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Sample records for dynamic transpedicular stabilisation

  1. A Novel Approach to the Surgical Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniations: Indications of Simple Discectomy and Posterior Transpedicular Dynamic Stabilization Based on Carragee Classification

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, A. F.; Keskin, F.; Oktenoglu, T.; Suzer, T.; Ataker, Y.; Gomleksiz, C.; Sasani, M.

    2013-01-01

    Surgery of lumbar disc herniation is still a problem since Mixter and Barr. Main trouble is dissatisfaction after the operation. Today there is a debate on surgical or conservative treatment despite spending great effort to provide patients with satisfaction. The main problem is segmental instability, and the minimally invasive approach via microscope or endoscope is not necessarily appropriate solution for all cases. Microsurgery or endoscopy would be appropriate for the treatment of Carragee type I and type III herniations. On the other hand in Carragee type II and type IV herniations that are prone to develop recurrent disc herniation and segmental instability, the minimal invasive techniques might be insufficient to achieve satisfactory results. The posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization method might be a good solution to prevent or diminish the recurrent disc herniation and development of segmental instability. In this study we present our experience in the surgical treatment of disc herniations. PMID:23653862

  2. Dynamic quantised feedback stabilisation of discrete-time linear system with white noise input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Mingming; He, Xing; Zhang, Weidong

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we mainly focus on the problem of quantised feedback stabilisation of a stochastic discrete-time linear system with white noise input. The dynamic quantiser is used here. The stability of the system under state quantisation and input quantisation is analysed in detail, respectively. Both the convergence of the state's mean and the boundedness of the state's covariance matrix norm should be considered when analysing its stability. It is shown that for the two situations of the state quantisation and the input quantisation, if the system without noise input can be stabilised by a linear feedback law, it must be stabilised by the dynamic quantised feedback control policy. The sufficient conditions that the dynamic quantiser should satisfy are given. Using the results obtained in this paper, one can test whether the stochastic system is stabilisable or not. Numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the results.

  3. Global stabilisation for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems by dynamic state and output feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lin; Qian, Chunjiang

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the design problem of constructing the state and output feedback stabilisation controller for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems subject to time-delay. First, a dynamic linear state feedback control law with an adaptive strategy is developed to globally stabilise the uncertain nonlinear time-delay system under a lower-triangular higher-order growth condition. Then, one more challenging problem of the adaptive output feedback stabilisation is addressed, which can globally stabilise the time-delay system when the unmeasurable states linearly grow with rate functions consisting of higher-order output.

  4. Pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilisation of the lumbar spine: in vitro cadaver investigation and a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Oktenoglu, T; Erbulut, D U; Kiapour, A; Ozer, A F; Lazoglu, I; Kaner, T; Sasani, M; Goel, V K

    2015-08-01

    Pedicle screw-based dynamic constructs either benefit from a dynamic (flexible) interconnecting rod or a dynamic (hinged) screw. Both types of systems have been reported in the literature. However, reports where the dynamic system is composed of two dynamic components, i.e. a dynamic (hinged) screw and a dynamic rod, are sparse. In this study, the biomechanical characteristics of a novel pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilisation system were investigated and compared with equivalent rigid and semi-rigid systems using in vitro testing and finite element modelling analysis. All stabilisation systems restored stability after decompression. A significant decrease in the range of motion was observed for the rigid system in all loadings. In the semi-rigid construct the range of motion was significantly less than the intact in extension, lateral bending and axial rotation loadings. There were no significant differences in motion between the intact spine and the spine treated with the dynamic system (P>0.05). The peak stress in screws was decreased when the stabilisation construct was equipped with dynamic rod and/or dynamic screws.

  5. Acquired phototrophy stabilises coexistence and shapes intrinsic dynamics of an intraguild predator and its prey.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Holly V; Peltomaa, Elina; Johnson, Matthew D; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    In marine ecosystems, acquired phototrophs - organisms that obtain their photosynthetic ability by hosting endosymbionts or stealing plastids from their prey - are omnipresent. Such taxa function as intraguild predators yet depend on their prey to periodically obtain chloroplasts. We present a new theory for the effects of acquired phototrophy on community dynamics by analysing a mathematical model of this predator-prey interaction and experimentally verifying its predictions with a laboratory model system. We show that acquired phototrophy stabilises coexistence, but that the nature of this coexistence exhibits a 'paradox of enrichment': as light increases, the coexistence between the acquired phototroph and its prey transitions from a stable equilibrium to boom-bust cycles whose amplitude increases with light availability. In contrast, heterotrophs and mixotrophic acquired phototrophs (that obtain < 30% of their carbon from photosynthesis) do not exhibit such cycles. This prediction matches field observations, in which only strict ( > 95% of carbon from photosynthesis) acquired phototrophs form blooms.

  6. Dynamic intraligamentary stabilisation: initial experience with treatment of acute ACL ruptures.

    PubMed

    Kohl, S; Evangelopoulos, D S; Schär, M O; Bieri, K; Müller, T; Ahmad, S S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the experience of dynamic intraligamentary stabilisation (DIS) using the Ligamys device for the treatment of acute ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Between March 2011 and April 2012, 50 patients (34 men and 16 women) with an acute rupture of the ACL underwent primary repair using this device. The mean age of the patients was 30 years (18 to 50). Patients were evaluated for laxity, stability, range of movement (ROM), Tegner, Lysholm, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores over a follow-up period of two years. At final follow-up, anteroposterior translation differed from the normal knee by a mean of 0.96 mm (-2 mm to 6 mm). Median (interquartile range) IKDC, Tegner, Lysholm and VAS scores were 98 (95 to 100), 6 (5 to 7), 100 (98 to 100) and 10 (9 to 10), respectively. Pre-injury Tegner activity levels were reached one year post-operatively. A total of nine patients (18%) required a secondary intervention; five developed instability, of whom four underwent secondary hamstring reconstructive surgery, and five required arthroscopic treatment for intra-articular impingement due to scar tissue which caused a fixed flexion deformity. In addition, 30 patients (60%) required removal of the tibial screw. While there was a high rate of secondary interventions, 45 patients (90%) retained their repaired ACL two years post-operatively, with good clinical scores and stability of the knee. Dynamic intraligamentary stabilisation presents a promising treatment option for acute ACL ruptures, eliminating the need for ACL reconstruction. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:793-8. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. Robust gain-scheduling energy-to-peak control of vehicle lateral dynamics stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xinjie; Wang, Junmin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the vehicle lateral dynamics stabilisation problem to enhance vehicle handling by considering time-varying longitudinal velocity. The longitudinal velocity is described by a polytope with finite vertices and a novel technique is proposed to reduce the number of vertices. Since the tyre dynamics is nonlinear, the cornering stiffness is represented via the norm-bounded uncertainty. Concerning the time-varying velocity and the nonlinear tyre model, a linear parameter-varying vehicle model is obtained. As the velocity and the states are measurable, a gain-scheduling state-feedback controller is introduced. In the lateral control, the sideslip angle is required to be as small as possible and the yaw rate is constrained to a certain level. Thus, the control objective is to minimise the sideslip angle while the yaw rate is under a prescribed level or constrain both the sideslip angle and the yaw rate to prescribed levels. To consider the transient response of the closed-loop system, the ?-stability is also employed in the energy-to-peak control. The optimal controller can be obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. A nonlinear vehicle model is utilised to illustrate the design procedure and the effectiveness of the proposed design method. Finally, simulations and comparisons are carried out to show the significant advantage of the designed controller. Compared to the open-loop system, the closed-loop system with the designed controller can achieve much smaller sideslip angle and the yaw rate is closer to the desired yaw rate from a reference model. Therefore, the vehicle safety and the handling are both improved in our simulation cases.

  8. Characterization and stabilising dynamic phase fluctuations in large mode area fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. C.; Scott, A. M.

    2007-02-01

    Fibre amplifiers exhibit rapid time dependent phase fluctuations due to the environment and to thermal and other effects associated with the pumping and lasing processes. We characterise these effects in a large mode area fibre amplifier having an output power of 260W limited only by pump power. The amplifier retains its coherence even at the highest available output power with negligible linewidth broadening. Phase fluctuations are characterised by a low-amplitude power-independent jitter superimposed on a power-dependent drift due to heating. We also measure the phase fluctuations in a COTS fibre preamplifier and find they are predominantly large amplitude periodic oscillations at 110Hz, probably induced by pump power fluctuations. The two amplifiers were combined in series to give a high gain amplifier chain and actively phase stabilised to high precision (~λ/37 rms) using a piezo-ceramic fibre stretcher incorporated into a PC-based feedback loop.

  9. Predator-prey dynamics stabilised by nonlinearity explain oscillations in dust-forming plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A. E.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Dust-forming plasmas are ionised gases that generate particles from a precursor. In nature, dust-forming plasmas are found in flames, the interstellar medium and comet tails. In the laboratory, they are valuable in generating nanoparticles for medicine and electronics. Dust-forming plasmas exhibit a bizarre, even puzzling behaviour in which they oscillate with timescales of seconds to minutes. Here we show how the problem of understanding these oscillations may be cast as a predator-prey problem, with electrons as prey and particles as predators. The addition of a nonlinear loss term to the classic Lotka-Volterra equations used for describing the predator-prey problem in ecology not only stabilises the oscillations in the solutions for the populations of electrons and particles in the plasma but also explains the behaviour in more detail. The model explains the relative phase difference of the two populations, the way in which the frequency of the oscillations varies with the concentration of the precursor gas, and the oscillations of the light emission, determined by the populations of both species. Our results demonstrate the value of adopting an approach to a complex physical science problem that has been found successful in ecology, where complexity is always present.

  10. Predator-prey dynamics stabilised by nonlinearity explain oscillations in dust-forming plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Ross, A. E.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Dust-forming plasmas are ionised gases that generate particles from a precursor. In nature, dust-forming plasmas are found in flames, the interstellar medium and comet tails. In the laboratory, they are valuable in generating nanoparticles for medicine and electronics. Dust-forming plasmas exhibit a bizarre, even puzzling behaviour in which they oscillate with timescales of seconds to minutes. Here we show how the problem of understanding these oscillations may be cast as a predator-prey problem, with electrons as prey and particles as predators. The addition of a nonlinear loss term to the classic Lotka-Volterra equations used for describing the predator-prey problem in ecology not only stabilises the oscillations in the solutions for the populations of electrons and particles in the plasma but also explains the behaviour in more detail. The model explains the relative phase difference of the two populations, the way in which the frequency of the oscillations varies with the concentration of the precursor gas, and the oscillations of the light emission, determined by the populations of both species. Our results demonstrate the value of adopting an approach to a complex physical science problem that has been found successful in ecology, where complexity is always present. PMID:27046237

  11. Cyanobacterial and microcystins dynamics following the application of hydrogen peroxide to waste stabilisation ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrington, D. J.; Ghadouani, A.; Ivey, G. N.

    2013-02-01

    Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are a risk to human and ecological health, and a hindrance to biological wastewater treatment. This study investigated the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the removal of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins from within waste stabilization ponds (WSPs). The daily dynamics of cyanobacteria and microcystins (a commonly occurring cyanotoxin) were examined following the addition of H2O2 to wastewater within both the laboratory and at the full-scale within a WSP. Hydrogen peroxide treatment at concentrations ≥ 10-4 g H2O2 μg-1 of total phytoplankton chlorophyll a led to the death of cyanobacteria, in turn releasing intracellular microcystins to the dissolved state. In the full-scale trial, dissolved microcystins were then degraded to negligible concentrations by H2O2 and environmental processes within five days. A shift in the phytoplankton assemblage towards beneficial chlorophyta species was also observed within days of H2O2 addition. However, within weeks, the chlorophyta population was significantly reduced by the re-establishment of toxic cyanobacterial species. This re-establishment was likely due to the inflow of cyanobacteria from ponds earlier in the treatment train, suggesting that whilst H2O2 may be a suitable short-term management technique, it must be coupled with control over inflows if it is to improve WSP performance in the longer term.

  12. Cyanobacterial and microcystins dynamics following the application of hydrogen peroxide to waste stabilisation ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrington, D. J.; Ghadouani, A.; Ivey, G. N.

    2013-06-01

    Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are a risk to human and ecological health, and a hindrance to biological wastewater treatment. This study investigated the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the removal of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins from within waste stabilization ponds (WSPs). The daily dynamics of cyanobacteria and microcystins (commonly occurring cyanotoxins) were examined following the addition of H2O2 to wastewater within both the laboratory and at the full scale within a maturation WSP, the final pond in a wastewater treatment plant. Hydrogen peroxide treatment at concentrations ≥ 0.1 mg H2O2 μg-1 total phytoplankton chlorophyll a led to the lysis of cyanobacteria, in turn releasing intracellular microcystins to the dissolved state. In the full-scale trial, dissolved microcystins were then degraded to negligible concentrations by H2O2 and environmental processes within five days. A shift in the phytoplankton assemblage towards beneficial Chlorophyta species was also observed within days of H2O2 addition. However, within weeks, the Chlorophyta population was significantly reduced by the re-establishment of toxic cyanobacterial species. This re-establishment was likely due to the inflow of cyanobacteria from ponds earlier in the treatment train, suggesting that whilst H2O2 may be a suitable short-term management technique, it must be coupled with control over inflows if it is to improve WSP performance in the longer term.

  13. Management of hangman's fracture with percutaneous transpedicular screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao-Sen; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Tian, Nai-Feng; Sun, Liao-Jun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Chi, Yong-Long; Pan, Zhi-Jun

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a percutaneous technique for C2 transpedicular screw fixation and evaluates its safety and efficacy in the treatment of patients with hangman's fracture. Ten patients with hangman's fracture were treated by percutaneous C2 transpedicular screw fixation. There are six males and four females, who were, based on the classification of Levine and Edwards, sorted as follows: type I fracture, three cases; type II, five cases; type IIa, two cases. The causes of injury were road traffic accident in six patients and falling injury in four patients. Other associated lesions included rib fractures (7 patients), head injuries (4 patients), and fractures of extremities (6 patients). The new technique was performed successfully in all cases. The average operation time was 98 min (range 60-130 min) and the estimated blood loss was 25 ml (range 15-40 ml). No complications such as vascular or neural structures injuries were found intraoperatively. Postoperative CT scans demonstrated that 17 (85 %) of 20 screws were placed satisfactorily, and 3 (15 %) screws showed perforations of the pedicle wall (<2 mm). These patients were asymptomatic and no further intervention was required postoperatively. After 8-25 months follow-up (mean 15.3 months), solid fusion was demonstrated by computed tomography. All cases got well-sagittal alignment and no angulation or dislocation was found at the segment of C2-C3. There was no loss of fixation. Clinical examination showed a full range of motion in the neck in all patients. The fluoroscopically assisted percutaneous C2 transpedicular screw fixation method is a technically feasible and minimally invasive technique for hangman's fracture.

  14. Stabilising springs for fixed lingual retainer.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, M K; Ramachandraprabhakar; Saravanan, R; Rajvikram, N; Kuppuchamy

    2013-11-01

    Most treated malocclusion needs fixed lingual retention. To stabilise fixed lingual retainer in the exact location needs proper stabilisation. Proper stabilization requires a holding spring. This Stabilising Spring should be easy to fabricate and help the clinician to stabilise the retainer quickly and save the chair side time. More over it should not irritate the mucosa and should be easy to insert and remove.

  15. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Tunable frequency-stabilised laser for studying the cooling dynamics of Rb atoms in a magnetooptical trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarovitsky, Alexander V.; Prudnikov, O. N.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Velichansky, Vladimir L.; Razin, Oleg A.; Sherstov, Ivan V.; Taichenachev, Aleksei V.; Yudin, Valerii I.

    2004-04-01

    A system is developed which allows one to stabilise the diode laser frequency at any point in the vicinity of the cyclic D2-line transition in Rb in the interval from +40 to -150 MHz and to switch the laser frequency within this interval for ~1 ms. A method is proposed and realised for increasing the contrast of the reference sub-Doppler resonance observed in circularly polarised fields. The ultimate contrast of the resonance is estimated. This system can be used to study the anomalous light pressure force acting on atoms in an optical molasses. A magnetooptical trap for Rb atoms is described.

  16. Cyclodextrin stabilised emulsions and cyclodextrinosomes.

    PubMed

    Mathapa, Baghali G; Paunov, Vesselin N

    2013-11-07

    We report the preparation of o/w emulsions stabilised by microcrystals of cyclodextrin-oil inclusion complexes. The inclusion complexes are formed by threading cyclodextrins from the aqueous phase on n-tetradecane or silicone oil molecules from the emulsion drop surface which grow further into microrods and microplatelets depending on the type of cyclodextrin (CD) used. These microcrystals remain attached on the surface of the emulsion drops and form densely packed layers which resemble Pickering emulsions. The novelty of this emulsion stabilisation mechanism is that molecularly dissolved cyclodextrin from the continuous aqueous phase is assembled into colloid particles directly onto the emulsion drop surface, i.e. molecular adsorption leads to effective Pickering stabilisation. The β-CD stabilised tetradecane-in-water emulsions were so stable that we used this system as a template for preparation of cyclodextrinosomes. These structures were produced solely through formation of cyclodextrin-oil inclusion complexes and their assembly into a crystalline phase on the drop surface retained its stability after the removal of the core oil. The structures of CD-stabilised tetradecane-in-water emulsions were characterised using optical microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, cross-polarised light microscopy and WETSEM while the cyclodextrinosomes were characterised by SEM. We also report the preparation of CD-stabilised emulsions with a range of other oils, including tricaprylin, silicone oil, isopropyl myristate and sunflower oil. We studied the effect of the salt concentration in the aqueous phase, the type of CD and the oil volume fraction on the type of emulsion formed. The CD-stabilised emulsions can be applied in a range of surfactant-free formulations with possible applications in cosmetics, home and personal care. Cyclodextrinosomes could find applications in pharmaceutical formulations as microencapsulation and drug delivery vehicles.

  17. Measuring decomposition to understand stabilisation: A journey to Serendip? The example of root derived and pyrogenic organic matter dynamics in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiven, S.

    2012-04-01

    Soils store one of the largest organic carbon reservoirs of terrestrial ecosystems and any change in this carbon stock can significantly modify climate on the global scale. The mechanisms of this carbon stabilisation in soils are still not well known, difficult to define and, as a consequence, difficult to assess by measurement or by modelling. One method often chosen to access stabilisation processes is to measure decomposition of fresh organic inputs, with the underlying hypothesis that what did not left the soil profile should be stabilized for a certain duration in the soils. This approach is often associated with a deterministic view of organic compounds behaviour in soils, i.e. some compounds are more recalcitrant than others, and so the chemical compounds of the initial organic inputs should determine the stability of organic matter in the soils. Decomposition studies are often favoured because the initial conditions can be well characterised or controlled, while studies based on archive samples could be limited by the knowledge of the edaphic conditions. Recent findings challenge this decomposition approach: it has been shown that specific compounds tend to turnover more or less at the same speed in the soil, "recalcitrant" carbon is not always associated with the oldest ages… Recently, Schmidt et al. (2011) propose that persistence of organic matter is an ecosystem property and that environmental and biological controls dominate. In the frame of this new conceptual approach, the authors are also recommending a new generation of experiments. What could be these new experiments? How to design new decomposition experiments in order to better assess carbon stabilisation in soils? Is there serendipity to be found in decomposition studies, i.e. can we expect relevant new outcomes from controlled conditions studies? In this contribution, I will propose some thoughts regarding these questions, based on examples related to two promising long-lasting carbon inputs

  18. Dynamical properties of α-amylase in the folded and unfolded state: the role of thermal equilibrium fluctuations for conformational entropy and protein stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitter, J.; Herrmann, R.; Hauß, T.; Lechner, R. E.; Dencher, N. A.

    2001-07-01

    A comparative analysis of thermal equilibrium fluctuations occurring in a mesophilic and in a thermophilic α-amylase was performed to study the effect of structural fluctuations on thermostability. The thermal fluctuations determining the conformational entropy of both enzymes have been characterised for the folded (at 30°C and 60°C) and for the unfolded state by applying neutron spectroscopy (at 30°C). The folded state shows a higher structural flexibility for the thermophilic protein as compared to the mesophilic homologue. In contrast, the unfolded state of both enzymes is rather similar with respect to the structural fluctuations. On the basis of this result, a mechanism characterised by entropic stabilisation (i.e., smaller Δ S for the unfolding transition of thermophilic α-amylase) can be assumed to be responsible for the higher thermostability of the thermophilic enzyme.

  19. Evaluation of Outcome of Transpedicular Decompression and Instrumented Fusion in Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, R.K.; Kiyawat, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis. Purpose We evaluated the functional, neurological, and radiological outcome in patients with thoracic and thoracolumbar tuberculosis operated through the transpedicular approach. Overview of Literature For surgical treatment of thoracic and thoracolumbar tuberculosis, the anterior approach has been the most popular because it allows direct access to the infected tissue, thereby providing good decompression. However, anterior fixation is not strong, and graft failure and loss of correction are frequent complications. The transpedicular approach allows circumferential decompression of neural elements along with three-column fixation attained via pedicle screws by the same approach. Methods A total of 47 patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis of the thoracic or thoracolumbar region from August 2012 to August 2013. Of these, 28 patients had progressive neurological deterioration or increasing back pain despite conservative measures and underwent transpedicular decompression and pedicle screw fixation with posterior fusion. Antituberculosis therapy was given till signs of radiological healing were evident (9–16 months). Functional outcome (visual analog scale [VAS] score for back pain), neurological recovery (Frankel grading), and radiological improvement were evaluated preoperatively, immediate postoperatively, and at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. Results Mean VAS score for back pain improved from 8.7 preoperatively to 1.1 at 1 year follow-up. Frankel grading preoperatively was grade B in 7, grade C in 11, and Grade D in 10 patients, which improved to grade D in 6 and grade E in 22 patients at the last follow-up. Radiological healing was evident in the form of reappearance of trabeculae formation, resolution of pus, fatty marrow replacement, and bony fusion in all patients. Mean correction of segmental kyphosis postoperatively was 10.5°. Mean loss of correction at final follow-up was 4.1°. Conclusions Transpedicular

  20. Stabilising Springs for Fixed Lingual Retainer

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, M.K.; Ramachandraprabhakar; Saravanan, R.; Rajvikram, N.; Kuppuchamy

    2013-01-01

    Most treated malocclusion needs fixed lingual retention. To stabilise fixed lingual retainer in the exact location needs proper stabilisation. Proper stabilization requires a holding spring. This Stabilising Spring should be easy to fabricate and help the clinician to stabilise the retainer quickly and save the chair side time. More over it should not irritate the mucosa and should be easy to insert and remove. PMID:24392431

  1. [Thoracic aorta aneurysm as a complication after transpedicular stabilization of the thoracic vertebral column--a case study].

    PubMed

    Mackiewicz-Milewska, M; Lach, S; Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, H

    2008-01-01

    Incorrectly positioned transpedicular stabilization accounts for 4 to 30% of the complications occurring after vertebral column stabilization operations. We describe a specific complication following transpedicular stabilization of TH5-TH7, performed due to fracture of the TH6 vertebra. Given that the patient complained of pain in the thoracic vertebrae, a CT scan of the TH5-TH7 region was performed and revealed that the transpedicular stabilization was incorrectly located; it was immediately adjacent to the thoracic aorta and had led to the formation of a false aneurysm. The stabilization was removed and the patient is under the constant supervision of a vascular surgeon. Thoracic aorta false aneurysm is a rare complication after vertebral column stabilization. However, there is a high risk of the aorta wall damage during stabilization removal.

  2. Modified transpedicular approach for the surgical treatment of severe thoracolumbar or lumbar burst fractures.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ramazan Alper; Aydin, Yunus

    2004-01-01

    Conventional transpedicular decompression of the neural canal requires a considerable amount of lamina, facet joint and pedicle resection. The authors assumed that it would be possible to remove the retropulsed bone fragment by carving the pedicle with a high-speed drill without destroying the vertebral elements contributing to spinal stabilization. In this way, surgical treatment of unstable burst fractures can be performed less invasively. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate both the possibility of neural canal decompression through a transpedicular approach without removing the posterior vertebral elements, which contribute to spinal stabilization, and the adequacy of posterior stabilization of severe vertebral deformities after burst fractures. Twenty-eight consecutive patients with complete or incomplete neurological deficits as a result of the thoracolumbar burst fractures were included in this study. All patients had severe spinal canal compromise (mean, 59.53%+/-14.92) and loss of vertebral body height (mean, 45.14%+/-7.19). Each patient was investigated for neural canal compromise, degree of kyphosis at fracture level and fusion after operation by computed tomography and direct roentgenograms taken preoperatively, early postoperatively and late postoperatively. The neurological condition of the patients was recorded in the early and late postoperative period according to Benzel-Larson grading systems. The outcome of the study was evaluated with regard to the adequate neural canal decompression, fusion and reoperation percents and neurological improvement. Modified transpedicular approach includes drilling the pedicle for removal of retropulsed bone fragment under surgical microscope without damaging the anatomic continuity of posterior column. Stabilization with pedicle screw fixation and posterior fusion with otogenous bone chips were done after this decompression procedure at all 28 patients included in this study. Twenty-three of 28 patients

  3. Global asymptotic stabilisation for switched planar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Han, Zhengzhi; Huang, Jun

    2015-04-01

    This paper studies the stabilisation problem of a class of switched planar systems. The present method is different from the existing one designing directly controllers for the underlying systems. The controllers are constructed through two steps. Firstly, by means of the backstepping approach, homogeneous controllers stabilising the nominal systems are obtained. Secondly, the controllers stabilising the planar subsystems are attained by modifying the obtained homogeneous controllers. The controllers depend on perturbations of the switched systems. Finally, by using the multiple Lyapunov functions approach, a sufficient condition of the stabilisation for switched planar systems is given. The conclusions are extended to multiple dimensional switched systems. An illustrative example verifies the validity of the design.

  4. Microtubule stabilising peptides rescue tau phenotypes in-vivo

    PubMed Central

    Quraishe, Shmma; Sealey, Megan; Cranfield, Louise; Mudher, Amritpal

    2016-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic, filamentous network underpinning cellular structure and function. In Alzheimer’s disease, the microtubule cytoskeleton is compromised, leading to neuronal dysfunction and eventually cell death. There are currently no disease-modifying therapies to slow down or halt disease progression. However, microtubule stabilisation is a promising therapeutic strategy that is being explored. We previously investigated the disease-modifying potential of a microtubule-stabilising peptide NAP (NAPVSIPQ) in a well-established Drosophila model of tauopathy characterised by microtubule breakdown and axonal transport deficits. NAP prevented as well as reversed these phenotypes even after they had become established. In this study, we investigate the neuroprotective capabilities of an analogous peptide SAL (SALLRSIPA). We found that SAL mimicked NAP’s protective effects, by preventing axonal transport disruption and improving behavioural deficits, suggesting both NAP and SAL may act via a common mechanism. Both peptides contain a putative ‘SIP’ (Ser-Ile-Pro) domain that is important for interactions with microtubule end-binding proteins. Our data suggests this domain may be central to the microtubule stabilising function of both peptides and the mechanism by which they rescue phenotypes in this model of tauopathy. Our observations support microtubule stabilisation as a promising disease-modifying therapeutic strategy for tauopathies like Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27910888

  5. Transpedicular endoscopic surgery for lumbar spinal synovial cyst—report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Krzok, Guntram; Wagner, Ralf; Iprenburg, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Background Lumbar facet cysts are a benign, degenerative, and fairly uncommon cause for lumbar radiculopathy. The standard surgical treatment for lumbar facet cysts often requires a laminectomy and medial facetectomy which can further destabilize a pathological motion segment. The authors present here a novel technique for transpedicular endoscopic access to the pathology that obviates the need to violate the lamina or facet. Methods Two patient cases are described where the lumbar 4–5 facet cysts arise medial to the pedicle. Percutaneous access to the cysts was established by drilling through the adjacent pedicle creating a 7-mm corridor to establish access for the endoscopic tubular retractor and the working channel endoscope. Straight and bendable forceps were used to remove the cysts under direct visualization. Results Following surgery, the patients’ symptoms showed immediate regression with complete relief of one patient’s foot drop by 6 months. Conclusions Transpedicular endoscopic access is described as novel minimally invasive surgical option in the awake patient for lumbar facet cysts adjacent to the Lumbar 4 or 5 pedicle. PMID:28097248

  6. Percutaneous Transpedicular Fixation: Technical tips and Pitfalls of Sextant and Pathfinder Systems.

    PubMed

    Mohi Eldin, Mohamed M; Hassan, Ahmed Salah Aldin

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of the operative techniques, possible benefits as well as pitfalls and limitations of the techniques are discussed. Potential drawbacks are also detected. This study aims to report indications, techniques, and our experience with the use of the Sextant and PathFinder percutaneous transpedicular screw fixation systems. Percutaneous pedicle screw insertion is a novel technique. Successful percutaneous placement of pedicle screws requires surgical skill and experience because of lack of anatomic surface landmarks. Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous placement of pedicle screws is effective. Many systems are now available. We conducted a prospective operative and postoperative analysis of 40 patients with absolute indication for thoracic or lumbar instability between January 2009 and June 2013. All procedures were performed with the Sextant (group A) and PathFinder (group B) systems under fluoroscopic guidance. Operative techniques are discussed and the results compared. Percutaneous transpedicular screw fixation minimizes the morbidity associated with open techniques without compromising the quality of fixation. A total of 190 screws were inserted. There was no additional morbidity. Postoperative computed tomography images and plain X-rays were analyzed. Reduction of visual analog scale scores of back pain was evident. Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous pedicular screws are feasible and can be safely done. Current systems allow multi-segmental fixation with significantly less difficulties. The described techniques have acceptable intra- and postoperative complication rates, and overall sufficient pain control with early mobilization of patients.

  7. Percutaneous Transpedicular Fixation: Technical tips and Pitfalls of Sextant and Pathfinder Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ahmed Salah Aldin

    2016-01-01

    Study Design The efficacy of the operative techniques, possible benefits as well as pitfalls and limitations of the techniques are discussed. Potential drawbacks are also detected. Purpose This study aims to report indications, techniques, and our experience with the use of the Sextant and PathFinder percutaneous transpedicular screw fixation systems. Overview of Literature Percutaneous pedicle screw insertion is a novel technique. Successful percutaneous placement of pedicle screws requires surgical skill and experience because of lack of anatomic surface landmarks. Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous placement of pedicle screws is effective. Many systems are now available. Methods We conducted a prospective operative and postoperative analysis of 40 patients with absolute indication for thoracic or lumbar instability between January 2009 and June 2013. All procedures were performed with the Sextant (group A) and PathFinder (group B) systems under fluoroscopic guidance. Operative techniques are discussed and the results compared. Results Percutaneous transpedicular screw fixation minimizes the morbidity associated with open techniques without compromising the quality of fixation. A total of 190 screws were inserted. There was no additional morbidity. Postoperative computed tomography images and plain X-rays were analyzed. Reduction of visual analog scale scores of back pain was evident. Conclusions Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous pedicular screws are feasible and can be safely done. Current systems allow multi-segmental fixation with significantly less difficulties. The described techniques have acceptable intra- and postoperative complication rates, and overall sufficient pain control with early mobilization of patients. PMID:26949466

  8. Surgery for ventral intradural thoracic spinal tumors with a posterolateral transpedicular approach.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kiyoshi; Aoyama, Tatsuro; Miyaoka, Yoshinari; Seguchi, Tatsuya; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Surgery for ventrally seated thoracic tumors requires an anatomically specific approach that is distinct from cervical or lumbar spinal cord surgery as the narrower spinal canal of the thoracic spinal cord makes it sensitive to surgical procedures. However, reports describing this operative technique are few. To obtain a wide operative field and minimize thoracic spinal cord retraction, we employed a posterolateral transpedicular approach in ventral-located tumors and investigated the efficacy and limitations of this technique. Eighteen patients with lesions (meningioma or neurinoma) located in the ventral intradural thoracic region were surgically treated between 2009 and 2014. The relationship among the clinical outcome, tumor location, and postoperative spinal alignment was analyzed. Postoperative neurological function improved in all patients, namely those with meningioma (p = 0.012) and schwannoma (p = 0.018). One patient who underwent removal of two facet joints suffered a postoperative compression fracture. Removal of two facet joints and pedicles resulted in a worsening of spinal alignment (p = 0.03), while this was not the case for the removal of one facet joint and pedicle (p = 0.72). This case series clarified the benefits of the posterolateral transpedicular approach for resection of ventral intradural extramedullary tumors. Removal of one pedicle and facet joint seems to be more beneficial.

  9. Mycorrhizal aspects in slope stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Frank

    2016-04-01

    In order to re-colonise and stabilise slopes affected by superficial soil failure with plants essential requirements have to be met: the plants must grow the plants must survive sustainably plant succession must start and continuously develop These requirements, however, are anything but easy given, particularly under the often hostile environmental conditions dominating on bare and steep slopes. Mycorrhizal fungi, the symbiotic partners of almost all plants used in eco-engineering, are said to improve the plants' ability to overcome periods governed by strongly (growth) limiting factors. Subsequently, results of investigations are presented of mycorrhizal effects on different plant and soil functions related to eco-engineering in general and soil and slope stabilisation in particular. Generally, inoculation yielded higher biomass of the host plants above as well as below ground. Furthermore, the survival rate was higher for mycorrhized compared to non-mycorrhized plants, particularly under extreme environmental conditions. However, the scale of the mycorrhizal impact may be species specific of both the plant host as well as the fungal partner(s) and often becomes evident only after a certain time lag. Depending on the plant-fungus combination the root length per soil volume was found to be between 0 and 2.5 times higher for inoculated compared to non-inoculated specimens. On an alpine graded ski slope the survival of inoculated compared to non-treated Salix herbacea cuttings was significant after one vegetation period only for one of the three added mycorrhizal fungus species. However, after three years all of the inoculated plantlets performed significantly better than the non-inoculated controls. The analysis of the potential for producing and stabilising soil aggregates of five different ectomycorrhizal fungi showed high variation and, for the species Inocybe lacera, no significant difference compared to untreated soil. Furthermore, inoculation of Salix

  10. Assessment: Monitoring & Evaluation in a Stabilisation Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-15

    promote political processes and governance structures. This should enable a political settlement that institutionalises non-violent contests for power...of a political settlement , amenable to UK interests, between this triumvirate of actors. The Stabilisation Unit perspective is similar stating that...peaceful political settlement to produce a legitimate indigenous government, which can better serve its people. 102. Stabilisation will invariably sit

  11. Plasma vertical stabilisation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribov, Y.; Kavin, A.; Lukash, V.; Khayrutdinov, R.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Loarte, A.; Snipes, J. A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the progress in analysis of the ITER plasma vertical stabilisation (VS) system since its design review in 2007-2008. Two indices characterising plasma VS were studied. These are (1) the maximum value of plasma vertical displacement due to free drift that can be stopped by the VS system and (2) the maximum root mean square value of low frequency noise in the dZ/dt measurement signal used in the VS feedback loop. The first VS index was calculated using the PET code for 15 MA plasmas with the nominal position and shape. The second VS index was studied with the DINA code in the most demanding simulations for plasma magnetic control of 15 MA scenarios with the fastest plasma current ramp-up and early X-point formation, the fastest plasma current ramp-down in a divertor configuration, and an H to L mode transition at the current flattop. The studies performed demonstrate that the VS in-vessel coils, adopted recently in the baseline design, significantly increase the range of plasma controllability in comparison with the stabilising systems VS1 and VS2, providing operating margins sufficient to achieve ITER's goals specified in the project requirements. Additionally two sets of the DINA code simulations were performed with the goal of assessment of the capability of the PF system with the VS in-vessel coils: (i) to control the position of runaway electrons generated during disruptions in 15 MA scenarios and (ii) to trigger ELMs in H-mode plasmas of 7.5 MA/2.65 T scenarios planned for the early phase of ITER operation. It was also shown that ferromagnetic structures of the vacuum vessel (ferromagnetic inserts) and test blanket modules insignificantly affect the plasma VS.

  12. [Transpedicular bone graft for the treatment of thoracolumbar vertebral fractures through Wiltse approach].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-fu; Wang, Xing-sheng

    2013-07-01

    To explore methods and therapeutic effects of transpedicular bone graft in treating thoracolumbar fractures through Wiltse approach. From March 2009 to February 2012,56 patients with thoracolumbar fractures were treated by transpedicular bone graft through Wiltse approach. Among them, there were 36 males and 20 females, ranging in age from 14 to 55 years old (mean, 41 years old). The time from injury to operation from 2 to 15 d (mean,3 d). Twenty-five cases were caused by falling down, 7 cases were caused by slipping, 20 cases were caused by car accident and 4 cases were caused by crush trauma. MRI was performed before operation to exclude pathological fracture. The distance between multifidus muscle and longissimus to midcourt line was measured. Self-made trocar was applied in operation. According to AO classification,there were 33 cases with type A1 compression fracture,5 cases with type A2 cleavage fracture and 18 cases with type A3 burst fracture. Sixteen cases of the 56 cases combined with spinal cord injury. Based on Frankel neurologic grading system, preoperative neurological function was grade B in 5 cases, grade C in 2 cases, gade D in 9 cases. Preoperative Denis gading were P5. Frankel and lumbago Denis clssification were used to evaluate neurological function and lumbago. The imaging data before, after operation and the latest follow-up were used to evaluate correction vision. All patients were followed up over 24 months. At the time of the latest follow-up, Frankel B were 3 cases, Frankel C were 2 cases, Frankel D were 4 cases and Frankel E were 7 cases. According to lumbago Denis clssification, P1 (painlessness) were 32 cases, P2 ( slight pain without treatment) were 18 cases, P3 ( moderate pain and taking medicine occasionally) were 6 cases. The anterior vertebral height improved from preoperative (13.38 +/- 4.72)mm to postoperative (22.18 +/- 1.44)mm. The Cobb's angle decreased from preoperative (28.39 +/- 2.64) degrees to (10.07 +/- 3.05) degrees

  13. [Transpedicular intracorporeal hydroxyapatite grafting and pedicle screw fixation via paraspinal approach for thoracolumbar fractures].

    PubMed

    Lin, Da-sheng; Guo, Lin-xin; Ding, Zhen-qi; Chen, Chang-qing; Lian, Ke-jian; Hong, Jia-yuan

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of the treatment for thoracolumbar fractures with transpedicular intracorporeal hydroxyapatite grafting and pedicle screw fixation via paraspinal approach. From June 2007 to December 2008, 19 cases of thoracolumbar fractures were treated with transpedicular intracorporeal hydroxyapatite grafting and pedicle screw fixation via paraspinal approach. There were 7 female and 12 male, ranging from 21 to 57 years of age (mean 40.8 years) at surgery. The time from injury to surgery varied from 1 d to 5 d (mean 2.9 d). Nineteen patients all suffered from single thoracolumbar fracture with the distribution of injury level being T(11) in 1, T(12) in 5, L(1) in 9, and L(2) in 4. According to Denis fracture classification, there were 5 compression fractures and 14 burst fractures. The mean preoperative ratio of the anterior height of the body was 57.2%, kyphosis angle was 17.6° and occupation of spinal canal was 27.7%. The mean preoperative load-sharing classification of spine fractures was 5.2. Based on the ASIA neurologic grading system, preoperative neurological function was grade B in 2 cases, C in 9 and D in 8. Median operating time was 83.8 min (range 60-95 min) and median blood loss was 133 ml (range 90 - 200 ml). Infection did not occur in any of the patients and the operative incisions were healing well. Average follow-up time was 19.2 months (range 12 - 36 months). At the latest follow-up, the height of the anterior border was corrected to 88.4%, the kyphosis angle was 6.1°, and the occupation of spinal canal was 8.2% on average. The postoperative neurologic function of all 19 patients was improved with grade D in 2 cases and E in 17. There were no instances of instrumentation failure and no patient had persistent postoperative back pain. Transpedicular intracorporeal hydroxyapatite grafting and pedicle screw fixation via paraspinal approach could provide reliable neurologic improvement in patients with incomplete neurologic

  14. Preliminary stabilisation of stormwater biofilters and loss of filter material.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, D N; Mather, P B

    Stabilisation affects performance of stormwater biofilters operating under intermittent wetting and drying, mainly due to wash-off of filter material. Understanding the dynamics of solids wash-off is crucial in designing stormwater biofilters. The current study analysed the dynamics of solids wash-off in stormwater biofilters and quantified the loss of solids from the filter. Four Perspex™ bioretention columns (94 mm internal diameter) were fabricated with a filter layer that contained 8% organic material and were fed with tap water with different numbers of antecedent dry days (0-40 day) at 100 mL/min. Samples were collected from the outflow and tested for particle size distribution and total solids and turbidity. Solids of particle size less than 50 microns were washed off from the filter during the stabilisation period, indicating that no sand particles were washed off. The very first event after commissioning the filter resulted in the highest wash-off of solids (approximately 75 g of fines) while a significant drop in wash-off followed from the second event. An empirical model fitted to the data showed that preliminary stabilisation of a filter occurs in the first three events, during which almost 25% of fines are lost from the filter.

  15. Mean square stabilisation of complex oscillatory regimes in nonlinear stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryashko, Lev

    2016-04-01

    A problem of stabilisation of the randomly forced periodic and quasiperiodic modes for nonlinear dynamic systems is considered. For this problem solution, we propose a new theoretical approach to consider these modes as invariant manifolds of the stochastic differential equations with control. The aim of the control is to provide the exponential mean square (EMS) stability for these manifolds. A general method of the stabilisation based on the algebraic criterion of the EMS-stability is elaborated. A constructive technique for the design of the feedback regulators stabilising various types of oscillatory regimes is proposed. A detailed parametric analysis of the problem of the stabilisation for stochastically forced periodic and quasiperiodic modes is given. An illustrative example of stochastic Hopf system is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  16. Transpedicular surgery for dorsolumbar junction disc prolapse: anatomic and biomechanical considerations of a minimally invasive approach.

    PubMed

    Bhatoe, H S

    2005-10-01

    The dorsal spine is the least affected region of the spine for intervertebral disc prolapse. The majority of cases of thoracic disc prolapse affect the lower dorsal spine, probably due to the increased mobility of that region. The dorsolumbar junction (DLJ) comprises D10 to L1 together with the intervening discs. Over a period of nine years, we have operated on thirty-two DLJ disc prolapses using a transpedicular approach in thirty patients. There were eight cases of D10/D11 disc prolapse, ten of D11/D12, and twelve of D12/L1 prolapse. Two patients had more than 1 level involvement. Back ache was the predominant symptom in patients with DLJ disc prolapse, seen in 92 % of cases. Presentation was in the form of conus/cauda equina syndrome with D11, D12 and L1 radiculopathy. All the patients were evaluated by MRI. Disc prolapse was eccentric in 10 and diffuse central in 22 levels. There was a distinct neurological improvement in all patients after surgery, pain relief being the most prominent feature. The dorsolumbar region differs from the dorsal spine in terms of mobility, anatomic and biomechanical features. It is a transition zone between the relatively fixed dorsal spine and the mobile lumbar region. These differences account for the higher incidence of disc prolapse in the region as compared to the dorsal spine cranial to D10. The transpedicular approach appears to be most suitable for discectomy for DLJ disc prolapse. The approach is minimally invasive considering the size of the incision, minimal bone removal and avoidance of vital structures. Postoperative pain is minimal and ambulation can be begun within 24 hours of surgery.

  17. Computed tomographic morphometry of thoracic pedicles: safety margin of transpedicular screw fixation in malaysian malay population.

    PubMed

    Liau, Kai Ming; Yusof, Mohd Imran; Abdullah, Mohd Shafie; Abdullah, Sarimah; Yusof, Abdul Halim

    2006-07-15

    A cross-sectional study of thoracic pedicle morphometry (T1-T12) of 180 Malaysian Malay patients obtained from computed tomographic scan. To determine the safety margin in the placement of thoracic transpedicular screw in the Malay population. Previous studies have shown a significantly smaller thoracic pedicular parameters in Asians compared with whites. The safety margin in the placement of thoracic transpedicular screw in our population therefore needs to be defined. T1-T12 vertebral pedicles were studied in 180 Malay ethnic patients (age range, 18-80 years). The following parameters were studied: transverse outer pedicle diameter, transverse inner pedicle diameter, transverse pedicle angle, chord length, pedicle length, and pedicle cortical thickness. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Student's t test and ANOVA test. Female patients have significantly smaller dimensions in most of the parameters measured compared with male patients. However, no significant difference was found between age groups. Transverse outer pedicle diameter were widest at T1 (male, 8.42 mm; female, 7.56 mm) and narrowest at T4 (male, 4.56 mm; female, 3.95 mm). Pedicle diameters of less than 5.5 mm were commonly seen at T4 followed by T5, T6, T7, T8, and T9. A significant percentage of patients have an outer diameter of less than 4.5 mm from T4-T7. The medial cortices were 50% thicker than the lateral cortices at most levels. Chord lengths were maximum at T8 and minimum at T1. Transverse pedicle angle were widest at T1 and less than 5 degrees from T7-T12. The results suggest that the current pedicle screw system is not suitable for the majority of Malay population, especially at midthoracic level. The smaller pedicle measurements in Malays may be attributed to their shorter body built compared with whites.

  18. Role of Transpedicular Percutaneous Vertebral Biopsy for Diagnosis of Pathology in Vertebral Compression Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Sunil; Hardikar, Sharad Moreshwar; Hardikar, Madan Sharad

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective observational study. Purpose To identify the role of percutaneous vertebral biopsy in histopathological diagnosis of vertebral compression fractures and to identify the frequency of unexpected malignancy in vertebral compression fractures. Overview of Literature Vertebral compression fractures are common in the Indian population. Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging have some limitations in the diagnosis of definitive pathology of vertebral compression fractures. Therefore, histological confirmation is necessary for definitive diagnosis and to plan appropriate management for patient. Methods A retrospective observational study was conducted involving 84 patients who underwent percutaneous vertebral biopsy between 2010 and 2014. We performed C-arm guided percutaneous transpedicular core vertebral biopsy of vertebral compression fractures under combination of local anesthesia and intravenous conscious sedation. Results Sufficient biopsy material was obtained in 79 of the 84 cases. In the other five cases, biopsy material was not sufficient for reporting. Out of the 79 cases, osteoporotic pathology was detected in 69 patients, malignancy was detected in 8 patients and no pathology was found in 2 patients. Two patients with distant metastases to vertebra were identified. Primary spinal malignancy was detected in 6 patients (1 unsuspected plasmacytoma, 5 diagnosed malignancy preoperatively). So, the frequency of unsuspected malignancy of this study was 1.19% (1/84). None of the patients had any complications. Conclusions C-arm guided percutaneous transpedicular vertebral biopsy is useful in obtaining definitive histopathological diagnosis of vertebral compression fractures, especially in differentiating malignant and non-malignant vertebral compression fractures and helping plan appropriate management of patients. The rate of unexpected malignancy in vertebral compression fracture was 1.19%. PMID:27790322

  19. An RCT study on the feasibility of anterior transpedicular screw fixation in the cervicothoracic junction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liujun; Hong, Jinjiong; Wandtke, Meghan E; Xu, Rongming; Ma, Weihu; Jiang, Weiyu; Gu, Yongjie; Chen, Jianqing; Wang, Liran; Liu, Jiayong; Ebraheim, Nabil A

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the trajectory and the entry points of anterior transpedicular screws (ATPS) in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ). This study aimed at investigating the feasibility of ATPS fixation in the CTJ. Application of an ATPS in the lower cervical spine has been reported; however, there were no reports exploring the feasibility of anterior transpedicular screw fixation in the CTJ. CT scans were performed in 50 cases and multiplanar reformation was used to measure the related parameters on pedicle axis view at C6-T2. Transverse pedicle angle, outer pedicle width, pedicle axis length, distance transverse intersection point (DtIP), sagittal pedicle angle, anterior vertebral body height, outer pedicle height, and distance sagittal intersection point (DsIP) were measured. The prozone of CTJ was divided into three different regions, which were named as the "manubrium region", the region "above" and "below" the manubrium. The distribution of the trajectory of sagittal pedicle axes was recorded in the three regions and the related data were statistically analyzed. There was no statistical difference in gender (P > 0.05). The transverse pedicle angle decreased from C6 (46.77° ± 2.72°) to T2 (20.62° ± 5.04°). DtIP increased from C6 to T2. DsIP was an average of 7.17 mm. The sagittal pedicle axis lines of the C6 and C7 were located in the region above the manubrium. T1 was mainly in the manubrium region followed by the region above the manubrium. T2 was mainly located in the manubrium region followed by the region below the manubrium. Implantation of ATPS at C6, C7, and some T1 is feasible through the low anterior cervical approach, while it is almost impossible to approach T2 that way.

  20. Non-overshooting stabilisation via state and output feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halikias, G.; Papageorgiou, A.; Karcanias, N.

    2010-06-01

    The concept of 'strong stability' of linear time-invariant (LTI) systems has been introduced in a recent paper (Karcanias, N., Halikias, G., and Papageorgiou, A. (2010), 'Strong Stability of Internal System Descriptions', International Journal of Control, 83, 182-205). This is a stronger notion of stability compared to alternative definitions (e.g. stability in the sense of Lyapunov, asymptotic stability), which allows the analysis and design of control systems with non-overshooting response in the state-space for arbitrary initial conditions. This article reviews the notion of 'strong stability' (Karcanias et al. 2010) and introduces the problem of non-overshooting stabilisation. It is shown that non-overshooting stabilisation under dynamic and static output feedback are, in a certain sense, equivalent problems. Thus, we turn our attention to static non-overshooting stabilisation problems under state-feedback, output injection and output feedback. After developing a number of preliminary results, we give a geometric interpretation to the problem in terms of the intersection of an affine hyperplane and the interior of an open convex cone. A solution to the problem is finally obtained via linear matrix inequalities, along with the complete parameterisation of the optimal solution set.

  1. Global asymptotic stabilisation in probability of nonlinear stochastic systems via passivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florchinger, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic method for global asymptotic stabilisation in probability of nonlinear control stochastic systems with stable in probability unforced dynamics. The method is based on the theory of passivity for nonaffine stochastic differential systems combined with the technique of Lyapunov asymptotic stability in probability for stochastic differential equations. In particular, we prove that a nonlinear stochastic differential system whose unforced dynamics are Lyapunov stable in probability is globally asymptotically stabilisable in probability provided some rank conditions involving the affine part of the system coefficients are satisfied. In this framework, we show that a stabilising smooth state feedback law can be designed explicitly. A dynamic output feedback compensator for a class of nonaffine stochastic systems is constructed as an application of our analysis.

  2. Global output feedback stabilisation of nonlinear systems with a unifying linear controller structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Lin, Yan

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the problem of global stabilisation by linear output feedback for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with zero-dynamics. Compared with the previous works, new dilation-based assumptions are introduced that allow the system nonlinearities and its bounding functions to be coupled with all the states. The nonlinear systems of this paper can be considered as an extended form of some low triangular and feedforward systems. Dynamic gain scaling technique is applied to the controller design and stability analysis. It is proved that with a unifying linear controller structure and flexible adaptive laws for the observer gain, global stabilisation of the nonlinear systems can be achieved.

  3. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion using one diagonal fusion cage with transpedicular screw/rod fixation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Hou, Tiesheng; Wang, Xinwei; Ma, Shengzhong

    2003-04-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using threaded cages has gained wide popularity for lumbosacral spinal disease. Our biomechanical tests showed that PLIF using a single diagonal cage with unilateral facetectomy does add a little to spinal stability and provides equal or even higher postoperative stability than PLIF using two posterior cages with bilateral facetectomy. Studies also demonstrated that cages placed using a posterior approach did not cause the same increase in spinal stiffness seen with pedicle screw instrumentation, and we concluded that cages should not be used posteriorly without other forms of fixation. On the other hand, placement of two cages using a posterior approach does have the disadvantage of risk to the bilateral nerve roots. We therefore performed a prospective study to determine whether PLIF can be accomplished by utilizing a single diagonal fusion cage with the application of supplemental transpedicular screw/rod instrumentation. Twenty-seven patients underwent a PLIF using one single fusion cage (BAK, Sulzer Spine-Tech, Minneapolis, MN, USA) inserted posterolaterally and oriented anteromedially on the symptomatic side with unilateral facetectomy and at the same level supplemental fixation with a transpedicular screw/rod system. The internal fixation systems included 12 SOCON spinal systems (Aesculap AG, Germany) and 15 TSRH spinal systems (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, USA). The inclusion criteria were grade 1 to 2 lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis, lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis, and recurrent lumbar disc herniations with instability. Patients had at least 1 year of low back pain and/or unilateral sciatica and a severely restricted functional ability in individuals aged 28-55 years. Patients with more than grade 2 spondylolisthesis or adjacent-level degeneration were excluded from the study. Patients were clinically assessed prior to surgery by an independent assessor; they were then reassessed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24

  4. Risk-benefit analysis of navigation techniques for vertebral transpedicular instrumentation: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Noriega, David C; Hernández-Ramajo, Rubén; Rodríguez-Monsalve Milano, Fiona; Sanchez-Lite, Israel; Toribio, Borja; Ardura, Francisco; Torres, Ricardo; Corredera, Raul; Kruger, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Pedicle screws in spinal surgery have allowed greater biomechanical stability and higher fusion rates. However, malposition is very common and may cause neurologic, vascular, and visceral injuries and compromise mechanical stability. The purpose of this study was to compare the malposition rate between intraoperative computed tomography (CT) scan assisted-navigation and free-hand fluoroscopy-guided techniques for placement of pedicle screw instrumentation. This is a prospective, randomized, observational study. A total of 114 patients were included: 58 in the assisted surgery group and 56 in the free-hand fluoroscopy-guided surgery group. Analysis of screw position was assessed using the Heary classification. Breach severity was defined according to the Gertzbein classification. Radiation doses were evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters, and estimates of effective and organ doses were made based on scan technical parameters. Consecutive patients with degenerative disease, who underwent surgical procedures using the free-hand, or intraoperative navigation technique for placement of transpedicular instrumentation, were included in the study. Forty-four out of 625 implanted screws were malpositioned: 11 (3.6%) in the navigated surgery group and 33 (10.3%) in the free-hand group (p<.001). Screw position according to the Heary scale was Grade II (4 navigated surgery, 6 fluoroscopy guided), Grade III (3 navigated surgery, 11 fluoroscopy guided), Grade IV (4 navigated surgery, 16 fluoroscopy guided), and Grade V (1 fluoroscopy guided). There was only one symptomatic case in the conventional surgery group. Breach severity was seven Grade A and four Grade B in the navigated surgery group, and eight Grade A, 24 Grade B, and one Grade C in free-hand fluoroscopy-guided surgery group. Radiation received per patient was 5.8 mSv (4.8-7.3). The median dose received in the free-hand fluoroscopy group was 1 mGy (0.8-1.1). There was no detectable radiation level in the

  5. Accuracy and complications of transpedicular C2 screw placement without the use of spinal navigation.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christian-Andreas; Roesseler, Lukas; Podlogar, Martin; Kovacs, Attlila; Kristof, Rudolf Andreas

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the technique, accuracy of placement and complications of transpedicular C2 screw fixation without spinal navigation. Patients treated by C2 pedicle screw fixations were identified from the surgical log book of the department. Clinical data were extracted retrospectively from the patients' charts. Pedicle screw placement accuracy was assessed on postoperative CT scans according to Gertzbein and Robbins (GRGr). A total of 27 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 56 +/- 22.0 years; 51.9% of them were female. As much as 17 patients suffered from trauma, 5 of degenerative disease, 3 of inflammations and 2 of metastatic disease. A total of 47 C2 transpedicular screw fixations were performed. The canulated screws were inserted under visual control following the preparation of the superior surface of the isthmus and of the medial surface of the pedicles of the C2. Intraoperative fluoroscopy was additionally used. The postoperative CT findings showed in 55.3% GRGr 1, in 27.7% GRGr 2, in 10.6% GRGr 3, and in 6.3% GRGr 4 pedicle screw insertion accuracy. Screw insertions GRGr 5 were not observed. Screw malpositioning (i.e., GRGr 3 and 4) was significantly associated with thin (<5 mm) pedicle diameters and with surgery for C2 fractures. In the three patients with screw insertions GRGr 4, postoperative angiographies were performed to exclude vertebral artery affections. In one of these three cases, the screw caused a clinically asymptomatic vertebral artery compression. Hardware failures did not occur. In one patient, postoperative pneumonia resulted in the death of the patient. Careful patient selection and surgical technique is necessary to avoid vertebral artery injury in C2 pedicle screw fixation without spinal navigation. A slight opening of the vertebral artery canal (Gertzbein and Robbins grade < or =3) does not seem to put the artery at risk. However, the high rate of misplaced screws when

  6. Bioconjugation and stabilisation of biomolecules in biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Guido A.

    2016-01-01

    Suitable bioconjugation strategies and stabilisation of biomolecules on electrodes is essential for the development of novel and commercially viable biosensors. In the present review, the functional groups that comprise the selectable targets for practical bioconjugation methods are discussed. We focus on describing the most common immobilisation techniques used in biosensor construction, which are classified into irreversible and reversible methods. Concerning the stability of proteins, the two main types of stability may be defined as (i) storage or shelf stability, and (ii) operational stability. Both types of stability are explained, as well as the introduction of an electrophoretic technique for predicting protein–polymer interactions. In addition, solution and dry stabilisation as well as stabilisation using the covalent immobilisation of proteins are discussed including possible factors that influence stability. Finally, the integration of nanomaterials, such as magnetic particles, with protein immobilisation is discussed in relation to protein stability studies. PMID:27365036

  7. Partial stability and stabilisation of Boolean networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong-Wei; Sun, Liang-Jie; Liu, Yang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the stability of Boolean networks and the stabilisation of Boolean control networks with respect to part of the system's states. First, an algebraic expression of the Boolean (control) network is derived by the semi-tensor product of matrices. Then, some necessary and sufficient conditions for partial stability of Boolean networks are given. Finally, the stabilisation of Boolean control networks by a free control sequence and a state-feedback control is investigated and the respective necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained. Examples are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results.

  8. [Posterior corpectomy, transpedicular fixation and expandable cage placement in thoracolumbar fractures].

    PubMed

    De la Cruz-Álvarez, S; Canales-Nájera, J A; Hurtado-Padilla, A; Guevara-Villazón, F; Ledezma-Ledezma, J

    2017-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the outcome of vertebral corpectomy and placement of an expandable cage in patients with thoracolumbar fractures, using a posterior-only approach. A retrospective, case series study in the period from May 2011 to May 2014, in which eight patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures were treated surgically with corpectomy of fractured spinal body, placement of expandable box and fixation with transpedicular system, via posterior-only approach. Neurologic examination was done pre- and postoperatively with the ASIA score in a one year span. The angular deformity correction was also measured. The mean age was 38 years (24 to 58 years); five male and three female patients. All the patients had burst fracture, one of them with aggregate rotational component. Only one vertebral level was worked with corpectomy in all patients. Mean surgical time was 236 minutes (195-330 min). Mean surgical bleeding was 1,731 ml. Patients who underwent posterior approach corpectomy showed favorable clinical results. None presented neurological damage or surgical-related injury. This technique can be a useful option to avoid complications related to anterior vertebral approach or double approach.

  9. A Case of Koch's Spine Treated with Modified Transpedicular Vertebral Curettage and Posterior Fixation: A Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Golwala, Paresh; Shah, Malkesh; Merh, Aditya; Kansagra, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by acid-fast mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli. Spinal involvement occurs in less than one percent of TB. Spinal TB (Pott’s disease) accounts for 50% of skeletal TB. Though it most commonly affects the thoracolumbar junction, it can occur at any level of the spine. Early diagnosis and treatment is mandatory in order to avoid neurological complications and spinal deformity. We report a case of a young female with tuberculosis of D12-L1 who was treated with posterior decompression using a modified transpedicular approach and posterior instrumentation with a successful outcome. PMID:28083459

  10. Lumbar Transpedicular Implant Failure: A Clinical and Surgical Challenge and Its Radiological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdel Mohsen Arafa

    2014-01-01

    Study Design It is a multicenter, controlled case study review of a big scale of pedicle-screw procedures from January 2000 to June 2010. The outcomes were compared to those with no implant failure. Purpose The purpose of this study was to review retrospectively the outcome of 100 patients with implant failure in comparison to 100 control-patients, and to study the causes of failure and its prevention. Overview of Literature Transpedicular fixation is associated with risks of hardware failure, such as screw/rod breakage and/or loosening at the screw-rod interface and difficulties in the system assembly, which remain a significant clinical problem. Removal or revision of the spinal hardware is often required. Methods Two hundred patients (88 women, 112 men) were divided into 2 major groups, with 100 patients in group I (implant failure group G1) and 100 patients in group II (successful fusion, control group G2). We subdivided the study groups into two subgroups: subgroup a (single-level instrumented group) and subgroup b (multilevel instrumented group). The implant status was assessed based on intraoperative and follow-up radiographs. Results Implant failure in general was present in 36% in G1a, and in 64% in G1b, and types of implant failure included screw fracture (34%), rod fracture (24%), rod loosening (22%), screw loosening (16%), and failure of both rod and screw (4%). Most of the failures (90%) occurred within 6 months after surgery, with no reported cases 1 year postoperatively. Conclusions We tried to address the problem and study the causes of failure, and proposed solutions for its prevention. PMID:24967042

  11. Characterising the stabilisability for second-order linear switched systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Shen

    2013-03-01

    The stabilisability of second-order linear switched systems is the topic focused on in a number of papers, however, some of its fundamental characteristics are still unrevealed. In this article, regarding a pair of subsystems, we are interested in characterising this problem from both the state-triggering and time-domain viewpoints and in revealing the inherent connection between them. To this end, we first use polar coordinates to represent the geometric property of switching and the dynamical behaviours caused by it, and then put the geometrised switching control into correspondence with the implicit stabilisation mechanism behind it. Doing this in a strong way relies on classifying switching control into two types intuitively, namely, chattering switching and spinning switching, and then clarifying their distinction and properties rigorously. Furthermore, the uniform convergence of the forced trajectory is shown by presenting estimation on its decay rate; and the limit cycles and sliding motions generated by switching are also accounted for. The results are illustrated by elaborate examples.

  12. Local string models and moduli stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo, Fernando

    2015-03-01

    A brief overview is presented of the progress made during the past few years on the general structure of local models of particle physics from string theory including: moduli stabilisation, supersymmetry breaking, global embedding in compact Calabi-Yau compactifications and potential cosmological implications. Type IIB D-brane constructions and the Large Volume Scenario (LVS) are discussed in some detail emphasising the recent achievements and the main open questions.

  13. Local String Models and Moduli Stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    A brief overview is presented of the progress made during the past few years on the general structure of local models of particle physics from string theory including: moduli stabilisation, supersymmetry breaking, global embedding in compact Calabi-Yau compactifications and potential cosmological implications. Type IIB D-brane constructions and the Large Volume Scenario (LVS) are discussed in some detail emphasising the recent achievements and the main open questions.

  14. In situ stabilisation/solidification: project lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Fleri, Mark A; Whetstone, Greg T

    2007-03-15

    The successful application of any remedial technology, including stabilisation/solidification, begins with the site investigation. Following a review of the data collected during the site investigation, a treatability study (TS) and pilot study (PS) are prerequisites to full-scale implementation as they show the effects and delivery of binders to the soils, the geochemistry of the soils, and binder dosages necessary for the existing geology. Further, evaluating the data gathered during the TS and PS can help in accurately estimating and executing full-scale operations. Invariably, deviations from the TS and PS regarding soil characteristics and soil chemistry may exist, but the experience gained via the TS and PS aids in making decisions when faced with new and unexpected conditions in the field. This paper will discuss the execution of typical TS and PS applications and their implementation for full-scale treatment. Because the long-term performance durability of design mixes and technology applications are not generally addressed in remediation, post-remediation monitoring and sampling data must be made available to the public to advance the science and art of stabilisation/solidification. As a first step in advancing this technology, this paper follows the lifecycle of stabilisation/ solidification projects from the site investigation through the completion of full-scale work. A 10-year post-remediation sampling event also evidences the long-term viability of the technology.

  15. Stabilising nanofluids in saline environments.

    PubMed

    Al-Anssari, Sarmad; Arif, Muhammad; Wang, Shaobin; Barifcani, Ahmed; Iglauer, Stefan

    2017-12-15

    Nanofluids (i.e. nanoparticles dispersed in a fluid) have tremendous potential in a broad range of applications, including pharmacy, medicine, water treatment, soil decontamination, or oil recovery and CO2 geo-sequestration. In these applications nanofluid stability plays a key role, and typically robust stability is required. However, the fluids in these applications are saline, and no stability data is available for such salt-containing fluids. We thus measured and quantified nanofluid stability for a wide range of nanofluid formulations, as a function of salinity, nanoparticle content and various additives, and we investigated how this stability can be improved. Zeta sizer and dynamic light scattering (DLS) principles were used to investigate zeta potential and particle size distribution of nanoparticle-surfactant formulations. Also scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the physicochemical aspects of the suspension. We found that the salt drastically reduced nanofluid stability (because of the screening effect on the repulsive forces between the nanoparticles), while addition of anionic surfactant improved stability. Cationic surfactants again deteriorated stability. Mechanisms for the different behaviour of the different formulations were identified and are discussed here. We thus conclude that for achieving maximum nanofluid stability, anionic surfactant should be added. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the property behaviour of poly(ether-block-amide) blended with various stabilisers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Kieran A.; Kennedy, James E.; Barron, Valerie; McEvoy, Brian; Vrain, Olivier; Ryan, Damien; Cowman, Richard; Higginbotham, Clement L.

    2015-05-01

    Radiosterilisation can induce modifications and/or degradation to transpire in poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBA) following irradiation. The current investigation utilises combined synergistic mixtures of stabilisers to minimise these effects, by melt blending them with the PEBA material. Hindered amine stabilisers (HAS), primary antioxidants and secondary antioxidants were the stabilisers incorporate to reduce/eliminate the effects of 50 kGy electron beam irradiation dose on the material. Results were discussed by comparing the stabilising efficiency of mixtures on the PEBA material in contrast to the control sample. Dynamic frequency sweeps demonstrated the formation of crosslinks, where the degree of crosslinking was dependent on the combination of stabilisers mixed in the base material (PEBA). The storage modulus displayed that PEBA blended with Irganox 565 had very slight changes in contrast to all other samples following irradiation. However, since this sample is a phenol containing system, severe discolouration was observed in comparison to other samples due to the oxidation of the hindered phenol. Overall, this study provides compelling evidence that a combined synergistic mixture of Irganox 565 (multifunctional phenolic antioxidant) and Tinuvin 783 (hindered amide light stabiliser) with PEBA, resulted in the best radiation stability.

  17. Polycarboxylate ethers: The key towards non-toxic TiO2 nanoparticle stabilisation in physiological solutions.

    PubMed

    Koch, S; Kessler, M; Mandel, K; Dembski, S; Heuzé, K; Hackenberg, S

    2016-07-01

    Stable, non-agglomerated TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) dispersions are a crucial requirement for an accurate NP dosing in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this study self-synthesised TiO2 NPs were stabilised in three different cell culture media (DMEM, RPMI, BEGM) with the help of stabilising agents. Cell culture tested stabilisers (bovine serum albumin, fetal bovine serum) were compared to non-tested commercial products which are commonly utilized in the cement industry (Melflux(®) 4930 F, Melpers(®) 4343, Sika(®) ViscoCrete(®)-10110178). For a quantitative evaluation and comparison of the degree of stabilisation, a sedimentation study using UV absorbance spectroscopy was carried out and the agglomerate size was measured via dynamic light scattering. The cytotoxicity of the novel surfactants and stabilised NPs was examined in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma-derived FaDu cell line and in human mesenchymal stem cells. We successfully stabilised TiO2 NPs with Melflux(®) 4930 F in each cell culture medium, achieving perfect stability over at least one day and agglomerate sizes of less than 100nm, while the cytotoxicity of the NPs was not affected. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. On stabilisability of nonlinear systems on time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosiewicz, Zbigniew; Piotrowska, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    In this article, stabilisability of nonlinear finite-dimensional control systems on arbitrary time scales is studied. The classical results on stabilisation of nonlinear continuous-time and discrete-time systems are extended to systems on arbitrary time scales with bounded graininess function. It is shown that uniform exponential stability of the linear approximation of a nonlinear system implies uniform exponential stability of the nonlinear system. Then this result is used to show a similar implication for uniform exponential stabilisability.

  19. Stabilisation of refraction following cataract surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Baranyovits, P R

    1988-01-01

    Refraction was performed at frequent, regular intervals for six months following routine intracapsular cataract extraction. Patients were divided into two groups, those whose limbal sections were closed with 8-0 virgin silk or with 9-0 nylon. The stabilisation of refraction was observed, and the most suitable time to prescribe 'first glasses' was estimated retrospectively. In the silk group this was found to be at three months in the nylon group at four months. However, results in the latter were less predictable with greater variation. PMID:3061448

  20. [The posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cages (PLIF) and transpedicular stabilization].

    PubMed

    Diedrich, O; Kraft, C N; Perlick, L; Schmitt, O

    2001-01-01

    The development of intervertebral cages has significantly innovated the original technique of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). In this study we present the results of patients treated for degenerative or postoperative segmental spinal instabilities by PLIF with cages and pedicular stabilisation (360 degrees-instrumentation). Between 1992 and 1999 we implanted either CFRP-, PEEK- or Titanium-cages in 86 patients. 78 patients were adequately followed up over a period of at least 12 months (average 2,6 years). 5 patients were stabilised over 2 segments, so that ultimately 83 fused segments were evaluated.15% of all patients had an excellent, 51% a good, 28% a moderate and 5% an insufficient clinical result. Degenerative instabilities had a better outcome with 73% good or excellent clinical results, compared to postoperative instabilities (56%). Based on stringent radiographic fusion criteria we found true bony fusion in 52% of all segments after 12 months, 63% after 24 months, 72% after 36 months, and 78% after 48 months. In 21 segments cage packing was performed with autologous spongiosa, while in 62 segments a combination of cortical bone and spongiosa obtained from osseous structures at the operation-site were used as packing material. At the 24 month radiographic control we found a slightly higher fusion rate for those segments treated with autologous spongiosa obtained from the iliac crest. Neither for cages nor for pedicular screws was implant failure or material fatigue found. Serious entero-, pulmo-, cardio- or urological complications were not observed. Nonetheless the necessity for operative revision was 9%. A postoperative semiquantitative evaluation of segments neighbouring the fused vertebra revealed in 28% an increase in degenerative changes. Particularly after 360 degrees-instrumentation, interpretation of the fusion-status should be based on structural and not on functional criteria. The modification of PLIF with cages compared to the use of

  1. Tuberculous spondylitis of the lumbosacral region: long-term follow-up of patients treated by chemotherapy, transpedicular drainage, posterior instrumentation, and fusion.

    PubMed

    Bezer, Murat; Kucukdurmaz, Fatih; Aydin, Nuri; Kocaoglu, Baris; Guven, Osman

    2005-10-01

    Tuberculosis spondylitis of the lumbosacral region has rarely been documented in the literature. We present an 87-month follow-up study of 7 of 62 patients with tuberculous spondylitis of the lumbosacral region treated by chemotherapy, transpedicular drainage, posterior instrumentation, and fusion. The purpose was to prove the hypothesis that chemotherapy with transpedicular drainage and single-stage posterior instrumentation-fusion is enough for the prevention of lumbar kyphosis and sagittal offset in selected cases. There were four men and three women, with average age of 53 years. All patients underwent transpedicular debridement, posterior fusion, and instrumentation. We studied the following data for consideration in these patients: most involved vertebra, vertebral body loss, progress of kyphosis, and sagittal offset. The fourth lumbar vertebra was the most commonly involved vertebral segment. The average preoperative kyphosis was 17.5 degrees and decreased to 5.4 degrees postoperatively. Mean preoperative and postoperative sagittal offset was 0.34 mm and -5 mm, respectively. The average postoperative sagittal offset was increased from -5 to -2 mm at the third month and henceforth remained unchanged. There was no recurrent infection. We consider that transpedicular drainage, posterior instrumentation, and fusion constitute a less demanding operative technique for lumbosacral tuberculous spondylitis for the prevention of lumbar kyphosis and sagittal offset in patients without neurologic deficit and major vertebral body loss. This is the only lumbosacral tuberculous spondylitis series in which the patients were operated on with single-stage posterior surgery and merits a brief report in the light of the larger series.

