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Sample records for dyslexia acquired

  1. Acquired spatial dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Siéroff, E

    2015-08-10

    Acquired spatial dyslexia is a reading disorder frequently occurring after left or right posterior brain lesions. This article describes several types of spatial dyslexia with an attentional approach. After right posterior lesions, patients show left neglect dyslexia with errors on the left side of text, words, and non-words. The deficit is frequently associated with left unilateral spatial neglect. Severe left neglect dyslexia can be detected with unlimited exposure duration of words or non-words. Minor neglect dyslexia is detected with brief presentation of bilateral words, one in the left and one in the right visual field (phenomenon of contralesional extinction). Neglect dyslexia can be explained as a difficulty in orienting attention to the left side of verbal stimuli. With left posterior lesions, spatial dyslexia is also frequent but multiform. Right neglect dyslexia is frequent, but right unilateral spatial neglect is rare. Attentional dyslexia represents difficulty in selecting a stimulus, letter or word among other similar stimuli; it is a deficit of attentional selection, and the left hemisphere plays a crucial role in selection. Two other types of spatial dyslexia can be found after left posterior lesions: paradoxical ipsilesional extinction and stimulus-centred neglect dyslexia. Disconnections between left or right parietal attentional areas and the left temporal visual word form area could explain these deficits. Overall, a model of attention dissociating modulation, selection control, and selection positioning can help in understanding these reading disorders.

  2. Acquired Surface Dyslexia: The Evidence from Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnboim, Smadar

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the symptoms of acquired surface dyslexia in Hebrew. Four acquired surface dyslexic adults were compared with eight normal second graders in terms of reading strategy. Homophones and homographs were a major source of difficulty for native Hebrew surface dyslexic readers; the normal second graders used a non-lexical strategy. (45…

  3. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  4. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  5. Eye movement correlates of acquired central dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Schattka, Kerstin I; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-08-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has been no research attempting to analyze both word-based viewing time measures and local fixation patterns in dyslexic readers. The goal of the study was to find out whether specific eye movement parameters reflect pathologically preferred segmental reading in contrast to lexical reading. We compared oral reading of single words of normal controls (n=11) with six aphasic participants (two cases of deep, surface and residual dyslexia each). Participants were asked to read aloud lines of target words differing in length and frequency. Segmental reading was characterized by deviant spatial distribution of saccadic landing positions with initial fixations located mainly at the beginning of the word, while lexical readers showed the normative 'preferred landing positions' left to the center of the words. Contrary to expectation, word length did not distinguish between segmental and lexical readers, while word frequency showed the expected effect for lexical readers only. Their mean fixation duration was already prolonged during first pass reading reflecting their attempts of immediate access to lexical information. After first pass reading, re-reading time was significantly increased in all participants with acquired central dyslexia due to their exceedingly higher monitoring demands for oral reading. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Woollams, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dyslexia. Recent case-series behavioural evidence concerning pure alexia, phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia that supports this perspective is presented. Lesion simulations of these findings within connectionist models of reading demonstrate the viability of this approach. The commitment of such models to learnt representations allows them to capture key aspects of performance in each type of acquired dyslexia, particularly the associated non-reading deficits, the role of relearning and the influence of individual differences in the premorbid state of the reading system. Identification of these factors not only advances our understanding of acquired dyslexia and the mechanisms of normal reading but they are also relevant to the complex interactions underpinning developmental reading disorders. PMID:24324241

  7. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Woollams, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dyslexia. Recent case-series behavioural evidence concerning pure alexia, phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia that supports this perspective is presented. Lesion simulations of these findings within connectionist models of reading demonstrate the viability of this approach. The commitment of such models to learnt representations allows them to capture key aspects of performance in each type of acquired dyslexia, particularly the associated non-reading deficits, the role of relearning and the influence of individual differences in the premorbid state of the reading system. Identification of these factors not only advances our understanding of acquired dyslexia and the mechanisms of normal reading but they are also relevant to the complex interactions underpinning developmental reading disorders.

  8. Interventions based on the multiple connections model of reading for developmental dyslexia and acquired deep dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Berninger, V W; Lester, K; Sohlberg, M M; Mateer, C

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with intervention strategies for developmental and acquired dyslexia. In Study 1 two alternative strategies for developmental surface dyslexia (dysfunctional connection between the whole word orthographic code and the phonetic or name code) were compared. In both the initial study and replication study, a modification of the selective reminding technique was superior to a traditional multisensory technique in beginning readers, presumably because it facilitated word finding or prelexical access to a phonetic code. In Study 2 an adolescent with acquired deep dyslexia (dysfunctional connection between letter and phonemic codes) who had had his angular gyrus (site of grapheme-phoneme correspondence) surgically removed, recovered reading function after a four-month phonemic analysis training program. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of theory-based intervention strategies in children with developmental reading disorders unrelated to focal lesions and in adults with acquired reading disorders related to focal lesions.

  9. Acquired Dyslexia in a Turkish-English Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Ilhan; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2005-01-01

    The Turkish script is characterised by completely transparent bidirectional mappings between orthography and phonology. To date, there has been no reported evidence of acquired dyslexia in Turkish speakers leading to the naive view that reading and writing problems in Turkish are probably rare. We examined the extent to which phonological…

  10. Acquired Dyslexia in a Turkish-English Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Ilhan; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2005-01-01

    The Turkish script is characterised by completely transparent bidirectional mappings between orthography and phonology. To date, there has been no reported evidence of acquired dyslexia in Turkish speakers leading to the naive view that reading and writing problems in Turkish are probably rare. We examined the extent to which phonological…

  11. Training Pseudoword Reading in Acquired Dyslexia: A Phonological Complexity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Ellyn A.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Previous studies have shown that reading can be improved in these individuals by training letter-sound correspondence, practicing phonological skills, or using combined approaches. However, generalization to untrained items is typically limited. Aims We investigated whether principles of phonological complexity can be applied to training letter-sound correspondence reading in acquired phonological dyslexia to improve generalization to untrained words. Based on previous work in other linguistic domains, we hypothesized that training phonologically “more complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with small sonority differences) would result in generalization to phonologically “less complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with larger sonority differences), but this generalization pattern would not be demonstrated when training the “less complex” material. Methods & Procedures We used a single-participant, multiple baseline design across participants and behaviors to examine phonological complexity as a training variable in five individuals. Based on participants' error data from a previous experiment, a “more complex” onset and a “less complex” onset were selected for training for each participant. Training order assignment was pseudo-randomized and counterbalanced across participants. Three participants were trained in the “more complex” condition and two in the “less complex” condition while tracking oral reading accuracy of both onsets. Outcomes & Results As predicted, participants trained in the “more complex” condition demonstrated improved pseudoword reading of the trained cluster and generalization to pseudowords with the untrained, “simple” onset, but not vice versa. Conclusions These findings suggest phonological complexity can be used to improve

  12. Training Pseudoword Reading in Acquired Dyslexia: A Phonological Complexity Approach.

    PubMed

    Riley, Ellyn A; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Previous studies have shown that reading can be improved in these individuals by training letter-sound correspondence, practicing phonological skills, or using combined approaches. However, generalization to untrained items is typically limited. We investigated whether principles of phonological complexity can be applied to training letter-sound correspondence reading in acquired phonological dyslexia to improve generalization to untrained words. Based on previous work in other linguistic domains, we hypothesized that training phonologically "more complex" material (i.e., consonant clusters with small sonority differences) would result in generalization to phonologically "less complex" material (i.e., consonant clusters with larger sonority differences), but this generalization pattern would not be demonstrated when training the "less complex" material. We used a single-participant, multiple baseline design across participants and behaviors to examine phonological complexity as a training variable in five individuals. Based on participants' error data from a previous experiment, a "more complex" onset and a "less complex" onset were selected for training for each participant. Training order assignment was pseudo-randomized and counterbalanced across participants. Three participants were trained in the "more complex" condition and two in the "less complex" condition while tracking oral reading accuracy of both onsets. As predicted, participants trained in the "more complex" condition demonstrated improved pseudoword reading of the trained cluster and generalization to pseudowords with the untrained, "simple" onset, but not vice versa. These findings suggest phonological complexity can be used to improve generalization to untrained phonologically related words in acquired phonological dyslexia. These findings also

  13. Semantic Typicality Effects in Acquired Dyslexia: Evidence for Semantic Impairment in Deep Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Ellyn A.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acquired deep dyslexia is characterized by impairment in grapheme-phoneme conversion and production of semantic errors in oral reading. Several theories have attempted to explain the production of semantic errors in deep dyslexia, some proposing that they arise from impairments in both grapheme-phoneme and lexical-semantic processing, and others proposing that such errors stem from a deficit in phonological production. Whereas both views have gained some acceptance, the limited evidence available does not clearly eliminate the possibility that semantic errors arise from a lexical-semantic input processing deficit. Aims To investigate semantic processing in deep dyslexia, this study examined the typicality effect in deep dyslexic individuals, phonological dyslexic individuals, and controls using an online category verification paradigm. This task requires explicit semantic access without speech production, focusing observation on semantic processing from written or spoken input. Methods & Procedures To examine the locus of semantic impairment, the task was administered in visual and auditory modalities with reaction time as the primary dependent measure. Nine controls, six phonological dyslexic participants, and five deep dyslexic participants completed the study. Outcomes & Results Controls and phonological dyslexic participants demonstrated a typicality effect in both modalities, while deep dyslexic participants did not demonstrate a typicality effect in either modality. Conclusions These findings suggest that deep dyslexia is associated with a semantic processing deficit. Although this does not rule out the possibility of concomitant deficits in other modules of lexical-semantic processing, this finding suggests a direction for treatment of deep dyslexia focused on semantic processing. PMID:20657815

  14. Dyslexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Too Tall or Too Short All About Puberty Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Kids > Dyslexia Print A A A ... look like this: What's It Like to Have Dyslexia? Even before kindergarten, a kid who has dyslexia ...

  15. Dyslexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... that process language. People with dyslexia have normal intelligence and usually have normal vision. Most children with dyslexia can succeed in school with tutoring or a specialized education program. Emotional support also plays an important role. Though there's ...

  16. Dyslexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's It Like to Have Dyslexia? Even before kindergarten, a kid who has dyslexia usually has trouble ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  17. Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomatis, Alfred

    It is stated that dyslexia is a disorder of auditory origin. The meaning of dyslexia is divided into the medical and educational aspects of the disease in an attempt to lead the teacher to emphasize hearing in education rather than merely sight. The role of the teacher, doctor, and psychologist in the history of dyslexia is discussed. In dealing…

  18. Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomatis, Alfred

    It is stated that dyslexia is a disorder of auditory origin. The meaning of dyslexia is divided into the medical and educational aspects of the disease in an attempt to lead the teacher to emphasize hearing in education rather than merely sight. The role of the teacher, doctor, and psychologist in the history of dyslexia is discussed. In dealing…

  19. Effects of Phonological Complexity on Error Production and Pseudoword Training in Acquired Phonological Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Ellyn Anne

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with their corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Several studies have attempted to improve reading in this population by training letter-to-sound correspondence, general phonological skills, or a combination of these approaches; however,…

  20. Effects of Phonological Complexity on Error Production and Pseudoword Training in Acquired Phonological Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Ellyn Anne

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with their corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Several studies have attempted to improve reading in this population by training letter-to-sound correspondence, general phonological skills, or a combination of these approaches; however,…

  1. Acquired Dyslexia in Three Writing Systems: Study of a Portuguese-Japanese Bilingual Aphasic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Senaha, Mirna Lie Hosogi; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language is represented by two different codes: syllabic and logographic while Portuguese employs an alphabetic writing system. Studies on bilingual Portuguese-Japanese individuals with acquired dyslexia therefore allow an investigation of the interaction between reading strategies and characteristics of three different writing codes. The aim of this study was to examine the differential impact of an acquired brain lesion on the reading of the logographic, syllabic and alphabetic writing systems of a bilingual Portuguese-Japanese aphasic patient (PF). Results showed impaired reading in the logographic system and when reading irregularly spelled Portuguese words but no effects on reading regular words and nonwords in syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. These dissociations are interpreted according to a multi-route cognitive model of reading assuming selective damage in the lexical route can result in acquired dyslexia across at least three different writing codes. PMID:22713387

  2. Lesioning an Attractor Network: Investigations of Acquired Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Geoffrey E.; Shallice, Tim

    1991-01-01

    In a simulation, the lesioning of a connectionist model that maps orthographic inputs onto semantic features produces several counterintuitive behaviors that are also shown by acquired-dyslexic patients. The similarity strengthens the suggestion that the connectionist approach captures a key aspect of human cognitive processing. (SLD)

  3. Prelexical representations and processes in reading: evidence from acquired dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Teresa; McCloskey, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report a detailed and extensive single-case study of an acquired dyslexic patient, L.H.D., who suffered a left-hemisphere lesion as a result of a ruptured aneurysm. We present evidence that L.H.D.'s reading errors stem from a deficit in visual letter identification, and we use her deficit as a basis for exploring a variety of issues concerning prelexical representations and processes in reading. First, building on the work of other researchers, we present evidence that the prelexical reading system includes an allograph level of representation that represents each distinct visual shape of a letter (e.g., a, A, etc., for the letter A). We extend a theory proposed by Caramazza and Hillis [Caramazza, A., & Hillis, A. (1990a). Spatial representation of words in the brain implied by studies of a unilateral neglect patient. Nature, 346, 267-269] to include an allograph level, and we probe the nature of the allograph representations in some detail. Next, we explore the implications of visual similarity effects and letter perseverations in L.H.D.'s reading performance, arguing that these effects shed light on activation dynamics in the prelexical reading system and on the genesis of L.H.D.'s errors. We also probe the processing of letter case in the visual letter identification process, proposing that separate abstract letter identity and case representations are computed. Finally, we present evidence that the allograph level as well as the abstract letter identity level implement a word-based frame of reference.

  4. An eye movement based reading intervention in lexical and segmental readers with acquired dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Ablinger, Irene; von Heyden, Kerstin; Vorstius, Christian; Halm, Katja; Huber, Walter; Radach, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Due to their brain damage, aphasic patients with acquired dyslexia often rely to a greater extent on lexical or segmental reading procedures. Thus, therapy intervention is mostly targeted on the more impaired reading strategy. In the present work we introduce a novel therapy approach based on real-time measurement of patients' eye movements as they attempt to read words. More specifically, an eye movement contingent technique of stepwise letter de-masking was used to support sequential reading, whereas fixation-dependent initial masking of non-central letters stimulated a lexical (parallel) reading strategy. Four lexical and four segmental readers with acquired central dyslexia received our intensive reading intervention. All participants showed remarkable improvements as evident in reduced total reading time, a reduced number of fixations per word and improved reading accuracy. Both types of intervention led to item-specific training effects in all subjects. A generalisation to untrained items was only found in segmental readers after the lexical training. Eye movement analyses were also used to compare word processing before and after therapy, indicating that all patients, with one exclusion, maintained their preferred reading strategy. However, in several cases the balance between sequential and lexical processing became less extreme, indicating a more effective individual interplay of both word processing routes.

