data are compared with Aerodyne Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) measurements made on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Airborne measurements were made above pristine rainforest surrounding the Danum Valley site, as well as nearby oil palm agricultural sites and palm oil rendering plants. Airborne hygroscopicity was measured using a Droplet Measurement Technology Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (DMT CCN counter) in

  10. Dynamic model constraints on oxygen-17 depletion in atmospheric O2 after a snowball Earth

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaobin; Bao, Huiming

    2013-01-01

    A large perturbation in atmospheric CO2 and O2 or bioproductivity will result in a drastic pulse of 17O change in atmospheric O2, as seen in the Marinoan Oxygen-17 Depletion (MOSD) event in the immediate aftermath of a global deglaciation 635 Mya. The exact nature of the perturbation, however, is debated. Here we constructed a coupled, four-box, and quick-response biosphere–atmosphere model to examine both the steady state and dynamics of the MOSD event. Our model shows that the ultra-high CO2 concentrations proposed by the “snowball’ Earth hypothesis produce a typical MOSD duration of less than 106 y and a magnitude of 17O depletion reaching approximately −35‰. Both numbers are in remarkable agreement with geological constraints from South China and Svalbard. Moderate CO2 and low O2 concentration (e.g., 3,200 parts per million by volume and 0.01 bar, respectively) could produce distinct sulfate 17O depletion only if postglacial marine bioproductivity was impossibly low. Our dynamic model also suggests that a snowball in which the ocean is isolated from the atmosphere by a continuous ice cover may be distinguished from one in which cracks in the ice permit ocean–atmosphere exchange only if partial pressure of atmospheric O2 is larger than 0.02 bar during the snowball period and records of weathering-derived sulfate are available for the very first few tens of thousands of years after the onset of the meltdown. In any case, a snowball Earth is a precondition for the observed MOSD event. PMID:23898167

  11. Dynamic model constraints on oxygen-17 depletion in atmospheric O2 after a snowball Earth.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaobin; Bao, Huiming

    2013-09-01

    A large perturbation in atmospheric CO2 and O2 or bioproductivity will result in a drastic pulse of (17)O change in atmospheric O2, as seen in the Marinoan Oxygen-17 Depletion (MOSD) event in the immediate aftermath of a global deglaciation 635 Mya. The exact nature of the perturbation, however, is debated. Here we constructed a coupled, four-box, and quick-response biosphere-atmosphere model to examine both the steady state and dynamics of the MOSD event. Our model shows that the ultra-high CO2 concentrations proposed by the "snowball' Earth hypothesis produce a typical MOSD duration of less than 10(6) y and a magnitude of (17)O depletion reaching approximately -35‰. Both numbers are in remarkable agreement with geological constraints from South China and Svalbard. Moderate CO2 and low O2 concentration (e.g., 3,200 parts per million by volume and 0.01 bar, respectively) could produce distinct sulfate (17)O depletion only if postglacial marine bioproductivity was impossibly low. Our dynamic model also suggests that a snowball in which the ocean is isolated from the atmosphere by a continuous ice cover may be distinguished from one in which cracks in the ice permit ocean-atmosphere exchange only if partial pressure of atmospheric O2 is larger than 0.02 bar during the snowball period and records of weathering-derived sulfate are available for the very first few tens of thousands of years after the onset of the meltdown. In any case, a snowball Earth is a precondition for the observed MOSD event. PMID:23898167

  12. Dynamic model constraints on oxygen-17 depletion in atmospheric O2 after a snowball Earth.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaobin; Bao, Huiming

    2013-09-01

    A large perturbation in atmospheric CO2 and O2 or bioproductivity will result in a drastic pulse of (17)O change in atmospheric O2, as seen in the Marinoan Oxygen-17 Depletion (MOSD) event in the immediate aftermath of a global deglaciation 635 Mya. The exact nature of the perturbation, however, is debated. Here we constructed a coupled, four-box, and quick-response biosphere-atmosphere model to examine both the steady state and dynamics of the MOSD event. Our model shows that the ultra-high CO2 concentrations proposed by the "snowball' Earth hypothesis produce a typical MOSD duration of less than 10(6) y and a magnitude of (17)O depletion reaching approximately -35‰. Both numbers are in remarkable agreement with geological constraints from South China and Svalbard. Moderate CO2 and low O2 concentration (e.g., 3,200 parts per million by volume and 0.01 bar, respectively) could produce distinct sulfate (17)O depletion only if postglacial marine bioproductivity was impossibly low. Our dynamic model also suggests that a snowball in which the ocean is isolated from the atmosphere by a continuous ice cover may be distinguished from one in which cracks in the ice permit ocean-atmosphere exchange only if partial pressure of atmospheric O2 is larger than 0.02 bar during the snowball period and records of weathering-derived sulfate are available for the very first few tens of thousands of years after the onset of the meltdown. In any case, a snowball Earth is a precondition for the observed MOSD event.

  13. Middle Atmosphere Temperature and Dynamics as Revealed from D-region Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilov, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of so-called meteorological control of the ionospheric D-region is presently undergoing development. According to this concept the electron concentration in this region is governed not only by solar and geomagnetic parameters but strongly depends on the temperature and dynamical regime of the mesosphere and stratosphere. How this connection between D-region and meteorological parameters can be used to obtain some information about middle atmosphere temperature and dynamics is examined. The essential points of the meteorological control concept are reviewed and the influence of turbulence on nitric oxide distribution and thus the ion production rate is discussed.

  14. Dynamically Consistent Shallow-Atmosphere Equations with a Complete Coriolis force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tort, Marine; Dubos, Thomas; Bouchut, François; Zeitlin, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Dynamically Consistent Shallow-Atmosphere Equations with a Complete Coriolis force Marine Tort1, Thomas Dubos1, François Bouchut2 & Vladimir Zeitlin1,3 1 Laboratoire of Dynamical Meteorology, Univ. P. and M. Curie, Ecole Normale Supérieure, and Ecole Polytechnique, FRANCE 2 Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Mathématiques Appliquées, FRANCE 3 Institut Universitaire de France Atmospheric and oceanic motion are usually modeled within the shallow-fluid approximation, which simplifies the 3D spherical geometry. For dynamical consistency, i.e. to ensure conservation laws for potential vorticity, energy and angular momentum, the horizontal component of the Coriolis force is neglected. Here new equation sets combining consistently a simplified shallow-fluid geometry with a complete Coriolis force is presented. The derivation invokes Hamilton's principle of least action with an approximate Lagrangian capturing the small increase with height of the solid-body entrainment velocity due to planetary rotation. A three-dimensional compressible model and a one-layer shallow-water model are obtained. The latter extends previous work done on the f-plane and β-plane. Preliminary numerical results confirm the accuracy of the 3D model within the range of parameters for which the equations are relevant. These new models could be useful to incorporate a full Coriolis force into existing numerical models and to disentangle the effects of the shallow-atmosphere approximation from those of the traditional approximation. Related papers: Tort M., Dubos T., Bouchut F. and Zeitlin V. Consistent shallow-water equations on the rotating sphere with complete Coriolis force and topography. J. Fluid Mech. (under revisions) Tort M. and Dubos T. Dynamically consistent shallow-atmosphere equations with a complete Coriolis force. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. (DOI: 10.1002/qj.2274)

  15. Human population and atmospheric carbon dioxide growth dynamics: Diagnostics for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüsler, A. D.; Sornette, D.