  2. Aqueous foams stabilised solely by nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Dominique

    2011-03-01

    Particles are being increasingly used to stabilise foams and emulsions, the corresponding emulsions being known as ``Pickering'' emulsions. One of the peculiarities of these systems is the absence of Ostwald ripening: since the bubbles or drops do not grow (coalescence seems also suppressed) both foams and emulsions are stable over extremely long periods of time (months). These features make particles very interesting surface active agents as compared to standard surfactants or polymers/proteins. The origin of the suppression of ripening can be traced to the unusual behaviour of the interfacial layers made by these particles. The layers are solid-like and the usual characterisation methods (surface tension, surface rheology) are not straightforward to use. In this presentation, we will illustrate these difficulties with experiments made with partially hydrophobic silica nanoparticles. We will also discuss the relevance of foam characterisations methods such as multiple light scattering and X-ray tomography.

  3. Postural sway during retinal image stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Rushton, D N; Brandt, T; Paulus, W; Krafczyk, S

    1989-03-01

    Posturographic measurements using a piezoelectric platform were made in normal subjects while wearing a combination of spectacle and contact lens providing partial stabilisation of the retinal image (RIS). The amount of postural sway seen while wearing the device at rest is intermediate between the "normal vision" and "eyes closed" conditions, and increases with increasing amounts of RIS. However, when large active head-and-eye movements are performed, postural sway is dramatically increased when using RIS, and is then worse than while performing the same task in the "eyes closed" condition. It is concluded that patients who use the partial-RIS device for the treatment of severe oscillopsia may benefit only when performing tasks in which the head is relatively still, such as reading, writing or watching TV. It is also proposed that the partial-RIS device can serve as a model in normal free-standing subjects for the postural effects of oculomotor disorders.

  4. Inter- and intraobserver variability in the postoperative evaluation of transpedicular stabilization: computed tomography versus magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tohtz, Stephan W; Rogalla, Patrick; Taupitz, Matthias; Perka, Carsten; Winkler, Tobias; Putzier, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) represents the state of the art for the postoperative verification of the implant position after transpedicular stabilizations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not challenged the CT, yet, because of susceptibility artifacts but would be favorable as a diagnostic tool for its excellent soft-tissue qualities. A study that analyzed if an artifact-reduced MRI could overcome this problem and provide sufficient data for the postoperative assessment was conducted. The study design was a radiologic comparison of CT and MRI techniques evaluating pedicle screw placement after spinal fusion. Fifty consecutive patients were given an MRI and a CT after a transpedicular stabilization surgery. Thirty-eight patients suffered from degenerative spinal disorders; three surgeries had become necessary because of spondylodiscitis, eight patients suffered from metastatic vertebrae destruction, and one patient experienced a fracture. Any contact of a malpositioned pedicle screw with the dura and/or radicular structures was identified as an implant-associated complication and was compared with postoperative clinical patient findings. In total, 338 pedicular screws were analyzed in regard to their intrapedicular position. The double-blind evaluation of MRI and CT data was carried out by two radiologists and two spine surgeons. Accuracy of the CT analysis was calculated based on the interobserver agreement of 100%. Magnetic resonance imaging accuracy was calculated. The interobserver accuracy of the CT data amounted to a median of 89.8% and in the MRI data of 86.7%. Intraobserver comparisons showed a significant difference between CT and magnetic resonance evaluations in one observer (kappa=0.293). In all other observers, the results were concordant with kappa values from kappa=0.328 to kappa=0.702. There was a high degree of agreement regarding the diagnosis of malpositioned pedicle screw and corresponding clinical symptoms between both techniques. The

  5. Stabilisation of second-order nonlinear equations with variable delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezansky, Leonid; Braverman, Elena; Idels, Lev

    2015-08-01

    For a wide class of second-order nonlinear non-autonomous models, we illustrate that combining proportional state control with the feedback that is proportional to the derivative of the chaotic signal allows to stabilise unstable motions of the system. The delays are variable, which leads to more flexible controls permitting delay perturbations; only delay bounds are significant for stabilisation by a delayed control. The results are applied to the sunflower equation which has an infinite number of equilibrium points.

  6. Interference stabilisation of Rydberg atoms in a strong laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Mikhail V

    1999-07-31

    A review is given of the published theoretical and experimental investigations of the interference stabilisation of Rydberg atoms by a strong optical field. The physical nature of the effect, the models used to describe it, the alternative stabilisation mechanisms, and the extent to which the theoretical results match the published experimental data are discussed. (this issue is dedicated to the memory of s a akhmanov)

  7. Globally uniformly asymptotical stabilisation of time-delay nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiushan; Han, Zhengzhi; Zhang, Wei

    2011-07-01

    Globally uniformly asymptotical stabilisation of nonlinear systems in feedback form with a delay arbitrarily large in the input is dealt with based on the backstepping approach in this article. The design strategy depends on the construction of a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. A continuously differentiable control law is obtained to globally uniformly asymptotically stabilise the closed-loop system. The simulation shows the effectiveness of the method.

  8. Finding a stabilising switching law for switching nonlinear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendek, Zs.; Raica, P.; Lauber, J.; Guerra, T. M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper considers the stabilisation of switching nonlinear models by switching between the subsystems. We assume that arbitrary switching between two subsystems is possible once a subsystem has been active for a predefined number of samples. We use a Takagi-Sugeno representation of the models and a switching Lyapunov function is employed to develop sufficient stability conditions. If the conditions are satisfied, we construct a switching law that stabilises the system. The application of the conditions is illustrated in several examples.

  9. Pavement thickness and stabilised foundation layer assessment using ground-coupled GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinhui; Vennapusa, Pavana K. R.; White, David J.; Beresnev, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Experimental results from field and laboratory investigations using a ground-coupled ground penetrating radar (GPR), dielectric measurement, magnetic imaging tomography (MIT) and dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) tests are presented. Dielectric properties of asphalt pavement and stabilised and unstabilised pavement foundation materials were evaluated in the laboratory in frozen and unfrozen conditions. Laboratory test results showed that dielectric properties of materials back-calculated from GPR in comparison to dielectric gauge measurements are strongly correlated and repeatable. For chemically stabilised materials, curing time affected the dielectric properties of the materials. Field tests were conducted on asphalt pavement test sections with different foundation materials (stabilised and unstabilised layers), drainage conditions and layer thicknesses. GPR and MIT results were used to determine asphalt layer thicknesses and were compared with measured core thicknesses, while GPR and DCP were used to assess foundation layer profiles. Asphalt thicknesses estimated from GPR showed an average error of about 11% using the dielectric gauge values as input. The average error reduced to about 4% when calibrated with cores thicknesses. MIT results showed thicknesses that are about 9% higher than estimated using GPR. Foundation layer thicknesses could not be measured using GPR due to variations in moisture conditions between the test sections, which is partly attributed to variations in gradation and drainage characteristics of the subbase layer.

  10. High-performance electronic image stabilisation for shift and rotation correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Steve C. J.; Hickman, D. L.; Wu, F.

    2014-06-01

    A novel low size, weight and power (SWaP) video stabiliser called HALO™ is presented that uses a SoC to combine the high processing bandwidth of an FPGA, with the signal processing flexibility of a CPU. An image based architecture is presented that can adapt the tiling of frames to cope with changing scene dynamics. A real-time implementation is then discussed that can generate several hundred optical flow vectors per video frame, to accurately calculate the unwanted rigid body translation and rotation of camera shake. The performance of the HALO™ stabiliser is comprehensively benchmarked against the respected Deshaker 3.0 off-line stabiliser plugin to VirtualDub. Eight different videos are used for benchmarking, simulating: battlefield, surveillance, security and low-level flight applications in both visible and IR wavebands. The results show that HALO™ rivals the performance of Deshaker within its operating envelope. Furthermore, HALO™ may be easily reconfigured to adapt to changing operating conditions or requirements; and can be used to host other video processing functionality like image distortion correction, fusion and contrast enhancement.

  11. A prospective clinical study comparing MI-TLIF with unilateral versus bilateral transpedicular fixation in low grade lumbar spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Sánchez, José-Antonio; Soriano-Solis, Sergio; Soriano-Lopez, Miroslava-Elizabeth; Covarrubias-Rosas, Claudia-Angélica; Quillo-Reséndiz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Partida, Carlos-Francisco; Rodríguez-García, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) has become one of the standard techniques for approaching ipsilateral decompression, anterior column fusion, and posterior stabilization. This procedure is usually accompanied by the placement of bilateral transpedicular screws in the corresponding segment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of unilateral screw fixation compared with bilateral fixation in patients diagnosed with low-grade symptomatic lumbar spondylolisthesis who underwent an MI-TLIF technique. Methods A prospective and comparative study was performed in 67 patients with grade 1 symptomatic lumbar spondylolisthesis. The sample was allocated on both unilateral fixation group (n=33) and bilateral fixation group (n=34). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS) for leg and back pain, and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), preoperatively, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Changes over time and differences between the groups were analyzed. Statistical analyses included: Friedman test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney’s U. A two-tailed P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results During 1-year of evaluation there were no significant clinical differences between both groups. Conclusions Patients with grade 1 symptomatic lumbar spondylolisthesis treated with MI-TLIF with unilateral screw fixation had similar clinical results than those treated with bilateral fixation at 12 months postoperatively. PMID:28435913

  12. Stabilisation of microalgae: Iodine mobilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Mobilisation of iodine during microalgae stabilisation was investigated, with the view of assessing the potential of stabilised microalgae as an iodine-rich fertiliser. An iodine-rich waste microalgae (0.35 ± 0.05 mg I g(-1) VS(added)) was stabilised under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Iodine mobilisation was linearly correlated with carbon emission, indicating iodine was in the form of organoiodine. Comparison between iodine and nitrogen mobilisation relative to carbon emission indicated that these elements were, at least in part, housed separately within the cells. After stabilisation, there were 0.22 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) VS(added) iodine remaining in the solid in the aerobic and anaerobic processed material respectively, meaning 38 ± 5.0% (aerobic) and 50 ± 8.6% (anaerobic) of the iodine were mobilised, and consequently lost from the material. The iodine content of the stabilised material is comparable to the iodine content of some seaweed fertilisers, and potentially satisfies an efficient I-fertilisation dose.

  13. Image stabilisation of the beating heart by local linear interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Martin; Hirzinger, Gerd

    2006-03-01

    The stabilisation of motion on the beating heart is investigated in the context of minimally invasive robotic surgery. Although reduced by mechanical stabilisers, residual tissue motion makes safe surgery still difficult and time consuming. Compensation for this movement is therefore highly desirable. Motion can be captured by tracking natural landmarks on the heart surface recorded by a video endoscope. Stabilisation is achieved by transforming the images using a motion field calculated from captured local motion. Since the surface of the beating heart is distorted nonlinearly, compensating the occurring motion with a constant image correction factor is not sufficient. Therefore, heart motion is captured by several landmarks, the motion between which is interpolated such that locally appropriate motion correction values are obtained. To estimate the motion between the landmark positions, a triangulation is built and motion information in each triangle is approximated by linear interpolation. Motion compensation is evaluated by calculating the optical flow remaining in the stabilised images. The proposed linear interpolation model is able to reduce motion significantly and can also be implemented efficiently to stabilise images of the beating heart in realtime.

  14. Southwick Osteotomy Stabilised with External Fixator

    PubMed Central

    Grubor, Predrag; Mitkovic, Milorad; Grubor, Milan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Epiphysiolysis of the femoral head is the most common accident occurring towards the end of pre-puberty and puberty growth. Case report: The author describes the experience in the treatment of chronic epiphysiolysis in two patients treated by Southwick osteotomy. The site is accessed by way of a 15-cm long lateral skin incision and the trochanteric region is reached through the layers. The osteotomy angles prepared beforehand on a thin aluminium model are used to mark the Southwick osteotomy site on the anterior and lateral sides at the level of the lesser trochanter. Before performing the trochanteric osteotomy, two Mitković convergent pins type M20 are applied distally and proximally, above the planned osteotomy site. A tenotomy of the iliopsas muscle is performed, and then the previously marked bone triangle is redissected up to three quarters of the width of the femur. The distal part of the femur is rotated inwards, so that the patella is turned towards the ceiling. The osteotomised fragments of the femur are adapted, repositioned and fixated by installing an external fixator on the previously placed pins. Two more pins are placed, one proximally and one distally, with a view to adequately stabilising the femur. The patient was mobile from day two after the surgery. If, after the surgery, the lead surgeon realises that there is a requirement to make a correction of 5, 10 and 15 degrees of the valgus, varus, anteversion or retroversion deformity, the correction shall be performed without surgically opening the patient, using the fixator pins. Conclusion: After performing a Southwick osteotomy it is easier to adapt, reposition and fixate the osteotomised fragments of the femur using a fixator type M20. Adequate stability allows regaining mobility quickly, which in turn is the best prevention of chondrolysis of the hip. It is possible to make post-operative valgus, varus, anteversion and retroversion corrections of 5, 10 and 15 degrees

  15. Stabilisation of a class of 2-DOF underactuated mechanical systems via direct Lyapunov approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turker, Turker; Gorgun, Haluk; Cansever, Galip

    2013-06-01

    This paper represents an alternative stabilisation procedure for a class of two degree-of-freedom underactuated mechanical systems based on a set of transformations and a Lyapunov function. After simplifying dynamic equations of the system via partial feedback linearisation and coordinate changes, the stability of the system is provided with Lyapunov's direct method. Proposed control scheme is used on two different examples and asymptotic convergence for each system is proven by means of La Salle's invariance principle. The designed controller is successfully illustrated through numerical simulations for each example.

  16. Security for whom? Stabilisation and civilian protection in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Elhawary, Samir

    2010-10-01

    This paper focuses on three periods of stabilisation in Colombia: the Alliance for Progress (1961-73) that sought to stem the threat of communist revolution in Latin America; Plan Colombia and President Alvaro Uribe's 'democratic security' policy (2000-07) aimed at defeating the guerrillas and negotiating a settlement with the paramilitaries; and the current 'integrated approach', adopted from 2007, to consolidate more effectively the state's control of its territory.(1) The paper assesses the extent to which these stabilisation efforts have enhanced the protection of civilians and ultimately finds that in all three periods there has been a disconnect between the discourse and the practice of stabilisation. While they have all sought to enhance security, in actual fact, they have privileged the security of the state and its allies at the expense of the effective protection of the civilian population. This has not only led to widespread human rights abuses but also has undermined the long-term stability being pursued.

  17. Early metal bis(phosphorus-stabilised)carbene chemistry.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Stephen T; Mills, David P; Wooles, Ashley J

    2011-05-01

    Since the discovery of covalently-bound mid- and late-transition metal carbenes there has been a spectacular explosion of interest in their chemistry, but their early metal counterparts have lagged behind. In recent years, bis(phosphorus-stabilised)carbenes have emerged as valuable ligands for metals across the periodic table, and their use has in particular greatly expanded covalently-bound early metal carbene chemistry. In this tutorial review we introduce the reader to bis(phosphorus-stabilised)carbenes, and cover general preparative methods, structure and bonding features, and emerging reactivity studies of early metal derivatives (groups 1-4 and the f-elements).

  18. Bounded stabilisation of stochastic port-Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Satoshi; Saeki, Masami

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic bounded stabilisation method for a class of stochastic port-Hamiltonian systems. Both full-actuated and underactuated mechanical systems in the presence of noise are considered in this class. The proposed method gives conditions for the controller gain and design parameters under which the state remains bounded in probability. The bounded region and achieving probability are both assignable, and a stochastic Lyapunov function is explicitly provided based on a Hamiltonian structure. Although many conventional stabilisation methods assume that the noise vanishes at the origin, the proposed method is applicable to systems under persistent disturbances.

  19. Embolization by Direct Puncture with a Transpedicular Approach Using an Isocenter Puncture (ISOP) Method in a Patient with a Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Aortic Repair (EVAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Yukihisa Hamaguchi, Shingo; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Kon, Yuri; Chiba, Kiyoshi; Sakurai, Yuka; Murakami, Kenji; Arai, Yasunori; Miyairi, Takeshi; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2015-06-15

    BackgroundEndovascular aortic repair (EVAR) requires further intervention in 20-30 % of cases, often due to type II endoleak (T2EL). Management options for T2EL include transarterial embolization, direct puncture (DP), or transcaval embolization. We report the case of an 80-year-old man with T2EL who successfully underwent DP embolization.MethodsEmbolization by DP was performed with a transpedicular approach using an isocenter puncture (ISOP) method. An isocenter marker (ICM) was placed at a site corresponding to the aneurysm sac on fluoroscopy in two directions (frontal and lateral views). A vertebroplasty needle was inserted tangentially to the ICM under fluoroscopy and advanced to the anterior wall of the vertebral body. A 20 cm-length, 20-G-PTCD needle was inserted through the outer needle of the 13-G needle and advanced to the ICM. Sac embolization using 25 % N-buty-2-cyanoacrylate diluted with Lipiodol was performed. After complete embolization, rotational DA confirmed good filling of the sac with Lipiodol. The outer cannula and 13-G needle were removed and the procedure was completed.ResultsThe patient was discharged the next day. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography 1 and 8 months later showed no Lipiodol washout in the aneurysm sac, no endoleak recurrence, and no expansion of the excluded aneurysm.ConclusionDP with a transpedicular approach using ISOP may be useful when translumbar and transabdominal approaches prove difficult.

  20. Embolization by Direct Puncture with a Transpedicular Approach Using an Isocenter Puncture (ISOP) Method in a Patient with a Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Aortic Repair (EVAR).

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yukihisa; Hamaguchi, Shingo; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Kon, Yuri; Chiba, Kiyoshi; Sakurai, Yuka; Murakami, Kenji; Arai, Yasunori; Miyairi, Takeshi; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) requires further intervention in 20-30 % of cases, often due to type II endoleak (T2EL). Management options for T2EL include transarterial embolization, direct puncture (DP), or transcaval embolization. We report the case of an 80-year-old man with T2EL who successfully underwent DP embolization. Embolization by DP was performed with a transpedicular approach using an isocenter puncture (ISOP) method. An isocenter marker (ICM) was placed at a site corresponding to the aneurysm sac on fluoroscopy in two directions (frontal and lateral views). A vertebroplasty needle was inserted tangentially to the ICM under fluoroscopy and advanced to the anterior wall of the vertebral body. A 20 cm-length, 20-G-PTCD needle was inserted through the outer needle of the 13-G needle and advanced to the ICM. Sac embolization using 25 % N-buty-2-cyanoacrylate diluted with Lipiodol was performed. After complete embolization, rotational DA confirmed good filling of the sac with Lipiodol. The outer cannula and 13-G needle were removed and the procedure was completed. The patient was discharged the next day. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography 1 and 8 months later showed no Lipiodol washout in the aneurysm sac, no endoleak recurrence, and no expansion of the excluded aneurysm. DP with a transpedicular approach using ISOP may be useful when translumbar and transabdominal approaches prove difficult.

  1. The active disturbance rejection control approach to stabilisation of coupled heat and ODE system subject to boundary control matched disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bao-Zhu; Liu, Jun-Jun; AL-Fhaid, A. S.; Younas, Arshad Mahmood M.; Asiri, Asim

    2015-08-01

    We consider stabilisation for a linear ordinary differential equation system with input dynamics governed by a heat equation, subject to boundary control matched disturbance. The active disturbance rejection control approach is applied to estimate, in real time, the disturbance with both constant high gain and time-varying high gain. The disturbance is cancelled in the feedback loop. The closed-loop systems with constant high gain and time-varying high gain are shown, respectively, to be practically stable and asymptotically stable.

  2. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Minimally Invasive Treatment with Bilateral Transpedicular Facet Augmentation System

    SciTech Connect

    Masala, Salvatore; Tarantino, Umberto; Nano, Giovanni; Iundusi, Riccardo; Fiori, Roberto Da Ros, Valerio Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new pedicle screw-based posterior dynamic stabilization device PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign Anchor and Stabilizer (Interventional Spine Inc., Irvine, CA) as alternative minimally invasive treatment for patients with lumbar spine stenosis. Methods. Twenty-four consecutive patients (8 women, 16 men; mean age 61.8 yr) with lumbar spinal stenosis underwent implantation of the minimally invasive pedicle screw-based device for posterior dynamic stabilization. Inclusion criteria were lumbar stenosis without signs of instability, resistant to conservative treatment, and eligible to traditional surgical posterior decompression. Results. Twenty patients (83 %) progressively improved during the 1-year follow-up. Four (17 %) patients did not show any improvement and opted for surgical posterior decompression. For both responder and nonresponder patients, no device-related complications were reported. Conclusions. Minimally invasive PDS Percudyn System Trade-Mark-Sign has effectively improved the clinical setting of 83 % of highly selected patients treated, delaying the need for traditional surgical therapy.

  3. Transpatellar access for intramedullary stabilisation of the tibia.

    PubMed

    Gerich, T; Backes, F; Pape, D; Seil, R

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative deformities of the knee and sequaelae after intraarticular surgery can interfere with a standard parapetallar approach for intramedullary stabilisation of the tibia. Even the suprapatellar approach can be rendered impossible. For these rare indications we describe the patella osteotomy and transpatellar approach.

  4. Strong stabilisation and decay estimate for unbounded bilinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ayadi, R.; Ouzahra, M.; Boutoulout, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this article, we deal with distributed bilinear systems, where the operator of control is supposed to be unbounded in the sense that it is bounded from the state space into some extension. Then we give sufficient conditions for strong stabilisation. Also the rate of convergence of the state is estimated. An illustrating example is given.

  5. Frequency-stabilised external-cavity semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect

    Permyakova, O I; Yakovlev, A V; Chapovskii, Pavel L

    2005-05-31

    The design and characteristics of a semiconductor laser with the modified external Littrow resonator are described. The additional output mirror of the V-shaped resonator made the system more efficient and convenient. The laser radiation frequency is stabilised with the help of magnetooptical Faraday and circular dichroism effects in rubidium vapour. (diode lasers)

  6. Feedback-bounded stabilisation of certain discrete Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsios, Stelios

    2016-06-01

    Throughout this paper, we present a method for designing feedback-laws which stabilise nonlinear discrete Volterra systems. Our method is based on a factorisation algorithm which decomposes the original system as a composition of a δ-polynomial and a linear series.

  7. Exponential passivity for output feedback stabilisation of nonlinear uncertain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabdallah, Amel

    2010-11-01

    In this article, we address the problem of stabilisation by output feedback for a class of uncertain systems. We consider uncertain systems with a nominal part which is affine in the control and an uncertain part which is norm bounded by a known function. We propose an output feedback such that the closed loop system is globally exponentially stable.

  8. Antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and risk of violent crime

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Zetterqvist, Johan; Larsson, Henrik; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Antipsychotics and mood stabilisers are prescribed widely to patients with psychiatric disorders worldwide. Despite clear evidence for their efficacy in relapse prevention and symptom relief, their effect on some adverse outcomes, including the perpetration of violent crime, is unclear. We aimed to establish the effect of antipsychotics and mood stabilisers on the rate of violent crime committed by patients with psychiatric disorders in Sweden. Methods We used linked Swedish national registers to study 82 647 patients who were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, their psychiatric diagnoses, and subsequent criminal convictions in 2006–09. We did within-individual analyses to compare the rate of violent criminality during the time that patients were prescribed these medications versus the rate for the same patients while they were not receiving the drugs to adjust for all confounders that remained constant within each participant during follow-up. The primary outcome was the occurrence of violent crime, according to Sweden's national crime register. Findings In 2006–09, 40 937 men in Sweden were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, of whom 2657 (6·5%) were convicted of a violent crime during the study period. In the same period, 41 710 women were prescribed these drugs, of whom 604 (1·4 %) had convictions for violent crime. Compared with periods when participants were not on medication, violent crime fell by 45% in patients receiving antipsychotics (hazard ratio [HR] 0·55, 95% CI 0·47–0·64) and by 24% in patients prescribed mood stabilisers (0·76, 0·62–0·93). However, we identified potentially important differences by diagnosis—mood stabilisers were associated with a reduced rate of violent crime only in patients with bipolar disorder. The rate of violence reduction for antipsychotics remained between 22% and 29% in sensitivity analyses that used different outcomes (any crime, drug-related crime, less

  9. Evaluation of surgical strategy of conventional vs. percutaneous robot-assisted spinal trans-pedicular instrumentation in spondylodiscitis.

    PubMed

    Keric, Naureen; Eum, David J; Afghanyar, Feroz; Rachwal-Czyzewicz, Izabela; Renovanz, Mirjam; Conrad, Jens; Wesp, Dominik M A; Kantelhardt, Sven R; Giese, Alf

    2017-03-01

    Robot-assisted percutaneous insertion of pedicle screws is a recent technique demonstrating high accuracy. The optimal treatment for spondylodiscitis is still a matter of debate. We performed a retrospective cohort study on surgical patients treated with pedicle screw/rod placement alone without the application of intervertebral cages. In this collective, we compare conventional open to a further minimalized percutaneous robot-assisted spinal instrumentation, avoiding a direct contact of implants and infectious focus. 90 records and CT scans of patients treated by dorsal transpedicular instrumentation of the infected segments with and without decompression and antibiotic therapy were analysed for clinical and radiological outcome parameters. 24 patients were treated by free-hand fluoroscopy-guided surgery (121 screws), and 66 patients were treated by percutaneous robot-assisted spinal instrumentation (341 screws). Accurate screw placement was confirmed in 90 % of robot-assisted and 73.5 % of free-hand placed screws. Implant revision due to misplacement was necessary in 4.95 % of the free-hand group compared to 0.58 % in the robot-assisted group. The average intraoperative X-ray exposure per case was 0.94 ± 1.04 min in the free-hand group vs. 0.4 ± 0.16 min in the percutaneous group (p = 0.000). Intraoperative adverse events were observed in 12.5 % of free-hand placed pedicle screws and 6.1 % of robot robot-assisted screws. The mean postoperative hospital stay in the free-hand group was 18.1 ± 12.9 days, and in percutaneous group, 13.8 ± 5.6 days (p = 0.012). This study demonstrates that the robot-guided insertion of pedicle screws is a safe and effective procedure in lumbar and thoracic spondylodiscitis with higher accuracy of implant placement, lower radiation dose, and decreased complication rates. Percutaneous spinal dorsal instrumentation seems to be sufficient to treat lumbar and thoracic spondylodiscitis.

  10. Food-grade Pickering emulsions stabilised with solid lipid particles.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Aleksandra; Kurukji, Daniel; Norton, Ian; Spyropoulos, Fotis

    2016-06-15

    Aqueous dispersions of tripalmitin particles (with a minimum size of 130 nm) were produced, via a hot sonication method, with and without the addition of food-grade emulsifiers. Depending on their relative size and chemistry, the emulsifiers altered the properties of the fat particles (e.g. crystal form, dispersion state and surface properties) by two proposed mechanisms. Firstly, emulsifiers modify the rate and/or extent of polymorphic transitions, resulting in the formation of fat crystals with a range of polarities. Secondly, the adsorption of emulsifiers at the particle interface modifies crystal surface properties. Such emulsifier-modified fat particles were then used to stabilise emulsions. As the behaviour of these particles was predisposed by the kind of emulsifier employed for their manufacture, the resulting particles showed different preferences to which of the emulsion phases (oil or water) became the continuous one. The polarity of the fat particles decreased as follows: Whey Protein Isolate > Soy Lecithin > Soy Lecithin + Tween 20 > Tween 20 > Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate > no emulsifier. Consequently, particles stabilised with WPI formed oil-in-water emulsions (O/W); particles stabilised solely with lecithin produced a highly unstable W/O emulsion; and particles stabilised with a mixture of lecithin and Tween 20 gave a stable W/O emulsion with drop size up to 30 μm. Coalescence stable, oil-continuous emulsions (W/O) with drop sizes between 5 and 15 μm were produced when the tripalmitin particles were stabilised with solely with Tween 20, solely with polyglycerol polyricinoleate, or with no emulsifier at all. It is proposed that the stability of the latter three emulsions was additionally enhanced by sintering of fat particles at the oil-water interface, providing a mechanical barrier against coalescence.

  11. Effect of addition of GGBS and lime in soil stabilisation for stabilising local village roads in Thanjavur region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, R.; Udhayakumar, T.; Dinesh, S.; Venkatasubramanian, C.; Muthu, D.

    2017-07-01

    Construction of pavements uses various filling materials and due to the cost factor, the local soil is used for pavement construction. The strength of the soil is improved by stabilisation. This stabilisation increases the load bearing capacities of soil for heavy wheeled vehicle traffic. GGBS, silica fume, rice husk are the basic waste materials used as a waste material, which improves the quality of soil and reduces the cost of pavements. In this study, a detailed investigation is made on the Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS), activated by lime, in the stabilisation of low bearing capacity sand and clay soils collected from Thanjavur district (Budalur, Sengipatti, Vallam and Palliahgraharam villages). The tests are carried out as per Indian Standards. The test procedures separated into two phases, namely Stage-I and Stage-II. In Stage-I the soil tests include soil type, particle size distribution, soil index properties, standard proctor tests, shear tests and CBR test. In Stage-II the soil tests include shear tests and CBR test for the suitable required proportions of GGBS along with lime in the collected soil samples. The test results from stage-I and stage-II are compared and from the study, it is inferred that the application of GGBS is a useful material for soil stabilisation.

  12. Treatment of thoracolumbar trauma by short-segment percutaneous transpedicular screw instrumentation: prospective comparative study with a minimum 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vanek, Petr; Bradac, Ondrej; Konopkova, Renata; de Lacy, Patricia; Lacman, Jiri; Benes, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare clinical and radiological outcomes after stabilization by a percutaneous transpedicular system and stabilization from the standard open approach for thoracolumbar spine injury. Thirty-seven consecutive patients were enrolled in the study over a period of 16 months. Patients were included in the study if they experienced 1 thoracolumbar fracture (A3.1-A3.3, according to the AO/Magerl classification), had an absence of neurological deficits, had no other significant injuries, and were willing to participate. Eighteen patients were treated by short-segment, minimally invasive, percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation. The control group was composed of 19 patients who were stabilized using a short-segment transpedicular construct, which was performed through a standard midline incision. The pain profile was assessed by a visual analog scale (VAS), and overall satisfaction by a simple 4-stage scale relating to performance of daily activities. Working ability and return to original occupation were also monitored. Radiographic follow-up was defined by the vertebral body index (VBI), vertebral body angle (VBA), and bisegmental Cobb angle. The accuracy of screw placement was examined using CT. The mean surgical duration in the percutaneous screw group was 53 ± 10 minutes, compared with 60 ± 9 minutes in the control group (p = 0.032). The percutaneous screw group had a significantly lower perioperative blood loss of 56 ± 17 ml, compared with 331 ± 149 ml in the control group (p < 0.001). Scores on the VAS in patients in the percutaneous screw group during the first 7 postoperative days were significantly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between groups in VBI, VBA, and Cobb angle values during follow-up. There was no significant difference in screw placement accuracy between the groups and no patients required surgical revision. There was no significant difference between

  13. Deoxycholate-Based Glycosides (DCGs) for Membrane Protein Stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Gotfryd, Kamil; Thomas, Jennifer; Hussain, Hazrat; Ehsan, Muhammad; Go, Juyeon; Loland, Claus J; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2015-07-06

    Detergents are an absolute requirement for studying the structure of membrane proteins. However, many conventional detergents fail to stabilise denaturation-sensitive membrane proteins, such as eukaryotic proteins and membrane protein complexes. New amphipathic agents with enhanced efficacy in stabilising membrane proteins will be helpful in overcoming the barriers to studying membrane protein structures. We have prepared a number of deoxycholate-based amphiphiles with carbohydrate head groups, designated deoxycholate-based glycosides (DCGs). These DCGs are the hydrophilic variants of previously reported deoxycholate-based N-oxides (DCAOs). Membrane proteins in these agents, particularly the branched diglucoside-bearing amphiphiles DCG-1 and DCG-2, displayed favourable behaviour compared to previously reported parent compounds (DCAOs) and conventional detergents (LDAO and DDM). Given their excellent properties, these agents should have significant potential for membrane protein studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Gas gain stabilisation in the ATLAS TRT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindur, B.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonov, A.; Arslan, O.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Bault, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Bocci, A.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Brock, I.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Catinaccio, A.; Celebi, E.; Cetin, S. A.; Choi, K.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Davis, D.; Degeorge, C.; Derendarz, D.; Desch, K.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dressnandt, N.; Dubinin, F. A.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Froidevaux, D.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gecse, Z.; Godlewski, J.; Grefe, C.; Gurbuz, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, P. H.; Hawkins, A. D.; Heim, S.; Holway, K.; Kantserov, V. A.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kisielewski, B.; Klopov, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korotkova, N. A.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kramarenko, V.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Kruse, M.; Kudin, L. G.; Lichard, P.; Loginov, A.; Martinez, N. Lorenzo; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lytken, E.; Maleev, V. P.; Maevskiy, A. S.; Manjarres Ramos, J.; Mashinistov, R. Y.; Meyer, C.; Mialkovski, V.; Mistry, K.; Mitsou, V. A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Newcomer, F. M.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Palacino, G.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; RØhne, O.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Ricken, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Ryjov, V.; Sasmaz, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Shmeleva, A. P.; Shulga, E.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnov, Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Soldatov, E.; Sulin, V. V.; Tartarelli, G.; Taylor, W.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vasquez, J.; Vasilyeva, L. F.; Vlazlo, O.; Weinert, B.; Williams, H. H.; Wong, V.; Zhukov, K. I.; Zieminska, D.

    2016-04-01

    The ATLAS (one of two general purpose detectors at the LHC) Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three tracking subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector. It is a large straw-based detector and contains about 350,000 electronics channels. The performance of the TRT as tracking and particularly particle identification detector strongly depends on stability of the operation parameters with most important parameter being the gas gain which must be kept constant across the detector volume. The gas gain in the straws can vary significantly with atmospheric pressure, temperature, and gas mixture composition changes. This paper presents a concept of the gas gain stabilisation in the TRT and describes in detail the Gas Gain Stabilisation System (GGSS) integrated into the Detector Control System (DCS). Operation stability of the GGSS during Run-1 is demonstrated.

  15. Use of Reinforced Lightweight Clay Aggregates for Landslide Stabilisation

    SciTech Connect

    Herle, Vitezslav

    2008-07-08

    In spring 2006 a large landslide combined with rock fall closed a highway tunnel near Svitavy in NE part of Czech Republic and cut the main highway connecting Bohemia with Moravia regions. Stabilisation work was complicated by steep mountainous terrain and large inflow of surface and underground water. The solution was based on formation of a stabilisation fill made of reinforced free draining aggregates at the toe of the slope with overlying lightweight fill up to 10 m high reinforced with PET geogrid and steel mesh protecting soft easily degrading sandstone against weathering. Extensive monitoring made possible to compare the FEM analysis with real values. The finished work fits very well in the environment and was awarded a special prize in the 2007 transport structures contest.

  16. Results of Single-Staged Posterior Decompression and Circumferential Fusion Using a Transpedicular Approach to Correct a Kyphotic Deformity due to Thoracolumbar Spinal Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Jayprakash; Soman, Shardul; Patel, Harshil; Dhanani, Shrikant

    2016-01-01

    Study Design This is a prospective study. Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the results of single-staged posterior decompression and circumferential fusion using a transpedicular approach to correct a kyphotic deformity due to thoracolumbar spinal tuberculosis. Overview of Literature Surgical management is frequently an imperative choice to achieve spinal decompression and deformity correction due to tuberculosis to relieve pain, improve neurology, and reconstruct the spine stability. Since the time anterior radical debridement and noninstrumented fusion was described, it has become apparent that even anterior debridement and bone grafting was often unsatisfactory in correcting or preventing the progression of kyphosis deformity. With the advent of modern segmental spinal instrumentation systems, isolated posterior instrumentation; combined anterior and posterior fusion; and single-staged posterior decompression and circumferential fusion have been described by many authors for correcting angular deformity and stabilizing the spine; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding the most effective means of correcting the deformity due to thoracolumbar spinal tuberculosis. Methods This is a prospective study of 20 patients with thoracolumbar spinal tuberculosis who underwent surgery at our institute. Results Twenty patients who were started on antituberculosis treatment underwent surgery using a single-staged posterior approach involving fixation, decompression, and kyphosis correction. Preoperatively, all patients had varying degrees of neurological deficit and a 27.45° average kyphotic angle, which improved. At the 1-year follow-up, correction was maintained at 6.9°, and 55% of patients showed neurological improvement. None of the patients experienced neurological deterioration. Two patients with lumbar spine tuberculosis underwent revision surgery because of nonunion. Conclusions The procedure of posterior decompression, fixation, and

  17. [A difficult stabilisation. Chlorpromazine in the fifties in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Majerus, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Through a Belgian case study the article tries to trace the gradual stabilisation of chlorpromazine as an antipsychotic in the 1950s. By varying ranges and angles of approach it shows the heterogeneity of actors involved and the semantic bricolage that accompany the marketing of the first antipsychotic. Far from being a revolution, the presence of Largactil in psychiatric practice is rather characterised by integration into a wider range of medicines and sinuous searching to give sense to this new drug.

  18. Stabilisation of scoliosis in two koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Govett, P D; Olby, N J; Marcellin-Little, D J; Rotstein, D S; Reynolds, T L; Lewbart, G A

    2004-07-24

    Two koi (Cyprinus carpio) from the same pond developed similar lesions of scoliosis. Radiographic examinations showed that their spines had become malaligned as a result of vertebral compression fractures involving T14 to T16. The vertebrae in both fish were stabilised with screws, k-wire and polymethylmethacrylate. They both appeared to improve after surgery, but they began to decline and died within three months. A postmortem examination revealed multi-organ inflammation that was not associated with the surgical implants.

  19. Oxidation behaviour of uranium and neptunium in stabilised zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Marcus; Somers, Joseph; Bouëxière, Daniel; Gaczyński, Piotr; Brendebach, Boris

    2009-12-01

    Yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) based (Zr,Y,U)O 2-x and (Zr,Y,Np)O 2-x solid solutions with 6 and 20 mol% actinide were prepared with Y/Zr ratios ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 to investigate uranium and neptunium oxidation behaviour depending on the oxygen vacancies in the defect fluorite lattice. Sintering at 1600 °C in Ar/H 2 yields a cubic, fluorite-type structure with U(IV) and Np(IV). Annealing (Zr,Y,U)O 2-x with Y/Zr=0.2 at 800 °C in air results in a tetragonal phase, whereas (Zr,Y,U)O 2-x with higher Y/Zr ratios and (Zr,Y,Np)O 2-x retain the cubic structure. XANES and O/ M measurements indicate mixed U(V)-U(VI) and Np(IV)-Np(V) oxidation states after oxidation. Based on X-ray diffraction, O/ M and EXAFS measurements, different oxidation mechanisms are identified for U- and Np-doped stabilised zirconia. In contrast to U, excess oxygen vacancies are needed to oxidise Np in (Zr,Y,Np)O 2-x as the oxidation process competes with Zr for oxygen vacancies. As a consequence, U(VI) and Np(V) can only be obtained in stabilised zirconia with Y/Zr=1 but not in YSZ with Y/Zr=0.2.

  20. Antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and risk of violent crime.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Zetterqvist, Johan; Larsson, Henrik; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-09-27

    Antipsychotics and mood stabilisers are prescribed widely to patients with psychiatric disorders worldwide. Despite clear evidence for their efficacy in relapse prevention and symptom relief, their effect on some adverse outcomes, including the perpetration of violent crime, is unclear. We aimed to establish the effect of antipsychotics and mood stabilisers on the rate of violent crime committed by patients with psychiatric disorders in Sweden. We used linked Swedish national registers to study 82,647 patients who were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, their psychiatric diagnoses, and subsequent criminal convictions in 2006-09. We did within-individual analyses to compare the rate of violent criminality during the time that patients were prescribed these medications versus the rate for the same patients while they were not receiving the drugs to adjust for all confounders that remained constant within each participant during follow-up. The primary outcome was the occurrence of violent crime, according to Sweden's national crime register. In 2006-09, 40,937 men in Sweden were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, of whom 2657 (6·5%) were convicted of a violent crime during the study period. In the same period, 41,710 women were prescribed these drugs, of whom 604 (1·4 %) had convictions for violent crime. Compared with periods when participants were not on medication, violent crime fell by 45% in patients receiving antipsychotics (hazard ratio [HR] 0·55, 95% CI 0·47-0·64) and by 24% in patients prescribed mood stabilisers (0·76, 0·62-0·93). However, we identified potentially important differences by diagnosis-mood stabilisers were associated with a reduced rate of violent crime only in patients with bipolar disorder. The rate of violence reduction for antipsychotics remained between 22% and 29% in sensitivity analyses that used different outcomes (any crime, drug-related crime, less severe crime, and violent arrest), and was stronger in

  1. The design of suboptimal asymptotic stabilising controllers for nonlinear slowly varying systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binazadeh, T.; Shafiei, M. H.

    2014-04-01

    The design of asymptotic stabilising controllers for slowly varying nonlinear systems is considered in this paper. The designed control law is based on finding a slowly varying control Lyapunov function. Also, consideration of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation showed that the proposed controller is a suboptimal controller and the response of the system may be very close to its optimal solution. The maximum admissible rate of changes of the system dynamic is also evaluated. This technique is first applied to a created example and then to a practical example (optimal autopilot design for an air vehicle). The air vehicle is modelled as a nonlinear slowly varying system and the efficiency of the designed autopilot in terms of transient responses, control signals and the values of cost function are shown by numerical simulations.

  2. Stability and stabilisation of linear multidimensional discrete systems in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lizhen; Xu, Li; Lin, Zhiping

    2013-11-01

    This paper gives a reasonably detailed review of advances in stability and stabilisation of linear multidimensional (N-D) discrete systems in the frequency domain. The emphasis is on the recent progress, especially in the past decade. The discussion will focus on two topics: (i) stability test. Determination of whether a given N-D (N ≥ 2) system is stable; (ii) stabilisation. Parameterisation of all stabilising compensators for a stabilisable N-D system. After reviewing the progress and several state of the art methods in these two topics with illustrative examples, some related issues are also briefly mentioned at the end.

  3. Interplay between body stabilisation and quadriceps muscle activation capacity.

    PubMed

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Reeves, Neil D; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Maganaris, Constantinos N

    2017-03-22

    The study aimed to distinguish the effect of stabilisation and muscle activation on quadriceps maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) torque generation. Nine subjects performed (a) an MVC with restrained leg and pelvis (Typical MVC), (b) a Typical MVC with handgrip (Handgrip MVC), (c) an MVC focusing on contracting the knee extensors only (Isolated knee extension MVC), and (d) an MVC with unrestrained leg and pelvis (Unrestrained MVC). Torque and activation capacity between conditions were compared with repeated measures ANOVA and dependent t-tests. EMG (from eleven remote muscles) was compared using Friedman's and Wilcoxon. Typical MVC (277.2±49.6Nm) and Handgrip MVC (261.0±55.4Nm) were higher than Isolated knee extension MVC (210.2±48.3Nm, p<0.05) and Unrestrained MVC (195.2±49.7Nm, p<0.05) torque. Typical MVC (83.1±15.9%) activation was higher than Isolated knee extension MVC (68.9±24.3%, p<0.05), and both Typical MVC and Handgrip MVC (81.8±17.4%) were higher than Unrestrained MVC (64.9±16.2%, p<0.05). Only flexor carpi radialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii and external oblique muscles showed EMG differences, with Isolated knee extension MVC consistently lower than Typical MVC or Handgrip MVC. Stabilisation of the involved segments is the prime concern allowing fuller activation of the muscle, reinforcing the need for close attention to stabilisation during dynamometry-based knee joint functional assessment.

  4. Stabilised dG-FEM for incompressible natural convection flows with boundary and moving interior layers on non-adapted meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Philipp W.; Lube, Gert

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents heavily grad-div and pressure jump stabilised, equal- and mixed-order discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for non-isothermal incompressible flows based on the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. In this framework, the enthalpy-porosity model for multiphase flow in melting and solidification problems can be employed. By considering the differentially heated cavity and the melting of pure gallium in a rectangular enclosure, it is shown that both boundary layers and sharp moving interior layers can be handled naturally by the proposed class of non-conforming methods. Due to the stabilising effect of the grad-div term and the robustness of discontinuous Galerkin methods, it is possible to solve the underlying problems accurately on coarse, non-adapted meshes. The interaction of heavy grad-div stabilisation and discontinuous Galerkin methods significantly improves the mass conservation properties and the overall accuracy of the numerical scheme which is observed for the first time. Hence, it is inferred that stabilised discontinuous Galerkin methods are highly robust as well as computationally efficient numerical methods to deal with natural convection problems arising in incompressible computational thermo-fluid dynamics.

  5. Viscoelastic properties of sterically stabilised emulsions and their stability.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Tharwat

    2015-08-01

    The interaction forces between emulsion droplets containing adsorbed polymeric surfactants and the theory of steric stabilisation are briefly described. The results for the viscoelastic properties of O/W emulsions that are stabilised with partially hydrolysed poly(vinyl acetate) that is commonly referred to as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with 4% vinyl acetate are given. The effect of the oil volume fraction, addition of electrolytes and increasing temperature is described. This allows one to obtain various parameters such as the adsorbed layer thickness, the critical flocculation concentration of electrolyte (CFC) and critical flocculation temperature (CFT) at constant electrolyte concentration. The viscoelastic properties of O/W emulsions stabilised with an A-B-A block copolymer of polyethylene oxide (A) and polypropylene oxide (B) are described. These emulsions behave as viscoelastic liquids showing a cross-over-point between G' (the elastic component of the complex modulus) and G″ (the viscous component of the complex modulus) at a characteristic frequency. Plots of G' and G″ versus oil volume fraction ϕ show the transition from predominantly viscous to predominantly elastic response at a critical volume fraction ϕ(c). The latter can be used to estimate the adsorbed layer thickness of the polymeric surfactants. Results are also shown for W/O emulsions stabilised with an A-B-A block copolymer of polyhydroxystearic acid (PHS, A) and polyethylene oxide (PEO, B). The viscosity volume fraction curves could be fitted to the Dougherty-Krieger equation for hard-spheres. The results could be applied to give an estimate of the adsorbed layer thickness Δ which shows a decrease with increase of the water volume fraction. This is due to the interpenetration and/or compression of the PHS layers on close approach of the water droplets on increasing the water volume fraction. The last section of the review gives an example of O/W emulsion stability using an AB(n) graft

  6. Stabilised electromagnetic levitation at 2-13 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danley, T. J.; Schiffman, R. A.; Weber, J. K. R.; Krishnan, S.; Rey, C. A.; Bruno, P. A.; Nordine, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    SEL, the Stabilised Electromagnetic Levitator, has been developed to exploit the unique design opportunities available in containerless microgravity experiments. Efficiency and versatility are obtained with multiple coils driven by individual broadband amplifiers whose phase and frequency are controlled. The heating and positioning fields are decoupled. Specimen translation, spin, and for liquids, shape may be adjusted. An open coil structure provides access for optical and diagnostic probes. Results of experiments with a prototype device are discussed. Levitating and heating materials on earth were demonstrated at frequencies up to 13 MHz.

  7. Thermal Decomposition and Stabilisation of Poly(vinyl Chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskii, B. B.; Troitskaya, L. S.

    1985-08-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal dehydrochlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) and low-molecular-weight chlorohydrocarbons which model various fragments of the polymer molecule, are discussed. Studies designed to determine the qualitative and quantitative compositions of the unstable fragments in poly(vinyl chloride) macromolecules by 13C NMR are examined. Attention is concentrated on the consideration of the mechanism of the action of the most effective thermostabilisers for the polymer - organotin compounds. The principal features of synergism in the stabilisation of poly(vinyl chloride) and the mechanism of the action of synergistic mixtures are analysed. The bibliography includes 107 references.

  8. On the reliable decentralised stabilisation of n MIMO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befekadu, Getachew K.; Gupta, Vijay; Antsaklis, Panos J.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of reliable decentralised stabilisation for n multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems when some of the shared controllers among these systems are faulty, in the sense that they fail to operate properly due to subsystem (module) failures that may occur in actuators, sensors or controllers. Specifically, we present a design framework using a dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) technique for deriving reliable stabilising state-feedback gains for all n MIMO systems; while a set of decentralised unknown disturbance observers (UDOs) that are shared by all n MIMO systems is used for extending the result to the output-feedback case. Moreover, a sufficient condition for the solvability of the set of decentralised UDOs is given in terms of a minimum-phase condition of each subsystem and a lower-bounding condition on the number of outputs of each channel. We also present a numerical example that illustrates the applicability of the proposed technique.

  9. Stabilising emulsion-based colloidal structures with mixed food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Eric

    2013-03-15

    The physical scientist views food as a complex form of soft matter. The complexity has its origin in the numerous ingredients that are typically mixed together and the subtle variations in microstructure and texture induced by thermal and mechanical processing. The colloid science approach to food product formulation is based on the assumption that the major product attributes such as appearance, rheology and physical stability are determined by the spatial distribution and interactions of a small number of generic structural entities (biopolymers, particles, droplets, bubbles, crystals) organised in various kinds of structural arrangements (layers, complexes, aggregates, networks). This review describes some recent advances in this field with reference to three discrete classes of dispersed systems: particle-stabilised emulsions, emulsion gels and aerated emulsions. Particular attention is directed towards explaining the crucial role of the macromolecular ingredients (proteins and polysaccharides) in controlling the formation and stabilisation of the colloidal structures. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide the basic physicochemical insight required for the reliable manufacture of novel structured foods with an appealing taste and texture, whilst incorporating a more healthy set of ingredients than those found in many existing traditional products.

  10. Compact atomic clocks and stabilised laser for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileti, Gaetano; Affolderbach, Christoph; Matthey-de-l'Endroit, Renaud

    2016-07-01

    We present our developments towards next generation compact vapour-cell based atomic frequency standards using a tunable laser diode instead of a traditional discharge lamp. The realisation of two types of Rubidium clocks addressing specific applications is in progress: high performance frequency standards for demanding applications such as satellite navigation, and chip-scale atomic clocks, allowing further miniaturisation of the system. The stabilised laser source constitutes the main technological novelty of these new standards, allowing a more efficient preparation and interrogation of the atoms and hence an improvement of the clock performances. However, before this key component may be employed in a commercial and ultimately in a space-qualified instrument, further studies are necessary to demonstrate their suitability, in particular concerning their reliability and long-term operation. The talk will present our preliminary investigations on this subject. The stabilised laser diode technology developed for our atomic clocks has several other applications on ground and in space. We will conclude our talk by illustrating this for the example of a recently completed ESA project on a 1.6 microns wavelength reference for a future space-borne Lidar. This source is based on a Rubidium vapour cell providing the necessary stability and accuracy, while a second harmonic generator and a compact optical comb generated from an electro-optic modulator allow to transfer these properties from the Rubidium wavelength (780nm) to the desired spectral range.

  11. Modelling the regulation of telomere length: the effects of telomerase and G-quadruplex stabilising drugs.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Bartholomäus V; Wattis, Jonathan A D; Preston, Simon P

    2014-05-01

    Telomeres are guanine-rich sequences at the end of chromosomes which shorten during each replication event and trigger cell cycle arrest and/or controlled death (apoptosis) when reaching a threshold length. The enzyme telomerase replenishes the ends of telomeres and thus prolongs the life span of cells, but also causes cellular immortalisation in human cancer. G-quadruplex (G4) stabilising drugs are a potential anticancer treatment which work by changing the molecular structure of telomeres to inhibit the activity of telomerase. We investigate the dynamics of telomere length in different conformational states, namely t-loops, G-quadruplex structures and those being elongated by telomerase. By formulating deterministic differential equation models we study the effects of various levels of both telomerase and concentrations of a G4-stabilising drug on the distribution of telomere lengths, and analyse how these effects evolve over large numbers of cell generations. As well as calculating numerical solutions, we use quasicontinuum methods to approximate the behaviour of the system over time, and predict the shape of the telomere length distribution. We find those telomerase and G4-concentrations where telomere length maintenance is successfully regulated. Excessively high levels of telomerase lead to continuous telomere lengthening, whereas large concentrations of the drug lead to progressive telomere erosion. Furthermore, our models predict a positively skewed distribution of telomere lengths, that is, telomeres accumulate over lengths shorter than the mean telomere length at equilibrium. Our model results for telomere length distributions of telomerase-positive cells in drug-free assays are in good agreement with the limited amount of experimental data available.

  12. Is coracoclavicular stabilisation alone sufficient for the endoscopic treatment of severe acromioclavicular joint dislocation (Rockwood types III, IV, and V)?

    PubMed

    Barth, J; Duparc, F; Andrieu, K; Duport, M; Toussaint, B; Bertiaux, S; Clavert, P; Gastaud, O; Brassart, N; Beaudouin, E; De Mourgues, P; Berne, D; Bahurel, J; Najihi, N; Boyer, P; Faivre, B; Meyer, A; Nourissat, G; Poulain, S; Bruchou, F; Ménard, J F

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective was to evaluate correlations linking anatomical to functional outcomes after endoscopically assisted repair of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation (ACJD). Combined acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular stabilisation improves radiological outcomes compared to coracoclavicular stabilisation alone. A prospective multicentre study was performed. Clinical outcome measures were pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS), subjective functional impairment (QuickDASH score), and Constant's score. Anatomical outcomes were assessed on standard radiographs (anteroposterior view of the acromioclavicular girdle and bilateral axillary views) obtained preoperatively and postoperatively and on postoperative dynamic radiographs taken as described by Tauber et al. Of 116 patients with acute ACJD included in the study, 48% had type III, 30% type IV, and 22% type V ACJD according to the Rockwood classification. Coracoclavicular stabilisation was achieved using a double endobutton in 93% of patients, and concomitant acromioclavicular stabilisation was performed in 50% of patients. The objective functional outcome was good, with an unweighted Constant's score ≥ 85/100 and a subjective QuickDASH functional disability score ≤ 10 in 75% of patients. The radiographic analysis showed significant improvements from the preoperative to the 1-year postoperative values in the vertical plane (decrease in the coracoclavicular ratio from 214 to 128%, p=10(-6)) and in the horizontal plane (decrease in posterior displacement from 4 to 0mm, p=5×10(-5)). The anatomical outcome correlated significantly with the functional outcome (absolute R value=0.19 and p=0.045). We found no statistically significant differences across the various types of constructs used. Intra-operative control of the acromioclavicular joint did not improve the result. Implantation of a biological graft significantly improved both the anatomical outcome in the vertical plane (p=0.04) and

  13. Stabilisation of liquid-air surfaces by particles of low surface energy.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Rocher, Anaïs

    2010-08-28

    We describe the stabilisation of liquid-air surfaces by microparticles of a low surface energy solid. By varying the surface tension of the liquid, various particle-stabilised materials from oil dispersions to air-in-oil foams to dry water can be prepared.

  14. Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY N"m A.R. TURNER AND A. WHITE...TO biEPROOU.; AND SELL THIS REPORT Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography A.R...8217/......... .. Availability Cooes Dist Avaiardlo A-i Determination of Stabiliser Contents in Advanced Gun Propellants by Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  15. Quantifying lingual coarticulation using ultrasound imaging data collected with and without head stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Zharkova, Natalia; Gibbon, Fiona E; Hardcastle, William J

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies reporting the use of ultrasound tongue imaging with clinical populations have generally provided qualitative information on tongue movement. Meaningful quantitative measures for use in the clinic typically require the speaker's head to be stabilised in relation to a transducer, which may be uncomfortable, and unsuitable for young children. The objective of this study was to explore the applicability of quantitative measurements of stabilisation-free tongue movement data, by comparing ultrasound data collected from 10 adolescents, with and without head stabilisation. Several measures of tongue shape were used to quantify coarticulatory influence from two contrasting vowels on four different consonants. Only one of the measures was completely unaffected by the stabilisation condition for all the consonants. The study also reported cross-consonant differences in vowel-related coarticulatory effects. The implications of the findings for the theory of coarticulation and for potential applications of stabilisation-free tongue curve measurements in clinical studies are discussed.

  16. Finite settling time stabilisation: the robust SISO case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milonidis, E.; Kostarigka, A.; Karcanias, N.

    2011-09-01

    This article deals with the problem of robustness to multiplicative plant perturbations for the case of finite settling time stabilisation (FSTS) of single input single output (SISO), linear, discrete-time systems. FSTS is a generalisation of the deadbeat control and as in the case of deadbeat control the main feature of FSTS is the placement of all closed-loop poles at the origin of the z-plane. This makes FSTS sensitive to plant perturbations hence, the need of robust design. An efficient robustness index is introduced and the problem is reduced to a finite linear programme where all the benefits of the simplex method, such as effectiveness, efficiency and ability to provide complete solution to the optimisation problem, can be exploited.

  17. Helium damage and helium effusion in fully stabilised zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damen, P. M. G.; Matzke, Hj.; Ronchi, C.; Hiernaut, J.-P.; Wiss, T.; Fromknecht, R.; van Veen, A.; Labohm, F.

    2002-05-01

    Fully stabilised zirconia (FSZ) samples have been implanted with helium-ions of different energies (200 keV and 1 MeV) and with different fluences (1.4×10 13-1.4×10 16 He +/cm 2). Neutron depth profiling (NDP) for different annealing temperatures and effusion experiments in two different experimental systems with different thermal annealings have been performed on these samples. The samples were analysed by electron microscopy during the various annealing stages. For the low-fluence samples, the diffusion of helium is probably caused by vacancy assisted interstitial diffusion with an activation energy of 1.6 eV. In the highest fluence samples probably high pressure bubbles are formed during thermal annealing.

  18. Stabilising compensators for linear time-varying differential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a constructive test to decide whether a given linear time-varying (LTV) differential system admits a stabilising compensator for the control tasks of tracking, disturbance rejection or model matching and construct and parametrise all of them if at least one exists. In analogy to the linear time-invariant (LTI) case, the ring of stable rational functions, noncommutative in the LTV situation, and the Kučera-Youla parametrisation play prominent parts in the theory. We transfer Blumthaler's thesis from the LTI to the LTV case and sharpen, complete and simplify the corresponding results in the book 'Linear Time-Varying Systems' by Bourlès and Marinescu.

  19. Formation and stabilisation of triclosan colloidal suspensions using supersaturated systems.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, S L; Schuessel, K; Davis, A; Hadgraft, J

    2003-08-11

    The aim of this paper is to prepare and stabilise, in situ, colloidal microsuspensions of triclosan using the polymer, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). The suspensions were prepared from supersaturated solutions of triclosan. The cosolvent technique was used to create supersaturation. Propylene glycol and water were used as the cosolvents. The triclosan particles had a large needle-shaped morphology, when grown in the absence of the polymer. Moreover, the particles grew rapidly to sizes greater than 5 micrometer over a period of 7h. When HPMC was added, the particle sizes were in the range 90-250 nm depending on the amount of polymer present in the solutions. The stability of the solutions was evaluated over a period of 40 days during which the particle sizes did not vary. The results were consistent with the mechanism proposed by Raghavan et al. [Int. J. Pharm. 212 (2001b) 213].

  20. Ammonia volatilisation in waste stabilisation ponds: a cascade of misinterpretations?

    PubMed

    Camargo Valero, M A; Mara, D D

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia volatilisation has generally been reported as, or assumed to be, the main nitrogen removal mechanism in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). Nitrogen removal via ammonia volatilisation is based on two observations: (a) in-pond pH values can reach high values (>9, even >10), so increasing the proportion of the total ammonia present as the un-ionized form or free ammonia (NH(3)); and (b) in-pond temperatures can also be high, so improving the mass transfer rate of free ammonia to the atmosphere. Consequently, one of the most widely accepted models for ammonia removal in WSP is that reported by Pano & Middlebrooks in 1982, which was developed to reflect the occurrence of these two observations. This work reports how simple mathematical models for ammonia volatilisation in WSP, in spite of the possibility of their giving good predictions, may not accurately describe the main pathways and mechanisms involved in ammonia removal in WSP.

  1. An Investigation into the Effect of Stabiliser Content on the Minimum Characteristic Chamber Length for Homogeneously-Catalysed Hydrogen Peroxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    packs to achieve a heterogeneous catalytic reaction to decompose the propellant into steam and oxygen. The decomposition of highly stabilised ...England, Private Communication. May 2004. [3] Musker, A. J. "Highly Stabilised Hydrogen Peroxide as a Rocket Propellant ", Proceedings of the...Investigation into the Effect of Stabiliser Content on the Minimum Characteristic Chamber Length for Homogeneously-Catalysed Hydrogen Peroxide 5c

  2. Recycling vs. stabilisation of soil sugars - a long-term laboratory incubation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basler, A.; Dippold, M.; Helfrich, M.; Dyckmans, J.

    2015-06-01

    Independent of its chemical structure carbon (C) persists in soil for several decades, controlled by stabilisation and recycling. To disentangle the importance of the two factors on the turnover dynamics of soil sugars, an important compound of soil organic matter (SOM), a three year incubation experiment was conducted on a silty loam soil under different types of land use (arable land, grassland and forest) by adding 13C-labeled glucose. The compound specific isotope analysis of soil sugars was used to examine the dynamics of different sugars during incubation. Sugar dynamics were dominated by a pool of high mean residence times (MRT) indicating that recycling plays an important role for sugars. However, this was not substantially affected by soil C content. Six months after label addition the contribution of the label was much higher for microbial biomass than for CO2 production for all examined soils, corroborating that substrate recycling was very effective within the microbial biomass. Two different patterns of tracer dynamics could be identified for different sugars: while fucose (fuc) and mannose (man) showed highest label contribution at the beginning of the incubation with a subsequent slow decline, galactose (gal) and rhamnose (rha) were characterised by slow label incorporation with subsequently constant levels, which indicates that recycling is dominating the dynamics of these sugars. This may correspond to (a) different microbial growing strategies (r and K-strategist) or (b) location within or outside the cell membrane (lipopolysaccharides vs. exopolysaccharides) and thus be subject of different re-use within the microbial food web. Our results show how the microbial community recycles substrate very effectively and that high losses of substrate only occur during initial stages after substrate addition.

  3. Strong stabilisation of a wind turbine tower model in the plane of the turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Weiss, George

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the strong stabilisation of a wind turbine tower model in the plane of the turbine blades, which comprises a nonuniform NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) system and a two-mass drive-train model (with gearbox). The control input is the torque created by the electrical generator. Using a strong stabilisation theorem for a class of impedance passive linear systems with bounded control and observation operators, we show that the wind turbine tower model can be strongly stabilised. The control is by static output feedback from the angular velocities of the nacelle and the generator rotor.

  4. Intraoperative computed tomography navigation for transpedicular screw fixation to treat unstable thoracic and lumbar spine fractures: clinical analysis of a case series (CARE-compliant).

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Yu; Wu, Meng-Huang; Li, Yen-Yao; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Hsu, Chu-Hsiang; Huang, Tsung-Jen; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Transpedicular screw (TPS) fixation in unstable thoracic and lumbar (TL) spine fractures remains technically difficult because of destroyed anatomical landmarks, unstable gross segments, and discrepancies in anatomic orientation using conventional anatomic landmarks, fluoroscopic guidance, or computed tomography (CT)-based navigation. In this study, we evaluated the safety and accuracy of TPS placement under intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) navigation in managing unstable TL spine fractures.From 2010 to 2013, we retrospectively reviewed the Spine Operation Registry records of patients who underwent posterior instrumented fusion to treat unstable TL spine fractures via the iCT navigation system. An unstable spine fracture was identified as AO/Magerl classification type B or type C.In all, 316 screws in 37 patients with unstable TL spine fractures were evaluated and involved 7 thoracic, 23 thoracolumbar junctional, and 7 lumbar fractures. The accuracy of TPS positioning in the pedicle without breach was 98% (310/316). The average number of iCT scans per patient was 2.1 (range 2-3). The average total radiation dose to patients was 15.8 mSv; the dose per single level exposure was 2.7 mSv. The TPS intraoperative revision rate was 0.6% (2/316) and no neurovascular sequela was observed. TPS fixation using the iCT navigation system obtained a 98% accuracy in stabilizing unstable TL spine fractures. A malplaced TPS could be revised during real-time confirmation of the TPS position, and no secondary operation was required to revise malplaced screws.The iCT navigation system provides accurate and safe management of unstable TL spine fractures. In addition, operating room personnel, including surgeons and nurses, did not need to wear heavy lead aprons as they were not exposed to radiation.

  5. A minimally invasive surgery combining temporary percutaneous pedicle screw fixation without fusion and vertebroplasty with transpedicular intracorporeal hydroxyapatite blocks grafting for fresh thoracolumbar burst fractures: prospective study.

    PubMed

    Takami, Masanari; Yamada, Hiroshi; Nohda, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Munehito

    2014-07-01

    The conventional surgical treatment for thoracolumbar burst fractures is physically invasive for the patient and also causes problems such as the sacrifice of healthy mobile segments to stabilize the fracture site. We performed a procedure for the treatment of fresh thoracolumbar burst fractures by combining percutaneous short pedicle screw fixation and vertebroplasty with transpedicular intracorporeal hydroxyapatite blocks grafting. Patients with type A3 fresh thoracolumbar burst fractures with no or mild neurological symptoms were treated using temporary posterior fixation without fusion. Consecutive 21 patients were studied, with a mean age of 45.4 years (range 23-73) and a mean follow-up period of 21.9 months (range 15-25). We evaluated operative time, estimated blood loss, low back pain on a visual analogue scale, change in the kyphotic angle, correction loss, bone union, and complications. The average operative time was 95.7 min (range 69-143), and the average blood loss was 38.6 mL (range 10-130). The average correction angle was 9.6°. There were slight correction losses of height of the vertebral bodies. Bone union was obtained in all patients, with no instrumentation failures. Our procedure resulted in no surgery-related complications. For the treatment of type A3 fresh thoracolumbar burst fractures, this method is less invasive and can preserve the adjacent healthy mobile segment. Our treatment is an optional therapeutic strategy for patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures and is a good option particularly for young adult patients.

  6. Stabilised DNA secondary structures with increasing transcription localise hypermutable bases for somatic hypermutation in IGHV3-23.

    PubMed

    Duvvuri, Bhargavi; Duvvuri, Venkata R; Wu, Jianhong; Wu, Gillian E

    2012-07-01

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a transcription-coupled mechanism most responsible for generating high affinity antibodies. An issue remaining enigmatic in SHM is how AID is preferentially targeted during transcription to hypermutable bases in its substrates (WRC motifs) on both DNA strands. AID targets only single stranded DNA. By modelling the dynamical behaviour of IGHV3-23 DNA, a commonly used human variable gene segment, we observed that hypermutable bases on the non-transcribed strand are paired whereas those on transcribed strand are mostly unpaired. Hypermutable bases (both paired and unpaired) are made accessible to AID in stabilised secondary structures formed with increasing transcription levels. This observation provides a rationale for the hypermutable bases on both the strands of DNA being targeted to a similar extent despite having differences in unpairedness. We propose that increasing transcription and RNAP II stalling resulting in the formation and stabilisation of stem-loop structures with AID hotspots in negatively supercoiled region can localise the hypermutable bases of both strands of DNA, to AID-mediated SHM.

  7. In situ clinical evaluation of a stabilised, stannous fluoride dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Philip G; Harris, Robin; Date, Robert F; Mussett, Andrew J S; Manley, Andrew; Manly, Andrew; Barker, Matthew L; Hellin, Nicola; West, Nicola X

    2014-03-01

    To compare the erosion protection efficacy of a stabilised, stannous fluoride (SnF2 ) dentifrice versus a sodium fluoride (NaF) dentifrice using a modified in situ clinical model. This study, a randomised parallel group in situ design with in vivo product use and ex vivo acid challenge, compared: A, a dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm F as NaF; B, a dentifrice containing 1,450 ppm F (1,100 ppm F as SnF2 + 350 ppm F as NaF); and T, tap water. Sample size was n = 4 per group (total of 12 subjects) and within each subject appliances were placed on each side of the mouth (left and right). Enamel specimens were placed in different positions of the mouth (front, mid-front, mid-rear, rear) in each appliance (total = 8 specimens per subject). Product treatment was twice per day (lingual brushing for 30 seconds followed by swishing for 90 seconds with the resultant product/saliva slurry) in vivo for 15 days, and ex vivo acid treatment (0.02 m citric acid 5 minutes four times per day; total exposure time = 300 minutes). Data were analysed using a general linear repeated measures model with treatment, side and position as fixed effects. Within subjects, correlations were modelled assuming a different correlation and variance for treatment B relative to the other groups. Pairwise treatment differences were performed using a 5% two-sided significance level. Enamel loss (in μm) was significantly lower (P < 0.005) for treatment B versus treatments A and T. Treatment B reduced enamel surface loss by 86.9% relative to treatment A. There was no statistical difference in mean enamel loss (P = 0.51) between treatments A and T. Enamel loss was not statistically different for side (left vs. right; P = 0.44) or position (front, mid-front, mid-rear, rear; P = 0.36). This modified in situ erosion model confirmed the enhanced erosion protection benefits of a stabilised SnF2 dentifrice versus a conventional NaF dentifrice, validating the ability of the model to safely and effectively

  8. Event-triggered control for semi-global stabilisation of systems with actuator saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liangyin; Chen, Michael Z. Q.

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of event-triggered control for semi-global stabilisation of null controllable systems subject to actuator saturation. First, for a continuous-time system, novel event-triggered low-gain control algorithms based on Riccati equations are proposed to achieve semi-global stabilisation. The algebraic Riccati equation with a low-gain parameter is utilised to design both the event-triggering condition and the linear controller; a minimum inter-event time based on the Riccati ordinary differential equation is set a priori to exclude the Zeno behaviour. In addition, the high-low gain techniques are utilised to extend the semi-global results to event-based global stabilisation. Furthermore, for a discrete-time system, novel low-gain and high-low-gain control algorithms are proposed to achieve event-triggered stabilisation. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  9. Moduli stabilisation with nilpotent goldstino: vacuum structure and SUSY breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Luis; Quevedo, Fernando; Valandro, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    We study the effective field theory of KKLT and LVS moduli stabilisation scenarios coupled to an anti-D3-brane at the tip of a warped throat. We describe the presence of the anti-brane in terms of a nilpotent goldstino superfield in a supersymmetric effective field theory. The introduction of this superfield produces a term that can lead to a de Sitter minimum. We fix the Kähler moduli dependence of the nilpotent field couplings by matching this term with the anti-D3-brane uplifting contribution. The main result of this paper is the computation, within this EFT, of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms in both KKLT and LVS for matter living on D3-brane (leaving the D7-brane analysis to an appendix). A handful of distinct phenomenological scenarios emerge that could have low energy implications, most of them having a split spectrum of soft masses. Some cosmological and phenomenological properties of these models are discussed. We also check that the attraction between the D3-brane and the anti-D3-brane does not affect the leading contribution to the soft masses and does not destabilise the system.

  10. CO2 dissociation in vortex-stabilised microwave plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welzel, S.; Bongers, W. A.; Graswinckel, M. F.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Plasma-assisted gas conversion techniques are widely considered as efficient building blocks in a future energy infrastructure which will be based on intermittent, renewable electricity sources. CO2 dissociation in high-frequency plasmas is of particular interest in carbon capture and utilisation process chains for the production of CO2-neutral fuels. In order to achieve efficient plasma processes of high throughput specifically designed gas flow and power injection regimes are required. In this contribution vortex-stabilised microwave plasmas in undiluted CO2 were studied in a pressure range from 170 to 1000 mbar at up to 1 kW (forward) injected power, respectively. The CO2 depletion was measured downstream, e.g. by means of mass spectrometry. Although the system configuration was entirely not optimised, energy efficiencies of nearly 40%, i.e. close to the thermal dissociation limit, and conversion efficiencies of up to 23% were achieved. Additionally, spatially-resolved emission spectroscopy was applied to map the axial and radial distribution of excited atomic (C, O) and molecular (CO, C2) species along with their rotational temperatures. Eindhoven University of Technology, Postbox 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven.