  5. Acquired dyslexia in a transparent orthography: an analysis of acquired disorders of reading in the Slovak language.

    PubMed

    Hricová, Marianna; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The first reports of phonological, surface and deep dyslexia come from orthographies containing quasi-regular mappings between orthography and phonology including English and French. Slovakian is a language with a relatively transparent orthography and hence a mostly regular script. The aim of this study was to investigate impaired oral reading in Slovakian. A novel diagnostic procedure was devised to determine whether disorders of Slovakian reading resemble characteristics in other languages. Slovakian speaking aphasics showed symptoms similar to phonological dyslexia and deep dyslexia in English and French, but there was no evidence of surface dyslexia. The findings are discussed in terms of the orthographic depth hypothesis.

  6. Acquired Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography: An Analysis of Acquired Disorders of Reading in the Slovak Language

    PubMed Central

    Hricová, Marianna; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The first reports of phonological, surface and deep dyslexia come from orthographies containing quasi-regular mappings between orthography and phonology including English and French. Slovakian is a language with a relatively transparent orthography and hence a mostly regular script. The aim of this study was to investigate impaired oral reading in Slovakian. A novel diagnostic procedure was devised to determine whether disorders of Slovakian reading resemble characteristics in other languages. Slovakian speaking aphasics showed symptoms similar to phonological dyslexia and deep dyslexia in English and French, but there was no evidence of surface dyslexia. The findings are discussed in terms of the orthographic depth hypothesis. PMID:22713384

  7. Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Habib, Michel; Giraud, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a specific and persistent disability affecting the acquisition of written language. Prevalence is estimated to be between 5% and 17% of school-aged children; it therefore represents a major public health issue. Neurological in origin, its causes are unknown, although there is a clear genetic component. Diagnosis rests upon the use of standardized tests and tools to assess reading and spelling, as well as phonological skills. The importance of early diagnosis cannot be overemphasized and much current research is focusing on screening and prediction, particularly through use of objective imaging techniques (e.g., EEG/MEG), which have implicated cortical abnormalities in central auditory processing (Giraud et al., 2005, 2008). Remediation should be intensive, begin as early as possible, and be tailored to the individual. Phonics based treatments are most effective and several variants, incorporating temporal auditory, articulatory, or multisensory training exercises, have been developed or proposed. Clinical improvements in phonological skills and reading with such treatments have been shown to correlate with changes in the brains of dyslexic children in several functional imaging studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Different neural circuits subserve reading before and after therapy for acquired dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Small, S L; Flores, D K; Noll, D C

    1998-04-01

    Rehabilitative measures for stroke are not generally based on basic neurobiological principles, despite evidence from animal models that certain anatomical and pharmacological changes correlate with recovery. In this report, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study in vivo human brain reorganization in a right handed patient with an acquired reading disorder from stroke. With phonological dyslexia, her whole-word (lexical) reading approach included inability to read nonwords and poor reading of function words. Following therapy, she was able to read nonwords and function words, and preferred a decompositional (sub-lexical) strategy in general. fMRI was performed during a reading task before and after treatment. Prior to therapy, her main focus of brain activation was in the left angular gyrus (area 39). After therapy, it was instead in the left lingual gyrus (area 18). This result suggests first that it is possible to alter brain physiology with therapy for acquired language disorders, and second, that two reading strategies commonly used in normal reading use distinct neural circuits, possibly reconciling several conflicting neuroimaging studies of reading. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  9. Role of inflectional regularity and semantic transparency in reading morphologically complex words: evidence from acquired dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, A Cris; Coslett, H Branch

    2008-01-01

    We report two patients with acquired phonological dyslexia who have great difficulty reading affixed words. Experiment 1 demonstrates that both patients' reading performance is influenced by the apparent morphological status of words by comparing the patients' reading of suffixed and pseudo-suffixed words. Experiment 2 was designed to examine reading performance of both regularly and irregularly inflected words. Experiment 3 examines the patients' reading of derivational forms with particular emphasis of the role of 'semantic transparency'. Experiment 4 tested both patients' reading of prefixed words. Finally, Experiment 5 examined performance on a lexical decision task using affixed words. These data support models in which regularly formed inflections and semantically transparent derived forms are subjected to decomposition during processing, whereas irregularly inflected forms and semantically opaque forms may be represented independently. Data are discussed with regard to current 'dual mechanism' models of morphological processing as well as connectionist perspectives, with particular emphasis of the types of data that will ultimately be necessary to arbitrate between the rival theories.

  10. A Common Left Occipito-Temporal Dysfunction in Developmental Dyslexia and Acquired Letter-By-Letter Reading?

    PubMed Central

    Richlan, Fabio; Sturm, Denise; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Background We used fMRI to examine functional brain abnormalities of German-speaking dyslexics who suffer from slow effortful reading but not from a reading accuracy problem. Similar to acquired cases of letter-by-letter reading, the developmental cases exhibited an abnormal strong effect of length (i.e., number of letters) on response time for words and pseudowords. Results Corresponding to lesions of left occipito-temporal (OT) regions in acquired cases, we found a dysfunction of this region in our developmental cases who failed to exhibit responsiveness of left OT regions to the length of words and pseudowords. This abnormality in the left OT cortex was accompanied by absent responsiveness to increased sublexical reading demands in phonological inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) regions. Interestingly, there was no abnormality in the left superior temporal cortex which—corresponding to the onological deficit explanation—is considered to be the prime locus of the reading difficulties of developmental dyslexia cases. Conclusions The present functional imaging results suggest that developmental dyslexia similar to acquired letter-by-letter reading is due to a primary dysfunction of left OT regions. PMID:20711448

  11. A Principled Relation between Reading and Naming in Acquired and Developmental Anomia: Surface Dyslexia Following Impairment in the Phonological Output Lexicon

    PubMed Central

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate—they share components. This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon, on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia. To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, eight with acquired anomia following brain damage and eight with developmental anomia. We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and non-word repetition, and phonological working memory. After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension. We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words, words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes, and potentiophones (words like “now” that, when read via the sublexical route, can be sounded out as another word, “know”). Importantly, the participants performed normally on pseudohomophone lexical decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic input lexicon and spared access to it

  12. A Principled Relation between Reading and Naming in Acquired and Developmental Anomia: Surface Dyslexia Following Impairment in the Phonological Output Lexicon.

    PubMed

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate-they share components. This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon, on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia. To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, eight with acquired anomia following brain damage and eight with developmental anomia. We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and non-word repetition, and phonological working memory. After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension. We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words, words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes, and potentiophones (words like "now" that, when read via the sublexical route, can be sounded out as another word, "know"). Importantly, the participants performed normally on pseudohomophone lexical decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic input lexicon and spared access to it and from

  13. Surface errors without semantic impairment in acquired dyslexia: a voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping study

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Sara B.; Humphries, Colin J.; Gross, William L.; Graves, William W.; Book, Diane S.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with surface dyslexia have disproportionate difficulty pronouncing irregularly spelled words (e.g. pint), suggesting impaired use of lexical-semantic information to mediate phonological retrieval. Patients with this deficit also make characteristic ‘regularization’ errors, in which an irregularly spelled word is mispronounced by incorrect application of regular spelling-sound correspondences (e.g. reading plaid as ‘played’), indicating over-reliance on sublexical grapheme–phoneme correspondences. We examined the neuroanatomical correlates of this specific error type in 45 patients with left hemisphere chronic stroke. Voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping showed a strong positive relationship between the rate of regularization errors and damage to the posterior half of the left middle temporal gyrus. Semantic deficits on tests of single-word comprehension were generally mild, and these deficits were not correlated with the rate of regularization errors. Furthermore, the deep occipital-temporal white matter locus associated with these mild semantic deficits was distinct from the lesion site associated with regularization errors. Thus, in contrast to patients with surface dyslexia and semantic impairment from anterior temporal lobe degeneration, surface errors in our patients were not related to a semantic deficit. We propose that these patients have an inability to link intact semantic representations with phonological representations. The data provide novel evidence for a post-semantic mechanism mediating the production of surface errors, and suggest that the posterior middle temporal gyrus may compute an intermediate representation linking semantics with phonology. PMID:26966139

  14. Clock Drawing in Developmental Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden, Guinevere F.; Wood, Frank B.; Stein, John F.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 93 children (ages 10-12), 295 with poor reading skills, found many children with dyslexia and some garden-variety poor readers showed significant left neglect on the Clock Drawing Test. In poor readers with dyslexia, spatial construction deficits were observed like those of parents with acquired right-hemisphere lesions.…

  15. Surface errors without semantic impairment in acquired dyslexia: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R; Pillay, Sara B; Humphries, Colin J; Gross, William L; Graves, William W; Book, Diane S

    2016-05-01

    Patients with surface dyslexia have disproportionate difficulty pronouncing irregularly spelled words (e.g. pint), suggesting impaired use of lexical-semantic information to mediate phonological retrieval. Patients with this deficit also make characteristic 'regularization' errors, in which an irregularly spelled word is mispronounced by incorrect application of regular spelling-sound correspondences (e.g. reading plaid as 'played'), indicating over-reliance on sublexical grapheme-phoneme correspondences. We examined the neuroanatomical correlates of this specific error type in 45 patients with left hemisphere chronic stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping showed a strong positive relationship between the rate of regularization errors and damage to the posterior half of the left middle temporal gyrus. Semantic deficits on tests of single-word comprehension were generally mild, and these deficits were not correlated with the rate of regularization errors. Furthermore, the deep occipital-temporal white matter locus associated with these mild semantic deficits was distinct from the lesion site associated with regularization errors. Thus, in contrast to patients with surface dyslexia and semantic impairment from anterior temporal lobe degeneration, surface errors in our patients were not related to a semantic deficit. We propose that these patients have an inability to link intact semantic representations with phonological representations. The data provide novel evidence for a post-semantic mechanism mediating the production of surface errors, and suggest that the posterior middle temporal gyrus may compute an intermediate representation linking semantics with phonology. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A few words about dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Benny

    2009-10-01

    More and more, one encounters people who describe themselves as dyslectic. What is dyslexia? A detailed article in the July issue of Science, explains the phenomenon, and related aspects (1). The following are some of its points. Dyslexia is characterized by a difficulty is understanding and using alphabetic or logographic principles to acquire accurate and fluent reading skills. Dyslexia is persistent: a child who fails to read adequately in 1st grade has a high probability of reading poorly in 4th grade and in high school. Thus, difficulty in early reading limits reading comprehension in the later years of education, as students shift from learning to read to reading to learn. Dyslexia is often defined by a discrepancy between an average or above-average score on a test of general intelligence (intelligence quotient [IQ] test) and a low score on a standardized reading test. There is an observation that dyslexia is independent of other talents that allow some children with dyslexia to grow into re markably successful adults. Dyslexia is strongly heritable, occurring in up to 70% of identical twins and 50% of individuals who have a parent or sibling with dyslexia. Environmental factors are also important in reading development, even in children at genetic risk for dyslexia. Dyslexia can be treated. Once children are diagnosed with dyslexia because of reading failure, treatments are instructional. Instruction yields substantial improvement in reading accuracy for many, but not all, children if instruction is more intensive (for instance, 100 minutes per day for 8 weeks), occurs in small groups (1 or 2 students per teacher), and includes explicit and systematic instruction in phonological awareness and decoding strategies.

  17. Sub-types of deep dyslexia: a case study of central deep dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, J; Johnson, H

    2004-02-01

    A case study is reported of a female patient (JAH), who following a left middle cerebral artery infarct, presented with the cardinal symptoms of deep dyslexia and deep dysphasia (semantic errors when reading and repeating words aloud, respectively). Detailed assessment revealed impaired performance across modalities for many tasks, but particularly those tasks that depend on an intact store of semantic knowledge. Her acquired dyslexia is best characterised as deep dyslexia of a central sub-type.

  18. Developmental letter position dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2007-09-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter order within words. So far, only cases of acquired LPD have been reported. This study presents selective LPD in its developmental form, via the testing of II Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental dyslexia. The study explores the types of errors and effects on reading in this dyslexia, using a variety of tests: reading aloud, lexical decision, same-different decision, definition and letter naming. The findings indicate that individuals with developmental LPD have a deficit in the letter position encoding function of the orthographic visual analyser, which leads to underspecification of letter position within words. Letter position errors occur mainly in adjacent middle letters, when the error creates another existing word. The participants did not show an output deficit or phonemic awareness deficit. The selectivity of the deficit, causing letter position errors but no letter identity errors and no migrations between words, supports the existence of letter position encoding function as separate from letter identification and letter-to-word binding.

  19. Understanding Dyslexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... provide any book on tape, even textbooks. Computer software is also available that "reads" printed material aloud. ... dyslexia, offering them trained tutors, learning aids, computer software, reading assignments on tape, and special arrangements for ...

  20. Developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2012-05-26

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterised by slow and inaccurate word recognition. Dyslexia has been reported in every culture studied, and mounting evidence draws attention to cross-linguistic similarity in its neurobiological and neurocognitive bases. Much progress has been made across research specialties spanning the behavioural, neuropsychological, neurobiological, and causal levels of analysis in the past 5 years. From a neuropsychological perspective, the phonological theory remains the most compelling, although phonological problems also interact with other cognitive risk factors. Work confirms that, neurobiologically, dyslexia is characterised by dysfunction of the normal left hemisphere language network and also implicates abnormal white matter development. Studies accounting for reading experience demonstrate that many recorded neural differences show causes rather than effects of dyslexia. Six predisposing candidate genes have been identified, and evidence shows gene by environment interaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Disordered models of acquired dyslexia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virasoro, M. A.

    We show that certain specific correlations in the probability of errors observed in dyslexic patients that are normally explained by introducing additional complexity in the model for the reading process are typical of any Neural Network system that has learned to deal with a quasiregular environment. On the other hand we show that in Neural Networks the more regular behavior does not become naturally the default behavior.

  2. Dyslexia in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dale R.

    Dyslexia is defined in this book as the inability to process language symbols. Dyslexia is seen as a continuum ranging from mild forms of symbol confusion to complex syndromes of disabilities. Three specific kinds of dyslexia are identified: visual dyslexia, auditory dyslexia, and dysgraphia. Two chapters, one describing and one suggesting…

  3. [Developmental dyslexia].