    2014-10-01

    We analyze the growth rates of human population and of atmospheric carbon dioxide by comparing the relative merits of two benchmark models, the exponential law and the finite-time-singular (FTS) power law. The later results from positive feedbacks, either direct or mediated by other dynamical variables, as shown in our presentation of a simple endogenous macroeconomic dynamical growth model describing the growth dynamics of coupled processes involving human population (labor in economic terms), capital and technology (proxies by CO2 emissions). Human population in the context of our energy intensive economies constitutes arguably the most important underlying driving variable of the content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Using some of the best databases available, we perform empirical analyses confirming that the human population on Earth has been growing super-exponentially until the mid-1960s, followed by a decelerated sub-exponential growth, with a tendency to plateau at just an exponential growth in the last decade with an average growth rate of 1.0% per year. In contrast, we find that the content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has continued to accelerate super-exponentially until 1990, with a transition to a progressive deceleration since then, with an average growth rate of approximately 2% per year in the last decade. To go back to CO2 atmosphere contents equal to or smaller than the level of 1990 as has been the broadly advertised goals of international treaties since 1990 requires herculean changes: from a dynamical point of view, the approximately exponential growth must not only turn to negative acceleration but also negative velocity to reverse the trend.

  16. Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics for an Inflatable Solar Concentrator in Atmospheric and Thermal Vacuum Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slade, Kara N.; Tinker, Michael L.; Lassiter, John O.; Engberg, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic testing of an inflatable solar concentrator structure in a thermal vacuum chamber as well as in ambient laboratory conditions is described in detail. Unique aspects of modal testing for the extremely lightweight inflatable are identified, including the use of a noncontacting laser vibrometer measurement system. For the thermal vacuum environment, mode shapes and frequency response functions are compared for three different test article inflation pressures at room temperature. Modes that persist through all the inflation pressure regimes are identified, as well as modes that are unique for each pressure. In atmospheric pressure and room temperature conditions, dynamic measurements were obtained for the expected operational inflation pressure of 0.5 psig. Experimental mode shapes and frequency response functions for ambient conditions are described and compared to the 0.5 psig results from the thermal vacuum tests. Only a few mode shapes were identified that occurred in both vacuum and atmospheric environments. This somewhat surprising result is discussed in detail, and attributed at least partly to 1.) large differences in modal damping, and 2.) significant differences in the mass of air contained by the structure, in the two environments. Results of this investigation point out the necessity of testing inflatable space structures in vacuum conditions before they can be launched. Ground testing in atmospheric pressure is not sufficient for predicting on-orbit dynamics of non-rigidized inflatable systems.

  17. Morphology and Chemical composition of Atmospheric Particles over Semi-Arid region (Jaipur, Rajasthan) of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Agnihotri, R.; Yadav, P.; Singh, S.; Tawale, J. S.; Rashmi, R.; Prasad, M.; Arya, B. C.; Mishra, N.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainties associated with the radiative forcing of atmospheric dust particles is highest, owing to lack of region-specific dust morphology (particle shape, size) and mineralogy (chemical composition) database, needed for modeling their optical properties (Mishra and Tripathi, 2008). To fill this gap for the Indian region, we collected atmospheric particles (with aerodynamic size <5um, PM5 and a few bulk particles; TSP) from seven sites of Jaipur and nearby locales (semi-arid region, in the vicinity of Thar Desert of Rajasthan) at varying altitude, during late winters of ca. 2012. PM5 particles were collected on Teflon filters (for bulk chemical analyses), while pure Tin substrates (~1×1 mm2) were used for investigating individual particle morphology. Using Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X ray (SEM-EDX) facility at NPL, images of individual particles were recorded and the morphological parameters (e.g. Aspect ratio; AR, Circulatory parameter; CIR.) were retrieved following Okada et al. (2001), whereas chemical compositions of individual particles were determined by EDX and bulk samples by X ray fluorescence (XRF). The geometrical size distributions of atmospheric particles were generated for each site. Based on NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology, USA) morphology database, the site-specific individual particle shapes reveal predominance of "Layered" (calcite and quartz rich), "Angular" structures (quartz rich) and "Flattened" particles over all the sites. Particles were found to be highly non-spherical with irregular shapes (CIR varying from 1 to 0.22 with median value ~0.76; AR varying from 1 to 5.4 with median value ~1.64). Noteworthy to mention, that unit values of AR and CIR represent spherical particles. Chemical analyses of PM5 particles revealed dominance of crustal elements e.g. Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, in general. Particles over Kukas Hill (27.027° N, 75.919° E; ~800 MAGL) showed highest Fe mass fractions (~43

  18. Modeling Io's Sublimation-Driven Atmosphere: Gas Dynamics and Radiation Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Andrew C.; Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.; Trafton, Laurence M.; Moore, Chris H.; Stewart, Benedicte; Gratiy, Sergey L.; Levin, Deborah A.

    2008-12-31

    Io's sublimation-driven atmosphere is modeled using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. These rarefied gas dynamics simulations improve upon earlier models by using a three-dimensional domain encompassing the entire planet computed in parallel. The effects of plasma impact heating, planetary rotation, and inhomogeneous surface frost are investigated. Circumplanetary flow is predicted to develop from the warm subsolar region toward the colder night-side. The non-equilibrium thermal structure of the atmosphere, including vibrational and rotational temperatures, is also presented. Io's rotation leads to an asymmetric surface temperature distribution which is found to strengthen circumplanetary flow near the dusk terminator. Plasma heating is found to significantly inflate the atmosphere on both day- and night-sides. The plasma energy flux also causes high temperatures at high altitudes but permits relatively cooler temperatures at low altitudes near the dense subsolar point due to plasma energy depletion. To validate the atmospheric model, a radiative transfer model was developed utilizing the backward Monte Carlo method. The model allows the calculation of the atmospheric radiation from emitting/absorbing and scattering gas using an arbitrary scattering law and an arbitrary surface reflectivity. The model calculates the spectra in the {nu}{sub 2} vibrational band of SO{sub 2} which are then compared to the observational data.

  19. Structure and composition of the neutral upper atmosphere of Mars from the MAVEN NGIMS investigation

    PubMed Central

    Benna, M.; Elrod, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Stone, S. W.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) provides sensitive detections of neutral gas and ambient ion composition. NGIMS measurements of nine atomic and molecular neutral species, and their variation with altitude, latitude, and solar zenith angle are reported over several months of operation of the MAVEN mission. Sampling NGIMS signals from multiple neutral species every several seconds reveals persistent and unexpectedly large amplitude density structures. The scale height temperatures are mapped over the course of the first few months of the mission from high down to midlatitudes. NGIMS measurements near the homopause of 40Ar/N2 ratios agree with those reported by the Sample Analysis at Mars investigation and allow the altitude of the homopause for the most abundant gases to be established. PMID:27667873

  20. Structure and composition of the neutral upper atmosphere of Mars from the MAVEN NGIMS investigation

    PubMed Central

    Benna, M.; Elrod, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Bougher, S. W.; Stone, S. W.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) provides sensitive detections of neutral gas and ambient ion composition. NGIMS measurements of nine atomic and molecular neutral species, and their variation with altitude, latitude, and solar zenith angle are reported over several months of operation of the MAVEN mission. Sampling NGIMS signals from multiple neutral species every several seconds reveals persistent and unexpectedly large amplitude density structures. The scale height temperatures are mapped over the course of the first few months of the mission from high down to midlatitudes. NGIMS measurements near the homopause of 40Ar/N2 ratios agree with those reported by the Sample Analysis at Mars investigation and allow the altitude of the homopause for the most abundant gases to be established.