  11. Deformations, moduli stabilisation and gauge couplings at one-loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honecker, Gabriele; Koltermann, Isabel; Staessens, Wieland

    2017-04-01

    We investigate deformations of Z_2 orbifold singularities on the toroidal orbifold {T}^6/(Z_2× Z_6) with discrete torsion in the framework of Type IIA orientifold model building with intersecting D6-branes wrapping special Lagrangian cycles. To this aim, we employ the hypersurface formalism developed previously for the orbifold {T}^6/(Z_2× Z_6) with discrete torsion and adapt it to the (Z_2× Z_6× Ω R) point group by modding out the remaining Z_3 subsymmetry and the orientifold projection Ω R. We first study the local behaviour of the Z_3× Ω R invariant deformation orbits under non-zero deformation and then develop methods to assess the deformation effects on the fractional three-cycle volumes globally. We confirm that D6-branes supporting USp(2 N) or SO(2 N) gauge groups do not constrain any deformation, while deformation parameters associated to cycles wrapped by D6-branes with U( N) gauge groups are constrained by D-term supersymmetry breaking. These features are exposed in global prototype MSSM, Left-Right symmetric and Pati-Salam models first constructed in [1, 2], for which we here count the number of stabilised moduli and study flat directions changing the values of some gauge couplings.

  12. TDP-43 stabilises the processing intermediates of mitochondrial transcripts.

    PubMed

    Izumikawa, Keiichi; Nobe, Yuko; Yoshikawa, Harunori; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Miura, Yutaka; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato; Egawa, Naohiro; Inoue, Haruhisa; Nishikawa, Kouki; Yamano, Koji; Simpson, Richard J; Taoka, Masato; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Isobe, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2017-08-09

    The 43-kDa trans-activating response region DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a product of a causative gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite of accumulating evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of TDP-43-related ALS, the roles of wild-type TDP-43 in mitochondria are unknown. Here, we show that the small TDP-43 population present in mitochondria binds directly to a subset of mitochondrial tRNAs and precursor RNA encoded in L-strand mtDNA. Upregulated expression of TDP-43 stabilised the processing intermediates of mitochondrial polycistronic transcripts and their products including the components of electron transport and 16S mt-rRNA, similar to the phenotype observed in cells deficient for mitochondrial RNase P. Conversely, TDP-43 deficiency reduced the population of processing intermediates and impaired mitochondrial function. We propose that TDP-43 has a novel role in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis by regulating the processing of mitochondrial transcripts.

  13. Feedback control and output feedback control for the stabilisation of switched Boolean networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangfei; Yu, Zhaoxu

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the feedback control and output feedback control for the stabilisation of switched Boolean network. A necessary condition for the existence of a state feedback controller for the stabilisation of switched Boolean networks under arbitrary switching signal is derived first, and constructive procedures for feedback control and output feedback control design are provided. An example is introduced to show the effectiveness of this paper.

  14. Adaptive output feedback stabilisation for planar nonlinear systems with unknown control coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Fang; Liu, Yungang

    2015-08-01

    The paper is concerned with the global adaptive stabilisation via output feedback for a class of uncertain planar nonlinear systems. Remarkably, the unknowns in the systems are rather serious: the control coefficients are unknown constants which do not belong to any known interval, and the growth of the systems heavily depends on the unmeasured states and has the rate of unknown polynomial of output. First, a delicate state transformation is introduced to collect the unknown control coefficients, and subsequently, a suitable state observer is successfully designed with two different dynamic gains. Then, an adaptive output feedback controller is proposed by flexibly combining the universal control idea and the backstepping technique. Meanwhile, an appropriate estimation law is constructed to overcome the negative effect caused by the unknown control coefficients. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of the design parameters, all the states of the resulting closed-loop system are globally bounded, and furthermore, the states of the original system converge to zero.

  15. Mixing and its impact on faecal coliform removal in a stabilisation pond.

    PubMed

    Brissaud, F; Tournoud, M G; Drakides, C; Lazarova, V

    2003-01-01

    Faecal coliform removal in stabilisation ponds is highly dependent on shortest water retention times. Tracer tests have been performed in a 3,300 m2 and 1.0 m deep pond, located in Southern France, to measure the retention times and bring light on the main influencing factors and mechanisms. Tracer concentrations were monitored at the outlet and 60 locations within the pond--at the surface, mid depth and the bottom of the water column. Pond water temperatures were measured at different depths and locations, together with pH, DO and redox potential. Wind velocity and rainfall were recorded. Water quality was monitored at the inlet, outlet and within the pond. Water retention times were shown to be strongly affected by weather conditions. Windy periods appeared to favour mixing regardless of the season. In sunny periods of spring and summer, a clear stratification was observed during daytime and vanished gradually during the night, suggesting alternation of mixed and stratified hydrodynamic patterns. This alternation was shown to influence microorganism contents within and at the outlet of the pond. Accurate prediction of shortest water retention times and disinfection performance requires 3D unsteady state fluid dynamic models that are able to take the influence of wind and water temperature distribution into account.

  16. Global stabilisation of nonlinear delay systems with a compact absorbing set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karafyllis, Iasson; Krstic, Miroslav; Ahmed-Ali, Tarek; Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue, Francoise

    2014-05-01

    Predictor-based stabilisation results are provided for nonlinear systems with input delays and a compact absorbing set. The control scheme consists of an inter-sample predictor, a global observer, an approximate predictor, and a nominal controller for the delay-free case. The control scheme is applicable even to the case where the measurement is sampled and possibly delayed. The input and measurement delays can be arbitrarily large but both of them must be constant and accurately known. The closed-loop system is shown to have the properties of global asymptotic stability and exponential convergence in the disturbance-free case, robustness with respect to perturbations of the sampling schedule, and robustness with respect to measurement errors. In contrast to existing predictor feedback laws, the proposed control scheme utilises an approximate predictor of a dynamic type that is expressed by a system described by integral delay equations. Additional results are provided for systems that can be transformed to systems with a compact absorbing set by means of a preliminary predictor feedback.

  17. Nonlinear hydrodynamic and thermoacoustic oscillations of a bluff-body stabilised turbulent premixed flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chin Yik; Li, Larry Kin Bong; Juniper, Matthew P.; Cant, Robert Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent premixed flames often experience thermoacoustic instabilities when the combustion heat release rate is in phase with acoustic pressure fluctuations. Linear methods often assume a priori that oscillations are periodic and occur at a dominant frequency with a fixed amplitude. Such assumptions are not made when using nonlinear analysis. When an oscillation is fully saturated, nonlinear analysis can serve as a useful avenue to reveal flame behaviour far more elaborate than period-one limit cycles, including quasi-periodicity and chaos in hydrodynamically or thermoacoustically self-excited system. In this paper, the behaviour of a bluff-body stabilised turbulent premixed propane/air flame in a model jet-engine afterburner configuration is investigated using computational fluid dynamics. For the frequencies of interest in this investigation, an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach is found to be appropriate. Combustion is represented using a modified laminar flamelet approach with an algebraic closure for the flame surface density. The results are validated by comparison with existing experimental data and with large eddy simulation, and the observed self-excited oscillations in pressure and heat release are studied using methods derived from dynamical systems theory. A systematic analysis is carried out by increasing the equivalence ratio of the reactant stream supplied to the premixed flame. A strong variation in the global flame structure is observed. The flame exhibits a self-excited hydrodynamic oscillation at low equivalence ratios, becomes steady as the equivalence ratio is increased to intermediate values, and again exhibits a self-excited thermoacoustic oscillation at higher equivalence ratios. Rich nonlinear behaviour is observed and the investigation demonstrates that turbulent premixed flames can exhibit complex dynamical behaviour including quasiperiodicity, limit cycles and period-two limit cycles due to the interactions of various

  18. Robust scalable stabilisability conditions for large-scale heterogeneous multi-agent systems with uncertain nonlinear interactions: towards a distributed computing architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfredi, Sabato

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale dynamic systems are becoming highly pervasive in their occurrence with applications ranging from system biology, environment monitoring, sensor networks, and power systems. They are characterised by high dimensionality, complexity, and uncertainty in the node dynamic/interactions that require more and more computational demanding methods for their analysis and control design, as well as the network size and node system/interaction complexity increase. Therefore, it is a challenging problem to find scalable computational method for distributed control design of large-scale networks. In this paper, we investigate the robust distributed stabilisation problem of large-scale nonlinear multi-agent systems (briefly MASs) composed of non-identical (heterogeneous) linear dynamical systems coupled by uncertain nonlinear time-varying interconnections. By employing Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique, new conditions are given for the distributed control design of large-scale MASs that can be easily solved by the toolbox of MATLAB. The stabilisability of each node dynamic is a sufficient assumption to design a global stabilising distributed control. The proposed approach improves some of the existing LMI-based results on MAS by both overcoming their computational limits and extending the applicative scenario to large-scale nonlinear heterogeneous MASs. Additionally, the proposed LMI conditions are further reduced in terms of computational requirement in the case of weakly heterogeneous MASs, which is a common scenario in real application where the network nodes and links are affected by parameter uncertainties. One of the main advantages of the proposed approach is to allow to move from a centralised towards a distributed computing architecture so that the expensive computation workload spent to solve LMIs may be shared among processors located at the networked nodes, thus increasing the scalability of the approach than the network

  19. Stability Analysis and the Stabilisation of Flexural Toppling Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Mehdi; Majdi, Abbas; Aydan, Ömer

    2009-10-01

    Flexural toppling is a mode of failure that may occur in a wide range of layered rock strata in both rock slopes and large underground excavations. Whenever rock mass is composed of a set of parallel discontinuities dipping steeply against the excavated face plane, the rock mass will have the potential of flexural toppling failure as well. In such cases, the rock mass behaves like inclined superimposed cantilever beams that bend under their own weight while transferring the load to the underlying strata. If the bending stress exceeds the rock column’s tensile strength, flexural toppling failure will be initiated. Since the rock columns are “statically indeterminate,” thus, their factors of safety may not be determined solely by equations of equilibrium. The paper describes an analytical model with a sequence of inclined superimposed cantilever rock columns with a potential of flexural topping failure. The model is based on the principle of compatibility equations and leads to a new method by which the magnitudes and points of application of intercolumn forces are determined. On the basis of the proposed model, a safety factor for each rock column can be computed independently. Hence, every rock column will have a unique factor of safety. The least factor of safety that exists in any rock column is selected as the rock mass representative safety factor based on which simple equations are proposed for a conservative rock mass stability analysis and design. As a result, some new relations are established in order to design the length, cross-sectional area and pattern of fully grouted rock bolts for the stabilisation of such rock mass. Finally, the newly proposed equations are compared with the results of existing experimental flexural toppling failure models (base friction and centrifuge tests) for further verification.

  20. The activation energy of stabilised/solidified contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Chitambira, B; Al-Tabbaa, A; Perera, A S R; Yu, X D

    2007-03-15

    Developing an understanding of the time-related performance of cement-treated materials is essential in understanding their durability and long-term effectiveness. A number of models have been developed to predict this time-related performance. One such model is the maturity concept which involves use of the 'global' activation energy which derives from the Arrhenius equation. The accurate assessment of the activation energy is essential in the realistic modelling of the accelerated ageing of cement-treated soils. Experimentally, this model is applied to a series of tests performed at different elevated temperatures. Experimental work, related to the results of a time-related performance on a contaminated site in the UK treated with in situ stabilisation/solidification was carried out. Three different cement-based grouts were used on two model site soils which were both contaminated with a number of heavy metals and a hydrocarbon. Uncontaminated soils were also tested. Elevated temperatures up to 60 degrees C and curing periods up to 90 days were used. The resulting global activation energies for the uncontaminated and contaminated soils were compared. Lower values were obtained for the contaminated soils reflecting the effect of the contaminants. The resulting equivalent ages for the uncontaminated and contaminated mixes tested were 5.1-7.4 and 0.8-4.1 years, respectively. This work shows how a specific set of contaminants affect the E(a) values for particular cementitious systems and how the maturity concept can be applied to cement-treated contaminated soils.

  1. Stabilisation/solidification of synthetic petroleum drill cuttings.

    PubMed

    Al-Ansary, Marwa S; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2007-03-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation into the use of stabilisation/solidification (S/S) to treat synthetic drill cuttings as a pre-treatment to landfilling or for potential re-use as construction products. Two synthetic mixes were used based on average concentrations of specific contaminates present in typical drill cuttings from the North Sea and the Red Sea areas. The two synthetic drill cuttings contained similar chloride content of 2.03% and 2.13% by weight but different hydrocarbon content of 4.20% and 10.95% by weight, respectively; hence the mixes were denoted as low and high oil content mixes, respectively. A number of conventional S/S binders were tested including Portland cement (PC), lime and blast-furnace slag (BFS), in addition to novel binders such as microsilica and magnesium oxide cement. Physical, chemical and microstructural analyses were used to compare the relative performance of the different binder mixes. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values were observed to cover a wide range depending on the binder used. Despite the significant difference in the hydrocarbon content in the two synthetic cuttings, the measured UCS values of the mixes with the same binder type and content were similar. The leachability results showed the reduction of the synthetic drill cuttings to a stable non-reactive hazardous waste, compliant with the UK acceptance criteria for non-hazardous landfills: (a) by most of the binders for chloride concentrations, and (b) by the 20% BFS-PC and 30% PC binders for the low oil content mix. The 30% BFS-PC binder successfully reduced the leached oil concentration of the low oil content mix to inert levels. Finally, the microstructural analysis offered valuable information on the morphology and general behaviour of the mixes that were not depicted by the other tests.

  2. Quantum gate generation by T-sampling stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, H. B.; Pereira da Silva, P. S.; Rouchon, P.

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers right-invariant and controllable driftless quantum systems with state X(t) evolving on the unitary group U(n) and m inputs u = (u1, …, um). The T-sampling stabilisation problem is introduced and solved: given any initial condition X0 and any goal state ?, find a control law u = u(X, t) such that ? for the closed-loop system. The purpose is to generate arbitrary quantum gates corresponding to ?. This is achieved by the tracking of T-periodic reference trajectories ? of the quantum system that pass by ? using the framework of Coron's return method. The T-periodic reference trajectories ? are generated by applying controls ? that are a sum of a finite number M of harmonics of sin (2πt/T), whose amplitudes are parameterised by a vector a. The main result establishes that, for M big enough, X(jT) exponentially converges towards ? for almost all fixed a, with explicit and completely constructive control laws. This paper also establishes a stochastic version of this deterministic control law. The key idea is to randomly choose a different parameter vector of control amplitudes a = aj at each t = jT, and keeping it fixed for t ∈ [jT, (j + 1)T). It is shown in the paper that X(jT) exponentially converges towards ? almost surely. Simulation results have indicated that the convergence speed of X(jT) may be significantly improved with such stochastic technique. This is illustrated in the generation of the C-NOT quantum logic gate on U(4).

  3. Construction and Accuracy Assessment of Patient-Specific Biocompatible Drill Template for Cervical Anterior Transpedicular Screw (ATPS) Insertion: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangxue; Zhao, Weidong; Tang, Lei; Li, Jianyi; Ouyang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background With the properties of three-column fixation and anterior-approach-only procedure, anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) is ideal for severe multilevel traumatic cervical instabilities. However, the accurate insertion of ATPS remains challenging. Here we constructed a patient-specific biocompatible drill template and evaluated its accuracy in assisting ATPS insertion. Methods After ethical approval, 24 formalin-preserved cervical vertebrae (C2–C7) were CT scanned. 3D reconstruction models of cervical vertebra were obtained with 2-mm-diameter virtual pin tracts at the central pedicles. The 3D models were used for rapid prototyping (RP) printing. A 2-mm-diameter Kirschner wire was then inserted into the pin tract of the RP model before polymethylmethacrylate was used to construct the patient-specific biocompatible drill template. After removal of the anterior soft tissue, a 2-mm-diameter Kirschner wire was inserted into the cervical pedicle with the assistance of drill template. Cadaveric cervical spines with pin tracts were subsequently scanned using the same CT scanner. A 3D reconstruction was performed of the scanned spines to get 3D models of the vertebrae containing the actual pin tracts. The deviations were calculated between 3D models with virtual and actual pin tracts at the middle point of the cervical pedicle. 3D models of 3.5 mm-diameter screws were used in simulated insertion to grade the screw positions. Findings The patient-specific biocompatible drill template was constructed to assist ATPS insertion successfully. There were no significant differences between medial/lateral deviations (P = 0.797) or between superior/inferior deviations (P = 0.741). The absolute deviation values were 0.82±0.75 mm and 1.10±0.96 mm in axial and sagittal planes, respectively. In the simulated insertion, the screws in non-critical position were 44/48 (91.7%). Conclusions The patient-specific drill template is biocompatible, easy-to-apply and accurate

  4. Enhanced stabilisation of trapped electron modes by collisional energy scattering in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Manas, P.; Camenen, Y.; Benkadda, S.; Hornsby, W. A.; Peeters, A. G.

    2015-06-15

    The collisional stabilisation via energy scattering and pitch-angle scattering of micro-instabilities in tokamak plasmas is investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations with a special emphasis on the often neglected energy scattering operator. It is shown that in the linear regime energy scattering has a negligible effect on Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) modes but enhances the stabilisation of Trapped Electron Modes (TEM) in presence of nonzero ion temperature and density gradients. This stabilisation is sensitive to the model used for the energy restoring term in the collision operator. The contributions of parallel and drift motion to the total growth rate in velocity space are used to characterize the complex stabilisation mechanisms behind pitch-angle and energy scattering for a range of relevant parameters such as the magnetic shear, the collisionality, the logarithmic density gradient, and the logarithmic ion temperature gradient. It is shown that depending on these parameters, energy scattering stabilisation of TEM can be either due to a decrease of the contribution from drifting trapped electrons or to an increase of the contribution from the parallel motion of passing electrons. Finally, for a standard ITG/TEM case, the effect of energy scattering on the nonlinear heat and particle fluxes is investigated.

  5. Effect of particle adsorption rates on the disproportionation process in pickering stabilised bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettelaie, Rammile; Murray, Brent

    2014-05-01

    The degree of shrinkage of particle stabilised bubbles of various sizes, in a polydisperse bubble dispersion, has been investigated in the light of the finite adsorption times for the particles and the disproportionation kinetics of the bubbles. For the case where the system contains an abundance of particles we find a threshold radius, above which bubbles are stabilised without any significant reduction in their size. Bubbles with an initial radius below this threshold on the other hand undergo a large degree of shrinkage prior to stabilisation. As the ratio of the available particles to the bubbles is reduced, it is shown that the final bubble size, for the larger bubbles in the distribution, becomes increasingly governed by the number of particles, rather than their adsorption time per se. For systems with "adsorption controlled" shrinkage ratio, the final bubble distribution is found to be wider than the initial one, while for a "particle number controlled" case it is actually narrower. Starting from a unimodal bubble size distribution, we predict that at intermediate times, prior to the full stabilisation of all bubbles, the distribution breaks up into a bimodal one. However, the effect is transient and a unimodal final bubble size distribution is recovered, when all the bubbles are stabilised by the particles.

  6. The effect of environmentally relevant conditions on PVP stabilised gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hitchman, Adam; Smith, Gregory H Sambrook; Ju-Nam, Yon; Sterling, Mark; Lead, Jamie R

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles are a major product from the nanotechnology industry and have been shown to have a potentially large environmental exposure and hazard. In this study, sterically stabilised polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) 7 nm gold nanoparticles (NPs) were produced and characterised as prepared by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), size and aggregation, morphology and surface charge. Changes in these properties with changes in environmentally relevant conditions (pH, ionic strength, Ca concentration and fulvic acid presence) were quantified. These sterically stabilised NPs showed no aggregation with changes in pH or inorganic ions, even under high (0.1 M) Ca concentrations. In addition, the presence of fulvic acid resulted in no observable changes in SPR, size, aggregation or surface chemistry, suggesting limited interaction between the PVP stabilised nanoparticles and fulvic acid. Due to the lack of aggregation and interaction, these NPs are expected to be highly mobile and potentially bioavailable in the environment.

  7. Discrete-time reservoir engineering with entangled bath and stabilising squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Zibo; Sarlette, Alain

    2017-09-01

    This theoretical proposal investigates how resonant interactions occurring when a harmonic oscillator is fed with a stream of entangled qubits allow us to stabilise squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. We show that the properties of the squeezed state stabilised by this engineered reservoir, including the squeezing strength, can be tuned at will through the parameters of the ‘input’ qubits, albeit in tradeoff with the convergence rate. We also discuss the influence of the type of entanglement in the input from a pairwise case to a more widely distributed case. This paper can be read either as a proposal to stabilise squeezed states or as a step toward treating quantum systems with time-entangled reservoir inputs.

  8. Observers and output feedback stabilising controllers for nonlinear strict-feedback systems with sampled observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Hitoshi

    2016-02-01

    The design of observers and output feedback stabilising controllers for continuous-time strict-feedback systems with sampled observation is considered. First two types of observers are designed. One is a discrete-time semiglobal and practical reduced-order observer for the exact model and the other is a continuous-time semiglobal and practical full-order observer for continuous-time strict feedback systems with sampled observation. Then by combining the designed continuous-time observers and continuous-time state feedback laws that are continuous, zero at the origin, and uniformly globally asymptotically stabilise continuous-time systems, output feedback semiglobally practically uniformly asymptotically stabilising controllers are constructed. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed design of observers and output feedback controllers.

  9. Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarel, V.; Nouaille, F.; Rooses, A.; Lambertin, D.; Poulesquen, A.; Frizon, F.

    2015-09-01

    The solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin based geopolymer was studied in the present work. The process consists of obtaining a stabilised emulsion of oil in a water-glass solution and then adding metakaolin to engage the setting of a geopolymer block with an oil emulsion stabilised in the material. Geopolymer/oil composites have been made with various oil fraction (7, 14 and 20 vol.%). The rigidity and the good mechanical properties have been demonstrated with compressive strength tests. Leaching tests evidenced the release of oil from the composite material is very limited whereas the constitutive components of the geopolymer (Na, Si and OH-) are involved into diffusion process.

  10. Early Spin-Stabilised Rockets - the Rockets of Bergrat Heinrich Gottlob Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, H.-D.

    19th century's war rockets were at first stabilised by sticks, but these sticks produced a very uncertain flight path and it often happened that rockets changed their direction and even flew back to their firing position. So very many early inventors in Europe, America, and British-India tried to stabilise the rocket's flight in a better way. They tried fins and even rotation but they did not succeed. It is said in history that William Hale was the first who succeeded in constructing a spin stabilised (i.e. rotating) rocket which worked. But before him, in the thirties of that century, a German amateur rocket inventor succeeded as well and secretly proved his stickless rotating rockets in trials for Prussian officers and some years later officially for Saxon artillery officers. His invention was then bought by the kingdom of Saxony, but these were never use in the field because of lack of money.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from waste stabilisation ponds in Western Australia and Quebec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Glaz, Patricia; Bartosiewicz, Maciej; Laurion, Isabelle; Reichwaldt, Elke S; Maranger, Roxane; Ghadouani, Anas

    2016-09-15

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) are highly enriched environments that may emit large quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG), including CO2, CH4 and N2O. However, few studies provide detailed reports on these emissions. In the present study, we investigated GHG emissions from WSPs in Western Australia and Quebec, Canada, and compared emissions to WSPs from other climatic regions and to other types of aquatic ecosystems. Surface water GHG concentrations were related to phytoplankton biomass and nutrients. The CO2 was either emitted or absorbed by WSPs, largely as a function of phytoplankton dynamics and strong stratification in these shallow systems, whereas efflux of CH4 and N2O to the atmosphere was always observed albeit with highly variable emission rates, dependent on treatment phase and time of the day. The total global warming potential index (GWP index, calculated as CO2 equivalent) of emitted GHG from WSPs in Western Australia averaged 12.8 mmol m(-2) d(-1) (median), with CO2, CH4 and N2O respectively contributing 0%, 96.7% and 3.3% of the total emissions, while in Quebec WSPs this index was 194 mmol m(-2) d(-1), with a relative contribution of 93.8, 3.0 and 3.2% respectively. The CO2 fluxes from WSPs were of the same order of magnitude as those reported in hydroelectric reservoirs and constructed wetlands in tropical climates, whereas CH4 fluxes were considerably higher compared to other aquatic ecosystems. N2O fluxes were in the same range of values reported for WSPs in subtropical climate.

  12. P2Y2 receptor inhibits EGF-induced MAPK pathway to stabilise keratinocyte hemidesmosomes.

    PubMed

    Faure, Emilie; Garrouste, Françoise; Parat, Fabrice; Monferran, Sylvie; Leloup, Ludovic; Pommier, Gilbert; Kovacic, Hervé; Lehmann, Maxime

    2012-09-15

    α6β4 integrin is the main component of hemidesmosomes (HD) that stably anchor the epithelium to the underlying basement membrane. Epithelial cell migration requires HD remodelling, which can be promoted by epidermal growth factor (EGF). We previously showed that extracellular nucleotides inhibit growth factor-induced keratinocyte migration. Here, we investigate the effect of extracellular nucleotides on α6β4 integrin localisation in HD during EGF-induced cell migration. Using a combination of pharmacological inhibition and gene silencing approaches, we found that UTP activates the P2Y2 purinergic receptor and Gαq protein to inhibit EGF/ERK1/2-induced cell migration in keratinocytes. Using a keratinocyte cell line expressing an inducible form of the Raf kinase, we show that UTP inhibits the EGF-induced ERK1/2 pathway activation downstream of Raf. Moreover, we established that ERK1/2 activation by EGF leads to the mobilisation of α6β4 integrin from HD. Importantly, activation of P2Y2R and Gαq by UTP promotes HD formation and protects these structures from EGF-triggered dissolution as revealed by confocal analysis of the distribution of α6β4 integrin, plectin, BPAG1, BPAG2 and CD151 in keratinocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that the activation of p90RSK, downstream of ERK1/2, is sufficient to promote EGF-mediated HD dismantling and that UTP does not stabilise HD in cells expressing an activated form of p90RSK. Our data underline an unexpected role of P2Y2R and Gαq in the inhibition of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway and in the modulation of hemidesmosome dynamics and keratinocyte migration.

  13. Effective solidification/stabilisation of mercury-contaminated wastes using zeolites and chemically bonded phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xinyan; Xiong, Ya; Wang, Guoping; Zheng, Na

    2015-02-01

    In this study, two kinds of zeolites materials (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) were added to the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic processes to treat mercury-contaminated wastes. Strong promotion effects of zeolites (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) on the stability of mercury in the wastes were obtained and these technologies showed promising advantages toward the traditional Portland cement process, i.e. using Portland cement as a solidification agent and natural or thiol-functionalised zeolite as a stabilisation agent. Not only is a high stabilisation efficiency (lowered the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Hg by above 10%) obtained, but also a lower dosage of solidification (for thiol-functionalised zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.5 g g(-1) and 0.7 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) and stabilisation agents (for natural zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.35 g g(-1) and 0.4 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) were used compared with the Portland cement process. Treated by thiol-functionalised zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic under optimum parameters, the waste containing 1500 mg Hg kg(-1) passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test. Moreover, stabilisation/solidification technology using natural zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic also passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test (the mercury waste containing 625 mg Hg kg(-1)). Moreover, the presence of chloride and phosphate did not have a negative effect on the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic/thiol-functionalised zeolite treatment process; thus, showing potential for future application in treatment of 'difficult-to-manage' mercury-contaminated wastes or landfill disposal with high phosphate and chloride content. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. H ∞ output feedback stabilisation of linear discrete-time systems with impulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shouwei; Sun, Jitao; Pan, Shengtao

    2010-10-01

    This article addresses the issue of designing an H ∞ output feedback controller for linear discrete-time systems with impulses. First, a new concept of H ∞ output feedback stabilisation for general linear discrete-time systems with impulses is introduced. Then sufficient linear matrix inequality conditions for the stabilisation and H ∞ performance of general discrete systems with impulses are proposed. In addition, the result is applied to resolve typical output feedback control problems for systems with impulses, such as the decentralised H ∞ output feedback control and the simultaneous H ∞ output feedback control. Finally, a numerical simulation is also presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  15. Global finite-time output feedback stabilisation for a class of uncertain nontriangular nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jun-Yong

    2014-03-01

    This article addresses the problem of global finite-time output feedback stabilisation for a class of nonlinear systems in nontriangular form with an unknown output function. Since the output function is not precisely known, traditional observers based on the output is not implementable. We first design a state observer and use the observer states to construct a controller to globally stabilise the nominal system without the perturbing nonlinearities. Then, we apply the homogeneous domination approach to design a scaled homogeneous observer and controller with an appropriate choice of gain to render the nonlinear system globally finite-time stable.

  16. Robust stabilisation and L2 -gain analysis for switched systems with actuator saturation under asynchronous switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Zhao, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Robust stabilisation and L2-gain analysis for a class of switched systems with actuator saturation are studied in this paper. The switching signal of the controllers lags behind that of the system modes, which leads to the asynchronous switching between the candidate controllers and the subsystems. By combining the piecewise Lyapunov function method with the convex hull technique, sufficient conditions in terms of LMIs for the solvability of the robust stabilisation and weighted L2-gain problems are presented respectively under the dwell time scheme. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed results.

  17. The direct Lyapunov method for the stabilisation of the Furuta pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Ibañez, Carlos; Suárez-Castañón, Miguel S.; Gutiérres-Frias, Oscar O.

    2010-11-01

    A nonlinear controller for the stabilisation of the Furuta pendulum is presented. The control strategy is based on a partial feedback linearisation. In a first stage only the actuated coordinate of the Furuta pendulum is linearised. Then, the stabilising feedback controller is obtained by applying the Lyapunov direct method. That is, using this method we prove local asymptotic stability and demonstrate that the closed-loop system has a large region of attraction. The stability analysis is carried out by means of LaSalle's invariance principle. To assess the controller effectiveness, the results of the corresponding numerical simulations are presented.

  18. Frequency stabilisation of multimode helium-neon lasers in laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Deblén, H; Oberg, P A

    1991-09-01

    Low-frequency noise in laser Doppler recordings can be generated because of thermal instabilities in the gas laser cavity. Mode partition noise can be eliminated by thermal stabilisation of the laser cavity. The paper describes a method for closed loop temperature control of the laser cavity. The method uses orthogonal properties of longitudinal laser modes for the temperature control. The signal-to-noise ratio is considerably improved by the procedure. It is recommended that all gas laser equipped Doppler instruments used for precision blood flow studies should be equipped with stabilised laser sources.

  19. Stabilisation for switched linear systems with time-varying delay and input saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yonggang; Fei, Shumin; Zhang, Kanjian

    2014-03-01

    This article investigates the stabilisation problems for continuous-time and discrete-time switched systems with time-varying delay and saturated control input. Based on dwell time switching signals and multiple Lyapunov functional method, stabilisation conditions are well obtained in the context of linear matrix inequalities. To estimate attractive regions as large as possible, the feasibility problems are translated into optimisation problems. In addition, the corresponding results are presented for linear time-delay systems and switched delay-free systems, which improve and supplement some existing ones in the literature. Finally, numerical examples and simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness and values of the proposed results.

  20. Stabilisation analysis for switched neutral systems based on sampled-data control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnasamy, R.; Balasubramaniam, P.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the problem of stabilisation analysis for switched neutral systems based on sampled-data control and average dwell time approach is investigated. Delay-dependent stabilisation results are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities by constructing piecewise Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional based on the Wirtinger's inequality. Also, the controller gain matrix is designed by applying an input-delay approach. Further convex combination technique and some integral inequalities are used to derive less conservative results. The effectiveness of the derived results is validated through numerical examples.

  1. Cervical anterior transpedicular screw fixation (ATPS)—Part II. Accuracy of manual insertion and pull-out strength of ATPS

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Frank; Tauber, Mark; Fox, Michael; Martin, Hudelmaier; Forstner, Rosmarie; Augat, Peter; Penzkofer, Rainer; Pirich, Christian; Kässmann, H.; Resch, Herbert; Hitzl, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction after multilevel decompression of the cervical spine, especially in the weakened osteoporotic, neoplastic or infectious spine often requires circumferential stabilization and fusion. To avoid the additional posterior surgery in these cases while increasing rigidity of anterior-only screw-plate constructs, the authors introduce the concept of anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) fixation. We demonstrated its morphological feasibility as well as its indications in a previous study in Part I of our project. Consequently, the objectives of the current study were to assess the ex vivo accuracy of placing ATPS into the cervical vertebra as well as the biomechanical performance of ATPS in comparison to traditional vertebral body screws (VBS) in terms of pull-out strength (POS). Twenty-three ATPS were inserted alternately to two screws into the pedicles and vertebral bodies, respectively, of six cadaveric specimens from C3–T1. For insertion of ATPS, a manual fluoroscopically assisted technique was used. Pre- and post insertional CT-scans were used to assess accuracy of ATPS insertion in the axial and sagittal planes. A newly designed grading system and accuracy score were used to delineate accuracy of ATPS insertion. Following insertion of screws, 23 ATPS and 22 VBS were subjected to pull-out testing (POT). The bone mineral density (BMD) of each specimen was assessed prior to POT. Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of correctly placed screws and non-critical pedicles breaches in axial plane was 78.3%, and 95.7% in sagittal plane. Hence, according to our definition of “critical” pedicle breach that exposes neurovascular structures at risk, 21.7% (n = 5) of all ATPS inserted showed a critical pedicle breach in axial plane. Notably, no critical pedicle perforation occurred at the C6 to T1 levels. Pull-out testing of ATPS and VBS revealed that pull-out resistance of ATPS was 2.5-fold that of VBS. Mean POS of 23 ATPS with a mean BMD of 0.566

  2. Environmental Controls and Eco-geomorphic Interactions of the Barchan-to-parabolic Dune Stabilisation and the Parabolic-to-barchan Dune Reactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Na; Baas, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Parabolic dunes are one of a few common aeolian landforms which are highly controlled by eco-geomorphic interactions. Parabolic dunes, on the one hand, can be developed from highly mobile dune landforms, barchans for instance, in an ameliorated vegetation condition; or on the other hand, they can be reactivated and transformed back into mobile dunes due to vegetation deterioration. The fundamental mechanisms and eco-geomorphic interactions controlling both dune transformations remain poorly understood. To bridge the gap between complex processes involved in dune transformations on a relatively long temporal scale and real world monitoring records on a very limited temporal scale, this research has extended the DECAL model to incorporate 'dynamic' growth functions and the different 'growth' of perennial shrubs between growing and non-growing seasons, informed by field measurements and remote sensing analysis, to explore environmental controls and eco-geomorphic interactions of both types of dune transformation. A non-dimensional 'dune stabilising index' is proposed to capture the interactions between environmental controls (i.e. the capabilities of vegetation to withstand wind erosion and sand burial, the sandy substratum thickness, the height of the initial dune, and the sand transport potential), and establish the linkage between these controls and the geometry of a stabilising dune. An example demonstrates how to use the power-law relationship between the dune stabilising index and the normalised migration distance to assist in extrapolating the historical trajectories of transforming dunes. The modelling results also show that a slight increase in vegetation cover of an initial parabolic dune can significantly increase the reactivation threshold of climatic impact (both drought stress and wind strength) required to reactivate a stabilising parabolic dune into a barchan. Four eco-geomorphic interaction zones that govern a barchan-to-parabolic dune transformation

  3. Arsenic and copper stabilisation in a contaminated soil by coal fly ash and green waste compost.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    In situ metal stabilisation by amendments has been demonstrated as an appealing low-cost remediation strategy for contaminated soil. This study investigated the short-term leaching behaviour and long-term stability of As and Cu in soil amended with coal fly ash and/or green waste compost. Locally abundant inorganic (limestone and bentonite) and carbonaceous (lignite) resources were also studied for comparison. Column leaching experiments revealed that coal fly ash outperformed limestone and bentonite amendments for As stabilisation. It also maintained the As stability under continuous leaching of acidic solution, which was potentially attributed to high-affinity adsorption, co-precipitation, and pozzolanic reaction of coal fly ash. However, Cu leaching in the column experiments could not be mitigated by any of these inorganic amendments, suggesting the need for co-addition of carbonaceous materials that provides strong chelation with oxygen-containing functional groups for Cu stabilisation. Green waste compost suppressed the Cu leaching more effectively than lignite due to the difference in chemical composition and dissolved organic matter. After 9-month soil incubation, coal fly ash was able to minimise the concentrations of As and Cu in the soil solution without the addition of carbonaceous materials. Nevertheless, leachability tests suggested that the provision of green waste compost and lignite augmented the simultaneous reduction of As and Cu leachability in a fairly aggressive leaching environment. These results highlight the importance of assessing stability and remobilisation of sequestered metals under varying environmental conditions for ensuring a plausible and enduring soil stabilisation.

  4. 'A tradition of forgetting': stabilisation and humanitarian action in historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Sultan; Deely, Seán; Zyck, Steven A

    2010-10-01

    While subject to increasing articulation and institutionalisation, stabilisation is a long-standing concept and practice that has consistently engaged with and, at times, conflicted with varied understandings of humanitarianism and humanitarian action. Reviewing selected historical experiences, including the Philippines (1898-1902), Algeria (1956-62), Vietnam (1967-75) and El Salvador (1980-92), this paper argues that contemporary models of stabilisation build on and repeat mistakes of the past, particularly the overt securitisation of aid and the perception that humanitarian and development actors are able to purchase security effectively. Where current stabilisation differs from its earlier incarnations, as in the introduction of the private sector and incorporation of humanitarian action into war-fighting strategies, the implications are shown to be troubling if not outright disastrous. T his examination of historical experience, which includes many failures and few, if any, successes, raises the likelihood that it is not solely the design or implementation of individual stability operations that require modification but perhaps the entire concept of stabilisation itself.

  5. A numerical procedure to compute the stabilising solution of game theoretic Riccati equations of stochastic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragan, Vasile; Ivanov, Ivan

    2011-04-01

    In this article, the problem of the numerical computation of the stabilising solution of the game theoretic algebraic Riccati equation is investigated. The Riccati equation under consideration occurs in connection with the solution of the H ∞ control problem for a class of stochastic systems affected by state-dependent and control-dependent white noise and subjected to Markovian jumping. The stabilising solution of the considered game theoretic Riccati equation is obtained as a limit of a sequence of approximations constructed based on stabilising solutions of a sequence of algebraic Riccati equations of stochastic control with definite sign of the quadratic part. The proposed algorithm extends to this general framework the method proposed in Lanzon, Feng, Anderson, and Rotkowitz (Lanzon, A., Feng, Y., Anderson, B.D.O., and Rotkowitz, M. (2008), 'Computing the Positive Stabilizing Solution to Algebraic Riccati Equations with an Indefinite Quadratic Term Viaa Recursive Method,' IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 53, pp. 2280-2291). In the proof of the convergence of the proposed algorithm different concepts associated the generalised Lyapunov operators as stability, stabilisability and detectability are widely involved. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by several numerical experiments.

  6. Towards a General Understanding of Carbonyl‐Stabilised Ammonium Ylide‐Mediated Epoxidation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Novacek, Johanna; Roiser, Lukas; Zielke, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The key factors for carbonyl‐stabilised ammonium ylide‐mediated epoxidation reactions were systematically investigated by experimental and computational means and the hereby obtained energy profiles provide explanations for the observed experimental results. In addition, we were able to identify the first tertiary amine‐based chiral auxiliary that allows for high enantioselectivities and high yields for such epoxidation reactions. PMID:27381752

  7. The United Kingdom's stabilisation model and Afghanistan: the impact on humanitarian actors.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Stuart

    2010-10-01

    'Stabilisation' has emerged as a powerful policy framework since 2004. The United Kingdom has been at the forefront of states adopting and developing a 'stabilisation' model and has adapted government policy, processes and structures in its efforts to deliver 'stability' in Afghanistan's Helmand Province and Iraq--as well as elsewhere, such as in Nepal and Sudan. The experience acquired in Helmand in particular is likely to shape both future UK approaches and those of other donor states. The paper argues that the UK's model has evolved significantly since 2006, from a reconstruction strategy towards one that is based on supporting host-nation governance arrangements. Consequently, this paper addresses three principal themes: the origins and conceptualisation of the stabilisation discourse (and its relationship with state-building and early recovery concepts); the role of the UK's experience in Helmand in shaping the British approach; and the impact of the stabilisation model on the humanitarian community. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  8. Leaching characteristics of residual lateritic soils stabilised with fly ash and lime for geotechnical applications.

    PubMed

    Goswami, R K; Mahanta, C

    2007-01-01

    The effective use of residual lateritic soils as fill material for various construction activities is often limited by the difficulty in handling them. Attempt to improve their workability with fly ash and lime has shown promising results, although accompanied by risk of release of heavy metal leachates to the groundwater. In the present work, the leaching properties from residual lateritic soils from a part of Northeast India stabilised with fly ash and lime (CaO) was investigated with the help of single batch leaching test and column leaching test for different soil-fly ash-lime mixes. Test results show that the high pH induced by lime treatment of the mixes helps in keeping most of the metals within the stabilised soil matrix. Although the heavy metal concentrations in the leachates were generally within permissible limits, the release response for different metals was different suggesting implications for permeate solutions having metal pre-concentrations, such as those emanating from hazardous landfill sites. The observed characteristics provide insights towards the potential and realistic estimates of leaching of metals and its variation due to change in fly ash and lime content in the stabilised mix. Many of these constituents found in the stabilised soil had a first-flush phenomenon. But, as they occur only for short duration (about 5 pore volumes over 5 days) and at low concentration, dilution effect may eliminate them. The effect of continuous permeation on the flow parameters and the leaching pattern of the mixes have also been highlighted.

  9. Measurement of wind profiles by motion-stabilised ship-borne Doppler lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtert, P.; Brooks, I. M.; Brooks, B. J.; Moat, B. I.; Prytherch, J.; Persson, P. O. G.; Tjernström, M.

    2015-11-01

    Three months of Doppler lidar wind measurements were obtained during the Arctic Cloud Summer Experiment on the icebreaker Oden during the summer of 2014. Such ship-borne Doppler measurements require active stabilisation to remove the effects of ship motion. We demonstrate that the combination of a commercial Doppler lidar with a custom-made motion-stabilisation platform enables the retrieval of wind profiles in the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer during both cruising and ice-breaking with statistical uncertainties comparable to land-based measurements. This held true particularly within the atmospheric boundary layer even though the overall aerosol load was very low. Motion stabilisation was successful for high wind speeds in open water and the resulting wave conditions. It allows for the retrieval of vertical winds with a random error below 0.2 m s-1. The comparison of lidar-measured wind and radio soundings gives a mean bias of 0.3 m s-1 (2°) and a mean standard deviation of 1.1 m s-1 (12°) for wind speed (wind direction). The agreement for wind direction degrades with height. The combination of a motion-stabilised platform with a low-maintenance autonomous Doppler lidar has the potential to enable continuous long-term high-resolution ship-based wind profile measurements over the oceans.

  10. Stabilisation of proteins via mixtures of amino acids during spray drying.

    PubMed

    Ajmera, Ankur; Scherließ, Regina

    2014-03-10

    Biologicals are often formulated as solids in an effort to preserve stability which generally requires stabilising excipients for proper drying. The purpose of this study was to screen amino acids and their combinations for their stabilising effect on proteins during spray drying. Catalase, as model protein, was spray dried in 1+1 or 1+2 ratios with amino acids. Some amino acids namely arginine, glycine and histidine showed good retention of catalase functionality after spray drying and subsequent storage stress. A 1+1 combination of arginine and glycine in a 1+2 ratio with catalase resulted in a tremendously good stabilising effect. Storage at high temperature/humidity also showed beneficial effects of this combination. To evaluate whether this was a general principle, these findings were transferred to an antigenic protein of comparable size and supramolecular structure (haemagglutinin) as well as to a smaller enzyme (lysozyme). Upon spray drying with the combination of amino acids it could be shown that both proteins remain more stable especially after storage compared to the unprotected protein. The combination of arginine and glycine is tailored to the needs of protein stabilisation during spray drying and may hence be utilised in dry powder formulation of biomolecules with superior stability characteristics.

  11. Measurement of wind profiles by motion-stabilised ship-borne Doppler lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtert, P.; Brooks, I. M.; Brooks, B. J.; Moat, B. I.; Prytherch, J.; Persson, P. O. G.; Tjernström, M.

    2015-09-01

    Three months of Doppler lidar wind measurements were obtained during the Arctic Cloud Summer Experiment on the icebreaker Oden during the summer of 2014. Such ship-borne measurements require active stabilisation to remove the effects of ship motion. We demonstrate that the combination of a commercial Doppler lidar with a custom-made motion-stabilisation platform enables the retrieval of wind profiles in the Arctic boundary layer during both cruising and ice-breaking with statistical uncertainties comparable to land-based measurements. This holds particularly within the planetary boundary layer even though the overall aerosol load was very low. Motion stabilisation was successful for high wind speeds in open water and the resulting wave conditions. It allows for the retrieval of winds with a random error below 0.2 m s-1, comparable to the measurement error of standard radiosondes. The combination of a motion-stabilised platform with a low-maintenance autonomous Doppler lidar has the potential to enable continuous long-term high-resolution ship-based wind profile measurements over the oceans.

  12. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Stabilisation of a laser by the calculated quantum transition frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagaev, S. N.; Dmitriev, A. K.; Lugovoy, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    A method is proposed to stabilise the frequency of a He—Ne laser with an intracavity nonlinear absorption cell by the calculated frequency of the 7→6 transition of F2(2)P(7)ν3 in methane. The long-term frequency stability and reproducibility are measured for a He—Ne/CH4 laser with a telescopic cavity.

  13. The Stabilisation of Enzymes — a Key Factor in the Practical Application of Biocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinek, K.; Berezin, I. B.

    1980-05-01

    The present state of the problem of the practical application of biocatalysis is examined and physicochemical approaches whereby the denaturation of enzymes under the influence of elevated temperatures, extreme pH values, and organic solvents can be suppressed are analysed. The general principles of the stabilisation of enzymes are formulated. The bibliography includes 225 references.

  14. Starch nanocrystals as particle stabilisers of oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Li, Yunxing; Sun, Peidong; Yang, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    As an environmentally benign particle emulsifier, starch nanocrystal (SNC) has attracted considerable attention. By submitting waxy maize starch to acid below the gelatinisation temperature of starch, nanoscale crystalline residues, which are SNCs, were separated from starch granules by hydrolysing amorphous regions. The SNC could be used as a particle emulsifier to stabilise emulsions. The SNC could adsorb at the oil-water interface to stabilise oil-in-water emulsions with high stability to coalescence. The creaming of emulsions occurred after homogenisation but decreased with increasing SNC content, which was mainly due to the formation of an inter-particle network in the emulsions. Because of the amount of sulfuric groups at the surface, the SNC was negatively charged. Therefore, at low pH values or high salt content the electrostatic repulsion of the SNC was reduced, which further caused droplet aggregation and an increase in size of the particles in the emulsions stabilised by the SNC. The SNC was an efficient particle emulsifier for preparing Pickering emulsions. The size of emulsions stabilised by the SNC could be tailored by changing the pH value or salt concentration. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Drug recognition and stabilisation of the parallel-stranded DNA quadruplex d(TTAGGGT)4 containing the human telomeric repeat.

    PubMed

    Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Heald, Robert A; Stevens, Malcolm F G; Searle, Mark S

    2003-11-14

    The NMR structure of the parallel-stranded DNA quadruplex d(TTAGGGT)(4), containing the human telomeric repeat, has been determined in solution in complex with a fluorinated pentacyclic quino[4,3,2-kl]acridinium cation (RHPS4). RHPS4 has been identified as a potent inhibitor of telomerase at submicromolar levels (IC(50) value of 0.33(+/-0.13)microM), exhibiting a wide differential between telomerase inhibition and acute cellular toxicity. All of the data point to RHPS4 exerting its chemotherapeutic potency through interaction with, and stabilisation of, four-stranded G-quadruplex structures. RHPS4 forms a dynamic interaction with d(TTAGGGT)(4), as evident from 1H and 19F linewidths, with fast exchange between binding sites induced at 318 K. Perturbations to DNA chemical shifts and 24 intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) identify the 5'-ApG and 5'-GpT steps as the principle intercalation sites; a structural model has been refined using NOE-restrained molecular dynamics. The central G-tetrad core remains intact, with drug molecules stacking at the ends of the G-quadruplex. The partial positive charge on position 13-N of the acridine ring appears to act as a "pseudo" potassium ion and is positioned above the centre of the G-tetrad in the region of high negative charge density. In both ApG and GpT intercalation sites, the drug is seen to converge to the same orientation in which the pi-system of the drug overlaps primarily with two bases of each G-tetrad. The drug is held in place by stacking interactions with the G-tetrads; however, there is some evidence for a more dynamic, weakly stabilised A-tetrad that stacks partially on top of the drug at the 5'-end of the sequence. Together, the interactions of RHPS4 increase the t(m) of the quadruplex by approximately 20 degrees C. There is no evidence for drug intercalation within the G-quadruplex; however, the structural model strongly supports end-stacking interactions with the terminal G-tetrads.

  16. Towards 12% stabilised efficiency in single junction polymorphous silicon solar cells: experimental developments and model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolmasov, Sergey; Cabarrocas, Pere Roca i.; Chatterjee, Parsathi

    2016-01-01

    We have combined recent experimental developments in our laboratory with modelling to devise ways of maximising the stabilised efficiency of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) PIN solar cells. The cells were fabricated using the conventional plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique at various temperatures, pressures and gas flow ratios. A detailed electrical-optical simulator was used to examine the effect of using wide band gap P-and N-doped μc-SiOx:H layers, as well as a MgF2 anti-reflection coating (ARC) on cell performance. We find that with the best quality a-Si:H so far produced in our laboratory and optimised deposition parameters for the corresponding solar cell, we could not attain a 10% stabilised efficiency due to the high stabilised defect density of a-Si:H, although this landmark has been achieved in some laboratories. On the other hand, a close cousin of a-Si:H, hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H), a nano-structured silicon thin film produced by PECVD under conditions close to powder formation, has been developed in our laboratory. This material has been shown to have a lower initial and stabilised defect density as well as higher hole mobility than a-Si:H. Modelling indicates that it is possible to attain stabilised efficiencies of 12% when pm-Si:H is incorporated in a solar cell, deposited in a NIP configuration to reduce the P/I interface defects and combined with P- and N-doped μc-SiOx:H layers and a MgF2 ARC.

  17. The Distribution and Stabilisation of Dissolved Fe in Deep-sea Hydrothermal Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. A.; Achterberg, E. P.; Connelly, D. P.; Statham, P. J.; Fones, G. R.; German, C. R.

    2007-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for oceanic phytoplankton, yet the debate over its sources and sinks persists. Dissolved Fe(II) in hydrothermal vent fluids is enriched ca. 106-fold over open ocean values, but as vent-fluids enter the base of the water column, abundant polymetallic particulate phases are formed: predominantly Fe-rich sulfides and Fe oxyhydroxides. More recently in hydrothermal plumes, deviation from first order Fe oxidation kinetics has suggested the occurrence of organically stabilised dissolved Fe. Such stabilisation could have implications on the hydrothermal Fe flux to the deep-ocean. To study Fe stabilisation in non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes, we have investigated the plume system at 5°S, Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, for dissolved Fe concentrations and Fe-complexing ligands. Six CTD stations were occupied for this study that intercepted non-buoyant plumes. Along-axis flow dominated the dispersion of plume material within the ridge segment and, 2.5 km down-plume from the nearest vent-site, high concentrations of dissolved Fe (20 nM) were still present. These high levels of "dissolved" Fe could be due to the presence of Fe colloids and/or organic Fe complexes. With the use of Competitive Ligand Exchange- Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (CLE-CSV), we have detected stabilised dissolved Fe complexes within this "dissolved" Fe fraction, on the edges of a plume. We calculate that such a stabilised Fe fraction in hydrothermal plumes, 2.9 to 5.6 times greater than deep-ocean dissolved Fe concentrations (0.7 nM), could be sufficient to provide 10-20% of the global deep-ocean dissolved Fe budget.

  18. [Stabilisation of post-acute stage schizophrenics: from the hospital to the city].

    PubMed

    Dammak, A; Stiti, M; Vacheron, M N

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating disease that usually begins in young adulthood, at a time when a person would usually make the transition to independent living, but it can occur at any age. The symptoms and behaviour associated with psychosis and schizophrenia have a distressing impact on the individual, and the family. The course of schizophrenia varies considerably. Although most patients will recover, some will have persisting difficulties or remain vulnerable to future episodes. Therefore, stabilisation of patients in acute phases and avoidance of relapse are major objectives of management throughout the course of this disease. The purpose of this article is to clarify the stabilisation, to study the contributing factors and strategies to implement to achieve stability, through a literature review and key guidelines. Thus, the patient is stabilised when productive symptoms and behavioural problems have decreased. So, the stable phase represents a prolonged period of treatment and rehabilitation during which symptoms are under adequate control and the focus is on improving functioning and recovery. Important predictive criteria of stabilisation include: positive symptoms, the number of previous relapses, cooperation with the patient and family, good adherence to treatment and the use of long acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics. After an acute relapse, the careful organization of the discharge and the development of a proposed ambulatory care in tailored care structures will help consolidate stabilisation and obtain remission. Accepting the idea of continuing treatment is a complex decision in which the psychiatrist plays a central role beside patients and their families. The course of integrated actions on modifiable risk factors such as psychosocial support, addictive comorbidities, identification of prodromes, active information for the therapeutic education of patients and families and access to care will also be supported. This would improve

  19. The use of muscle dynamometer for correction of muscle imbalances in the area of deep stabilising spine system.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Renata; Rokytová, Jitka; Stumbauer, Jan

    2013-08-01

    Dorsal pain caused by spine dysfunctions belongs to most frequent chronic illnesses. The muscles of the deep stabilising spine system work as a single functional unit where a dysfunction of only one muscle causes dysfunction of the whole system. Non-invasive, objective and statistically measurable evaluation of the condition of deep stabilising spine system has been made possible by the construction of muscular dynamometer. The aim of our work has been the assessment of deep stabilising spine system by diaphragm test and muscular dynamometer measurements. Based on an initial examination, a 6-week intervention programme was established including instructions on physiological body posture and correct basic body stabilisation for the given exercises and muscle strengthening. Consecutive measurements are then compared with the initial ones. It was presumed that a smaller number of the tested subjects would be able to correctly activate the deep stabilising spine system muscles before the intervention programme when compared to those after the intervention programme. A positive change of 87% has been found. It is clear that if a person actively approaches the programme, then positive adaptation changes on the deep stabilising spine system are seen only after 6 weeks. With the muscular dynamometer, activation of deep stabilising spine system can be objectively measured. Changes between the initial condition of a subject and the difference after some exercise or rehabilitation are especially noticeable. Also, the effect of given therapy or correct performance of the exercise can be followed and observed.

  20. Instrumentation for posterior stabilisation of cervical traumatic and degenerative disorders: bullet-shaped implant and titanium cable.

    PubMed

    Arslantas, A; Cosan, E; Durmaz, R; Ert Lav, K; Atasoy, M; Tel, E

    2001-12-01

    Numerous implants for posterior stabilisation of cervical spine have been described so far. The aims of all these implants and techniques are rigid spinal stabilisation without neurologic damage, restoration of neuroanatomy and excellent radiological studies in postoperative period. The objective of this study was to determine the effectively and clinical safety of this system. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients treated with posterior stabilisation system for the stabilisation of traumatic and osteodegerative disorders of lower cervical spine in our department. This posterior cervical stabilisation system consist of titanium bullet-shaped implant (Ti-Frame) and titanium cables (sof' wire). All patients underwent only posterior fixation except 2 (anterior decompression and posterior stabilisation in 2 stages) and postoperative early immobilisation was allowed with Philadelphia collar in all patients. At the follow-up period 15.2 months (9-25 months), none of the patients had superficial or deep infection, implant resection or failure. In conclusion, this system (Ti-frame and titanium cables) is a simple, safe and effective system for posterior cervical stabilisation in patients with traumatic and osteodegenerative disorders due to provide rigid fixation and allow CT and MR imaging without the significant artifact.

  1. The time taken for the regional distribution of ventilation to stabilise: an investigation using electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Caruana, L; Paratz, J D; Chang, A; Barnett, A G; Fraser, J F

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography is a novel technology capable of quantifying ventilation distribution in the lung in real time during various therapeutic manoeuvres. The technique requires changes to the patient's position to place the electrical impedance tomography electrodes circumferentially around the thorax. The impact of these position changes on the time taken to stabilise the regional distribution of ventilation determined by electrical impedance tomography is unknown. This study aimed to determine the time taken for the regional distribution of ventilation determined by electrical impedance tomography to stabilise after changing position. Eight healthy, male volunteers were connected to electrical impedance tomography and a pneumotachometer. After 30 minutes stabilisation supine, participants were moved into 60 degrees Fowler's position and then returned to supine. Thirty minutes was spent in each position. Concurrent readings of ventilation distribution and tidal volumes were taken every five minutes. A mixed regression model with a random intercept was used to compare the positions and changes over time. The anterior-posterior distribution stabilised after ten minutes in Fowler's position and ten minutes after returning to supine. Left-right stabilisation was achieved after 15 minutes in Fowler's position and supine. A minimum of 15 minutes of stabilisation should be allowed for spontaneously breathing individuals when assessing ventilation distribution. This time allows stabilisation to occur in the anterior-posterior direction as well as the left-right direction.

  2. Delay-dependent stabilisation of systems with time-delayed state and control: application to a quadruple-tank process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Haoussi, F.; Tissir, E. H.; Tadeo, F.; Hmamed, A.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a study on the stabilisation of linear systems with delays in the control and states, motivated by a benchmark problem from the literature (a quadruple-tank system). A methodology for the stabilisation of this kind of systems is presented, expressing the conditions as LMIs. Using several examples from the literature, it is shown that the proposed stabilisation theorem is less conservative than previous results. Finally, the technique is applied to the benchmark problem, showing how it is possible to derive efficient controllers for realistic problems, using the proposed technique.

  3. Resisting regime-shifts: the stabilising effect of compensatory processes.

    PubMed

    Connell, Sean D; Ghedini, Giulia

    2015-09-01

    Ecologists seem predisposed to studying change because we are intuitively interested in dynamic systems, including their vulnerability to human disturbance. We contrast this disposition with the value of studying processes that work against change. Although powerful, processes that counter disturbance often go unexplored because they yield no observable community change. This stability results from compensatory processes which are initiated by disturbance; these adjust in proportion to the strength of the disturbance to prevent community change. By recognising such buffering processes, we might also learn to recognise the early warning signals of community shifts which are notoriously difficult to predict because communities often show little to no change before their tipping point is reached.

  4. High pressure hydrogen stabilised by quantum nuclear motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needs, Richard; Monserrat, Bartomeu; Pickard, Chris

    Hydrogen under extreme pressures is of fundamental interest, as it might exhibit exotic physical phenomena, and of practical interest, as it is a major component of many astrophysical objects. Structure searches have been successful at identifying promising candidates for the known phases of high pressure hydrogen. However, these searches have so far been restricted to the location of minima of the potential energy landscape. In this talk, we will describe a new structure searching method, ``saddle-point ab initio random structure searching'' (sp-AIRSS), that allows us to identify structures associated with saddle points of the potential energy landscape. Using sp-AIRSS, we find two new high-pressure hydrogen structures that exhibit a harmonic dynamical instability, but quantum and thermal anharmonic motion render them dynamically stable. These structures are formed by mixed layers of strongly and softly bound hydrogen molecules, and become thermodynamically competitive at the highest pressures reached in experiment. The experimental implications of these new structures will also be discussed. BM is supported by Robinson College, Cambridge, and the Cambridge Philosophical Society. RJN and CJP are supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) of the UK.

  5. Stabilising falling liquid film flows using feedback control

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Alice B. Gomes, Susana N.; Pavliotis, Grigorios A.; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.

    2016-01-15

    Falling liquid films become unstable due to inertial effects when the fluid layer is sufficiently thick or the slope sufficiently steep. This free surface flow of a single fluid layer has industrial applications including coating and heat transfer, which benefit from smooth and wavy interfaces, respectively. Here, we discuss how the dynamics of the system are altered by feedback controls based on observations of the interface height, and supplied to the system via the perpendicular injection and suction of fluid through the wall. In this study, we model the system using both Benney and weighted-residual models that account for the fluid injection through the wall. We find that feedback using injection and suction is a remarkably effective control mechanism: the controls can be used to drive the system towards arbitrary steady states and travelling waves, and the qualitative effects are independent of the details of the flow modelling. Furthermore, we show that the system can still be successfully controlled when the feedback is applied via a set of localised actuators and only a small number of system observations are available, and that this is possible using both static (where the controls are based on only the most recent set of observations) and dynamic (where the controls are based on an approximation of the system which evolves over time) control schemes. This study thus provides a solid theoretical foundation for future experimental realisations of the active feedback control of falling liquid films.

  6. Femtosecond fibre laser stabilisation to an optical frequency standard using a KTP electro-optic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Nyushkov, B N; Pivtsov, V S; Koliada, N A; Kaplun, A B; Meshalkin, A B

    2015-05-31

    A miniature intracavity KTP-based electro-optic phase modulator has been developed which can be used for effective stabilisation of an optical frequency comb of a femtosecond erbiumdoped fibre laser to an optical frequency standard. The use of such an electro-optic modulator (EOM) has made it possible to extend the working frequency band of a phase-locked loop system for laser stabilisation to several hundred kilohertz. We demonstrate that the KTP-based EOM is sufficiently sensitive even at a small optical length, which allows it to be readily integrated into cavities of femtosecond fibre lasers with high mode frequency spacings (over 100 MHz). (extreme light fields and their applications)

  7. A simplified Galveston technique for the stabilisation of pathological fractures of the sacrum.

    PubMed

    McGee, A M; Bache, C E; Spilsbury, J; Marks, D S; Stirling, A J; Thompson, A G

    2000-10-01

    Mechanical stabilisation of pathological fractures of the sacrum is technically challenging. There is often inadequate purchase in the sacrum, and stabilisation has to be achieved between the lumbar vertebrae and ilium. We present a simplification of the Galveston technique. We treated a total of six patients with this technique, four for metastatic disease and two for primary tumours. Our technique consists of the formation of a proximal stable construct using ISOLA pedicle screws linked distally using a modular system of connectors to threaded iliac bolts with cross linkages. Neurological decompression and fusion was performed as appropriate. The benefits of this method are: ease of access to the ilium, a solid purchase to the ilium, less rod contouring and shorter operating time. We have had no operative complications from this procedure. All patients were discharged home mobile, with a reduced opiate requirement.

  8. Robust stabilisation of time-varying delay systems with probabilistic uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ning; Xiong, Junlin; Lam, James

    2016-09-01

    For robust stabilisation of time-varying delay systems, only sufficient conditions are available to date. A natural question is as follows: if the existing sufficient conditions are not satisfied, and hence no controllers can be found, what can one do to improve the stability performance of time-varying delay systems? This question is addressed in this paper when there is a probabilistic structure on the parameter uncertainty set. A randomised algorithm is proposed to design a state-feedback controller, which stabilises the system over the uncertainty domain in a probabilistic sense. The capability of the designed controller is quantified by the probability of stability of the resulting closed-loop system. The accuracy of the solution obtained from the randomised algorithm is also analysed. Finally, numerical examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the developed controller design approach.

  9. Novel Xylene-linked Maltoside Amphiphiles (XMAs) for Membrane Protein Stabilisation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Du, Yang; Scull, Nicola J; Hariharan, Parameswaran; Gotfryd, Kamil; Loland, Claus J; Guan, Lan; Byrne, Bernadette; Kobilka, Brian K; Chae, Pil Seok

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are key functional players in biological systems. These bio-macromolecules contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions and thus amphipathic molecules are necessary to extract membrane proteins from their native lipid environments and stabilise them in aqueous solutions. Conventional detergents are commonly used for membrane protein manipulation, but membrane proteins surrounded by these agents often undergo denaturation and aggregation. In this study, we developed a novel class of maltoside-bearing amphiphiles, with a xylene linker in the central region, designated xylene-linked maltoside amphiphiles (XMAs). When these novel agents were evaluated with a number of membrane proteins, we found that XMA-4 and XMA-5 have particularly favorable efficacy with respect to membrane protein stabilisation, indicating that these agents hold significant potential for membrane protein structural study. PMID:26013293

  10. Global stabilisation of the PVTOL aircraft with lateral force coupling and bounded inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Araujo, D. J.; Zavala-Río, A.; Fantoni, I.; Salazar, S.; Lozano, R.

    2010-07-01

    This work is devoted to prove that the nonlinear control scheme previously proposed by Zavala-Río, Fantoni and Lozano for the global stabilisation of the planar vertical take-off and landing (PVTOL) aircraft with bounded inputs neglecting the lateral force coupling is robust with respect to the parameter characterising such a lateral force coupling, ɛ, as long as such a parameter takes small enough values. In other words, global stabilisation is achieved even if ɛ > 0, provided that such a parameter be sufficiently small. As far as the authors are aware, such a property has not been proved in other existing control schemes when the value of ɛ is not known. The presented methodology is based on the use of embedded saturation functions. Furthermore, experimental results of the control algorithm implemented on a real prototype are presented.

  11. Observer-based stabilisation of a class of nonlinear systems in the presence of measurement delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qing; Liu, Jinkun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the stabilising control problem for a class of nonlinear system in the presence of measurement delay is addressed. A full-order observer is designed to eliminate the effect of variable output time delay, which is bounded and known. Then, the estimated states are utilised for the state feedback control law to stabilise the considered control system. Lyapunov-Razumikhin approach is employed to analyse the stability of the closed-loop system. Unlike the previous work, the exponential convergence of the estimation error is ensured, rather than asymptotic convergence, by designing a delay-dependent gain of the observer. Moreover, comparison with similar work is also made in simulation to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  12. Output-feedback stabilisation for a class of switched nonlinear systems with unknown control coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2013-03-01

    This article investigates the problem of global stabilisation for a class of switched nonlinear systems with unknown control coefficients by output feedback. Full state measurements are unavailable. We first show that via a coordinate transformation, the unknown control coefficients are lumped together and the original switched nonlinear system is transformed into a new switched nonlinear system for which control design becomes feasible. Second, for the new switched nonlinear system, based on backstepping, we design output-feedback controllers for subsystems and construct a common Lyapunov function, which rely on the designed state observer, to guarantee asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system under arbitrary switchings. Finally, as an application of the proposed design method, global stabilisation of a mass-spring-damper system is achieved by output feedback.

  13. Identification of a Lead Candidate in the Search for Carbene-Stabilised Homoaromatics.

    PubMed

    Mattock, James D; Vargas, Alfredo; Dewhurst, Rian D

    2015-11-16

    The effect of carbenes as Lewis donor groups on the homoaromaticity of mono- and bicyclic organic molecules is surveyed. The search for viable carbene-stabilised homoaromatics resulted in a large amount of rejected candidates as well as nine promising candidates that are further analysed for their homoaromaticity by using a number of metrics. Of these, five appeared to show modest homoaromaticity, whereas another compound showed a level of homoaromaticity comparable with the homotropylium cation benchmark compound. Isoelectronic analogues and constitutional isomers of the lead compound were investigated, however, none of these showed comparable homoaromaticity. The implications of these calculations on the design of donor-stabilised homoaromatics are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Vibration-displacement measurements with a highly stabilised optical fiber Michelson interferometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fang; Ren, Junyu; Chen, Zhimin; Feng, Qibo

    2010-02-01

    A highly stabilised vibration-displacement measurement system, which employs fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to interleave two fiber Michelson interferometers that share the common-interferometric-optical path, is presented. The phase change in the interferometric signals of the two fiber Michelson interferometers have been tracked, respectively, with two electronic feedback loops. One of the fiber interferometers is used to stabilise the system by the use of an electronic feedback loop to compensate the environmental disturbances. The second fiber interferometer is used to perform the measurement task and employs another electronic feedback loop to track the phase change in the interferometric signal. The measurement system is able to measure vibration-displacement and provide the sense of direction of the displacement. The frequency range of the measured vibration-displacement is from 0.1 to 200 Hz and the measurement resolution is 10 nm.

  15. Green synthesis of highly concentrated aqueous colloidal solutions of large starch-stabilised silver nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Betts, Jonathan W; Kelly, Stephen M; Hector, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly and cost-effective method has been developed to prepare a range of aqueous silver colloidal solutions, using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent, water-soluble starch as a combined crystallising, stabilising and solubilising agent, and water as the solvent. The diameter of silver nanoplatelets increases with higher concentrations of AgNO3 and starch. The silver nanoparticles are also more uniform in shape the greater the diameter of the nanoparticles. Colloidal solutions with a very high concentration of large, flat, hexagonal silver nanoplatelets (~230 nm in breadth) have been used to deposit and fix an antibacterial coating of these large starch-stabilised silver nanoplates on commercial cotton fibres, using a simple dip-coating process using water as the solvent, in order to study the dependence of the antibacterial properties of these nanoplatelets on their size.

  16. Finite-time boundedness and stabilisation of networked control systems with bounded packet dropout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yeguo

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the finite-time boundedness and stabilisation problems of a class of networked control systems (NCSs) with bounded packet dropout are investigated. The main results provided in the paper are sufficient conditions for finite-time boundedness and stability via state feedback. An iterative approach is proposed to model NCSs with bounded packet dropout as jump linear systems (JLSs). Based on Lyapunov stability theory and JLSs theory, the sufficient conditions for finite-time boundedness and stabilisation of the underlying systems are derived via linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) formulation. Moreover, both sensor-to-controller and controller-to-actuator packet dropouts are considered simultaneously. Lastly, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  17. Preconditioning of Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models for Stabilisation of Variance-Covariance Matrix Computations.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yasunori; Nordgren, Rikard; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-03-01

    As the importance of pharmacometric analysis increases, more and more complex mathematical models are introduced and computational error resulting from computational instability starts to become a bottleneck in the analysis. We propose a preconditioning method for non-linear mixed effects models used in pharmacometric analyses to stabilise the computation of the variance-covariance matrix. Roughly speaking, the method reparameterises the model with a linear combination of the original model parameters so that the Hessian matrix of the likelihood of the reparameterised model becomes close to an identity matrix. This approach will reduce the influence of computational error, for example rounding error, to the final computational result. We present numerical experiments demonstrating that the stabilisation of the computation using the proposed method can recover failed variance-covariance matrix computations, and reveal non-identifiability of the model parameters.

  18. A sol-powder coating technique for fabrication of yttria stabilised zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Wattanasiriwech, Darunee . E-mail: darunee@mfu.ac.th; Wattanasiriwech, Suthee; Stevens, Ron

    2006-08-10

    Yttria stabilised zirconia has been prepared using a simple sol-powder coating technique. The polymeric yttria sol, which was prepared using 1,3 propanediol as a network modifier, was homogeneously mixed with nanocrystalline zirconia powder and it showed a dual function: as a binder which promoted densification and a phase modifier which stabilised zirconia in the tetragonal and cubic phases. Thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction revealed that the polymeric yttria sol which decomposed at low temperature into yttrium oxide could change the m {sup {yields}} t phase transformation behaviour of the zirconia, possibly due to the small particle size and very high surface area of both yttria and zirconia particles allowing rapid alloying. The sintered samples exhibited three crystalline phases: monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic, in which cubic and tetragonal are the major phases. The weight fractions of the individual phases present in the selected specimens were determined using quantitative Rietveld analysis.

  19. Double interface formulation for improved α-tocopherol stabilisation in dehydration of emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yankun; Roos, Yrjö H

    2013-08-30

    Encapsulation of hydrophobic nutrients can be achieved by freezing and freeze-drying of oil-in-water emulsions containing glass-forming materials. The addition of a polyelectrolyte layer on the protein-stabilised oil droplets may provide better protection to the oil phase against external stresses. Soy protein-trehalose and whey protein-trehalose emulsions with (layer-by-layer, LBL) and without (single-layer, SL) ι-carrageenan were used as the delivery systems for olive oil with dissolved α-tocopherol. Emulsions containing 0.125 g kg(-1) protein, 0.42 g kg(-1) oil and 150 g kg(-1) trehalose with (LBL) or without (SL) 0.25 g kg(-1) ι-carrageenan at pH 3 were frozen and freeze-dried and their state transitions were studied. The stability of α-tocopherol in freeze-dried systems at 0 and 0.33 water activity (aw ) during storage at 55 °C was followed. Loss of α-tocopherol was found in soy protein-stabilised SL systems at 0.33 aw , and this loss coincided with trehalose crystallisation. The stability of α-tocopherol was retained in soy protein-stabilised LBL and whey protein-stabilised LBL and SL systems at all conditions. Trehalose crystallisation-induced loss of structure was confirmed from changes in emulsion properties and visual appearance. Component sugar crystallisation contributed to the loss of sensitive compounds, but the stability of these compounds can be improved by the use of LBL formulations. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Rapid analysis of polyolefin antioxidants and light stabilisers by supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kithinji, J P; Bartle, K D; Raynor, M W; Clifford, A A

    1990-02-01

    Nineteen commercial antioxidants and light stabilisers, with a wide range of relative molecular masses and boiling-points, present in polyolefins were analysed by packed column supercritical fluid chromatography on four different phases with CO2 or 10% MeOH-CO2 as the mobile phase and with UV detection. The technique is shown to yield short analysis times and sufficient resolution for a number of additives present in a given polyolefin.