    PubMed

    Galaburda, A M; Cestnick, L

    2003-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia makes up an important proportion of the known learning disorders. Until the late 1970s most research on dyslexia was carried out by educators and educational psychologists, but soon after the publication of some dyslexic cases with focal disorders of neuronal migration to the cerebral cortex, interest in the neurobiological and neurocognitive underpinnings of dyslexia grew, especially in Europe and North America. There are at least two types of developmental dyslexia--phonological and surface. Surface dyslexia refers to a disorder in which the difficulty lies in reading irregular words, whereas phonological dyslexia is characterized by difficulty with pseudowords. Phonological dyslexia is the more common of the two types. Surface dyslexia does not present a major problem in a language such as Spanish, where the number of irregular words is indeed very small. Still, in languages such as English, where irregular words are common, the phonological type of developmental dyslexia is much more common. Phonologic dyslexics have problems with phonological awareness, that is, the conscious knowledge and manipulation of speech sounds, which is the most proximate explanation for their difficulty in reading pseudowords. Many, but not all, phonologic dyslexics also have problems processing rapidly changing sounds, even if not linguistic, and some slow sounds, too. The same group tends to have visual problems, especially involving the so-called magnocellular pathway of the visual system, which, among others, has the role of analyzing movement. Accompanying these perceptual and cognitive deficits, phonologic dyslexics also show abnormal brain activation to phonological tasks, as shown in functional magnetic resonance studies (figure). In addition, dyslexic brains show focal malformations, ectopias and microgyria, of the cerebral cortex, involving mainly the left perisylvian region and the word form area in the temporo-occipital junction. There are also

  4. Defining Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunmer, William; Greaney, Keith

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the New Zealand Ministry of Education formally recognized the condition of dyslexia for the first time and has subsequently developed a working definition of the condition. The aim of this article is to draw on contemporary theory and research on reading development, reading difficulties, and reading intervention to describe what the…

  5. Toward an Executive Origin for Acquired Phonological Dyslexia: A Case of Specific Deficit of Context-Sensitive Grapheme-to-Phoneme Conversion Rules

    PubMed Central

    Auclair-Ouellet, Noémie; Fossard, Marion; St-Pierre, Marie-Catherine; Macoir, Joël

    2013-01-01

    Phonological dyslexia is a written language disorder characterized by poor reading of nonwords when compared with relatively preserved ability in reading real words. In this study, we report the case of FG, a 74-year-old man with phonological dyslexia. The nature and origin of his reading impairment were assessed using tasks involving activation and explicit manipulation of phonological representations as well as reading of words and nonwords in which the nature and complexity of grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules (GPC rules) were manipulated. FG also underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment battery in which he showed impaired performance in tests exploring verbal working memory and executive functions. FG showed no phonological impairment, and his performance was also largely unimpaired for reading words, with no effect of concreteness, grammatical class, morphological complexity, length or nature and complexity of the GPC rules. However, he showed substantial difficulties when asked to read nonwords with contextual GPC rules. The contribution of FG’s executive deficits to his performance in reading is discussed. PMID:22713417

  6. Current Issues in Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansara, Alice, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This bulletin is published annually in the interest of children with learning disabilities, language disabilities, or dyslexia. The 22 articles discuss the following topics: current issues in dyslexia, language disorders, subgroups in dyslexia, specificity and parameters in defining dyslexia, strategies for recognition and management of reading…

  7. Information Paper 5: Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magowan, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    This brief overview on dyslexia notes the problems of defining this syndrome, presents a profile of a "typical" dyslexic child, and describes the three sub-types of dyslexia which have been identified. (SJL)

  8. Tackling the ‘dyslexia paradox’: reading brain and behavior for early markers of developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Gaab, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is an unexplained inability to acquire accurate or fluent reading that affects approximately 5–17% of children. Dyslexia is associated with structural and functional alterations in various brain regions that support reading. Neuroimaging studies in infants and pre-reading children suggest that these alterations predate reading instruction and reading failure, supporting the hypothesis that variant function in dyslexia susceptibility genes lead to atypical neural migration and/or axonal growth during early, most likely in utero, brain development. Yet, dyslexia is typically not diagnosed until a child has failed to learn to read as expected (usually in second grade or later). There is emerging evidence that neuroimaging measures, when combined with key behavioral measures, can enhance the accuracy of identification of dyslexia risk in prereading children but its sensitivity, specificity, and cost-efficiency is still unclear. Early identification of dyslexia risk carries important implications for dyslexia remediation and the amelioration of the psychosocial consequences commonly associated with reading failure. PMID:26836227

  9. Cognitive Endophenotypes of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Kristina; Loff, Ariana; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated cognitive deficits associated with dyslexia and familial risk of dyslexia (endophenotypes) by comparing children from families with and without a history of dyslexia. Eighty-eight school-aged children were assessed on measures of phonology, language and rapid automatized naming. A series of regression analyses with family…

  10. Cognitive Endophenotypes of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Kristina; Loff, Ariana; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated cognitive deficits associated with dyslexia and familial risk of dyslexia (endophenotypes) by comparing children from families with and without a history of dyslexia. Eighty-eight school-aged children were assessed on measures of phonology, language and rapid automatized naming. A series of regression analyses with family…

  11. Dyslexia and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneps, Matthew H.; Greenhill, L. J.; Rose, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disability that impairs reading. It is believed that anywhere from 5% to 20% of all people in the US may have dyslexia to a greater or lesser degree. Though dyslexia is common, it is a "silent disability" in the sense that it is not easy to tell which individuals suffer from dyslexia and which do not. There is a substantial body of evidence to suggest that people with dyslexia tend to do well in science. For example, Baruj Benacerraf, a Nobel laureate in medicine, is among those whose impairments have been documented and studied. Given that dyslexia was not diagnosed in schools prior to the late 1970's, many established science researchers may have dyslexia and be unaware of their impairment. Therefore, it would not be surprising to find that substantial numbers of scientists working in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics have dyslexia, and yet be unaware of the effects this disability has had on their research. A recently proposed theory by the authors suggests that there may be specific neurological reasons why those with dyslexia may be predisposed to science, and predicts that dyslexia may be associated with enhanced abilities for certain types of visual processing, with special implications for image processing. Our study, funded by the NSF, investigates this hypothesis in the context of astronomy and astrophysics. We expect this work will uncover and document challenges faced by scientists with dyslexia, but perhaps more importantly, lead to an understanding of the strengths these scientists bring to research. The program will serve as a clearing-house of information for scientists and students with dyslexia, and begin to provide mentoring for young people with dyslexia interested in astronomy. Scientists who have reason to believe they may have dyslexia are encouraged to contact the authors.

  12. Dichotic listening and school performance in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Helland, Turid; Asbjørnsen, Arve E; Hushovd, Aud Ellen; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2008-02-01

    This study focused on the relationship between school performance and performance on a dichotic listening (DL) task in dyslexic children. Dyslexia is associated with impaired phonological processing, related to functions in the left temporal lobe. DL is a frequently used task to assess functions of the left temporal lobe. Due to the predominance of the contralateral neuronal pathways, a right ear advantage in the DL task reflects the superior processing capacity for the right ear stimulus in the left hemisphere (Kimura, 1963). Previous studies using DL in dyslexia are, however, inconclusive, and may reflect degree of severity of dyslexia. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate lateralized processing in two sub-groups of dyslexia, differing in symptom severity. Two groups of dyslexic 12-year-old children and an age-matched control group were tested with a consonant-vowel DL task. The two dyslexia groups differed in severity through how they responded to training efforts being made in their schools, while otherwise being matched for age, IQ and diagnosis. The D1 (respondent group) group showed a DL performance pattern similar to the control group, i.e. a right ear advantage, while the D2 (non-respondent) group failed to show a right ear advantage on the DL task. The performance on the DL task by the two dyslexia groups may provide better insight as to the degree of reading and writing impairment in dyslexia. 'Cracking the code' and acquiring automatized literacy skills may seem harder for the D2 group children compared to the D1 children. Also, the present study points to the use of DL as a valid assessment tool in clinical work to improve differential diagnoses, particularly in relation to measures of school performance.

  13. Neurobiology of Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Elizabeth S.; Beach, Sara D.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disabilities, yet its brain basis and core causes are not yet fully understood. Neuroimaging methods, including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and electrophysiology, have significantly contributed to knowledge about the neurobiology of dyslexia. Recent studies have discovered brain differences prior to formal instruction that likely encourage or discourage learning to read effectively, distinguished between brain differences that likely reflect the etiology of dyslexia versus brain differences that are the consequences of variation in reading experience, and identified distinct neural networks associated with specific psychological factors that are associated with dyslexia. PMID:25290881

  14. Neurobiology of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth S; Beach, Sara D; Gabrieli, John D E

    2015-02-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disabilities, yet its brain basis and core causes are not yet fully understood. Neuroimaging methods, including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and electrophysiology, have significantly contributed to knowledge about the neurobiology of dyslexia. Recent studies have discovered brain differences before formal instruction that likely encourage or discourage learning to read effectively, distinguished between brain differences that likely reflect the etiology of dyslexia versus brain differences that are the consequences of variation in reading experience, and identified distinct neural networks associated with specific psychological factors that are associated with dyslexia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. What is Dyslexia? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Dyslexia What is Dyslexia? Past Issues / Winter 2016 Table of Contents Dyslexia ... that may predispose an individual to developing dyslexia. Dyslexia Symptoms People with dyslexia often show: Difficulty and ...

  16. Dyslexia Assessment in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Reid, Gavin; Mannai, Haya al

    2006-01-01

    Despite advancements in empirical studies of developmental dyslexia, progress on methods of dyslexia assessment have been hampered by ongoing debate concerning diverse issues such as the role and validity of IQ in the assessment process, labelling and definitions (Miles, 1994; Stanovich, 1991, 1992). With the emergence of cross-linguistic studies…

  17. "Dyslexia": Toward Semantical Clarification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Anthony V.; Duffelmeyer, Fred

    A formulated definition of the term dyslexia is proposed in this paper in order to clarify the semantical confusion which exists among both specialists and the general public. Dyslexia is explained as a generic term for severe and puzzling reading disability, found to be both acute (where reading-age lags 25 percent or more below mental age) and…

  18. Dyslexia Assessment in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Reid, Gavin; Mannai, Haya al

    2006-01-01

    Despite advancements in empirical studies of developmental dyslexia, progress on methods of dyslexia assessment have been hampered by ongoing debate concerning diverse issues such as the role and validity of IQ in the assessment process, labelling and definitions (Miles, 1994; Stanovich, 1991, 1992). With the emergence of cross-linguistic studies…

  19. Race and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyles, Asher; Hoyles, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article begins with a definition of dyslexia as genetic, involving language processing and phonological awareness. It goes beyond reading and writing difficulties to include, for example, sequencing, orientation, short-term memory, speed, circumlocution, organisational skills, visual thinking, self-esteem and anger. Dyslexia, though…

  20. Race and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyles, Asher; Hoyles, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article begins with a definition of dyslexia as genetic, involving language processing and phonological awareness. It goes beyond reading and writing difficulties to include, for example, sequencing, orientation, short-term memory, speed, circumlocution, organisational skills, visual thinking, self-esteem and anger. Dyslexia, though…

  1. Dyslexia in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Diana; Moody, Sylvia

    This book is designed for both adults with dyslexia and for professionals concerned with helping them, such as psychologists, tutors, therapists, researchers, disability advisors, and welfare officers. It also offers advice to employers on how to help staff with dyslexia. The text covers the nature of dyslexic difficulties and their effects, both…

  2. Dyslexia in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Diana; Moody, Sylvia

    This book is designed for both adults with dyslexia and for professionals concerned with helping them, such as psychologists, tutors, therapists, researchers, disability advisors, and welfare officers. It also offers advice to employers on how to help staff with dyslexia. The text covers the nature of dyslexic difficulties and their effects, both…

  3. Perspectives on dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Linda S

    2006-01-01

    Dyslexia, or a reading disability, occurs when an individual has significant difficulty with speed and accuracy of word decoding. Comprehension of text and spelling are also affected. The diagnosis of dyslexia involves the use of reading tests, but the continuum of reading performance means that any cutoff point is arbitrary. The IQ score does not play a role in the diagnosis of dyslexia. The cognitive difficulties of dyslexics include problems with speech perception, recognizing and manipulating the basic sounds in a language, language memory, and learning the sounds of letters. Dyslexia is a neurological condition with a genetic basis. There are abnormalities in the brains of dyslexic individuals. There are also differences in the electrophysiological and structural characteristics of the brains of dyslexics. Physicians play a particularly important role in recognizing children who are at risk for dyslexia and helping their parents obtain the proper assessment. PMID:19030329

  4. [Clinical diagnosis of dyslexia].

    PubMed

    Martínez Hermosillo, A; Balderas Gil, A

    1980-01-01

    In 5 years of experience at the Instituto Nacional de la Comunicacion Humana, 302 clinical histories showed the diagnosis of dyslexia. The following parameters were studied: age, sex, heredofamilial history, gestation, psychomotor development, clinical picture, examination of the language (type, reading, spontaneous writing, dictation, mathematic concepts), laterality, scholarship, scholar failures, psychological study. The following results were obtained: Dyslexia was more important or frequent between 5 to 8.9 years of age. Males predominated 3:1. The heredofamilial history was important. Dyslexia prevailed in products of the first gestations. A high disturbance was found in the psychomotor development of a large percent of dyslexic patients. Examination of language was also important. Dyslexia was more frequent in right-handed patients. Scholar failures in one or more instances were found. The psychological study must be done. If dyslexia is diagnosed on time, it may be prevented and all unwanted sequelae may be avoided.

  5. Auditory Temporal Processing and Working Memory: Two Independent Deficits for Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fostick, Leah; Bar-El, Sharona; Ram-Tsur, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neuro-cognitive disorder with a strong genetic basis, characterized by a difficulty in acquiring reading skills. Several hypotheses have been suggested in an attempt to explain the origin of dyslexia, among which some have suggested that dyslexic readers might have a deficit in auditory temporal processing, while others hypothesized…

  6. Comments on 'The dyslexia ecosystem': a reply to Nicolson.

    PubMed

    Richards, Ian L; Witton, Caroline; Moores, Elisabeth; Reddy, Peter A; Rippon, Gina; Talcott, Joel B

    2002-01-01

    The central issue facing the dyslexia community, and the underlying theme of Nicolson's 'The Dyslexia Ecosystem' (Nicolson, 2002, Dyslexia, 8, 55-66), is how we can best translate what we know about this particular developmental disorder into practice to give each child the greatest opportunity of acquiring the enabling skill of literacy. To achieve this, and notwithstanding Nicolson's caveat on this point, we have to consider how we can best move from our sphere of expertise to a greater sphere of influence, both as individuals and as a community of research practitioners. In our response, we first consider aspects of Nicolson's general analysis of 'The Dyslexia Ecosystem' and then examine some of the specific objectives that have been proposed.