  1. A thirty year record of the isotopic composition of atmospheric methane from North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. L.; Teama, D. G.; Roeger, F. H.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Khalil, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is one of the most important greenhouse gases after water vapor and carbon dioxide. Its atmospheric concentration increased from 650 ppb during the preindustrial era to nearly 1800 ppb in the present day due to human activities such as rice cultivation, animal husbandry, biomass burning, and fossil fuel production and use. Since the 1980s, the long-term growth rate of atmospheric CH4 slowed dramatically consistent with a leveling off of CH4 sources with significant interannual variability over this period. One powerful tool to constrain changes in sources and sinks is the use of stable isotopes of atmospheric CH4 because of the distinct values of carbon isotope (δ13C) and hydrogen isotope (δD) ratios in CH4 sources and characteristic isotopic fractionation effects in sinks. Measurements of the long-term trend of the isotopic composition of CH4 can improve the constraint of changes to the CH4 budget from microbial sources (e.g., wetlands, ruminants, and rice agriculture, δ13C ~-60 ‰, δD ~-300‰), fossil sources (e.g. natural gas and coal mining, δ13C ~-40‰, δD ~-200‰), and biomass burning (δ13C ~-25‰, δD ~-100‰). In this work, we present measurements of δ13C and δD of atmospheric CH4 from a unique archive of more than 200 air samples collected at Cape Meares, Oregon (45.5°N, 124°W) from 1978 to 1998. The measurements from this archive indicate enrichments in both isotope tracers over this period which average 0.017 (±0.002) ‰yr-1 for δ13C and 0.68 (±0.04) ‰yr-1 for δD. Seasonal cycles in δ13C and δD are also evident with amplitudes of ~ 0.3 ‰ and ~ 4 ‰, respectively; maximum values are found May-July and minimum values September-December, consistent with previous results from the mid-latitude northern hemisphere. Combining our results with more recent timeseries since 1988 from Olympic Peninsula (WA, 48°N), Montana de Oro (CA, 35°N), and Niwot Ridge (CO, 40°N) provides a composite record of the isotopic

  2. An Overview of Atmospheric Composition OSSE Activities at NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    daSilva, Arlinda

    2012-01-01

    A model-based Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is a framework for numerical experimentation in which observables are simulated from fields generated by an earth system model, including a parameterized description of observational error characteristics. Simulated observations can be used for sampling studies, quantifying errors in analysis or retrieval algorithms, and ultimately being a planning tool for designing new observing missions. While this framework has traditionally been used to assess the impact of observations on numerical weather prediction, it has a much broader applicability, in particular to aerosols and chemical constituents. In this talk we will give a general overview of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) activities at NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, with focus on its emerging atmospheric composition component.

  3. Improving adhesion of powder coating on PEEK composite: Influence of atmospheric plasma parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Aurélie; Ho, Thu Huong; Fahs, Ahmad; Lafabrier, Aurore; Louarn, Guy; Bacharouche, Jalal; Airoudj, Aissam; Aragon, Emmanuel; Chailan, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    In aeronautic industries, powder coatings are increasingly used because of environmental considerations. During the deposition of such a coating on a substrate piece, the main objective is to obtain a good coating/substrate adhesion. In this study, the targeted substrate is a Poly-(Ether EtherKetone)-(PEEK) based composite material. Due to the poor surface energy of PEEK, a surface treatment is necessary in order to enhance its adhesion with the coating. In this purpose, atmospheric plasma treatment has been chosen and the influence of plasma parameters has been studied. Four scan speed nozzles and three gases (Air, N2 and Argon) plasma has been tested. The increase of adhesion with increasing wettability, polarity and nanoroughness has been evidenced. A particular study of the type of grafted polar functionalities according to gas nature allowed to better understand the plasma mechanism and the cross-impact of polarity and nanoroughness in adhesion enhancement.

  4. The CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation: Enhancing the Value of Space-Based Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Richard; Zehner, Claus; Al-Saadi, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) coordinates civil space-borne observations of the Earth. Participating agencies strive to enhance international coordination and data exchange and to optimize societal benefit. In recent years, CEOS has collaborated closely with the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in implementing the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) space-based objectives. The goal of the CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) is to collect and deliver data to improve monitoring, assessment and predictive capabilities for changes in the ozone layer, air quality and climate forcing associated with changes in the environment through coordination of existing and future international space assets. A project to coordinate and enhance the science value of a future constellation of geostationary sensors measuring parameters relevant to air quality supports the forthcoming European Sentinel-4, Korean GEMS, and US TEMPO missions. Recommendations have been developed for harmonization to mutually improve data quality and facilitate widespread use of the data products.

  5. The dynamic behaviour of postbuckled composite plates under acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, C. F.; White, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Ritz method was used to find the postbuckling static displacement pattern of a composite plane (CFRP) under uniaxial in-plane compression of uniform edge-shortening. The resonance frequencies and mode shapes at various postbuckled states are then evaluated by eigenvalue analysis of the dynamical matrix equation consisting of up-dated tangential stiffness matrix at corresponding static configuration. The theoretical results are compared with experimental results obtained in 16-layered CFRP laminate of aspect ratio 1.5. The resonance frequencies and mode shapes obtained are used to interpret the multimodal and nonlinear strain responses to high level of acoustic excitation. The dominance of second-mode contribution and softening-spring behavior are found in the strain response of postbuckled plates.

  6. Dynamic fracture behaviour in fibre-reinforced cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Rena C.; Cifuentes, Héctor; Rivero, Ignacio; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Zhang, Xiaoxin

    2016-08-01

    The object of this work is to simulate the dynamic fracture propagation in fibre-reinforced cementitious composites, in particular, in steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC). Beams loaded in a three-point bend configuration through a drop-weight impact device are considered. A single cohesive crack is assumed to propagate at the middle section; the opening of this crack is governed by a rate-dependent cohesive law; the fibres around the fracture plane are explicitly represented through truss elements. The fibre pull-out behaviour is depicted by an equivalent constitutive law, which is obtained from an analytical load-slip curve. The obtained load-displacement curves and crack propagation velocities are compared with their experimental counterparts. The good agreement with experimental data testifies to the feasibility of the proposed methodology and paves the way to its application in a multi-scale framework.

  7. Water cycle dynamic increases resilience of vegetation under higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemordant, L. A.; Gentine, P.; Stéfanon, M.; Drobinski, P. J.; Fatichi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Plant stomata couple the energy, water and carbon cycles. Photosynthesis requires stomata to open to take up carbon dioxide. In the process water vapor is released as transpiration. As atmospheric CO2 concentration rises, for the same amount of CO2 uptake, less water vapor is transpired, translating into higher water use efficiency. Reduced water vapor losses will increase soil water storage if the leaf area coverage remains similar. This will in turn alter the surface energy partitioning: more heat will be dissipated as sensible heat flux, resulting in possibly higher surface temperatures. In contrast with this common hypothesis, our study shows that the water saved during the growing season by increased WUE can be mobilized by the vegetation and help reduce the maximum temperature of mid-latitude heat waves. The large scale meteorological conditions of 2003 are the basis of four regional model simulations coupling an atmospheric model to a surface model. We performed two simulations with respectively 2003 (CTL) and 2100 (FUT) atmospheric CO2 applied to both the atmospheric and surface models. A third (RAD) and a fourth (FER) simulations are run with 2100 CO2 concentration applied to respectively the atmospheric model only and the surface model only. RAD investigates the impact of the radiative forcing, and FER the response to vegetation CO2 fertilization. Our results show that the water saved through higher water use efficiency during the growing season enabled by higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations helps the vegetation to cope during severe heat and dryness conditions in the summer of mid-latitude climate. These results demonstrate that consideration of the vegetation carbon cycle is essential to model the seasonal water cycle dynamic and land-atmosphere interactions, and enhance the accuracy of the model outputs especially for extreme events. They also have important implications for the future of agriculture, water resources management, ecosystems