  1. Global output feedback stabilisation of high-order nonlinear systems with multiple time-varying delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fangzheng; Wu, Yuqiang; Yuan, Fushun

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the problem of global output feedback stabilisation for a class of high-order nonlinear systems with multiple time-varying delays. By using backstepping recursive technique and the homogeneous domination approach, a continuous output feedback controller is successfully designed, and the global asymptotic stability of the resulting closed-loop system is proven with the help of an appropriate Lyapunov- Krasovskii functional. Two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. The Stabilisation Potential of Individual and Mixed Assemblages of Natural Bacteria and Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Lubarsky, Helen V.; Hubas, Cédric; Chocholek, Melanie; Larson, Fredrik; Manz, Werner; Paterson, David M.; Gerbersdorf, Sabine U.

    2010-01-01

    It is recognized that microorganisms inhabiting natural sediments significantly mediate the erosive response of the bed (“ecosystem engineers”) through the secretion of naturally adhesive organic material (EPS: extracellular polymeric substances). However, little is known about the individual engineering capability of the main biofilm components (heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic microalgae) in terms of their individual contribution to the EPS pool and their relative functional contribution to substratum stabilisation. This paper investigates the engineering effects on a non-cohesive test bed as the surface was colonised by natural benthic assemblages (prokaryotic, eukaryotic and mixed cultures) of bacteria and microalgae. MagPI (Magnetic Particle Induction) and CSM (Cohesive Strength Meter) respectively determined the adhesive capacity and the cohesive strength of the culture surface. Stabilisation was significantly higher for the bacterial assemblages (up to a factor of 2) than for axenic microalgal assemblages. The EPS concentration and the EPS composition (carbohydrates and proteins) were both important in determining stabilisation. The peak of engineering effect was significantly greater in the mixed assemblage as compared to the bacterial (x 1.2) and axenic diatom (x 1.7) cultures. The possibility of synergistic effects between the bacterial and algal cultures in terms of stability was examined and rejected although the concentration of EPS did show a synergistic elevation in mixed culture. The rapid development and overall stabilisation potential of the various assemblages was impressive (x 7.5 and ×9.5, for MagPI and CSM, respectively, as compared to controls). We confirmed the important role of heterotrophic bacteria in “biostabilisation” and highlighted the interactions between autotrophic and heterotrophic biofilm consortia. This information contributes to the conceptual understanding of the microbial sediment engineering that represents an

  3. Finite-time state feedback stabilisation of stochastic high-order nonlinear feedforward systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Xing-Hui; Zhang, Kemei

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the finite-time state feedback stabilisation of stochastic high-order nonlinear feedforward systems. Based on the stochastic Lyapunov theorem on finite-time stability, by using the homogeneous domination method, the adding one power integrator and sign function method, constructing a ? Lyapunov function and verifying the existence and uniqueness of solution, a continuous state feedback controller is designed to guarantee the closed-loop system finite-time stable in probability.

  4. Cooling and thermal stabilisation of Faraday rotators in the temperature range 300 — 200 K using Peltier elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palashov, O. V.; Ievlev, Ivan V.; Perevezentsev, E. A.; Katin, E. V.; Khazanov, Efim A.

    2011-09-01

    A new method for cooling and thermal stabilisation of Faraday rotators using Peltier elements is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The scheme of thermal stabilisation of the magnetooptical elements ensures reliable operation of the device at the absorbed power ~2 W, which corresponds to the transmitted laser radiation power 1.5 kW. The results of the work make it possible to predict high efficiency of this method at the laser power of tens of kilowatts.

  5. Cold laser machining of nickel-yttrium stabilised zirconia cermets: Composition dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Sola, D.

    2009-09-15

    Cold laser micromachining efficiency in nickel-yttrium stabilised zirconia cermets was studied as a function of cermet composition. Nickel oxide-yttrium stabilised zirconia ceramic plates obtained via tape casting technique were machined using 8-25 ns pulses of a Nd: YAG laser at the fixed wavelength of 1.064 {mu}m and a frequency of 1 kHz. The morphology of the holes, etched volume, drill diameter, shape and depth were evaluated as a function of the processing parameters such as pulse irradiance and of the initial composition. The laser drilling mechanism was evaluated in terms of laser-material interaction parameters such as beam absorptivity, material spallation and the impact on the overall process discussed. By varying the nickel oxide content of the composite the optical absorption (-value is greatly modified and significantly affected the drilling efficiency of the green state ceramic substrates and the morphology of the holes. Higher depth values and improved drilled volume upto 0.2 mm{sup 3} per pulse were obtained for substrates with higher optical transparency (lower optical absorption value). In addition, a laser beam self-focussing effect is observed for the compositions with less nickel oxide content. Holes with average diameter from 60 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m and upto 1 mm in depth were drilled with a high rate of 40 ms per hole while the final microstructure of the cermet obtained by reduction of the nickel oxide-yttrium stabilised zirconia composites remained unchanged.

  6. Integrated waste management as a climate change stabilisation wedge for the Maltese islands.

    PubMed

    Falzon, Clyde; Fabri, Simon G; Frysinger, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The continuous increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions occurring since the Industrial Revolution is offering significant ecological challenges to Earth. These emissions are leading to climate changes which bring about extensive damage to communities, ecosystems and resources. The analysis in this article is focussed on the waste sector within the Maltese islands, which is the largest greenhouse gas emitter in the archipelago following the energy and transportation sectors. This work shows how integrated waste management, based on a life cycle assessment methodology, acts as an effective stabilisation wedge strategy for climate change. Ten different scenarios applicable to the Maltese municipal solid waste management sector are analysed. It is shown that the scenario that is most coherent with the stabilisation wedges strategy for the Maltese islands consists of 50% landfilling, 30% mechanical biological treatment and 20% recyclable waste export for recycling. It is calculated that 16.6 Mt less CO2-e gases would be emitted over 50 years by means of this integrated waste management stabilisation wedge when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. These scientific results provide evidence in support of policy development in Malta that is implemented through legislation, economic instruments and other applicable tools.

  7. The stabilisation and transportation of dissolved iron from high temperature hydrothermal vent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, J. A.; Connelly, D. P.; Gledhill, M.; Achterberg, E. P.

    2013-08-01

    Iron (Fe) binding phases in two hydrothermal plumes in the Southern Ocean were studied using a novel voltammetric technique. This approach, reverse titration-competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry, showed that on average 30±21% of dissolved Fe in the hydrothermal plumes was stabilised by chemically labile binding to ligands. The conditional stability constant (log K‧FeL) of the observed complexes was 20.61±0.54 (mean±1 SD) for the two vent sites, intermediate between previous measurements of deep ocean ligands (21.4-23; Kondo et al., 2012) and dissolved weak estuarine ligands (<20; Gerringa et al., 2007). Our results indicate that approximately 7.5% of all hydrothermal Fe was stabilised by complexation with ligands. Furthermore, 47±26% of the dissolved Fe in the plume existed in the colloidal size range (0.02-0.2 μm). Our data suggests that a portion (∼7.5%) of hydrothermal Fe is sufficiently stabilised in the dissolved size fraction (<0.2 μm) to make an important impact on deep ocean Fe distributions. Lateral deep ocean currents transport this hydrothermal Fe as lenses of enhanced Fe concentrations away from mid ocean ridge spreading centres and back arc basins.

  8. The distribution and stabilisation of dissolved Fe in deep-sea hydrothermal plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Sarah A.; Achterberg, Eric P.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Statham, Peter J.; Fones, Gary R.; German, Christopher R.

    2008-06-01

    We have conducted a study of hydrothermal plumes overlying the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 5° S to investigate whether there is a significant export flux of dissolved Fe from hydrothermal venting to the oceans. Our study combined measurements of plume-height Fe concentrations from a series of 6 CTD stations together with studies of dissolved Fe speciation in a subset of those samples. At 2.5 km down plume from the nearest known vent site dissolved Fe concentrations were ˜ 20 nM. This is much higher than would be predicted from a combination of plume dilution and dissolved Fe(II) oxidation rates, but consistent with stabilisation due to the presence of organic Fe complexes and Fe colloids. Using Competitive Ligand Exchange-Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (CLE-CSV), stabilised dissolved Fe complexes were detected within the dissolved Fe fraction on the edges of one non-buoyant hydrothermal plume with observed ligand concentrations high enough to account for stabilisation of ˜ 4% of the total Fe emitted from the 5° S vent sites. If these results were representative of all hydrothermal systems, submarine venting could provide 12-22% of the global deep-ocean dissolved Fe budget.

  9. Moduli stabilisation and de Sitter string vacua from magnetised D7 branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, Daniel; Moral, Maria-Pilar García Del; Quevedo, Fernando; Suruliz, Kerim

    2007-05-01

    Anomalous U(1)'s are ubiquitous in 4D chiral string models. Their presence crucially affects the process of moduli stabilisation and cannot be neglected in realistic set-ups. Their net effect in the 4D effective action is to induce a matter field dependence in the non-perturbative superpotential and a Fayet-Iliopoulos D-term. We study flux compactifications of IIB string theory in the presence of magnetised D7 branes. These give rise to anomalous U(1)'s that modify the standard moduli stabilisation procedure. We consider simple orientifold models to determine the matter field spectrum and the form of the effective field theory. We apply our results to one-modulus KKLT and multi-moduli large volume scenarios, in particular to the Calabi-Yau Bbb P4[1,1,1,6,9]. After stabilising the matter fields, the effective action for the Kähler moduli can acquire an extra positive term that can be used for de Sitter lifting with non-vanishing F- and D-terms. This provides an explicit realization of the D-term lifting proposal of [1].

  10. Stabilisation and control design by partial output feedback and by partial interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumthaler, Ingrid

    2012-11-01

    We study stabilisation and control design by partial output feedback on the one hand and by partial interconnection according to Willems on the other hand. This article is based on the paper Design, parametrization, and pole placement of stabilizing output feedback compensators via injective cogenerator quotient signal modules by I. Blumthaler and U. Oberst, and the same technique is used. Both discrete and continuous behaviours and various notions of stability are treated simultaneously. In the case of partial output feedback, we require that both the compensator and the feedback behaviour have proper transfer matrices without presuming properness of the plant. We obtain conditions ensuring the existence of such stabilising compensators which perform additional control tasks like, for instance, tracking, and an algorithm for constructing a large class of such compensators. In the case of stabilisation by interconnection no input-output structures of plant or compensator are assumed, but the controlled behaviour is endowed with a canonical input-output structure. Again we demand this input-output behaviour to have proper transfer matrix. For this situation we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of compensators solving the given control task, and a constructive parametrisation of all of them.

  11. Stabilisation of Na,K-ATPase structure by the cardiotonic steroid ouabain

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Andrew J.; Fedosova, Natalya U.; Hoffmann, Søren V.; Wallace, B.A.; Esmann, Mikael

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Ouabain binding to pig and shark Na,K-ATPase enhances thermal stability. •Ouabain stabilises both membrane-bound and solubilised Na,K-ATPase. •Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism is used for structure determination. •Secondary structure in general is not affected by ouabain binding. •Stabilisation is due to re-arrangement of tertiary structure. -- Abstract: Cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain bind with high affinity to the membrane-bound cation-transporting P-type Na,K-ATPase, leading to complete inhibition of the enzyme. Using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy we show that the enzyme-ouabain complex is less susceptible to thermal denaturation (unfolding) than the ouabain-free enzyme, and this protection is observed with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney as well as from shark rectal glands. It is also shown that detergent-solubilised preparations of Na,K-ATPase are stabilised by ouabain, which could account for the successful crystallisation of Na,K-ATPase in the ouabain-bound form. The secondary structure is not significantly affected by the binding of ouabain. Ouabain appears however, to induce a reorganization of the tertiary structure towards a more compact protein structure which is less prone to unfolding; recent crystal structures of the two enzymes are consistent with this interpretation. These circular dichroism spectroscopic studies in solution therefore provide complementary information to that provided by crystallography.

  12. Role of phyto-stabilised silver nanoparticles in suppressing adjuvant induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Mani, Aparna; Vasanthi, C; Gopal, V; Chellathai, Darling

    2016-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic effects of silver nanoparticles synthesised using Piper nigrum extract and to further establish its mechanism of action in a rat model of adjuvant induced arthritis (AA). Adjuvant arthritis was induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1mL) into the left hind paw of 36 albino Wistar rats (n=6). Silver nanoparticles stabilised with Piper nigrum extract (25 and 50mg/kg). Commercial silver nanoparticles (50mg/kg) and methotrexate (0.1mg/kg) were administered by intraperitoneal route from day 11 to day 22 on alternate days. It was found that treatment with silver nanoparticles stabilised with Piper nigrum (S-AgNPs) significantly reduced the paw edema and alleviated the histopathological changes of cell infiltration, synovial hyperplasia, bone and cartilage destruction. Furthermore, the phytostabilised silver nanoparticles (S-AgNPs) inhibited the protein expression of NF-kβ p65 and TNF-α as evidenced by immunohistochemistry analysis. Our current findings suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilised with Piper nigrum extract (S-AgNPs) have potent anti-arthritic activity which is mediated by inhibition of TNF-α and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are secreted in response to activated transcription factors of NF-kβ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Leachability and heavy metal speciation of 17-year old stabilised/solidified contaminated site soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Hailing; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2014-08-15

    The long-term leachability, heavy metal speciation transformation and binding mechanisms in a field stabilised/solidified contaminated soil (made ground) from West Drayton site were recently investigated following in situ auger mixing treatment with a number of cement-based binders back in 1996. Two batch leaching tests (TCLP and BS EN 12457) and a modified five step sequential extraction procedure along with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed for the testing of the 17-year-old field soil. The results of batch leaching tests show that the treatment employed remained effective at 17 years of service time, with all BS EN 12457 test samples and most of TCLP test samples satisfied drinking water standards. Sequential extraction results illustrate that the leaching of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in all mixes mainly occurred at the Fe/Mn phase, ranging from 43% to 83%. Amongst the five metals tested, Ni was the most stable with around 40% remained in the residual phase for all the different cement-based binder stabilised/solidified samples. XRD and SEM analyses show that the hydration process has been fully completed and further carbonation took place. In summary, this study confirms that such cement-based stabilisation/solidification (S/S) treatment can achieve satisfactory durability and thus is a reliable technique for long-term remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stabilisation of silver and copper nanoparticles in a chemically modified chitosan matrix.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Anand D; Mishra, Ajay K; Mishra, Shivani B; Kuvarega, Alex T; Mamba, Bhekie B

    2013-02-15

    This work describes the stabilisation of silver and copper nanoparticles in chemically modified chitosan colloidal solution. Chitosan-N-2-methylidene-hydroxy-pyridine-6-methylidene hydroxy thiocarbohydrazide (CSPTH) was used as a stabilising and reducing agent for silver and copper nanoparticles. The modified chitosan derivatives and the synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particle size, morphology and segregation of the nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size of the nanoparticles was found to be less than 20 nm and 50 nm for silver and copper nanoparticles, respectively. These nanoparticles were stabilised in a chemically modified chitosan solution and their properties were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The optical properties of silver nanoparticles in surface plasmon band (SPB) were enhanced at 407 nm compared to those of copper nanoparticles. Fluorescence (400 nm and 756 nm), photoluminescence (450 and 504 nm) and Raman scattering (1382 and 1581 cm(-1)) properties for the copper nanoparticles were superior to those of the silver nanoparticles.

  15. Avalanches of coalescence events and local extensional flows--stabilisation or destabilisation due to surfactant.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Deniz Z; Clain, Xavier; Breton, Olivier; Mayor, Guy; Burbidge, Adam S

    2010-03-01

    From two-drop collision experiments, it is known that local extensional flow favors coalescence. Recently, Bremond et al. used microfluidic methods to evidence this point. Similarly, we used specific microfluidic geometries to impose sudden extensional flow, following drop collision under controlled conditions, and coalescence events were recorded with a high-speed camera. In this study we focus on the effect of surfactant on the coalescence, or stabilisation against it, between drops flowing apart due to either imposed external flow or capillary forces related to drop shape relaxation. Coalescence can be induced even when drops are initially separated by an intersticial lubricating film by far thicker than the critical thickness for rupturing under the action of Van der Waals forces. This is particularly relevant to avalanches of coalescence events, in flowing or even quiescent emulsions or foams. When non-ionic surfactant was used, it was observed that small concentrations apparently enhance coalescence in extension. But at higher concentrations it provides stabilisation through a specific mechanism of thread formation and rupture; the stabilisation mechanism can be complex.

  16. Nitrogen removal in a two-stage, re-circulating waste stabilisation pond system.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, K; Farago, L

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds are used widely in Australia and other parts of the world for treating wastewater from domestic and a wide range of industrial sources. It remains a popular form of treatment for wastewater for many small rural towns. The development of a two-stage, re-circulating waste stabilisation pond incorporating algal-bacterial biofilm represents a new approach to increasing the functioning biomass within the water column to improve treatment efficiency. This new approach will be a more viable and economical option for most of the existing waste stabilisation ponds to achieve significant nitrogen removal than converting them to another form of biological nutrient removal processes. A laboratory-scale, two-stage, re-circulating system incorporating "Bio-Tube" plastic modules as attached growth medium has been tested using synthetic wastewater. It has been proven that nitrification-denitrification was the primary mechanism for nitrogen removal in such a system operated under complete mix conditions. During the experimental period, average removal efficiencies of 90-95% of ammonia nitrogen and 65-85% of total nitrogen removal were achieved with influent COD of 600 mg/L and total nitrogen of 70 mg/L.

  17. Correlation between inter-vertebral disc morphology and the results in patients undergoing Graf ligament stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Askar, Zahid; Wardlaw, Douglas; Muthukumar, Thillainayagamike; Smith, Frank; Kader, Deiary; Gibson, Suzy

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have shown Graf ligament stabilisation procedure to give mixed results in the short to medium term. The aim of this study was to correlate the pre-operative state of the disc, multifidus muscles, age of the patient, levels operated and the clinical outcome after a mean follow-up of 47 months. Graf ligament stabilisation procedure was carried out in 38 patients between 1996 and 1999. Their post-operative status was assessed using MacNab criteria. The post-operative follow-up was by postal questionnaires and review of the clinical notes. Disc morphology and multifidus muscle wasting was graded blindly and independently. The intra- and interobserver reliability was measured with kappa score and classified using the kappa classification of Landis and Koch. Correlation was measured with the help of Spearman correlation coefficient. Thirty-eight patients (100%) returned the questionnaires. Mean follow-up time was 47.55 months. Fifty-nine levels were operated on. Mean age was 39.68 years. The overall re-operation rate was 15.8%. The intra- and interobserver reliability was graded as good to substantial. Twenty-two patients (57.89%) were satisfied with the procedure. There was no statistically significant correlation between disc morphology, multifidus muscle wasting, sex, age, number of levels operated, the levels operated, and the satisfaction rate. The indications of Graf ligament stabilisation procedure are not clear. Further work is necessary to clearly identify the indication for the procedure.

  18. Global stabilisation of a class of generalised cascaded systems by homogeneous method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shihong; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-04-01

    This paper considers the problem of global stabilisation of a class of generalised cascaded systems. By using the extended adding a power integrator technique, a global controller is first constructed for the driving subsystem. Then based on the homogeneous properties and polynomial assumption, it is shown that the stabilisation of the driving subsystem implies the stabilisation of the overall cascaded system. Meanwhile, by properly choosing some control parameters, the global finite-time stability of the closed-loop cascaded system is also established. The proposed control method has several new features. First, the nonlinear cascaded systems considered in the paper are more general than the conventional ones, since the powers in the nominal part of the driving subsystem are not required to be restricted to ratios of positive odd numbers. Second, the proposed method has some flexible parameters which provide the possibility for designing continuously differentiable controllers for cascaded systems, while the existing designed controllers for such kind of cascaded systems are only continuous. Third, the homogenous and polynomial conditions adopted for the driven subsystem are easier to verify when compared with the matching conditions that are widely used previously. Furthermore, the efficiency of the proposed control method is validated by its application to finite-time tracking control of non-holonomic wheeled mobile robot.

  19. Topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers for treating seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Mayret; Scott, Neil W; Mustafa, Mohammad Z; Mustafa, Mohammed S; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal/perennial allergic conjunctivitis is the most common allergic conjunctivitis, usually with acute manifestations when a person is exposed to allergens and with typical signs and symptoms including itching, redness, and tearing. The clinical signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis are mediated by the release of histamine by mast cells. Histamine antagonists (also called antihistamines) inhibit the action of histamine by blocking histamine H1 receptors, antagonising the vasoconstrictor, and to a lesser extent, the vasodilator effects of histamine. Mast cell stabilisers inhibit degranulation and consequently the release of histamine by interrupting the normal chain of intracellular signals. Topical treatments include eye drops with antihistamines, mast cell stabilisers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, combinations of the previous treatments, and corticosteroids. Standard treatment is based on topical antihistamines alone or topical mast cell stabilisers alone or a combination of treatments. There is clinical uncertainty about the relative efficacy and safety of topical treatment. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers, alone or in combination, for use in treating seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2014, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 17 July 2014. We also searched the

  20. Interfacial behaviour of sodium stearoyllactylate (SSL) as an oil-in-water pickering emulsion stabiliser.

    PubMed

    Kurukji, D; Pichot, R; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T

    2013-11-01

    The ability of a food ingredient, sodium stearoyllactylate (SSL), to stabilise oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions against coalescence was investigated, and closely linked to its capacity to act as a Pickering stabiliser. Results showed that emulsion stability could be achieved with a relatively low SSL concentration (≥0.1 wt%), and cryogenic-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) visualisation of emulsion structure revealed the presence of colloidal SSL aggregates adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Surface properties of SSL could be modified by altering the size of these aggregates in water; a faster decrease in surface tension was observed when SSL dispersions were subjected to high pressure homogenisation (HPH). The rate of SSL adsorption at the sunflower oil-water interface also increased after HPH, and a higher interfacial tension (IFT) was observed with increasing SSL concentration. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) enabled a comparison of the thermal behaviour of SSL in aqueous dispersions with SSL-stabilised O/W emulsions. SSL melting enthalpy depended on emulsion interfacial area and the corresponding DSC data was used to determine the amount of SSL adsorbed at the oil-water interface. An idealised theoretical interfacial coverage calculation based on Pickering emulsion theory was in general agreement with the mass of SSL adsorbed as predicted by DSC. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Emulsions stabilised by food colloid particles: role of particle adsorption and wettability at the liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Paunov, Vesselin N; Cayre, Olivier J; Noble, Paul F; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Velikov, Krassimir P; Golding, Matt

    2007-08-15

    We study the effect of the particle wettability on the preferred type of emulsion stabilised solely by food colloid particles. We present results obtained with the recently developed gel trapping technique (GTT) for characterisation of wettability and surface structuring of individual food colloid particles adsorbed at air-water and oil-water interfaces. This method allows us to replicate a particle monolayer onto the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) without altering the position of the particles. By observing the polymer surface with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we are able to determine the contact angle of the individual particles at the initial liquid interface. We demonstrate that the GTT can be applied to fat crystal particles, calcium carbonate particles coated with stearic acid and spray-dried soy protein/calcium phosphate particles at air-water and oil-water interfaces. Subsequently, we prepare emulsions of decane and water stabilised by the same food colloid particles and correlate the wettability data obtained for these particles to the preferred type of emulsions they stabilise.

  2. α' Inflation: moduli stabilisation and observable tensors from higher derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Ciupke, David; de Alwis, Senarath; Muia, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    The leading order dynamics of the type IIB Large Volume Scenario is characterised by the interplay between α' and non-perturbative effects which fix the overall volume and all local blow-up modes leaving (in general) several flat directions. In this paper we show that, in an arbitrary Calabi-Yau with at least one blow-up mode resolving a point-like singularity, any remaining flat directions can be lifted at subleading order by the inclusions of higher derivative α' corrections. We then focus on simple fibred cases with one remaining flat direction which can behave as an inflaton if its potential is generated by both higher derivative α' and winding loop corrections. Natural values of the underlying parameters give a spectral index in agreement with observational data and a tensor-to-scalar ratio of order r = 0 .01 which could be observed by forthcoming CMB experiments. Dangerous corrections from higher dimensional operators are suppressed due to the presence of an approximate non-compact shift symmetry.

  3. A comparative study for the stabilisation of heavy metal contaminated sediment by limestone, MnO2 and natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yuanjie; Wen, Jia; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Taotao; Huang, Fenghu; Qin, Haiyan; Tian, Shiyu

    2017-01-01

    Three amendments including limestone, MnO2 and natural zeolite were assessed for their stabilisation effects on Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in sediment of east Dongting Lake, mid-south China. The metals were first subject to pollution status and potential ecological risk assessment to identify the current and potential hazards to ecology. Speciation of the metals in the sediment treated with amendments was then carried out by BCR sequential extraction procedure in order to evaluate metal contents and their potential mobility. The total concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in the east Dongting Lake were all above the means of national stream sediment and soil guidelines. The sediments were currently unpolluted to moderately pollute with Zn, Cu and Pb and strongly polluted with Cd. Zinc, Cu and Pb posed low risks to the lake ecosystem, and Cd had the highest potential risk that caused the overall risk of the sediment to be high or very high. Limestone stabilised Cu and Zn effectively, yet mobilisation of Cd and Pb by such amendment was also observed. MnO2 effectively reduced the extractable Cd and Pb. The effect of natural zeolite on metal stabilisation in the sediment was least notable. Limestone and MnO2 showed higher metal stabilisation efficiencies than zeolite. However, a single amendment is unable to achieve the goal of stabilisation for all metals. A combination use of the advantageous amendments or a search of a stronger stabiliser should be the interest of our future study.

  4. The role of interfacial lipids in stabilising membrane protein oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Uzdavinys, Povilas; Landreh, Michael; Struwe, Weston B.; Drew, David; Baldwin, Andrew J.; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Robinson, Carol V.

    2017-01-01

    Oligomerisation of membrane proteins in response to lipid binding plays a critical role in many cell-signaling pathways 1 but is often difficult to define 2 or predict 3. Here we develop a mass spectrometry platform to determine simultaneously presence of interfacial lipids and oligomeric stability and discover how lipids act as key regulators of membrane protein association. Evaluation of oligomeric strength for a dataset of 125 α-helical oligomeric membrane proteins revealed an absence of interfacial lipids in the mass spectra of 12 membrane proteins with high oligomeric stability. For the bacterial homologue of the eukaryotic biogenic transporters (LeuT) 4 one of the proteins with the lowest oligomeric stability, we found a precise cohort of lipids within the dimer interface. Delipidation, mutation of lipid binding sites or expression in cardiolipin (CDL) deficient Escherichia coli, abrogated dimer formation. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed that CDL acts as a bidentate ligand bridging across subunits. Subsequently, we show that for the sugar transporter SemiSWEET from Vibrio splendidus 5, another protein with low oligomeric stability, cardiolipin shifts the equilibrium from monomer to functional dimer. We hypothesised that lipids would be essential for dimerisation of the Na+/H+ antiporter NhaA from E. coli, which has the lowest oligomeric strength, but not for substantially more stable, homologous NapA from Thermus thermophilus. We found that lipid binding is obligatory for dimerisation of NhaA, whereas NapA has adapted to form an interface that is stable without lipids. Overall, by correlating interfacial strength with the presence of interfacial lipids we provide a rationale for understanding the role of lipids in both transient and stable interactions within a range of α-helical membrane proteins, including GPCRs. PMID:28077870

  5. Can a total knee arthroplasty be both rotationally unconstrained and anteroposteriorly stabilised?

    PubMed Central

    Imam, M. A.; Eifert, A.; Freeman, M. A. R.; Pinskerova, V.; Field, R. E.; Skinner, J.; Banks, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Throughout the 20th Century, it has been postulated that the knee moves on the basis of a four-bar link mechanism composed of the cruciate ligaments, the femur and the tibia. As a consequence, the femur has been thought to roll back with flexion, and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) prostheses have been designed on this basis. Recent work, however, has proposed that at a position of between 0° and 120° the medial femoral condyle does not move anteroposteriorly whereas the lateral femoral condyle tends, but is not obliged, to roll back – a combination of movements which equates to tibial internal/ femoral external rotation with flexion. The aim of this paper was to assess if the articular geometry of the GMK Sphere TKA could recreate the natural knee movements in situ/in vivo. Methods The pattern of knee movement was studied in 15 patients (six male: nine female; one male with bilateral TKAs) with 16 GMK Sphere implants, at a mean age of 66 years (53 to 76) with a mean BMI of 30 kg/m2 (20 to 35). The motions of all 16 knees were observed using pulsed fluoroscopy during a number of weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing static and dynamic activities. Results During maximally flexed kneeling and lunging activities, the mean tibial internal rotation was 8° (standard deviation (sd) 6). At a mean 112° flexion (sd 16) during lunging, the medial and lateral condyles were a mean of 2 mm (sd 3) and 8 mm (sd 4) posterior to a transverse line passing through the centre of the medial tibial concavity. With a mean flexion of 117° (sd 14) during kneeling, the medial and lateral condyles were a mean of 1 mm (sd 4) anterior and 6 mm (sd 4) posterior to the same line. During dynamic stair and pivoting activities, there was a mean anteroposterior translation of 0 mm to 2 mm of the medial femoral condyle. Backward lateral condylar translation occurred and was linearly related to tibial rotation. Conclusion The GMK Sphere TKA in our study group shows movements similar in

  6. Effectiveness of arthroscopic versus open surgical stabilisation for the management of traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choong; Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Hinman, Rana

    2007-06-01

    Background  Anterior instability is a frequent complication following a traumatic glenohumeral dislocation. Frequently the underlying pathology associated with recurrent instability is a Bankart lesion. Surgical correction of Bankart lesions and other associated pathology is the key to successful treatment. Open surgical glenohumeral stabilisation has been advocated as the gold standard because of consistently low postoperative recurrent instability rates. However, arthroscopic glenohumeral stabilisation could challenge open surgical repair as the gold standard treatment for traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability. Objectives  Primary evidence that compared the effectiveness of arthroscopic versus open surgical glenohumeral stabilisation was systematically collated regarding best-practice management for adults with traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability. Search strategy  A systematic search was performed using 14 databases: MEDLINE, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), ISI Web of Science, Expanded Academic ASAP, Proquest Medical Library, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, TRIP Database, PubMed, ISI Current Contents Connect, Proquest Digital Dissertations, Open Archives Initiative Search Engine, Australian Digital Thesis Program. Studies published between January 1984 and December 2004 were included in this review. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria  Eligible studies were those that compared the effectiveness of arthroscopic versus open surgical stabilisation for the management of traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability, which had more than 2 years of follow up and used recurrent instability and a functional shoulder questionnaire as primary outcomes. Studies that used non-anatomical open repair techniques, patient groups that were specifically 40 years or older, or had multidirectional instability or other concomitant

  7. Integration of coliform decay within a CFD (computational fluid dynamic) model of a waste stabilisation pond.

    PubMed

    Shilton, A; Harrison, J

    2003-01-01

    CFD mathematical modelling offers the potential to predict the actual flow pattern in a pond rather than generalising its mixing and mass transport as either an ideal flow reactor or, in the case of the non-ideal flow reactor, as a single dispersion number. However, perhaps the greatest benefit that CFD offers over the previous approaches is its ability to directly account for physical influences on the pond hydraulics such as the addition of baffles for example. In addition to solving the equations of fluid flow, CFD modelling also allows incorporation of other equations. The next logical development is, therefore, the integration of a reaction model within its solution domain. This potential has been recognised by several researchers, but to date no such work has been published. The primary aim of this paper was to present a CFD model of a field pond that incorporates the first order decay equation for coliforms. Experimental monitoring of the field pond gave an average effluent concentration of 3,710 f.c./100 mL, while the CFD model predicted 4,600 f.c./100 mL. Considering the pond provides an order of magnitude decrease in faecal coliform concentration, the integrated CFD model has clearly predicted the treatment efficiency very well. The secondary aim of this paper was to demonstrate the potential application of this technique. A typical pond was designed and modelled along with two variations incorporating two baffles and six baffles respectively. As is typically found in pond systems, the standard design suffered from severe short-circuiting with the model predicting a value of 6.2 x 10(6) f.c./100 mL at the outlet. The simulations of the baffled designs illustrate how treatment efficiency was improved by reducing the short-circuiting through the pond. The model predicted values of 6.0 x 10(3) f.c./100 mL for the 2-baffle design and 5.7 x 10(2) f.c./100 mL for the 6-baffle design.

  8. Test method selection, validation against field data, and predictive modelling for impact evaluation of stabilised waste disposal.

    PubMed

    van der Sloot, Hans A; van Zomeren, Andre; Meeussen, Johannes C L; Seignette, Paul; Bleijerveld, Rob

    2007-03-15

    In setting criteria for landfill classes in Annex II of the EU Landfill Directive, it proved to be impossible to derive criteria for stabilised monolithic waste due to the lack of information on release and release controlling factors in stabilised waste monofills. In this study, we present a scientific basis, which enables a realistic description of the environmental impact of stabilised waste landfills. The work in progress involves laboratory testing of different stabilisation recipes, pilot scale studies on site and evaluation of field leachate from a full-scale stabilisation landfill. We found that the pHs in run-off and in percolate water from the pilot experiment are both around neutral. The neutral pH in run-off is apparently caused by the rapid atmospheric carbonation of those alkaline constituents that are released. The soil, used as a liner protection layer, controls the release to the subsurface below the landfill. This soil layer buffers pH and binds metals. The modelling results show that the chemistry is understood rather well. Differences between predicted and actual leaching might then be attributed to discrepancies in the description of sorption processes, complexation to organic matter and/or kinetic effects in the leaching tests. We conclude that this approach resulted in a new scientific basis for environmental impact assessment of stabilised waste landfills. The integrated approach has already resulted in a number of very valuable observations, which can be used to develop a sustainable landfill for monolithic waste and to provide guidance for the management of waste to be stabilised (e.g. improved waste mix design).

  9. An optimised small-molecule stabiliser of the 14-3-3-PMA2 protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Richter, Anja; Rose, Rolf; Hedberg, Christian; Waldmann, Herbert; Ottmann, Christian

    2012-05-21

    Modulation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a highly demanding, but also a very promising approach in chemical biology and targeted drug discovery. In contrast to inhibiting PPIs with small, chemically tractable molecules, stabilisation of these interactions can only be achieved with complex natural products, like rapamycin, FK506, taxol, forskolin, brefeldin and fusicoccin. Fusicoccin stabilises the activatory complex of the plant H(+)-ATPase PMA2 and 14-3-3 proteins. Recently, we have shown that the stabilising effect of fusicoccin could be mimicked by a trisubstituted pyrrolinone (pyrrolidone1, 1). Here, we report the synthesis, functional activity and crystal structure of derivatives of 1 that stabilise the 14-3-3-PMA2 complex. With a limited compound collection three modifications that are important for activity enhancement could be determined: 1) conversion of the pyrrolinone scaffold into a pyrazole, 2) introduction of a tetrazole moiety to the phenyl ring that contacts PMA2, and 3) addition of a bromine to the phenyl ring that exclusively contacts the 14-3-3 protein. The crystal structure of a pyrazole derivative of 1 in complex with 14-3-3 and PMA2 revealed that the more rigid core of this molecule positions the stabiliser deeper into the rim of the interface, enlarging especially the contact surface to PMA2. Combination of the aforementioned features gave rise to a molecule (37) that displays a threefold increase in stabilising the 14-3-3-PMA2 complex over 1. Compound 37 and the other active derivatives show no effect on two other important 14-3-3 protein-protein interactions, that is, with CRaf and p53. This is the first study that describes the successful optimisation of a PPI stabiliser identified by screening. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Stabilisation of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) anthocyanins by different pectins.

    PubMed

    Buchweitz, M; Speth, M; Kammerer, D R; Carle, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different pectins on strawberry anthocyanins in viscous model solutions at pH 3.0. For this purpose, low esterified amidated, low and high methyl esterified citrus and apple pectins, and a sugar beet pectin (SBP), respectively, were added to strawberry extracts. The latter were predominantly composed of pelargonidin-glycosides, containing either reduced (E-1) or original amounts of non-anthocyanin phenolics (E-2). Model systems were stored for 18 weeks at 20±0.5 °C protected from light, and anthocyanins were quantitated in regular intervals by HPLC-DAD analyses. Half-life (t1/2) and destruction (D) values were calculated based on first-order kinetics. Generally, significant differences in pigment retention could be ascribed to differing pectin sources, while variation in the degree of esterification and amidation, respectively, had negligible effects. Compared to systems without added pectin, apple pectins and SPB enhanced anthocyanin stability moderately, while stabilising effects of citrus pectins were poor or even imperceptible. Generally, the amount of non-anthocyanin phenolics and the addition of citrate did not markedly affect anthocyanin stability. However, pectins had no influence on total phenolic contents (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) and antioxidant capacities (FRAP and TEAC assay) of strawberry phenolics over time. For pelargonidin-3-glucoside and -rutinoside largely consistent stabilities were found in all model systems. In contrast, pelargonidin-3-malonylglucoside was less stable in the blank, and stabilisation by pectins was always negligible. The findings of the present study are contrary to results reported previously for the stabilisation of cyanidin- and delphinidin-glycosides in similar model systems prepared with black currant extracts, indicating a high impact of the number of hydroxyl groups in the anthocyanin B-ring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of duckweed cover on greenhouse gas emissions and odour release from waste stabilisation ponds.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, N P; Nakiboneka, P; Mangalika, L; Ferrer, A V M; Gijzen, H J

    2003-01-01

    Treatment of wastewater in stabilisation pond systems prevents the negative environmental impact of uncontrolled disposal of sewage. However, even a natural treatment system may generate secondary negative environmental impacts in terms of energy consumption, emission of greenhouse gases and emission of odorous compounds. Whereas natural systems have an advantage over electro-mechanical systems in that they use less hardware and less energy, it is not yet known whether secondary environmental effects in the form of greenhouse gas emissions are lower for these systems. This research intends to be a first step in the direction of answering this question by assessing gas emissions from two types of natural systems, namely algae-based and duckweed-based stabilisation ponds. The H2S volatilisation from laboratory scale pond-reactors has been determined by drawing the air above the water surface continuously through a solution of 1 M NaOH for absorption of sulphide. The amount of H2S that volatilised from the algae pond-reactor, and was trapped in the NaOH trap, was found to be 2.5-86 mg/m2/day. The H2S volatilisation from the duckweed pond-reactor was found to be negligible, even though the sulphide concentration was 9.7 mg/l S(2-). The duckweed cover was a physical barrier for volatilisation, since bubbles were trapped in the cover. In addition the duckweed layer was found to be afavourable environment for both aerobic sulphide oxidisers (Beggiatoa gigantae) as well as for photosynthetic purple sulphur bacteria belonging to the genus Chromatium. These may also have contributed to the prevention of H2S volatilisation. Results on methane emissions were not conclusive so far, but the same mechanisms that prevent H2S volatilisation may also prevent methane volatilisation. Therefore it was concluded that duckweed covers on stabilisation ponds may reduce the emission of both odorous and greenhouse gases.

  12. A comparison of stabilisation approaches for finite-volume simulation of viscoelastic fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xingyuan; Marschall, Holger; Schäfer, Michael; Bothe, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    In this work we compare different stabilisation approaches currently used in the simulation of viscoelastic fluid flow. These approaches are: the both-sides diffusion, the positive definiteness preserving scheme, the log-conformation tensor representation and the symmetry factorisation of the conformation tensor. The evaluation of these approaches is done regarding their implementation complexity, stability, accuracy, efficiency and applicability to complex problems. Their performances are examined for an Oldroyd-B fluid in the test cases of lid-driven cavity, flow past a cylinder and 4:1 contraction flow. We summarise the situations in which the different approaches can be recommended.

  13. Arm-length stabilisation for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors using frequency-doubled auxiliary lasers.

    PubMed

    Mullavey, Adam J; Slagmolen, Bram J J; Miller, John; Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Sigg, Daniel; Waldman, Sam J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E

    2012-01-02

    Residual motion of the arm cavity mirrors is expected to prove one of the principal impediments to systematic lock acquisition in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. We present a technique which overcomes this problem by employing auxiliary lasers at twice the fundamental measurement frequency to pre-stabilise the arm cavities' lengths. Applying this approach, we reduce the apparent length noise of a 1.3 m long, independently suspended Fabry-Perot cavity to 30 pm rms and successfully transfer longitudinal control of the system from the auxiliary laser to the measurement laser.

  14. Spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped yttria-stabilised zirconia crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabochkina, P A; Sidorova, N V; Ushakov, S N; Lomonova, E E

    2014-02-28

    Yttria-stabilised zirconia crystals ZrO{sub 2} – Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (6 mol %) – Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5.85 mol %) are grown by directional crystallisation in a cold container using direct RF melting. The spectral and luminescent properties of these crystals are studied in order to use them as active media of solid state lasers emitting in the wavelength range 1.5 – 1.7 μm. (active media)

  15. Amplifying properties of LiF crystals with stabilised F{sub 2}{sup +} colour centres

    SciTech Connect

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Ermakov, I V; Konyushkin, V A; Pukhov, K K; Glasbeek, M

    1998-02-28

    A study was made of the amplifying properties of LiF crystals with stabilised F{sub 2}{sup +} colour centres with a view to possible use of these crystals as amplifiers of weak IR radiation pulses. A single-pass system pumped with the second harmonic of a pulsed Nd : YAG laser ({lambda} =532 nm) made it possible to achieve 20-fold optical amplification of broad-band nanosecond IR radiation from a laser diode ({lambda}=900 nm). (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Marine-based waste stabilisation ponds: an evaluation of the hydraulic viability.

    PubMed

    Burrows, R; Ali, K H; Tickell, R G; Hedges, T S; Pearson, H W; Mara, D D

    2001-01-01

    Marine-Based Waste Stabilisation Ponds, formed by floating boom/skirt curtain enclosures anchored in sheltered waters, have recently been proposed for provision of low-cost effluent treatment facilities where land availability is limited in rapidly expanding coastal cities in the Third World. This paper outlines findings from a viability assessment, which drew on a preliminary site evaluation and baseline environmental survey (for a site in sheltered waters in the Far East), laboratory studies involving scale model tests in wave/wind/current flumes, and a structural and design loading study. It focuses on hydraulic and hydrodynamic considerations and reports the study's conclusions.

  17. An update of stabilisation exercises for low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin E; Littlewood, Chris; May, Stephen

    2014-12-09

    Non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) is a large and costly problem. It has a lifetime prevalence of 80% and results in high levels of healthcare cost. It is a major cause for long term sickness amongst the workforce and is associated with high levels of fear avoidance and kinesiophobia. Stabilisation (or 'core stability') exercises have been suggested to reduce symptoms of pain and disability and form an effective treatment. Despite it being the most commonly used form of physiotherapy treatment within the UK there is a lack of positive evidence to support its use. The aims of this systematic review update is to investigate the effectiveness of stabilisation exercises for the treatment of NSLBP, and compare any effectiveness to other forms of exercise. A systematic review published in 2008 was updated with a search of PubMed, CINAHL, AMED, Pedro and The Cochrane Library, October 2006 to October 2013. Two authors independently selected studies, and two authors independently extracted the data. Methodological quality was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Meta-analysis was carried out when appropriate. 29 studies were included: 22 studies (n = 2,258) provided post treatment effect on pain and 24 studies (n = 2,359) provided post treatment effect on disability. Pain and disability scores were transformed to a 0 to 100 scale. Meta-analysis showed significant benefit for stabilisation exercises versus any alternative treatment or control for long term pain and disability with mean difference of -6.39 (95% CI -10.14 to -2.65) and -3.92 (95% CI -7.25 to -0.59) respectively. The difference between groups was clinically insignificant. When compared with alternative forms of exercise, there was no statistical or clinically significant difference. Mean difference for pain was -3.06 (95% CI -6.74 to 0.63) and disability -1.89 (95% CI -5.10 to 1.33). There is strong evidence stabilisation exercises are not more effective than any other form of active exercise in the long

  18. Global adaptive exponential stabilisation for nonlinear systems with multiple unknown control directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xifang; Chen, Weisheng; Wu, Jian

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we address the global generalised exponential stabilisation problem for a class of lower-triangular systems with multiple unknown directions. Instead of the well-known Nussbaum-gain adaptive rule, a Lyapunov-based adaptive logic switching rule is proposed to seek the correct control directions for such systems. The main advantage of the proposed controller is that it can guarantee the global generalised exponential stability of closed-loop systems. Simulation examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the developed control approach.

  19. Semi-global decentralised output feedback stabilisation for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jun-yong; Zha, Wen-ting; Fei, Shu-min

    2013-06-01

    This paper discusses the problem of semi-global decentralised output feedback control for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. Based on the ideas of the homogeneous systems theory and the adding a power integrator technique, we first design a homogeneous observer and an output feedback control law for each nominal subsystem without the nonlinearities. Then, using the homogeneous domination approach, we relax the linear growth condition to a polynomial one and construct decentralised stabilisers to render the nonlinear system semi-globally asymptotically stable. Two simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the control scheme.

  20. Mathematical modelling of postbuckling in a slender beam column for active stabilisation control with respect to uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enss, Georg C.; Platz, Roland; Hanselka, Holger

    2012-04-01

    Buckling is an important design constraint in light-weight structures as it may result in the collapse of an entire structure. When a mechanical beam column is loaded above its critical buckling load, it may buckle. In addition, if the actual loading is not fully known, stability becomes highly uncertain. To control uncertainty in buckling, an approach is presented to actively stabilise a slender flat column sensitive to buckling. For this purpose, actively controlled forces applied by piezoelectric actuators located close to the column's clamped base stabilise the column against buckling at critical loading. In order to design a controller to stabilise the column, a mathematical model of the postcritically loaded system is needed. Simulating postbuckling behaviour is important to study the effect of axial loads above the critical axial buckling load within active buckling control. Within this postbuckling model, different kinds of uncertainty may occur: i) error in estimation of model parameters such as mass, damping and stiffness, ii) non-linearities e. g. in the assumption of curvature of the column's deflection shapes and many more. In this paper, numerical simulations based on the mathematical model for the postcritically axially loaded column are compared to a mathematical model based on experiments of the actively stabilised postcritically loaded real column system using closed loop identification. The motivation to develop an experimentally validated mathematical model is to develop of a model based stabilising control algorithm for a real postcritically axially loaded beam column.

  1. A 10-year follow-up of transpedicular screw fixation and intervertebral autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft or intervertebral B-Twin system in failed back surgery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cincu, Rafael; Lorente, Francisco de Asis; Gomez, Joaquin; Eiras, Jose; Agrawal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    The spine surgeons have been combining anterior and posterolateral fusion (circumferential fusion) as the final solution to treat spinal disorders and many have been using it to treat failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). In present study, we analyzed and compared the clinical and radiological outcomes in patients with transpedicular screw fixation and intervertebral autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft or in patients with transpedicular screw fixation and intervertebral B-Twin system for FBSS with a follow-up period of 10 years after the surgery. This study was a retrospective case study performed on 55 patients with FBSS. Clinical and radiological changes were compared between the two groups of patients on the basis of improvement of back pain, radicular pain, and work capacity. Outcome was measured in terms of Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index, and the changes in pain and function were documented every year from before surgery until 2012. We analyzed the evolution of 55 cases of FBSS those underwent segmental circumferential posterior fusions from June 2001 to February 2003, operated by a single surgeon and followed up during 10 years until February 2012. The patients were divided into 2 groups: In 25 patients, posterolateral fusions with Legacy™ (Medtronic, Inc. NYSE: MDT) screws and intersomatic autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft was performed, and, in 30 patients, posterolateral fusions with the same screws and intersomatic fusion B-Twin (Biomet Spain Orthopaedics, S.L.) system was performed. In all cases, we used posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF)/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) approach for intervertebral graft, and the artrodesis was supplemented at intertransverse level with Autologus Growth Factor (AGF-MBA INCORPORADO, S.A.). The outcome was measured in terms of Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index, and the changes in pain and function were documented every year and compared from before surgery to the final

  2. A 10-year follow-up of transpedicular screw fixation and intervertebral autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft or intervertebral B-Twin system in failed back surgery syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cincu, Rafael; Lorente, Francisco de Asis; Gomez, Joaquin; Eiras, Jose; Agrawal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: The spine surgeons have been combining anterior and posterolateral fusion (circumferential fusion) as the final solution to treat spinal disorders and many have been using it to treat failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). In present study, we analyzed and compared the clinical and radiological outcomes in patients with transpedicular screw fixation and intervertebral autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft or in patients with transpedicular screw fixation and intervertebral B-Twin system for FBSS with a follow-up period of 10 years after the surgery. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective case study performed on 55 patients with FBSS. Clinical and radiological changes were compared between the two groups of patients on the basis of improvement of back pain, radicular pain, and work capacity. Outcome was measured in terms of Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index, and the changes in pain and function were documented every year from before surgery until 2012. We analyzed the evolution of 55 cases of FBSS those underwent segmental circumferential posterior fusions from June 2001 to February 2003, operated by a single surgeon and followed up during 10 years until February 2012. The patients were divided into 2 groups: In 25 patients, posterolateral fusions with Legacy™ (Medtronic, Inc. NYSE: MDT) screws and intersomatic autogenous posterior iliac crest bone graft was performed, and, in 30 patients, posterolateral fusions with the same screws and intersomatic fusion B-Twin (Biomet Spain Orthopaedics, S.L.) system was performed. In all cases, we used posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF)/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) approach for intervertebral graft, and the artrodesis was supplemented at intertransverse level with Autologus Growth Factor (AGF-MBA INCORPORADO, S.A.). The outcome was measured in terms of Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index, and the changes in pain and function were documented every year and compared

  3. On asymptotic stabilisation of a chain of integrators with nonlinearity and an uncertain input delay by output feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ho-Lim

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we provide an output feedback solution over one given by Choi and Lim [Systems & Control Letters, 59(6), 374-379 (2010)] under more generalised system set-up. More specifically, we consider a stabilisation problem of a chain of integrators that has nonlinearity and an uncertain delay in the input by output feedback. The nonlinearity is classified into four types. Then, we propose a memoryless output feedback controller which contains a gain-scaling factor to adjust controller gains depending on the given nonlinearity type. Our stability analysis shows that the controlled system has unique stabilisation result associated with each type of nonlinearity. Our result provides a new aspect to the stabilisation problem of nonlinear time-delay systems and broadens the existing control results of time-delay systems. Two examples are given for illustration.

  4. L ∞ and L 2 semi-global stabilisation of continuous-time periodic linear systems with bounded controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Hou, Ming-Zhe; Duan, Guang-Ren

    2013-04-01

    This article is concerned with L ∞ and L 2 semi-global stabilisation of continuous-time periodic linear systems with bounded controls. Two problems, namely L ∞ semi-global stabilisation with controls having bounded magnitude and L 2 semi-global stabilisation with controls having bounded energy, are solved based on solutions to a class of periodic Lyapunov differential equations (PLDEs) resulting from the problem of minimal energy control with guaranteed convergence rate. Under the assumption that the open-loop system is (asymptotically) null controllable with constrained controls, periodic feedback are established to solve the concerned problems. The proposed PLDE-based approaches possess the advantage that the resulting controllers are easy to implement since the designers need only to solve a linear differential equation. A numerical example is worked out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Stabilising cubosomes with Tween 80 as a step towards targeting lipid nanocarriers to the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Azhari, Hanisah; Strauss, Mike; Hook, Sarah; Boyd, Ben J; Rizwan, Shakila B

    2016-07-01

    Coating nanoparticles with the surfactant Tween 80 have been previously shown to enhance drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate whether Tween 80 could be used to stabilise phytantriol-based cubosomes thereby enabling potential application in delivering macromolecular therapeutics to the brain. Cubosome particles with their large internal and external surface area by virtue of their nanostructure are ideal for delivery of macromolecules. Phase behaviour studies were conducted using a combination of optical microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and the addition of Tween 80 to mixtures of phytantriol and water resulted in a rich array of lyotropic mesophases. In particular, a large cubic phase region and a two-phase region of readily dispersed cubosomes is observed. Cubosomes with different concentrations of Tween 80 and phytantriol as the liquid crystal forming lipid were prepared using the solvent precursor method and their physical properties were investigated. A combination of dynamic light scattering, cryogenic electron tomography and SAXS shows formation of well-defined cubosomes with a narrow size distribution and the Im3m cubic structure. Collectively, the results confirm that Tween 80 can effectively stabilize phytantriol cubosomes, opening the possibility for future application in drug delivery across the BBB. Moreover, well-defined, homogenous cubosome formulations prepared using the mild solvent precursor dilution method has significant implications for large-scale production of cubosomes, which currently is a major barrier to the application of cubosomes in the clinic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipid oxidation in minced beef meat with added Krebs cycle substrates to stabilise colour.

    PubMed

    Yi, G; Grabež, V; Bjelanovic, M; Slinde, E; Olsen, K; Langsrud, O; Phung, V T; Haug, A; Oostindjer, M; Egelandsdal, B

    2015-11-15

    Krebs cycle substrates (KCS) can stabilise the colour of packaged meat by oxygen reduction. This study tested whether this reduction releases reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid oxidation in minced meat under two different storage conditions. KCS combinations of succinate and glutamate increased peroxide forming potential (PFP, 1.18-1.32 mmol peroxides/kg mince) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, 0.30-0.38 mg malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents/kg mince) under low oxygen storage conditions. Both succinate and glutamate were metabolised. Moreover, under high oxygen (75%) storage conditions, KCS combinations of glutamate, citrate and malate increased PFP (from 1.22 to 1.29 mmol peroxides/kg) and TBARS (from 0.37 to 0.40 mg MDA equivalents/kg mince). Only glutamate was metabolised. The KCS combinations that were added to stabilise colour were metabolised during storage, and acted as pro-oxidants that promoted lipid oxidation in both high and low oxygen conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Accessible Mannitol-Based Amphiphiles (MNAs) for Membrane Protein Solubilisation and Stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hazrat; Du, Yang; Scull, Nicola J; Mortensen, Jonas S; Tarrasch, Jeffrey; Bae, Hyoung Eun; Loland, Claus J; Byrne, Bernadette; Kobilka, Brian K; Chae, Pil Seok

    2016-05-17

    Integral membrane proteins are amphipathic molecules crucial for all cellular life. The structural study of these macromolecules starts with protein extraction from the native membranes, followed by purification and crystallisation. Detergents are essential tools for these processes, but detergent-solubilised membrane proteins often denature and aggregate, resulting in loss of both structure and function. In this study, a novel class of agents, designated mannitol-based amphiphiles (MNAs), were prepared and characterised for their ability to solubilise and stabilise membrane proteins. Some of MNAs conferred enhanced stability to four membrane proteins including a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2 AR), compared to both n-dodecyl-d-maltoside (DDM) and the other MNAs. These agents were also better than DDM for electron microscopy analysis of the β2 AR. The ease of preparation together with the enhanced membrane protein stabilisation efficacy demonstrates the value of these agents for future membrane protein research. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Chemistry of guanidinate-stabilised diboranes: transition-metal-catalysed dehydrocoupling and hydride abstraction.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Arne; Litters, Sebastian; Elias, Jana; Kaifer, Elisabeth; Himmel, Hans-Jörg

    2014-09-22

    Herein, we analyse the catalytic boron-boron dehydrocoupling reaction that leads from the base-stabilised diborane(6) [H2 B(hpp)]2 (hpp=1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-pyrimido[1,2-a]pyrimidinate) to the base-stabilised diborane(4) [H2 B(hpp)]2 . A number of potential transition-metal precatalysts was studied, including transition-metal complexes of the product diborane(4). The synthesis and structural characterisation of two further examples of such complexes is presented. The best results for the dehydrocoupling reactions were obtained with precatalysts of Group 9 metals in the oxidation state of +I. The active catalyst is formed in situ through a multistep process that involves reduction of the precatalyst by the substrate [H2 B(hpp)]2 , and mechanistic investigations indicate that both heterogeneous and (slower) homogeneous reaction pathways play a role in the dehydrocoupling reaction. In addition, hydride abstraction from [H2 B(hpp)]2 and related diboranes is analysed and the possibility for subsequent deprotonation is discussed by probing the protic character of the cationic boron-hydrogen compounds with NMR spectroscopic analysis.

  9. A Scott bench with ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad improves body posture during preacher arm curl exercise.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Busti, Daniele; Zanuso, Silvano

    2016-05-01

    We assessed whether the use of an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad, during the preacher arm curl exercise, could significantly reduce the excessive shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis induced by the standard flat pad built into the existing preacher arm curl equipment. A 3D motion capture system and inclinometers were used to measure shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis in 15 subjects performing preacher arm curl with a plate-loaded machine provided with the standard flat pad. The same measures were repeated after replacing the flat pad with a new ergonomic pad, specifically designed to accommodate the thorax profile and improve body posture. Pad replacement significantly (p < 0.001) reduced shoulder protraction (from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]) and thoracic kyphosis (from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]), enabling postural and functional improvements within the entire spine, shoulder girdle and rib cage. The ergonomic pad may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort and reduce the risk of injury. Practitioner summary: We have designed an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad for the preacher arm curl exercise. The new ergonomic pad improves the poor posture conditions induced by the standard flat pad and may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort, improve the breathing function and reduce the risk of injury.

  10. Electrical in-situ characterisation of interface stabilised organic thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Striedinger, Bernd; Fian, Alexander; Petritz, Andreas; Lassnig, Roman; Winkler, Adolf; Stadlober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We report on the electrical in-situ characterisation of organic thin film transistors under high vacuum conditions. Model devices in a bottom-gate/bottom-contact (coplanar) configuration are electrically characterised in-situ, monolayer by monolayer (ML), while the organic semiconductor (OSC) is evaporated by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE). Thermal SiO2 with an optional polymer interface stabilisation layer serves as the gate dielectric and pentacene is chosen as the organic semiconductor. The evolution of transistor parameters is studied on a bi-layer dielectric of a 150 nm of SiO2 and 20 nm of poly((±)endo,exo-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, diphenylester) (PNDPE) and compared to the behaviour on a pure SiO2 dielectric. The thin layer of PNDPE, which is an intrinsically photo-patternable organic dielectric, shows an excellent stabilisation performance, significantly reducing the calculated interface trap density at the OSC/dielectric interface up to two orders of magnitude, and thus remarkably improving the transistor performance. PMID:26457122

  11. Electrical in-situ characterisation of interface stabilised organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Striedinger, Bernd; Fian, Alexander; Petritz, Andreas; Lassnig, Roman; Winkler, Adolf; Stadlober, Barbara

    2015-07-14

    We report on the electrical in-situ characterisation of organic thin film transistors under high vacuum conditions. Model devices in a bottom-gate/bottom-contact (coplanar) configuration are electrically characterised in-situ, monolayer by monolayer (ML), while the organic semiconductor (OSC) is evaporated by organic molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE). Thermal SiO2 with an optional polymer interface stabilisation layer serves as the gate dielectric and pentacene is chosen as the organic semiconductor. The evolution of transistor parameters is studied on a bi-layer dielectric of a 150 nm of SiO2 and 20 nm of poly((±)endo,exo-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, diphenylester) (PNDPE) and compared to the behaviour on a pure SiO2 dielectric. The thin layer of PNDPE, which is an intrinsically photo-patternable organic dielectric, shows an excellent stabilisation performance, significantly reducing the calculated interface trap density at the OSC/dielectric interface up to two orders of magnitude, and thus remarkably improving the transistor performance.

  12. Physiological bicarbonate buffers: stabilisation and use as dissolution media for modified release systems.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Hala M; Merchant, Hamid A; Arafat, Basel T; Basit, Abdul W

    2009-12-01

    Bicarbonate media are reflective of the ionic composition and buffer capacity of small intestinal luminal fluids. Here we investigate methods to stabilise bicarbonate buffers which can be readily applied to USP-II dissolution apparatus. The in vitro drug release behaviour of three enteric coated mesalazine (mesalamine) products is investigated. Asacol 400 mg and Asacol 800 mg (Asacol HD) and the new generation, high dose (1200 mg) delayed and sustained release formulation, Mezavant (Lialda), are compared in pH 7.4 Krebs bicarbonate and phosphate buffers. Bicarbonate stabilisation was achieved by: continuous sparging of the medium with 5% CO(2)(g), application of a layer of liquid paraffin above the medium, or a specially designed in-house seal device that prevents CO(2)(g) loss. Each of the products displayed a delayed onset of drug release in physiological bicarbonate media compared to phosphate buffer. Moreover, Mezavant displayed a zero-order, sustained release profile in phosphate buffer; in bicarbonate media, however, this slow drug release was no longer apparent and a profile similar to that of Asacol 400 mg was observed. These similar release patterns of Asacol 400 mg and Mezavant displayed in bicarbonate media are in agreement with their pharmacokinetic profiles in humans. Bicarbonate media provide a better prediction of the in vivo behaviour of the mesalazine preparations investigated.

  13. Characterisation of Physicochemical Properties of Propionylated Corn Starch and Its Application as Stabiliser.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lee-Fen; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Lee, Chong Yew; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2015-09-01

    A series of propionylated starches with different degrees of substitution (DS) was synthesised and their physicochemical properties and application as a stabiliser were investigated. Starch propionates with moderate DS were prepared by esterification of native corn starch with propionic anhydride. By varying the reaction times of the esterification process, twelve starch propionates with DS of 0.47 to 0.94 were prepared. FTIR and NMR confirmed the introduction of propionyl groups to the starch. X-ray diffraction pattern showed reduced crystallinity in the starch propionates. The contact angle was found to increase proportionately with the increase in DS. Swelling power results showed that starch propionates were able to swell more than native corn starch at low temperature (40 °C). Oil-in- -water (O/W) emulsions prepared using starch propionates (DS of 0.64 to 0.86) showed exceptional stability when challenged by centrifugation stress test. These stable O/W emulsions had viscosities in the range of 1236.7-3330.0 mPa·s. In conclusion, moderately substituted short-chain (propionylated) starches could be a promising cold swelling starch, thickener and O/W emulsion stabiliser in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  14. Characterisation of Physicochemical Properties of Propionylated Corn Starch and Its Application as Stabiliser

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lee-Fen; Cheng, Lai-Hoong; Lee, Chong Yew

    2015-01-01

    Summary A series of propionylated starches with different degrees of substitution (DS) was synthesised and their physicochemical properties and application as a stabiliser were investigated. Starch propionates with moderate DS were prepared by esterification of native corn starch with propionic anhydride. By varying the reaction times of the esterification process, twelve starch propionates with DS of 0.47 to 0.94 were prepared. FTIR and NMR confirmed the introduction of propionyl groups to the starch. X-ray diffraction pattern showed reduced crystallinity in the starch propionates. The contact angle was found to increase proportionately with the increase in DS. Swelling power results showed that starch propionates were able to swell more than native corn starch at low temperature (40 °C). Oil-in- -water (O/W) emulsions prepared using starch propionates (DS of 0.64 to 0.86) showed exceptional stability when challenged by centrifugation stress test. These stable O/W emulsions had viscosities in the range of 1236.7–3330.0 mPa·s. In conclusion, moderately substituted short-chain (propionylated) starches could be a promising cold swelling starch, thickener and O/W emulsion stabiliser in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:27904359

  15. Immobilised native plant cysteine proteases: packed-bed reactor for white wine protein stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Ilaria; Lombardelli, Claudio; Liburdi, Katia; Acciaro, Giuseppe; Zappino, Matteo; Esti, Marco

    2016-02-01

    This research presents a feasibility study of using a continuous packed-bed reactor (PBR), containing immobilised native plant cysteine proteases, as a specific and mild alternative technique relative to the usual bentonite fining for white wine protein stabilisation. The operational parameters for a PBR containing immobilised bromelain (PBR-br) or immobilised papain (PBR-pa) were optimised using model wine fortified with synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA). The effectiveness of PBR-br, both in terms of hazing potential and total protein decrease, was significantly higher than PBR-pa, in all the seven unfined, white wines used. Among the wines tested, Sauvignon Blanc, given its total protein content as well as its very high intrinsic instability, was selected as a control wine to evaluate the effect of the treatment on wine as to its soluble protein profile, phenolic composition, mineral component, and sensory properties. The treatment in a PBR containing immobilised bromelain appeared effective in decreasing both wine hazing potential and total protein amount, while it did not significantly affect the phenol compounds, the mineral component nor the sensory quality of wine. The enzymatic treatment in PBR was shown to be a specific and mild technique for use as an alternative to bentonite fining for white wine protein stabilisation.

  16. Comparisons of operating envelopes for contaminated soil stabilised/solidified with different cementitious binders.

    PubMed

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Stegemann, Julia A

    2014-03-01

    This work initiated the development of operating envelopes for stabilised/solidified contaminated soils. The operating envelopes define the range of operating variables for acceptable performance of the treated soils. The study employed a soil spiked with 3,000 mg/kg each of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, and 10,000 mg/kg of diesel. The binders used for treatment involved Portland cement (CEMI), pulverised fuel ash (PFA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and hydrated lime (hlime). The specific binder formulations were CEMI, CEMI/PFA = 1:4, CEMI/GGBS = 1:9 and hlime/GGBS = 1:4. The water contents employed ranged from 13 % to 21 % (dry weight), while binder dosages ranged from 5 % to 20 % (w/w). We monitored the stabilised/solidified soils for up to 84 days using different performance tests. The tests include unconfined compressive strength (UCS), hydraulic conductivity, acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) and pH-dependent leachability of contaminants. The water content range resulted in adequate workability of the mixes but had no significant effect on leachability of contaminants. We produced design charts, representing operating envelopes, from the results generated. The charts establish relationships between water content, binder dosage and UCS; and binder dosage, leachant pH and leachability of contaminants. The work also highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the different binder formulations.

  17. Sludge digestion instead of aerobic stabilisation - a cost benefit analysis based on experiences in Germany.

    PubMed

    Gretzschel, Oliver; Schmitt, Theo G; Hansen, Joachim; Siekmann, Klaus; Jakob, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of a worldwide increase of energy costs, the efficient use of sewage sludge as a renewable energy resource must be considered, even for smaller wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with design capacities between 10,000 and 50,000 population equivalent (PE). To find the lower limit for an economical conversion of an aerobic stabilisation plant into an anaerobic stabilisation plant, we derived cost functions for specific capital costs and operating cost savings. With these tools, it is possible to evaluate if it would be promising to further investigate refitting aerobic plants into plants that produce biogas. By comparing capital costs with operation cost savings, a break-even point for process conversion could be determined. The break-even point varies depending on project specific constraints and assumptions related to future energy and operation costs and variable interest rates. A 5% increase of energy and operation costs leads to a cost efficient conversion for plants above 7,500 PE. A conversion of WWTPs results in different positive effects on energy generation and plant operations: increased efficiency, energy savings, and on-site renewable power generation by digester gas which can be used in the plant. Also, the optimisation of energy efficiency results in a reduction of primary energy consumption.

  18. Mechanical testing of a modified stabilisation method for tibial tuberosity advancement.

    PubMed

    Etchepareborde, S; Barthelemy, N; Mills, J; Pascon, F; Ragetly, G R; Balligand, M

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated three modified techniques of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA). Loads to failure were calculated for each technique. A 9 mm TTA procedure was performed in the tibiae of dogs weighing between 32 and 38 kg. In group 1 (n = 12), the distal part of the tibial crest was left attached to the tibia by the cranial cortex, and a figure-of-eight wire was added for stabilisation. In group 2 (n = 12), the tibial crest was left attached but no additional device was used for stabilisation. In group 3 (n = 12), the tibial crest was completely separated from the tibia and fixed by a figure-of-eight wire so that, in this group, only the wire opposed avulsion of the tibial crest. Unidirectional axial force was applied via the patella to determine the maximal load to failure of the model. There was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2. These two groups both had a significantly stronger construct than that of group 3. We described modifications to the TTA procedure without plate fixation that warrant clinical investigation. When the crest is broken during its advancement, the tension sustained by the repair is significantly weaker from a biomechanical point of view and the use of such a repair clinically is not recommended by the authors.

  19. Combined intra-extra-articular technique for stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation. Preliminary results in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Venturini, A; Pinna, S; Tamburro, R

    2010-01-01

    To report a new technique for repairing traumatic cranio-dorsal coxofemoral luxation in dogs. Stabilisation of hip luxation was carried out in two dogs: a one-year-old male Border Collie and an eight-year-old female American Staffordshire Bull Terrier. A caudal approach was performed to expose the hip joint. Following this, a 2.5 mm hole was drilled through the acetabular wall at the original attachment of the round ligament, followed by a tunnel between the fovea capitis and the proximal third of the femur. Nylon tape was tied in a clove hitch knot around the femoral neck. The tape was placed as a bridge over the ischial spine to create an acetabular roof in order to increase articular stabilisation. Follow-up examinations were performed at 10, 40 and 90 days after surgery.The dogs did not show any signs of lameness, pain or reoccurrence of the luxation during any of the follow-up examinations. This tape-technique enabled reinforcement of the acetabular roof which in turn increased the stability of the joint.

  20. Integration of vehicle yaw stabilisation and rollover prevention through nonlinear hierarchical control allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberding, Matthäus B.; Tjønnås, Johannes; Johansen, Tor A.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents an approach to rollover prevention that takes advantage of the modular structure and optimisation properties of the control allocation paradigm. It eliminates the need for a stabilising roll controller by introducing rollover prevention as a constraint on the control allocation problem. The major advantage of this approach is the control authority margin that remains with a high-level controller even during interventions for rollover prevention. In this work, the high-level control is assigned to a yaw stabilising controller. It could be replaced by any other controller. The constraint for rollover prevention could be replaced by or extended to different control objectives. This work uses differential braking for actuation. The use of additional or different actuators is possible. The developed control algorithm is computationally efficient and suitable for low-cost automotive electronic control units. The predictive design of the rollover prevention constraint does not require any sensor equipment in addition to the yaw controller. The method is validated using an industrial multi-body vehicle simulation environment.

  1. Double oil-in-oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by particles.

    PubMed

    Tyowua, Andrew T; Yiase, Stephen G; Binks, Bernard P

    2017-02-15

    The stability of vegetable oil-in-100cS silicone oil-in-vegetable oil V/S/V emulsions to sedimentation and coalescence has been studied. The emulsions contained two types of silica particle of different surface silanol content, 70% and 20% SiOH, which prefer to stabilise 100cS silicone oil-in-vegetable oil S/V and vegetable oil-in-100cS silicone oil V/S emulsions respectively, in systems containing equal proportion of the oils. The emulsions were prepared in a two-step process and were characterised using the drop test and optical microscopy. The emulsions were completely stable to coalescence for over a month. However, they underwent sedimentation which decreases as the concentration of 70% SiOH silica particles stabilising the silicone oil globules increases. The gravity-induced sedimentation halted at a relatively high particle concentration (2wt.%) and negligible amount of the vegetable oils was released even after a month. Their average droplet diameter also decreases as the concentration of 70% SiOH silica particles increases. Values of oil-oil-solid particle contact angles θoo, measured on microscope glass slides composed of the particles, are in good agreement with the type of simple emulsions and hence double emulsions formed by the particles. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enamel subsurface lesion remineralisation with casein phosphopeptide stabilised solutions of calcium, phosphate and fluoride.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, N J; Saranathan, S; Cai, F; Cross, K J; Reynolds, E C

    2008-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptide stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP) solutions have been shown to remineralise enamel subsurface lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ion composition of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP solutions on enamel subsurface lesion remineralisation in vitro. CPP-bound and free calcium, phosphate and fluoride ion concentrations in the solutions were determined after ultrafiltration. The ion activities of the free ion species present were calculated using an iterative computational program. The mineral deposited in the subsurface lesions was analysed using transverse microradiography and electron microprobe. CPP was found to stabilise high concentrations of calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions at all pH values (7.0-4.5). Remineralisation of the subsurface lesions was observed at all pH values tested with a maximum at pH 5.5. The CPP-ACFP solutions produced greater remineralisation than the CPP-ACP solutions at pH 5.5 and below. The mineral formed in the subsurface lesions was consistent with hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite for remineralisation with CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP, respectively. The activity gradient of the neutral ion pair CaHPO(4)(0) into the lesion was significantly correlated with remineralisation and together with HF(0) were identified as important species for diffusion.