  7. Deciphering Dyslexia: The Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langone, John

    1983-01-01

    The article reviews current findings and theories concerning neurological bases of dyslexia. The involvement of hereditary factors is pointed out as well as irregularities in the brain's left hemisphere and patterns of electrical activity. (CL)

  8. Seminar: Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by slow and inaccurate word recognition. Dyslexia has been found in every culture studied, and mounting evidence underscores cross-linguistic similarity in its neurobiological and neurocognitive bases. There has been considerable progress across levels of analysis in the last five years. At a neuropsychological level, the phonological theory remains the most compelling, though it is increasingly clear that phonological problems interact with other cognitive risk factors. At a neurobiological level, recent research confirms that dyslexia is characterized by dysfunction of the normal left hemisphere language network and also implicates abnormal white matter development. Studies accounting for reading experience demonstrate that many observed neural differences reflect causes rather than effects of dyslexia. At an etiologic risk level, six candidate genes have been identified, and there is evidence for gene by environment interaction. This review includes a focus on these and other recent developments. PMID:22513218

  9. Understanding Dyslexia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a bigger reading problem and a drop in self-esteem. So it's important to recognize symptoms early in ... and falling further behind their classmates. And their self-esteem may take a beating. Treating Dyslexia Fortunately, with ...

  10. Dyslexia Heterogeneity: Cognitive Profiling of Portuguese Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Andreia; Reis, Alexandra; Araújo, Susana; Inácio, Filomena; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized that developmental dyslexia is a multiple-deficit disorder, in contrast to the traditional single-deficit view. In this context, cognitive profiling of children with dyslexia may be a relevant contribution to this unresolved discussion. The aim of this study was to profile 36 Portuguese children with dyslexia from…

  11. Dyslexia Heterogeneity: Cognitive Profiling of Portuguese Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Andreia; Reis, Alexandra; Araújo, Susana; Inácio, Filomena; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized that developmental dyslexia is a multiple-deficit disorder, in contrast to the traditional single-deficit view. In this context, cognitive profiling of children with dyslexia may be a relevant contribution to this unresolved discussion. The aim of this study was to profile 36 Portuguese children with dyslexia from…

  12. Dyslexia: A Generation of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Diane J.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the various areas of research that have served to clarify the condition of dyslexia. Using topics and content appearing in A. L. Benton and D. Pearl's (1978) text, Dyslexia: An Appraisal of Current Knowledge, as the point of departure, evolution of the definitions of dyslexia is traced to the current and…

  13. Developmental Dyslexia: Predicting Individual Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Paul A.; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Gooch, Debbie; Hayiou-Thomas, Emma; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Causal theories of dyslexia suggest that it is a heritable disorder, which is the outcome of multiple risk factors. However, whether early screening for dyslexia is viable is not yet known. Methods: The study followed children at high risk of dyslexia from preschool through the early primary years assessing them from age 3 years and 6…

  14. Dyslexia: A Generation of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Diane J.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the various areas of research that have served to clarify the condition of dyslexia. Using topics and content appearing in A. L. Benton and D. Pearl's (1978) text, Dyslexia: An Appraisal of Current Knowledge, as the point of departure, evolution of the definitions of dyslexia is traced to the current and…

  15. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2016-01-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A…

  16. Developmental Dyslexia: Predicting Individual Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Paul A.; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Gooch, Debbie; Hayiou-Thomas, Emma; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Causal theories of dyslexia suggest that it is a heritable disorder, which is the outcome of multiple risk factors. However, whether early screening for dyslexia is viable is not yet known. Methods: The study followed children at high risk of dyslexia from preschool through the early primary years assessing them from age 3 years and 6…

  17. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2016-01-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A…

  18. Deep Dyslexia and Semantic Errors: A Test of the Failure of Inhibition Hypothesis Using a Semantic Blocking Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colangelo, Annette; Buchanan, Lori; Westbury, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Deep dyslexia is an acquired reading disorder that involves the production of semantic errors and the inability to read aloud nonwords successfully. Several explanations for this reading impairment posit multiple loci of damage to account for the various error types produced in deep dyslexia. In contrast, the failure of inhibition hypothesis…

  19. Reading disorders and dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Recent findings Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. Summary There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed. PMID:27496059

  20. Reading disorders and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

  1. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  2. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits.

    PubMed

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  3. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C M; Oort, Frans J

    2016-09-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A sample of 446 students (63 with dyslexia) completed a large test battery and a large questionnaire. Five factors were found in both the test battery and the questionnaire. These 10 factors loaded on 5 latent factors (spelling, phonology, short-term memory, rhyme/confusion, and whole-word processing/complexity), which explained 60% of total variance. Three analyses supported the validity of these factors. A confirmatory factor analysis fit with a solution of five factors (RMSEA = .03). Those with dyslexia differed from those without dyslexia on all factors. A combination of five factors provided reliable predictions of dyslexia and nondyslexia (accuracy >90%). We also looked for factorial deficits on an individual level to construct subtypes of dyslexia, but found varying profiles. We concluded that a multiple cognitive deficit model of dyslexia is supported, whereas the existence of subtypes remains unclear. We discussed the results in relation to advanced compensation strategies of students, measures of intelligence, and various correlations within groups of those with and without dyslexia. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  4. Dyslexia: Disability or Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Redford, a veteran 5th grade teacher, addresses the question of whether, in the case of students with dyslexia, "it's time to ditch the disability classification and replace it with more positive language that embraces and appreciates [the condition] as a 'neurodifference' instead." Her answer is no--at least in the current education…

  5. Translating Dyslexia across Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Lisa A.; Manglani, Monica; Escalona, Nicholas; Cysner, Jessica; Hamilton, Rachel; Pfaffmann, Jeffrey; Johnson, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Direct relationships between induced mutation in the "DCDC2" candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene in mice and changes in behavioral measures of visual spatial learning have been reported. We were interested in determining whether performance on a visual-spatial learning and memory task could be translated across species (study 1) and…

  6. Dyslexia and the Individual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Patrick

    The main objective of this book is to explain the thinking that is involved in working out a systematic scheme of the variables related to dyslexia. The contents of the book include "Origins of the Approach,""Some Principles of Instruction"; "Verbal Behavior"; "Our Ideas about Language"; "Left and Right"; "The Biology of the Book"; "Exploring…

  7. Translating Dyslexia across Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Lisa A.; Manglani, Monica; Escalona, Nicholas; Cysner, Jessica; Hamilton, Rachel; Pfaffmann, Jeffrey; Johnson, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Direct relationships between induced mutation in the "DCDC2" candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene in mice and changes in behavioral measures of visual spatial learning have been reported. We were interested in determining whether performance on a visual-spatial learning and memory task could be translated across species (study 1) and…

  8. Art, Pedagogy and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Richard; Brens, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    This article presents exploratory research examining the strategies employed by art teachers who identify as dyslexic. The study originated out of the personal interest of the researchers better to understand the strategies for learning used by teachers with dyslexia and the potential influence it has on their pedagogy. The question that this…

  9. Dyslexia and the Individual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Patrick

    The main objective of this book is to explain the thinking that is involved in working out a systematic scheme of the variables related to dyslexia. The contents of the book include "Origins of the Approach,""Some Principles of Instruction"; "Verbal Behavior"; "Our Ideas about Language"; "Left and Right"; "The Biology of the Book"; "Exploring…

  10. Procedural Learning and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolson, R. I.; Fawcett, A. J.; Brookes, R. L.; Needle, J.

    2010-01-01

    Three major "neural systems", specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed ("Trends Neurosci.",30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief…

  11. Does Dyslexia Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Julian G.; Gibbs, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we argue that attempts to distinguish between categories of "dyslexia" and "poor reader" or "reading disabled" are scientifically unsupportable, arbitrary and thus potentially discriminatory. We do not seek to veto scientific curiosity in examining underlying factors in reading disability, for seeking greater understanding of the…

  12. Dyslexia, Dyspraxia and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Dorian

    This book explores how primary school children with dyslexia or dyspraxia and difficulty in math can learn math and provides practical support and detailed teaching suggestions. It considers cognitive features that underlie difficulty with mathematics generally or with specific aspects of mathematics. It outlines the ways in which children usually…

  13. Dyslexia: What Teachers Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joan A.; Lynch, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    Though the term dyslexia is familiar to the American public and is frequently seen in the media, it often is misunderstood, even in the educational setting. The International Dyslexia Association established the following definition of dyslexia: Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by…

  14. Dyslexia: What Teachers Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Joan A.; Lynch, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    Though the term dyslexia is familiar to the American public and is frequently seen in the media, it often is misunderstood, even in the educational setting. The International Dyslexia Association established the following definition of dyslexia: Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by…

  15. The effect of syntax on reading in neglect dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah

    2011-08-01

    Individuals with text-based neglect dyslexia omit words on the neglected side of the sentence or text, usually on the left side. This study tested whether the syntactic structure of the target sentence affects reading in this type of neglect dyslexia. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, it enables testing whether the beginning of the sentence and its syntactic properties determine if the final, leftmost, constituent is omitted or not. The participants were 7 Hebrew-speaking individuals with acquired left text-based neglect dyslexia, without syntactic impairments. Each participant read 310 sentences, in which we compared 5 types of minimal pairs of sentences that differed in the obligatoriness of the final (left) constituent. Complements were compared with adjuncts, obligatory pronouns were compared with optional resumptive pronouns, and the object of a past tense verb was compared with the object of a present tense verb, which can also be taken to be an adjective, which does not require an object. Questions that require a verb were compared with questions that can appear without a verb, and clauses that serve as sentential complements of a verb were compared with coordinated clauses, which are not required by the verb. In addition, we compared the reading of noun sequences to the reading of meaningful sentences, and assessed the neglect point in reading 2 texts. The results clearly indicated that the syntactic knowledge of the readers with neglect dyslexia modulated their sentence reading. They tended to keep on reading as long as the syntactic and lexical-syntactic requirements of the sentence had not been met. In 4 of the conditions twice as many omissions occurred when the final constituent was optional than when it was obligatory. Text reading was also guided by a search for a "happy end" that does not violate syntactic or semantic requirements. Thus, the syntactic structure of the target sentence modulates reading and neglect errors in text

  16. Dyslexia: Neuroanatomical/Neurolinguistic Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; Hynd, Cynthia R.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews attempts to adequately define dyslexia with a focus on recent efforts at developing a nosology of dyslexia and discusses the neurological basis of reading and severe reading failure with an emphasis on validating evidence provided through brain-mapping procedures and postmortem studies. (HOD)

  17. Visual Persistence and Adult Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Roberta L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Visual persistence was investigated in adults with and without dyslexia in order to determine whether dyslexic adults demonstrate problems similar to those found in childhood dyslexia. Results showed that sensitivity of dyslexic adults was impaired when parts of a test stimulus were presented to adjacent retinal areas, suggesting that under…

  18. A Critical Approach towards Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Bobby

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses dyslexia (one of the many complex issues that affects students) and the ways to tackle it appropriately. Dyslexia is described as a syndrome in which a person's reading and/or writing ability is significantly lower than that which would be predicted by his or her general level of intelligence. People are diagnosed as…

  19. Dyslexia: Neuroanatomical/Neurolinguistic Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; Hynd, Cynthia R.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews attempts to adequately define dyslexia with a focus on recent efforts at developing a nosology of dyslexia and discusses the neurological basis of reading and severe reading failure with an emphasis on validating evidence provided through brain-mapping procedures and postmortem studies. (HOD)

  20. Dyslexia (specific reading disability).

    PubMed

    Shaywitz, Sally E; Shaywitz, Bennett A

    2005-06-01

    Converging evidence from a number of lines of investigation indicates that dyslexia represents a disorder within the language system and more specifically within a particular subcomponent of that system, phonological processing. Recent advances in imaging technology, particularly the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging, provide evidence of a neurobiological signature for dyslexia, specifically a disruption of two left hemisphere posterior brain systems, one parieto-temporal, the other occipito-temporal, with compensatory engagement of anterior systems around the inferior frontal gyrus and a posterior (right occipito-temporal) system. Furthermore, good evidence indicates a computational role for the left occipito-temporal system: the development of fluent (automatic) reading. The brain systems for reading are malleable and their disruption in dyslexic children may be remediated by provision of an evidence-based, effective reading intervention. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of young adults with reading difficulties followed prospectively and longitudinally from age 5 through their mid twenties suggests that there may be two types of reading difficulties, one primarily on a genetic basis, the other, and far more common, reflecting environmental influences. These studies offer the promise for more precise identification and effective management of dyslexia in children, adolescents and adults.

  1. Tackling the 'dyslexia paradox': reading brain and behavior for early markers of developmental dyslexiax.

    PubMed

    Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Gaab, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is an unexplained inability to acquire accurate or fluent reading that affects approximately 5-17% of children. Dyslexia is associated with structural and functional alterations in various brain regions that support reading. Neuroimaging studies in infants and pre-reading children suggest that these alterations predate reading instruction and reading failure, supporting the hypothesis that variant function in dyslexia susceptibility genes lead to atypical neural migration and/or axonal growth during early, most likely in utero, brain development. Yet, dyslexia is typically not diagnosed until a child has failed to learn to read as expected (usually in second grade or later). There is emerging evidence that neuroimaging measures, when combined with key behavioral measures, can enhance the accuracy of identification of dyslexia risk in pre-reading children but its sensitivity, specificity, and cost-efficiency is still unclear. Early identification of dyslexia risk carries important implications for dyslexia remediation and the amelioration of the psychosocial consequences commonly associated with reading failure.

  2. Profiling dyslexia in bilingual adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Christina

    2012-12-01

    This article addresses the issue of whether difficulties with reading and writing in a second language learner stem from developmental dyslexia or from issues associated with second language acquisition. In line with a phonological explanatory model of dyslexia, phonological processing and reading (decoding at both word and text levels) were tested, using data from 10 Spanish-Swedish speaking adolescents whose teachers had identified them as possibly having dyslectic difficulties, and a matched comparison group of 10 Spanish-Swedish speaking adolescents with no reading difficulties. Unlike previous studies, this analysis takes into account results from both languages and uses a matched bilingual comparison group as the norm. Based on these results, a bilingual dyslexia continuum is proposed as an analytical tool to be used for the assessment of developmental dyslexia from a bilingual perspective. The systematized continuum offers various degrees of difficulty -from high indications of dyslexia to no indications of dyslexia-and the positioning along this continuum by the target group participants of this study provides examples of both over- and under-identification of dyslexia. Overall, a greater number of participants in the target group were under-identified rather than over-identified by the schools. An important insight of this study is that the positioning of bilingual participants on the continuum would have been different if the analysis had taken only one of the two languages into account. Furthermore, possible effects from differences between Spanish and Swedish orthographies and syllable structure were observed, as, in general, the participants read more accurately in Spanish. The present data also suggest that decoding processing might vary more in second-language learners with dyslexia compared to monolingual individuals with dyslexia.