  8. Optical phase curves as diagnostics for aerosol composition in exoplanetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshenko, Maria; Heng, Kevin; Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Optical phase curves have become one of the common probes of exoplanetary atmospheres, but the information they encode has not been fully elucidated. Building on a diverse body of work, we upgrade the Flexible Modelling System to include scattering in the two-stream, dual-band approximation and generate plausible, three-dimensional structures of irradiated atmospheres to study the radiative effects of aerosols or condensates. In the optical, we treat the scattering of starlight using a generalization of Beer's law that allows for a finite Bond albedo to be prescribed. In the infrared, we implement the two-stream solutions and include scattering via an infrared scattering parameter. We present a suite of four-parameter general circulation models for Kepler-7b and demonstrate that its climatology is expected to be robust to variations in optical and infrared scattering. The westward and eastward shifts of the optical and infrared phase curves, respectively, are shown to be robust outcomes of the simulations. Assuming micron-sized particles and a simplified treatment of local brightness, we further show that the peak offset of the optical phase curve is sensitive to the composition of the aerosols or condensates. However, to within the measurement uncertainties, we cannot distinguish between aerosols made of silicates (enstatite or forsterite), iron, corundum or titanium oxide, based on a comparison to the measured peak offset (41° ± 12°) of the optical phase curve of Kepler-7b. Measuring high-precision optical phase curves will provide important constraints on the atmospheres of cloudy exoplanets and reduce degeneracies in interpreting their infrared spectra.

  9. Orbit and Atmospheric Composition of the Warm Sub-Saturn EPIC-2037b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petigura, Erik; Deck, Katherine; Benneke, Bjoern; Knutson, Heather; Deming, Drake; Werner, Michael; Livingston, John; Crossfield, Ian

    2015-10-01

    We propose a joint Spitzer/HST proposal to observe transits of two warm, sub-Saturn sized planets orbiting EPIC-203771098 (EPIC-2037 hereafter), a bright G dwarf observed by K2. EPIC-2037b and c are 5.7±0.6 and 7.6±0.8 Earth-radii. Sine the two planets are close to the 2:1 mean-motion resonance, transit timing variations (TTVs) are expected to be large (several hours). Our proposed Spitzer transit observations will yield precise transit times for EPIC-2037b and c. We will model the TTVs to constrain the eccentricities of EPIC-2037b and c which are linked to the formation pathway for this system. EPIC-2037b and c have low densities of 0.4 g/cc and 0.2 g/cc, respectively. Their large size and low surface gravities make these planets favorable targets for transmission spectroscopy by Spitzer, HST, and JWST. In addition to their favorable observability, the planets have low equilibrium temperatures of ~710 K and ~560 K, respectively. These temperatures have not been well-explored in previous studies with transmission spectroscopy. While over a dozen HST+Spitzer transmission spectra have been published in the literature, only GJ1214b, GJ346b, HAT-P-11b, and HAT-P-12b have comparable temperatures. While Spitzer can detect wavelength-dependent variation in transit depth, the Spitzer measurements alone cannot discriminate between various atmospheric compositions. Therefore we propose to use HST/WFC3 to probe the atmosphere of EPIC-2037b. The HST transmission spectrum will probe water vapor in the atmosphere, which reflects the planet?s oxygen abundance, a proxy for the planet?s heavy element enrichment.

  10. Atmospheric Composition of Weak G Band Stars: CNO and Li Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczak, Jens; Lambert, David L.

    2013-03-01

    We determined the chemical composition of a large sample of weak G band stars—a rare class of G and K giants of intermediate mass with unusual abundances of C, N, and Li. We have observed 24 weak G band stars with the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory and derived spectroscopic abundances for C, N, O, and Li, as well as for selected elements from Na-Eu. The results show that the atmospheres of weak G band stars are highly contaminated with CN-cycle products. The C underabundance is about a factor of 20 larger than for normal giants and the 12C/13C ratio approaches the CN-cycle equilibrium value. In addition to the striking CN-cycle signature the strong N overabundance may indicate the presence of partially ON-cycled material in the atmospheres of the weak G band stars. The exact mechanism responsible for the transport of the elements to the surface has yet to be identified but could be induced by rapid rotation of the main sequence progenitors of the stars. The unusually high Li abundances in some of the stars are an indicator for Li production by the Cameron-Fowler mechanism. A quantitative prediction of a weak G band star's Li abundance is complicated by the strong temperature sensitivity of the mechanism and its participants. In addition to the unusual abundances of CN-cycle elements and Li, we find an overabundance of Na that is in accordance with the NeNa chain running in parallel with the CN cycle. Apart from these peculiarities, the element abundances in a weak G band star's atmosphere are consistent with those of normal giants.

  11. Compilation of a database on the composition of anthropogenic VOC emissions for atmospheric modeling in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theloke, J.; Friedrich, R.

    To analyse and generate air pollution control strategies and policies, e.g. efficient abatement strategies or action plans that lead to a fulfilment of air quality aims, atmospheric dispersion models (CTMs) have to be used. These models include a chemical model, where the numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) species are lumped together in classes. On the other hand, emission inventories usually report only total non-methane VOC (NMVOC), but not a subdivision into these classes. Thus, VOC species profiles are needed that resolve total NMVOC emission data. The objective of this publication is to present the results of a compilation of VOC species profiles that dissolve total VOC into single-species profiles for all relevant anthropogenic emission source categories and the European situation. As in atmospheric dispersion models usually modules for generating biogenic emissions are directly included, only anthropogenic emissions are addressed. VOC species profiles for 87 emission source categories have been developed. The underlying data base can be used to generate the data for all chemical mechanisms. The species profiles have been generated using recent measurements and studies on VOC species resolution and thus represent the current state of knowledge in this area. The results can be used to create input data for atmospheric dispersion models in Europe. The profiles, especially those for solvent use, still show large uncertainties. There is still an enormous need for further measurements to achieve an improved species resolution. In addition, the solvent use directive and the DECOPAINT directive of the European Commission will result in a change of the composition of paints; more water-based and high-solid paints will be used; thus the species resolution will change drastically in the next years. Of course, the species resolution for combustion and production processes also requires further improvement.

  12. Constraints on the Atmospheric Composition of GJ 436b Using Secondary Eclipse Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Harrington, J.; Nymeyer, S.; Madhusudhan, N.; Seager, S.; Deming, D.; Laughlin, G. P.; Hardy, R. A.; Bowman, W. C.; Langton, J.; Rauscher, E.; Lust, N.; Wilson, D.

    2009-09-01

    Of the over 50 known transiting exoplanets, GJ 436b is Earth's nearest neighbor and the only transiting companion to an M dwarf. It is classified as a hot Neptune because of its close proximity to its parent star, GJ 436, and its small size relative to other known exoplanets. The Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity program observes secondary eclipses, where the planet passes behind the star, to provide direct measurements of emitted planetary flux, thus constraining atmospheric models. The observations, which took place in three groups between June of 2007 and June of 2008, include five lightcurves at 8.0 microns and one lightcurve each at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 16, and 24 microns. We will present estimates of infrared brightness temperatures and the atmospheric composition using a new temperature and abundance retrieval modeling method. A companion talk by Hardy et al. will provide constraints on the eccentricity and argument of periapsis due to the precise phase of secondary eclipse. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA, which provided support for this work.