  3. Feedbacks and landscape-level vegetation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bowman, David M J S; Perry, George L W; Marston, J B

    2015-05-01

    Alternative stable-state theory (ASS) is widely accepted as explaining landscape-level vegetation dynamics, such as switches between forest and grassland. This theory argues that webs of feedbacks stabilise vegetation composition and structure, and that abrupt state shifts can occur if stabilising feedbacks are weakened. However, it is difficult to identify stabilising feedback loops and the disturbance thresholds beyond which state changes occur. Here, we argue that doing this requires a synthetic approach blending observation, experimentation, simulation, conceptual models, and narratives. Using forest boundaries and large mammal extinctions, we illustrate how a multifaceted research program can advance understanding of feedback-driven ecosystem change. Our integrative approach has applicability to other complex macroecological systems controlled by numerous feedbacks where controlled experimentation is impossible.

  4. The effect of environmental conditions and soil physicochemistry on phosphate stabilisation of Pb in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-04-01

    The stabilisation of Pb in the soil by phosphate is influenced by environmental conditions and physicochemical properties of the soils to which it is applied. Stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined in four soils under different environmental conditions. The effect of soil moisture and temperature on stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined by measurement of water extractable and bioaccessible Pb, sequential fractionation and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The addition of humic acid, ammonium nitrate and chloride was also examined for inhibition or improvement of Pb stability with phosphate treatment. The effect of moisture level varied between soils. In soil MB and DA a soil moisture level of 50% water holding capacity was sufficient to maximise stabilisation of Pb, but in soil TV and PE reduction in bioaccessible Pb was inhibited at this moisture level. Providing moisture at twice the soil water holding capacity did not enhance the effect of phosphate on Pb stabilisation. The difference of Pb stability as a result of incubating phosphate treated soils at 18 °C and 37 °C was relatively small. However wet-dry cycles decreased the effectiveness of phosphate treatment. The reduction in bioaccessible Pb obtained was between 20 and 40% with the most optimal treatment conditions. The reduction in water extractable Pb by phosphate was substantial regardless of incubation conditions and the effect of different temperature and soil moisture regimes was not significant. Selective sequential extraction showed phosphate treatment converted Pb in fraction 1 (exchangeable, acid and water soluble) to fraction 2 (reducible). There were small difference in fraction 4 (residual) Pb and fraction 1 as a result of treatment conditions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of stabilised PE soil revealed small differences in Pb speciation under varying soil moisture and temperature treatments. The addition of humic acid and chloride produced the greatest effect on Pb speciation in

  5. The use of biogas plant fermentation residue for the stabilisation of toxic metals in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geršl, Milan; Šotnar, Martin; Mareček, Jan; Vítěz, Tomáš; Koutný, Tomáš; Kleinová, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Our department has been paying attention to different methods of soil decontamination, including the in situ stabilisation. Possible reagents to control the toxic metals mobility in soils include a fermentation residue (FR) from a biogas plant. Referred to as digestate, it is a product of anaerobic decomposition taking place in such facilities. The fermentation residue is applied to soils as a fertiliser. A new way of its use is the in situ stabilisation of toxic metals in soils. Testing the stabilisation of toxic metals made use of real soil samples sourced from five agriculturally used areas of the Czech Republic with 3 soil samples taken from sites contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn and 2 samples collected at sites of natural occurrence of Cu, Pb and Zn ores. All the samples were analysed using the sequential extraction procedure (BCR) (determine the type of Cu, Pb and Zn bonds). Stabilisation of toxic metals was tested in five soil samples by adding reagents as follows: dolomite, slaked lime, goethite, compost and fermentation residue. A single reagent was added at three different concentrations. In the wet state with the added reagents, the samples were left for seven days, shaken twice per day. After seven days, metal extraction was carried out: samples of 10 g soil were shaken for 2 h in a solution of 0.1M NH4NO3 at a 1:2.5 (g.ml-1), centrifuged for 15 min at 5,000 rpm and then filtered through PTFE 0.45 μm mesh filters. The extracts were analysed by ICP-OES. Copper The best reduction of Cu concentration in the extract was obtained at each of the tested sites by adding dolomite (10 g soil + 0.3 g dolomite). The concentration of Cu in the leachate decreased to 2.1-18.4% compare with the leachate without addition. Similar results were also shown for the addition of fermentation residue (10 g soil + 1 g FR). The Cu concentration in the leachate decreased to 16.7-26.8% compared with the leachate without addition. Lead The best results were achieved by adding

  6. An improved stability test and stabilisation of linear time-varying systems governed by second-order vector differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Shen-Lung; Juang, Yau-Tarng; Wu, Wei-Ying; Shieh, Wern-Yarng

    2011-12-01

    In this article, the problems of exponential stability analysis and stabilisation of linear time-varying systems described by a class of second-order vector differential equations are considered. Using bounding techniques on the trajectories of a linear time-varying system, the stability problem of the time-varying system is transformed to that of a time-invariant system and a new sufficient condition for the exponential stability is obtained. Moreover, the new criterion is proven to be superior to a test presented in the recent literature. Finally, the proposed criterion is applied to the exponential stabilisation problem via state feedback. The results are illustrated by several numerical examples.

  7. Finite-time observer-based output-feedback control for the global stabilisation of the PVTOL aircraft with bounded inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala-Río, A.; Fantoni, I.; Sanahuja, G.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, an output-feedback scheme for the global stabilisation of the planar vertical take-off and landing aircraft with bounded inputs is developed taking into account the positive nature of the thrust. The global stabilisation objective is proven to be achieved avoiding input saturation and by exclusively considering the system positions in the feedback. To cope with the lack of velocity measurements, the proposed algorithm involves a finite-time observer. The generalised versions of the involved finite-time stabilisers have not only permitted to solve the output-feedback stabilisation problem avoiding input saturation, but also provide additional flexibility in the control design that may be used in aid of performance improvements. With respect to previous approaches, the developed finite-time observer-based scheme guarantees the global stabilisation objective disregarding velocity measurements in a bounded input context. Simulation tests corroborate the analytical developments. The study includes further experimental results on an actual flying device.

  8. Organomineral interactions as an important mechanism for stabilisation of bacterial residues in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltner, Anja; Achtenhagen, Jan; Kästner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Although plant material is the original input of organic matter to soils, microbial residues have been identified to contribute to a large extent to soil organic matter. However, until now it is unclear how microbial residues are stabilised in soil and protected from degradation. We hypothesised that organomineral interactions, in particular encrustation by oxides, may play an important role, which might vary depending on environmental conditions, e.g. redox potential. Therefore we produced 14C-labelled Escherichia coli cells and cell envelope fragments and coprecipitated these materials with Fe oxide or Al oxide. Mineral-free (control) and mineral-encrusted bacterial residues were incubated for 345 days at 20˚ C under either oxic or oxygen-limited conditions, and mineralisation was quantified by scintillation counting of the CO2 produced during incubation. Oxygen limitation was achieved by first exchanging the atmosphere in the incubation vessels with dinitrogen gas. After 100 days of incubation, the anoxic treatments were waterlogged to further decrease the redox potential, and after 290 days, glucose and nutrients were supplied to all treatments in order to foster microbial activity and consumption of electron acceptors. The mineralisation curves were fitted by double-exponential (0-100 days), first-order kinetic (100-290 days) and linear (290-345 days) models. The model parameters were tested for significant differences between the treatments by three-way ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni t-test. We found that encrustation by the oxides significantly reduced mineralisation of the bacterial residues. This effect was inversed by reductive dissolution of Fe oxides after substrate and nutrient addition to the oxygen-limited treatments, suggesting a significant role of the encrustation in stabilisation of the bacterial residues. We also observed that bacterial cell envelope fragments were generally slightly more resistant to mineralisation than whole cells. The

  9. Stabilisation de poussieres de four a arc electrique dans les matrices cimentaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforest, Guylaine

    L'etude de la stabilisation des poussieres de four a arc electrique (EAFD) par le laitier de haut-fourneau (GGBFS) et le ciment Portland (OPC) a ete realisee en trois parties. D'abord, la problematique de fixation du Cr dans les matrices cimentaires a ete etudiee en soumettant differents liants a des solutions de Cr lors d'essais de lixiviation en vrac et d'essais d'isothermes d'absorption. Ensuite, la caracterisation des EAFD a ete effectuee. Finalement, la stabilisation des EAFD dans les matrices cimentaires a ete etudiee en soumettant differents melanges liant-EAFD a des essais de lixiviation en vrac, de competition ionique, de solubilisation a differents pH et de lixiviation sur monolithes. Les resultats ont demontre que le OPC et le GGBFS sont efficaces pour la fixation du Cr. Les silicates de calcium hydrates, la chromatite et l'hydrocalumite ont ete identifiees comme etant des phases jouant un role dans la fixation du Cr. Les EAFD ont montre une mineralogie complexe, heterogene, riche en spinelles et oxydes metalliques. Un important pourcentage des metaux lourds (Cr, Zn, Ni et Pb) des EAFD a ete identifie lixiviable. Les EAFD etablissent un controle de solubilite sur ces metaux, mais ce controle n'est pas suffisant pour diminuer les concentrations en metaux du lixiviat sous les limites permises. Ainsi, les resulats des essais sur la stabilisation des EAFD ont demontre qu'il etait possible, avec le OPC et le GGBFS, de diminuer les concentrations en metaux lourds des lixiviats sous les limites acceptees. Les phases incorporant les metaux, ((Ni,Zn)Fe2O4, (Zn,Mo)O, Ni(OH)2 et Pb(OH) 2), ont ete determinees par SEM, XRD et par modelisation geochimique. L'hydrocalumite et le Cr(VI)-ettringite ont ete etablies comme etant des phases potentiellement capables de fixer le Cr. L'etude de la competition ionique a montre que la fixation du Cr par le GGBFS diminue legerement en presence du Pb. L'etude des monolithes, composes de EAFD et de OPC ou GGBFS et soumis a une

  10. Stabilisation of spent mushroom substrate for application as a plant growth-promoting organic amendment.

    PubMed

    Paula, Fabiana S; Tatti, Enrico; Abram, Florence; Wilson, Jude; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Over three million tonnes of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) are produced in Europe every year as a by-product of the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. The management of SMS has become an increasing challenge for the mushroom production industry, and finding environmentally and economically sustainable solutions for this organic residue is, therefore, highly desirable. Due to its physical properties and nutrient content, SMS has great potential to be employed in agricultural and horticultural sectors, and further contribute to reduce the use of non-renewable resources, such as peat. However, SMS is often regarded as not being stable and/or mature, which hampers its wide use for crop production. Here, we demonstrate the stabilisation of SMS and its subsequent use as organic fertiliser and partial peat replacement in horticulture. The stabilisation was performed in a laboratory-scale composting system, with controlled temperature and aeration. Physical and chemical parameters were monitored during composting and provided information on the progress of the process. Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content was found to be the most reliable parameter to predict SMS stability. In situ oxygen consumption indicated the main composting phases, reflecting major changes in microbial activity. The structure of the bacterial community was also found to be a potential predictor of stability, as the compositional changes followed the composting progress. By contrast, the fungal community did not present clear successional process along the experiment. Maturity and quality of the stabilised SMS were assessed in a horticultural growing trial. When used as the sole fertiliser source, SMS was able to support Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass) growth and significantly improved grass yield with a concentration-dependent response, increasing grass biomass up to 300%, when compared to the untreated control. In summary, the results indicated that the method employed was efficient in

  11. Freshwater dispersion stability of PAA-stabilised cerium oxide nanoparticles and toxicity towards Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Booth, Andy; Størseth, Trond; Altin, Dag; Fornara, Andrea; Ahniyaz, Anwar; Jungnickel, Harald; Laux, Peter; Luch, Andreas; Sørensen, Lisbet

    2015-02-01

    An aqueous dispersion of poly (acrylic acid)-stabilised cerium oxide (CeO₂) nanoparticles (PAA-CeO₂) was evaluated for its stability in a range of freshwater ecotoxicity media (MHRW, TG 201 and M7), with and without natural organic matter (NOM). In a 15 day dispersion stability study, PAA-CeO₂ did not undergo significant aggregation in any media type. Zeta potential varied between media types and was influenced by PAA-CeO₂ concentration, but remained constant over 15 days. NOM had no influence on PAA-CeO₂ aggregation or zeta potential. The ecotoxicity of the PAA-CeO₂ dispersion was investigated in 72 h algal growth inhibition tests using the freshwater microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. PAA-CeO₂ EC₅₀ values for growth inhibition (GI; 0.024 mg/L) were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than pristine CeO₂ EC₅₀ values reported in the literature. The concentration of dissolved cerium (Ce(3+)/Ce(4+)) in PAA-CeO₂ exposure suspensions was very low, ranging between 0.5 and 5.6 μg/L. Free PAA concentration in the exposure solutions (0.0096-0.0384 mg/L) was significantly lower than the EC10 growth inhibition (47.7 mg/L) value of pure PAA, indicating that free PAA did not contribute to the observed toxicity. Elemental analysis indicated that up to 38% of the total Cerium becomes directly associated with the algal cells during the 72 h exposure. TOF-SIMS analysis of algal cell wall compounds indicated three different modes of action, including a significant oxidative stress response to PAA-CeO₂ exposure. In contrast to pristine CeO₂ nanoparticles, which rapidly aggregate in standard ecotoxicity media, PAA-stabilised CeO₂ nanoparticles remain dispersed and available to water column species. Interaction of PAA with cell wall components, which could be responsible for the observed biomarker alterations, could not be excluded. This study indicates that the increased dispersion stability of PAA-CeO₂ leads to an increase in toxicity compared to

  12. Exploitation of hazelnut, maize germ and sesame seed aqueous extraction residues in the stabilisation of sesame seed paste (tahini).

    PubMed

    Evlogimenou, Anthi; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Kiosseoglou, Vassilios

    2017-01-01

    Sesame seed paste is a highly nutritious food product which, upon long-term storage, tends to exhibit undesirable phenomena of oiling-off and particle sedimentation. The ability of rich-in-fibre aqueous extraction powders originating from oleaginous raw materials to enhance the physical stability of sesame paste is investigated in this study. The extraction residues remaining after treating hazelnut, sesame seed or maize germ with aqueous media in order to extract and exploit their oil bodies, were collected, dehydrated and milled into fine powders. The powders were then incorporated at various levels into a commercially available sesame paste product to assess their potential as paste stabilisers against oil separation. The solids from maize germ exhibited the highest stabilising ability followed by the solids from hazelnut. In contrast, the solids originating from the sesame seed were less effective in stabilising the sesame paste. Shear stress-rate of shear measurements of sesame paste incorporating the extraction residue solids were conducted in an attempt to explain the different stabilising behaviour of the three powders. The intensity of interactions between the incorporated solids within the sesame paste structure may determine the rheological properties of the blend and hence its stability against oiling-off upon long-term storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Stabilisation and humanitarian access in a collapsed state: the Somali case.

    PubMed

    Menkhaus, Ken

    2010-10-01

    Somalia today is the site of three major threats: the world's worst humanitarian crisis; the longest-running instance of complete state collapse; and a robust jihadist movement with links to Al-Qa'ida. External state-building, counter-terrorism and humanitarian policies responding to these threats have worked at cross-purposes. State-building efforts that insist humanitarian relief be channelled through the nascent state in order to build its legitimacy and capacity undermine humanitarian neutrality when the state is a party to a civil war. Counter-terrorism policies that seek to ensure that no aid benefits terrorist groups have the net effect of criminalising relief operations in countries where poor security precludes effective accountability. This paper argues that tensions between stabilisation and humanitarian goals in contemporary Somalia reflect a long history of politicisation of humanitarian operations in the country.

  14. Stabilisation of bank slopes that are prone to liquefaction in ecologically sensitive areas.

    PubMed

    Nestler, P; Stoll, R D

    2001-01-01

    A consequence of lignite stripping in the Lusatia mining district (East Germany) is the backfilling of dumps that mainly consist of low-compacted fine and medium-grained sands. When the ground-water table, which had been lowered while stripping the coal, is rising again, these dumps might be affected by a settlement flow due to the liquefaction of soils. Common methods for stabilisation as, for instance, blasting or vibrator-jetting deep compaction, are not very useful in ecologically sensitive areas, where dumps have been afforested and embankment areas of residual lakes have developed into highly valuable biotopes. A new so-called air-impulse method in combination with directional horizontal drilling has been developed, which does not have a considerably negative impact on the vegetation during compaction. The experience gained during the first employment of this method at the lake "Katja", a residual lake of lignite stripping, is presented in this paper.

  15. Stabilisation of a fibre frequency synthesiser using acousto-optical and electro-optical modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliada, N. A.; Nyushkov, B. N.; Pivtsov, V. S.; Dychkov, A. S.; Farnosov, S. A.; Denisov, V. I.; Bagayev, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    A fibre-optic frequency synthesiser is developed that is stabilised to the optical frequency standard based on molecular iodine ({\\text{Nd : YAG/I}}2). The possibility of transferring stability of the optical frequency standard to other optical frequencies in the IR range 1 - 2 \\unicode{956}{\\text{m}} and to the RF range by using synthesiser phase-locked loops (PLLs) with acousto-optical and electro-optical modulators is experimentally demonstrated. The additive instability introduced into the optical frequency comb of the synthesiser (which arises due to PLL residual random errors) is several orders less than the intrinsic instability of the reference optical frequency standard employed (i.e., is noticeably less than 1 × 10-13 for 1 {\\text{s}} and 5 × 10-15 for 1000 {\\text{s}}).

  16. Remediation by in-situ solidification/stabilisation of Ardeer landfill, Scotland

    SciTech Connect

    Wyllie, M.; Esnault, A.; Barker, P.

    1997-12-31

    The Ardeer Landfill site at ICI Explosives factory on the west coast of Scotland had been a repository for waste from the site for 40 years. In order to safeguard the local environment ICI Explosives, with approval of Local Authorities and the Clyde River Purification Board put into action a programme of investigation and planning which culminated in the in-situ treatment of 10,000 m3 of waste within the landfill by a deep mixing method using the {open_quotes}Colmix{close_quotes} system. The paper describes in varying degrees of detail the remediation from investigation to the execution of the in-situ stabilisation and presents the post construction monitoring results.

  17. Synthesis of dense yttrium-stabilised hafnia pellets for nuclear applications by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrpekl, Vaclav; Holzhäuser, Michael; Hein, Herwin; Vigier, Jean-Francois; Somers, Joseph; Svora, Petr

    2014-11-01

    Dense yttrium-stabilised hafnia pellets (91.35 wt.% HfO2 and 8.65 wt.% Y2O3) were prepared by spark plasma sintering consolidation of micro-beads synthesised by the “external gelation” sol-gel technique. This technique allows a preparation of HfO2-Y2O3 beads with homogenous yttria-hafnia solid solution. A sintering time of 5 min at 1600 °C was sufficient to produce high density pellets (over 90% of the theoretical density) with significant reproducibility. The pellets have been machined in a lathe to the correct dimensions for use as neutron absorbers in an experimental test irradiation in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, Holland, in order to investigate the safety of americium based nuclear fuels.

  18. Investigation of 4-year-old stabilised/solidified and accelerated carbonated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Antemir, A; Hills, C D; Carey, P J; Magnié, M-C; Polettini, A

    2010-09-15

    The investigation of the pilot-scale application of two different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) techniques was carried out at a former fireworks and low explosives manufacturing site in SE England. Cores and granular samples were recovered from uncovered accelerated carbonated (ACT) and cement-treated soils (S/S) after 4 years to evaluate field-performance with time. Samples were prepared for microstructural examination and leaching testing. The results indicated that the cement-treated soil was progressively carbonated over time, whereas the mineralogy of the carbonated soil remained essentially unchanged. Distinct microstructures were developed in the two soils. Although Pb, Zn and Cu leached less from the carbonated soil, these metals were adequately immobilised by both treatments. Geochemical modeling of pH-dependent leaching data suggested that the retention of trace metals resulted from different immobilisation mechanisms operating in the two soils examined.

  19. Observer-based stabilisation of linear systems with parameter uncertainties by using enhanced LMI conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheloufi, Houria; Bedouhene, Fazia; Zemouche, Ali; Alessandri, Angelo

    2015-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of observer-based stabilisation for linear systems with structured norm-bounded parameter uncertainties. A new design methodology is established thanks to a judicious use of some mathematical artefacts such as the well-known Young inequality and various matrix decompositions. The proposed method allows one to compute simultaneously the observer and controller gains by solving a single bilinear matrix inequality (BMI), which becomes a linear matrix inequality (LMI) by freezing some scalars. Furthermore, we show that some existing and elegant results reported in the literature can be regarded as particular cases of the stability conditions presented here. Numerical examples and evaluations of the conservatism are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed design methodology.

  20. Comparing and validating models of driver steering behaviour in collision avoidance and vehicle stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkula, G.; Benderius, O.; Wahde, M.

    2014-12-01

    A number of driver models were fitted to a large data set of human truck driving, from a simulated near-crash, low-friction scenario, yielding two main insights: steering to avoid a collision was best described as an open-loop manoeuvre of predetermined duration, but with situation-adapted amplitude, and subsequent vehicle stabilisation could to a large extent be accounted for by a simple yaw rate nulling control law. These two phenomena, which could be hypothesised to generalise to passenger car driving, were found to determine the ability of four driver models adopted from the literature to fit the human data. Based on the obtained results, it is argued that the concept of internal vehicle models may be less valuable when modelling driver behaviour in non-routine situations such as near-crashes, where behaviour may be better described as direct responses to salient perceptual cues. Some methodological issues in comparing and validating driver models are also discussed.

  1. Global ?-exponential stabilisation of a class of nonlinear networked control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Daoyuan; Huang, Yuehua; Liu, Yungang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate global ?-exponential stabilisation of a class of nonlinear networked control systems. The network-induced delays are assumed to be random and significantly smaller than the sampling period. First, sufficient conditions are presented to ensure global ?-exponential stability for a class of hybrid systems with time delay. Then, the networked control systems are modelled as the hybrid systems with time delay. By the techniques of adding a power integrator and a recursive argument, a sampled-data state feedback control law is presented. Sufficient conditions are given to ensure global ?-exponential stability of the closed-loop system by constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii function. Finally, a numerical example is presented to show the validity of the new methods.

  2. Protective benefits of a stabilised stannous-containing fluoride dentifrice against erosive acid damage.

    PubMed

    Faller, Robert V; Eversole, Sandra L; Saunders-Burkhardt, Kymberly

    2014-03-01

    To assess the potential of a stabilised stannous (Sn)-containing NaF dentifrice (Oral B/blend-a-Med(®) Pro-Expert), in addition to a number of other marketed European dentifrices formulated with various fluoride actives and two control dentifrices, to protect enamel against erosive acid damage. Cores of human enamel (four per group) were soaked in pooled human saliva, and then treated with a 1:3 slurry (dentifrice:saliva) using a standardised in vitro erosion model (5-day cycling) that includes 10-minute challenges with 1% citric acid applied 60 minutes after each dentifrice treatment. Enamel surface loss was measured using transverse microradiography (TMR). Specimens treated with the Sn-containing NaF dentifrice showed 6.5 μm of surface loss ± 1.2 (SEM), which was not significantly different (P < 0.05, Fisher LSD) from that of a clinically proven, stabilised SnF2 positive control [Crest(®) Pro-Health, 1,100 ppm F as SnF2 : 3.0 μm of surface loss ± 1.1 (SEM)]. The Sn-containing NaF dentifrice and the clinically proven positive control both provided significantly greater protection (P < 0.05, Fisher LSD) compared with all of the other products tested. Enamel loss (SEM) values for other European products and the reference control (active agents) were: Meridol(®) : (1,400 ppm F as AmF + SnF2 ) 12.0 μm (1.47); Colgate(®) Cavity Protection: (1,450 ppm F as SMFP + NaF) 12.9 μm (1.66); Odol med 3(®) (1,400 ppm F as NaF) 14.2 μm (1.49); Elmex(®) (1,400 ppm F as AmF) 14.5 μm (1.76); Colgate(®) Enamel Protect: (1,450 ppm F as NaF + KNO3 ) 16.3 μm (2.02); Lacalut(®) aktiv: (1,400 ppm F as AlF3 ) 18.5 μm (1.71); Sensodyne(®) ProNamel(™) : (1,450 ppm F as NaF + KNO3 ) 20.5 μm (1.26); Crest Cavity Protection (1,100 ppm F as NaF, reference control) 22.00 μm (2.04); and Mentadent(®) : (1,450 ppm F as NaF + Zn citrate) 22.3 μm (0.63). These results support the potential for the stabilised, Sn-containing NaF dentifrice to provide erosion protection benefits

  3. Three-axis active control system for gravity gradient stabilised microsatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Mohammed, A. M.; Benyettou, M.; Bentoutou, Y.; Boudjemai, A.; Hashida, Y.; Sweeting, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, the control system of the first Algerian microsatellite in orbit Alsat-1 is presented. Alsat-1 is a 3-axis stabilised microsatellite, using a pitch momentum wheel and yaw reaction wheel, with dual redundant 3-axis magnetorquers. A gravity gradient boom is employed to provide a high degree of platform stability. Two vector magnetometers and four dual sun sensors are carried in order to determine the attitude. This paper examines the low Earth orbit (LEO) control system requirements and design in the context of a real system, the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) advanced microsatellite platform and puts forward designs for the control system to match the advanced capability of the enhanced microsatellite platform. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the implementation. Comparison with in orbit results is presented to evaluate the performance of the control system during accurate Nadir pointing control.

  4. Inacessible Andean sites reveal land-use induced stabilisation of soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitkamp, Felix; Maqsood, Shafique; Sylvester, Steven; Kessler, Michael; Jungkunst, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Human activity affects properties and development of ecosystems across the globe to such a degree that it is challenging to get baseline values for undisturbed ecosystems. This is especially true for soils, which are affected by land-use history and hold a legacy of past human interventions. Therefore, it is still largely unknown how soil would have developed "naturally" and if processes of organic matter stabilisation would be different in comparison to managed soils. Here, we show undisturbed soil development, i.e., the processes of weathering and accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC), by comparing pristine with grazed sites in the high Andes (4500 m) of southern Peru. We located study plots on a large ledge (0.2 km²) that is only accessible with mountaineering equipment. Plots with pristine vegetation were compared to rangeland plots that were constantly under grazing management for at least four millennia. All "state factors"; climate, potential biota, topography, parent material and time; besides "land-use" were, therefore, identical. Vegetation change, induced by grazing management, led to lower vegetation cover of the soil, thereby increasing soil surface temperatures and soil acidification. Both factors increased weathering in rangeland soils, as indicated by the presence of pedogenic oxides, especially amorphous Al-(oxy)hydroxides (oxalate-extractable Al). Higher losses of base cations (K, Na, Ca) and lower pH-values were related to a low base saturation of exchange sites in rangelands. Therefore, rangeland soils were classified as Umbrisol, whereas soils under pristine vegetation were classified as Phaeozeme. All profiles were rich in SOC (100 to 126 g kg-1) with no significant differences in concentrations or stocks. SOC of rangeland soils was, however, less available for microorganisms (proportion of microbial C on SOC: 1.8 vs. 0.6% in pristine and rangeland soils, respectively) and showed higher stability against thermal degradation. Reasons for

  5. Synthesis, structural studies and ligand influence on the stability of aryl-NHC stabilised trimethylaluminium complexes.

    PubMed

    M, Melissa Wu; Gill, Arran M; Yunpeng, Lu; Falivene, Laura; Yongxin, Li; Ganguly, Rakesh; Cavallo, Luigi; García, Felipe

    2015-09-14

    Treatment of a series of aromatic NHCs (IMes, SIMes, IPr and SIPr) with trimethylaluminium produced their corresponding Lewis acid-base adducts: IMes·AlMe3 (1), SIMes·AlMe3 (2), IPr·AlMe3 (3), and SIPr·AlMe3 (4). These complexes expand the few known examples of saturated NHC stabilised Group 13 complexes. Furthermore, compounds 1-4 show differential stability depending on the nature of the NHC ligand. Analyses of topographic steric maps and NHC %V(Bur) were used to explain these differences. All the compounds have been fully characterised by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, IR and single crystal X-ray analysis together with computational studies.

  6. Le facteur XII de la coagulation: bien plus qu’un stabilisant de la fibrine

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, N.; Lamaalmi, F.; Chakour, M.; Belmekki, A.; Naji, M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les Auteurs considèrent le rôle du facteur XIII de la coagulation dans la cicatrisation. Identifié depuis 1923, le rôle du facteur XIII ou le facteur stabilisant de la fibrine dans la coagulation a été bien élucidé. Son rôle dans la cicatrisation suggéré dès 1960 est méconnu par les hématologistes et les médecins prenant en charge les brûlés. Les Auteurs se proposent de mettre la lumière sur ce rôle, qui reste encore mystérieux et mérite d’être élucidé. PMID:21991236

  7. Stabilisation and consensus of linear systems with multiple input delays by truncated pseudo-predictor feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Cong, Shen

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a new approach referred to as pseudo-predictor feedback (PPF) for stabilisation of linear systems with multiple input delays. Differently from the traditional predictor feedback which is from the model reduction appoint of view, the proposed PPF utilises the idea of prediction by generalising the corresponding results for linear systems with a single input delay to the case of multiple input delays. Since the PPF will generally lead to distributed controllers, a truncated pseudo-predictor feedback (TPPF) approach is established instead, which gives finite dimensional controllers. It is shown that the TPPF can compensate arbitrarily large yet bounded delays as long as the open-loop system is only polynomially unstable. The proposed TPPF approach is then used to solve the consensus problems for multi-agent systems characterised by linear systems with multiple input delays. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  8. Input-output finite-time stabilisation of nonlinear stochastic system with missing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jun; Niu, Yugang; Jia, Tinggang

    2016-09-01

    This paper considers the problem of the input-output finite-time stabilisation for a class of nonlinear stochastic system with state-dependent noise. The phenomenon of the missing measurements may occur when state signals are transmitted via communication networks. An estimating method is proposed to compensate the lost state information. And then, a compensator-based controller is designed to ensure the input-output finite-time stochastic stability (IO-FTSS) of the closed-loop system. Some parameters-dependent sufficient conditions are derived and the corresponding solving approach is given. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed IO-FTSS scheme.

  9. Interfacing living unicellular algae cells with biocompatible polyelectrolyte-stabilised magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fakhrullin, Rawil F; Shlykova, Lubov V; Zamaleeva, Alsu I; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Osin, Yuri N; García-Alonso, Javier; Paunov, Vesselin N

    2010-10-08

    Green algae are a promising platform for the development of biosensors and bioelectronic devices. Here we report a reliable single-step technique for the functionalisation of living unicellular green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa with biocompatible 15 nm superparamagnetic nanoparticles stabilised with poly(allylamine hydrochloride). The magnetised algae cells can be manipulated and immobilised using external permanent magnets. The distribution of the nanoparticles on the cell walls of C. pyrenoidosa was studied by optical and fluorescence microscopy, TEM, SEM and EDX spectroscopy. The viability and the magnetic properties of the magnetised algae are studied in comparison with the native cells. The technique may find a number of potential applications in biotechnology and bioelectronics.

  10. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by cellulose ethers: stability, structure and in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Borreani, Jennifer; Espert, María; Salvador, Ana; Sanz, Teresa; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-04-19

    The effect of cellulose ethers in oil-in-water emulsions on stability during storage and on texture, microstructure and lipid digestibility during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was investigated. All the cellulose ether emulsions showed good physical and oxidative stability during storage. In particular, the methylcellulose with high methoxyl substituents (HMC) made it possible to obtain emulsions with high consistency which remained almost unchanged during gastric digestion, and thus could enhance fullness and satiety perceptions at gastric level. Moreover, the HMC emulsion slowed down lipid digestion to a greater extent than a conventional protein emulsion or the emulsions stabilised by the other cellulose ethers. Therefore, HMC emulsions could be used in weight management to increase satiation capacity and decrease lipid digestion.

  11. Global finite-time stabilisation of a class of switched nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying-Jiu; Ma, Ruicheng; Wang, Min; Fu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the global finite-time stabilisation problem for a class of switched nonlinear systems under arbitrary switchings. All subsystems of the studied switched system under consideration are in lower triangular form. Based on the adding one power integrator technique, both a class of non-Lipschitz continuous state feedback controllers and a common Lyapunov function are simultaneously constructed such that the closed-loop switched system is global finite-time stable under arbitrary switchings. In the controller design process, a common coordinate transformation of all subsystems is exploited to avoid using individual coordinate transformations for subsystems. Finally, two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Patellar clunk syndrome in fixed-bearing posterior-stabilised versus cruciate-substituting prostheses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan Ho; Wong, Wing Keung; Wong, Hok Leung

    2014-04-01

    To compare the outcome of fixed-bearing posterior-stabilised versus cruciate-substituting prostheses in 46 patients who underwent primary bilateral total knee replacement (TKR). Records of 35 women and 11 men aged 54 to 78 (mean, 67) years who underwent primary bilateral TKR for osteoarthritis (n=44) and rheumatoid arthritis (n=2) were retrospectively reviewed. A fixed-bearing posterior-stabilised prosthesis (Zimmer NexGen Legacy flex [LPS-Flex]) was used in one knee, and a fixed-bearing cruciate-substituting prosthesis (Depuy Press Fit Condylar Sigma CS [PFC CS]) was used in the contralateral knee. The mean time interval between the 2 operations was 34 (range, 4-60) months. All operations were performed by the same group of surgeons using standardised techniques. The medial parapatellar approach was used, and the patella was resurfaced. Rehabilitation was also standardised. Outcome measures included the pre- and post-operative active range of movement and the American Knee Society Score. Postoperative complications were documented. At one year, the mean fixed flexion contracture, maximum flexion, and American Knee Society scores in knees with PFC CS and LPS-Flex prostheses were comparable. Three knees with the PFC CS prosthesis developed the patellar clunk syndrome, compared to none with the LPS-Flex prosthesis (p=0.24). The onset of the patellar clunk syndrome was around one year after surgery. Despite this, the axial alignment and rotation of the femoral and tibial components were good. Both prostheses produce good clinical outcome. The PFC CS prosthesis is more likely to be associated with the patellar clunk syndrome.

  13. Recycling stabilised/solidified drill cuttings for forage production in acidic soils.

    PubMed

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Dumkhana, Bernard B; Ayotamuno, Josiah M; Okparanma, Reuben N

    2017-10-01

    Stabilisation/solidification (S/S), which involves fixation and immobilisation of contaminants using cementitious materials, is one method of treating drill cuttings before final fate. This work considers reuse of stabilised/solidified drill cuttings for forage production in acidic soils. It sought to improve the sustainability of S/S technique through supplementation with the phytoremediation potential of plants, eliminate the need for landfill disposal and reduce soil acidity for better plant growth. Drill cuttings with an initial total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of 17,125 mg kg(-1) and low concentrations of metals were treated with 5%, 10%, and 20% cement dosages. The treated drill cuttings were reused in granular form for growing a forage, elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), after mixing with uncontaminated soil. The grasses were also grown in uncontaminated soil. The phytoremediation and growth potential of the plants was assessed over a 12-week period. A mix ratio of one part drill cuttings to three parts uncontaminated soil was required for active plant growth. The phytoremediation ability of elephant grass (alongside abiotic losses) reduced the TPH level (up to 8795 mg kg(-1)) in the soil-treated-drill cuttings mixtures below regulatory (1000 mg kg(-1)) levels. There were also decreased concentrations of metals. The grass showed better heights and leaf lengths in soil containing drill cuttings treated with 5% cement dosage than in uncontaminated soil. The results suggest that recycling S/S treated drill cuttings for forage production may be a potential end use of the treated waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Emulsions stabilised by whey protein microgel particles: towards food-grade Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Destribats, Mathieu; Rouvet, Martine; Gehin-Delval, Cécile; Schmitt, Christophe; Binks, Bernard P

    2014-09-28

    We have investigated a new class of food-grade particles, whey protein microgels, as stabilisers of triglyceride-water emulsions. The sub-micron particles stabilized oil-in-water emulsions at all pH with and without salt. All emulsions creamed but exhibited exceptional resistance to coalescence. Clear correlations exist between the properties of the microgels in aqueous dispersion and the resulting emulsion characteristics. For conditions in which the particles were uncharged, fluid emulsions with relatively large drops were stabilised, whereas emulsions stabilized by charged particles contained smaller flocculated drops. A combination of optical microscopy of the drops and spectrophotometry of the resolved aqueous phase allowed us to estimate the interfacial adsorption densities of the particles using the phenomenon of limited coalescence. We deduce two classes of particle arrangement. Complete adsorption of the particles was obtained when they were neutral or when their charges were screened by salt resulting in at least one particle monolayer at the interface. By contrast, only around 50% of the particles adsorbed when they were charged with emulsion drops being covered by less than half a monolayer. These findings were supported by direct visualization of drop interfaces using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Uncharged particles were highly aggregated and formed a continuous 2-D network at the interface. Otherwise particles organized as individual aggregates separated by particle-free regions. In this case, we suggest that some particles spread at the interface leading to the formation of a continuous protein membrane. Charged particles displayed the ability to bridge opposing interfaces of neighbouring drops to form dense particle disks protecting drops against coalescence; this is the main reason for the flocculation and stability of emulsions containing sparsely covered drops.

  15. Biogas production from anaerobic waste stabilisation ponds treating dairy and piggery wastewater in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2007-01-01

    New Zealand has over 1000 anaerobic wastewater stabilisation ponds used for the treatment of wastewater from farms and industry. Traditional anaerobic ponds were not designed to optimise anaerobic digestion of wastewater biomass to produce biogas and these uncovered ponds allowed biogas to escape to the atmosphere. This release of biogas not only causes odour problems, but contributes to GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and is wasteful of energy that could be captured and used. Biogas production from anaerobic stabilisation ponds treating piggery and dairy wastewater was measured using floating 25 m2 HDPE covers on the pond surface. Biogas composition was analysed monthly and gas production was continually monitored. Mean areal biogas (methane) production rates from piggery and dairy anaerobic ponds were 0.78 (0.53) m3/m2/d and 0.03 (0.023) m3/m2/d respectively. Average CH4 content of the piggery and dairy farm biogas were 72.0% and 80.3% respectively. Conversion of the average volume of methane gas that could be captured from the piggery and dairy farm ponds (393.4 m3/d and 40.7 m3/d) to electricity would reduce CO2 equivalent GHG emissions by 5.6 tonnes/d and 0.6 tonnes/d and generate 1,180 kWh/d and 122 kWh/d. These results suggest that anaerobic ponds in New Zealand release considerable amounts of GHG and that there is great potential for energy recovery.

  16. Stabilisation of medically refractory ventricular arrhythmia by intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation

    PubMed Central

    Fotopoulos, G; Mason, M; Walker, S; Jepson, N; Patel, D; Mitchell, A; Ilsley, C; Paul, V

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To review the efficacy of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABCP) in medically refractory ventricular arrhythmia.
DESIGN—Retrospective analysis of the outcome of patients with ventricular arrhythmia treated with IABCP after transfer between 1992 and 1997.
SETTING—Tertiary cardiac referral centre.
PATIENTS—21 patients (mean age 58 years) who underwent IABCP for control of ventricular arrhythmia. All had significant left ventricular impairment (mean ejection fraction 28.6%); 18 had coronary artery disease.
RESULTS—Before IABCP, 10 patients had incessant monomorphic ventricular tachycardia and 11 had paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF). IABCP resulted in suppression of ventricular arrhythmia in 18 patients, of whom 13 were weaned from IABCP. After stabilisation of ventricular arrhythmia, 10 patients were maintained on medical treatment alone and one underwent endocardial resection. IABCP was maintained until cardiac transplantation in five patients. One patient had a fatal arrest before discharge and one died from progressive heart failure. IABCP failed to control ventricular arrhythmia in three patients and was subsequently discontinued. A cardiac assist device was employed in one of these until cardiac transplantation; the other two were eventually stabilised on medical treatment. Nineteen patients were discharged from hospital. Overall survival was 95% at mean follow up of 25.7 months.
CONCLUSIONS—IABCP can be an effective means of controlling refractory ventricular arrhythmia, allowing time for the institution of more definitive treatment.


Keywords: ventricular arrhythmia; intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation PMID:10377318

  17. Production of nabumetone nanoparticles: Effect of molecular weight, concentration and nature of cellulose ether stabiliser.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, D J; Martini, L G; Lawrence, M J

    2016-12-05

    The ability of a range of hydrophilic nonionic cellulose ethers (CEs) (namely methylhydroxethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose and hydroxypropylcellulose) to prepare stable nabumetone nanoparticles (<1000nm, as measured by laser diffraction) using wet-bead milling has been investigated. Due to the limited range of CE molecular weights commercially available, the CEs were degraded using ultrasonication for varying lengths of time to yield CEs of lower molecular weight. Of the CEs tested, only hydroxyethylcellulose was found not to stabilise the production of nabumetone nanoparticles at any of the molecular weights tested, namely viscosity average molecular weights (Mv) in the range of 236-33kg/mol. All other CEs successfully stabilised nabumetone nanoparticles, with the lower molecular weight/viscosity polymers within a series being more likely to result in nanoparticle production than their higher molecular weight counterparts. Unfortunately due to the nature of the ultrasonication process, it was not possible to compare the size of nabumetone particles produced using polymers of identical Mv. There was, however, enough similarity in the Mv of the various polymers to draw the general conclusion that there was no strong correlation between the Mv of the various polymers and their ability to produce nanoparticles. For example hydroxypropylcellulose of 112.2kg/mol or less successfully produced nanoparticles while only ethylhydroxyethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethyl polymers of 52 and 38.8kg/mol or less produced nanoparticles. These results suggest that polymer molecular weight is not the only determinant of nanoparticle production and that structure of the polymer is at least as important as its molecular weight. In particular the hydrophobic nature of the CE was thought to be an important factor in the production of nabumetone nanoparticles: the more hydrophobic the polymer, the stronger its interaction

  18. Flat-relative optimal extraction. A quick and efficient algorithm for stabilised spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechmeister, M.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Reiners, A.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Optimal extraction is a key step in processing the raw images of spectra as registered by two-dimensional detector arrays to a one-dimensional format. Previously reported algorithms reconstruct models for a mean one-dimensional spatial profile to assist a properly weighted extraction. Aims: We outline a simple optimal extraction algorithm (including error propagation), which is very suitable for stabilised, fibre-fed spectrographs and does not model the spatial profile shape. Methods: A high signal-to-noise ratio, master-flat image serves as reference image and is directly used as an extraction profile mask. Each extracted spectral value is the scaling factor relative to the cross-section of the unnormalised master flat that contains all information about the spatial profile, as well as pixel-to-pixel variations, fringing, and blaze. The extracted spectrum is measured relative to the flat spectrum. Results: Using echelle spectra of the HARPS spectrograph we demonstrate a competitive extraction performance in terms of a signal-to-noise ratio and show that extracted spectra can be used for high precision radial velocity measurement. Conclusions: Pre- or post-flat-fielding of the data is not necessary, since all spectrograph inefficiencies inherent to the extraction mask are automatically accounted for. Also the reconstruction of the mean spatial profile by models is not needed, thereby reducing the number of operations to extract spectra. Flat-relative optimal extraction is a simple, efficient, and robust method that can be applied easily to stabilised, fibre-fed spectrographs. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number ZECHMEISTER73978. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope under programme ID 074.D-0380.

  19. Randomised controlled trial to compare surgical stabilisation of the lumbar spine with an intensive rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic low back pain: the MRC spine stabilisation trial

    PubMed Central

    Fairbank, Jeremy; Frost, Helen; Wilson-MacDonald, James; Yu, Ly-Mee; Barker, Karen; Collins, Rory

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To assess the clinical effectiveness of surgical stabilisation (spinal fusion) compared with intensive rehabilitation for patients with chronic low back pain. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting 15 secondary care orthopaedic and rehabilitation centres across the United Kingdom. Participants 349 participants aged 18-55 with chronic low back pain of at least one year's duration who were considered candidates for spinal fusion. Intervention Lumbar spine fusion or an intensive rehabilitation programme based on principles of cognitive behaviour therapy. Main outcome measure The primary outcomes were the Oswestry disability index and the shuttle walking test measured at baseline and two years after randomisation. The SF-36 instrument was used as a secondary outcome measure. Results 176 participants were assigned to surgery and 173 to rehabilitation. 284 (81%) provided follow-up data at 24 months. The mean Oswestry disability index changed favourably from 46.5 (SD 14.6) to 34.0 (SD 21.1) in the surgery group and from 44.8 (SD14.8) to 36.1 (SD 20.6) in the rehabilitation group. The estimated mean difference between the groups was –4.1 (95% confidence interval –8.1 to –0.1, P = 0.045) in favour of surgery. No significant differences between the treatment groups were observed in the shuttle walking test or any of the other outcome measures. Conclusions Both groups reported reductions in disability during two years of follow-up, possibly unrelated to the interventions. The statistical difference between treatment groups in one of the two primary outcome measures was marginal and only just reached the predefined minimal clinical difference, and the potential risk and additional cost of surgery also need to be considered. No clear evidence emerged that primary spinal fusion surgery was any more beneficial than intensive rehabilitation. PMID:15911537

  20. Mechanisms of flame stabilisation at low lifted height in a turbulent lifted slot-jet flame

    DOE PAGES

    Karami, Shahram; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Talei, Mohsen; ...

    2015-07-23

    A turbulent lifted slot-jet flame is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). A one-step chemistry model is employed with a mixture-fraction-dependent activation energy which can reproduce qualitatively the dependence of the laminar burning rate on the equivalence ratio that is typical of hydrocarbon fuels. The basic structure of the flame base is first examined and discussed in the context of earlier experimental studies of lifted flames. Several features previously observed in experiments are noted and clarified. Some other unobserved features are also noted. Comparison with previous DNS modelling of hydrogen flames reveals significant structural differences. The statistics of flow andmore » relative edge-flame propagation velocity components conditioned on the leading edge locations are then examined. The results show that, on average, the streamwise flame propagation and streamwise flow balance, thus demonstrating that edge-flame propagation is the basic stabilisation mechanism. Fluctuations of the edge locations and net edge velocities are, however, significant. It is demonstrated that the edges tend to move in an essentially two-dimensional (2D) elliptical pattern (laterally outwards towards the oxidiser, then upstream, then inwards towards the fuel, then downstream again). It is proposed that this is due to the passage of large eddies, as outlined in Suet al.(Combust. Flame, vol. 144 (3), 2006, pp. 494–512). However, the mechanism is not entirely 2D, and out-of-plane motion is needed to explain how flames escape the high-velocity inner region of the jet. Finally, the time-averaged structure is examined. A budget of terms in the transport equation for the product mass fraction is used to understand the stabilisation from a time-averaged perspective. The result of this analysis is found to be consistent with the instantaneous perspective. The budget reveals a fundamentally 2D structure, involving transport in both the streamwise and transverse

  1. Mechanisms of flame stabilisation at low lifted height in a turbulent lifted slot-jet flame

    SciTech Connect

    Karami, Shahram; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Talei, Mohsen; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2015-07-23

    A turbulent lifted slot-jet flame is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). A one-step chemistry model is employed with a mixture-fraction-dependent activation energy which can reproduce qualitatively the dependence of the laminar burning rate on the equivalence ratio that is typical of hydrocarbon fuels. The basic structure of the flame base is first examined and discussed in the context of earlier experimental studies of lifted flames. Several features previously observed in experiments are noted and clarified. Some other unobserved features are also noted. Comparison with previous DNS modelling of hydrogen flames reveals significant structural differences. The statistics of flow and relative edge-flame propagation velocity components conditioned on the leading edge locations are then examined. The results show that, on average, the streamwise flame propagation and streamwise flow balance, thus demonstrating that edge-flame propagation is the basic stabilisation mechanism. Fluctuations of the edge locations and net edge velocities are, however, significant. It is demonstrated that the edges tend to move in an essentially two-dimensional (2D) elliptical pattern (laterally outwards towards the oxidiser, then upstream, then inwards towards the fuel, then downstream again). It is proposed that this is due to the passage of large eddies, as outlined in Suet al.(Combust. Flame, vol. 144 (3), 2006, pp. 494–512). However, the mechanism is not entirely 2D, and out-of-plane motion is needed to explain how flames escape the high-velocity inner region of the jet. Finally, the time-averaged structure is examined. A budget of terms in the transport equation for the product mass fraction is used to understand the stabilisation from a time-averaged perspective. The result of this analysis is found to be consistent with the instantaneous perspective. The budget reveals a fundamentally 2D structure, involving transport in both

  2. Global state feedback stabilisation of stochastic high-order nonlinear systems with high-order and low-order nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fangzheng; Wu, Yuqiang; Yu, Xin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of global stabilisation by state feedback is investigated for a class of stochastic high-order nonlinear systems with both high-order and low-order nonlinearities, to which the existing control methods are inapplicable. Based on the generalised stochastic Lyapunov theorem, and by skillfully using the method of adding a power integrator, a continuous state feedback controller is successfully constructed, which can guarantee the global asymptotic stability in probability of the resulting closed-loop system in the sense of weak solution, and also is able to lead to an interesting result of finite-time stabilisation under appropriate conditions. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. Cerium reduction at the interface between ceria and yttria-stabilised zirconia and implications for interfacial oxygen non-stoichiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kepeng; Schmid, Herbert; Srot, Vesna; Aken, Peter A. van; Gilardi, Elisa; Gregori, Giuliano; Maier, Joachim; Du, Kui

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxial CeO{sub 2} films with different thickness were grown on Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stabilised Zirconia substrates. Reduction of cerium ions at the interface between CeO{sub 2} films and yttria stabilised zirconia substrates is demonstrated using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy. It is revealed that most of the Ce ions were reduced from Ce{sup 4+} to Ce{sup 3+} at the interface region with a decay of several nanometers. Several possibilities of charge compensations are discussed. Irrespective of the details, such local non-stoichiometries are crucial not only for understanding charge transport in such hetero-structures but also for understanding ceria catalytic properties.

  4. Stabilisation of high-activity 99mTc-d,l-HMPAO preparations with cobalt chloride and their biological behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mang'era, K O; Vanbilloen, H P; Schiepers, C W; Verbruggen, A M

    1995-10-01

    It has been reported that the stability of a 1.11-GBq (30 mCi) technetium-99m d,l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) preparation can be improved to up to 5 h by the addition of 200 micrograms CoCl2.6H2O within 2 min after reconstitution. However, it is not clear whether this method is also efficient for high-activity preparations (5.55 GBq) and whether this modified 99mTc-d,l-HMPAO has the same biological properties and can safely be used. We have now studied CoCl2-stabilised 99mTc-d,l-HMPAO preparations containing different amounts of "in-house" HMPAO ligand and SnCl2 and reconstituted with activities from 1.11 GBq to 5.55 GBq 99mTc. The characteristics of the generator eluates were also divergent, ranging from fresh eluates from a generator eluted less than 2 h previously to 4-h-old eluates from a generator not eluted during the preceding 72 h. Preparations containing up to 5.55 GBq 99mTc and as low as 2 micrograms SnCl2.2H2O can be efficiently stabilised for at least 6 h by the addition of CoCl2 shortly after reconstitution. Interestingly, it was found that the stabilisation method is not efficient if the cobalt ions are added prior to reconstitution of the preparation. This implies that the cobalt chloride cannot be incorporated in the labelling kit. Also, preparations with amounts of the ligand lower or higher than 0.5 mg formed the 99mTc-d,l-HMPAO complex with low radiochemical yield or showed rapid degradation. Therefore, combination of a subdivision and storage of Ceretec kits in fractions (as reported in the literature) is contra-indicated with this CoCl2 stabilisation method. CoCl2-stabilised Ceretec kits reconstituted with 5550 MBq 99mTcO4- and used 4-5 h after preparation retain the diagnostic usefulness of the fresh 1110-MBq preparation with regard to leucocyte labelling and brain imaging. Although baboon brain uptake of the stabilised preparation was 6%-9% lower, this small difference could not be distinguished in the tomographic images. The

  5. An improved sufficient condition for stabilisation of unstable first-order processes by observer-state feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco Marquez Rubio, Juan; del Muro Cuéllar, Basilio; Velasco Villa, Martín; de Jesús Álvarez Ramírez, José

    2015-02-01

    This work considers the stabilisation and control of unstable first-order linear systems subject to a relatively large I/O time delay. First, it is proposed an observer strategy to predict a specific internal signal in the process. The adequate prediction convergence is obtained and formally stated. Then, it is proposed an estimated state feedback control. Necessary and sufficient stability conditions with respect to time delay size and unstable time constant are provided. The proposed control strategy allows to address time delays as large as four times the unstable time constant of the open-loop system, in contrast with most of the reported related literature. Numerical examples are used for illustrating the parametric stabilisation region as a function of the time delay.

  6. Cerium reduction at the interface between ceria and yttria-stabilised zirconia and implications for interfacial oxygen non-stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kepeng; Schmid, Herbert; Srot, Vesna; Gilardi, Elisa; Gregori, Giuliano; Du, Kui; Maier, Joachim; van Aken, Peter A.

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxial CeO2 films with different thickness were grown on Y2O3 stabilised Zirconia substrates. Reduction of cerium ions at the interface between CeO2 films and yttria stabilised zirconia substrates is demonstrated using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy. It is revealed that most of the Ce ions were reduced from Ce4+ to Ce3+ at the interface region with a decay of several nanometers. Several possibilities of charge compensations are discussed. Irrespective of the details, such local non-stoichiometries are crucial not only for understanding charge transport in such hetero-structures but also for understanding ceria catalytic properties.

  7. Selection of natural treatment processes for algae removal from stabilisation ponds effluents in Brasilia, using multicriterion methods.

    PubMed

    Neder, K D; Carneiro, G A; Queiroz, T R; de Souza, M A A

    2002-01-01

    A multicriterion methodology is used in the evaluation and selection of the most appropriate alternative(s) for removing algae from stabilisation ponds effluents in a case study in Brasilia. For this purpose, five different natural treatment processes are tested at pilot scale: rock filter, sand filter, floating aquatic plants, constructed wetlands, and overland flow. These pilot units were constructed in Brasilia and set in parallel, each one receiving a portion of the effluent that comes from an existing wastewater treatment plant composed of preliminary treatment, UASB reactors, and high-rate stabilisation ponds. Several evaluation criteria are used in order to relate the capabilities of the post-treatment processes to the multiple objectives in this case. Two multicriterion decision-aid methods--compromise programming and ELECTRE-III--are used to select the most satisfying processes. The top ranking alternatives are indicated for subsequent studies, considering the possible implementation of these technologies to existing plants.

  8. DOSE REFERENCE LEVELS IN SPANISH INTRAORAL DENTAL RADIOLOGY: STABILISATION OF THE INCORPORATION OF DIGITAL SYSTEMS IN DENTAL CLINICAL PRACTICES.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, M; Velasco, F; Olivares, A; Velasco, E; Canteras, M

    2016-12-01

    A total of 34 044 official quality assurance reports in dental radiodiagnostic surgery from 16 regions of Spain, compiled from 2002 to 2014, were studied in order to determine the progress of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for obtaining diagnostic images under normal conditions for clinical practice in Spanish dental clinics. A DRL of 2.8 mGy was set in 2014, which represents a 41.7 % decrease compared with that of 2002 (4.8 mGy). Over the same time period, the mean dose fell by 55.2 %. However, over the last 3 y, the stabilisation of the mean dose administered to patients has been observed with only a 6.7 % reduction in DRLs, which corresponds to the stabilisation of dental radiodiagnostic surgery on replacing the use of radiographic film with digital imaging systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Three strategies to stabilise nearly monodispersed silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are extensively used due to their chemical and physical properties and promising applications in areas such as medicine and electronics. Controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles remains a major challenge due to the difficulty in producing long-term stable particles of the same size and shape in aqueous solution. To address this problem, we examine three strategies to stabilise aqueous solutions of 15 nm citrate-reduced silver nanoparticles using organic polymeric capping, bimetallic core-shell and bimetallic alloying. Our results show that these strategies drastically improve nanoparticle stability by distinct mechanisms. Additionally, we report a new role of polymer functionalisation in preventing further uncontrolled nanoparticle growth. For bimetallic nanoparticles, we attribute the presence of a higher valence metal on the surface of the nanoparticle as one of the key factors for improving their long-term stability. Stable silver-based nanoparticles, free of organic solvents, will have great potential for accelerating further environmental and nanotoxicity studies. PACS: 81.07.-b; 81.16.Be; 82.70.Dd. PMID:22356679

  10. UV-Enhanced Sacrificial Layer Stabilised Graphene Oxide Hollow Fibre Membranes for Nanofiltration

    PubMed Central

    Chong, J. Y.; Aba, N. F. D.; Wang, B.; Mattevi, C.; Li, K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes have demonstrated great potential in gas separation and liquid filtration. For upscale applications, GO membranes in a hollow fibre geometry are of particular interest due to the high-efficiency and easy-assembly features at module level. However, GO membranes were found unstable in dry state on ceramic hollow fibre substrates, mainly due to the drying-related shrinkage, which has limited the applications and post-treatments of GO membranes. We demonstrate here that GO hollow fibre membranes can be stabilised by using a porous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sacrificial layer, which creates a space between the hollow fibre substrate and the GO membrane thus allowing stress-free shrinkage. Defect-free GO hollow fibre membrane was successfully determined and the membrane was stable in a long term (1200 hours) gas-tight stability test. Post-treatment of the GO membranes with UV light was also successfully accomplished in air, which induced the creation of controlled microstructural defects in the membrane and increased the roughness factor of the membrane surface. The permeability of the UV-treated GO membranes was greatly enhanced from 0.07 to 2.8 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for water, and 0.14 to 7.5 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 for acetone, with an unchanged low molecular weight cut off (~250 Da). PMID:26527173

  11. Nanobiotechnology as a novel paradigm for enzyme immobilisation and stabilisation with potential applications in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Verma, Madan Lal; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2013-01-01

    Nanobiotechnology is emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The potential applications of nanobiotechnology in bioenergy and biosensors have encouraged researchers in recent years to investigate new novel nanoscaffolds to build robust nanobiocatalytic systems. Enzymes, mainly hydrolytic class of enzyme, have been extensively immobilised on nanoscaffold support for long-term stabilisation by enhancing thermal, operational and storage catalytic potential. In the present report, novel nanoscaffold variants employed in the recent past for enzyme immobilisation, namely nanoparticles, nanofibres, nanotubes, nanopores, nanosheets and nanocomposites, are discussed in the context of lipase-mediated nanobiocatalysis. These nanocarriers have an inherently large surface area that leads to high enzyme loading and consequently high volumetric enzyme activity. Due to their high tensile strengths, nanoscale materials are often robust and resistant to breakage through mechanical shear in the running reactor making them suitable for multiple reuses. The optimisation of various nanosupports process parameters, such as the enzyme type and selection of suitable immobilisation method may help lead to the development of an efficient enzyme reactor. This might in turn offer a potential platform for exploring other enzymes for the development of stable nanobiocatalytic systems, which could help to address global environmental issues by facilitating the production of green energy. The successful validation of the feasibility of nanobiocatalysis for biodiesel production represents the beginning of a new field of research. The economic hurdles inherent in viably scaling nanobiocatalysts from a lab-scale to industrial biodiesel production are also discussed.

  12. Three strategies to stabilise nearly monodispersed silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Amadeus PZ; Blanco Bea, Duani; Civit, Sergi; Antoranz Contera, Sonia; Iglesias Cerveto, Alberto; Trigueros, Sonia

    2012-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles are extensively used due to their chemical and physical properties and promising applications in areas such as medicine and electronics. Controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles remains a major challenge due to the difficulty in producing long-term stable particles of the same size and shape in aqueous solution. To address this problem, we examine three strategies to stabilise aqueous solutions of 15 nm citrate-reduced silver nanoparticles using organic polymeric capping, bimetallic core-shell and bimetallic alloying. Our results show that these strategies drastically improve nanoparticle stability by distinct mechanisms. Additionally, we report a new role of polymer functionalisation in preventing further uncontrolled nanoparticle growth. For bimetallic nanoparticles, we attribute the presence of a higher valence metal on the surface of the nanoparticle as one of the key factors for improving their long-term stability. Stable silver-based nanoparticles, free of organic solvents, will have great potential for accelerating further environmental and nanotoxicity studies. PACS: 81.07.-b; 81.16.Be; 82.70.Dd.

  13. UV-Enhanced Sacrificial Layer Stabilised Graphene Oxide Hollow Fibre Membranes for Nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Chong, J Y; Aba, N F D; Wang, B; Mattevi, C; Li, K

    2015-11-03

    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes have demonstrated great potential in gas separation and liquid filtration. For upscale applications, GO membranes in a hollow fibre geometry are of particular interest due to the high-efficiency and easy-assembly features at module level. However, GO membranes were found unstable in dry state on ceramic hollow fibre substrates, mainly due to the drying-related shrinkage, which has limited the applications and post-treatments of GO membranes. We demonstrate here that GO hollow fibre membranes can be stabilised by using a porous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sacrificial layer, which creates a space between the hollow fibre substrate and the GO membrane thus allowing stress-free shrinkage. Defect-free GO hollow fibre membrane was successfully determined and the membrane was stable in a long term (1200 hours) gas-tight stability test. Post-treatment of the GO membranes with UV light was also successfully accomplished in air, which induced the creation of controlled microstructural defects in the membrane and increased the roughness factor of the membrane surface. The permeability of the UV-treated GO membranes was greatly enhanced from 0.07 to 2.8 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1) for water, and 0.14 to 7.5 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1) for acetone, with an unchanged low molecular weight cut off (~250 Da).

  14. Thermal annealing behaviour and defect evolution of helium in fully stabilised zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damen, P. M. G.; van Veen, A.; Labohm, F.; Schut, H.; van Huis, M. A.

    2003-06-01

    Helium implantations in fully stabilised zirconia have been performed with 30 keV ions with high doses (5.1 × 10 16 and 2.6 × 10 16 cm -2) and low doses (6.3 × 10 15 and 1.7 × 10 15 cm -2). The retained amount of helium and depth profiles have been monitored with neutron depth profiling and the damage distribution with positron beam analysis (PBA) after several annealing steps. The temperature dependent helium release was investigated by thermal helium desorption spectrometry. In the low dose samples, helium is released through diffusion as seen by a broadening of the helium distribution peak. PBA, performed with a two-layer model, shows shrinkage of the damage layer during annealing. For the high dose samples the helium peak does not broaden after annealing. Helium is retained up to high temperatures which is ascribed to bubble formation during thermal annealing. Fitting of the PBA results to a three-layer model shows that the ion implanted layer gets narrower after annealing at 600 K, up to 1000 K the S-parameter is increasing because helium is released from the bubbles, whereby vacancy clusters are left behind.

  15. Management of sleep-time masticatory muscle activity using stabilisation splints affects psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Masaki, C; Makino, M; Yoshida, M; Mukaibo, T; Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Hosokawa, R

    2013-12-01

    To treat sleep bruxism (SB), symptomatic therapy using stabilisation splints (SS) is frequently used. However, their effects on psychological stress and sleep quality have not yet been examined fully. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of SS use on psychological stress and sleep quality. The subjects (11 men, 12 women) were healthy volunteers. A crossover design was used. Sleep measurements were performed for three consecutive days or longer without (baseline) or with an SS or palatal splint (PS), and data for the final day were evaluated. We measured masseter muscle activity during sleep using portable electromyography to evaluate SB. Furthermore, to compare psychological stress before and after sleep, assessments were made based on STAI-JYZ and the measurement of salivary chromogranin A. To compare each parameter among the three groups (baseline, SS and PS), Friedman's and Dunn's tests were used. From the results of the baseline measurements, eight subjects were identified as high group and 15 as low group. Among the high group, a marked decrease in the number of bruxism events per hour and an increase in the difference in the total STAI Y-1 scores were observed in the SS group compared with those at baseline (P < 0·05). No significant difference was observed in sleep stages. SS use may be effective in reducing the number of SB events, while it may increase psychological stress levels, and SS use did not apparently influence sleep stages.

  16. Luxury uptake of phosphorus by microalgae in full-scale waste stabilisation ponds.

    PubMed

    Powell, N; Shilton, A; Pratt, S; Chisti, Y

    2011-01-01

    Biological phosphorus removal was studied in two full-scale waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). Luxury uptake by microalgae was confirmed to occur and in one pond the biomass contained almost four times the phosphorus required by microalgae for normal metabolism. However, the phosphorus content within the biomass was variable. This finding means that assumptions made in prior publications on modelling of phosphorus removal in WSP are questionable. While fluctuations in microalgal growth causes variation in many water quality parameters, this further variation in luxury uptake explains the high degree of variability in phosphorus removal commonly reported in the literature. To achieve effective biological phosphorus removal high levels of both luxury uptake and microalgal concentration are needed. The findings of this work show that while high levels of these parameters did occur at times in the WSP monitored, they did not occur simultaneously. This is explained because accumulated phosphorus is subsequently consumed during rapid growth of biomass resulting in a high biomass concentration with a low phosphorus content. Previous laboratory research has allowed a number of key considerations to be proposed to optimise both luxury uptake and biomass concentration. Now that is has been shown that high levels of biomass concentration and luxury uptake can occur in the field it may be possible to redesign WSP to optimise these parameters.

  17. Effects of temperature on water-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by wax microparticles.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Rocher, Anaïs

    2009-07-01

    The possibility of stabilising oil-water mixtures using wax particles alone is reported. As judged from contact angle measurements, wax particles are hydrophobic and act as effective emulsifiers of water-in-squalane emulsions. Specific differences exist depending on the chemical composition of the particles. The effect of temperature on emulsion stability has been explored in detail. If particles are pre-adsorbed to water drop interfaces by emulsification at room temperature, subsequent increase of temperature leads to a progressive increase in sedimentation and coalescence as particles melt and desorb from interfaces. The temperature range over which this occurs is similar to that of the melting range of the particles alone. If however the particles are melted prior to emulsification, surface-active long chain ester or acid molecules adsorb to freshly created interfaces giving rise to excellent stability to coalescence at high temperatures. Rapid cooling of these latter emulsions enhances their long-term stability as solidification of the molten wax leads to a thickening of the continuous oil phase.

  18. Microstructural evolution of viscoelastic emulsions stabilised by sodium caseinate and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Moschakis, Thomas; Murray, Brent S; Dickinson, Eric

    2005-04-15

    The time-dependent evolution of the phase-separated microstructure of a caseinate-stabilised emulsion containing xanthan gum added before emulsification has been investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, image analysis and rheology. Moderately low levels of xanthan addition lead to depletion flocculation and gravity-induced phase separation. Increasing the polysaccharide concentration causes immobilisation of the microstructure due to an increase in the local viscoelasticity: that is, the emulsion structure cannot easily rearrange to expel xanthan-enriched aqueous serum phase because a weak gel-like network is generated. The effect of xanthan on the evolving microstructure of phase-separated regions, which reflects indirectly the local emulsion micro-rheology, has been estimated from image analysis of time sequences of confocal micrographs. A comparison has been made between object shape analysis using four different shape descriptors. The roundness parameter has been found to be a convenient descriptor for reliably quantifying the structural change in terms of the relaxation rate of xanthan-rich aqueous drops. The Taylor parameter has been used to link the kinetics of drop relaxation to the time-dependent small-deformation rheological behaviour. The analysis of the combined experimental data reveals the difficulty of relating the evolving microstructure to bulk rheological measurements.

  19. Spekkens’ toy model in all dimensions and its relationship with stabiliser quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, Lorenzo; E Browne, Dan

    2017-07-01

    Spekkens’ toy model is a non-contextual hidden variable model with an epistemic restriction, a constraint on what an observer can know about reality. The aim of the model, developed for continuous and discrete prime degrees of freedom, is to advocate the epistemic view of quantum theory, where quantum states are states of incomplete knowledge about a deeper underlying reality. Many aspects of quantum mechanics and protocols from quantum information can be reproduced in the model. In spite of its significance, a number of aspects of Spekkens’ model remained incomplete. Formal rules for the update of states after measurement had not been written down, and the theory had only been constructed for prime-dimensional and infinite dimensional systems. In this work, we remedy this, by deriving measurement update rules and extending the framework to derive models in all dimensions, both prime and non-prime. Stabiliser quantum mechanics (SQM) is a sub-theory of quantum mechanics with restricted states, transformations and measurements. First derived for the purpose of constructing error correcting codes, it now plays a role in many areas of quantum information theory. Previously, it had been shown that Spekkens’ model was operationally equivalent to SQM in the case of odd prime dimensions. Here, exploiting known results on Wigner functions, we extend this to show that Spekkens’ model is equivalent to SQM in all odd dimensions, prime and non-prime. This equivalence provides new technical tools for the study of technically difficult compound-dimensional SQM.

  20. Modelling waste stabilisation ponds with an extended version of ASM3.

    PubMed

    Gehring, T; Silva, J D; Kehl, O; Castilhos, A B; Costa, R H R; Uhlenhut, F; Alex, J; Horn, H; Wichern, M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an extended version of IWA's Activated Sludge Model No 3 (ASM3) was developed to simulate processes in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). The model modifications included the integration of algae biomass and gas transfer processes for oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia depending on wind velocity and a simple ionic equilibrium. The model was applied to a pilot-scale WSP system operated in the city of Florianópolis (Brazil). The system was used to treat leachate from a municipal waste landfill. Mean influent concentrations to the facultative pond of 1,456 g(COD)/m(3) and 505 g(NH4-N)/m(3) were measured. Experimental results indicated an ammonia nitrogen removal of 89.5% with negligible rates of nitrification but intensive ammonia stripping to the atmosphere. Measured data was used in the simulations to consider the impact of wind velocity on oxygen input of 11.1 to 14.4 g(O2)/(m(2) d) and sun radiation on photosynthesis. Good results for pH and ammonia removal were achieved with mean stripping rates of 18.2 and 4.5 g(N)/(m(2) d) for the facultative and maturation pond respectively. Based on measured chlorophyll a concentrations and depending on light intensity and TSS concentration it was possible to model algae concentrations.

  1. Preparation and characterisation of hydroxide stabilised ZnO(0001)-Zn-OH surfaces.

    PubMed

    Valtiner, Markus; Borodin, Sergiy; Grundmeier, Guido

    2007-05-21

    Two different approaches under ambient conditions were developed for the preparation of clean, non-reconstructed, single crystalline ZnO(0001)-Zn surfaces. The surface preparation by a wet chemical etching procedure was compared with the same treatment in combination with a subsequent heat treatment in humidified oxygen atmosphere. Depending on the preparation technique, atomically flat terraces with a width of 100 nm to several micrometers were observed using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The obtained surface structures were further characterized by means of angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) measurements. Based on these results it is shown that the obtained surfaces are, in contrast to surfaces prepared under UHV conditions, stabilised by the adsorption of a monolayer of hydroxides. The important role of H(2)O during the heat treatment is pointed out by comparing the results of the same heat treatment in the absence of water. H(2)O turned out to play an important role in the reorganization process of the surface at elevated temperatures, thereby yielding extremely large atomically flat terraces. The terminating edges of these terraces were found to include 120 degrees and 60 degrees angles, thus perfectly reflecting the hexagonal surface structure.