  3. When 'slime' becomes 'smile': developmental letter position dyslexia in English.

    PubMed

    Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Castles, Anne; Friedmann, Naama; McArthur, Genevieve

    2012-12-01

    We report the first three cases of selective developmental letter position dyslexia in English. Although the parents and teachers of the children were concerned about these children's reading, standard tests did not reveal their deficit. It was only when the appropriate target words were presented, in this case, migratable words, that their letter position dyslexia was detected. Whereas previous research has described cases with acquired and developmental forms of letter position dyslexia in Hebrew and Arabic readers, this is the first report of this type of reading disorder in English. The cardinal symptom of letter position dyslexia is the migration of letters within the word (reading slime as 'smile'; pirates as 'parties'). These migration errors occur in reading aloud as well as in tasks of silent reading. This study provides further evidence that migration errors emerge at the level of early visual-orthographic analysis, in the letter position encoding function. Alternative explanations for the occurrence of migration errors such as poor phonological processing or a deficit in the orthographic input lexicon are ruled out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Visual memory transformations in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Barnes, James; Hinkley, Lisa; Masters, Stuart; Boubert, Laura

    2007-06-01

    Representational Momentum refers to observers' distortion of recognition memory for pictures that imply motion because of an automatic mental process which extrapolates along the implied trajectory of the picture. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that activity in the magnocellular visual pathway is necessary for representational momentum to occur. It has been proposed that individuals with dyslexia have a magnocellular deficit, so it was hypothesised that these individuals would show reduced or absent representational momentum. In this study, 30 adults with dyslexia and 30 age-matched controls were compared on two tasks, one linear and one rotation, which had previously elicited the representational momentum effect. Analysis indicated significant differences in the performance of the two groups, with the dyslexia group having a reduced susceptibility to representational momentum in both linear and rotational directions. The findings highlight that deficits in temporal spatial processing may contribute to the perceptual profile of dyslexia.

  5. Translating dyslexia across species.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Lisa A; Manglani, Monica; Escalona, Nicholas; Cysner, Jessica; Hamilton, Rachel; Pfaffmann, Jeffrey; Johnson, Evelyn

    2016-10-01

    Direct relationships between induced mutation in the DCDC2 candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene in mice and changes in behavioral measures of visual spatial learning have been reported. We were interested in determining whether performance on a visual-spatial learning and memory task could be translated across species (study 1) and whether children with reading impairment showed a similar impairment to animal models of the disorder (study 2). Study 1 included 37 participants who completed six trials of four different virtual Hebb-Williams maze configurations. A 2 × 4 × 6 mixed factorial repeated measures ANOVA indicated consistency in performance between humans and mice on these tasks, enabling us to translate across species. Study 2 included a total of 91 participants (age range = 8-13 years). Eighteen participants were identified with reading disorder by performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Participants completed six trials of five separate virtual Hebb-Williams maze configurations. A 2 × 5 × 6 mixed factorial ANCOVA (gender as covariate) indicated that individuals with reading impairment demonstrated impaired visuo-spatial performance on this task. Overall, results from this study suggest that we are able to translate behavioral deficits observed in genetic animal models of dyslexia to humans with reading impairment. Future studies will utilize the virtual environment to further explore the underlying basis for this impairment.

  6. Procedural learning and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, R I; Fawcett, A J; Brookes, R L; Needle, J

    2010-08-01

    Three major 'neural systems', specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed (Trends Neurosci., 30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief overview of the increasing evidence relating to the hypothesis, noting that the framework involves two main claims: first that 'neural systems' provides a productive level of description avoiding the underspecificity of cognitive descriptions and the overspecificity of brain structural accounts; and second that a distinctive feature of procedural learning is its extended time course, covering from minutes to months. In this article, we focus on the second claim. Three studies-speeded single word reading, long-term response learning, and overnight skill consolidation-are reviewed which together provide clear evidence of difficulties in procedural learning for individuals with dyslexia, even when the tasks are outside the literacy domain. The educational implications of the results are then discussed, and in particular the potential difficulties that impaired overnight procedural consolidation would entail. It is proposed that response to intervention could be better predicted if diagnostic tests on the different forms of learning were first undertaken.

  7. Developmental dyslexia: predicting individual risk.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul A; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M; Gooch, Debbie; Hayiou-Thomas, Emma; Snowling, Margaret J

    2015-09-01

    Causal theories of dyslexia suggest that it is a heritable disorder, which is the outcome of multiple risk factors. However, whether early screening for dyslexia is viable is not yet known. The study followed children at high risk of dyslexia from preschool through the early primary years assessing them from age 3 years and 6 months (T1) at approximately annual intervals on tasks tapping cognitive, language, and executive-motor skills. The children were recruited to three groups: children at family risk of dyslexia, children with concerns regarding speech, and language development at 3;06 years and controls considered to be typically developing. At 8 years, children were classified as 'dyslexic' or not. Logistic regression models were used to predict the individual risk of dyslexia and to investigate how risk factors accumulate to predict poor literacy outcomes. Family-risk status was a stronger predictor of dyslexia at 8 years than low language in preschool. Additional predictors in the preschool years include letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and executive skills. At the time of school entry, language skills become significant predictors, and motor skills add a small but significant increase to the prediction probability. We present classification accuracy using different probability cutoffs for logistic regression models and ROC curves to highlight the accumulation of risk factors at the individual level. Dyslexia is the outcome of multiple risk factors and children with language difficulties at school entry are at high risk. Family history of dyslexia is a predictor of literacy outcome from the preschool years. However, screening does not reach an acceptable clinical level until close to school entry when letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and RAN, rather than family risk, together provide good sensitivity and specificity as a screening battery. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by

  8. Developmental dyslexia: predicting individual risk

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul A; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M; Gooch, Debbie; Hayiou-Thomas, Emma; Snowling, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Background Causal theories of dyslexia suggest that it is a heritable disorder, which is the outcome of multiple risk factors. However, whether early screening for dyslexia is viable is not yet known. Methods The study followed children at high risk of dyslexia from preschool through the early primary years assessing them from age 3 years and 6 months (T1) at approximately annual intervals on tasks tapping cognitive, language, and executive-motor skills. The children were recruited to three groups: children at family risk of dyslexia, children with concerns regarding speech, and language development at 3;06 years and controls considered to be typically developing. At 8 years, children were classified as ‘dyslexic’ or not. Logistic regression models were used to predict the individual risk of dyslexia and to investigate how risk factors accumulate to predict poor literacy outcomes. Results Family-risk status was a stronger predictor of dyslexia at 8 years than low language in preschool. Additional predictors in the preschool years include letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and executive skills. At the time of school entry, language skills become significant predictors, and motor skills add a small but significant increase to the prediction probability. We present classification accuracy using different probability cutoffs for logistic regression models and ROC curves to highlight the accumulation of risk factors at the individual level. Conclusions Dyslexia is the outcome of multiple risk factors and children with language difficulties at school entry are at high risk. Family history of dyslexia is a predictor of literacy outcome from the preschool years. However, screening does not reach an acceptable clinical level until close to school entry when letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and RAN, rather than family risk, together provide good sensitivity and specificity as a screening battery. PMID:25832320

  9. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  10. Coexisting Problem Behaviour in Severe Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahle, Anne Elisabeth; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Andreassen, Anne Brit

    2011-01-01

    A small group of children and young adolescent with dyslexia has severely impaired reading skills despite prolonged special education. These are the students in focus. In dyslexia, problem behaviour, internalised as well as externalised, has previously been reported, so also for the participants with dyslexia in this study. The aim of the present…

  11. Teachers' Understandings, Perspectives, and Experiences of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jo; DeJulio, Samuel; Svrcek, Natalie; Villarreal, Doris Ann; Derbyshire, Christine; LeeKeenan, Kira; Wiebe, Molly Trinh; Lammert, Catherine; Rubin, Jessica Cira; Salmerón, Cori

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia policy and practice have been rapidly outpacing research. Due to legislation and media attention, schools are under pressure to attend to dyslexia, but research provides few clear answers about characteristics, identification, or instruction. Most dyslexia research takes place outside literacy education, and teachers' perspectives are…

  12. Coexisting Problem Behaviour in Severe Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahle, Anne Elisabeth; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Andreassen, Anne Brit

    2011-01-01

    A small group of children and young adolescent with dyslexia has severely impaired reading skills despite prolonged special education. These are the students in focus. In dyslexia, problem behaviour, internalised as well as externalised, has previously been reported, so also for the participants with dyslexia in this study. The aim of the present…

  13. Teachers' Understandings, Perspectives, and Experiences of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jo; DeJulio, Samuel; Svrcek, Natalie; Villarreal, Doris Ann; Derbyshire, Christine; LeeKeenan, Kira; Wiebe, Molly Trinh; Lammert, Catherine; Rubin, Jessica Cira; Salmerón, Cori

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia policy and practice have been rapidly outpacing research. Due to legislation and media attention, schools are under pressure to attend to dyslexia, but research provides few clear answers about characteristics, identification, or instruction. Most dyslexia research takes place outside literacy education, and teachers' perspectives are…

  14. Dyslexia: Its History, Etiology, and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesbach, Gay

    Of all human maladies which account for learning disabilities among young and old alike, few remain as poorly understood and inconclusively defined as dyslexia. The general public perceives dyslexia to be a reading problem; some psychologists believe that dyslexia can stem from a low socio-economic status; educators see the term as involving…

  15. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  16. Adult Dyslexia and the "Conundrum of Failure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    While there is a wealth of literature about childhood dyslexia, adult dyslexia remains relatively undocumented, particularly from a lived perspective. This paper focuses on the "deficit perspective of failure", as highlighted in current literature, which addresses issues confronting adults with dyslexia. Within this theme of failure a…

  17. What Educators Really Believe about Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadlington, Elizabeth M.; Wadlington, Patrick L.

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to create and validate a scale measuring beliefs regarding dyslexia, (b) to use the scale to investigate the beliefs of educators regarding dyslexia, and (c) to recommend ways that educators can be better prepared to help students with dyslexia. Participants included university faculty as well as undergraduate…

  18. Naming Speed in Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willburger, Edith; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Wood, Guilherme; Landerl, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In four carefully selected samples of 8- to 10-year old children with dyslexia (but age adequate arithmetic skills), dyscalculia (but age adequate reading skills), dyslexia/dyscalculia and controls a domain-general deficit in rapid automatized naming (RAN) was found for both dyslexia groups. Dyscalculic children exhibited a domain-specific deficit…

  19. Neuroanatomical and Neurophysiological Aspects of Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccio, Cynthia A.; Hynd, George W.

    1996-01-01

    Research findings from autopsy studies, neuroimaging, functional imaging, and electrophysiological measures specific to dyslexia have provided a better understanding of the reading process, particularly as it applies to individuals with dyslexia. Evidence from these studies pertaining to the neurological origins of dyslexia is reviewed, and…

  20. Adult Dyslexia and the "Conundrum of Failure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    While there is a wealth of literature about childhood dyslexia, adult dyslexia remains relatively undocumented, particularly from a lived perspective. This paper focuses on the "deficit perspective of failure", as highlighted in current literature, which addresses issues confronting adults with dyslexia. Within this theme of failure a…

  1. What Educators Really Believe about Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadlington, Elizabeth M.; Wadlington, Patrick L.

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to create and validate a scale measuring beliefs regarding dyslexia, (b) to use the scale to investigate the beliefs of educators regarding dyslexia, and (c) to recommend ways that educators can be better prepared to help students with dyslexia. Participants included university faculty as well as undergraduate…

  2. Naming Speed in Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willburger, Edith; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Wood, Guilherme; Landerl, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In four carefully selected samples of 8- to 10-year old children with dyslexia (but age adequate arithmetic skills), dyscalculia (but age adequate reading skills), dyslexia/dyscalculia and controls a domain-general deficit in rapid automatized naming (RAN) was found for both dyslexia groups. Dyscalculic children exhibited a domain-specific deficit…

  3. Neuroanatomical precursors of dyslexia identified from pre-reading through to age 11

    PubMed Central

    Helland, Turid; Specht, Karsten; Narr, Katherine L.; Manis, Franklin R.; Toga, Arthur W.; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a common reading disorder that negatively impacts an individual’s ability to achieve literacy. Although the brain network involved in reading and its dysfunction in dyslexia has been well studied, it is unknown whether dyslexia is caused by structural abnormalities in the reading network itself or in the lower-level networks that provide input to the reading network. In this study, we acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging scans longitudinally from 27 Norwegian children from before formal literacy training began until after dyslexia was diagnosed. Thus, we were able to determine that the primary neuroanatomical abnormalities that precede dyslexia are not in the reading network itself, but rather in lower-level areas responsible for auditory and visual processing and core executive functions. Abnormalities in the reading network itself were only observed at age 11, after children had learned how to read. The findings suggest that abnormalities in the reading network are the consequence of having different reading experiences, rather than dyslexia per se, whereas the neuroanatomical precursors are predominantly in primary sensory cortices. PMID:25125610

  4. Neuroanatomical precursors of dyslexia identified from pre-reading through to age 11.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kristi A; Helland, Turid; Specht, Karsten; Narr, Katherine L; Manis, Franklin R; Toga, Arthur W; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a common reading disorder that negatively impacts an individual's ability to achieve literacy. Although the brain network involved in reading and its dysfunction in dyslexia has been well studied, it is unknown whether dyslexia is caused by structural abnormalities in the reading network itself or in the lower-level networks that provide input to the reading network. In this study, we acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging scans longitudinally from 27 Norwegian children from before formal literacy training began until after dyslexia was diagnosed. Thus, we were able to determine that the primary neuroanatomical abnormalities that precede dyslexia are not in the reading network itself, but rather in lower-level areas responsible for auditory and visual processing and core executive functions. Abnormalities in the reading network itself were only observed at age 11, after children had learned how to read. The findings suggest that abnormalities in the reading network are the consequence of having different reading experiences, rather than dyslexia per se, whereas the neuroanatomical precursors are predominantly in primary sensory cortices. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Multiprocess lateralisation in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Boles, David; Turan, Tanya

    2003-04-01

    Previous studies of behavioural asymmetries in dyslexia have emphasised verbal measures, and have not generally supported differences in functional asymmetry between dyslexic and normal readers. Here a multiprocess approach is taken, employing a sample of adult dyslexic readers. An unusual pattern of lateralisation is found for bargraph recognition, a visual spatial quantitative task. Unlike the right hemisphere pattern found in normal readers, dyslexic readers appear to perform spatial quantitative processing in the left hemisphere. These results are consistent with parietal lobe dysfunction in reading disability, and more specifically with an angular gyrus dysfunction as suggested by recent MRI and PET results. Possible causes are discussed for this right-to-left shift in function, in the face of a left-to-right shift in brain tissue reported in the literature.