  13. Sources or sinks? The responses of tropical forests to current and future climate and atmospheric composition.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Deborah A

    2004-01-01

    How tropical rainforests are responding to the ongoing global changes in atmospheric composition and climate is little studied and poorly understood. Although rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) could enhance forest productivity, increased temperatures and drought are likely to diminish it. The limited field data have produced conflicting views of the net impacts of these changes so far. One set of studies has seemed to point to enhanced carbon uptake; however, questions have arisen about these findings, and recent experiments with tropical forest trees indicate carbon saturation of canopy leaves and no biomass increase under enhanced CO2. Other field observations indicate decreased forest productivity and increased tree mortality in recent years of peak temperatures and drought (strong El Niño episodes). To determine current climatic responses of forests around the world tropics will require careful annual monitoring of ecosystem performance in representative forests. To develop the necessary process-level understanding of these responses will require intensified experimentation at the whole-tree and stand levels. Finally, a more complete understanding of tropical rainforest carbon cycling is needed for determining whether these ecosystems are carbon sinks or sources now, and how this status might change during the next century. PMID:15212097

  14. Ground-based spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric gas composition near Saint Petersburg (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyev, Yury; Virolainen, Yana; Makarova, Maria; Poberovsky, Anatoly; Polyakov, Alexander; Ionov, Dmitry; Osipov, Sergey; Imhasin, Hamud

    2016-05-01

    Since early 2009, high-resolution solar absorption spectra have been recorded at the Peterhof station (59.88°N, 29.82°E) of Saint Petersburg State University located in the suburbs of St. Petersburg. Measurements are made with the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) system, which consists of Bruker IFS 125HR instrument (with maximum spectral resolution of 0.005 cm-1) and self-designed solar tracker. We derived total column (TC) of a dozen of atmospheric gases from recorded spectra and performed the error analysis of these retrievals. Furthermore, we analysed the temporal variability of the important climatically active gases, such as H2O, CH4, O3, CO, and NO2 near St. Petersburg and compared our retrievals with independent ground-based and satellite data, as well as with the results of EMAC model numerical simulations. Currently, the results of our measurements and the measuring system are under validation for entering the international Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC).

  15. The composition and structure of white dwarf atmospheres revealed by extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Martin A.; Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Thierry; Holberg, Jay B.; Sion, Edward M.

    1995-01-01

    The ROentgen SATellite (ROSAT) and Extreme UltraViolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky surveys have resulted in an important change in our understanding of the general composition of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarf atmospheres, with the photospheric opacity dominated by heavy elements rather than helium in the hottest stars (T > 40, 000 K). Most stars cooler than 40,000 K have more or less pure H atmospheres. However, one question, which has not been resolved, concerned the specific nature of the heavy elements and the role of helium in the hottest white dwarfs. One view of white dwarf evolution requires that H-rich DA stars form by gravitational settling of He from either DAO or He-rich central stars of planetary nebulae. In this case, the youngest (hottest) DA white dwarfs may still contain visible traces of He. Spectroscopic observations now available with EUVE provide a crucial test of these ideas. Analysis of data from the EUVE Guest Observer programme and EUVE public archive allows quantitative consideration of the sources of EUV opacity and places limits on the abundance of He which may be present.

  16. Dynamics of Bacterial Community Composition in the Malaria Mosquito's Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Tchioffo, Majoline T.; Boissière, Anne; Abate, Luc; Nsango, Sandrine E.; Bayibéki, Albert N.; Awono-Ambéné, Parfait H.; Christen, Richard; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Morlais, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The Anopheles midgut hosts diverse bacterial communities and represents a complex ecosystem. Several evidences indicate that mosquito midgut microbiota interferes with malaria parasite transmission. However, the bacterial composition of salivary glands and ovaries, two other biologically important tissues, has not been described so far. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the bacterial communities in the mosquito tissues from emerging mosquitoes until 8 days after a blood meal containing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and described the temporal colonization of the mosquito epithelia. Bacterial communities were identified in the midgut, ovaries, and salivary glands of individual mosquitoes using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that the mosquito epithelia share a core microbiota, but some bacteria taxa were more associated with one or another tissue at a particular time point. The bacterial composition in the tissues of emerging mosquitoes varied according to the breeding site, indicating that some bacteria are acquired from the environment. Our results revealed temporal variations in the bacterial community structure, possibly as a result of the mosquito physiological changes. The abundance of Serratia significantly correlated with P. falciparum infection both in the midgut and salivary glands of malaria challenged mosquitoes, which suggests that interactions occur between microbes and parasites. These bacteria may represent promising targets for vector control strategies. Overall, this study points out the importance of characterizing bacterial communities in malaria mosquito vectors. PMID:26779155

  17. Dynamic composition, shaping and organization of plastid nucleoids

    PubMed Central

    Powikrowska, Marta; Oetke, Svenja; Jensen, Poul E.; Krupinska, Karin

    2014-01-01

    In this article recent progress on the elucidation of the dynamic composition and structure of plastid nucleoids is reviewed from a structural perspective. Plastid nucleoids are compact structures of multiple copies of different forms of ptDNA, RNA, enzymes for replication and gene expression as well as DNA binding proteins. Although early electron microscopy suggested that plastid DNA is almost free of proteins, it is now well established that the DNA in nucleoids similarly as in the nuclear chromatin is associated with basic proteins playing key roles in organization of the DNA architecture and in regulation of DNA associated enzymatic activities involved in transcription, replication, and recombination. This group of DNA binding proteins has been named plastid nucleoid associated proteins (ptNAPs). Plastid nucleoids are unique with respect to their variable number, genome copy content and dynamic distribution within different types of plastids. The mechanisms underlying the shaping and reorganization of plastid nucleoids during chloroplast development and in response to environmental conditions involve posttranslational modifications of ptNAPs, similarly to those changes known for histones in the eukaryotic chromatin, as well as changes in the repertoire of ptNAPs, as known for nucleoids of bacteria. Attachment of plastid nucleoids to membranes is proposed to be important not only for regulation of DNA availability for replication and transcription, but also for the coordination of photosynthesis and plastid gene expression. PMID:25237313

  18. The switching between zonal and blocked mid-latitude atmospheric circulation: a dynamical system perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faranda, Davide; Masato, Giacomo; Moloney, Nicholas; Sato, Yuzuru; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Yiou, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric mid-latitude circulation is dominated by a zonal, westerly flow. Such a flow is generally symmetric, but it can be occasionally broken up by blocking anticyclones. The subsequent asymmetric flow can persist for several days. In this paper, we apply new mathematical tools based on the computation of an extremal index in order to reexamine the dynamical mechanisms responsible for the transitions between zonal and blocked flows. We discard the claim that mid-latitude circulation features two distinct stable equilibria or chaotic regimes, in favor of a simpler mechanism that is well understood in dynamical systems theory: we identify the blocked flow as an unstable fixed point (or saddle point) of a single basin chaotic attractor, dominated by the westerlies regime. We also analyze the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation atmospheric indices, whose behavior is often associated with the transition between the two circulation regimes, and investigate analogies and differences with the bidimensional blocking indices. We find that the Arctic Oscillation index, which can be thought as a proxy for a hemispheric average of the Tibaldi-Molteni blocking index, tracks unstable fixed points. On the other hand, the North Atlantic Oscillation, representative only for local properties of the North Atlantic blocking dynamics, does not show any trace of the presence of unstable fixed points of the dynamics.

  19. 10-year record of atmospheric composition in the high Himalayas: source, transport and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonasoni, Paolo; Laj, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Maione, Michela; Putero, Davide; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Gobbi, Gianpaolo; Sellegri, Karine; Verza, Gianpietro; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Arduini, Jgor

    2016-04-01

    occurrence of pollution transport and high rate of new particle formation events in this region. Here we provide an overview of the main scientific results obtained during these ten years of research. In particular, we will discuss the impact of atmospheric transport and monsoon variability on atmospheric composition by disentangling the role played by mountain breeze system and synoptic-scale transport. We will provide specific information about the role of stratospheric intrusions, long-range mineral dust transport and open biomass burning emissions in determining the variability of ozone, aerosol and equivalent black carbon concentrations. The effect of particle nucleation processes on aerosol number concentrations will be shown. Finally, we discuss the climatic impact of aerosols observed at NCO-P both in terms of direct atmospheric radiative forcing and black carbon deposition on Himalayan snow.