  2. Early rehabilitation following less invasive surgical stabilisation plate fixation for distal femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Smith, T O; Hedges, C; MacNair, R; Schankat, K

    2009-06-01

    The less invasive surgical stabilisation (LISS) plate fixation method is an orthopaedic procedure for the fixation of distal femoral fractures. Early physiotherapy treatments of motion and mobilisation have been advocated following this procedure. This article critically appraises the evidence base assessing the early rehabilitation of patients following LISS fixation for distal femoral fractures. A review of EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and AMED, and a hand search were undertaken. Two independent reviewers identified all eligible articles. Two reviewers extracted the data, which were verified by a third reviewer. All included articles were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Seventeen case series assessing 508 patients with 535 fractures were reviewed. No clinical trials comparing physiotherapy programmes were identified. The review identified that following LISS fixation for distal femoral fractures, patients begin range-of-motion exercises immediately and are initially required to restrict weight-bearing following surgery. It remains unclear whether casts, braces or immobilisation aids are applied during the initial postoperative period. The efficacy of different physiotherapy protocols following LISS fixation for distal femoral fractures remains unclear. Further well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to compare different postoperative physiotherapy rehabilitation programmes for patients following LISS fixation of distal femoral fractures in order to determine the optimal postoperative management for this complex patient group.

  3. Stabilisation of phytosterols by natural and synthetic antioxidants in high temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Kmiecik, Dominik; Korczak, Józef; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Hęś, Marzanna; Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna

    2015-04-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the potential applicability of natural antioxidants in the stabilisation of phytosterols. A mixture of β-sitosterol and campesterol was incorporated into triacylglycerols (TAGs). The following antioxidants were added to the prepared matrix: green tea extract, rosemary extract, a mix of tocopherols from rapeseed oil, a mix of synthetic tocopherols, phenolic compounds extracted from rapeseed meal, sinapic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Samples were heated at a temperature of 180 °C for 4 h. After the completion of heating, the losses of phytosterols were analysed, as well as the contents of β-sitosterol and campesterol oxidation products. The total content of phytosterol oxidation products in samples ranged from 96.69 to 268.35 μg/g of oil. The effectiveness of antioxidants decreased in the following order: phenolic compounds from rapeseed meal>rosemary extract>mix of tocopherols from rapeseed oil>mix of synthetic tocopherols>green tea extract>sinapic acid>BHT.

  4. Shape stabilised phase change materials (SSPCMs): High density polyethylene and hydrocarbon waxes

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Mulan E-mail: m.basheer@qub.ac.uk; Basheer, P. A. M. E-mail: m.basheer@qub.ac.uk; Bai, Yun; McNally, Tony

    2014-05-15

    Shape stabilised phase change materials (SSPCMs) based on high density polyethylene (HDPE) with high (HPW, T{sub m}=56-58 °C) and low (L-PW, T{sub m}=18-23 °C) melting point waxes were prepared by melt-mixing in a twin-screw extruder and their potential in latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications for housing assessed. The structure and morphology of these blends were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both H-PW and L-PW were uniformly distributed throughout the HDPE matrix. The melting point and latent heat of the SSPCMs were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results demonstrated that both H-PW and L-PW have a plasticisation effect on the HDPE matrix. The tensile and flexural properties of the samples were measured at room temperature (RT, 20±2 °C) and 70 °C, respectively. All mechanical properties of HDPE/H-PW and HDPE/L-PW blends decreased from RT to 70 °C. In all instances at RT, modulus and stress, irrespective of the mode of deformation was greater for the HDPE/H-PW blends. However, at 70 °C, there was no significant difference in mechanical properties between the HDPE/H-PW and HDPE/L-PW blends.

  5. Behaviour of implanted xenon in yttria-stabilised zirconia as inert matrix of a nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, C.; Pouchon, M.; Döbeli, M.; Sickafus, K.; Hojou, K.; Ledergerber, G.; Abolhassani-Dadras, S.

    2001-02-01

    A zirconia-based fuel is studied for use of plutonium in light water reactors. Among the relevant properties for a nuclear fuel, efficient retention of fission products is required since the fuel matrix constitutes the first barrier against fission product release. To study the retention of xenon, its stopping power and its diffusion properties within (Er,Y,Pu,Zr)O 2 potential inert matrix fuel (IMF) are investigated. Stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) calculations were carried out to estimate the average penetration depth of Xe ions as a function of their incident energy and of the material composition. To study its diffusion properties, Xe was implanted into yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) to a depth of around 100 nm from the surface. After successive heat treatments to a maximum temperature of 1773 K, quantitative Xe depth profiles were determined by Rutherford backscattering. No profile modification by diffusion was observed. The behaviour of Xe is investigated at the subnanoscopic level and compared with the results obtained with zirconia samples implanted with Cs or I, as well as with Xe in UO 2.

  6. Aqueous stabilisation of carbon-encapsulated superparamagnetic α-iron nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Noemí; Maurizi, Lionel; Galmarini, Sandra; Ollivier-Beuzelin, Marie Gabrielle; Coullerez, Géraldine; Bertran, Enric; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2014-09-28

    Carbon-based nanomaterials, such as carbon-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles (CEMNP, core@shell), show a wide range of desirable properties for applications in the biomedical field (clinical MRI, hyperthermia), for energy production and storage (hydrogen storage), for the improvement of electronic components and for environmental applications (water-treatment). However, this kind of nanoparticle tends to aggregate in water suspensions. This often hampers the processability of the suspensions and presents an obstacle to their application in many fields. Here the stabilisation of core-shell Fe-C nanoparticles by surface adsorbed polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) is presented. Different PVA/CEMNP mass ratios (9, 36, 144 and 576 w/w) were studied. Several characterisation techniques were used in order to determine the size distribution of the particles and to optimize the PVA/CEMNP ratio. A good colloidal stability was obtained for spherical nanoparticles about 50 nm in diameter containing several superparamagnetic Fe cores. The nanoparticles were found to be isolated and well dispersed in solution. The use of PVA for coating carbon-encapsulated Fe nanoparticles does not only result in a good colloidal stability in aqueous suspensions, but the resulting particles also show low cytotoxicity and an interesting cell internalization behaviour. The simple stabilization method developed here can likely be extended to other core@shell nanoparticle systems as well as other carbon-based nanomaterials in the future.

  7. Metal concentrations in lime stabilised, thermally dried and anaerobically digested sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Healy, M G; Fenton, O; Forrestal, P J; Danaher, M; Brennan, R B; Morrison, L

    2016-02-01

    Cognisant of the negative debate and public sentiment about the land application of treated sewage sludges ('biosolids'), it is important to characterise such wastes beyond current regulated parameters. Concerns may be warranted, as many priority metal pollutants may be present in biosolids. This study represents the first time that extensive use was made of a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser to characterise metals in sludges, having undergone treatment by thermal drying, lime stabilisation, or anaerobic digestion, in 16 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Ireland. The concentrations of metals, expressed as mgkg(-1) dry solids (DS), which are currently regulated in the European Union, ranged from 11 (cadmium, anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids) to 1273mgkg(-1) (zinc, AD biosolids), and with the exception of lead in one WWTP (which had a concentration of 3696mgkg(-1)), all metals were within EU regulatory limits. Two potentially hazardous metals, antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn), for which no legislation currently exists, were much higher than their baseline concentrations in soils (17-20mgSbkg(-1) and 23-55mgSnkg(-1)), meaning that potentially large amounts of these elements may be applied to the soil without regulation. This study recommends that the regulations governing the values for metal concentrations in sludges for reuse in agriculture are extended to include Sb and Sn.

  8. Computational laser intensity stabilisation for organic molecule concentration estimation in low-resource settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Shahid A.; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    An ideal laser is a useful tool for the analysis of biological systems. In particular, the polarization property of lasers can allow for the concentration of important organic molecules in the human body, such as proteins, amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, to be estimated. However, lasers do not always work as intended and there can be effects such as mode hopping and thermal drift that can cause time-varying intensity fluctuations. The causes of these effects can be from the surrounding environment, where either an unstable current source is used or the temperature of the surrounding environment is not temporally stable. This intensity fluctuation can cause bias and error in typical organic molecule concentration estimation techniques. In a low-resource setting where cost must be limited and where environmental factors, like unregulated power supplies and temperature, cannot be controlled, the hardware required to correct for these intensity fluctuations can be prohibitive. We propose a method for computational laser intensity stabilisation that uses Bayesian state estimation to correct for the time-varying intensity fluctuations from electrical and thermal instabilities without the use of additional hardware. This method will allow for consistent intensities across all polarization measurements for accurate estimates of organic molecule concentrations.

  9. Highly water-soluble mast cell stabiliser-encapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles with enhanced oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ravi R; Chaurasia, Sundeep; Khan, Gayasuddin; Chaubey, Pramila; Kumar, Nagendra; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2016-05-01

    Cromolyn sodium (CS), a mast cell stabiliser, is widely employed for the prevention and treatment of allergic conditions. However, high hydrophilicity and poor oral permeability hinder its oral clinical translation. Here, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have been developed for the purpose of oral bioavailability enhancement. The CS-SLNs were engineered by double emulsification method (W1/O/W2) and optimised by using Box-Behnken experimental design. The surface and solid-state characterisations revealed the presence of CS in an amorphous form without any interactions inside the spherical-shaped SLNs. The in-vitro release study showed an extended release up to 24 hr by diffusion controlled process. Ex-vivo and in-vivo intestinal permeation study showed ∼2.96-fold increase in permeability of CS by presentation as SLNs (p < 0.05). Further, in-vivo pharmacokinetic study exhibited ∼2.86-fold enhancements in oral bioavailability of CS by encapsulating inside SLNs, which clearly indicate that SLNs can serve as the potential therapeutic carrier system for oral delivery of CS.

  10. Stabilisation of composite LSFCO-CGO based anodes for methane oxidation in solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, A.; Kopnin, E.; Dubitsky, Y.; Zaopo, A.; Aricò, A. S.; Gullo, L. R.; Rosa, D. La; Antonucci, V.

    A La 0.6Sr 0.4Fe 0.8Co 0.2O 3-Ce 0.8Gd 0.2O 1.9 (LSFCO-CGO) composite anode material was investigated for the direct electrochemical oxidation of methane in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). A maximum power density of 0.17 W cm -2 at 800 °C was obtained with a methane-fed ceria electrolyte-supported SOFC. A progressive increase of performance was recorded during 140 h operation with dry methane. The anode did not show any structure degradation after the electrochemical testing. Furthermore, no formation of carbon deposits was detected by electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Alternatively, this perovskite material showed significant chemical and structural modifications after high temperature treatment in a dry methane stream in a packed-bed reactor. It is derived that the continuous supply of mobile oxygen anions from the electrolyte to the LSFCO anode, promoted by the mixed conductivity of CGO electrolyte at 800 °C, stabilises the perovskite structure near the surface under SOFC operation and open circuit conditions.

  11. Delay-dependent resilient-robust stabilisation of uncertain networked control systems with variable sampling intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feisheng; Zhang, Huaguang; Liu, Zhenwei; Li, Ranran

    2014-03-01

    This work is concerned with the robust resilient control problem for uncertain networked control systems (NCSs) with variable sampling intervals, variant-induced delays and possible data dropouts, which is seldom considered in current literature. It is mainly based on the continuous time-varying-delay system approach. Followed by the nominal case, delay-dependent resilient robust stabilising conditions for the closed-loop NCS against controller gain variations are derived by employing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional which makes good use of the information of both lower and upper bounds on the varying input delay, and the upper bound on the variable sampling interval as well. A feasible solution of the obtained criterion formulated as linear matrix inequalities can be gotten. A tighter bounding technique is presented for acquiring the time derivative of the functional so as to utilise many more useful elements, meanwhile neither slack variable nor correlated augmented item is introduced to reduce overall computational burden. Two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Chemical stabilisation of lead in shooting range soils with phosphate and magnesium oxide: Synchrotron investigation.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi; Lim, Jung Eun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-12-15

    Three Australian shooting range soils were treated with phosphate and magnesium oxide, or a combination of both to chemically stabilize Pb. Lead speciation was determined after 1 month ageing by X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with linear combination fitting in control and treated soils. The predominant Pb species in untreated soils were iron oxide bound Pb, humic acid bound Pb and the mineral litharge. Treatment with phosphate resulted in substantial pyromorphite formation in two of the soils (TV and PE), accounting for up to 38% of Pb species present, despite the addition of excess phosphate. In MgO treated soils only, up to 43% of Pb was associated with MgO. Litharge and Pb hydroxide also formed as a result of MgO addition in the soils. Application of MgO after P treatment increased hydroxypyromorphite/pyromorphite formation relative to soils teated with phosphate only. X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy revealed PbO precipitate on the surface of MgO. Soil pH, (5.3-9.3) was an important parameter, as was the solubility of existing Pb species. The use of direct means of determination of the stabilisation of metals such as by X-ray absorption spectroscopy is desirable, particularly in relation to understanding long term stability of the immobilised contaminants.

  13. UV-Enhanced Sacrificial Layer Stabilised Graphene Oxide Hollow Fibre Membranes for Nanofiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J. Y.; Aba, N. F. D.; Wang, B.; Mattevi, C.; Li, K.

    2015-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes have demonstrated great potential in gas separation and liquid filtration. For upscale applications, GO membranes in a hollow fibre geometry are of particular interest due to the high-efficiency and easy-assembly features at module level. However, GO membranes were found unstable in dry state on ceramic hollow fibre substrates, mainly due to the drying-related shrinkage, which has limited the applications and post-treatments of GO membranes. We demonstrate here that GO hollow fibre membranes can be stabilised by using a porous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sacrificial layer, which creates a space between the hollow fibre substrate and the GO membrane thus allowing stress-free shrinkage. Defect-free GO hollow fibre membrane was successfully determined and the membrane was stable in a long term (1200 hours) gas-tight stability test. Post-treatment of the GO membranes with UV light was also successfully accomplished in air, which induced the creation of controlled microstructural defects in the membrane and increased the roughness factor of the membrane surface. The permeability of the UV-treated GO membranes was greatly enhanced from 0.07 to 2.8 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 for water, and 0.14 to 7.5 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 for acetone, with an unchanged low molecular weight cut off (~250 Da).

  14. Digital implementation of a laser frequency stabilisation technique in the telecommunications band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jivan, Pritesh; van Brakel, Adriaan; Manuel, Rodolfo Martínez; Grobler, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Laser frequency stabilisation in the telecommunications band was realised using the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) error signal. The transmission spectrum of the Fabry-Perot cavity was used as opposed to the traditionally used reflected spectrum. A comparison was done using an analogue as well as a digitally implemented system. This study forms part of an initial step towards developing a portable optical time and frequency standard. The frequency discriminator used in the experimental setup was a fibre-based Fabry-Perot etalon. The phase sensitive system made use of the optical heterodyne technique to detect changes in the phase of the system. A lock-in amplifier was used to filter and mix the input signals to generate the error signal. This error signal may then be used to generate a control signal via a PID controller. An error signal was realised at a wavelength of 1556 nm which correlates to an optical frequency of 1.926 THz. An implementation of the analogue PDH technique yielded an error signal with a bandwidth of 6.134 GHz, while a digital implementation yielded a bandwidth of 5.774 GHz.

  15. Global adaptive stabilisation for nonlinear systems with unknown control directions and input disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Yongchao; Liu, Yungang

    2016-05-01

    This paper addresses the global adaptive stabilisation via switching and learning strategies for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. Remarkably, the systems in question simultaneously have unknown control directions, unknown input disturbance and unknown growth rate, which makes the problem in question challenging to solve and essentially different from those in the existing literature. To solve the problem, an adaptive scheme via switching and learning is proposed by skilfully integrating the techniques of backstepping design, adaptive learning and adaptive switching. One key point in the design scheme is the introduction of the learning mechanism, in order to compensate the unknown input disturbance, and the other one is the design of the switching mechanism, through tuning the design parameters online to deal with the unknown control directions, unknown bound and period of input disturbance and unknown growth rate. The designed controller guarantees that all the signals of the resulting closed-loop systems are bounded, and furthermore, the closed-loop system states globally converge to zero.

  16. Shape stabilised phase change materials (SSPCMs): High density polyethylene and hydrocarbon waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Mulan; Basheer, P. A. M.; Bai, Yun; McNally, Tony

    2014-05-01

    Shape stabilised phase change materials (SSPCMs) based on high density polyethylene (HDPE) with high (HPW, Tm=56-58 °C) and low (L-PW, Tm=18-23 °C) melting point waxes were prepared by melt-mixing in a twin-screw extruder and their potential in latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications for housing assessed. The structure and morphology of these blends were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both H-PW and L-PW were uniformly distributed throughout the HDPE matrix. The melting point and latent heat of the SSPCMs were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results demonstrated that both H-PW and L-PW have a plasticisation effect on the HDPE matrix. The tensile and flexural properties of the samples were measured at room temperature (RT, 20±2 °C) and 70 °C, respectively. All mechanical properties of HDPE/H-PW and HDPE/L-PW blends decreased from RT to 70 °C. In all instances at RT, modulus and stress, irrespective of the mode of deformation was greater for the HDPE/H-PW blends. However, at 70 °C, there was no significant difference in mechanical properties between the HDPE/H-PW and HDPE/L-PW blends.

  17. An assessment of theoretical procedures for π-conjugation stabilisation energies in enones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li-Juan; Sarrami, Farzaneh; Karton, Amir; O'Reilly, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a representative database of 22 α,β- to β,γ-enecarbonyl isomerisation energies (to be known as the EIE22 data-set). Accurate reaction energies are obtained at the complete basis-set limit CCSD(T) level by means of the high-level W1-F12 thermochemical protocol. The isomerisation reactions involve a migration of one double bond that breaks the conjugated π-system. The considered enecarbonyls involve a range of common functional groups (e.g., Me, NH2, OMe, F, and CN). Apart from π-conjugation effects, the chemical environments are largely conserved on the two sides of the reactions and therefore the EIE22 data-set allows us to assess the performance of a variety of density functional theory (DFT) procedures for the calculation of π-conjugation stabilisation energies in enecarbonyls. We find that, with few exceptions (M05-2X, M06-2X, BMK, and BH&HLYP), all the conventional DFT procedures attain root mean square deviations (RMSDs) between 5.0 and 11.7 kJ mol-1. The range-separated and double-hybrid DFT procedures, on the other hand, show good performance with RMSDs below the 'chemical accuracy' threshold. We also examine the performance of composite and standard ab initio procedures. Of these, SCS-MP2 offers the best performance-to-computational cost ratio with an RMSD of 0.8 kJ mol-1.

  18. Novel RAFT amphiphilic brush copolymer steric stabilisers for cubosomes: poly(octadecyl acrylate)-block-poly(polyethylene glycol methyl ether acrylate).

    PubMed

    Chong, Josephine Y T; Mulet, Xavier; Postma, Almar; Keddie, Daniel J; Waddington, Lynne J; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2014-09-21

    Copolymers, particularly Pluronics®, are typically used to sterically stabilise colloidal nanostructured particles composed of a lyotropic liquid crystalline bicontinuous cubic phase (cubosomes). There is a need to design and assess new functionalisable stabilisers for these colloidal drug delivery systems. Six amphiphilic brush copolymers, poly(octadecyl acrylate)-block-poly(polyethylene glycol methyl ether acrylate) (P(ODA)-b-P(PEGA-OMe)), synthesised by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), were assessed as novel steric stabilisers for cubosomes. It was found that increasing the density of PEG on the nanostructured particle surface by incorporating a PEG brush design (i.e., brush copolymer), provided comparable and/or increased stabilisation effectiveness compared to a linear PEG structure, Pluronic® F127, which is extensively used for steric stabilisation of cubosomes. Assessment was conducted both prior to and following the removal of the dodecyl trithiocarbonate end-group, by free radical-induced reduction. The reduced (P(ODA)-b-P(PEGA-OMe) copolymers were more effective steric stabilisers for phytantriol and monoolein colloidal particle dispersions than their non-reduced analogues. High throughput characterisation methodologies, including an accelerated stability assay (ASA) and synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), were implemented in this study for the rapid assessment of steric stabiliser effectiveness and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase identification. Phytantriol cubosomes stabilised with P(ODA)-b-P(PEGA-OMe) copolymers exhibited a double diamond cubic phase (Q(2)(D)), whilst monoolein cubosomes exhibited a primitive cubic phase (Q(2)(P)), analogous to those formed using Pluronic® F127.

  19. Three-year performance of in-situ mass stabilised contaminated site soils using MgO-bearing binders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Jin, Fei; Shen, Zhengtao; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2016-11-15

    This paper provides physical and chemical performances of mass stabilised organic and inorganic contaminated site soils using a new group of MgO-bearing binders over 3 years and evaluated the time-dependent performance during the 3 years. This study took place at a contaminated site in Castleford, UK in 2011, where MgO, ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS) and Portland cement (PC) were mixed with the contaminated soils in a dry form using the ALLU mass mixing equipment. Soil cores were retrieved 40-day, 1-year and 3-year after the treatment. The core quality, strength, and the leaching properties were determined via physical observation, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and batch leaching tests. After 3-year treatment, the UCS values of ALLU mixes were in the range of 50-250kPa; the leachate concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn (except Ni) in all mixes were lower than their drinking water standards; and the leachability of total organics was in the range of 10-105mg/L. No apparent degradation of the mass stabilised materials after 3 years' exposure to the field conditions was found. MgO-GGBS blends were found able to provide higher strength and less leachability of contaminants compared to PC and MgO-only mixes in mass stabilised soils.

  20. Mood stabilisers plus risperidone or placebo in the treatment of acute mania. International, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yatham, Laksami N; Grossman, Fred; Augustyns, Ilse; Vieta, Eduard; Ravindran, Arun

    2003-02-01

    Few double-blind trials have examined the efficacy of a combination of a mood stabiliser and an atypical antipsychotic in acute mania. To determine the efficacy of risperidone in combination with a mood stabiliser in acute mania. Patients taking a mood stabiliser were randomised to 3 weeks' treatment with risperidone (n=75) or placebo (n=76). Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores improved rapidly with significantly greater reductions at week 1 in the risperidone group compared with the placebo group. At end-point YMRS scores decreased by 14.5 and 10.3 points in the risperidone and placebo groups, respectively. Significant improvements v. placebo (P<0.05) were noted in the risperidone group on several other clinically meaningful measures. Additionally, a post hoc analysis excluding carbamazepine-treated patients (plasma concentrations of risperidone active moiety were 40% lower in this group) revealed significantly greater reductions (P=0.047) in YMRS scores in the risperidone group than in the placebo group. Incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups. Risperidone is superior to placebo when used in combination with lithium or divalproex in acute mania.

  1. Study of the electronics architecture for the mechanical stabilisation of the quadrupoles of the CLIC linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artoos, K.; Collette, C.; Fernandez Carmona, P.; Guinchard, M.; Hauviller, C.; Janssens, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Slaathaug, A.

    2010-11-01

    To reach a sufficient luminosity, the transverse beam sizes and emittances in future linear particle accelerators should be reduced to the nanometer level. Mechanical stabilisation of the quadrupole magnets is of the utmost importance for this. The piezo actuators used for this purpose can also be used to make fast incremental orientation adjustments with a nanometer resolution. The main requirements for the CLIC stabilisation electronics is a robust, low noise, low delay, high accuracy and resolution, low band and radiation resistant feedback control loop. Due to the high number of controllers (about 4000) a cost optimization should also be made. Different architectures are evaluated for a magnet stabilisation prototype, including the sensors type and configuration, partition between software and hardware for control algorithms, and optimization of the ADC/DAC converters. The controllers will be distributed along the 50 km long accelerator and a communication bus should allow external control. Furthermore, one might allow for an adaptive method to increase the S/N ratio of vibration measurements by combining seismometer measurements of adjacent magnets. Finally a list of open topics, the current limitations and the plans to overcome them will be presented.

  2. Performance evaluation of the bioreactor landfill in treatment and stabilisation of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sivakumar Babu, G L

    2017-03-01

    The potential of bioreactor landfills to treat mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste is analysed in this study. Developing countries like India and China have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This article describes the impacts of leachate recirculation on waste stabilisation, landfill gas generation, leachate characteristics and long-term waste settlement. A small-scale and large-scale anaerobic cell were filled with mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste collected from a landfill site at the outskirts of Bangalore, India. Leachate collected from the same landfill site was recirculated at the rate of 2-5 times a month on a regular basis for 370 days. The total quantity of gas generated was around 416 L in the large-scale reactor and 21 L in the small-scale reactor, respectively. Differential settlements ranging from 20%-26% were observed at two different locations in the large reactor, whereas 30% of settlement was observed in the small reactor. The biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio indicated that the waste in the large reactor was stabilised at the end of 1 year. The performance of the bioreactor with respect to the reactor size, temperature, landfill gas and leachate quality was analysed and it was found that the bioreactor landfill is efficient in the treatment and stabilising of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

  3. Acetabular Fractures in the Elderly: Midterm Outcomes of Column Stabilisation and Primary Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Briones, A.; Smith, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Interest in arthroplasty techniques for periarticular or intra-articular fractures in the elderly/osteoporotic patient continues to rise, including for geriatric acetabular fractures. In line with this, many acetabular fracture surgeons are now undertaking acute total hip arthroplasty in elderly/osteoporotic patients. Little is known however of the outcomes of this procedure, beyond the first year after surgery. Questions/Purposes. We determined the clinical outcomes of a series of elderly osteoporotic patients (mean age at surgery 77.4 years) treated for acetabular fractures with column fixation and simultaneous total hip arthroplasty, at a mean of 49 months after surgery. Methods. 24 patients (25 hips) were reviewed at a mean of 49 months after surgery. The surgical technique employed has previously been described. Radiographs were obtained, and clinical outcomes were assessed using Harris Hip Scores and the Merle d'Aubigné score. Results. 14 hips were available for assessment (9 deceased, 2 lost to follow-up). No patient suffered any complications beyond the perioperative period, no acetabular components were loose clinically or on latest radiographs, and the mean Harris Hip Score was 92. All but one patient scored good or excellent on the Merle d'Aubigné score. Conclusions. Column fixation and simultaneous total hip arthroplasty are a viable option for complex geriatric acetabular fractures, with encouraging midterm results. We conclude that THR is a viable long-term solution in this situation provided that the acetabular columns are stabilised prior to implantation, but more research is needed to aid in overall management decision making. PMID:28194414

  4. Soil stabilisation using AMD sludge, compost and lignite: TCLP leachability and continuous acid leaching.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A; Yip, Alex C K

    2013-11-01

    Utilising locally available industrial by-products for in situ metal stabilisation presents a low-cost remediation approach for contaminated soil. This study explored the potential use of inorganic (acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge and zero-valent iron) and carbonaceous materials (green waste compost, manure compost, and lignite) for minimising the environmental risks of As and Cu at a timber treatment site. After 9-month soil incubation, significant sequestration of As and Cu in soil solution was accomplished by AMD sludge, on which adsorption and co-precipitation could take place. The efficacy of AMD sludge was comparable to that of zero-valent iron. There was marginal benefit of adding carbonaceous materials. However, in a moderately aggressive environment (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), AMD sludge only suppressed the leachability of As but not Cu. Therefore, the provision of compost and lignite augmented the simultaneous reduction of Cu leachability, probably via surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups. Under continuous acid leaching in column experiments, combined application of AMD sludge with compost proved more effective than AMD sludge with lignite. This was possibly attributed to the larger amount of dissolved organic matter with aromatic moieties from lignite, which may enhance Cu and As mobility. Nevertheless, care should be taken to mitigate ecological impact associated with short-term substantial Ca release and continuous release of Al at a moderate level under acid leaching. This study also articulated the engineering implications and provided recommendations for field deployment, material processing, and assessment framework to ensure an environmentally sound application of reactive materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Process envelopes for stabilisation/solidification of contaminated soil using lime-slag blend.

    PubMed

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Yi, Yaolin; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2011-09-01

    Stabilisation/solidification (S/S) has emerged as an efficient and cost-effective technology for the treatment of contaminated soils. However, the performance of S/S-treated soils is governed by several intercorrelated variables, which complicates the optimisation of the treatment process design. Therefore, it is desirable to develop process envelopes, which define the range of operating variables that result in acceptable performance. In this work, process envelopes were developed for S/S treatment of contaminated soil with a blend of hydrated lime (hlime) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as the binder (hlime/GGBS = 1:4). A sand contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons was treated with 5%, 10% and 20% binder dosages, at different water contents. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed using unconfined compressive strength (UCS), permeability, acid neutralisation capacity and contaminant leachability with pH, at set periods. The UCS values obtained after 28 days of treatment were up to ∼800 kPa, which is quite low, and permeability was ∼10(-8) m/s, which is higher than might be required. However, these values might be acceptable in some scenarios. The binder significantly reduced the leachability of cadmium and nickel. With the 20% dosage, both metals met the waste acceptance criteria for inert waste landfill and relevant environmental quality standards. The results show that greater than 20% dosage would be required to achieve a balance of acceptable mechanical and leaching properties. Overall, the process envelopes for different performance criteria depend on the end-use of the treated material.

  6. Electromyographic response of global abdominal stabilisers in response to stable- and unstable-base isometric exercise.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Stephen

    2014-12-24

    Core stability training traditionally uses stable base techniques. Less is known as to the use of unstable base techniques, such as suspension training, to activate core musculature. This study sought to assess the neuromuscular activation of global core stabilisers when using suspension training techniques, compared to more traditional forms of isometric exercise. Eighteen elite level, male youth swimmers (Age 15.5yrs ± 2.3yrs; Stature - 163.3cm ± 12.7cm; Body Mass 62.2kg ± 11.9 kg) participated in the current study. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to determine the rate of muscle contraction in postural musculature, associated with core stability and torso bracing (rectus abdominus-RA, external oblique's-EO, erector spinae-ES). A maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) test was used to determine peak amplitude for all muscles. Static bracing of the core was achieved using a modified 'plank' position, with and without a Swiss ball, and held for 30 seconds. A mechanically similar 'plank' was then held using suspension straps. Analysis of sEMG revealed that suspension produced higher peak amplitude in the RA than using a prone or Swiss Ball 'plank' (p=0.04). This difference was not replicated in either the EO or ES musculature. We conclude that suspension training noticeably improves engagement of anterior core musculature when compared to both lateral and posterior muscles. Further research is required to determine how best to activate both posterior and lateral musculature when using all forms of core stability training.

  7. Solidification/stabilisation of electric arc furnace waste using low grade MgO.

    PubMed

    Cubukcuoglu, B; Ouki, S K

    2012-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of low grade MgO (LGMgO) for the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of heavy metals in steel electric arc furnace wastes. Relevant characteristics such as setting time, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and leaching behaviour assessed by acid neutralisation capacity (ANC), monolithic and granular leaching tests were examined in light of the UK landfill Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for disposal. The results demonstrated that all studied mix designs with Portland cement type 1 (CEM1) and LGMgO, CEM1-LGMgO 1:2 and 1:4 at 40% and 70% waste addition met the WAC requirements by means of UCS, initial and final setting times and consistence. Most of the ANC results met the WAC limits where the threshold pH values without acid additions were stable and between 11.9 and 12.2 at 28d. Granular leaching results indicate fixation of most of the metals at all mix ratios. An optimum ratio was obtained at CEM1-LGMgO 1:4 at 40% waste additions where none of the metals leaching exceeded the WAC limits and hence may be considered for landfill disposal. The monolithic leaching test results showed that LGMgO performed satisfactorily with respect to S/S of Zn, as the metal component present at the highest concentration level in the waste exhibited very little leaching and passed the leaching test requirement at all mix ratios studied. However, its performance with respect to Pb, Cd and Cr was less effective in reducing their leaching suggesting a higher cumulative rate under those leaching regimes.

  8. Calculations of single crystal elastic constants for yttria partially stabilised zirconia from powder diffraction data

    SciTech Connect

    Lunt, A. J. G. Xie, M. Y.; Baimpas, N.; Korsunsky, A. M.; Zhang, S. Y.; Kabra, S.; Kelleher, J.; Neo, T. K.

    2014-08-07

    Yttria Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) is a tough, phase-transforming ceramic that finds use in a wide range of commercial applications from dental prostheses to thermal barrier coatings. Micromechanical modelling of phase transformation can deliver reliable predictions in terms of the influence of temperature and stress. However, models must rely on the accurate knowledge of single crystal elastic stiffness constants. Some techniques for elastic stiffness determination are well-established. The most popular of these involve exploiting frequency shifts and phase velocities of acoustic waves. However, the application of these techniques to YSZ can be problematic due to the micro-twinning observed in larger crystals. Here, we propose an alternative approach based on selective elastic strain sampling (e.g., by diffraction) of grain ensembles sharing certain orientation, and the prediction of the same quantities by polycrystalline modelling, for example, the Reuss or Voigt average. The inverse problem arises consisting of adjusting the single crystal stiffness matrix to match the polycrystal predictions to observations. In the present model-matching study, we sought to determine the single crystal stiffness matrix of tetragonal YSZ using the results of time-of-flight neutron diffraction obtained from an in situ compression experiment and Finite Element modelling of the deformation of polycrystalline tetragonal YSZ. The best match between the model predictions and observations was obtained for the optimized stiffness values of C11 = 451, C33 = 302, C44 = 39, C66 = 82, C12 = 240, and C13 = 50 (units: GPa). Considering the significant amount of scatter in the published literature data, our result appears reasonably consistent.

  9. Complexation of bovine serum albumin and sugar beet pectin: stabilising oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyang; Fang, Yapeng; Al-Assaf, Saphwan; Phillips, Glyn O; Jiang, Fatang

    2012-12-15

    In a previous study (Langmuir 28 (2012) 10164-10176.), we investigated the complexation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with sugar beet pectin (SBP). A pH-composition phase diagram was established and structural transitions in relation to the phase diagram during complexation were identified. The present study examines the implications of these interactions on the emulsifying performance of BSA/SBP mixtures. Middle-chain triglycerides (MCTs) in water emulsions were prepared using conditions corresponding to different regions of the phase diagram. At high pHs and in the stable region of mixed individual soluble polymers where complexation is absent, there is no improved emulsifying performance, compared with the individual protein and polysaccharide. For these mixtures, the emulsion characteristics are controlled by the major component in the solutions, as determined by the competitive adsorption of the two components at the oil-water interface. At low pHs and low BSA/SBP ratios, and so mainly within the stable region of intramolecular soluble complexes, BSA/SBP mixtures greatly improve the stability of emulsions. Here, stabilisation is controlled by the cooperative adsorption of the two components at the oil-water interface. Through electrostatic complexation BSA promotes the adsorption of SBP on to interfaces to form a thick steric layer around emulsion droplets and thus providing better stability. At low pHs and high BSA/SBP ratios, that is, mainly within the unstable region of intermolecular insoluble complexes, emulsions prepared are extremely unstable due to bridging flocculation between emulsion droplets.

  10. Long-term olfactory memories are stabilised via protein synthesis in Camponotus fellah ants.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Fernando J; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Giurfa, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Ants exhibit impressive olfactory learning abilities. Operant protocols in which ants freely choose between rewarded and non-rewarded odours have been used to characterise associative olfactory learning and memory. Yet, this approach precludes the use of invasive methods allowing the dissection of molecular bases of learning and memory. An open question is whether the memories formed upon olfactory learning that are retrievable several days after training are indeed based on de novo protein synthesis. Here, we addressed this question in the ant Camponotus fellah using a conditioning protocol in which individually harnessed ants learn an association between odour and reward. When the antennae of an ant are stimulated with sucrose solution, the insect extends its maxilla-labium to absorb the solution (maxilla-labium extension response). We differentially conditioned ants to discriminate between two long-chain hydrocarbons, one paired with sucrose and the other with quinine solution. Differential conditioning leads to the formation of a long-term memory retrievable at least 72 h after training. Long-term memory consolidation was impaired by the ingestion of cycloheximide, a protein synthesis blocker, prior to conditioning. Cycloheximide did not impair acquisition of either short-term memory (10 min) or early and late mid-term memories (1 or 12 h). These results show that, upon olfactory learning, ants form different memories with variable molecular bases. While short- and mid-term memories do not require protein synthesis, long-term memories are stabilised via protein synthesis. Our behavioural protocol opens interesting research avenues to explore the cellular and molecular bases of olfactory learning and memory in ants.

  11. Solid dispersions based on inulin for the stabilisation and formulation of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    van Drooge, D J; Hinrichs, W L J; Wegman, K A M; Visser, M R; Eissens, A C; Frijlink, H W

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a dry powder formulation that stabilises the chemically labile lipophilic Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that rapidly dissolves in water in order to increase the bioavailability and that opens new routes of administration. It was investigated whether these aims can be achieved with solid dispersions consisting of a matrix of inulin, an oligo-fructose, in which THC is incorporated. These solid dispersions were prepared by lyophilisation of a solution of THC and inulin in a mixture of water and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). Both 4 and 8 wt.% of THC could be incorporated in a glassy matrix of inulin. In the solid dispersions only 0.4-0.5 wt.% of residual TBA was present after storage at 20 degrees C/45% relative humidity (RH) for 7 days. Unprotected THC was completely degraded after 40 days of exposure to 20 degrees C and 45% RH. However, solid dispersions exposed to the same conditions still contained about 80% non-degraded THC after 300 days. Dissolution experiments with tablets compressed from inulin glass dispersion material showed that THC and inulin dissolved at the same rate. Tablets weighing 125 mg and containing 2mg THC were prepared from a mixture of THC containing solid dispersion, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and mannitol. Dissolution tests revealed that from these tablets 80% of the THC was dissolved within 3 min, which makes them promising for sublingual administration. It was concluded that THC can be strongly stabilized by incorporating it in a matrix of inulin. The aqueous dissolution rate was high which may improve bioavailability.

  12. Ecosystem function in waste stabilisation ponds: Improving water quality through a better understanding of biophysical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadouani, Anas; Reichwaldt, Elke S.; Coggins, Liah X.; Ivey, Gregory N.; Ghisalberti, Marco; Zhou, Wenxu; Laurion, Isabelle; Chua, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Wastewater stabilisation ponds (WSPs) are highly productive systems designed to treat wastewater using only natural biological and chemical processes. Phytoplankton, microbial communities and hydraulics play important roles for ecosystem functionality of these pond systems. Although WSPs have been used for many decades, they are still considered as 'black box' systems as very little is known about the fundamental ecological processes which occur within them. However, a better understanding of how these highly productive ecosystems function is particularly important for hydrological processes, as treated wastewater is commonly discharged into streams, rivers, and oceans, and subject to strict water quality guidelines. WSPs are known to operate at different levels of efficiency, and treatment efficiency of WSPs is dependent on physical (flow characteristics and sludge accumulation and distribution) and biological (microbial and phytoplankton communities) characteristics. Thus, it is important to gain a better understanding of the role and influence of pond hydraulics and vital microbial communities on pond performance and WSP functional stability. The main aim of this study is to investigate the processes leading to differences in treatment performance of WSPs. This study uses a novel and innovative approach to understand these factors by combining flow cytometry and metabolomics to investigate various biochemical characteristics, including the metabolite composition and microbial community within WSPs. The results of these analyses will then be combined with results from the characterisation of pond hydrodynamics and hydraulic performance, which will be performed using advanced hydrodynamic modelling and advanced sludge profiling technology. By understanding how hydrodynamic and biological processes influence each other and ecosystem function and stability in WSPs, we will be able to propose ways to improve the quality of the treatment using natural processes, with

  13. Sludge accumulation and distribution impact the hydraulic performance in waste stabilisation ponds.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Liah X; Ghisalberti, Marco; Ghadouani, Anas

    2017-03-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSPs) are used worldwide for wastewater treatment, and throughout their operation require periodic sludge surveys. Sludge accumulation in WSPs can impact performance by reducing the effective volume of the pond, and altering the pond hydraulics and wastewater treatment efficiency. Traditionally, sludge heights, and thus sludge volume, have been measured using low-resolution and labour intensive methods such as 'sludge judge' and the 'white towel test'. A sonar device, a readily available technology, fitted to a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was shown to improve the spatial resolution and accuracy of sludge height measurements, as well as reduce labour and safety requirements. Coupled with a dedicated software package, the profiling of several WSPs has shown that the ROV with autonomous sonar device is capable of providing sludge bathymetry with greatly increased spatial resolution in a greatly reduced profiling time, leading to a better understanding of the role played by sludge accumulation in hydraulic performance of WSPs. The high-resolution bathymetry collected was used to support a much more detailed hydrodynamic assessment of systems with low, medium and high accumulations of sludge. The results of the modelling show that hydraulic performance is not only influenced by the sludge accumulation, but also that the spatial distribution of sludge plays a critical role in reducing the treatment capacity of these systems. In a range of ponds modelled, the reduction in residence time ranged from 33% in a pond with a uniform sludge distribution to a reduction of up to 60% in a pond with highly channelized flow. The combination of high-resolution measurement of sludge accumulation and hydrodynamic modelling will help in the development of frameworks for wastewater sludge management, including the development of more reliable computer models, and could potentially have wider application in the monitoring of other small to medium water bodies

  14. Zinc carnosine, a health food supplement that stabilises small bowel integrity and stimulates gut repair processes

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, A; FitzGerald, A J; Marchbank, T; Ntatsaki, E; Murray, D; Ghosh, S; Playford, R J

    2007-01-01

    Background Zinc carnosine (ZnC) is a health food product claimed to possess health‐promoting and gastrointestinal supportive activity. Scientific evidence underlying these claims is, however, limited. Aim To examine the effect of ZnC on various models of gut injury and repair, and in a clinical trial. Methods In vitro studies used pro‐migratory (wounded monolayer) and proliferation ([3H]‐thymidine incorporation) assays of human colonic (HT29), rat intestinal epithelial (RIE) and canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. In vivo studies used a rat model of gastric damage (indomethacin/restraint) and a mouse model of small‐intestinal (indomethacin) damage. Healthy volunteers (n = 10) undertook a randomised crossover trial comparing changes in gut permeability (lactulose:rhamnose ratios) before and after 5 days of indomethacin treatment (50 mg three times a day) with ZnC (37.5 mg twice daily) or placebo coadministration. Results ZnC stimulated migration and proliferation of cells in a dose‐dependent manner (maximum effects in both assays at 100 µmol/l using HT29 cells), causing an approximate threefold increase in migration and proliferation (both p<0.01). Oral ZnC decreased gastric (75% reduction at 5 mg/ml) and small‐intestinal injury (50% reduction in villus shortening at 40 mg/ml; both p<0.01). In volunteers, indomethacin caused a threefold increase in gut permeability in the control arm; lactulose:rhamnose ratios were (mean (standard error of mean)) 0.35 (0.035) before indomethacin treatment and 0.88 (0.11) after 5 days of indomethacin treatment (p<0.01), whereas no significant increase in permeability was seen when ZnC was coadministered. Conclusion ZnC, at concentrations likely to be found in the gut lumen, stabilises gut mucosa. Further studies are warranted. PMID:16777920

  15. A stabilised nodal spectral element method for fully nonlinear water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engsig-Karup, A. P.; Eskilsson, C.; Bigoni, D.

    2016-08-01

    We present an arbitrary-order spectral element method for general-purpose simulation of non-overturning water waves, described by fully nonlinear potential theory. The method can be viewed as a high-order extension of the classical finite element method proposed by Cai et al. (1998) [5], although the numerical implementation differs greatly. Features of the proposed spectral element method include: nodal Lagrange basis functions, a general quadrature-free approach and gradient recovery using global L2 projections. The quartic nonlinear terms present in the Zakharov form of the free surface conditions can cause severe aliasing problems and consequently numerical instability for marginally resolved or very steep waves. We show how the scheme can be stabilised through a combination of over-integration of the Galerkin projections and a mild spectral filtering on a per element basis. This effectively removes any aliasing driven instabilities while retaining the high-order accuracy of the numerical scheme. The additional computational cost of the over-integration is found insignificant compared to the cost of solving the Laplace problem. The model is applied to several benchmark cases in two dimensions. The results confirm the high order accuracy of the model (exponential convergence), and demonstrate the potential for accuracy and speedup. The results of numerical experiments are in excellent agreement with both analytical and experimental results for strongly nonlinear and irregular dispersive wave propagation. The benefit of using a high-order - possibly adapted - spatial discretisation for accurate water wave propagation over long times and distances is particularly attractive for marine hydrodynamics applications.

  16. Reducing the mobility of arsenic in brownfield soil using stabilised zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gil-Díaz, Mar; Alonso, Juan; Rodríguez-Valdés, Eduardo; Pinilla, Paloma; Lobo, Maria Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) as a new tool for the treatment of polluted soils and groundwater has received considerable attention in recent years due to its high reactivity, in situ application and cost-effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of using a commercial stabilised suspension of nZVI to immobilise As in brownfield soil and to investigate its impact on Fe availability in the treated soil. The phytotoxicities of the soil samples were also evaluated using a germination test with two plant species: barley (Hordeum vulgare L) and common vetch (Vicia sativa L). Two doses of the commercial nZVI suspension were studied, 1% and 10%, and two soil-nanoparticle interaction times, 72 h and 3 mo, were used to compare the stabilities of the soils treated with nZVI. The As availability was evaluated using a sequential extraction procedure and the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) test. The application of nZVI significantly decreased the availability of As in the soil. The immobilisation of As was more effective and more stable over time with the 10% dose than with the 1% dose of the commercial nZVI suspension. The application of nZVI did not induce an important increase in Fe mobility because the Fe leachability was less than 2 mg L(-1) over the time period studied. The lower availability of As in the soil led to a decrease in the phytotoxicity of the soil to barley and vetch germination. Thus, the proposed nanotechnology could be a potential alternative for the in situ remediation of As-polluted soils and could be combined with remediation processes where plants are involved.

  17. Drop sizes and particle coverage in emulsions stabilised solely by silica nanoparticles of irregular shape.

    PubMed

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Holt, Benjamin L; Parker, James; Beaussoubre, Pascal; Wong, Kenneth

    2010-10-14

    We have investigated emulsions stabilised solely by partially-hydrophobised fumed silica particles which consist of a mixture of primary particles and irregularly-shaped fused aggregates and larger agglomerates. The particle wettability is controlled by varying the extent of hydrophobisation of their surfaces. This, in turn, controls the contact angle between the oil-water interface and the particle surface (θ(ow)) which affects the particle adsorption energy and the type of emulsion formed (oil-in-water, o/w or water-in-oil, w/o). Progressive particle hydrophobisation causes transitional phase inversion of the emulsions from o/w to w/o which occurs when θ(ow) = 90° and the energy of particle adsorption to the oil-water interface is maximally favourable. The key problem addressed here is to understand why the emulsion drop size passes through a minimum at the point of emulsion phase inversion. In principle, this effect could be the result of particle desorption, changes in the extent of close-packing of the adsorbed particle film (at constant particle orientation), particle re-orientation or a combination of these processes. Using measurements of emulsion drop size and the extent of particle desorption, we have derived adsorbed particle surface concentrations as a function of the energy of desorption of the particles from the oil-water interface for a range of particle concentrations and different oil-water systems. The main conclusion is that the minimum in emulsion drop size through phase inversion is mainly caused by re-orientation of the particles from a high surface area orientation when the energy of desorption is high to a low surface area orientation when the energy of desorption is low. Some particle desorption occurs but this is a secondary effect.

  18. Suitability of constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds in wastewater treatment: nitrogen transformation and removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senzia, M. A.; Mashauri, D. A.; Mayo, A. W.

    It is estimated that 90% of sewage in cities in developing countries are today discharged untreated into water bodies. In Tanzania, pollution of rivers such as Karanga, Njoro and Rao in Moshi; Mirongo in Mwanza and Themi in Arusha is the cause of frequent disease outbreaks in communities downstreams. Solutions to effluent crisis can be found by its proper treatment and disposal. The principal objective of wastewater treatment is to allow effluents to be disposed without danger to human health or unacceptable damage to the ecology of receiving water bodies. Field investigations were made on pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CW) units located downstream of waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). Six units filled with gravel of 6-25 mm diameters in equal proportion, which gave an initial hydraulic conductivity of 86 m/d were used. While four units covering surface area of 40.7 m 2 each, were located downstream of primary facultative pond, the other two units with surface area 15.9 m 2 each were located downstream of maturation pond. An attempt was made to compare the output of mathematical models for Phragmites and Typha macrophytes located downstream of primary facultative pond. Based on total inflow nitrogen of 1.457 gN/m 2 d, while Phragmites has shown a removal of 54%, Typha had a removal of 44.2%. Furthermore, while the system downstream of primary facultative pond has accretion as a major pathway, accounting for 19.1% of inflow nitrogen, the system downstream of maturation pond has denitrification as its major removal mechanism accounting for 20.5%. In this paper, a comparison of land required by CW and WSP based on the amount of water to be treated is made.

  19. Amphiphilic brush polymers produced using the RAFT polymerisation method stabilise and reduce the cell cytotoxicity of lipid lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jiali; Suryadinata, Randy; Luan, Bao; Tran, Nhiem; Hinton, Tracey M; Ratcliffe, Julian; Hao, Xiaojuan; Drummond, Calum J

    2016-10-06

    Self-assembled lipid lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles such as hexosomes and cubosomes contain internal anisotropic and isotropic nanostructures, respectively. Despite the remarkable potential of such nanoparticles in various biomedical applications, the stabilisers used in formulating the nanoparticles are often limited to commercially available polymers such as the Pluronic block copolymers. This study explored the potential of using Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) technology to design amphiphilic brush-type polymers for the purpose of stabilising phytantriol and monoolein-based lipid dispersions. The synthesised brush-type polymers consisted of a hydrophobic C12 short chain and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether acrylate (PEGA) long chain with multiple 9-unit poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brushes with various molecular weights. It was observed that increasing the PEO brush density and thus the length of the hydrophilic component improved the stabilisation effectiveness for phytantriol and monoolein-based cubosomes. Synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments confirmed that the RAFT polymer-stabilised cubosomes had an internal double-diamond cubic phase with tunable water channel sizes. These properties were dependent on the molecular weight of the polymers, which were considered in some cases to be anisotropically distributed within the cubosomes. The in vitro toxicity of the cubosomes was assessed by cell viability of two human adenocarcinoma cell lines and haemolytic activities to mouse erythrocytes. The results showed that phytantriol cubosomes stabilised by the RAFT polymers were less toxic compared to their Pluronic F127-stabilised analogues. This study provides valuable insight into designing non-linear amphiphilic polymers for the effective stabilisation and cellular toxicity improvement of self-assembled lipid lyotropic liquid crystalline nanoparticles.

  20. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of as-synthesised N,N'-dimethylformamide-stabilised gold nanoclusters product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shunping; Paau, Man Chin; Zhang, Yan; Shuang, Shaomin; Chan, Wan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2012-08-01

    Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation and analysis of polydisperse water-soluble gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) stabilised with N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) were investigated. Under optimal elution gradient conditions, the separation of DMF-AuNCs was monitored by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The UV-vis spectral characteristics of the separated DMF-AuNCs have been captured and they do not possess distinct surface plasmon resonance bands, indicating that all DMF-AuNCs are small AuNCs. The photoluminescence emission spectra of the separated DMF-AuNCs are in the blue-light region. Moreover, cationic DMF-AuNCs are for the first time identified by ion chromatography. Our proposed RP-HPLC methodology has been successfully applied to separate AuNCs of various Au atoms as well as DMF-stabilised ligands. Finally, the composition of the separated DMF-AuNCs was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry, proving that the as-synthesised DMF-AuNCs product consists of Au10+, Au10, Au11, Au12, Au13, and Au14 NCs stabilised with various numbers of DMF ligands.Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation and analysis of polydisperse water-soluble gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) stabilised with N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) were investigated. Under optimal elution gradient conditions, the separation of DMF-AuNCs was monitored by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The UV-vis spectral characteristics of the separated DMF-AuNCs have been captured and they do not possess distinct surface plasmon resonance bands, indicating that all DMF-AuNCs are small AuNCs. The photoluminescence emission spectra of the separated DMF-AuNCs are in the blue-light region. Moreover, cationic DMF-AuNCs are for the first time identified by ion chromatography. Our proposed RP-HPLC methodology has been successfully applied to separate AuNCs of

  1. Production and validation of model iron-tannate dyed textiles for use as historic textile substitutes in stabilisation treatment studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For millennia, iron-tannate dyes have been used to colour ceremonial and domestic objects shades of black, grey, or brown. Surviving iron-tannate dyed objects are part of our cultural heritage but their existence is threatened by the dye itself which can accelerate oxidation and acid hydrolysis of the substrate. This causes many iron-tannate dyed textiles to discolour and decrease in tensile strength and flexibility at a faster rate than equivalent undyed textiles. The current lack of suitable stabilisation treatments means that many historic iron-tannate dyed objects are rapidly crumbling to dust with the knowledge and value they hold being lost forever. This paper describes the production, characterisation, and validation of model iron-tannate dyed textiles as substitutes for historic iron-tannate dyed textiles in the development of stabilisation treatments. Spectrophotometry, surface pH, tensile testing, SEM-EDX, and XRF have been used to characterise the model textiles. Results On application to textiles, the model dyes imparted mid to dark blue-grey colouration, an immediate tensile strength loss of the textiles and an increase in surface acidity. The dyes introduced significant quantities of iron into the textiles which was distributed in the exterior and interior of the cotton, abaca, and silk fibres but only in the exterior of the wool fibres. As seen with historic iron-tannate dyed objects, the dyed cotton, abaca, and silk textiles lost tensile strength faster and more significantly than undyed equivalents during accelerated thermal ageing and all of the dyed model textiles, most notably the cotton, discoloured more than the undyed equivalents on ageing. Conclusions The abaca, cotton, and silk model textiles are judged to be suitable for use as substitutes for cultural heritage materials in the testing of stabilisation treatments. PMID:22616934

  2. Incidence of human papillomavirus positive tonsillar and base of tongue carcinoma: a stabilisation of an epidemic of viral induced carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Näsman, Anders; Nordfors, Cecilia; Holzhauser, Stefan; Vlastos, Andrea; Tertipis, Nikolaos; Hammar, Ulf; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle; Marklund, Linda; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Bottai, Matteo; Dalianis, Tina

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the rise during the past decades in the incidence of tonsillar and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC and BOTSCC) and the proportion of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive cancer has continued in Stockholm. Pre-treatment biopsies (n=252) available from 280 patients diagnosed with TSCC and BOTSCC during 2008-2012 in the County of Stockholm were tested for HPV DNA by a multiplex bead-based assay. Incidence records were acquired from the Swedish Cancer Registry. The data obtained were evaluated together with previous figures from 1970 to 2007. HPV DNA was present in 186/252 (74%) of TSCC and BOTSCC biopsies obtained during 2008-2012 in Stockholm. In this region the age-standardised incidence, including the prevalence of HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC stabilised 2007-2012 compared to 2000-2006, while for BOTSCC throughout 1998-2012 the same parameters increased moderately (p<0.05, for all). In parallel, from 2000 to 2006 through 2007-2012 in Sweden, the age-standardised incidence of both TSCC and BOTSCC continued to rise (p=0.012 and p=0.001 respectively). During 2000-2012 the age-standardised incidence and the proportion of HPV-positive TSCC have stabilised at a high level, while the proportion of HPV-negative cancer has remained at a low level in Stockholm, whereas for BOTSCC all parameters are increasing moderately. In contrast, in Sweden the incidence of both TSCC and BOTSCC is still increasing. We hypothesise that the HPV epidemic could be stabilising, first for TSCC, but so far not for BOTSCC, in e.g. some urban areas, while previous trends for both tumours persist at other geographic locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Local structure in solid solutions of stabilised zirconia with actinide dioxides (UO{sub 2}, NpO{sub 2})

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Marcus; Somers, Joseph; Bouexiere, Daniel; Rothe, Joerg

    2011-04-15

    The local structure of (Zr,Lu,U)O{sub 2-x} and (Zr,Y,Np)O{sub 2-x} solid solutions has been investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Samples were prepared by mixing reactive (Zr,Lu)O{sub 2-x} and (Zr,Y)O{sub 2-x} precursor materials with the actinide oxide powders, respectively. Sintering at 1600 {sup o}C in Ar/H{sub 2} yields a fluorite structure with U(IV) and Np(IV). As typical for stabilised zirconia the metal-oxygen and metal-metal distances are characteristic for the different metal ions. The bond lengths increase with actinide concentration, whereas highest adaptation to the bulk stabilised zirconia structure was observed for U---O and Np---O bonds. The Zr---O bond shows only a slight increase from 2.14 A at 6 mol% actinide to 2.18 A at infinite dilution in UO{sub 2} and NpO{sub 2}. The short interatomic distance between Zr and the surrounding oxygen and metal atoms indicate a low relaxation of Zr with respect to the bulk structure, i.e. a strong Pauling behaviour. -- Graphical abstract: Metal-oxygen bond distances in (Zr,Lu,U)O{sub 2-x} solid solutions with different oxygen vacancy concentrations (Lu/Zr=1 and Lu/Zr=0.5). Display Omitted Research Highlights: {yields} EXAFS indicates high U and Np adaption to the bulk structure of stabilised zirconia. {yields} Zr---O bond length is 2.18 A at infinite Zr dilution in UO{sub 2} and NpO{sub 2}. {yields} Low relaxation (strong Pauling behaviour) of Zr explains its low solubility in UO{sub 2}.

  4. Erosion protection comparison of stabilised SnF2 , mixed fluoride active and SMFP/arginine-containing dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Eversole, Sandra L; Saunders-Burkhardt, Kymberly; Faller, Robert V

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the relative erosion protection potential of marketed dentifrices formulated with either stabilised stannous fluoride (SnF2 ), sodium fluoride (NaF) and/or sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP) using an established laboratory erosion cycling model. Sound enamel cores from extracted, human enamel were cleaned, ground and polished, soaked in pooled saliva (pellicle formation) and treated with a 1:3 slurry of dentifrice and saliva. Specimens were subjected to daily challenges with 1% citric acid, a potentially damaging acid found in common food and drinks. Marketed dentifrices compared were: (1) a stabilised stannous fluoride product formulated with 1,100 ppm F as SnF2 ; (2) a cavity protection product containing 1,100 ppm F as NaF; (3) a cavity protection product comprising a mixed active fluoride system with 1,000 ppm F as SMFP + 450 ppm F as NaF; and (4) a sensitivity product containing 1,450 ppm F as SMFP + 8% arginine bicarbonate. Specimens from Group 1 demonstrated an average loss of 5.5 (±1.2) μm of tooth surface enamel; Groups 2, 3 and 4 lost an average of 18.3 (±0.9) μm, 16.0 (±2.0) μm and 17.1 (±1.1) μm, respectively, of tooth surface enamel. Group 1 provided a statistically significant difference in protection compared with the other products. These results suggest that the marketed dentifrice formulated with stabilised SnF2 may provide enhanced protection of exposed tooth surfaces against dietary acid attack compared with the other products tested. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy. PMID:26132328

  6. Asymptotic stabilisation of the ball and beam system: design of energy-based control law and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidharan, Vijay; Anantharaman, S.; Mahindrakar, Arun D.

    2010-06-01

    We present a new nonlinear control law to stabilise the ball and beam system at a desired operating point. The control law is based on the interconnection and damping assignment-passivity-based control (IDA-PBC) methodology developed in Ortega, Spong, Gomez-Estern, and Blankenstien (Ortega, R., Spong, M., Gomez-Estern, F., and Blankenstien, G. (2002), 'Stabilization of Underactuated Mechanical Systems via Interconnection and Damping Assignment', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 47, 1218-1233) that guarantees stability in the sense of Lyapunov. We present a novel proof of the asymptotic stability of the desired operating point. The validity of the proposed control law is demonstrated through the experimental results.

  7. Erosion and stabilisation sequences in relation to base level changes in the El Cautivo badlands, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, R. W.; Calvo-Cases, A.; Arnau-Rosalén, E.; Mather, A. E.; Lázaro-Suau, R.

    2008-08-01

    The complex multiple-age badlands at El Cautivo are cut in upper Miocene marls of the uplifted and dissected Tabernas Basin, Almería, in semi-arid SE Spain. Previous work identified six episodes of erosion and subsequent stabilisation, with ages ranging from the late Pleistocene to the present day. This paper uses newly-acquired digital elevation models, orthorectified aerial photographs, and field survey data to illustrate the development sequence of a series of gullies which drain into the Rambla de Tabernas. Changing drainage directions and phases of incision and stabilisation are related to the filling and subsequent dissection of the Tabernas lower lake sediments, differential material strengths, changing process mixes on hillslopes and, in more recent times, land-use changes. We propose that the erosional phases differed considerably in both time-span and depth of incision. A long period of stability during the existence of the lake led to extensive pediment development in the area. Subsequent incision into the lake sediments by the Rambla de Tabernas produced a limited amount of localised pediment incision in the tributary catchment. Subsequent aggradation occurred in the lower reaches of gullies when incision by the Rambla de Tabernas reached the underlying bedrock. Following incision through the lip of the lake the Rambla de Tabernas cut rapidly into the bedrock leading to an altered drainage direction in the tributary catchments and the major phase of badland development visible today. Stabilisation of the pediments and some of the north-facing slopes occurred subsequently. Increased sediment loads, caused by climatic shift, a change in land use, or both, gave rise to a later phase of valley fill in the gullies. The modern channels have reduced this fill to isolated terrace benches and there are also localised remnants of a lower, more recent fill. Whilst supporting the general interpretation of the site's development by Alexander et al. [Alexander, R

  8. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C G M; Hensen, Jan L M; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2015-07-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy.

  9. Electrically switchable polymer stabilised broadband infrared reflectors and their potential as smart windows for energy saving in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Loonen, Roel C. G. M.; Hensen, Jan L. M.; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2015-07-01

    Electrically switchable broadband infrared reflectors that are relatively transparent in the visible region have been fabricated using polymer stabilised cholesteric liquid crystals. The IR reflectors can change their reflection/transmission properties by applying a voltage in response to changes in environmental conditions. Simulations predict that a significant amount of energy can be saved on heating, cooling and lighting of buildings in places such as Madrid by using this switchable IR reflector. We have also fabricated a switchable IR reflector which can also generate electricity. These polymer based switchable IR reflectors are of high potential as windows of automobiles and buildings to control interior temperatures and save energy.

  10. Backstepping designs for the stabilisation of nonlinear sampled-data systems via approximate discrete-time model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Üstüntürk, Ahmet; Kocaoğlan, Erol

    2013-05-01

    The problems of backstepping, adaptive backstepping and reduced order observer based output feedback control of sampled-data nonlinear systems in strict feedback form are considered. Controller design methods based on the Euler approximate model are presented for these problems. The controllers are designed to compensate the effects of the discrepancy between the Euler approximate model and exact discrete time model, parameter estimation error in adaptive control and observer error in output feedback control, which behave as disturbance. It is shown that the obtained controllers semi-globally practically asymptotically stabilise the plant model under standard assumptions. Then numerical examples are given to illustrate the design methods.

  11. Embolisation of pheochromocytoma to stabilise and wean a patient in cardiogenic shock from emergency extracorporeal life support

    PubMed Central

    Hey, Thomas Morris; Elle, Bo; Jensen, Marianne Kjær

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-secreting tumour associated with varying symptoms ranging from episodic headache, sweating, paroxysmal hypertension and tachycardia to intractable cardiogenic shock. Cardiogenic shock is rare but well-described and the timing of correct management is crucial since mortality is high. Fifty per cent of pheochromocytomas are diagnosed on autopsy. We report on a case of embolisation of the adrenal artery during ongoing extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in order to stabilise and wean the patient from ECLS as a bridge to final surgery. PMID:25737217

  12. O/W emulsions stabilised by both low molecular weight surfactants and colloidal particles: The effect of surfactant type and concentration.

    PubMed

    Pichot, R; Spyropoulos, F; Norton, I T

    2010-12-01

    The stability against coalescence of O/W emulsions in the presence of both surfactants and colloidal particles was investigated. In particular the effect of the surfactant type and concentration in these emulsifier mixtures on the O/W emulsions' stability was studied. Two types of surfactants were selected; those that have the ability to stabilise O/W emulsions on their own (O/W surfactants) and those that cannot (W/O surfactants). Tween 60 and Sodium Caseinate were selected as the O/W surfactants and lecithin as the W/O surfactant. Oil-in-water emulsions prepared with both particles and any of the three surfactants were stable against coalescence but, depending on the type of surfactant, the behaviour of the systems was found to depend on surfactant concentration. The droplet sizes of emulsions stabilised by mixed emulsifier systems containing low concentrations of O/W surfactants (Tween 60 or Sodium Caseinate) were smaller than those solely stabilised by either the surfactant or particles alone. At intermediate O/W surfactants concentrations, the droplet sizes of the emulsions increased. Further increases in the O/W surfactants' concentration, resulted in the complete removal of particles from the interface with the system now behaving as a surfactant-only stabilised emulsion. The behaviour of emulsions stabilised by emulsifier mixtures containing W/O surfactants was not dependent on the concentration of surfactant: no removal of particles was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Failure of Polyethelene Insert Locking Mechanism after a Posterior Stabilised Total Knee Arthroplasty- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, AY Gurava; Rajan, D Soundar; Chiranjeevi, T; Karthik, C; Kiran, E Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Disengagement of polyethylene insert used in total knee arthroplasty is a rare but serious complication. Still rarer is disengagement because of failure of tibial insert locking mechanism. We report a previously unpublished complication of polyethylene insert locking mechanism failure in a 10-months-old posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty in a 70-year-old woman with osteoarthritis for whom Attune (Depuy) knee implant was used. Case Presentation: A 70-year-old female underwent (Attune, Depuy) primary bilateral posterior stabilised total knee arthroplasty in a private hospital. The patient did not have any complaints and had had been functioning well post her arthroplasty. After five months of surgery she had a fall and sustained injury over right hip which was treated with Cemented Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty. Ten months after index surgery, she sustained trivial fall and presented to the same hospital with knee pain and swelling, where the right knee prosthesis was found to be dislocated. An attempted closed reduction under anaesthesia failed, after which she was referred to our centre with an unstable, painful, swollen right knee in a long knee brace. The physical examination at the time of admission showed posterior sag of the tibia, fullness in the postero-lateral corner, quadriceps muscle atrophy without any neurovascular deficit oflower leg. Postero-lateral dislocation was confirmed with radiographs. Surgical error as a possible causative factor was excluded because patient had been functioning well after surgery. Her comorbidities included hypertension and hyponatremia. ESR and CRP were within normal limits. An open reduction surgery was planned. On exposure, polyethylene was found in the postero-lateral corner of the knee. We were not sure that revising the polyethylene alone would suffice as the poly and locking mechanism was of a relatively new design and hence it was decided to proceed with revision of the components. Revision was done

  14. Cruciate Retaining Versus Cruciate Stabilising Total Knee Arthroplasty – A Prospective Randomised Kinematic Study

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, T L; Bayan, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While there is a large body of research in regards to cruciate retaining(CR) and cruciate sacrificing total condylar knee replacement, the literature is spars in regards to highly conforming polyetheylene such as the triatholon cruciate stabilising tibial insert (CS).The aim was to determine whether there is a difference in the range of motion, kinematics as well as the functional outcome for Triathlon CS and CR TKJR. Methods: A single hospital consecutive series of one surgeon between 2011 and 2013 were enrolled. Kinematic data recorded prospectively at the time of surgery utilizing imageless navigation included preoperative and post-replacement extension, gravity flexion, passive flexion and rotation. Intraoperative femoral and tibial cuts and definitive implants were also recorded. Statistically analysis performed to compare CS and CR TKJR range of motion, deformity correction, and rotation pre and post-operatively. Oxford functional scores were obtained at the final follow up. 124 patients were randomised to 71 CS and 53 CR TKJR. The demographics were comparable between the two groups. Results: No significant difference was found between the groups’ preoperative range of motion. The net gain in extension for the CS group was 5.65 degrees (4.14-7.17) and for CR 5.64 degrees (4.24-7.04, p=0.99) with no significant difference shown. Post-operative gravity flexion significantly increased in CS TKJR with 129.01 degrees (127.37130.66) compared with 126.35 degrees (124.39-128.30, p =0.04) for CR. A weak positive correlation was shown between the size of distal femoral cut and post-operative extension for both CS and CR TKJR. A weak positive correlation was also shown for the difference between the intraoperative cuts (tibial and femoral) and the size of the implants used, in relation to post-operative extension. Post-operative oxford scores at average of 3.4 year follow up comparable between groups. Conclusion: The kinematics of CS and CR TKJR are

  15. Tapia's syndrome after arthroscopic shoulder stabilisation under general anaesthesia and LMA.

    PubMed

    Wadełek, Jacek; Kolbusz, Julia; Orlicz, Piotr; Staniaszek, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Anaesthetic complications, albeit rare, still occur and may be severe and unanticipated, with significant morbidity. Extracranial ipsilateral palsy of the recurrent laryngeal and the hypoglossal nerves is known as the Tapia's syndrome. Damage to these nerves may result from displacement of the head during mask ventilation, endotracheal intubation, bronchoscopy or the use of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). We describe unilateral paralysis of the muscles of the tongue and ipsilateral vocal cord due to a lesion of cranial nerves X and XII that occurred following LMA anaesthesia combined with plexus block. A 57-year-old man with a rupture of the right shoulder underwent arthroscopic shoulder stabilisation and internal fixation. General anaesthesia with aLMA was combined with an interscalene plexus block. After induction with propofol and fentanyl, a LMA was inserted with some difficulty without muscle relaxation. The cuff was inflated with 30 mL of air and further volumes of air until a "just-seal" pressure was obtained. The anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen/air. The procedure was carried out in a semi-supine position with the head inclined slightly forward, and the upper body slightly elevated. Surgery lasted 55 min and anaesthesia 70 min. After surgery, the patient quickly regained consciousness and the LMA was removed when he was responding to commands and was able to fully open his mouth. During the immediate postoperative period, the patient's voice was hoarse but he breathed without difficulty. The following day, he developed dysphagia and slurred speech; on examination, paralysis of the left side of the tongue was found. The diagnosis of an acute injury to the hypoglossal and laryngeal recurrent nerves was made and the patient was transferred to the neurology clinic for further treatment. This rare complication reminds us not only of the importance of positioning during anaesthesia and surgery, but also of the need for careful and correct

  16. Ecotoxicity of chemically stabilised metal(loid)s in shooting range soils.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2014-02-01

    Five chemical amendments (soft rock phosphate, lime, commercial phosphate amendment, red mud and magnesium oxide) were applied across four different shooting range soils to chemically stabilise metal(loid)s in the soils. Soils were contaminated with Pb between 2330 and 12,167 mg/kg, Sb from 7.4 to 325 mg/kg and soil pH ranged from 5.43 to 9.29. Amendments were tested for their ability to reduce the bioavailability of Pb, Sb, Zn, Ni, Cu and As in the soils to soil organisms after one year of aging, by measuring a series of ecotoxicological endpoints for earthworms and plants and soil microbial activity. Growth-based endpoints for earthworms and plants were not significantly affected by amendment addition, except in the most contaminated soil. Per cent survival and weight-loss reduction of earthworms was enhanced by amendment addition in only the most contaminated soil. Plant biomass and root elongation was not significantly affected by amendment addition (p=<0.05). Red mud and magnesium oxide appeared toxic to plants and earthworms, probably due to highly alkaline pH (9-12). Lead in soil organisms was relatively low despite the high concentrations of Pb in the soils, suggesting low bioavailability of Pb. Uptake of Pb by earthworms was reduced by between 40 and 96 per cent by amendments, but not across all soils. Amendments reduced Sb in earthworms in Townsville soil by up to 92 per cent. For lettuce the average uptake of Pb was reduced by 40 to 70 per cent with amendment addition in Townsville, Darwin and Perth soil. The effect of amendments on the uptake of Sb, Zn, Ni, Cu and As was variable between soils and amendments. Microbial activity was increased by greater than 50 per cent with amendments addition, with soft rock phosphate and lime being the most effective in Murray Bridge and TV soils and commercial phosphate and MgO being the most effective in Darwin and Perth soils.