  6. Dyslexia Defined. NetNews. Volume 5, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Learning Disabilities Association (LDA) of Minnesota has gotten many questions over the years about dyslexia. Examples of questions answered in this issue include: (1) When a learner reverses letters, is this dyslexia? (2) How does one teach an adult with dyslexia? (3) Can dyslexia be cured? and (4) Can GED accommodations be received for dyslexia?…

  7. Developmental attentional dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Naama; Kerbel, Noa; Shvimer, Lilach

    2010-01-01

    Attentional dyslexia is a reading deficit in which letters migrate between neighboring words, but are correctly identified and keep their correct relative position within the word. Thus, for example, fig tree can be read as fig free or even tie free. This study reports on 10 Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental attentional dyslexia and explores in detail the characteristics of their between-word errors. Each participant read 2290 words, presented in word pairs: 845 horizontally presented word pairs, 240 vertically presented word pairs, and 60 nonword pairs. The main results are that almost all migrations preserve the relative position of the migrating letter within the word, indicating that the between-word position can be impaired while the within-word position encoding remains intact. This result is also supported by the finding that the participants did not make many letter position errors within words. Further analyses indicated that more errors occur in longer words, that most migrations occur in final letters (which are the leftmost letters in Hebrew), and that letters migrate both horizontally and vertically, and more frequently from the first to the second word in horizontal presentation. More migrations occurred when the result of migration was an existing word. Similarity between words in a pair did not increase error rates, and more migrations occurred when the words shared fewer letters. The between-word errors included the classic errors of migration of a letter between words, but also omission of one instance of a letter that appeared in the same position in the two words, an error that constituted a considerable percentage of the between-word errors, and intrusion of a letter from one word to the corresponding position in the neighboring word without erasing the original letter in the same position.

  8. Perceptual organization of speech signals by children with and without dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a condition in which children encounter difficulty learning to read in spite of adequate instruction. Although considerable effort has been expended trying to identify the source of the problem, no single solution has been agreed upon. The current study explored a new hypothesis, that developmental dyslexia may be due to faulty perceptual organization of linguistically relevant sensory input. To test that idea, sentence-length speech signals were processed to create either sine-wave or noise-vocoded analogs. Seventy children between 8 and 11 years of age, with and without dyslexia participated. Children with dyslexia were selected to have phonological awareness deficits, although those without such deficits were retained in the study. The processed sentences were presented for recognition, and measures of reading, phonological awareness, and expressive vocabulary were collected. Results showed that children with dyslexia, regardless of phonological subtype, had poorer recognition scores than children without dyslexia for both kinds of degraded sentences. Older children with dyslexia recognized the sine-wave sentences better than younger children with dyslexia, but no such effect of age was found for the vocoded materials. Recognition scores were used as predictor variables in regression analyses with reading, phonological awareness, and vocabulary measures used as dependent variables. Scores for both sorts of sentence materials were strong predictors of performance on all three dependent measures when all children were included, but only performance for the sine-wave materials explained significant proportions of variance when only children with dyslexia were included. Finally, matching young, typical readers with older children with dyslexia on reading abilities did not mitigate the group difference in recognition of vocoded sentences. Conclusions were that children with dyslexia have difficulty organizing linguistically relevant sensory

  9. Stroop interference in adults with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Michael J; Elmasry, Hannah-May

    2015-01-01

    Prior research on developmental dyslexia using Stroop tasks with young participants has found increased interference in participants with dyslexia relative to controls. Here we extend these findings to adult participants, and introduce a novel test of Stroop incongruity, whereby the color names appeared on an object colored in the incongruent color. The results imply that impaired inhibitory and executive attentional mechanisms are still deficient in adults with dyslexia and that other forms of attentional mechanisms, such as object-based attention, might also be impaired in dyslexia. Dyslexia arises not only from deficits in phonological processing, but from attentional mechanisms as well.

  10. Dysfunction of Rapid Neural Adaptation in Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Winter, Rebecca; Murtagh, Jack; Cyr, Abigail; Chang, Patricia; Halverson, Kelly; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-12-21

    Identification of specific neurophysiological dysfunctions resulting in selective reading difficulty (dyslexia) has remained elusive. In addition to impaired reading development, individuals with dyslexia frequently exhibit behavioral deficits in perceptual adaptation. Here, we assessed neurophysiological adaptation to stimulus repetition in adults and children with dyslexia for a wide variety of stimuli, spoken words, written words, visual objects, and faces. For every stimulus type, individuals with dyslexia exhibited significantly diminished neural adaptation compared to controls in stimulus-specific cortical areas. Better reading skills in adults and children with dyslexia were associated with greater repetition-induced neural adaptation. These results highlight a dysfunction of rapid neural adaptation as a core neurophysiological difference in dyslexia that may underlie impaired reading development. Reduced neurophysiological adaptation may relate to prior reports of reduced behavioral adaptation in dyslexia and may reveal a difference in brain functions that ultimately results in a specific reading impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effective Learning and Retention of Braille Letter Tactile Discrimination Skills in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayek, Maisam; Dorfberger, Shoshi; Karni, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia (DD) may differ from typical readers in aspects other than reading. The notion of a general deficit in the ability to acquire and retain procedural ("how to") knowledge as long-term procedural memory has been proposed. Here, we compared the ability of elementary school children, with and without…

  12. Effective Learning and Retention of Braille Letter Tactile Discrimination Skills in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayek, Maisam; Dorfberger, Shoshi; Karni, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia (DD) may differ from typical readers in aspects other than reading. The notion of a general deficit in the ability to acquire and retain procedural ("how to") knowledge as long-term procedural memory has been proposed. Here, we compared the ability of elementary school children, with and without…

  13. Dyslexia laws in the USA.

    PubMed

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and regulations for both identification and treatment, and the provision of equal access to students who are diagnosed with dyslexia. The majority of states, however, have not developed such laws and guidelines. The purposes of this article are to review the present status and content of these dyslexia laws, highlight some differences among the laws and regulations across states, and suggest strategies for initiating such laws.

  14. Dyslexia: a developmental language disorder.

    PubMed

    Simpson, S

    2000-09-01

    The acquisition of literacy in an alphabetic script such as English makes heavy demands on linguistic skills. The relation between spoken and written language however, is far from straightforward. This article reviews the research that suggests that phonological processing skills are crucial in the translation of symbols to sounds, and the development of rapid and automatic decoding skills. It examines research that indicates that children whose phonological processing skills are compromised in some way, are at-risk of experiencing difficulties in the acquisition of literacy; it supports the suggestion that dyslexia can be viewed as lying on the continuum of developmental language disorders. It goes on to relate theory to practice and discusses the responsibilities of health care professionals in relation to the early identification of dyslexia, and makes suggestions regarding intervention. In particular, it looks at the responsibilities of speech and language therapy services in the care and management of children with dyslexia.

  15. [Neurobiology and neurogenetics of dyslexia].

    PubMed

    Benítez-Burraco, A

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia is a learning disability in which reading (but not any other) impairment is the most prominent symptom. There seems to be a high comorbidity among dyslexia and other learning disabilities, such as SLI, SSD or ADHD. The nulear deficit in dyslexia appears to correspond to an impairment in phonological processing. Structural and functional studies in dyslexic readers converge to indicate the presence of malformations in the brain areas corresponding to the reading systems, but also a failure of these systems to function properly during reading. Genes linked (or associated) to dyslexia have been shown to be involved in neuronal migration and axon guidance during the formation of the cortex. In the developing cerebral neocortex of rats, local loss of function of most of these genes not only results in abnormal neuronal migration and neocortical and hippocampal malformations, but also in deficits related to auditory processing and learning. While the structural malformations resemble neuronal migration abnormalities observed in the brains of individuals with developmental dyslexia, processing/learning deficits also resemble deficits described in individuals affected by the disease. On the whole, dyslexia seems to be on a continuum with typical reading at different biological levels (genetic, biochemical, physiological, cognitive). Furthermore, certain elements belonging to some of these levels (mainly -some of the- genes linked or associated to the disease, but also -some of the- neuronal structures whose development is regulated by these genes) would simultaneously belong to those of other cognitive abilities, which give rise to diseases of a different nature (i.e. non- dyslexic impairments) when they are impaired. Copyright © 2009 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Asymmetry and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Christiana M; Eckert, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    Developmental language disorders are characterized by a maturational trajectory that deviates or lags that of normal children. Given the wide variation in the rate of normal language development, diagnosis and classification of these disorders poses severe problems for the clinician. Our laboratory has been searching for anatomical signatures that could aid the development of a neurobiologically based classification. Quantitative analysis of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans of a series of samples of children and adults with reading and language disorders has identified two clusters with contrasting anatomical and reading profiles. Individuals with small symmetrical brain structures tend to have deficits in multiple domains of written and oral language whereas those with larger asymmetrical structures are more likely to have the isolated phonological deficits seen in adults with compensated dyslexia. Surprisingly, the anatomical risk factors that define these clusters do not form a continuum of increasing severity but deviate in opposite directions from normal. Individuals with moderate brain size and asymmetry typically demonstrate the best overall performance. Further research should determine if phonological impairments in the two clusters are associated with differing genetic and environmental risk factors requiring different types of intervention.

  17. Developmental dyslexia and vision

    PubMed Central

    Quercia, Patrick; Feiss, Léonard; Michel, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia affects almost 10% of school-aged children and represents a significant public health problem. Its etiology is unknown. The consistent presence of phonological difficulties combined with an inability to manipulate language sounds and the grapheme–phoneme conversion is widely acknowledged. Numerous scientific studies have also documented the presence of eye movement anomalies and deficits of perception of low contrast, low spatial frequency, and high frequency temporal visual information in dyslexics. Anomalies of visual attention with short visual attention spans have also been demonstrated in a large number of cases. Spatial orientation is also affected in dyslexics who manifest a preference for spatial attention to the right. This asymmetry may be so pronounced that it leads to a veritable neglect of space on the left side. The evaluation of treatments proposed to dyslexics whether speech or oriented towards the visual anomalies remains fragmentary. The advent of new explanatory theories, notably cerebellar, magnocellular, or proprioceptive, is an incentive for ophthalmologists to enter the world of multimodal cognition given the importance of the eye’s visual input. PMID:23690677

  18. Dyslexia and attentional shifting.

    PubMed

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Markey, Hayley; López, Beatriz

    2007-10-29

    Dyslexia is a neurocognitive deficit primarily expressed in reading difficulties, but also affecting non-linguistic performance. Several studies report that dyslexics perform differently in the attentional blink paradigm, which indicates an impaired capacity to rapidly shift visual attention. However, attentional shifting can occur at different levels of cognitive processing, and it is unclear whether dyslexic attentional shifting is impaired at all levels, or only at the peripheral levels. We studied performance on a task-switching paradigm by dyslexics and normal readers to test whether the difficulty with attentional shifting occurs at the level of central cognitive processing. We found no specific impairments in task-switching in dyslexics. However, dyslexics performed generally much more slowly across all conditions than normal readers. We conclude that while dyslexics have a problem with attentional switching at a perceptual level, their capacity to rapidly switch between tasks is normal. Our findings add to previous studies indicating that dyslexic problems with shifting visual attention are caused by anomalies in more peripheral neural pathways, such as the magnocellular layers in the lateral geniculate nucleus.

  19. Integrating MRI brain imaging studies of pre-reading children with current theories of developmental dyslexia: A review and quantitative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vandermosten, Maaike; Hoeft, Fumiko; Norton, Elizabeth S

    2016-08-01

    The neurobiological substrates that cause people with dyslexia to experience difficulty in acquiring accurate and fluent reading skills are still largely unknown. Although structural and functional brain anomalies associated with dyslexia have been reported in adults and school-age children, these anomalies may represent differences in reading experience rather than the etiology of dyslexia. Conducting MRI studies of pre-readers at risk for dyslexia is one approach that enables us to identify brain alterations that exist before differences in reading experience emerge. The current review summarizes MRI studies that examine brain differences associated with risk for dyslexia in children before reading instruction and meta-analyzes these studies. In order to link these findings with current etiological theories of dyslexia, we focus on studies that take a modular perspective rather than a network approach. Although some of the observed differences in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia may still be shaped by language experiences during the first years of life, such studies underscore the existence of reading-related brain anomalies prior to reading onset and could eventually lead to earlier and more precise diagnosis and treatment of dyslexia.

  20. Integrating MRI brain imaging studies of pre-reading children with current theories of developmental dyslexia: A review and quantitative meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vandermosten, Maaike; Hoeft, Fumiko; Norton, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    The neurobiological substrates that cause people with dyslexia to experience difficulty in acquiring accurate and fluent reading skills are still largely unknown. Although structural and functional brain anomalies associated with dyslexia have been reported in adults and school-age children, these anomalies may represent differences in reading experience rather than the etiology of dyslexia. Conducting MRI studies of pre-readers at risk for dyslexia is one approach that enables us to identify brain alterations that exist before differences in reading experience emerge. The current review summarizes MRI studies that examine brain differences associated with risk for dyslexia in children before reading instruction and meta-analyzes these studies. In order to link these findings with current etiological theories of dyslexia, we focus on studies that take a modular perspective rather than a network approach. Although some of the observed differences in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia may still be shaped by language experiences during the first years of life, such studies underscore the existence of reading-related brain anomalies prior to reading onset and could eventually lead to earlier and more precise diagnosis and treatment of dyslexia. PMID:27458603

  1. Practitioners' Perceptions of Dyslexia and Approaches towards Teaching Learners with Dyslexia in Adult Literacy Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ade-Ojo, Gordon O.

    2012-01-01

    Learners with dyslexia are likely to be over-represented in adult literacy classes because of the convergence in perceptions, causes and understanding of literacy problems and dyslexia. Given the great amount of apprehension about practitioners' and policy makers' understanding of dyslexia itself, it is important to carry out an exploration of the…

  2. Teacher Attitudes toward Dyslexia: Effects on Teacher Expectations and the Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an…

  3. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  4. Practitioners' Perceptions of Dyslexia and Approaches towards Teaching Learners with Dyslexia in Adult Literacy Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ade-Ojo, Gordon O.