  20. Bacterial community dynamics during cold storage of minced meat packaged under modified atmosphere and supplemented with different preservatives.

    PubMed

    Stoops, J; Ruyters, S; Busschaert, P; Spaepen, R; Verreth, C; Claes, J; Lievens, B; Van Campenhout, L

    2015-06-01

    Since minced meat is very susceptible for microbial growth, characterisation of the bacterial community dynamics during storage is important to optimise preservation strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different production batches and the use of different preservatives on the composition of the bacterial community in minced meat during 9 days of cold storage under modified atmosphere (66% O2, 25% CO2 and 9% N2). To this end, both culture-dependent (viable aerobic and anaerobic counts) and culture-independent (454 pyrosequencing) analyses were performed. Initially, microbial counts of fresh minced meat showed microbial loads between 3.5 and 5.0 log cfu/g. The observed microbial diversity was relatively high, and the most abundant bacteria differed among the samples. During storage an increase of microbial counts coincided with a dramatic decrease in bacterial diversity. At the end of the storage period, most samples showed microbial counts above the spoilage level of 7 log cfu/g. A relatively similar bacterial community was obtained regardless of the manufacturing batch and the preservative used, with Lactobacillus algidus and Leuconostoc sp. as the most dominant microorganisms. This suggests that both bacteria played an important role in the spoilage of minced meat packaged under modified atmosphere.

  1. Evaluating Direct Radiative Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Atmospheric Dynamics with Aquaplanet and Regional Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, Ö.; Tegen, I.; Quaas, J.

    2015-12-01

    Effects of absorbing aerosol on atmospheric dynamics are usually investigated with help of general circulation models or also regional models that represent the atmospheric system as realistic as possible. Reducing the complexity of models used to study the effects of absorbing aerosol on atmospheric dynamics helps to understand underlying mechanisms. In this study, by using ECHAM6 General Circulation Model (GCM) in an Aquaplanet setting and using simplified aerosol climatology, an initial idealization step has been taken. The analysis only considers direct radiative effects, furthering the reduction of complex model results. The simulations include cases including aerosol radiative forcing, no aerosol forcing, coarse mode aerosol forcing only (as approximation for mineral dust forcing) and forcing with increased aerosol absorption. The results showed that increased absorption affects cloud cover mainly in subtropics. Hadley circulation is found to be weakened in the increased absorption case. To compare the results of the idealized model with a more realistic model setting, the results of the regional model COSMO-MUSCAT that includes interactive mineral dust aerosol and considers the effects of dust radiative forcing are also analyzed. The regional model computes the atmospheric circulation for the year 2007 twice, including the feedback of dust and excluding the dust aerosol forcing. It is investigated to which extent the atmospheric response to the dust forcing agrees with the simplified Aquaplanet results. As expected, in the regional model mineral dust causes an increase in the temperature right above the dust layer while reducing the temperature close to the surface. In both models the presence of aerosol forcing leads to increased specific humidity, close to ITCZ. Notwithstanding the difference magnitudes, comparisons of the global aquaplanet and the regional model showed similar patterns. Further detailed comparisons will be presented.

  2. Dynamics and predictability of a low-order wind-driven ocean - atmosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannitsem, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a low order coupled wind-driven Ocean-Atmosphere (OA) system is investigated with emphasis on its predictability properties. The low-order coupled deterministic system is composed of a baroclinic atmosphere for which 12 dominant dynamical modes are only retained (Charney and Straus, 1980) and a wind-driven, quasi-geostrophic and reduced-gravity shallow ocean whose field is truncated to four dominant modes able to reproduce the large scale oceanic gyres (Pierini, 2011). The two models are coupled through mechanical forcings only. The analysis of its dynamics reveals first that under aperiodic atmospheric forcings only dominant single gyres (clockwise or counterclockwise) appear. This feature is expected to be related with the specific domain choice over which the coupled system is defined. Second the dynamical quantities characterizing the short-term predictability (Lyapunov exponents, Lyapunov dimension, Kolmogorov-Sinaï (KS) entropy) displays a complex dependence as a function of the key parameters of the system, namely the coupling strength and the external thermal forcing. In particular, the KS-entropy is increasing as a function of the coupling in most of the experiments, implying an increase of the rate of loss of information about the localization of the system on his attractor. Finally the dynamics of the error is explored and indicates, in particular, a rich variety of short term behaviors of the error in the atmosphere depending on the (relative) amplitude of the initial error affecting the ocean, from polynomial (at2 + bt3 + ct4) up to purely exponential evolutions. These features are explained and analyzed in the light of the recent findings on error growth (Nicolis et al, 2009). References Charney J G, Straus DM (1980) Form-Drag Instability, Multiple Equilibria and Propagating Planetary Waves in Baroclinic, Orographically Forced, Planetary Wave Systems. J Atmos Sci 37: 1157-1176. Nicolis C, Perdigao RAP, Vannitsem S (2009) Dynamics of

  3. Global scale observations of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its stable isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batenburg, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    With average mixing ratios (χ) around 550 ppb (nmole/mole), molecular hydrogen (H2) is the most abundant reduced gas in our atmosphere after methane (CH4), but considerably less studied. H2 is also a promising energy carrier that might replace fossil fuels in vehicles with great sustainability advantages, but there may be environmental side effects. Large-scale leakage of H2 into the atmosphere might affect the atmosphere’s oxidative capacity and stratospheric ozone chemistry. To assess these risks, a better understanding of the atmospheric H2 cycle is needed. Stable isotopic composition measurements can be used to constrain the source and sink terms in the budgets of atmospheric trace gases, as the different processes affect the stable isotopic composition of the gases in different ways. For H2, the effects are particularly large, due to the large relative mass difference between the isotopes (H and D). The largest source, hydrocarbon oxidation, yields D-enriched H2, whereas the smaller combustion-related sources and the minor microbial sources yield D-depleted and extremely D-depleted H2, respectively. Both sink processes, uptake in soils and reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), have a D-enriching effect, but the effect is much stronger for OH. Despite its usefulness, few environmental observations of H2 isotopic composition (δD(H2)) are available. We present three new χ(H2) and δD(H2) datasets to fill this gap. First, we present one- to five-year long time series from six globally distributed, predominantly background stations. As expected, average χ(H2) and δD(H2) values were larger in the southern hemisphere (SH) than in the northern hemisphere (NH). The minimum in δD(H2) was found at the NH midlatitude stations, likely a result of fossil fuel combustion. At the three NH coastal and island stations, seasonal δD(H2)-cycles were observed, which were five to six months out-of-phase with the χ(H2)-cycles. No δD(H2)-cycles were observed at the other

  4. Electron dynamics and plasma jet formation in a helium atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge jet

    SciTech Connect

    Algwari, Q. Th.; O'Connell, D.

    2011-09-19

    The excitation dynamics within the main plasma production region and the plasma jets of a kHz atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet operated in helium was investigated. Within the dielectric tube, the plasma ignites as a streamer-type discharge. Plasma jets are emitted from both the powered and grounded electrode end; their dynamics are compared and contrasted. Ignition of these jets are quite different; the jet emitted from the powered electrode is ignited with a slight time delay to plasma ignition inside the dielectric tube, while breakdown of the jet at the grounded electrode end is from charging of the dielectric and is therefore dependent on plasma production and transport within the dielectric tube. Present streamer theories can explain these dynamics.

  5. Mantle dynamics and the atmospheres of Mars and Venus: implications for surface conditions and interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmann, C.; Tackley, P.