  17. Learning the lessons from conflict: pre-hospital cervical spine stabilisation following ballistic neck trauma.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Arul; Midwinter, Mark; Mahoney, Peter; Clasper, Jon

    2009-12-01

    Current ATLS protocols dictate that spinal precautions should be in place when a casualty has sustained trauma from a significant mechanism of injury likely to damage the cervical spine. In hostile environments, the application of these precautions can place pre-hospital medical teams at considerable personal risk. It may also prevent or delay the identification of airway problems. In today's global threat from terrorism, this hostile environment is no longer restricted to conflict zones. The aim of this study was to ascertain the incidence of cervical spine injury following penetrating ballistic neck trauma in order to evaluate the need for pre-hospital cervical immobilisation in these casualties. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of British military casualties of combat, from Iraq and Afghanistan presenting with a penetrating neck injury during the last 5.5 years. For each patient, the mechanism of injury, neurological state on admission, medical and surgical intervention was recorded. During the study period, 90 casualties sustained a penetrating neck injury. The mechanism of injury was by explosion in 66 (73%) and from gunshot wounds in 24 (27%). Cervical spine injuries (either cervical spine fracture or cervical spinal cord injury) were present in 20 of the 90 (22%) casualties, but only 6 of these (7%) actually survived to reach hospital. Four of this six subsequently died from injuries within 72 h. Only 1 (1.8%) of the 56 survivors to reach a surgical facility sustained an unstable cervical spine injury that required surgical stabilisation. This patient later died as result of a co-existing head injury. Penetrating ballistic trauma to the neck is associated with a high mortality rate. Our data suggests that it is very unlikely that penetrating ballistic trauma to the neck will result in an unstable cervical spine in survivors. In a hazardous environment (e.g. shooting incidents or terrorist bombings), the risk/benefit ratio of mandatory spinal

  18. Local curvature measurements of a lean, partially premixed swirl-stabilised flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayley, Alan E.; Hardalupas, Yannis; Taylor, Alex M. K. P.

    2012-04-01

    A swirl-stabilised, lean, partially premixed combustor operating at atmospheric conditions has been used to investigate the local curvature distributions in lifted, stable and thermoacoustically oscillating CH4-air partially premixed flames for bulk cold-flow Reynolds numbers of 15,000 and 23,000. Single-shot OH planar laser-induced fluorescence has been used to capture instantaneous images of these three different flame types. Use of binary thresholding to identify the reactant and product regions in the OH planar laser-induced fluorescence images, in order to extract accurate flame-front locations, is shown to be unsatisfactory for the examined flames. The Canny-Deriche edge detection filter has also been examined and is seen to still leave an unacceptable quantity of artificial flame-fronts. A novel approach has been developed for image analysis where a combination of a non-linear diffusion filter, Sobel gradient and threshold-based curve elimination routines have been used to extract traces of the flame-front to obtain local curvature distributions. A visual comparison of the effectiveness of flame-front identification is made between the novel approach, the threshold binarisation filter and the Canny-Deriche filter. The novel approach appears to most accurately identify the flame-fronts. Example histograms of the curvature for six flame conditions and of the total image area are presented and are found to have a broader range of local flame curvatures for increasing bulk Reynolds numbers. Significantly positive values of mean curvature and marginally positive values of skewness of the histogram have been measured for one lifted flame case, but this is generally accounted for by the effect of flame brush curvature. The mean local flame-front curvature reduces with increasing axial distance from the burner exit plane for all flame types. These changes are more pronounced in the lifted flames but are marginal for the thermoacoustically oscillating flames. It is

  19. Use of the AO veterinary mini 'T'-plate for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M H; Langley Hobbs, S J

    2005-01-01

    The use of the AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen) veterinary mini 'T'-plate for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs was evaluated in a retrospective study. All of the 14 dogs in the study weighed 3.5 kg or less. The AO mini 'T'-plate was used as the final means of fixation in all cases. It was used as the primary form of stabilisation in ten dogs, and in four dogs it was used at revision surgery. In all cases, of the fractures healed. Return to function was graded 'as excellent' in six cases, 'good' in four and 'fair' in two. Two dogs were lost to long-term follow up. It was concluded that the AO veterinary mini 'T'-plate is a suitable choice of implant for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs, especially when the distal fragment is very small.

  20. Bioavailability of stabilised ferrous gluconate with glycine in fresh cheese matrix: a novel iron compound for food fortification.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Fernando; Boccio, José; Salgueiro, María; Olivares, Manuel; Carmuega, Esteban; Weill, Ricardo; Marque, Sebastien; Frereux, Marine; Noirt, Florence

    2013-03-01

    Iron fortification of foods continues to be one of the preferred ways of improving the iron status of the population. Dairy product is a common product in the diet; therefore, it is a plausible vehicle for iron fortification. This study aims to investigate the bioavailability of ferrous gluconate stabilised with glycine (FGSG) in a fresh cheese fortified with zinc. The iron bioavailability of fresh cheese fortified with either FGSG and with or without zinc and FGSG in aqueous solution and a water solution of ferrous ascorbate (reference dose) was studied using double radio iron ((55)Fe and (59)Fe) erythrocyte incorporation in 15 male subjects. All subjects presented with normal values for iron status parameters. The geometric mean of iron bioavailability for the water solution of FGSG was 38.2 %, adjusted to 40 % from reference doses (N.S.). Iron bioavailability in fresh cheese fortified with Ca and Zn was 15.4 % and was 23.1 % without Zn, adjusted to 40 % from reference doses (N.S.). The results of the present study show that the novel iron compound ferrous gluconate stabilised with glycine in a fresh cheese matrix is a good source of iron and can be used in iron fortification programmes.

  1. [Interactions between cyclodextrins and triglycerides: from emulsion stabilisation to the emergence of a new drug delivery system called "beads"].

    PubMed

    Hamoudi, M; Trichard, L; Grossiord, J-L; Chaminade, P; Duchêne, D; Le Bas, G; Fattal, E; Bochot, A

    2009-11-01

    Natural cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides which can be modified to obtain more water soluble or insoluble derivatives. The main interest of cyclodextrins results from their ability to form an inclusion complex with hydrophobic molecules. Inclusion constitutes a true molecular encapsulation. This property is employed in pharmaceutical industry to facilitate the formulation of poorly water soluble and/or fragile drugs. A more recent application of cyclodextrins consists in their use in the preparation of dispersed systems such as micro- and nanoparticles or even liposomes. When incorporated in dispersed systems, cyclodextrin can enhance drug solubility, drug stability and drug loading. Interestingly, cyclodextrins themselves can also be employed to form or stabilise dispersed systems (material or emulsifying agent). For example, the interactions between cyclodextrins with components of the vegetable oils (more especially with triglycerides) allow to stabilise simple or multiple emulsions but also to form particles called "beads". Very rich in oil, this novel lipid carrier presents an important potential for the encapsulation of highly lipophilic compounds and their delivery by topical and oral routes. These two applications are more particularly developed in the present paper.

  2. ? and ? nonquadratic stabilisation of discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno systems based on multi-instant fuzzy Lyapunov functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tognetti, Eduardo S.; Oliveira, Ricardo C. L. F.; Peres, Pedro L. D.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of state feedback control design for discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno (TS) (T-S) fuzzy systems is investigated in this paper. A Lyapunov function, which is quadratic in the state and presents a multi-polynomial dependence on the fuzzy weighting functions at the current and past instants of time, is proposed.This function contains, as particular cases, other previous Lyapunov functions already used in the literature, being able to provide less conservative conditions of control design for TS fuzzy systems. The structure of the proposed Lyapunov function also motivates the design of a new stabilising compensator for Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems. The main novelty of the proposed state feedback control law is that the gain is composed of matrices with multi-polynomial dependence on the fuzzy weighting functions at a set of past instants of time, including the current one. The conditions for the existence of a stabilising state feedback control law that minimises an upper bound to the ? or ? norms are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Numerical examples show that the approach can be less conservative and more efficient than other methods available in the literature.

  3. Comparative antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by biological and chemical routes with pluronic F68 as a stabilising agent.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carolina Alves Dos; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Ingle, Avinash P; Rai, Mahendra

    2016-08-01

    The authors report the comparative antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by biological (using Fusarium oxysporum) and chemical routes in the presence and absence of pluronic F68 as a stabilising agent. The production of silver nanoparticles was evidenced by UV-visible spectra, with absorbance at about 420 nm in the case of both biological and chemical synthesis. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the presence of face-centred cubic structure (FCC plane). The nanoparticles characterised by transmission and scanning electron microscopy showed spherical silver nanoparticles with size range of 5-40 and 10-70 nm in the case of biologically and chemically synthesised nanoparticles, respectively. Addition of pluronic F68 showed the stabilisation of silver nanoparticles. Antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles demonstrated different inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Overall, biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles showed higher activity as compared with chemically synthesised nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesised in the presence of pluronic F68 by the chemical route exhibited synergism in antibacterial activity as compared with those synthesised without pluronic F68. On the contrary, biogenic silver nanoparticles without pluronic F68 showed higher antibacterial potential.

  4. High power laser source for atom cooling based on reliable telecoms technology with all fibre frequency stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, Thomas; Farries, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Cold atom interferometers are emerging as important tools for metrology. Designed into gravimeters they can measure extremely small changes in the local gravitational field strength and be used for underground surveying to detect buried utilities, mineshafts and sinkholes prior to civil works. To create a cold atom interferometer narrow linewidth, frequency stabilised lasers are required to cool the atoms and to setup and measure the atom interferometer. These lasers are commonly either GaAs diodes, Ti Sapphire lasers or frequency doubled InGaAsP diodes and fibre lasers. The InGaAsP DFB lasers are attractive because they are very reliable, mass-produced, frequency controlled by injection current and simply amplified to high powers with fibre amplifiers. In this paper a laser system suitable for Rb atom cooling, based on a 1560nm DFB laser and erbium doped fibre amplifier, is described. The laser output is frequency doubled with fibre coupled periodically poled LiNbO3 to a wavelength of 780nm. The output power exceeds 1 W at 780nm. The laser is stabilised at 1560nm against a fibre Bragg resonator that is passively temperature compensated. Frequency tuning over a range of 1 GHz is achieved by locking the laser to sidebands of the resonator that are generated by a phase modulator. This laser design is attractive for field deployable rugged systems because it uses all fibre coupled components with long term proven reliability.

  5. Structural, functional and in vitro digestion characteristics of spray dried fish roe powder stabilised with gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Binsi, P K; Natasha, Nayak; Sarkar, P C; Muhamed Ashraf, P; George, Ninan; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-04-15

    Fish roes are considered as nutritionally valuable for their high content of essential fatty acids and amino acids. However, roe lipids undergo considerable extent of oxidation during processing and storage, imparting objectionable bitter taste and rancid flavour to roe products. Hence, the objective of the study was to reconstitute the roe mass and microencapsulate lipid fraction, so that small oil droplets are entrapped within a dry matrix of roe proteins during spray drying. Prior to spray drying, the emulsion was stabilised with gum arabic as it also act as a co-wall polymer. The microscopic images indicated presence of larger aggregates in unstabilised powder (RC) compared to well-separated particles in stabilised powder (RG). Incorporation of gum arabic retarded rancidity development during storage. In vitro digestive pattern of roe powder indicated higher amount of oil release in RG. These observations highlight the potential of converting the soft textured carp roe mass into stable fish roe powder with superior storage stability and functionality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physicochemical properties of whey protein, lactoferrin and Tween 20 stabilised nanoemulsions: Effect of temperature, pH and salt.

    PubMed

    Teo, Anges; Goh, Kelvin K T; Wen, Jingyuan; Oey, Indrawati; Ko, Sanghoon; Kwak, Hae-Soo; Lee, Sung Je

    2016-04-15

    Oil-in-water nanoemulsions were prepared by emulsification and solvent evaporation using whey protein isolate (WPI), lactoferrin and Tween 20 as emulsifiers. Protein-stabilised nanoemulsions showed a decrease in particle size with increasing protein concentration from 0.25% to 1% (w/w) level with Z-average diameter between 70 and 90 nm. However, larger droplets were produced by Tween 20 (120-450 nm) especially at concentration above 0.75% (w/w). The stability of nanoemulsions to temperature (30-90°C), pH (2-10) and ionic strength (0-500 mM NaCl or 0-90 mM CaCl2) was also tested. Tween 20 nanoemulsions were unstable to heat treatment at 90°C for 15 min. WPI-stabilised nanoemulsions exhibited droplet aggregation near the isoelectric point at pH 4.5 and 5 and they were also unstable at salt concentration above 30 mM CaCl2. These results indicated that stable nanoemulsions can be prepared by careful selection of emulsifiers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using cosmogenic nuclides to date the stabilisation age of relict rockglaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronig, Olivia; Reitner, Jürgen M.; Christl, Marcus; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Active rockglaciers are periglacial landforms which are creeping down mountain slopes due to plastic deformation of the interstitial ice. The occurrence of active rockglaciers is an indicator of Alpine permafrost. Relict rockglaciers are not moving anymore because the ice melted, but they give evidence for the earlier existence of permafrost. In the Alps, relict rockglaciers can often be found below today's tree line raising the question of when these landforms have last been active. Judging from the present position of the relict rockglaciers, the lower permafrost limit during the time of their activity must have been hundreds of meters lower than it is today. Already in the early days of rockglacier research, the potential of relict rockglaciers as a paleoclimate proxy was recognised (Barsch 1977, Haeberli 1985). However, obtaining absolute ages on relict rockglaciers has always been a major difficulty. Lately it has been shown that with cosmogenic nuclides it is possible to date the stabilisation age of relict rockglaciers, but it has been applied only in a few cases (Ivy-Ochs et al. 2009). According to Reitner (2007), the lowest relict rockglaciers of the eastern Alps, the Tandl rockglaciers, are located in the Province of Carinthia (Austria). The Tandl rockglaciers are a complex series of rockglaciers spanning from around 2300 m down to 1220 m a.s.l. Due to their low position and based on modelling estimates on permafrost distribution in the area (Avian & Kellerer-Pirklbauer 2012), it is plausible that these low rockglaciers were active even prior to the Younger Dryas. Therefore, samples from the entire rockglacier series were taken for 10Be exposure dating. Furthermore, the close proximity of the rockglaciers to moraines associated to the Gschnitz stadial allow comparing the dating results to equilibrium line depression reconstructions. Less than 10 km to the southwest, a second rockglacier series, the Norbert rockglaciers, was sampled. In contrast to the

  8. Effect of human and simulated gastric juices on the digestion of whey proteins and carboxymethylcellulose-stabilised O/W emulsions.

    PubMed

    Malinauskytė, Ernesta; Ramanauskaitė, Jovita; Leskauskaitė, Daiva; Devold, Tove G; Schüller, Reidar B; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we analysed the impact of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on lipid digestion and physicochemical properties of whey proteins (WP)-stabilised emulsions during in vitro digestion with either artificial or human gastrointestinal juices. The emulsions were made by adsorbing WP on the fat droplets and subsequently adding CMC, which does not interact with the adsorbed proteins. The limited hydrolysis of lipids and their higher physical stability was recorded for WP-stabilised emulsions in the presence of CMC under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The possible mechanism by which CMC lowers the digestion of WP-stabilised emulsions is related to the limited interaction of fat droplets with gastrointestinal fluids due to the extended thickening network formed by CMC in the continuous phase. The digestion of WP- and CMC-stabilised emulsions in the in vitro model with human gastric fluids led to greater lipid hydrolysis, although the enzymatic activity in both in vitro models was observed at the same level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication, characterisation and stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by solid lipid particles: the role of particle characteristics and emulsion microstructure upon Pickering functionality.

    PubMed

    Zafeiri, I; Smith, P; Norton, I T; Spyropoulos, F

    2017-07-19

    The quest to identify and use bio-based particles with a Pickering stabilisation potential for food applications has lately been particularly substantial and includes, among other candidates, lipid-based particles. The present study investigates the ability of solid lipid particles to stabilise oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions against coalescence. Results obtained showed that emulsion stability could be achieved when low amounts (0.8 wt/wt%) of a surface active species (e.g. Tween 80 or NaCas) were used in particles' fabrication. Triple staining of the o/w emulsions enabled the visualisation of emulsion droplets' surface via confocal microscopy. This revealed an interfacial location of the lipid particles, hence confirming stabilisation via a Pickering mechanism. Emulsion droplet size was controlled by varying several formulation parameters, such as the type of the lipid and surface active component, the processing route and the polarity of the dispersed phase. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed as the analytical tool to quantify the amount of crystalline material available to stabilise the emulsion droplets at different intervals during the experimental timeframe. Dissolution of lipid particles in the oil phase was observed and evolved distinctly between a wax and a triglyceride, and in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant and a protein. Yet, this behaviour did not result in emulsion destabilisation. Moreover, emulsion's thermal stability was found to be determined by the behaviour of lipid particles under temperature effects.

  10. Chemical torrefaction as an alternative to established thermal technology for stabilisation of sugar cane bagasse as fuel.

    PubMed

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2016-10-11

    Dry and chemical torrefaction of sugar cane bagasse was examined in this study with the aim of stabilising and upgrading the fuel properties of bagasse. Dry torrefaction was conducted at temperatures from 160°C to 300°C under inert conditions, whilst chemical torrefaction incorporated a H2SO4 pre-treatment of bagasse. Chemical torrefaction imparted superior chemical and physical properties inducing morphological transformation and textural development with the potential to address issues in handling, feeding and processing bagasse. It increased the energy density of the chars with maximum HHVmass 21.5 MJ/kg and maximum HHVvolume of 7.4 GJ/m(3). Chemically torrefied bagasse demonstrated resistance against microbiological attack for 18 months. These features demonstrate the practical value of chemical torrefaction in advancing the utilisation of bagasse as fuel.

  11. Use of T-plates for the stabilisation of supra-cotyloid ilial fractures in 18 cats and five dogs.

    PubMed

    Troger, J-C; Viguier, E

    2008-01-01

    The use of the AO (Arbeitgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesenfragen) veterinary T-plates (1.5/2 mm and 2.7/3.5 mm) for stabilisation of supracotyloid ilial fractures in 18 cats and five dogs was evaluated in a retrospective study. The distal fragment from the coxofemoral joint ranged from 0.5 cm to 1 cm with a mean distance of 0.85 cm. Twenty out of 23 (87%) ilial fractures healed in original alignment. Three out of 23 (13%) animals had two loosened screws of the distal fragment with fracture malunion and minor medial displacement of the acetabular fragment. Screw or plate breakage was not observed and the implants were not removed. The clinical result was 'excellent' for 18 animals (78%), 'good' for four animals (17%), and 'poor' for one animal (5%). The use of T-plates permits good correction of supracotyloîd fractures with minimal approach and minimizes post-operative complications.

  12. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Laser plume spectroscopy. 2. Graphite yttrium-stabilised and zirconium oxide targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, V. V.; Solomonov, V. I.; Platonov, V. V.; Snigireva, O. A.; Ivanov, M. G.; Lisenkov, V. V.

    2005-07-01

    Spectral and kinetic properties of a plume formed in the vicinity of a graphite and a pressed yttrium-stabilised zirconium oxide (YSZ) powder targets irradiated in air by a 10.6-μm pulsed CO2 laser with a peak power of 1.5-9 kW at room temperature are studied. The plume propagated at right angles to the target surface and at an angle of 45° to the laser radiation. The spectral and kinetic characteristics of its luminescence were measured discretely along the entire length of the plume. It is shown that the YSZ plume as well as the graphite plume is a flux of nonequilibrium gaseous plasma at a temperature of about 4.7-3.1 kK, in which a luminescence of YO and ZrO radicals is excited.

  13. Decentralised adaptive output feedback stabilisation for stochastic time-delay systems via LaSalle-Yoshizawa-type theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Ticao; Xu, Shengyuan; Lu, Junwei; Wei, Yunliang; Zou, Yun

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the decentralised output feedback stabilisation problem for a class of large-scale stochastic time-delay nonlinear systems. A general theorem is firstly given to guarantee the global existence and uniqueness of the solution for stochastic time-delay systems. In addition, a stochastic version of the well-known LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem with time-varying delay is initially proposed for the controller design and stability analysis. Then, for a class of large-scale stochastic systems with time-varying delays, totally decentralised adaptive delay-dependent controllers are designed by using K-filter and backstepping approach. Via LaSalle-Yoshizawa-type theorem and constructing a general Lyapunov function, it is shown that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded almost surely and the solution is almost surely asymptotically stable. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results of this paper.

  14. The G-quadruplex-stabilising agent RHPS4 induces telomeric dysfunction and enhances radiosensitivity in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, F; Siteni, S; Tanzarella, C; Stevens, M F; Sgura, A; Antoccia, A

    2015-01-01

    G-quadruplex (G4) interacting agents are a class of ligands that can bind to and stabilise secondary structures located in genomic G-rich regions such as telomeres. Stabilisation of G4 leads to telomere architecture disruption with a consequent detrimental effect on cell proliferation, which makes these agents good candidates for chemotherapeutic purposes. RHPS4 is one of the most effective and well-studied G4 ligands with a very high specificity for telomeric G4. In this work, we tested the in vitro efficacy of RHPS4 in astrocytoma cell lines, and we evaluated whether RHPS4 can act as a radiosensitising agent by destabilising telomeres. In the first part of the study, the response to RHPS4 was investigated in four human astrocytoma cell lines (U251MG, U87MG, T67 and T70) and in two normal primary fibroblast strains (AG01522 and MRC5). Cell growth reduction, histone H2AX phosphorylation and telomere-induced dysfunctional foci (TIF) formation were markedly higher in astrocytoma cells than in normal fibroblasts, despite the absence of telomere shortening. In the second part of the study, the combined effect of submicromolar concentrations of RHPS4 and X-rays was assessed in the U251MG glioblastoma radioresistant cell line. Long-term growth curves, cell cycle analysis and cell survival experiments, clearly showed the synergistic effect of the combined treatment. Interestingly the effect was greater in cells bearing a higher number of dysfunctional telomeres. DNA double-strand breaks rejoining after irradiation revealed delayed repair kinetics in cells pre-treated with the drug and a synergistic increase in chromosome-type exchanges and telomeric fusions. These findings provide the first evidence that exposure to RHPS4 radiosensitizes astrocytoma cells, suggesting the potential for future therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-year performance of in-situ solidified/stabilised soil using novel MgO-bearing binders.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fei; Wang, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2016-02-01

    A new group of MgO-bearing binders has been developed recently which showed improved sustainability and technical performance compared to Portland cement (PC). However, the application of these MgO-bearing binders in the Solidification/Stabilisation (S/S) techniques is very limited. This study investigates the three-year performance of a highly contaminated soil treated by in-situ S/S using MgO-bearing binders and PC. The core quality, strength, permeability and the leaching properties of the S/S materials were evaluated. The effects of binder composition, addition of inorgano-organo-clay (IOC) and the grout content on the properties of the 3-y S/S materials are discussed. It is found that although MgO alone provided negligible strength to the soil, it is superior in immobilising both inorganic and organic contaminants. Replacing MgO by ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) significantly enhanced the strength while also performed well in immobilising the contaminants. The improved pH buffering capacity was attributed to the low solubilities of brucite and hydrotalcite-like phases formed in the MgO-bearing binders, and was also the reason for the improved performance in stabilising contaminants. The addition of IOC slightly decreased the strength and the permeability of the S/S materials but inconsistent effect on the contaminant immobilisation was found depending on the binder composition. This study showed no degradation of the S/S materials after 3 y exposure to field conditions and has proved the applicability and the advantages of MgO-bearing binders over PC in S/S.

  16. Voluntary head stabilisation in space during oscillatory trunk movements in the frontal plane performed before, during and after a prolonged period of weightlessness.

    PubMed

    Amblard, B; Assaiante, C; Vaugoyeau, M; Baroni, G; Ferrigno, G; Pedotti, A

    2001-03-01

    The ability to voluntarily stabilise the head in space exhibited by two subjects during lateral rhythmic oscillations of the trunk has been investigated before, during and after a prolonged period of microgravity (microG) exposure. In flight acquisitions were performed onboard the Core Module of the Russian Space Station MIR as part of the T4 "Human Posture in Microgravity" experiment of the 179-days ESA-RKA mission EUROMIR-95. Data collection and kinematic analysis were performed by means of a space-qualified version of the automatic motion analyser ELITE. Head stabilisation in space strategy was estimated by means of the head anchoring index and cross-correlation analysis. Results show that head orientation may be well stabilised about the roll axis both with and without the presence of visual information. This was true despite the expected reduction in vestibular efficiency and muscular proprioception occurring in-flight. In one subject, however, vision was found to improve head stabilisation in space post-flight, presumably to recover from the postural deficiency induced by the long-term microG exposure. Head stability during trunk movements was achieved with either over-compensatory (out-of-phase), under-compensatory (in-phase) or mixed movement strategies, as was attested by the analysis of cross-correlation functions between head and shoulder movements. In weightlessness, vision occlusion seemed to influence the choice of the strategies to be used as well as the reduction of movement variability. The feedforward nature of compensatory head movements suggests that head stabilisation could be based in weightlessness on the internal postural body scheme, supposed to be adapted to the weightless environment within 5 months of microG exposure.

  17. Efficacy of stabilisation splint therapy combined with non-splint multimodal therapy for treating RDC/TMD axis I patients: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nagata, K; Maruyama, H; Mizuhashi, R; Morita, S; Hori, S; Yokoe, T; Sugawara, Y

    2015-12-01

    Stabilisation splint therapy has long been thought to be effective for the management of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, the superiority of stabilisation splint therapy compared to other TMD treatments remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of stabilisation splint therapy combined with non-splint multimodal therapy for TMD. A total of 181 TMD participants were randomly allocated to a non-splint multimodal therapy (NS) group (n = 85) or a non-splint multimodal therapy plus stabilisation splint (NS+S) group (n = 96). Non-splint multimodal therapy included self-exercise of the jaw, cognitive-behavioural therapy, self-management education and additional jaw manipulation. Three outcome measurements were used to assess treatment efficacy: mouth-opening limitation, oro-facial pain and temporomandibular joint sounds. A two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance (anova) was used to evaluate the efficacy of the two treatment modalities (NS vs. NS+S), and Scheffe's multiple comparison test was used to compare the treatment periods. Subgroup analyses were performed to disclose the splint effects for each TMD diagnostic group. All three parameters significantly decreased over time in both groups. However, there were no significant differences between the two treatment groups in the total comparison or subgroup analyses; an exception was the group with degenerative joint disease. No significant difference between the NS and NS+S treatment approaches was revealed in this study. Therefore, we conclude that the additional effects of stabilisation splint are not supported for patients with TMD during the application of multimodal therapy.

  18. Red queen dynamics in specific predator-prey systems.

    PubMed

    Harris, Terence; Cai, Anna Q

    2015-10-01

    The dynamics of a predator-prey system are studied, with a comparison of discrete and continuous strategy spaces. For a [Formula: see text] system, the average strategies used in the discrete and continuous case are shown to be the same. It is further shown that the inclusion of constant prey switching in the discrete case can have a stabilising effect and reduce the number of available predator types through extinction.

  19. Temporal and spatial variation of physical, biological, and chemical parameters in a large waste stabilisation pond, and the implications for WSP modelling.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, D G; Nixon, J B; Cromar, N J; Fallowfield, H J

    2007-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical, and biological parameters was determined, in summer and winter, at nine sites in a large (112 ha) waste stabilisation pond (WSP) at the Bolivar Wastewater Treatment Plant. Each site was extensively sampled over the course of one day, with the nine sites sampled over successive days at exactly the same times of day, progressing in the direction of bulk flow through the pond. Analyses of covariance were used to test the independent impact of site and climate on the way in which the mean values and stratification gradient of the physical, chemical, and biological parameters varied diurnally at each site. In both winter and summer studies there was a very strong correlation at all sites between changes in temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO). Mean pond temperatures were higher in summer than winter, and thermal stratification was more common in summer. In summer, during the day at each site, concentrations of chlorophyll-a, DO, suspended solids and pH increased with higher solar radiation levels. This relationship was less evident in winter. There was no systematic depth or temporal variation identified in either the summer or winter study for the broad range of chemical parameters measured. Mean values for these parameters, and to a lesser extent their stratification gradients, increased by varying extents throughout the day at the different sites in both summer and winter, irrespective of changes in climate when the different sites were sampled. Sites nearer the inlet to the WSP recorded lower NH4N and higher NO2N and NO3N concentrations than the rest of the WSP. This was indicative of nitrification. Somewhat surprisingly, high DO concentrations were also recorded at these sites near the inlets. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling, incorporating the predominant wind conditions, offers a rationale for these observations. Recirculation was evident, which may increase the residence time for the slow

  20. Design and stabilisation of a high area iron molybdate surface for the selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Stephanie; Brookes, Catherine; Bowker, Michael; Gibson, Emma K; Wells, Peter P

    2016-07-04

    The performance of Mo-enriched, bulk ferric molybdate, employed commercially for the industrially important reaction of the selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde, is limited by a low surface area, typically 5-8 m(2) g(-1). Recent advances in the understanding of the iron molybdate catalyst have focused on the study of MoOx@Fe2O3 (MoOx shell, Fe2O3 core) systems, where only a few overlayers of Mo are present on the surface. This method of preparing MoOx@Fe2O3 catalysts was shown to support an iron molybdate surface of higher surface area than the industrially-favoured bulk phase. In this research, a MoOx@Fe2O3 catalyst of even higher surface area was stabilised by modifying a haematite support containing 5 wt% Al dopant. The addition of Al was an important factor for stabilising the haematite surface area and resulted in an iron molybdate surface area of ∼35 m(2) g(-1), around a 5 fold increase on the bulk catalyst. XPS confirmed Mo surface-enrichment, whilst Mo XANES resolved an amorphous MoOx surface monolayer supported on a sublayer of Fe2(MoO4)3 that became increasingly extensive with initial Mo surface loading. The high surface area MoOx@Fe2O3 catalyst proved amenable to bulk characterisation techniques; contributions from Fe2(MoO4)3 were detectable by Raman, XAFS, ATR-IR and XRD spectroscopies. The temperature-programmed pulsed flow reaction of methanol showed that this novel, high surface area catalyst (3ML-HSA) outperformed the undoped analogue (3ML-ISA), and a peak yield of 94% formaldehyde was obtained at ∼40 °C below that for the bulk Fe2(MoO4)3 phase. This work demonstrates how core-shell, multi-component oxides offer new routes for improving catalytic performance and understanding catalytic activity.

  1. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of percolates and its evaporates from Technosols before and after limestone filler stabilisation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    The chemistry of waters is recognized as a relevant monitoring tool when assessing the adverse effects of acid mine drainage. The weathering of sulphide minerals produces a great variety of efflorescences of soluble sulphate salts. These minerals play an important role for environmental pollution, since they can be either a sink or a source for acidity and trace elements. This communication deals with the leachability of potentially toxic elements (PTE) eluting from technosols formed from soils affected by mining activities and limestone filler. A total of three contaminated soils affected by opencast mining were selected and mixed with limestone filler at three percentages: 10 %, 20 % and 30 %, providing nine stabilised samples. These samples were stored in containers and moistened simulating rainfall. The percolates obtained were collected, and the PTEs content (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) was determined. Evaporation-precipitation experiments were carried out in these waters, and the mineralogical composition of efflorescences was evaluated. The study area is heavily polluted as a result of historical mining and processing activities, producing large amount of wastes, characterised by high trace elements content and acidic pH. The results obtained for the percolates after the rain episode showed that, before the stabilization approach, waters had an acidic pH, high electrical conductivity and high PTEs content. When these soils were mixed with 10, 20 and 30 % of limestone filler, the pH was neutral and the soluble trace element content strongly decreased, being under the detection limit when limestone percentage was 20 % and 30 %. The mineralogical composition of efflorescences before the stabilisation approach showed that predominant minerals were copiapite, followed by gypsum and bilinite. Other soluble sulphates were determined in lower percentage, such as hexahydrite, halotriquite or pickeringite. After the mixing with 10 % of limestone filler, the evaporates

  2. Robust vehicle lateral stabilisation via set-based methods for uncertain piecewise affine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Giovanni; Barić, Miroslav; Glielmo, Luigi; Borrelli, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    The paper presents the design of a lateral stability controller for ground vehicles based on front steering and four wheels independent braking. The control objective is to track yaw rate and lateral velocity reference signals while avoiding front and rear wheel traction force saturation. Control design is based on an approximate piecewise-affine nonlinear dynamical model of the vehicle. Vehicle longitudinal velocity and drivers steering input are modelled as measured disturbances taking values in a compact set. A time-optimal control strategy which ensures convergence into a maximal robust control invariant (RCI) set is proposed. This paper presents the uncertain model, the RCI computation, and the control algorithm. Experimental tests at high-speed on ice with aggressive driver manoeuvres show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  3. Nitrification-denitrification in waste stabilisation ponds: a mechanism for permanent nitrogen removal in maturation ponds.

    PubMed

    Camargo Valero, M A; Read, L F; Mara, D D; Newton, R J; Curtis, T P; Davenport, R J

    2010-01-01

    A pilot-scale primary maturation pond was spiked with (15)N-labelled ammonia ((15)NH(4)Cl) and (15)N-labelled nitrite (Na(15)NO(2)), in order to improve current understanding of the dynamics of inorganic nitrogen transformations and removal in WSP systems. Stable isotope analysis of delta(15)N showed that nitrification could be considered as an intermediate step in WSP, which is masked by simultaneous denitrification, under conditions of low algal activity. Molecular microbiology analysis showed that denitrification can be considered a feasible mechanism for permanent nitrogen removal in WSP, which may be supported either by ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) or by methanotrophs, in addition to nitrite-oxidising bacteria (NOB). However, the relative supremacy of the denitrification process over other nitrogen removal mechanisms (e.g., biological uptake) depends upon phytoplanktonic activity.

  4. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Effect of the 129I impurity on the radiation frequency of a stabilised He — Ne/127I2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negriyko, Anatolii M.; Boyko, Oleksei V.; Kachalova, Nataliya M.; Khodakovskii, Vladimir M.

    2004-05-01

    The radiation frequency of a He — Ne/127I2 laser stabilised to the hyperfine structure component of molecular iodine exhibits shifts caused by the presence of impurities in the iodine cell. The specific effect of the 129I impurity on the radiation frequency of a stabilised laser is considered. It is shown that even for a 0.25 % concentration of 129I, the frequency shift in a He — Ne/127I2 laser caused by this isotope plays a decisive role. To exclude the possible effect of other iodine isotopes on the accuracy of reproducibility of the frequency of metrological lasers, it is expedient to carry out the laser fluorescence test of the cells to check for the presence of heteroisotopic molecular iodine impurity.

  5. Intra-articular injection of non-animal stabilised hyaluronic acid (NASHA) for osteoarthritis of the hip: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Berg, P; Olsson, U

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the safety and potential efficacy of intra-articular non-animal stabilised hyaluronic acid (NASHA) in patients with hip OA. This was a prospective, open-label, 3-month pilot study of a single intra-articular injection of NASHA in 31 patients. Safety outcomes were measured at 2 weeks and 3 months after treatment, as were efficacy measurements including WOMAC pain, stiffness and physical function scores, and the patient assessment of global disease status. Patients demonstrating reduced pain at month 3 participated in an extension phase (assessment at 6-11 months, 18 patients). Positive response was defined as a > or = 40% reduction in the WOMAC pain score from baseline, together with an absolute decrease of > or = 5 points. Intra-articular injection of NASHA into the hip was well tolerated. The only treatment-related AE was exacerbation of pain and/or stiffness in the treated hip (reported by 9 patients) and there were no serious AEs. The response rate to treatment was 50% at 2 weeks and 54% at 3 months. In the extension population, response rates of 69% and 44% were observed at month 3 and the extension visit, respectively. Global disease status was improved at month 3 compared with baseline in 68% of the patients. Our results show that a single intra-articular injection of NASHA is a well tolerated and potentially effective therapy in the treatment of hip OA. Further studies of NASHA in this setting are warranted.

  6. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented.

  7. Assessment of the transport of polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilised zero-valent iron nanoparticles in a silica sand medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Bin; Xie, Yingying; Fang, Zhanqiang; Tsang, Eric Pokeung

    2014-07-01

    Nano zero-valent iron has been considered a promising material for in situ remediation, but its strong tendency to form aggregates makes it difficult to transport in porous media. Thus, stabilization techniques are required to overcome this limitation. In this study, we use polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to synthesise to stabilise iron nanoparticles. The effects of various factors such as nZVI influent concentrations, flow velocity, Ca2+, Mg2+ and humic acid on the transport behaviour of the PVP-nZVI particles were considered. A sedimentation test indicated that PVP-nZVI particles with diameters ranging from 50 to 80 nm were more stable than Bare-nZVI particles. Column experiments demonstrated that PVP-nZVI also exhibited better mobility in silica sand than Bare-nZVI. Due to either the straining or blocking effect, the effluent relative concentration ( C/ C 0) plateau increased with increasing particle concentration. Increasing the flow velocity increased the C/ C 0, resulting in the reduction of overall single-collector contact efficiency ( η 0). Humic acid (HA) enhanced the mobility of PVP-nZVI, and the sedimentation test in the presence of HA suggested that decreased attachment of PVP-nZVI to the silica sand surface rather than decreased aggregation was the primary mechanism of this enhanced mobility.

  8. Foams stabilised by mixtures of nanoparticles and oppositely charged surfactants: relationship between bubble shrinkage and foam coarsening.

    PubMed

    Maestro, Armando; Rio, Emmanuelle; Drenckhan, Wiebke; Langevin, Dominique; Salonen, Anniina

    2014-09-28

    We have studied foams stabilised by surfactant-decorated nanoparticles adsorbed at the bubble surfaces. We show that the controlled compression of a single bubble allows one to understand the coarsening behavior of these foams. When bubbles are compressed, the particles become tightly packed in the surface layer. They lose their mobility, and the interface becomes solid-like when the jammed state is reached. Further compression leads to interfacial buckling characterised by crumpled surfaces. We find that the surface concentration of particles at which the jamming and the buckling transitions occur are independent of the surfactant concentration. This is a surprising feature. It suggests that the surfactants are mandatory to help the particles adsorb at the interface and that they change the equilibrium surface concentration of the decorated particles. But they do not affect the surface properties once the particles are adsorbed. We measured the compression elastic modulus of the surface in the jammed state and found it to be compatible with the Gibbs condition for which the spontaneous dissolution of bubbles is arrested. Due to this effect, the coarsening process of a foam composed of many close-packed bubbles occurs in two steps. In the first step, coarsening is slow and coalescence of the bigger bubbles is observed. In the second step, a number of very small bubbles remains, which exhibit crumpled surfaces and are stable over long times. This suggests that foam coarsening is arrested once the smallest bubbles become fully covered after the initial shrinking step.

  9. Reduced glutathione and procaine hydrochloride protect the nucleoprotein structure of boar spermatozoa during freeze-thawing by stabilising disulfide bonds.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Flores, Eva; Estrada, Efrén; Bonet, Sergi; Rigau, Teresa; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2013-01-01

    One important change the head of boar spermatozoa during freeze-thawing is the destabilisation of its nucleoprotein structure due to a disruption of disulfide bonds. With the aim of better understanding these changes in frozen-thawed spermatozoa, two agents, namely reduced glutathione (GSH) and procaine hydrochloride (ProHCl), were added at different concentrations to the freezing media at different concentrations and combinations over the range 1-2mM. Then, 30 and 240 min after thawing, cysteine-free residue levels of boar sperm nucleoproteins, DNA fragmentation and other sperm functional parameters were evaluated. Both GSH and ProHCl, at final concentrations of 2mM, induced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the number of non-disrupted sperm head disulfide bonds 30 and 240 min after thawing compared with the frozen-thawed control. This effect was accompanied by a significant (P<0.05) decrease in DNA fragmentation 240 min after thawing. Concomitantly, 1 and 2mM GSH, but not ProHCl at any of the concentrations tested, partially counteracted the detrimental effects caused by freeze-thawing on sperm peroxide levels, motility patterns and plasma membrane integrity. In conclusion, the results show that both GSH and ProHCl have a stabilising effect on the nucleoprotein structure of frozen-thawed spermatozoa, although only GSH exerts an appreciable effect on sperm viability.

  10. The adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on CO2 laser modified magnesia partially stabilised zirconia (MgO-PSZ).

    PubMed

    Hao, L; Lawrence, J

    2004-03-15

    Magnesia partially stabilised zirconia (MgO-PSZ), a bioinert ceramic, exhibits high mechanical strength, excellent corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility, but it does not naturally form a direct bond with bone resulting in a lack of osteointegration. The surface properties and structure of a biomaterial play an essential role in protein adsorption. As such, changes in the surface properties and structure of biomaterials may in turn alter their bioactivity. So, the fundamental reactions at the interface of biomaterials and tissue should influence their integration and bone-bonding properties. To this end, CO2 laser radiation was used to modify the surface roughness, crystal size, phase and surface energy of the MgO-PSZ. The basic mechanisms active in improving the surface energy were analysed and found to be the phase change and augmented surface area. The adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA), which is a non-cell adhesive protein, was compared on the untreated and CO2 laser modified MgO-PSZ. It was observed that the thickness of the adsorbed HSA decreased as the polar surface energy of the MgO-PSZ increased, indicating that HSA adsorbed more effectively on the hydrophobic MgO-PSZ surface than the hydrophilic surface. The current study provided important information regarding protein-biomaterial interactions and possible mechanisms behind the cell interaction and in vivo behaviour.

  11. Application of X-ray microtomography for the characterisation of hollow polymer-stabilised spray dried amorphous dispersion particles.

    PubMed

    Gamble, John F; Terada, Masako; Holzner, Christian; Lavery, Leah; Nicholson, Sarah J; Timmins, Peter; Tobyn, Mike

    2016-08-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of X-ray microtomography to obtain information relating to powder characteristics such as wall thickness and solid volume fraction for hollow, polymer-stabilised spray dried dispersion (SDD) particles. SDDs of varying particle properties, with respect to shell wall thickness and degree of particle collapse, were utilised to assess the capability of the approach. The results demonstrate that the approach can provide insight into the morphological characteristics of these hollow particles, and thereby a means to understand/predict the processability and performance characteristics of the bulk material. Quantitative assessments of particle wall thickness, particle/void volume and thereby solid volume fraction were also demonstrated to be achievable. The analysis was also shown to be able to qualitatively assess the impact of the drying rate on the morphological nature of the particle surfaces, thus providing further insight into the final particle shape. The approach demonstrated a practical means to access potentially important particle characteristics for SDD materials which, in addition to the standard bulk powder measurements such as particle size and bulk density, may enable a better understanding of such materials, and their impact on downstream processability and dosage form performance.

  12. W1/O/W2 double emulsions stabilised by fat crystals--formulation, stability and salt release.

    PubMed

    Frasch-Melnik, Sarah; Spyropoulos, Fotios; Norton, Ian T

    2010-10-01

    Water/oil (W(1)/O) emulsions containing fat crystals have been incorporated into an aqueous phase containing 1% na-caseinate as emulsifier to create stable water/oil/water (W(1)/O/W(2)) double emulsions. The W(1)/O primary emulsion was stabilised exclusively with monoglyceride and triglyceride crystal "shells", and contained 30% W(1) aqueous phase as well as KCl. The stability of the double emulsions was monitored over the course of 6 weeks. It was found that, providing some salt or sugar were present in the W(2) aqueous phase, emulsions retained their double structure--although coalescence between double emulsion globules occurred and creaming was observed. KCl encapsulated in the W(1) phase of the primary emulsion was only slowly released to the W(2) continuous aqueous phase: 20% within 6 weeks. This release is due to the damage caused to the fat crystal shells during the secondary emulsification step used to create the double emulsion structure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term stabilisation potential of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) for amorphous lactose in spray-dried composites.

    PubMed

    Berggren, Jonas; Alderborn, Göran

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) to inhibit the crystallisation of amorphous lactose during storage of the composites up to 6 months. Short-term stability was assessed by microcalorimetry over 10 days and long-term stability by storage in desiccators with different relative humidities for 3 and 6 months. The solid-state structure of the particles after storage was analysed by differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the presence of PVP increased the critical relative humidity (RH) for crystallisation relative to the pure lactose and both the proportion and the molecular weight of the PVP affected the stabilisation of the amorphous phase. The difference in critical RH between the materials increased over time. The T(g) of the materials was generally reduced due to the absorption of water and it is suggested that the inhibiting effect therefore is related mainly to a specific interaction between lactose and PVP, rather than to a counteracting effect of the polymer on the moisture induced depression of T(g).

  14. Effect of antioxidants and light stabilisers on silver migration from nanosilver-polyethylene composite packaging films into food simulants.

    PubMed

    Su, Qi-Zhi; Lin, Qin-Bao; Chen, Chao-Fang; Wu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Li-Bing; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The effect of exposure time, temperature and food simulants, especially additives, on the release of silver from nanosilver-polyethylene composite films to food simulants was studied. Two different type of nanosilver-polyethylene composite films (with or without additives) were chosen to conduct the experiment with the aim of exploring the behaviour of silver migration. It was shown that the migration of silver into 50% ethanol at 40 and 70°C was much less than that into 3% acetic acid. With the increase of exposure time and temperature, the release of silver increased. The migration even continued after a long exposure time (14 days at 20°C, 10 days at 40°C, and 6 days at 70°C respectively). Only about 0.15‰ of silver migrated from composite films with the additives into 3% acetic acid after 6 days of exposure at 70°C, while about 1.3% of silver migrated from composite films that did not contain additives under the same conditions. This could be because the addition of the antioxidants and light stabilisers prevents silver from being oxidised, which is an important way for the release of silver.

  15. Evidence for stabilising selection acting on flowering time in Arum maculatum (Araceae): the influence of phylogeny on adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ollerton, Jeff; Diaz, Anita

    1999-05-01

    The relationship between flowering time and reproductive success was investigated in the fly-pollinated, monoecious perennial herb Arum maculatum L. (Araceae). This species temporarily traps its principle pollinator, a psychodid midge. Probability of fruit set was analysed in relation to early, peak and late periods of the flowering phenology of four British populations between 1992 and 1997. In three out of five cases, plants which flowered during early and late periods were significantly less likely to set fruit. In addition, one population showed a similar relationship for percentage fruit set of individual inflorescences, and seeds from peak-flowering plants were significantly heavier. There was no variation in number of female flowers per inflorescence over the flowering season. Probability of fruit set appears to be mediated by the likelihood of trapping psychodid midges that have previously been trapped and picked up pollen, an unlikely event during early and late flowering periods when few inflorescences are open. The majority of plants in all populations produce only one inflorescence which means that timing of flowering may be crucial to reproductive success. We interpret our findings as evidence that stabilising selection may be acting on some populations and/or during some years. The ultimate cause, however, can be related to the very short (12-18 h) female phase of each inflorescence, a phylogenetically conservative trait within the Araceae.

  16. Physicochemical characterisation of β-carotene emulsion stabilised by covalent complexes of α-lactalbumin with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate or chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoya; Liu, Fuguo; Liu, Lei; Wei, Zihao; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-04-15

    In this study the impact of covalent complexes of α-lactalbumin (α-La) with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) or chlorogenic acid (CA) was investigated on the physicochemical properties of β-carotene oil-in-water emulsions. EGCG, or CA, was covalently linked to α-La at pH 8.0, as evidenced by increased total phenolic content and declined fluorescence intensity. Compared with those stabilised by α-La alone and α-La-CA or EGCG mixture, the emulsion stabilised by the α-La-EGCG covalent complex exhibited the least changes in particle size and transmission profiles, using a novel centrifugal sedimentation technique, indicating an improvement in the physical stability. The least degradation of β-carotene occurred in the emulsion stabilised with the α-La-EGCG covalent complex when stored at 25 °C. These results implied that protein-polyphenol covalent complexes were able to enhance the physical stability of β-carotene emulsion and inhibit the degradation of β-carotene in oil-in-water emulsion, and the effect was influenced by the types of the phenolic compounds.

  17. Evaluation of a lime-mediated sewage sludge stabilisation process. Product characterisation and technological validation for its use in the cement industry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, N Husillos; Granados, R J; Blanco-Varela, M T; Cortina, J L; Martínez-Ramírez, S; Marsal, M; Guillem, M; Puig, J; Fos, C; Larrotcha, E; Flores, J

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes an industrial process for stabilising sewage sludge (SS) with lime and evaluates the viability of the stabilised product, denominated Neutral, as a raw material for the cement industry. Lime not only stabilised the sludge, raised the temperature of the mix to 80-100°C, furthering water evaporation, portlandite formation and the partial oxidation of the organic matter present in the sludge. Process mass and energy balances were determined. Neutral, a white powder consisting of portlandite (49.8%), calcite (16.6%), inorganic oxides (13.4%) and organic matter and moisture (20.2%), proved to be technologically apt for inclusion as a component in cement raw mixes. In this study, it was used instead of limestone in raw mixes clinkerised at 1400, 1450 and 1500°C. These raw meals exhibited greater reactivity at high temperatures than the limestone product and their calcination at 1500°C yielded clinker containing over 75% calcium silicates, the key phases in Portland clinker. Finally, the two types of raw meal (Neutral and limestone) were observed to exhibit similar mineralogy and crystal size and distribution.

  18. Iterative algorithm to compute the maximal and stabilising solutions of a general class of discrete-time Riccati-type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragan, Vasile; Morozan, Toader; Stoica, Adrian-Mihail

    2010-04-01

    In this article an iterative method to compute the maximal solution and the stabilising solution, respectively, of a wide class of discrete-time nonlinear equations on the linear space of symmetric matrices is proposed. The class of discrete-time nonlinear equations under consideration contains, as special cases, different types of discrete-time Riccati equations involved in various control problems for discrete-time stochastic systems. This article may be viewed as an addendum of the work of Dragan and Morozan (Dragan, V. and Morozan, T. (2009), 'A Class of Discrete Time Generalized Riccati Equations', Journal of Difference Equations and Applications, first published on 11 December 2009 (iFirst), doi: 10.1080/10236190802389381) where necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the maximal solution and stabilising solution of this kind of discrete-time nonlinear equations are given. The aim of this article is to provide a procedure for numerical computation of the maximal solution and the stabilising solution, respectively, simpler than the method based on the Newton-Kantorovich algorithm.

  19. Effect of anterior-posterior and internal-external motion restraint during knee wear simulation on a posterior stabilised knee design.

    PubMed

    Grupp, Thomas M; Saleh, Khaled J; Mihalko, William M; Hintner, Martin; Fritz, Bernhard; Schilling, Christoph; Schwiesau, Jens; Kaddick, Christian

    2013-02-01

    The objective of our study was to examine the effect of biphaseal AP translation and IE rotation restraint, using a system defined specifically for posterior stabilised knee designs, on wear, kinematics and particle release in comparison to linear motion restraint as required by the established ISO 14243-1:2002(E) protocol. In the ISOlinear groups, an AP motion restraint of 30 N/mm and an IE rotation restraint of 0.6 Nm/° were applied in the knee wear simulation. In the ISOgap biphaseal groups with PCL sacrificing implants, the restraining AP force was zero in a ±2.5mm range with, externally, a constant of 9.3N/mm applied proportionally to the AP translation of the tibia plateau, whereas the restraining IE torque was zero in a ±6° range with, externally, a constant of 0.13 Nm/° applied proportionally to the IE rotation of the tibia plateau. Using the ISOgap biphaseal protocol on a posterior stabilised knee design, we found an increase of 41% in AP translation and of 131% in IE rotation, resulting in a 3.2-fold higher wear rate compared to the results obtained using the ISOlinear protocol. Changes in AP translation and IE rotation ligament motion restraints have a high impact on knee joint kinematics and wear behaviour of a fixed bearing posterior stabilised knee design.

  20. Soil acidity determines the effectiveness of an organic amendment and a native bacterium for increasing soil stabilisation in semiarid mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, L; Caravaca, F; Azcón, R; Roldán, A

    2009-01-01

    Unstable mine tailings are vulnerable to water and air erosion, so it is important to promote their surface stabilisation in order to avoid the spread of heavy metals. In a greenhouse experiment, we assessed the effect of the addition of Aspergillus niger-treated sugar beet waste and inoculation with a native bacterium, Bacillus cereus, on the stabilisation of soil aggregates of two acidic, semiarid mine tailings, with different acidity degree, during watering and drying periods. Organic amendment raised the pH of both the moderately and highly acidic tailings, whereas the bacterial inoculation increased this parameter in the former. Only the amendment addition increased soil water-soluble carbon in both tailings compared with their controls, under either watering or drying conditions. Both the amendment and B. cereus enhanced water-soluble carbohydrates. Both treatments increased dehydrogenase activity and aggregate stability, particularly in the moderately acidic tailing under drying conditions. After soil drying, aggregate stability was increased by the amendment (about 66% higher than the control soil) and by the bacterium (about 45% higher than the control soil) in the moderately acidic tailing. The effectiveness of these treatments as structure-stabilisation methods for degraded, semiarid mine ecosystems appears to be restricted to tailings of moderate acidity.

  1. Pressure dependent aerosol formation from the cyclohexene gas-phase ozonolysis in the presence and absence of sulfur dioxide: a new perspective on the stabilisation of the initial clusters.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Philip Thomas Michael; Dege, Janina Elisabeth; Keunecke, Claudia; Krüger, Bastian Christopher; Wolf, Jan Lennard; Zeuch, Thomas

    2012-09-07

    The ozonolysis of cyclohexene is studied with respect to the pressure dependent formation of stable gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) as well as the influence of the presence of SO(2). In addition the rate coefficient for the initial reaction cyclohexene + O(3) was determined at 295 K. The observed increase in CO and ethene yields at low pressures and the absence of ketene in the product spectrum confirm previously proposed reaction pathways forming these decomposition products. An enhanced ethene formation at pressures below 300 mbar coincides with drastically decreased aerosol yields pointing to a high influence on SOA formation of chemical activation driven dynamics in the vinylhydroperoxide channel. The static reactor experiments at 450 mbar in the presence of SO(2) in the present study showed a similar sensitivity of additional particle formation to H(2)SO(4) number densities as found in near-atmospheric flow reactor experiments [Sipiläet al., Science, 2010, 327, 1243], a surprising result with regard to the very different experimental approaches. At low pressures (around 40 mbar) no significant new particle formation is observed even at high H(2)SO(4) concentrations. These findings indicate that the collisional stabilisation of initial clusters is an important aspect for SOA formation processes involving sulfuric acid and organic compounds. The results may have implications for geo-engineering strategies based on stratospheric sulfur injection, but caution is mandatory when room temperature laboratory results are extrapolated to stratospheric conditions.

  2. Experimental observations on the effect of interface slip on rotation and stabilisation of rigid particles in simple shear and a comparison with natural mylonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancktelow, Neil S.; Arbaret, Laurent; Pennacchioni, Giorgio

    2002-03-01

    For axial ratios R>˜3, porphyroclasts from three mylonites all show a very strong SPO with the long axis of the best fit ellipse at an antithetic angle of 5-10° to the shear direction. This is more consistent with a stable end orientation than with the transient fabrics predicted by theory for elliptical rigid particles in simple shear. The cause of this divergence is investigated in a series of high simple shear strain ( γ>15) analogue experiments, performed in a ring-shear machine (couette flow) using a linear viscous matrix (PDMS). The rotational behaviour of elongate ( R=˜5) rigid particles with elliptical and rhomboidal shapes, comparable with the natural examples, is modelled for both coherent and slipping particle-matrix interfaces. Interface slip causes a dramatic reduction in the rotation rate of the elliptical particle compared with theory when the long axis is close to the shear direction, but not stabilisation. Interface slip does result in stabilisation of the rhomboidal particle, with the long diagonal oriented at a small antithetic angle to the shear direction. For monoclinic particles, mirror image shapes (referred to here as Types 1 and 2) show different rotational behaviour. For the Type 1 particle (with a shape comparable to σ porphyroclast systems and mica fish), the long side rotates asymptotically into parallelism with the shear direction. Natural examples of Type 1 particles, such as hornblende and olivine porphyroclasts measured from the Finero mylonites (Southern Alps), show a very strong preferred orientation (for R>˜3), with the long side parallel or at a small (<5°) antithetic angle to the mylonitic foliation. For Type 2 particles, the short side stabilises close to the shear direction, or at a small synthetic angle, as also observed for sillimanite porphyroclasts from the Mont Mary mylonites (Western Alps). In this natural case, stabilisation of the short sides is against an extensional crenulation cleavage rather than the

  3. Development of Tools and Techniques to Survey, Assess, Stabilise, Monitor and Preserve Underwater Archaeological Sites: SASMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, D. J.

    2015-08-01

    SASMAP's purpose is to develop new technologies and best practices in order to locate, assess and manage Europe's underwater cultural heritage in a more effective way than is possible today. SASMAP has taken an holistic- and process- based approach to investigating underwater environments and the archaeological sites contained therein. End user of the results of SASMAP are severalfold; i) to benefiet the SMEs involved in the project and development of their products for the offshore industry (not just for archaeological purposes) ii) a better understanding of the marine environment and its effect on archaeological materials iii) the collation of the results from the project into guidelines that can be used by cultural resource managers to better administer and optimise developer lead underwater archaeological project within Europe in accordance with European legislation (Treaty of Valetta (1992). Summarily the project has utilised a down scaling approach to localise archaeological sites at a large scale regional level. This has involved using innovative satellite imagery to obtain seamless topography maps over coastal areas and the seabed (accurate to a depth of 6m) as well as the development of a 3D sub bottom profiler to look within the seabed. Results obtained from the downscaling approach at the study areas in the project (Greece and Denmark) have enabled geological models to be developed inorder to work towards predictive modelling of where submerged prehistoric sites may be encountered. Once sites have been located an upscaling approach has been taken to assessing an individual site and the materials on and within it in order to better understand the state of preservation and dynamic conditions of a site and how it can best be preserved through in situ preservation or excavation. This has involved the development of equipment to monitor the seabed environment (open water and in sediments), equipment for sampling sediments and assessing the state of

  4. The influence of biogenic stabilisation on the stability and transport of cohesive and mixed sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Julie; Aspden, Rebecca; Baas, Jaco; Paterson, David

    2015-04-01

    between sites and seasons with a significant interaction between these variables (P<0.001). EPS content on the sandier site was significant higher in the summer than any other season (P<0.001) providing the greatest mechanical protection to the sediment, resulting in increased sediment stability whereas the mixed and muddier sites had higher EPS contents in spring (P<0.001 and P<0.001 respectively). The coefficient of variation was larger during the peak seasons than winter and autumn for EPS content, microbial biomass and sediment stability measurements, this is probably associated with the patchy distribution of biofilms on the sediment surface. PSD analysis reveals there were bimodal sediments deposited and accumulating at each site on the sediment bed, throughout the sampling period. Despite the percentage of depositing fines captured in sediment traps varying temporally at all sites, there was no significant spatial difference in sediments size classes between sites whereas the bed sediments changed both spatially and temporally suggesting variation in resuspension dynamics between sites. Significant effects, relative influence and correlations between controlling biological and physical factors at each site are explained and highlight the complexity of estuarine systems and the need for greater understanding in the face of sea level rise and increased storm events.

  5. On the nature and origin of garnet in highly-refractory Archean lithosphere: implications for continent stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Sally

    2014-05-01

    The nature and timescales of garnet formation in the Earth's subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) are important to our understanding of how this rigid outer shell has evolved and stabilised since the Archean. Nevertheless, the widespread occurrence of pyrope garnet in the sub-cratonic mantle remains one of the 'holy grails' of mantle petrology. The paradox is that garnet often occurs in mantle lithologies (dunites and harzburgites) which represent residues of major melting events (up to 40 %) whereas experimental studies on fertile peridotite suggest this phase should be exhausted by <20 % melting. Furthermore, garnets commonly found in mantle peridotite suites have diverse compositions that are typically in equilibrium with high-pressure, small-fraction, mantle melts suggesting they formed as a result of enrichment of the lithospheric mantle following cratonisation. This refertilisation -- which typically involves addition of Fe, incompatible trace elements and volatiles -- affects the lower 30 km of the lithosphere and potentially leads to negative buoyancy and destabilisation. Pyrope garnets found in mantle xenoliths from the eastern margin of the Tanzanian Craton (Lashaine) have diverse compositions and provide major constraints on how the underlying deep (120 to 160 km) mantle stabilised and evolved during the last 3 billion years. The garnets display systematic trends from ultra-depleted to enriched compositions that have not been recognised in peridotite suites from elsewhere (Gibson et al., 2013). Certain harzburgite members of the xenolith suite contain the first reported occurrence of pyrope garnets with rare-earth element (REE) patterns similar to hypothetical garnets proposed by Stachel et al. (2004) to have formed in the Earth's SCLM during the Archean, prior to metasomatism. These rare ultra-depleted low-Cr garnets occur in low temperature (~1050 oC) xenoliths derived from depths of ~120 km and coexist in chemical and textural equilibrium with

  6. MGMT expression levels predict disease stabilisation, progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced melanomas treated with DTIC.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christian; Geisler, Jürgen; Lillehaug, Johan R; Lønning, Per Eystein

    2010-07-01

    Metastatic melanoma responds poorly to systemic treatment. We report the results of a prospective single institution study evaluating O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status as a potential predictive and/or prognostic marker among patients treated with dacarbazine (DTIC) 800-1000 mg/m(2) monotherapy administered as a 3-weekly schedule for advanced malignant melanomas. The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Committee. Surgical biopsies from metastatic or loco-regional deposits obtained prior to DTIC treatment were snap-frozen immediately upon removal and stored in liquid nitrogen up to processing. Median time from enrolment to end of follow-up was 67 months. MGMT expression levels evaluated by qRT-PCR correlated significantly to DTIC benefit (CR/PR/SD; p=0.005), time to progression (TTP) (p=0.005) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.003). MGMT expression also correlated to Breslow thickness in the primary tumour (p=0.014). While MGMT promoter hypermethylation correlated to MGMT expression, MGMT promoter hypermethylation did not correlate to treatment benefit, TTP or OS, suggesting that other factors may be critical in determining MGMT expression levels in melanomas. In a Cox proportional regression analysis, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, p<0.001), MGMT expression (p=0.022) and p16(INK4a) expression (p=0.037) independently predicted OS, while TTP correlated to DTIC benefit after 6 weeks only (p=0.001). Our data reveal MGMT expression levels to be associated with disease stabilisation and prognosis in patients receiving DTIC monotherapy for advanced melanoma. The role of MGMT expression as a predictor to DTIC sensitivity versus a general prognostic factor in advanced melanomas warrants further evaluation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strontium- and calcium-containing, titanium-stabilised phosphate-based glasses with prolonged degradation for orthopaedic tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Al Qaysi, Mustafa; Walters, Nick J; Foroutan, Farzad; Owens, Gareth J; Kim, Hae-Won; Shah, Rishma; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-09-01

    Strontium- and calcium-releasing, titanium-stabilised phosphate-based glasses with a controlled degradation rate are currently under development for orthopaedic tissue engineering applications. Ca and/or Sr were incorporated at varying concentrations in quaternary phosphate-based glasses, in order to promote osteoinduction. Ti was incorporated at a fixed concentration in order to prolong degradation. Glasses of the general formula (P2O5)-(Na2O)-(TiO2)-(CaO)-(SrO) were prepared via the melt-quench technique. The materials were characterised by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and density determination. The dissolution rate in distilled water was determined by measuring mass loss, ion release and pH change over a two-week period. In addition, the cytocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of an osteoblast-like cell line cultured on the surface of glass discs was assessed. The glasses were shown to be amorphous and contained Q(1), Q(2) and Q(3) species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed small changes in the glass structure as Ca was substituted with Sr and differential thermal analysis confirmed a decrease in crystallisation temperature with increasing Sr content. Degradation and ion release studies also showed that mass loss was positively correlated with Sr content. These results were attributed to the lower electronegativity of Sr in comparison to Ca favouring the formation of phosphate-based mineral phases. All compositions supported cell proliferation and survival and induced at least 2.3-fold alkaline phosphatase activity relative to the control. Glass containing 17.5 mol% Sr had 3.6-fold greater alkaline phosphatase activity than the control. The gradual release of Ca and Sr supported osteoinduction, indicating their potential suitability in orthopaedic tissue engineering applications.

  8. Anaerobic stabilisation and conversion of biopolymers in primary sludge--effect of temperature and sludge retention time.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Nidal; Zeeman, Grietje; Gijzen, Huub; Lettinga, Gatze

    2004-02-01

    The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) and process temperature on the hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis of primary sludge was investigated in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). The CSTRs were operated to maintain SRTs of 10, 15, 20 and 30 days at process temperatures of 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C. The rates of hydrolysis and the biodegradability of primary sludge were assessed in batch reactors incubated at 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C. The results revealed that the major amount of sludge stabilisation occurred between 0 and 10 days at 35 degrees C and 10 and 15 days at 25 degrees C. Hydrolysis was found to be the rate limiting-step of the overall digestion process, for the reactors operated at 35 degrees C and 25 degrees C, except for the reactor operated at 10 days and 25 degrees C. At the latter conditions, methanogenesis was the rate-limiting step of the overall digestion process. Proteins hydrolysis was limited to a maximum value of 39% at 30 days and 35 degrees C due to proteins availability in the form of biomass. The biodegradability of primary sludge was around 60%, and showed no temperature dependency. The hydrolysis of the main biopolymers and overall particulate COD of the primary sludge digested in CSTRs were well described by first-order kinetics, in case hydrolysis was the rate-limiting step. Similarly, the hydrolysis of the overall particulate COD of the primary sludge digested in batch reactors were described by first-order kinetics and revealed strong temperature dependency, which follows Arrhenius equation.

  9. Mechanical and leaching behaviour of slag-cement and lime-activated slag stabilised/solidified contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2011-05-01

    Stabilisation/solidification (S/S) is an effective technique for reducing the leachability of contaminants in soils. Very few studies have investigated the use of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) for S/S treatment of contaminated soils, although it has been shown to be effective in ground improvement. This study sought to investigate the potential of GGBS activated by cement and lime for S/S treatment of a mixed contaminated soil. A sandy soil spiked with 3000mg/kg each of a cocktail of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu and Pb) and 10,000mg/kg of diesel was treated with binder blends of one part hydrated lime to four parts GGBS (lime-slag), and one part cement to nine parts GGBS (slag-cement). Three binder dosages, 5, 10 and 20% (m/m) were used and contaminated soil-cement samples were compacted to their optimum water contents. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed using unconfined compressive strength (UCS), permeability and acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) tests with determination of contaminant leachability at the different acid additions. UCS values of up to 800kPa were recorded at 28days. The lowest coefficient of permeability recorded was 5×10(-9)m/s. With up to 20% binder dosage, the leachability of the contaminants was reduced to meet relevant environmental quality standards and landfill waste acceptance criteria. The pH-dependent leachability of the metals decreased over time. The results show that GGBS activated by cement and lime would be effective in reducing the leachability of contaminants in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Label-free in vitro toxicity and uptake assessment of citrate stabilised gold nanoparticles in three cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable in vitro toxicity testing is needed prior to the commencement of in vivo testing necessary for hazard identification and risk assessment of nanoparticles. In this study, the cytotoxicity and uptake of 14 nm and 20 nm citrate stabilised gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, the Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHO, and the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK 293 were investigated. Methods Cytotoxicity of the AuNPs was assessed via traditional XTT-, LDH-, and ATP-based assays, followed by cell impedance studies. Dark-field imaging and hyperspectral imaging were used to confirm the uptake of AuNPs into the cells. Results Interference of the AuNPs with the XTT- and ATP-based assays was overcome through the use of cell impedance technology. AuNPs were shown to be relatively non-toxic using this methodology; nevertheless CHO cells were the most sensitive cell type with 20 nm AuNPs having the highest toxicity. Uptake of both 14 nm and 20 nm AuNPs was observed in all cell lines in a time- and cell type-dependent manner. Conclusions Using the cell impedance and dark-field hyperspectral imaging technologies, it was possible to study the toxicity of AuNPs in different cell lines and show that these cells could internalize AuNPs with their subsequent intracellular aggregation. It was also possible to show that this toxicity would not correlate with the level of uptake but it would correlate with cell-type and the size of the AuNPs. Therefore, these two label-free methodologies used in this study are suitable for in vitro studies on the effects of AuNPs, and could present themselves as appropriate and valuable methodologies for future nanoparticle toxicity and uptake studies. PMID:24103467

  11. Strontium- and calcium-containing, titanium-stabilised phosphate-based glasses with prolonged degradation for orthopaedic tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Al Qaysi, Mustafa; Walters, Nick J; Foroutan, Farzad; Owens, Gareth J; Kim, Hae-Won; Shah, Rishma

    2015-01-01

    Strontium- and calcium-releasing, titanium-stabilised phosphate-based glasses with a controlled degradation rate are currently under development for orthopaedic tissue engineering applications. Ca and/or Sr were incorporated at varying concentrations in quaternary phosphate-based glasses, in order to promote osteoinduction. Ti was incorporated at a fixed concentration in order to prolong degradation. Glasses of the general formula (P2O5)–(Na2O)–(TiO2)–(CaO)–(SrO) were prepared via the melt-quench technique. The materials were characterised by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, 31P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and density determination. The dissolution rate in distilled water was determined by measuring mass loss, ion release and pH change over a two-week period. In addition, the cytocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of an osteoblast-like cell line cultured on the surface of glass discs was assessed. The glasses were shown to be amorphous and contained Q1, Q2 and Q3 species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed small changes in the glass structure as Ca was substituted with Sr and differential thermal analysis confirmed a decrease in crystallisation temperature with increasing Sr content. Degradation and ion release studies also showed that mass loss was positively correlated with Sr content. These results were attributed to the lower electronegativity of Sr in comparison to Ca favouring the formation of phosphate-based mineral phases. All compositions supported cell proliferation and survival and induced at least 2.3-fold alkaline phosphatase activity relative to the control. Glass containing 17.5 mol% Sr had 3.6-fold greater alkaline phosphatase activity than the control. The gradual release of Ca and Sr supported osteoinduction, indicating their potential suitability in orthopaedic tissue engineering applications

  12. Bathochromic and stabilising effects of sugar beet pectin and an isolated pectic fraction on anthocyanins exhibiting pyrogallol and catechol moieties.

    PubMed

    Buchweitz, M; Carle, R; Kammerer, D R

    2012-12-15

    The formation of anthocyanin-metal chelates, exhibiting intense blue colours was monitored over a period up to 10 weeks. Evaluating normalised absorption spectra in the range of 580-700 nm and their proportion of the total area under the curve (AUC), provided information about the blue colour hue, intensity and stability. Colour stability in model solutions containing commercial sugar beet pectin or an isolated pectic polysaccharide fraction (PPF) therefrom, both being naturally enriched in aluminium and ferric ions, was assessed in a pH range of 3.6-7.0. The pectic structures stabilised anthocyanin-metal chelates, and thus blue colours by efficiently preventing complex precipitation. Highest bathochromic shifts and most intense blue colours were observed in PPF model solutions containing delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dpd-3-glc), exhibiting a pyrogallol moiety in the flavylium B-ring, compared to cyanidin- (Cyd-3-glc) and petunidin-3-glucoside (Pet-3-glc), both carrying a catechol substituted B-ring. Hue and intensity of the blue colour at pH 5.0 were only insignificantly influenced by the buffer system except for citrate and phosphate buffers, which both annihilated anthocyanin-metal chelate formation. The blue colours faded following first order kinetics. Best stabilities as deduced from storage experiments performed at 20 ± 2°C in the dark were observed for Dpd-3-glc. In contrast, Cyd-3-glc displayed shortened half-life values, whereas blue Pet-3-glc chelates decomposed rapidly. These results demonstrate that the solubilisation of anthocyanin-metal chelates by pectic structures is a promising option for developing water soluble natural blue food colourants.

  13. Evaluation of immune responses of stabilised SAT2 antigens of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle.