    2012-01-01

    Learners with dyslexia are likely to be over-represented in adult literacy classes because of the convergence in perceptions, causes and understanding of literacy problems and dyslexia. Given the great amount of apprehension about practitioners' and policy makers' understanding of dyslexia itself, it is important to carry out an exploration of the…

  5. Teacher Attitudes toward Dyslexia: Effects on Teacher Expectations and the Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an…

  6. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  7. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  8. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  9. Reading, Dyslexia and the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Background: Neuroimaging offers unique opportunities for understanding the acquisition of reading by children and for unravelling the mystery of developmental dyslexia. Here, I provide a selective overview of recent neuroimaging studies, drawing out implications for education and the teaching of reading. Purpose: The different neuroimaging…

  10. Brain Hemisphericity and Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachos, Filippos; Andreou, Eleni; Delliou, Afroditi

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the link between brain hemisphericity and dyslexia in secondary school students, using the Preference Test (PT), a widely used self-report index of preferred hemisphere thinking styles. The hypothesis was that differences would be revealed between the dyslexic group and their peers in hemispheric preference. A total of…

  11. Dyslexia and Hyperlexia in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malatesha Joshi, R.; Padakannaya, Prakash; Nishanimath, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the nature of reading difficulties of two bilinguals in Kannada and English, which vary in their orthographic depth and script layout. VN and MS manifest two different types of reading disabilities, dyslexia and hyperlexia, respectively. The performance of VN was below average on Kannada and English tests of phonemic awareness,…

  12. Brain Hemisphericity and Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachos, Filippos; Andreou, Eleni; Delliou, Afroditi

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the link between brain hemisphericity and dyslexia in secondary school students, using the Preference Test (PT), a widely used self-report index of preferred hemisphere thinking styles. The hypothesis was that differences would be revealed between the dyslexic group and their peers in hemispheric preference. A total of…

  13. Morphological Awareness in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, Severine; Cole, Pascale; Sopo, Delphine

    2004-01-01

    This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to…

  14. Dyslexia and Hyperlexia in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malatesha Joshi, R.; Padakannaya, Prakash; Nishanimath, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the nature of reading difficulties of two bilinguals in Kannada and English, which vary in their orthographic depth and script layout. VN and MS manifest two different types of reading disabilities, dyslexia and hyperlexia, respectively. The performance of VN was below average on Kannada and English tests of phonemic awareness,…

  15. Manifestations of Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osisanya, Ayo; Lazarus, Kelechi; Adewunmi, Abiodun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of dyslexia and dyscalculia among persons with academic deficits in English Language and Mathematics in public primary schools in Ibadan metropolis. A correlational survey study, sampling 477 pupils who were between the ages of eight and 12 years, and in 4th and 5th grades with the use of four research…

  16. Debunking the Myths of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorwarth, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability, which affects reading in as many as one in five people. Many children go without proper interventions because of ineffective teaching strategies, and common myths associated with this disability. The purpose of this study was to test how deeply ingrained some myths might be, and decipher where educators…

  17. Reading, Dyslexia and the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Background: Neuroimaging offers unique opportunities for understanding the acquisition of reading by children and for unravelling the mystery of developmental dyslexia. Here, I provide a selective overview of recent neuroimaging studies, drawing out implications for education and the teaching of reading. Purpose: The different neuroimaging…

  18. Morphological Awareness in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, Severine; Cole, Pascale; Sopo, Delphine

    2004-01-01

    This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to…

  19. Manifestations of Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osisanya, Ayo; Lazarus, Kelechi; Adewunmi, Abiodun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of dyslexia and dyscalculia among persons with academic deficits in English Language and Mathematics in public primary schools in Ibadan metropolis. A correlational survey study, sampling 477 pupils who were between the ages of eight and 12 years, and in 4th and 5th grades with the use of four research…

  20. College students with dyslexia: persistent linguistic deficits and foreign language learning.

    PubMed

    Downey, D M; Snyder, L E; Hill, B

    2000-01-01

    The first of these two studies compared college students with dyslexia enrolled in modified Latin and Spanish classes and non-dyslexic students enrolled in regular foreign language classes on measures of foreign language aptitude, word decoding, spelling, phonological awareness and word repetition. The groups did not differ on age or grade point average. Analyses indicated that students with dyslexia performed significantly poorer on the foreign language aptitude measures as well as on both phonological tasks, reading and spelling. In the second study, students with learning disabilities who were enrolled in a modified Latin class were not significantly different from their peers in a regular Latin class on grade point average or on performance on a proficiency examination at the end of the second semester. The data suggest that while phonological processing deficits persist into adulthood, students with dyslexia are able to acquire appropriate skills and information to successfully complete the University's foreign language requirement in classes modified to meet their needs.

  1. Incidental learning of sound categories is impaired in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L

    2015-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Incidental Learning of Sound Categories is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. PMID:26409017

  3. Implicit learning of non-linguistic and linguistic regularities in children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Luciana; Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Simpson, Ian C; Defior, Sylvia

    2016-07-01

    One of the hallmarks of dyslexia is the failure to automatise written patterns despite repeated exposure to print. Although many explanations have been proposed to explain this problem, researchers have recently begun to explore the possibility that an underlying implicit learning deficit may play a role in dyslexia. This hypothesis has been investigated through non-linguistic tasks exploring implicit learning in a general domain. In this study, we examined the abilities of children with dyslexia to implicitly acquire positional regularities embedded in both non-linguistic and linguistic stimuli. In experiment 1, 42 children (21 with dyslexia and 21 typically developing) were exposed to rule-governed shape sequences; whereas in experiment 2, a new group of 42 children were exposed to rule-governed letter strings. Implicit learning was assessed in both experiments via a forced-choice task. Experiments 1 and 2 showed a similar pattern of results. ANOVA analyses revealed no significant differences between the dyslexic and the typically developing group, indicating that children with dyslexia are not impaired in the acquisition of simple positional regularities, regardless of the nature of the stimuli. However, within group t-tests suggested that children from the dyslexic group could not transfer the underlying positional rules to novel instances as efficiently as typically developing children.

  4. Right-hemisphere reading in a case of developmental deep dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Funnell, Elaine; De Haan, Bianca; Morgan, Paul S

    2007-09-01

    The right-hemisphere hypothesis of deep dyslexia has received support from functional imaging studies of acquired deep dyslexia following damage to the left cerebral hemisphere, but no imaging studies of cases of developmental deep dyslexia, in which brain damage is not suspected, have been reported. In this paper, we report the first evidence of right hyperactivation in an adult case of developmental deep dyslexia. Hyperactivation was observed in the right inferior frontal cortex during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the oral reading of imageable content words and nonwords to which imageable lexical responses were frequently made. No evidence of right hyperactivation was observed in the oral reading of function words, nor during the naming of imageable words in response to pictured objects. The results reveal strategic and selective use of right-hemisphere functions for particular types of written stimuli. We propose that children with developmental deep dyslexia compensate for their lack of phonological skills by accessing right-hemisphere imageable associations that provide a mnemonic for linking written forms to spoken names.

  5. Dyslexia: The evolution of a scientific concept.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jack M

    2009-07-01

    In the past 25 years, scientific understanding of dyslexia and other learning disabilities has seen rapid progress in domains involving definition and classification, neuropsychological correlates, neurobiological factors, and intervention. I discuss this progress, emphasizing the central organizing influence of research and theory on basic academic skills on identification and sampling issues. I also emphasize how neuropsychological approaches to dyslexia have evolved and the importance of an interdisciplinary perspective for understanding dyslexia.

  6. Computer-based learning of spelling skills in children with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kast, Monika; Baschera, Gian-Marco; Gross, Markus; Jäncke, Lutz; Meyer, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Our spelling training software recodes words into multisensory representations comprising visual and auditory codes. These codes represent information about letters and syllables of a word. An enhanced version, developed for this study, contains an additional phonological code and an improved word selection controller relying on a phoneme-based student model. We investigated the spelling behavior of children by means of learning curves based on log-file data of the previous and the enhanced software version. First, we compared the learning progress of children with dyslexia working either with the previous software (n = 28) or the adapted version (n = 37). Second, we investigated the spelling behavior of children with dyslexia (n = 37) and matched children without dyslexia (n = 25). To gain deeper insight into which factors are relevant for acquiring spelling skills, we analyzed the influence of cognitive abilities, such as attention functions and verbal memory skills, on the learning behavior. All investigations of the learning process are based on learning curve analyses of the collected log-file data. The results evidenced that those children with dyslexia benefit significantly from the additional phonological cue and the corresponding phoneme-based student model. Actually, children with dyslexia improve their spelling skills to the same extent as children without dyslexia and were able to memorize phoneme to grapheme correspondence when given the correct support and adequate training. In addition, children with low attention functions benefit from the structured learning environment. Generally, our data showed that memory sources are supportive cognitive functions for acquiring spelling skills and for using the information cues of a multi-modal learning environment.

  7. Teacher attitudes toward dyslexia: effects on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an explicit, self-report measure. Achievement scores for 307 students were also obtained. Implicit teacher attitudes toward dyslexia related to teacher ratings of student achievement on a writing task and also to student achievement on standardized tests of spelling but not math for those students with dyslexia. Self-reported attitudes of the teachers toward dyslexia did not relate to any of the outcome measures. Neither the implicit nor the explicit measures of teacher attitudes related to teacher expectations. The results show implicit attitude measures to be a more valuable predictor of the achievement of students with dyslexia than explicit, self-report attitude measures.

  8. Fictional Characters with Dyslexia: What Are We Seeing in Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This article specifically looks at children's literature that portrays school-age characters with dyslexia so that the educational field can better understand how the books depict dyslexia and the school experience. Although the use of the term "dyslexia" is controversial, experts agree that dyslexia is a learning disability that affects language…

  9. Neuropsychological Treatment of Dyslexia in the Classroom Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Bram H.; Obrzut, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A study provided hemisphere specific simulation and hemispheric alluding stimuli to 15 middle school students with L-type dyslexia and 15 with P-type dyslexia. Traditional decoding and comprehension exercises were provided to 15 students with M-type dyslexia. Readers with all types of dyslexia exhibited significant improvement in reading accuracy…

  10. Overcoming Dyslexia in Children, Adolescents, and Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dale R.

    This book aims to interpret recent research on dyslexia into practical information for those who work with individuals with dyslexia. Chapter 1 summarizes new information about how genetic codes determine brian development and how differences in brain structure cause dyslexia. Chapter 2 explains the perceptual and emotional nature of dyslexia.…

  11. Fictional Characters with Dyslexia: What Are We Seeing in Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This article specifically looks at children's literature that portrays school-age characters with dyslexia so that the educational field can better understand how the books depict dyslexia and the school experience. Although the use of the term "dyslexia" is controversial, experts agree that dyslexia is a learning disability that affects language…

  12. Neuropsychological Treatment of Dyslexia in the Classroom Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Bram H.; Obrzut, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A study provided hemisphere specific simulation and hemispheric alluding stimuli to 15 middle school students with L-type dyslexia and 15 with P-type dyslexia. Traditional decoding and comprehension exercises were provided to 15 students with M-type dyslexia. Readers with all types of dyslexia exhibited significant improvement in reading accuracy…

  13. Effective Language Arts Instruction for Students with Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadlington, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    This article explains dyslexia and characteristics of students with dyslexia and discusses types of instruction that are most appropriate for students with dyslexia, including multisensory instruction, explicit instruction, and phonemic awareness. It provides techniques for enabling students with dyslexia to succeed in reading, writing, listening,…

  14. Overcoming Dyslexia in Children, Adolescents, and Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dale R.

    This book aims to interpret recent research on dyslexia into practical information for those who work with individuals with dyslexia. Chapter 1 summarizes new information about how genetic codes determine brian development and how differences in brain structure cause dyslexia. Chapter 2 explains the perceptual and emotional nature of dyslexia.…

  15. Effective Language Arts Instruction for Students with Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadlington, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    This article explains dyslexia and characteristics of students with dyslexia and discusses types of instruction that are most appropriate for students with dyslexia, including multisensory instruction, explicit instruction, and phonemic awareness. It provides techniques for enabling students with dyslexia to succeed in reading, writing, listening,…

  16. How Should Medical Schools Respond to Students with Dyslexia?

    PubMed

    Romberg, Frederick; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Shaywitz, Sally E

    2016-10-01

    We examine the dilemmas faced by a medical student with dyslexia who wonders whether he should "out" himself to faculty to receive the accommodations entitled by federal law. We first discuss scientific evidence on dyslexia's prevalence, unexpected nature, and neurobiology. We then examine the experiences of medical students who have revealed their dyslexia to illustrate the point that, far too often, attending physicians who know little about dyslexia can misperceive the motives or behavior of students with dyslexia. Because ignorance and misperception of dyslexia can result in bias against students with dyslexia, we strongly recommend a mandatory course for faculty that provides a basic scientific and clinical overview of dyslexia to facilitate greater understanding of dyslexia and support for students with dyslexia. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Neuropsychological Features of Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feifer, Steven G.

    This literature review provides support for the idea that subtle anatomical and functional deviations in the brain correlate with specific types of reading disorders. It finds evidence that symmetry or reversed asymmetry in the plana temporale may be associated with difficulty in acquiring sound/symbol relationships. Studies are reported to show…

  18. Linking memory and language: Evidence for a serial-order learning impairment in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Hachmann, Wibke M; Page, Mike P A; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated long-term serial-order learning impairments, operationalized as reduced Hebb repetition learning (HRL), in people with dyslexia. In a first multi-session experiment, we investigated both the persistence of a serial-order learning impairment as well as the long-term retention of serial-order representations, both in a group of Dutch-speaking adults with developmental dyslexia and in a matched control group. In a second experiment, we relied on the assumption that HRL mimics naturalistic word-form acquisition and we investigated the lexicalization of novel word-forms acquired through HRL. First, our results demonstrate that adults with dyslexia are fundamentally impaired in the long-term acquisition of serial-order information. Second, dyslexic and control participants show comparable retention of the long-term serial-order representations in memory over a period of 1 month. Third, the data suggest weaker lexicalization of newly acquired word-forms in the dyslexic group. We discuss the integration of these findings into current theoretical views of dyslexia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. On children's dyslexia with NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Zhuo; Li, Chengjun; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Yao, Bin; Song, Ranran; Wu, Hanrong

    2003-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a kind of prevalent psychologic disease. Some functional imaging technologies, such as FMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of dyslexics. NIRS is a kind of novel technology which is more and more widely being used for study of the cognitive psychology. However, there aren"t reports about the dyslexic research using NIRS to be found until now. This paper introduces a NIRS system of four measuring channels. Brain activities of dyslexic subjects and normal subjects during reading task were studied with the NIRS system. Two groups of subjects, the group of dyslexia and the group of normal, were appointed to perform two reading tasks. At the same time, their cortical activities were measured with the NIRS system. This experimental result indicates that the brain activities of the dyslexic group were significantly higher than the control group in BA 48 and that NIRS can be used for the study of human brain activity.