    2012-04-01

    We propose to investigate the interaction between the mantle and the atmosphere of terrestrial planets, in order to study whereas such coupling could be the cause of the divergent evolution of planets in our solar system. Therefore, we build a coupled model taking into account mantle dynamics, volatile exchanges and atmospheric processes. We focus on Mars and Venus and consider the evolution of CO2 and H2O in the atmosphere. The first main mechanism we consider is the volcanic source of volatiles. Therefore we need to model the mantle dynamics by adapting the highly advanced StagYY code (developed by P. Tackley, 2008) for Mars and Venus. When possible, we compare those results to published modeling (Breuer and Spohn, 2006; Grott et al., 2011) and observation. Atmospheric escape is considered as the main volatile loss flux. Early loss is thermal, caused by hydrodynamic escape. After the first few hundred million years, the main atmospheric escape flux is caused by non-thermal mechanisms. We model their evolution by comparing recent numerical study and ASPERA (Analyzer of Space Plasma and EneRgetic Atoms) measurements. We combine these models to calculate the state of the atmosphere of Venus and Mars. This lets us estimate the surface temperature of those planets either from a Mars Global Circulation Model (e.g. Forget at al., 1999), or with a gray radiative-convective atmosphere model, for Venus. In the case of Mars, we show that the present-day atmosphere of Mars is likely to be constituted by a large part (more than 50%) of volcanic gases emitted since 4 billion years ago, which corresponds to a mean age of 1.9 to 2.3 Gyr. The variations of CO2 pressure over this period seem relatively low (50 mbar at most). This seems in line with the assumption that the heavy loss of volatiles occurred before 500 Myr. Surface temperature variations are likely to be small (several Kelvin) and would not be responsible for periods of flowing liquid surface water by themselves

  6. 2D photochemical modeling of Saturn's stratosphere. Part I: Seasonal variation of atmospheric composition without meridional transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hue, V.; Cavalié, T.; Dobrijevic, M.; Hersant, F.; Greathouse, T. K.

    2015-09-01

    Saturn's axial tilt of 26.7° produces seasons in a similar way as on Earth. Both the stratospheric temperature and composition are affected by this latitudinally varying insolation along Saturn's orbital path. A new time-dependent 2D photochemical model is presented to study the seasonal evolution of Saturn's stratospheric composition. This study focuses on the impact of the seasonally variable thermal field on the main stratospheric C2-hydrocarbon chemistry (C2H2 and C2H6) using a realistic radiative climate model. Meridional mixing and advective processes are implemented in the model but turned off in the present study for the sake of simplicity. The results are compared to a simple study case where a latitudinally and temporally steady thermal field is assumed. Our simulations suggest that, when the seasonally variable thermal field is accounted for, the downward diffusion of the seasonally produced hydrocarbons is faster due to the seasonal compression of the atmospheric column during winter. This effect increases with increasing latitudes which experience the most important thermal changes in the course of the seasons. The seasonal variability of C2H2 and C2H6 therefore persists at higher-pressure levels with a seasonally-variable thermal field. Cassini limb-observations of C2H2 and C2H6 (Guerlet, S. et al. [2009]. Icarus 203, 214-232) are reasonably well-reproduced from the equator to 40° in both hemispheres in the 0.1-1 mbar pressure range. At lower pressure levels, the models only fit the Cassini observations in the northern hemisphere, from the equator to 40°N. Beyond 40° in both hemispheres, deviations from the pure photochemical predictions, mostly in the southern hemisphere, suggest the presence of large-scale stratospheric dynamics.

  7. Modeling Atmosphere Composition and Determining Explosibility in a Sealed Coal Mine Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jianwei; Luo, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Explosions originated from or around the sealed areas in underground coal mines present a serious safety threat. The explosibility of the mine atmosphere depends on the composition of oxygen, combustible and inert gases. In additional, the composition in the inaccessible sealed areas change with time under various factors, such as gases emissions, air leakage, inert gases injected, etc. In order to improve mine safety, in this paper, a mathematical model based on the control volume approach to simulate the atmosphere compositions is developed, and the expanded Coward explosibility triangle diagram is used to assess the mine gas explosion risk. A computer program is developed to carry out the required computations and to display the results. In addition, the USBM explosibility diagram is also included in the program to serve as a double check. Wybuchy powstające wewnątrz lub wokół zamkniętych (odizolowanych) regionów w podziemnych kopalniach węgla stanowią poważne zagrożenie. Możliwość wystąpienia wybuchu powietrza kopalnianego uzależniona jest od proporcji zawartego w nim tlenu, gazów palnych i gazów obojętnych. Ponadto, skład atmosfery wewnątrz zamkniętych odizolowanych przestrzeni ulega zmianom w czasie pod wpływem różnorakich czynników: wydzielanie gazów, przecieki powietrza, doprowadzanie gazów obojętnych. Dla poprawy bezpieczeństwa pracy w kopalni opracowano model matematyczny bazujący na metodzie objętości kontrolnej dla symulacji składu powietrza. Rozszerzony wykres Cowarda wskazujący skłonność do wybuchu wykorzystany został do oszacowania ryzyka wystąpienia wybuchu gazów kopalnianych. Opracowano program komputerowy który wykonuje niezbędne obliczenia i wyświetla wyniki. Ponadto, dla dodatkowego potwierdzenia wyników wykorzystano wykres USBM obrazujący niebezpieczeństwo wybuchu

  8. Antarctic Circumpolar Wave dynamics in a simplified ocean- atmosphere coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maze, G.; D'Andrea, F.; Colin de Verdiere, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (ACW) is one of the main pattern of variability in the Ocean-Atmosphere system in the southern Hemisphere extratropics. It involves sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure (SLP) and other variables, and consists of a wave train of zonal number 2, travelling around Antarctica at the speed of 6-8 cm s-1, hence taking around 8 years to complete a circle. A fundamental feature of this observed pattern is that anomalies are eastward propagating and seem to be phase locked: for example SST and SLP are in quadrature (high downstream of warm SST). Nevertheless the atmospheric part of the wave has been questioned by some observational studies. Different analytical and numerical studies have veen proposed, but a convincing theoretical explanation for the ACW is still missing. In this work we study the ACW as simulated by a simple dynamical model, in order to determine the basic physical processes that characterize it. The model used is an atmospheric quasi-geostrophic tridimensional model coupled to an ocean "slab" mixed layer, which includes mean geostrophic advection by the antarctic circumpolar current (ACC). The atmosphere-ocean coupling is obtained via surface sensible heat fluxes. We analyse three configuration of the model, a "passive ocean" one, where the ocean responds to the atmopheric forcing but does not feeds back to the atmosphere; a "passive atmosphere" one, where the stationary reponse of the atmosphere to prescribed SST anomalies; and a fully coupled one. The two forced experiment show separately a positive feedback in the coupled system.The passive ocean experiment shows an ACW-type low frequency variability in the ocean, ie a propagating SST anomaly with 4 years period. SSTa amplitude created were around 0.5C wich is less than observed anomalies (1.5oC). This means that the stochastic focing of the atmosphere is sufficient to substain a variability of the SST whose periodicity is set by the mean advection

  9. Organic Aerosol Composition Measurements at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parworth, C. L.; Zhang, Q.; Fast, J. D.; Shippert, T.; Sivaraman, C.; Mei, F.; Tilp, A.