    PubMed

    Scott, Katherine A; Rathogwa, N M; Capozzo, A V; Maree, Francois F

    2017-09-25

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines with improved stability and less reliant on a cold-chain are needed to improve the longevity of immune responses elicited in animals. This is especially so for serotypes O and SAT2 which are unstable in mildly acidic pH conditions or at elevated temperatures leading to dissociation of the capsid (146S particle) and loss of immunogenicity. Previously, stabilised SAT2 viruses were generated by reverse genetic approaches and assessed in vitro and in vivo with a guinea pig trial. Here we investigated the efficacy and comparative immunological responses of two thermostable and wild-type SAT2 vaccines over 5months followed by challenge. We assessed humoral immune responses elicited in cattle in terms of total and neutralizing antibodies and IgG1/2 isotyping; and cell-mediated responses of IFN-γ as in vitro markers of protection. Whilst there were significant differences in total and neutralizing antibodies for the vSAT2-93H group compared to other vaccinated groups after the first vaccination, there were no significant differences after the second immunization. Following intra-dermolingual challenge all vaccinated groups were fully protected as determined by the absence of generalized lesions. These results provide proof that two vaccine doses, consisting of SAT2 antigen combined with ISA206B adjuvant, administered 4-6 weeks apart were able to protect animals up to 5months pv. Additionally, vSAT2-93Y had significantly higher levels of IFN-γ after challenge and had a lower clinical score indicative of better protection compared to other vaccinated groups and the importance of cell mediated responses and antigen stability in protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterising in situ activation and degradation of hindered amine light stabilisers using liquid extraction surface analysis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paine, Martin R L; Barker, Philip J; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2014-01-15

    Changes in the molecular structure of polymer antioxidants such as hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) is central to their efficacy in retarding polymer degradation and therefore requires careful monitoring during their in-service lifetime. The HALS, bis-(1-octyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl) sebacate (TIN123) and bis-(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidinyl) sebacate (TIN292), were formulated in different polymer systems and then exposed to various curing and ageing treatments to simulate in-service use. Samples of these coatings were then analysed directly using liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Analysis of TIN123 formulated in a cross-linked polyester revealed that the polymer matrix protected TIN123 from undergoing extensive thermal degradation that would normally occur at 292°C, specifically, changes at the 1- and 4-positions of the piperidine groups. The effect of thermal versus photo-oxidative degradation was also compared for TIN292 formulated in polyacrylate films by monitoring the in situ conversion of N-CH3 substituted piperidines to N-H. The analysis confirmed that UV light was required for the conversion of N-CH3 moieties to N-H - a major pathway in the antioxidant protection of polymers - whereas this conversion was not observed with thermal degradation. The use of tandem mass spectrometric techniques, including precursor-ion scanning, is shown to be highly sensitive and specific for detecting molecular-level changes in HALS compounds and, when coupled with LESA, able to monitor these changes in situ with speed and reproducibility.

  15. Decadal morphological response of an ebb-tidal delta and down-drift beach to artificial breaching and inlet stabilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, E.; Sousa, C.; Ferreira, Ó.; Morales, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    The morphodynamic response of a mixed-energy ebb-tidal delta (Guadiana estuary, southern Portugal) and its down-drift barrier island (Canela Island) to channel relocation and stabilisation by jetties is examined using a series of sequential bathymetric maps and vertical aerial photographs spanning five decades. Morphological analysis indicates that the ebb delta is in an immature state, characterised by weak sediment bypassing. Landward-migrating shoals on the swash platform have been produced by the jetty-induced artificial bank-breaching and by the collapse of the eastern portion of the delta. The welding of these shoals has largely controlled the evolution of the coast, with local accretion and erosion lasting for years, and large amounts of regional accretion occurring over decades due to sand accumulation against jetties located further down-drift. These observations provide insights into the potential response of a coast to very large, locally concentrated sand nourishment in the form of shoals. The main effects of the jetties on the coast are observed at the centre of Canela Island, with the production of an erosion hot-spot associated with a temporally persistent and divergent longshore transport providing sand to the adjacent areas. Significant accretion is anticipated for the next decade along the entire island due to the ongoing attachment of the presently observed shoals. After the depletion of this sediment source, and in the context of weak sediment bypassing, the most severe down-drift erosion induced by the jetties is predicted to occur some decades after their construction. This study demonstrates that the geomorphic response of an ebb-tidal delta to jetty construction must be considered at multiple temporal and spatial scales when assessing the impacts of jetties on the down-drift coast.

  16. The influence of patella height on soft tissue balance in cruciate-retaining and posterior-stabilised total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Yuichiro; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Seiji; Muratsu, Hirotsugu; Matsushita, Takehiko; Oka, Shinya; Ishida, Kazunari; Matsuzaki, Tokio; Nishida, Kotaro; Akisue, Toshihiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Although the patella reduced or everted position has recently been recognised as an important factor influencing soft tissue balance during assessment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the influence of patella height on soft tissue balance has not been well addressed. Therefore, the relationship between soft tissue balance and patella height was investigated and differences between cruciate-retaining (CR) and posterior-stabilised (PS) TKA were compared. Forty consecutive patients blinded to the type of implant received, were randomised prospectively. Using lateral radiographs, pre-operative patella height was measured. Using an offset-type tensor designed to measure the soft tissue balance with a reduced patellofemoral (PF) joint and femoral component in place, soft tissue balance was intra-operatively assessed in CR TKA (n = 20) and PS TKA (n = 20) in osteoarthritic patients. The joint component gap and varus ligament balance at zero, ten, 45, 90 and 135° of knee flexion with the patella reduced were measured. In PS TKA, the joint component gap positively correlated with patella height at 90 and 135° of knee flexion. However, there was no correlation between joint component gap and patella height at other flexion angles in PS TKA and any flexion angle in CR TKA. Varus ligament balance showed no significant correlation with patella height in either CR or PS TKA. Analysis of soft tissue balance and patella height only showed a positive correlation in joint component gap at a high flexion angle (90 and 135°) in PS TKA but not in other parameters examined. Pre-operative measurement of patella height may be an important factor for predicting an intra-operative flexion gap in PS TKA.

  17. Stabilising metal(loid)s in soil with iron and aluminium-based products: microbial, biochemical and plant growth impact.

    PubMed

    Garau, Giovanni; Silvetti, Margherita; Castaldi, Paola; Mele, Elena; Deiana, Pietrino; Deiana, Salvatore

    2014-06-15

    Four iron and aluminium-based products, including red mud (RM), hematite (Fe2O3), an iron-rich water treatment residual (Fe-WTR) and amorphous Al hydroxide (Al-OH), were evaluated for their effectiveness at stabilising As and heavy metals (i.e. Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) in a circumneutral contaminated soil [As (2105 mg kg(-1)), Cd (18 mg kg(-1)), Cu (264 mg kg(-1)), Pb (710 mg kg(-1)), Zn (522 mg kg(-1))]. Treatment impacts on soil microbial and biochemical features (i.e. microbial biomass-C, microbial counts, 16S rRNA PCR-TTGE of culturable bacteria, dehydrogenase, urease and β-glucosidase activity, Biolog derived parameters-AWCD and richness) as well as bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth were also assessed. After 6 months equilibration, all the amendments (application rate 3% w/w) but RM reduced labile As while only Al-OH reduced the concentration of water-soluble heavy metals. Despite the highest bioavailability of contaminants, most of the soil microbial and biochemical features monitored (i.e. microbial biomass-C, total bacterial counts, dehydrogenase activity and AWCD) were significantly higher in the RM-soil. Bean germination was completely inhibited in RM-soil while wheat growth was similar to that of the control. The Al-OH treatment was best overall, promoting microbial abundance, diversity and activity while increasing bean and wheat growth and reducing As accumulated in plant shoots. Results suggest that Al-OH is a suitable candidate for field evaluations while the use of RM in the remediation of circumneutral or subalkaline contaminated soils should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Camptothecin-stabilised topoisomerase I-DNA complexes in leukaemia cells visualised and quantified in situ by the TARDIS assay (trapped in agarose DNA immunostaining).

    PubMed

    Padget, K; Carr, R; Pearson, A D; Tilby, M J; Austin, C A

    2000-03-15

    We have shown that the TARDIS assay (trapped in agarose DNA immunostaining) can be used to detect DNA-topoisomerase I (topo I) cleavable complexes in situ in individual cells following treatment with topo I-targeting drugs. This assay is a modification of the assay for DNA-topoisomerase II (topo II) cleavable complexes (Willmore et al., Mol Pharmacol 53: 78-85, 1998). Drug-stabilised topo I-DNA complexes were detected in situ by topo I-specific primary antibodies and then visualised using fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated second antibodies. Immunofluorescence was then quantified using a cooled slow-scan coupled device camera and image analysis procedures. Camptothecin (CPT) was shown to stabilise topo I-DNA cleavable complexes in whole cells in a dose-dependent manner in both CCRF-CEM and K562 cells and in lymphoblasts from an adult with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia treated ex vivo with CPT. In K562 cells, cleavable complexes were found to be maximal between 30 and 90 minutes continuous exposure of CPT, and approximately 78% of cleavable complexes formed in these cells were found to be reversed within 5 minutes of drug removal. It has also been shown that the immunofluorescence detected by the TARDIS assay was specific for topo I-targeting agents. Hence, the TARDIS assay provides a powerful tool to determine the levels of drug-stabilised cleavable complexes in whole cells and thereby aid in the understanding of the mechanism of interaction between topo I-targeting drugs and their target.

  19. Biotribology of a mobile bearing posterior stabilised knee design--effect of motion restraint on wear, tibio-femoral kinematics and particles.

    PubMed

    Grupp, Thomas M; Schroeder, Christian; Kyun Kim, Tae; Miehlke, Rolf K; Fritz, Bernhard; Jansson, Volkmar; Utzschneider, Sandra

    2014-07-18

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the impact of a biphaseal anterior-posterior (AP) and internal-external (IE) motion restraint system on the wear behaviour, tibio-femoral kinematics and particle release of a mobile bearing posterior stabilised knee design in comparison to the widely used linear restraint. in vitro wear simulation was performed using a posterior stabilised total knee replacement with a mobile rotating platform gliding surface design to compare the standard ISO 14243-1:2002 (E) protocol with a linear AP and IE motion restraint and the new ISO 14243-1:2009 (E) protocol with a biphaseal AP and IE motion restraint. For the mobile gliding surfaces, an increase in wear rate by more than a magnitude was measured applying the biphaseal protocol (8.5±1.6 mg/million cycles) in a direct comparison to the linear protocol (0.33±0.07 mg/million cycles), with statistically significant difference. The amplitudes of AP displacement were 3.22±0.47 mm for the biphaseal test, compared to 1.97±0.22 mm in the linear test and the amplitudes of the IE rotation angle had mean values of 7.32°±0.91° under the biphaseal setup, compared to 1.97°±0.14° under linear motion restraint test conditions. From our observations, we conclude that the changes in AP translation and IE rotation motion restraints from ISO linear to ISO biphaseal test conditions highly impact the knee joint kinematics and wear behaviour of a mobile bearing posterior stabilised knee design.

  20. Nucleic acid binding properties of a helix stabilising nucleoid protein from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius that condenses DNA into compact structures.

    PubMed

    Celestina, F; Suryanarayana, T

    1995-12-01

    Helix stabilising nucleoid protein (HSNP-C') from an acidothermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius has been characterised with respect to interaction with nucleic acids by gel retardation assay, binding to nucleic acid columns, fluorescence titrations and electron microscopy. The protein exists in solution as very large multimeric aggregates as indicated by cross-linking studies. The protein binds strongly and co-operatively to double stranded DNA. Electron microscopy of the complexes of the protein with DNA shows compact structures suggesting that the protein condenses DNA.

  1. Colorimetric Detection Based on Localised Surface Plasmon Resonance Optical Characteristics for the Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide Using Acacia Gum–Stabilised Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Eman

    2017-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in sensing is attracting the interest of many researchers. The aim of this work was to fabricate Acacia gum–stabilised silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using green chemistry to use them as a highly sensitive and cost-effective localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) colorimeter sensor for the determination of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by the reduction of an inorganic precursor silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) using white sugar as the reducing reagent and Acacia gum as the stabilising reagent and a sonication bath to form uniform silver nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were characterised by visual observation, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The TEM micrographs of the synthesised nanoparticles showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles with sizes of approximately 10 nm. The EDAX spectrum result confirmed the presence of silver (58%), carbon (30%), and oxygen (12%). Plasmon colorimetric sensing of H2O2 solution was investigated by introducing H2O2 solution into Acacia gum–capped SNP dispersion, and the change in the LSPR band in the UV-Vis region of spectra was monitored. In this study, it was found that the yellow colour of Acacia gum–stabilised SNPs gradually changed to transparent, and moreover, a remarkable change in the LSPR absorbance strength was observed. The calibration curve was linear over 0.1–0.00001 M H2O2, with a correlation estimation (R2) of .953. This was due to the aggregation of SNPs following introduction of the H2O2 solution. Furthermore, the fabricated SNPs were successfully used to detect H2O2 solution in a liquid milk sample, thereby demonstrating the ability of the fabricated SNPs to detect H2O2 solution in liquid milk samples. This

  2. Laser frequency stabilisation by the Pound - Drever - Hall method using an acousto-optic phase modulator operating in the pure Raman - Nath diffraction regime

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshev, Vyacheslav N

    2012-04-30

    Frequency stabilisation of diode laser radiation has been implemented by the Pound - Drever - Hall method using a new acousto-optic phase modulator, operating in the pure Raman - Nath diffraction regime. It is experimentally shown that, as in the case of saturated-absorption spectroscopy in atomic vapour, the spatial divergence of the frequency-modulated output spectrum of this modulator does not interfere with obtaining error signals by means of heterodyne frequency-modulation spectroscopy with a frequency discriminator based on a high-Q Fabry - Perot cavity with finesse of several tens of thousands.

  3. Electronic structure calculations and physicochemical experiments quantify the competitive liquid ion association and probe stabilisation effects for nitrobenzospiropyran in phosphonium-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Damien; Coleman, Simon; Diamond, Dermot; Byrne, Robert

    2011-04-07

    Liquid ion association in ionic liquids (ILs) has been examined using a comprehensive series of electronic structure calculations that measure the relative extents of ion association and probe stabilisation for the photochromic dye nitrobenzospiropyran (BSP) in a range of ILs featuring both long-tailed phosphonium cations and short-tailed imidazolium cations, paired with both chloride and NTf(2) anions. New physicochemical experiments measured the photochromic properties of BSP in the phosphonium-based room temperature ILs. Taken together, the computed complexation energies and measured spectroscopic properties support recent Walden plots of unusual conductivity-viscosity behaviour obtained for the same ILs and reveal some new features in the atom-scale structure and energetics of local, ion-ion and ion-molecule interactions. Calculations show inter-ion interactions strengthened by between 0.4 and 0.7 eV as stronger constituent ions are used, which contributes to the longer range rigidity of the Cl-based IL structure as reflected in the doubled |zwitterion → closed| probe relaxation time measured for Cl(-)vs. NTf(2)(-) in phosphonium-based ILs. Calculations further reveal a similar, approximately 0.6-0.7 eV maximum "residual" IL headgroup-mediated probe stabilisation potentially available for the anion-probe-cation complexes via the stabilising interaction that remains following the "quenching" interaction between the IL anion and cation. This potential stabilisation, however, is offset by both longer-range charge networks, beyond the scope of the current purely quantum mechanical simulations, and also energetic penalties for disruption of the highly-interdigitated alkyl tail networks in the phosphonium-based ILs which may be estimated from known diffusion data. Overall the electronic calculations of local, individual ion-ion and ion-molecule interactions serve to clarify some of the measured physicochemical properties and provide new data for the development of

  4. Interactions and stabilisation of acetone, sulfur dioxide and water with 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [OMIM][BF4] at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Matthew; Syres, Karen L; Jones, Robert G

    2017-09-20

    The interactions between three small molecules, water (H2O), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and acetone ((CH3)2CO), with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [OMIM][BF4], have been determined using line of sight temperature programmed desorption (LOSTPD) from a gold surface. Multilayers of the IL were deposited by physical vapour deposition with multilayers of the small molecular species (adsorbed from the gas phase) at 90 K. LOSTPD was then carried out with the small molecular species desorbing first from the mixed multilayer, followed at higher temperatures by desorption of the IL from the gold surface. The IL had a high activation energy for desorption of 126(6) kJ mol(-1). Pure acetone showed a desorption activation energy of 38(2) kJ mol(-1), which increased to 45-61 kJ mol(-1) when it was pre-adsorbed below an overlying porous layer of the ionic liquid at 90 K. The stabilised acetone is thought to be associated with pores containing ionic moieties. Destabilised acetone was also observed and thought to originate from pores containing octyl chains. The quantity of stabilised acetone scaled with the amount of IL, being ≈1.1 molecules per IL ion pair. SO2 and H2O were co-adsorbed with the IL at 90 K leading to an intimate mixture of the two. For pure SO2 the desorption energy was 32(2) kJ mol(-1), which increased to 40-52 kJ mol(-1) for relative concentrations up to 6 SO2 molecules per IL ion pair. For pure water the activation energies were 49(5) kJ mol(-1) and 43(1) kJ mol(-1) for amorphous and crystalline ice respectively. When co-adsorbed with the IL the stabilisation energies were 42-49 kJ mol(-1), but up to 505 water molecules per IL ion pair could be stabilised to some degree. The desorption mechanisms and the reasons for these interactions are discussed.

  5. [Recommendations for Releasing the Pelvic Binder After a Non-Invasive Pelvic Stabilisation Procedure Under Emergency Room Conditions].

    PubMed

    Schweigkofler, U; Wohlrath, B; Paffrath, T; Flohé, S; Wincheringer, D; Hoffmann, R; Trentzsch, H

    2016-10-01

    Severe brain, thoracic and intrapelvic injuries, as well as heavy bleeding, are the main causes of death in patients with major trauma. Unstable pelvic ring fractures can cause this bleeding and the so-called "C problem". This is usually due to haemorrhagic shock caused by the loss of large volumes of blood from the presacral venous plexus, iliac vessels and the fracture surfaces. Many clinical studies have shown that, in the preclinical setting, unstable pelvic ring injuries are often underestimated. The application of a non-invasive external pelvic ring stabilisation (pelvic binder) is therefore recommended if a pelvic fracture is possible. Several circumferential pelvic binders have been developed and their prehospital use is increasing. Clinical and biomechanical studies have demonstrated that there is a favourable haemodynamic effect in unstable fractures, due to rapid closure of the pelvic ring. It is unclear whether the pelvic binder can be safely removed in a presumably haemodynamically stable patient. A correctly placed pelvic binder leads to anatomical closure of the pelvic ring. Therefore unstable pelvic ring fractures may be clinically and radiologically overlooked. This is a particular problem in unconscious patients. Furthermore, the real severity of the injury may then be underestimated in the diagnostic evaluation. Unconsidered opening of the pelvic binder can thus provoke renewed deterioration of the circulatory situation, especially if the injury was adequately treated by the binder and the C problem was controlled. The aim of this article is to describe procedures for handling pelvic binders, particularly as to how to deal with an already applied pelvic binder and how to "clear the pelvic region" while reducing the risk of haemodynamic instability. A detailed analysis of the literature and a Delphi-like discussion among several experts were performed. The following points were raised: 1) Assessment of the clinical situation, including trauma

  6. Atmospheric isoprene ozonolysis: impacts of stabilised Criegee intermediate reactions with SO2, H2O and dimethyl sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newland, M. J.; Rickard, A. R.; Vereecken, L.; Muñoz, A.; Ródenas, M.; Bloss, W. J.

    2015-08-01

    Isoprene is the dominant global biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission. Reactions of isoprene with ozone are known to form stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs), which have recently been shown to be potentially important oxidants for SO2 and NO2 in the atmosphere; however the significance of this chemistry for SO2 processing (affecting sulfate aerosol) and NO2 processing (affecting NOx levels) depends critically upon the fate of the SCIs with respect to reaction with water and decomposition. Here, we have investigated the removal of SO2 in the presence of isoprene and ozone, as a function of humidity, under atmospheric boundary layer conditions. The SO2 removal displays a clear dependence on relative humidity, confirming a significant reaction for isoprene-derived SCIs with H2O. Under excess SO2 conditions, the total isoprene ozonolysis SCI yield was calculated to be 0.56 (±0.03). The observed SO2 removal kinetics are consistent with a relative rate constant, k(SCI + H2O) / k(SCI + SO2), of 3.1 (±0.5) × 10-5 for isoprene-derived SCIs. The relative rate constant for k(SCI decomposition) / k(SCI+SO2) is 3.0 (±3.2) × 1011 cm-3. Uncertainties are ±2σ and represent combined systematic and precision components. These kinetic parameters are based on the simplification that a single SCI species is formed in isoprene ozonolysis, an approximation which describes the results well across the full range of experimental conditions. Our data indicate that isoprene-derived SCIs are unlikely to make a substantial contribution to gas-phase SO2 oxidation in the troposphere. We also present results from an analogous set of experiments, which show a clear dependence of SO2 removal in the isoprene-ozone system as a function of dimethyl sulfide concentration. We propose that this behaviour arises from a rapid reaction between isoprene-derived SCIs and dimethyl sulfide (DMS); the observed SO2 removal kinetics are consistent with a relative rate constant, k(SCI + DMS

  7. Evaluation of Streck BCT and PAXgene Stabilised Blood Collection Tubes for Cell-Free Circulating DNA Studies in Plasma.

    PubMed

    Warton, Kristina; Yuwono, Nicole L; Cowley, Mark J; McCabe, Mark J; So, Alwin; Ford, Caroline E

    2017-06-19

    Blood samples for studies of circulating DNA in disease are often collected in clinical settings where prompt processing of samples is not possible. In order to avoid problems associated with leukocyte lysis after prolonged blood storage, stabilised blood tubes have been developed containing preservatives that prevent cell lysis. We evaluated Streck BCT tubes and PAXgene ccfDNA tubes, as well as standard EDTA blood collection tubes, in terms of DNA yield and fragment size. Blood was collected in EDTA, Streck BCT or PAXgene ccfDNA tubes and stored for 1 h at 4 °C, or 4 days at room temperature. DNA was extracted using the QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acids kit, and visualised on an agarose gel or quantitated by qPCR. Ratios of a 247-base and a 115-base amplicon of the Alu repetitive element were used to infer size distribution. While plasma DNA in EDTA tube blood samples increased by ~10- to 20-fold after 4 days of storage at room temperature, both Streck BCT tubes and PAXgene ccfDNA tubes maintained stable plasma DNA concentrations. A slight decrease in DNA yield following 1 h of blood storage at 4 °C was observed in Streck BCT and PAXgene ccfDNA tubes relative to EDTA tubes. This decrease was reversed by increasing the proteinase digest step of the DNA extraction protocol to 60 min, as recommended by Streck tube product literature. Visualisation of the extracted DNA on an agarose gel showed that after 4 days of room temperature storage, samples collected in EDTA tubes contained abundant high-molecular weight DNA, which was partially fragmented in a ladder pattern. A slight increase in high-molecular weight DNA in samples stored for 4 days at room temperature in Streck BCT tubes was also observed, but this was not reflected in a change in large and small Alu fragment ratios as measured by qPCR. Tubes containing preservative to prevent cell lysis can extend the scope for blood collection in clinical settings; however, slight differences between samples

  8. Spinal segmental stabilisation exercises for chronic low back pain: programme adherence and its influence on clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Helbling, Daniel; Pulkovski, Natascha; Sprott, Haiko

    2009-01-01

    Exercise rehabilitation is one of the few evidence-based treatments for chronic non-specific low back pain (cLBP), but individual success is notoriously variable and may depend on the patient’s adherence to the prescribed exercise regime. This prospective study examined factors associated with adherence and the relationship between adherence and outcome after a programme of physiotherapeutic spine stabilisation exercises. A total of 32/37 patients with cLBP completed the study (mean age, 44.0 (SD = 12.3) years; 11/32 (34%) male). Adherence to the 9-week programme was documented as: percent attendance at therapy, percent adherence to daily home exercises (patient diary) and percent commitment to rehabilitation (Sports Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale (SIRAS)). The average of these three measures formed a multidimensional adherence index (MAI). Psychological disturbance, fear-avoidance beliefs, catastrophising, exercise self-efficacy and health locus of control were measured by questionnaire; disability in everyday activities was scored with the Roland–Morris disability scale and back pain intensity with a 0–10 graphic rating scale. Overall, adherence to therapy was very good (average MAI score, 85%; median (IQR), 89 (15)%). The only psychological/beliefs variable showing a unique significant association with MAI was exercise self-efficacy (Rho = 0.36, P = 0.045). Pain intensity and self-rated disability decreased significantly after therapy (each P < 0.01). Adherence to home exercises showed a moderate, positive correlation with the reduction in average pain (Rho = 0.54, P = 0.003) and disability (Rho = 0.38, P = 0.036); higher MAI scores were associated with greater reductions in average pain (Rho = 0.48, P = 0.008) and a (n.s.) tendency for greater reductions in disability (Rho = 0.32, P = 0.07) Neither attendance at therapy nor SIRAS were significantly related to any of the outcomes. The benefits of rehabilitation depended to a

  9. Population stabilisation: intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses family planning (FP) program failures, the need for a paradigm change, and new interventions and recommendations. India has failed to significantly change the pattern of population growth. The FP program has failed due to its inability to eliminate illiteracy, to meet the minimum needs of the people, and to communicate with people effectively about health and FP. Four states in India have a particularly serious problem with rapid population growth: Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Bihar states, which have 40% of total population and 48% of total illiterate population. In 1993, the Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare appointed a group (Swaminathan Committee) to draft a population policy. The 1994 draft policy emphasized balancing population with the carrying capacity of available land and water supplies; decentralizing; and fulfilling the needs of the people. A new agency was to be formed: the Population and Social Development Commission. A new financing unit was to be established: the Population and Social Development Fund. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare was to be restructured. The draft program suggested the integration of FP with maternal and child health care and immunization. In 1996, the Department of Family Welfare offered a Statement that ignored many of the provisions of the Swaminathan Committee, but did include the elimination of targets and the promotion of the 2-child family norm. It is recommended that the 1996 Policy Statement be ignored and the Swaminathan Committee draft policy be resurrected.

  10. Stabilising Fragile States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    benefits of government—and to douse attempts by spoilers to fan grievances into a blaze of dissatisfaction .   The upshot is that there is a...there is less awareness of the steps needed to boost employment. Large-scale, labour -intensive, public-sector work programmes are the most...benefits. The tasks undertaken in public works schemes will normally be fairly straightforward labour -intensive roles (e.g., collecting garbage

  11. Geotechnical and mineralogical characterisations of marine-dredged sediments before and after stabilisation to optimise their use as a road material.

    PubMed

    Saussaye, L; van Veen, E; Rollinson, G; Boutouil, M; Andersen, J; Coggan, J

    2017-02-15

    Dredging activities to extend, deepen and maintain access to harbours generate significant volumes of waste dredged material. Some ways are investigated to add value to these sediments. One solution described here is their use in road construction following treatment with hydraulic binders. This paper presents the characterisation of four sediments, in their raw state and after 90 days of curing following stabilisation treatment with lime and cement, using a combination of novel and established analytical techniques to investigate subsequent changes in mineralogy. These sediments are classified as fine, moderately to highly organic and highly plastic and their behaviour is linked to the presence of smectite clays. The main minerals found in the sediments using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and automated mineralogy are quartz, calcite, feldspars, aluminium silicates, pyrite and halite. Stabilisation was found to improve the mechanical performances of all the sediments. The formation of cementitious hydrates was not specifically detected using automated mineralogy or XRD. However, a decrease in the percentage volume of aluminium silicates and aluminium-iron silicates and an increase of the percentage volume of feldspars and carbonates was observed.

  12. Lithium choreography: intramolecular arylations of carbamate-stabilised carbanions and their mechanisms probed by in situ IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Anne M; Nichols, Christopher J; Vincent, Mark A; Hillier, Ian H; Clayden, Jonathan

    2012-12-14

    Deprotonation of O-allyl, O-propargyl or O-benzyl carbamates in the presence of a lithium counterion leads to carbamate-stabilised organolithium compounds that may be quenched with electrophiles. We now report that when the allylic, propargylic or benzylic carbamate bears an N-aryl substituent, an aryl migration takes place, leading to stereochemical inversion and C-arylation of the carbamate α to oxygen. The aryl migration is an intramolecular S(N) Ar reaction, despite the lack of anion-stabilising aryl substituents. Our in situ IR studies reveal a number of intermediates along the rearrangement pathway, including a "pre-lithiation complex," the deprotonated carbamate, the rearranged anion, and the final arylated carbamate. No evidence was obtained for a dearomatised intermediate during the aryl migration. DFT calculations predict that during the reaction the solvated Li cation moves from the carbanion centre, thus freeing its lone pair for nucleophilic attack on the remote phenyl ring. This charge separation leads to several alternative conformations. The one having Li(+) bound to the carbamate oxygen gives rise to the lowest-energy transition structure, and also leads to inversion of the configuration. In agreement with the IR studies, the DFT calculations fail to locate a dearomatised intermediate. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. "Hummingbird" behaviour of N-heterocyclic carbenes stabilises out-of-plane bonding of AuCl and CuCl units.

    PubMed

    Teci, Matthieu; Brenner, Eric; Matt, Dominique; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Toupet, Loic

    2015-07-27

    An N-heterocyclic carbene substituted by two expanded 9-ethyl-9-fluorenyl groups was shown to bind an AuCl unit in an unusual manner, namely with the AuX rod sitting out of the plane defined by the heterocyclic carbene unit. As shown by X-ray studies and DFT calculations, the observed large pitch angle (21°) arises from an easy displacement of the gold(I) atom away from the carbene lone-pair axis, combined with the stabilisation provided by weak CH⋅⋅⋅Au interactions involving aliphatic and aromatic H atoms of the NHC wingtips. Weak, intermolecular Cl⋅⋅⋅H bonds are likely to cooperate with the H⋅⋅⋅Au interactions to stabilise the out-of-plane conformation. A general belief until now was that tilt angles in NHC complexes arise mainly from steric effects within the first coordination sphere. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Arthroscopic stabilisation of an acute acromioclavicular dislocation grade III in a patient with ectopic insertion of the pectoralis minor: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Minuesa-Asensio, Alvaro; Barrio-Asensio, Carmen; González-Gómez, Ignacio; Murillo-González, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The different approaches used in arthroscopic stabilisation of the acromioclavicular joint are well known. However, and despite a great incidence of ectopic pectoralis minor insertion, an alternative choice for the use of arthroscopic portal has not being sufficiently described. Here, we describe a case of acute acromioclavicular dislocation grade III. The arthroscopic stabilisation was achieved using the TightRope (Arthrex, Naples, USA) implant. Through this technique, the approach to the articular portion of the coracoid process can be made intra-articularly or from the subacromial space. We accessed intra-articularly, by opening the rotator interval to reach the coracoid process from the joint cavity. After opening the rotator interval, an ectopic insertion of the pectoralis minor was observed. The choice of approach of the coracoid process from the subacromial space would have complicated the intervention, making it necessary to sever the ectopic tendon to complete the technique, lengthening the surgical time and increasing the chance of complications. For this reason, the use of a standard posterior portal providing intra-articular arthroscopic access through the rotator interval is recommended since the aforementioned anatomical variation is not infrequent. Level of evidence Therapeutic studies-investigating the results of treatment, Level V.

  15. Restoring the anatomical tibial slope and limb axis may maximise post-operative flexion in posterior-stabilised total knee replacements.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Tan, J H; Sng, B Y; Awiszus, F; Lohmann, C H; Nathan, S S

    2013-10-01

    The optimal management of the tibial slope in achieving a high flexion angle in posterior-stabilised (PS) total knee replacement (TKR) is not well understood, and most studies evaluating the posterior tibial slope have been conducted on cruciate-retaining TKRs. We analysed pre- and post-operative tibial slope differences, pre- and post-operative coronal knee alignment and post-operative maximum flexion angle in 167 patients undergoing 209 TKRs. The mean pre-operative posterior tibial slope was 8.6° (1.3° to 17°) and post-operatively it was 8.0° (0.1° to 16.7°). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the absolute difference between pre- and post-operative tibial slope (p < 0.001), post-operative coronal alignment (p = 0.02) and pre-operative range of movement (p < 0.001) predicted post-operative flexion. The variance of change in tibial slope became larger as the post-operative maximum flexion angle decreased. The odds ratio of having a post-operative flexion angle < 100° was 17.6 if the slope change was > 2°. Our data suggest that recreation of the anatomical tibial slope appears to improve maximum flexion after posterior-stabilised TKR, provided coronal alignment has been restored.

  16. Evaluation of morphology, aggregation pattern and size-dependent drug-loading efficiency of gold nanoparticles stabilised with poly (2-vinyl pyridine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Sana; Ali, Syed Abid; Ahmed, Farid; Imran, Muhammad; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Malik, Muhammad Imran

    2017-07-01

    Presence of basic nitrogen throughout the chain of poly(2-vinylpyridine) make them alluring candidate for applications requiring chelation of heavy metals. In this study, we report the use of poly (2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) homopolymers of varying molar masses for the stabilization of gold nanoparticles for the first time. A study based on AFM, DLS and UV-visible spectroscopy was conducted to establish a correlation of the molar mass of P2VP with the size and distribution of the gold nanoparticles. Systematic and gradual change in the absorbance intensity and shift in SPR band of gold nanoparticles were also observed upon variations in treatment temperature, concentration of polymer, residence time, pH, and electrolyte concentration. The results obtained by UV-visible spectroscopy, AFM and DLS are complementary. The size of the P2VP-stabilised AuNPs was found to be in the range of 20-130 nms. At last, the effect of the size of P2VP-stabilised AuNPs (directly related to the molar mass of P2VP) on the drug-loading efficiency is evaluated. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Stabilisation of Fe2O3-rich Perovskite Nanophase in Epitaxial Rare-earth Doped BiFeO3 Films

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huairuo; Reaney, Ian M.; Marincel, Daniel M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Ramasse, Quentin M.; MacLaren, Ian; Findlay, Scott D.; Fraleigh, Robert D.; Ross, Ian M.; Hu, Shunbo; Ren, Wei; Mark Rainforth, W.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that BiFeO3 exhibits ferroelectric hysteresis but none have shown a strong ferromagnetic response in either bulk or thin film without significant structural or compositional modification. When remanent magnetisations are observed in BiFeO3 based thin films, iron oxide second phases are often detected. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic resolution electron energy loss spectrum-mapping and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, we reveal the existence of a new Fe2O3-rich perovskite nanophase, with an approximate formula (Fe0.6Bi0.25Nd0.15)3+ Fe3+O3, formed within epitaxial Ti and Nd doped BiFeO3 perovskite films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The incorporation of Nd and Bi ions on the A-site and coherent growth with the matrix stabilise the Fe2O3-rich perovskite phase and preliminary density functional theory calculations suggest that it should have a ferrimagnetic response. Perovskite-structured Fe2O3 has been reported previously but never conclusively proven when fabricated at high-pressure high-temperature. This work suggests the incorporation of large A-site species may help stabilise perovskite-structured Fe2O3. This finding is therefore significant not only to the thin film but also to the high-pressure community. PMID:26272264

  18. Placement of Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway Is Easier than Placement of Laryngeal Tube during Manual In-Line Stabilisation of The Neck

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, R.; Nagata, O.; Kamata, K.; Yamagata, K.; Sessler, D.I.; Ozaki, M.

    2005-01-01

    Summary We compared the usefulness of the laryngeal tube (LT) with the intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) in 51 patients whose necks were stabilised by manual in-line traction. After induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular block, the LT and ILMA were inserted consecutively in a randomised, crossover design. During pressure-controlled ventilation (20 cmH2O inspiratory pressure), we measured insertion attempts, time to establish positive-pressure ventilation, tidal volume, gastric insufflation, and minimum airway pressure at which gas leaked around the cuff. Data were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests; P<0.05 was considered significant. Insertion was more difficult with the LT (successful at first attempt in 16 patients) than with the ILMA (successful at first attempt in 42 patients, P<0.0001). Time required for insertion was longer for the LT (28 [23–35] sec, median [interquartile range]) than the ILMA (20 [15–25] sec, P=0.0009). Tidal volume was less for the LT (440 [290–670] ml) than the ILMA. (630 [440–750] ml, P=0.013). Minimum airway pressure at which gas leak occurred and incidence of gastric insufflation were similar with two devices. In patients whose necks were stabilised with manual in-line traction, insertion of the ILMA was easier and quicker than insertion of the LT and tidal volume was greater with the ILMA than the LT. PMID:15644005

  19. Bioaccumulation of metals in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) following the application of lime stabilised, thermally dried and anaerobically digested sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Healy, M G; Ryan, P C; Fenton, O; Peyton, D P; Wall, D P; Morrison, L

    2016-08-01

    The uptake and accumulation of metals in plants is a potential pathway for the transfer of environmental contaminants in the food chain, and poses potential health and environmental risks. In light of increased population growth and urbanisation, the safe disposal of sewage sludge, which can contain significant levels of toxic contaminants, remains an environmental challenge globally. The aims of this experiment were to apply municipal sludge, having undergone treatment by thermal drying, anaerobic digestion, and lime stabilisation, to permanent grassland in order to assess the bioaccumulation of metals (B, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Nb, Mo, Sb, Ba, W, Pb, Fe, Cd) by perennial ryegrass over a period of up to 18 weeks after application. The legislation currently prohibits use of grassland for fodder or grazing for at least three weeks after application of treated sewage sludge (biosolids). Five treatments were used: thermally dried (TD), anaerobically digested (AD) and lime stabilised (LS) sludge all from one wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), AD sludge from another WWTP, and a study control (grassland only, without application of biosolids). In general, there was no significant difference in metal content of the ryegrass between micro-plots that received treated municipal sludge and the control over the study duration. The metal content of the ryegrass was below the levels at which phytotoxicity occurs and below the maximum levels specified for animal feeds.

  20. Stabilisation of Fe2O3-rich Perovskite Nanophase in Epitaxial Rare-earth Doped BiFeO3 Films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huairuo; Reaney, Ian M; Marincel, Daniel M; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Ramasse, Quentin M; MacLaren, Ian; Findlay, Scott D; Fraleigh, Robert D; Ross, Ian M; Hu, Shunbo; Ren, Wei; Rainforth, W Mark

    2015-08-14

    Researchers have demonstrated that BiFeO3 exhibits ferroelectric hysteresis but none have shown a strong ferromagnetic response in either bulk or thin film without significant structural or compositional modification. When remanent magnetisations are observed in BiFeO3 based thin films, iron oxide second phases are often detected. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic resolution electron energy loss spectrum-mapping and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, we reveal the existence of a new Fe2O3-rich perovskite nanophase, with an approximate formula (Fe0.6Bi0.25Nd0.15)(3+) Fe(3+)O3, formed within epitaxial Ti and Nd doped BiFeO3 perovskite films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The incorporation of Nd and Bi ions on the A-site and coherent growth with the matrix stabilise the Fe2O3-rich perovskite phase and preliminary density functional theory calculations suggest that it should have a ferrimagnetic response. Perovskite-structured Fe2O3 has been reported previously but never conclusively proven when fabricated at high-pressure high-temperature. This work suggests the incorporation of large A-site species may help stabilise perovskite-structured Fe2O3. This finding is therefore significant not only to the thin film but also to the high-pressure community.

  1. Effectiveness of chemical amendments for stabilisation of lead and antimony in risk-based land management of soils of shooting ranges.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to examine the effectiveness of amendments for risk-based land management of shooting range soils and to explore the effectiveness of amendments applied to sites with differing soil physiochemical parameters. A series of amendments with differing mechanisms for stabilisation were applied to four shooting range soils and aged for 1 year. Chemical stabilisation was monitored by pore water extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) over 1 year. The performance of amendments when applied in conditions reflecting field application did not match the performance in the batch studies. Pore water-extractable metals were not greatly affected by amendment addition. TCLP-extractable Pb was reduced significantly by amendments, particularly lime and magnesium oxide. Antimony leaching was reduced by red mud but mobilised by some of the other amendments. Bioaccessible Pb measured by PBET shows that bioaccessible Pb increased with time after an initial decrease due to the presence of metallic fragments in the soil. Amendments were able to reduce bioaccessible Pb by up to 50 %. Bioaccessible Sb was not readily reduced by soil amendments. Soil amendments were not equally effective across the four soils.

  2. [Stabilisation therapy as an answer to complex post-traumatic stress disorder. Diagnosis, treatment and research in women abused in childhood with a complex post-traumatic stress disorder].

    PubMed

    Dorrepaal, E; Thomaes, K; Draijer, P J

    2006-01-01

    Complex post-traumatic stress disorder resulting from traumatic experiences in childhood includes not only the customary post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms such as intrusions, avoidance and hyperarousal, but it also includes affect-dysregulation, dissociation, problems with self-image, relationships, interpretation and somatisation. The specialist literature expresses some support for stabilisation treatment. Preliminary results of a pilot study that evaluated a stabilisation course with a psycho-educational and cognitive behavioural content indicate that a course of that kind, if linked to research, is both feasible and effective. We therefore believe that further research by means of a randomized controlled trial is warranted.

  3. Characterization of mudstone, clayey rock and argillite towards stabilisation of boreholes by developing new drilling strategies for geothermal resources exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witthaus, M.; Lempp, Ch.; Röckel, Th.; Hecht, Ch.; Herold, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, relating to the BMU Project „ borehole stabilisation as an important factor for the utilization of deep geothermal resources" (Project No. 0327594), sediment rocks with comparable lithology to the pelite beds of the Upper Rhine zone were investigated by a number of geomechanical tests. The investigation will provide detailed information on the geomechanical behaviour (brittle and ductile deformation) of clay stone formations in order to find out critical reasons for the instability of boreholes at a depth of about 2000 m. The main aspect of the study is to develop improved technical options in order to increase borehole stability. Many geothermal energy projects started near the Upper Rhine Rift in order to produce electricity, as the geothermal gradient rises there to about 150° C at 3 - 4 km depth. For these enhanced geothermal systems it is necessary to drill deep boreholes to install geothermal heat exchangers, so that the injected cold water conducts the high temperature of the rocks (Hot Dry Rock-Technology). The drillings have to be intersected through different rock layers that are influenced by varying regional stress fields respective to their depth. Between depths of 1500 to 2000 m within the Upper Rhine zone some of the drilled boreholes were in some parts very unstable, especially in formations where mud- and clay stones were dominant, as well as in interbedded strata with sandstones. As the maximum load capacity of these clays is very low and due to their ductile as well as brittle deformation behaviour, borehole convergence and borehole breakouts are detected. These changes were also caused by deep injection of drilling fluid into the rock formation, increasing the pore pressure there, so that hydraulic tension cracks were induced (hydraulic fracturing). This occurred mainly during drilling and it is the reason why there is an imminent risk of the stability of geothermal boreholes in geological formations composed of mudstones, clay

  4. Spine stabilisation exercises in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a good clinical outcome is not associated with improved abdominal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Mannion, A F; Caporaso, F; Pulkovski, N; Sprott, H

    2012-07-01

    Various studies have shown that spine stabilisation exercise therapy elicits improvements in symptoms/disability in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain (cLBP). However, few have corroborated the intended mechanism of action by examining whether clinical improvements (1) are greater in patients with functional deficits of the targeted muscles and (2) correlate with post-treatment improvements in abdominal muscle function. Pre and directly after 9 weeks' therapy, 32 cLBP patients (44.0 ± 12.3 years) rated their LBP intensity (0-10) and disability (0-24, Roland-Morris; RM) and completed psychological questionnaires. At the same timepoints, the voluntary activation of transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus and obliquus externus during "abdominal-hollowing" and the anticipatory ("feedforward") activation of these muscles during rapid arm movements were measured using M-mode ultrasound with tissue Doppler imaging. Pre-therapy to post-therapy, RM decreased from 8.9 ± 4.7 to 6.7 ± 4.3, and average pain, from 4.7 ± 1.7 to 3.5 ± 2.3 (each P < 0.01). The ability to voluntarily activate TrA increased by 4.5% (P = 0.045) whilst the anticipatory activation of the lateral abdominal muscles showed no significant change (P > 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the change in RM scores after therapy and either baseline values for voluntary (r = 0.24, P = 0.20) or anticipatory activation (r = 0.04, P = 0.84), or their changes after therapy (voluntary, r = 0.08, P = 0.66; anticipatory, r = 0.16, P = 0.40). In multiple regression, only a reduction in catastrophising (P = 0.0003) and in fingertip-floor distance (P = 0.0006) made unique contributions to explaining the variance in the reduction in RM scores. Neither baseline lateral abdominal muscle function nor its improvement after a programme of stabilisation exercises was a statistical predictor of a good clinical outcome. It is hence difficult to attribute the therapeutic result to any

  5. Longitudinally diode-pumped 1.06-{mu}m Nd{sup 3+}:NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} laser without pump-wavelength stabilisation

    SciTech Connect

    Zharikov, Evgeny V; Lis, Denis A; Subbotin, Kirill A; Ushakov, S N; Onishchenko, A M; Romanyuk, V A; Shestakov, A V

    2006-01-31

    The spectral and lasing characteristics of a Nd{sup 3+}:NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystal longitudinally diode-pumped without pump-wavelength stabilisation are studied. A variation in the output power did not exceed 30% when the pump wavelength was changed in the spectral region from 0.794 to 0.811 {mu}m. (lasers)

  6. Open reduction and stabilisation of coxofemoral joint luxation in dogs and cats, using a stainless steel rope inserted via a ventral approach to the hip joint.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, T; Niiyama, M; Taniyama, H

    1996-12-01

    Open reduction and stabilisation of coxofemoral joint luxation was made via a ventral approach to the hip joint in dogs and cats, using a transarticular stainless steel rope. A feature of the procedure is transarticular penetration of the rope from the pelvic cavity to the femoral neck by guidance with a guide wire which was previously inserted from the femoral neck into the pelvic cavity and by detection of the guide wire in the pelvic cavity by use of forceps connected to an alarm-ohmmeter. Forty-seven animals (37 dogs and 10 cats) with acute and simple coxofemoral luxation were treated and postoperatively maintained in cage rest without external fixation. Most of the animals regained an almost normal gait within several days.

  7. Highly efficient stabilisation of meta-ethynylpyridine polymers with amide side chains in water by coordination of rare-earth metals.

    PubMed

    Makida, Hiroki; Abe, Hajime; Inouye, Masahiko

    2015-02-14

    An amphiphilic meta-ethynylpyridine polymer with chiral amide side chains was developed. The polymer was prepared by sequential Sonogashira reactions, and the product was soluble in polar and apolar solvents. The additive effects of metal salts on the polymer were examined in water and aqueous EtOH on the basis of UV-vis and CD spectra. The enhancement of the positive Cotton effect and hypochromism around 360 nm occurred by the addition of various metal salts, indicating the coordination of the cations to the amide side chains of the polymer to stabilise the helical structure. Among them, rare-earth metal salts, especially Sc(OTf)3 showed more efficient additive effects probably because of its strong coordination ability even in water. Positive cooperativity was observed for the coordination of Sc(OTf)3 to the polymer in aqueous EtOH.

  8. Non-resonant wavelength modulation saturation spectroscopy in acetylene-filled hollow-core photonic bandgap fibres applied to modulation-free laser diode stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Vadillo, Pablo; Lynch, Michael; Charlton, Christy; Donegan, John F; Weldon, Vincent

    2009-12-07

    In this paper the application of Wavelength Modulation (WM) techniques to non-resonant saturation spectroscopy in acetylene-filled Hollow-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibres (HC-PBFs) and modulation-free Laser Diode (LD) frequency stabilisation is investigated. In the first part WM techniques are applied to non-resonant pump-probe saturation of acetylene overtone rotational transitions in a HC-PBF. A high-power DFB chip-on-carrier mounted LD is used in conjunction with a tuneable External Cavity Laser (ECL) and the main saturation parameters are characterized. In the second part a novel feedback system to stabilize the DFB emission wavelength based on the WM saturation results is implemented. Modulation-free locking of the DFB laser frequency to the narrow linewidth saturation feature is achieved for both constant and variable LD temperatures.

  9. An investigation into artefacts formed during gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of firearms propellant that contains diphenylamine as the stabiliser.

    PubMed

    Pigou, Paul; Dennison, Genevieve H; Johnston, Martin; Kobus, Hilton

    2017-10-01

    In the course of providing assistance to legal counsel in a matter that involved the analysis of firearms propellant by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry it was noticed that phenoxazine was reported as a component of 0.22 calibre propellant that contained diphenylamine as the stabiliser. The research was conducted to find how phenoxazine was formed. The results showed that the compound was not phenoxazine but a diphenylamine derivative 4-(phenylimino) cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one that formed in the injection port of the gas chromatograph. In addition a second artefact was found to form in the ion source of the mass spectrometer. While the presence of the artefacts does not affect the ability to identify particles as propellant they may impact on comparison with source ammunition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. On the use of the stabilised Q1P0 element for geodynamical simulations and why this is a bad choice for buyoancy-driven flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    Many Finite Element geodynamical codes (Fullsack,1995; Zhong et al., 2000; Thieulot, 2011) are based on bi/tri­-linear velocity constant pressure element (commonly called Q1P0), because of its ease of programming and rather low memory footprint, despite the presence of (pressure) checker­board modes. However, it is long known that the Q1P0 is not inf­-sup stable and does not lend itself to the use of iterative solvers, which makes it a less­ than­ ideal candidate for high resolution 3D models. Other attempts were made more recently (Burstedde et al., 2013; Le Pourhiet et al., 2012) with the use of the stabilised Q1Q1 element (bi/tri­-linear velocity and pressure). This element, while also attractive from an implementation and memory standpoint, suffers a major drawback due to the artificial compressibility introduced by the polynomial projection stabilization. These observations have shifted part of the community towards the Finite Difference Method while the remaining part is now embracing inf­sup stable second­ order elements [May et al., 2015; Kronbichler,2012). Rather surprinsingly, a third option exists when it comes to first ­order elements in the form of the stabilised Q1P0 element, but virtually no literature exists concerning its use for geodynamical applications. I will then recall the specificity of the stabilisation and will carry out a series of benchmark experiments and geodynamical tests to assess its performance. While being shown to work as expected in benchmark experiments, the stabilised Q1P0 element turns out to introduce first-order numerical artefacts in the velocity and pressure solutions in the case of buoyancy-driven flows. Burstedde, C., Stadler, G., Alisic, L., Wilcox, L. C., Tan, E., Gurnis, M., & Ghattas, O. (2013). Large­scale adaptive mantle convection simulation. Geophysical Journal International, 192(3), 889­906. Fullsack, P. (1995). An arbitrary Lagrangian­Eulerian formulation for creeping flows and its application in

  11. Stabilisation of tetravalent cerium in perchloric acid medium and measurement of the stability constants of its fluoride complexes using ion selective potentiometry.

    PubMed

    Sawant, R M; Rastogi, R K; Mahajan, M A; Chaudhuri, N K

    1996-01-01

    The stability constants of the fluoride complexes of cerium(IV) in 1 M (HClO(4), NaClO(4)) medium have been measured potentiometrically using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Quantitative oxidation of cerium to its tetravalent state and its stabilisation in the perchlorate medium were accomplished by oxidation with AgO followed by quick addition of a known amount of fluoride ion. This procedure ensures stability of the oxidation state and prevents hydrolysis and polymerisation of Ce(IV). Logarithms of the average values of beta(1), beta(2), beta(3) and beta(4) were estimated to be 7.57+/-0.04, 14.50+/-0.03, 20.13+/-0.37 and 24.14+/-0.10 respectively.

  12. Treatment of temporomandibular disorders with a combination of hard acrylic stabilisation appliance and a soft appliance in the opposing jaw. A retro- and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Erik; Nilsson, Håkan; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment effect of a combined treatment with a stabilisation appliance and a soft appliance in the opposing jaw in patients refractory to previous TMD treatment. During a 5-year-period, 2001-2005, a total of 98 patients received the combined treatment at the Department of Stomatognathic Physiology, the Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden. Before the patients received the combined treatment, they had already been given several different TMD treatments during a long period of time, either before referral or at the specialist clinic, with only minor or no effect on their TMD symptoms. The patients were followed prospectively (n=10), or analysed retrospectively (n=88). The data registered were gender, age, main indication for TMD treatment, number of visits to the clinic before and after the introduction of the combined treatment, as well as according to a clinical (Di) and anamnestic (Ai) dysfunction index. The most common causes for treatment in the retrospective material were problems of muscular origin and problems of both muscular and TMJ origin. In the prospective material, most of the patients had mainly muscular symptoms. Both the clinical and anamnestic dysfunction index decreased statistically significantly in the retrospective material after the introduction of the combined treatment. There was a numerical improvement of both indices also in the prospective material. In conclusion, the present investigation showed that a combined treatment with a hard acrylic stabilisation appliance and a soft appliance in the opposing jaw seems to give a remarkable improvement of TMD signs and symptoms in apparently therapy resistant TMD patients. General conclusions should, however, be made with caution due to the fact that the study did not include any control group. There is an obvious need for randomized controlled studies concerning the efficacy and effectiveness of the combined treatment presented

  13. Decreased prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia and stabilisation of obesity trends in 5-year-old children: possible effects of changed public health policies.

    PubMed

    Sedej, Katarina; Kotnik, Primož; Avbelj Stefanija, Magdalena; Grošelj, Urh; Širca Čampa, Andreja; Lusa, Lara; Battelino, Tadej; Bratina, Nataša

    2014-02-01

    Overweight/obesity in children is a worldwide public health problem. Together with hypercholesterolaemia they are associated with early atherosclerotic complications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anthropometric characteristics and total cholesterol (TC) levels in a population of 5-year-old children, to determine trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypercholesterolaemia in 5-year-old children over a period of 8 years (2001-2009) and to assess the impact of modified national nutritional guidelines for kindergartens implemented in 2005. Cross-sectional studies of overweight/obesity prevalence in the years 2001, 2003-2005 and 2009, and hypercholesterolaemia in years 2001 and 2009, in 5-year-old children. Altogether, 12 832 (6308 girls/6524 boys) children were included. Overweight/obesity was defined by IOTF criteria. Hypercholesterolaemia was defined by TC level >5 mmol/l. Multivariable logistic regression models were used. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN BMI VALUES AND TC LEVELS WAS FOUND. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY PREVALENCE WERE STABILISED FROM 2001 TO 2009 (ODDS RATIO (OR) (95% CI): 1.13 (0.99-1.3) and 1.13 (0.89-1.42) respectively). Girls were more frequently overweight/obese than boys (OR (95% CI): 0.71 (0.65-0.79) and 0.75 (0.64-0.89) respectively). Prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 (OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.41-0.55)). It was less frequent in boys than in girls (OR (95% CI): O.7 (0.61-0.8)). This is the first study to describe a negative trend in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in pre-pubertal children. In addition, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in these children has been stabilised. Nationwide changes in public health policies could have influenced these observations.

  14. Enhancement of tetragonal anisotropy and stabilisation of the tetragonal phase by Bi/Mn-double-doping in BaTiO3 ferroelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yabuta, Hisato; Tanaka, Hidenori; Furuta, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Takayuki; Kubota, Makoto; Matsuda, Takanori; Ifuku, Toshihiro; Yoneda, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-03

    To stabilise ferroelectric-tetragonal phase of BaTiO3, the double-doping of Bi and Mn up to 0.5 mol% was studied. Upon increasing the Bi content in BaTiO3:Mn:Bi, the tetragonal crystal-lattice-constants a and c shrank and elongated, respectively, resulting in an enhancement of tetragonal anisotropy, and the temperature-range of the ferroelectric tetragonal phase expanded. X-ray absorption fine structure measurements confirmed that Bi and Mn were located at the A(Ba)-site and B(Ti)-site, respectively, and Bi was markedly displaced from the centrosymmetric position in the BiO12 cluster. This A-site substitution of Bi also caused fluctuations of B-site atoms. Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed a change in the Mn valence from +4 to +3 upon addition of the same molar amount of Bi as Mn, probably resulting from a compensating behaviour of the Mn at Ti(4+) sites for donor doping of Bi(3+) into the Ba(2+) site. Because addition of La(3+) instead of Bi(3+) showed neither the enhancement of the tetragonal anisotropy nor the stabilisation of the tetragonal phase, these phenomena in BaTiO3:Mn:Bi were not caused by the Jahn-Teller effect of Mn(3+) in the MnO6 octahedron, but caused by the Bi-displacement, probably resulting from the effect of the 6 s lone-pair electrons in Bi(3+).

  15. Kangaroo mother method: randomised controlled trial of an alternative method of care for stabilised low-birthweight infants. Maternidad Isidro Ayora Study Team.

    PubMed

    Sloan, N L; Camacho, L W; Rojas, E P; Stern, C

    1994-09-17

    Because resources for care of low-birthweight (LBW) infants in developing countries are scarce, the Kangaroo mother method (KMM) was developed. The infant is kept upright in skin-to-skin contact with the mother's breast. Previous studies reported several benefits with the KMM but interpretation of their findings is limited by small size and design weaknesses. We have done a longitudinal, randomised, controlled trial at the Isidro Ayora Maternity Hospital in Quito, Ecuador. Infants with LBW (< 2000 g) who satisfied out-of-risk criteria of tolerance of food and weight stabilisation were randomly assigned to KMM and control (standard incubator care) groups (n = 128 and 147, respectively). During 6 months of follow-up the KMM group had a significantly lower rate than the control group of serious illness (lower-respiratory-tract disorders, apnoea, aspiration, pneumonia, septicaemia, general infections; 7 [5%] vs 27 [18%], p < 0.002), although differences between the groups in less severe morbidity were not significant. There was no significant difference in growth or in the proportion of women breastfeeding, perhaps because the proportion breastfeeding was high in both groups owing to strong promotion. Mortality was the same in both groups; most deaths occurred during the stabilisation period before randomisation. KMM mothers made more unscheduled clinic visits than control mothers but their infants had fewer re-admissions and so the cost of care was lower with the KMM. Since the eligibility criteria excluded nearly 50% of LBW infants from the study, the KMM is not universally applicable to these infants. The benefits might be greater in populations where breastfeeding is not so common.

  16. Enhancement of tetragonal anisotropy and stabilisation of the tetragonal phase by Bi/Mn-double-doping in BaTiO3 ferroelectric ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Yabuta, Hisato; Tanaka, Hidenori; Furuta, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Takayuki; Kubota, Makoto; Matsuda, Takanori; Ifuku, Toshihiro; Yoneda, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    To stabilise ferroelectric-tetragonal phase of BaTiO3, the double-doping of Bi and Mn up to 0.5 mol% was studied. Upon increasing the Bi content in BaTiO3:Mn:Bi, the tetragonal crystal-lattice-constants a and c shrank and elongated, respectively, resulting in an enhancement of tetragonal anisotropy, and the temperature-range of the ferroelectric tetragonal phase expanded. X-ray absorption fine structure measurements confirmed that Bi and Mn were located at the A(Ba)-site and B(Ti)-site, respectively, and Bi was markedly displaced from the centrosymmetric position in the BiO12 cluster. This A-site substitution of Bi also caused fluctuations of B-site atoms. Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed a change in the Mn valence from +4 to +3 upon addition of the same molar amount of Bi as Mn, probably resulting from a compensating behaviour of the Mn at Ti4+ sites for donor doping of Bi3+ into the Ba2+ site. Because addition of La3+ instead of Bi3+ showed neither the enhancement of the tetragonal anisotropy nor the stabilisation of the tetragonal phase, these phenomena in BaTiO3:Mn:Bi were not caused by the Jahn-Teller effect of Mn3+ in the MnO6 octahedron, but caused by the Bi-displacement, probably resulting from the effect of the 6 s lone-pair electrons in Bi3+. PMID:28367973

  17. The effect of an external hip joint stabiliser on gait function after surgery for tumours located around the circumference of the pelvis: analysis of seven cases of internal hemipelvectomy or proximal femur resection.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Toru; Saita, Kazuo; Ogura, Koichi; Kawai, Akira; Imanishi, Jungo; Yazawa, Yasuo; Kawashima, Noritaka; Ogata, Toru

    2016-03-01

    Limb-sparing resection of malignant pelvic tumours provides the opportunity for patients to obtain better post-operative mobility. However, because few studies have examined in detail the gait function of patients following pelvic tumour resection, the factors affecting gait performance remain to be clarified. Here, with the laboratory-based computer-assisted gait analysis, we evaluated these patients' gait objectively and the impact of a hip-stabilising supporter on gait improvement was simultaneously examined. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed to obtain cross-sectional data for seven post-operative patients (mean age, 42.7 years; range, 20-61 years) who underwent various types of resection, including P1/4 internal hemipelvectomy (IH), P1/2/3 IH, and proximal femur resection with prosthetic reconstruction. To assess the immediate effects of a hip joint stabiliser, we instructed subjects to walk at their self-selected preferred speed and compared gait parameters with and without use of the hip stabiliser. At baseline, the average walking speed was 0.75 m/s (95% CI 0.53-0.97). As shown by the intra-subject comparison, the hip stabiliser increased walking speed in all but one subject, increasing both temporal and spatial parameters. Ground reaction force of operated limbs increased for some subjects, while step length increased on at least one side in all subjects. Improvement in the gait parameters is indicative of better control provided by the external hip stabiliser over the affected limb. Moreover, our findings show the potential of a biomechanical approach to improve gait function following pelvic tumour resection.

  18. Microbial carbon recycling: an underestimated process controlling soil carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basler, A.; Dippold, M.; Helfrich, M.; Dyckmans, J.

    2015-07-01

    The mean residence times (MRT) of different compound classes of soil organic matter (SOM) do not match their inherent recalcitrance to decomposition. One reason for this is the stabilisation within the soil matrix, but recycling, i.e. the reuse of "old" organic material to form new biomass may also play a role as it uncouples the residence times of organic matter from the lifetime of discrete molecules in soil. We analysed soil sugar dynamics in a natural 30 years old labelling experiment after a~wheat-maize vegetation change to determine the extent of recycling and stabilisation in plant and microbial derived sugars: while plant derived sugars are only affected by stabilisation processes, microbial sugars may be subject to both, stabilisation and recycling. To disentangle the dynamics of soil sugars, we separated different density fractions (free particulate organic matter (fPOM), light occluded particulate organic matter (≤1.6 g cm-3; oPOM1.6), dense occluded particulate organic matter (≤2 g cm-3; oPOM2) and mineral-associated organic matter (>2 g cm-3; Mineral)) of a~silty loam under long term wheat and maize cultivation. The isotopic signature of sugars was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC/IRMS), after hydrolysis with 4 M Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). While apparent mean residence times (MRT) of sugars were comparable to total organic carbon in the bulk soil and mineral fraction, the apparent MRT of sugars in the oPOM fractions were considerably lower than those of the total carbon of these fractions. This indicates that oPOM formation was fuelled by microbial activity feeding on new plant input. In the bulk soil, mean residence times of the mainly plant derived xylose (xyl) were significantly lower than those of mainly microbial derived sugars like galactose (gal), rhamnose (rha), fucose (fuc), indicating that recycling of organic matter is an important factor regulating organic matter dynamics

  19. Dynamics of ionisation and entanglement in the 'atom + quantum electromagnetic field' system

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapova, P R; Tikhonova, O V

    2012-03-31

    The dynamics of a model Rydberg atom in a strong nonclassical electromagnetic field is investigated. The field-induced transitions to the continuum involving different numbers of photons (with intermediate states in the discrete spectrum) are taken into account and the specific features of ionisation in 'squeezed' field states are considered in comparison with the case of classical light. A significant decrease in the ionisation rate is found, which is caused by the interference stabilisation of the atomic system. The entanglement of the atomic and field subsystems, the temporal dynamics of the correlations found, and the possibility of measuring them are analysed.

  20. Feedback enhancement of the amplitude of dynamically excited coherent population trapping resonance in Rb vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radnatarov, Daba; Khripunov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey; Taichenachev, Alexey; Yudin, Valery; Basalaev, Maxim; Popkov, Ivan; Andryushkov, Valeriy; Steschenko, Tatiana

    2016-11-01

    This work reports on possibilities of contrast enhancement of dynamically excited coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance in 87Rb vapour arising from application of feedback methods. Controlling the bichromatic pump radiation power through a feedback loop that stabilises Rb atom luminescence when scanning the frequency difference of the bichromatic pump radiation resulted in a more than an order-or-magnitude improvement in the amplitude of the CPT resonance at scanning frequencies over 100 Hz. It is established that the excursion of the pump radiation power controlled by the feedback loop under dynamic excitation is by an order of magnitude smaller than that under quasistationary excitation at scan frequencies < 1 Hz.

  1. Finite-time fuzzy stabilisation and control for nonlinear descriptor systems with non-zero initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Zhan; Zhang, Qingling; Ai, Jun; Sun, Xin

    2015-01-01

    For nonlinear descriptor systems, this paper presents an approach to obtain a fuzzy controller with guaranteed finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness with non-zero initial state, which outperforms some recent work and additionally provides a precision estimation of model approximation. We prove necessary and sufficient conditions of finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness with non-zero initial state for nonlinear descriptor systems. Using Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy dynamic models and proposed sufficient conditions, we define fuzzy sets and use linear matrix inequalities to satisfy differential linear matrix inequalities. A simulation confirms efficiency and precision of the given method.

  2. Synergism of MSC-secreted HGF and VEGF in stabilising endothelial barrier function upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation via the Rac1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Chen, Qi-Hong; Liu, Ai-Ran; Xu, Xiu-Ping; Han, Ji-Bin; Qiu, Hai-Bo

    2015-12-16

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) stabilise endothelial barrier function in acute lung injury via paracrine hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is secreted by MSCs, is another key regulator of endothelial permeability; however, its role in adjusting permeability remains controversial. In addition, whether an interaction occurs between HGF and VEGF, which are secreted by MSCs, is not completely understood. We introduced a co-cultured model of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) and MSC conditioned medium (CM) collected from MSCs after 24 h of hypoxic culture. The presence of VEGF and HGF in the MSC-CM was neutralised by anti-VEGF and anti-HGF antibodies, respectively. To determine the roles and mechanisms of MSC-secreted HGF and VEGF, we employed recombinant humanised HGF and recombinant humanised VEGF to co-culture with HPMECs. Additionally, we employed the RhoA inhibitor C3 transferase and the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 to inhibit the activities of RhoA and Rac1 in HPMECs treated with MSC-CM or VEGF/HGF with the same dosage as in the MSC-CM. Then, endothelial paracellular and transcellular permeability was detected. VE-cadherin, occludin and caveolin-1 protein expression in HPMECs was measured by western blot. Adherens junction proteins, including F-actin and VE-cadherin, were detected by immunofluorescence. MSC-CM treatment significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial paracellular and transcellular permeability, which was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with HGF antibody or with both VEGF and HGF antibodies. Furthermore, MSC-CM treatment increased the expression of the endothelial intercellular adherence junction proteins VE-cadherin and occludin and decreased the expression of caveolin-1 protein. MSC-CM treatment also decreased endothelial apoptosis and induced endothelial cell proliferation; however, the effects of MSC-CM treatment were inhibited by pretreatment with HGF

  3. Natural ageing in the rat liver correlates with progressive stabilisation of DNA-nuclear matrix interactions and withdrawal of genes from the nuclear substructure.

    PubMed

    Maya-Mendoza, Apolinar; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Gariglio, Patricio; Aranda-Anzaldo, Armando

    2005-01-01

    In the interphase nucleus, the DNA of higher eukaryotes is organised in supercoiled loops anchored to a nuclear matrix (NM). Replication, transcription and splicing seem to occur at macromolecular complexes organised upon the NM. Thus, the topological relationship between genes located in the loops and the NM appears to be very important for nuclear physiology. Here, we report that natural ageing in the rat liver correlates with a progressive strengthening of the NM framework and the stabilisation of the DNA loop-NM interactions, as well as with a progressive increase in the relative distance of genes to the NM. Both phenomena correlate with the gradual loss of proliferating potential and progression towards terminal differentiation in the hepatocytes, suggesting that wholesale modifications in the topological relationships within the cell nucleus are markers of tissue ageing and senescence, at least in the mammalian liver. We discuss the possible functional implications of such structural modifications that may underlie both terminal hepatocyte differentiation and their eventual replicative senescence.

  4. Influence of commercial and residual sorbents and silicates as additives on the stabilisation/solidification of organic and inorganic industrial waste.

    PubMed

    Coz, A; Andrés, A; Soriano, S; Viguri, J R; Ruiz, M C; Irabien, J A

    2009-05-30

    An environmental problem of the foundry activities is the management of industrial waste generated in different processes. The foundry sludge from gas wet cleaning treatment that contains organic and inorganic compounds and a high content of water is an interesting example. Due to their characteristics, they can be managed using different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies prior to land disposal. The purpose of this work is to study S/S formulations in order to improve the control of the mobility of the pollutants and the ecotoxicity of the samples. Different mixtures of cement or lime as binders and additives (foundry sand, silica fume, sodium silicate, silicic acid, activated carbon and black carbon) have been used in order to reduce the mobility of the chemical and ecotoxicological regulated parameters and to compare the results for commercial and residual additives. The best results have been obtained with sorbents (activated carbon and black carbon) or sodium silicate. The results of the foundry sand ash as additive can conclude that it can be used as replacement in the cement products. However, silica fume in the samples with lime and siliceous resin sand as additives gives products that do not fulfil the regulated limits. Finally, some linear expressions between the chemical parameters and the quantity of material used in the samples have been obtained.

  5. Stabilisation of red fruit-based smoothies by high-pressure processing. Part II: effects on sensory quality and selected nutrients.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Adriana; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Picouet, Pierre; Jofré, Anna; Ros, José María; Bañón, Sancho

    2017-02-01

    Non-thermal pasteurisation by high-pressure processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing thermal processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. The resulting products need to be validated from a sensory and nutritional standpoint. The objective was to assess a mild HPP treatment to stabilise red fruit-based smoothies in a wide (sensory quality and major nutrients) study. HPP (350 MPa/ 10 °C/ 5 min) provided 'fresh-like' smoothies, free of cooked-fruit flavours, for at least 14 days at 4 °C, although their sensory stability was low compared with the TP-smoothies (85 °C/ 7 min). In HPP-smoothies, the loss of fresh fruit flavour and reduced sliminess were the clearest signs of sensory deterioration during storage. Furthermore, HPP permitted the higher initial retention of vitamin C, although this vitamin and, to a lesser extent, total phenols, had a higher degradation rate during storage. The content of sugar present was not affected by either processing treatment. Mild HPP treatment did not alter the sensory and nutritional properties of smoothies. The sensory and nutritional losses during storage were less than might be expected, probably due to the high antioxidant content and the natural turbidity provided by red fruits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Hume-Rothery stabilisation mechanism and d-states-mediated Fermi surface-Brillouin zone interactions in structurally complex metallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, U.; Inukai, M.; Sato, H.

    2011-07-01

    The stability of Co2Zn11 and Al8V5 gamma-brasses, both of which are composed of a transition metal element and polyvalent elements Zn or Al, can be discussed in terms of d-states-mediated Fermi surface-Brillouin zone (FsBz) interactions in the context of first-principles full-potential linearised augmented plane wave (FLAPW) band calculations. A FsBz-induced pseudogap is revealed in the FLAPW-Fourier spectrum, though it is hidden behind a much larger d-band in the total density of states. The stability range of three families of complex metallic alloys (CMAs) that include gamma-brasses, RT-, MI- and Tsai-type 1/1-1/1-1/1 approximants and 2/1-2/1-2/1 approximant, each of which is characterised by ? = 18, 50 and 125, respectively, can be well scaled in terms of the number of electrons per unit cell (e/uc) given by the product of the number of atoms per unit cell and the e/a value determined by the Hume-Rothery plot on the basis of the FLAPW-Fourier method. This is taken as the evidence for the justification of the Hume-Rothery stabilisation mechanism for all these CMAs having a pseudogap at the Fermi level.

  7. Solidification/stabilisation of metals contaminated industrial soil from former Zn smelter in Celje, Slovenia, using cement as a hydraulic binder.

    PubMed

    Voglar, Grega E; Lestan, Domen

    2010-06-15

    In a laboratory study, Portland cement (15%, w/w) was used for solidification/stabilisation (S/S) of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and As contaminated soils from the former industrial site. Soils formed solid monoliths with cement. S/S effectiveness was assessed by measuring the mechanical strength of the monoliths, concentrations of metals in deionised water and TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) soil extracts, and mass transfer of metals. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni in water extracts from S/S soils generally decreased, concentrations of As remained unchanged, while concentrations of Cu increased. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni in the TCLP extracts from S/S soils were lower than from original soils. Cu extractability was lower in most soil samples, while the extractability of As from S/S soils increased. Overall, the concentration of metals in deionised water and TCLP solution, obtained after extraction of the S/S soils, was below the regulatory limits. S/S greatly reduced the mass transfer of Cd (up to 83-times), Pb (up to 13.7-times) and Zn (up to 294-times). Mass transfer of Ni and As was generally also reduced, while that of Cu increased in some S/S soils. Based on the findings of mass-transfer mechanism analysis the predominant mechanism of release was surface wash-off of metals otherwise physically encapsulated with