    2012-12-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) makes up a large portion of aerosols in the atmosphere. A better understanding of the chemical composition of OA is needed to quantify the effects that aerosols have on radiation and clouds. OA is composed of thousands of species making its chemical and physical properties difficult to characterize. The complex composition of OA can be decomposed into several factors representative of distinct sources and evolution processes through the application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) on ambient OA data acquired with aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS). Previous studies have shown that the OA factors thus determined can be particularly useful for closure studies on aerosol optical and cloud condensation properties. Three units of Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) were recently added to two long-term measurement sites (Tropical Western Pacific and Southern Great Plains) and a mobile facility supported by the DOE ARM program. An ACSM is a smaller version of an AMS that provides long term, continuous measurements of aerosols and requires low maintenance. In this presentation, we will report the development of methods that take measurements of total organic matter and mass spectral information from the ACSM and derive OA factors. We will describe how the OA factors are derived, the quality assurance (QA) procedures, and comparisons of side-by-side measurements from AMS and ACSM instruments. The code generated in this analysis will be run within the Data Management Facility of ARM and the new data product called the Organic Aerosol Composition (Oacomp) value-added product will be added to the ARM archive. We will also present data from over a year-long period from the SGP site, along with an analysis that explains the seasonal and multi-day variations in inorganic and organic aerosol components.

  10. Waves in the Ocean and the Atmosphere: Introduction to Wave Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samelson, Roger M.

    Anyone who has stood on a ship or a beach will recognize that wave motions are an essential element of the ocean environment. And in its deeps, along its margins and across its basins, the ocean seethes with a wide spectrum of slow-moving interior waves that are invisible to the casual eye of the surface observer. Their influence may ultimately be felt across the globe, on land as well as at sea, for years, decades, or centuries. The winds that buffet a land-locked observer may seem less like waves and more akin to the continuous rush of water through a pipe or down a river channel. However, viewed from a broader perspective, even the ever-changing weather patterns of the Earth's atmosphere have their own particular wave dynamics. With Waves in the Ocean and the Atmosphere: Introduction to Wave Dynamics, leading geophysical fluid dynamicist Joseph Pedlosky provides an accessible and authoritative theoretical introduction to the wide variety of wave motions that occur in the planetary fluid environment. This is a fine book, tailor-made for graduate teaching, but also suitable for use as a desk reference for the basic elements of oceanic and atmospheric wave dynamics. The oceanographic perspective is emphasized. Aside from a few, largely cosmetic typographical errors, the only disappointment is that it does not go on a little longer: chapters on acoustic waves, tides, coastal-trapped ocean waves, and some pointers toward the many fascinating phenomena of nonlinear wave dynamics would have been welcome extensions, and one can hope that they may be added to a future edition.

  11. Resolution and Dynamical Core Dependence of Atmospheric River Frequency in Global Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Qing; Zhao, Chun; Lu, Jian

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of atmospheric river (AR) frequency simulated by a global model with different grid resolutions and dynamical cores. Analysis is performed on aquaplanet simulations using version 4 of Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) at 240, 120, 60 and 30 km model resolutions each with the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) and High-Order Methods Modeling Environment (HOMME) dynamical cores. The frequency of AR events decreases with model resolution and the HOMME dynamical core produces more AR events than MPAS. Comparing the frequencies determined using absolute and percentile thresholds of large-scale conditions used to define an AR, model sensitivity is found to be related to the overall sensitivity of sub-tropical westerlies, atmospheric precipitable water content and profile and to a lesser extent on extra-tropical Rossby wave activity to model resolution and dynamical core. Real world simulations using MPAS at 120 km and 30 km grid resolutions also exhibit a decrease of AR frequency with increasing resolution over southern East Pacific, but there difference is smaller over northern East Pacific. This inter-hemispheric difference is related to the enhancement of convection in over the tropics with increased resolution. This anomalous convection sets off Rossby wave patterns that weaken the subtropical westerlies over southern East Pacific but have relatively little effect on those over northern East Pacific. In comparison to NCEP2 reanalysis, MPAS real world simulations are found to underestimate AR frequencies at both resolutions likely because of their climatologically drier sub-tropics and poleward shifted jets. This study highlights the important links between model climatology of large-scale conditions and extremes.

  12. Coupling the atmosphere with interior dynamics: Implications for the resurfacing of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, L.; Breuer, D.; Spohn, T.

    2012-02-01

    We calculated 2D and 3D mantle convection models for Venus using digitized atmosphere temperatures from the model of Bullock and Grinspoon (Bullock, M.A., Grinspoon, D.H. [2001]. Icarus 150, 19-37) to study the interaction between interior dynamics and atmosphere thermal evolution. The coupling between atmosphere and interior occurs through mantle degassing and the effect of varying concentrations of the greenhouse gas H 2O on the surface temperature. Exospheric loss of hydrogen to space is accounted for as a H 2O sink. The surface temperature enters the mantle convection model as a boundary condition. Our results suggest a self-consistent feedback mechanism between the interior and the atmosphere resulting in spatial-temporal surface renewal. Greenhouse warming of the atmosphere results in an increase in the surface temperature. Whenever the surface temperature reaches a critical value, the viscosity difference across the lithosphere becomes smaller than about 10 5 and the surface becomes locally mobile. The critical surface temperature depends on the activation energy for mantle creep, the stress exponent in the non-Newtonian mantle rheology law, and the mantle temperature. Surface renewal together with surface lava flow may explain why the surface of Venus is young on average, i.e. not older than a few hundred million years. The mobilization of the near-surface lithosphere increases the rate of heat removal from the mantle and thereby the interior cooling rate. The enhanced cooling results in a reduction of the water outgassing rates. As a consequence of decreasing water concentrations in the atmosphere, the surface temperature decreases. Our model calculations suggest that Venus should have been geologically active until recently. This is in agreement with several lines of observational evidence from thermal emissivity measurements and crater distribution analyses.

  13. CAM-SE: A scalable spectral element dynamical core for the Community Atmosphere Model.

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, John; Edwards, Jim; Evans, Kate J; Guba, O; Lauritzen, Peter; Mirin, Art; St.-Cyr, Amik; Taylor, Mark; Worley, Patrick H

    2012-01-01

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 5 includes a spectral element dynamical core option from NCAR's High-Order Method Modeling Environment. It is a continuous Galerkin spectral finite element method designed for fully unstructured quadrilateral meshes. The current configurations in CAM are based on the cubed-sphere grid. The main motivation for including a spectral element dynamical core is to improve the scalability of CAM by allowing quasi-uniform grids for the sphere that do not require polar filters. In addition, the approach provides other state-of-the-art capabilities such as improved conservation properties. Spectral elements are used for the horizontal discretization, while most other aspects of the dynamical core are a hybrid of well tested techniques from CAM's finite volume and global spectral dynamical core options. Here we first give a overview of the spectral element dynamical core as used in CAM. We then give scalability and performance results from CAM running with three different dynamical core options within the Community Earth System Model, using a pre-industrial time-slice configuration. We focus on high resolution simulations of 1/4 degree, 1/8 degree, and T340 spectral truncation.

  14. Cluster Analysis of Atmospheric Dynamics and Pollution Transport in a Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Maksimovich, Elena; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmentin, Marc; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    Summertime atmospheric dynamics in the coastal zone of the industrialized Dunkerque agglomeration in northern France was characterized by a cluster analysis of back trajectories in the context of pollution transport. The MESO-NH atmospheric model was used to simulate the local dynamics at multiple scales with horizontal resolution down to 500 m, and for the online calculation of the Lagrangian backward trajectories with 30-min temporal resolution. Airmass transport was performed along six principal pathways obtained by the weighted k-means clustering technique. Four of these centroids corresponded to a range of wind speeds over the English Channel: two for wind directions from the north-east and two from the south-west. Another pathway corresponded to a south-westerly continental transport. The backward trajectories of the largest and most dispersed sixth cluster contained low wind speeds, including sea-breeze circulations. Based on analyses of meteorological data and pollution measurements, the principal atmospheric pathways were related to local air-contamination events. Continuous air quality and meteorological data were collected du