  20. Dyslexia and hyperlexia in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Joshi, R Malatesha; Padakannaya, Prakash; Nishanimath, S

    2010-05-01

    This study explores the nature of reading difficulties of two bilinguals in Kannada and English, which vary in their orthographic depth and script layout. VN and MS manifest two different types of reading disabilities, dyslexia and hyperlexia, respectively. The performance of VN was below average on Kannada and English tests of phonemic awareness, spelling, and pseudoword naming. Despite his poor decoding skills, the listening comprehension skill both at the word level and at the sentence level of VN was within the normal range. VN, therefore, can be described to have developmental dyslexia. MS, in contrast, showed good decoding ability in both Kannada and English, but his listening and reading comprehension were poor in both languages. MS, therefore, displays a pattern of reading disability akin to that of hyperlexia. The deficits of both VN and MS, although dissimilar from each other, cut across the linguistic boundaries and affect their performance in both Kannada and English.

  1. Academic Motivation in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodygowska, Ewa; Chec, Magdalena; Samochowiec, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to determine which form of therapeutic aid may influence academic approach and avoidance motivation in children with dyslexia. There were 165 children with dyslexia assessed with the use of "I and my school" questionnaire. The authors considered the children's previous therapeutic experience and on its basis they…

  2. A Taxometric Investigation of Developmental Dyslexia Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wolf, Maryanne; Lovett, Maureen W.

    2012-01-01

    Long-standing issues with the conceptualization, identification and subtyping of developmental dyslexia persist. This study takes an alternative approach to examine the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia using taxometric classification techniques. These methods were used with a large sample of 671 children ages 6-8 who were diagnosed with…

  3. Sentence Production in Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Lombardino, Linda J.; Puranik, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Background: While spoken language deficits have been identified in children with developmental dyslexia, microanalysis of sentence production proficiency in these children is a largely unexplored area. Aims: The current study examines proficiency of syntactic production in children and young adults with dyslexia and typically developing…

  4. Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider-Zioga, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…

  5. Cognitive Profiles of Chinese Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia and examined the cognitive profile of dyslexic adolescents in order to better understand this important problem. The performance of 27 Chinese adolescents with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia was compared with 27…

  6. Lateralized Temporal Order Judgement in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial attentional deficits in dyslexia were investigated using a lateralized visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) paradigm that allowed both sensitivity to temporal order and spatial attentional bias to be measured. Findings indicate that adult participants with a positive screen for dyslexia were significantly less sensitive to the…

  7. Psychological Resources of Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna M.; Bogdanowicz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe specific psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia and compare them with psychological resources of adults without developmental dyslexia. Potential differences were analyzed in visual-spatial, creative, and motivational abilities. No evidence was found for either creative, or visuospatial…

  8. Reading and Dyslexia in Different Orthographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola, Ed.; McDougall, Sine, Ed.; de Mornay Davies, Paul, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a unique and accessible account of current research on reading and dyslexia in different orthographies. While most research has been conducted in English, this text presents cross-language comparisons to provide insights into universal aspects of reading development and developmental dyslexia in alphabetic and non-alphabetic…

  9. Multivariate Predictive Model for Dyslexia Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Jan, Guylaine; Le Bouquin-Jeannes, Regine; Costet, Nathalie; Troles, Nolwenn; Scalart, Pascal; Pichancourt, Dominique; Faucon, Gerard; Gombert, Jean-Emile

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia is a specific disorder of language development that mainly affects reading. Etiological researches have led to multiple hypotheses which induced various diagnosis methods and rehabilitation treatments so that many different tests are used by practitioners to identify dyslexia symptoms. Our purpose is to determine a subset of the most…

  10. Whole-Word Shape Effect in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavidor, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The research question here was whether whole-word shape cues might facilitate reading in dyslexia following reports of how normal-reading children benefit from using this cue when learning to read. We predicted that adults with dyslexia would tend to rely more on orthographic rather than other cues when reading, and therefore would be more…

  11. Cognitive Profiles of Chinese Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia and examined the cognitive profile of dyslexic adolescents in order to better understand this important problem. The performance of 27 Chinese adolescents with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia was compared with 27…

  12. Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider-Zioga, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…

  13. A Taxometric Investigation of Developmental Dyslexia Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wolf, Maryanne; Lovett, Maureen W.

    2012-01-01

    Long-standing issues with the conceptualization, identification and subtyping of developmental dyslexia persist. This study takes an alternative approach to examine the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia using taxometric classification techniques. These methods were used with a large sample of 671 children ages 6-8 who were diagnosed with…

  14. Psychological Resources of Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna M.; Bogdanowicz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe specific psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia and compare them with psychological resources of adults without developmental dyslexia. Potential differences were analyzed in visual-spatial, creative, and motivational abilities. No evidence was found for either creative, or visuospatial…

  15. Electrophysiological Indices of Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desroches, Amy S.; Newman, Randy Lynn; Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A range of studies have shown difficulties in perceiving acoustic and phonetic information in dyslexia; however, much less is known about how such difficulties relate to the perception of individual words. The authors present data from event-related potentials (ERPs) examining the hypothesis that children with dyslexia have difficulties…

  16. Writing in Dyslexia: Product and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morken, Froydis; Helland, Turid

    2013-01-01

    Research on dyslexia has largely centred on reading. The aim of this study was to assess the writing of 13 children with and 28 without dyslexia at age 11?years. A programme for keystroke logging was used to allow recording of typing activity as the children performed a sentence dictation task. Five sentences were read aloud twice each. The task…

  17. Electrophysiological Indices of Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desroches, Amy S.; Newman, Randy Lynn; Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A range of studies have shown difficulties in perceiving acoustic and phonetic information in dyslexia; however, much less is known about how such difficulties relate to the perception of individual words. The authors present data from event-related potentials (ERPs) examining the hypothesis that children with dyslexia have difficulties…

  18. Sentence Production in Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Lombardino, Linda J.; Puranik, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Background: While spoken language deficits have been identified in children with developmental dyslexia, microanalysis of sentence production proficiency in these children is a largely unexplored area. Aims: The current study examines proficiency of syntactic production in children and young adults with dyslexia and typically developing…

  19. Case Studies for Teaching Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macnamara, Gael R.

    2004-01-01

    This easy-to-use book of case studies helps you recognize the signs of dyslexia and prescribe effective teaching strategies for students with dyslexia. It includes a Case Study Analysis Sheet so you can work through important aspects of a student's personal, academic, and social life. You can then compare what you've compiled to the author's…

  20. Dyslexia in Regular Orthographies: Manifestation and Causation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Heinz; Schurz, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes our research on the manifestation of dyslexia in German and on cognitive deficits, which may account for the severe reading speed deficit and the poor orthographic spelling performance that characterize dyslexia in regular orthographies. An only limited causal role of phonological deficits (phonological awareness,…

  1. Multivariate Predictive Model for Dyslexia Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Jan, Guylaine; Le Bouquin-Jeannes, Regine; Costet, Nathalie; Troles, Nolwenn; Scalart, Pascal; Pichancourt, Dominique; Faucon, Gerard; Gombert, Jean-Emile

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia is a specific disorder of language development that mainly affects reading. Etiological researches have led to multiple hypotheses which induced various diagnosis methods and rehabilitation treatments so that many different tests are used by practitioners to identify dyslexia symptoms. Our purpose is to determine a subset of the most…

  2. Developmental Dyslexia: An Evaluation of a Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satz, Paul; Van Nostrand, Gary K.

    The paper reviews a theory advanced by Satz and Sparrow (1970) which purports to explain the nature and cause of specific developmental dyslexia, and evaluates several developmental hypotheses which are generated bythe theory. The theory postulates that developmental dyslexia is not a unitary syndrome but rather reflects a lag in the maturation of…

  3. Word Learning Deficits in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Hogan, Tiffany; Green, Samuel; Gray, Shelley; Cabbage, Kathryn; Cowan, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate word learning in children with dyslexia to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses during the configuration stage of word learning. Method: Children with typical development (N = 116) and dyslexia (N = 68) participated in computer-based word learning games that assessed word learning in 4 sets…

  4. The Source for Dyslexia and Dysgraphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Regina G.

    This book describes the processing styles inherent in dyslexia and dysgraphia for teacher identification of such students and provides strategies and compensations for students with these disabilities. Strategies for dyslexia and dysgraphia are combined in this book because both of these processing differences are language-based and represent a…

  5. Writing in Dyslexia: Product and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morken, Froydis; Helland, Turid

    2013-01-01

    Research on dyslexia has largely centred on reading. The aim of this study was to assess the writing of 13 children with and 28 without dyslexia at age 11?years. A programme for keystroke logging was used to allow recording of typing activity as the children performed a sentence dictation task. Five sentences were read aloud twice each. The task…

  6. Reading and Dyslexia in Different Orthographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola, Ed.; McDougall, Sine, Ed.; de Mornay Davies, Paul, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a unique and accessible account of current research on reading and dyslexia in different orthographies. While most research has been conducted in English, this text presents cross-language comparisons to provide insights into universal aspects of reading development and developmental dyslexia in alphabetic and non-alphabetic…

  7. A taxometric investigation of developmental dyslexia subtypes.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Beth A; Wolf, Maryanne; Lovett, Maureen W

    2012-02-01

    Long-standing issues with the conceptualization, identification and subtyping of developmental dyslexia persist. This study takes an alternative approach to examine the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia using taxometric classification techniques. These methods were used with a large sample of 671 children ages 6-8 who were diagnosed with severe reading disorders. Latent characteristics of the sample are assessed in regard to posited subtypes with phonological deficits and naming speed deficits, thus extending prior work by addressing whether these deficits embody separate classes of individuals. Findings support separate taxa of dyslexia with and without phonological deficits. Different latent structure for naming speed deficits was found depending on the definitional criterion used to define dyslexia. Non-phonologically based forms of dyslexia showed particular difficulty with naming speed and reading fluency. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The prevalence of dyslexia among art students.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Ulrika; Lundberg, Ingvar

    2002-01-01

    It is widely held opinion that dyslexia is associated with remarkably artistic creativity. Speculations on different brain structures and brain functions have been proposed as an explanation. Very few objective studies have been reported that confirm the conjectures on the relationship between dyslexia and artistic creativity. Two studies are reported on the prevalence of dyslexia among university students-one group of art students and one group of students from non-art disciplines. The admission to the art schools were extremely demanding, possibly implying that the students were genuinely talented, and that their choice of training did not reflect a compensation for failure in conventional academic fields. Art academy students reported significantly more signs of dyslexia than non-art university students. Objective testing showed that art students had significantly poorer phonological skills than non-art students. Thus, according to self-reports combined with objective testing, the incidence of dyslexia was far higher among art students.

  9. From Languishing Dyslexia to Thriving Dyslexia: Developing a New Conceptual Approach to Working with People with Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Kannangara, Chathurika S.

    2015-01-01

    This is an account of personal narratives shared by several people with dyslexia. Most of these are presented in their original quotation format to provide personal accounts of the lives of people with dyslexia. In this paper the author shares her conversations with her participants. This paper provides an original conceptual model, which is currently been tested empirically. Dyslexia affects the learning process in areas as such reading, and spelling. Conversely abilities or strengths can be seen in other areas, such as developing coping strategies to manage and overcome challenges. This research aims to adapt positive psychology techniques to support individuals with dyslexia. To develop positive psychology interventions, individuals will be helped to discover their five signature strengths. The VIA (Values in Action) Strengths Survey has been hosted in a website which has been developed in the form of a dyslexia user friendly format, such as providing the ability for respondents to change fonts and font sizes, colors and a text to speech option. This paper introduces the theoretical model of ‘How to move from Languishing Dyslexia to Thriving Dyslexia.’ PMID:26733933

  10. Dyslexia in English as a second language.

    PubMed

    Helland, Turid; Kaasa, Randi

    2005-02-01

    This study focused on English as L2 in a group of Norwegian dyslexic 12 year olds, compared to an age and gender matched control group. Norwegian school children learn English from the first grades on. The subjects were assessed with a test battery of verbal and written tasks. First, they were given a comprehension task; second, a model sentence task; third, two pragmatic tasks, and fourth, three tasks of literacy. The verbal tasks were scored according to comprehension, morphology, syntax and semantics, while the literacy tasks were scored by spelling, translation and reading skills. It was hypothesized that the results of the control group and the dyslexia group would differ on all tasks, but that subgrouping the dyslexia group by comprehension skills would show heterogeneity within the dyslexia group. The data analyses confirmed these hypotheses. Significant differences were seen between the dyslexia group and the control group. However, the subgrouping revealed minor differences between the control group and the subgroup with good comprehension skills, and major differences between the control group and the subgroup with poor comprehension skills. Especially morphology and spelling were difficult for the dyslexia group. The results were tentatively discussed within the framework of biological and cognitive models of how to interpret L2 performance in dyslexia, underlining the importance of further research in L2 acquisition in dyslexia.

  11. The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one of the purposes of this study was to examine the structure of the PT in dyslexia and ADHD. The other purposes included examining the PT in relation to overall expressive language ability and in relation to several specific linguistic functions given language functioning often is affected in both dyslexia and ADHD. Participants included 50 children: 10 with dyslexia, 15 with comorbid dyslexia/ADHD, 15 with ADHD, and 10 controls. Using a 2 (dyslexia or not) X 2 (ADHD or not) MANCOVA, findings revealed PT length and shape were comparable between those with and without dyslexia. However, children with ADHD had smaller right PT lengths than those without ADHD, and right anterior ascending ramus length was related to attention problems in the total sample. In terms of linguistic functioning, presence of an extra sulcus in the left PT was related to poor expressive language ability. In those with adequate expressive language functioning, left PT length was related to phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory and rapid automatic naming (RAN). Right PT length was related to RAN and semantic processing. Further work on PT morphology in relation to ADHD and linguistic functioning is warranted. PMID:19356794

  12. Executive functions in adults with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Edvardsdottir, Elisa; Zięcik, Adam P

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) deficits are well recognized in developmental dyslexia, yet the majority of studies have concerned children rather than adults, ignored the subjective experience of the individual with dyslexia (with regard to their own EFs), and have not followed current theoretical perspectives on EFs. The current study addressed these shortfalls by administering a self-report measure of EF (BRIEF-A; Roth, Isquith, & Gioia, 2005) and experimental tasks to IQ-matched groups of adults with and without dyslexia. The laboratory-based tasks tested the three factors constituting the framework of EF proposed by Miyake et al. (2000). In comparison to the group without dyslexia, the participants with dyslexia self-reported more frequent EF problems in day-to-day life, with these difficulties centering on metacognitive processes (working memory, planning, task monitoring, and organization) rather than on the regulation of emotion and behaviour. The participants with dyslexia showed significant deficits in EF (inhibition, set shifting, and working memory). The findings indicated that dyslexia-related problems have an impact on the daily experience of adults with the condition. Further, EF difficulties are present in adulthood across a range of laboratory-based measures, and, given the nature of the experimental tasks presented, extend beyond difficulties related solely to phonological processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Working memory functioning in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Fisk, John E

    2007-01-01

    Working memory impairments in dyslexia are well documented. However, research has mostly been limited to the phonological domain, a modality in which people with dyslexia have a range of problems. In this paper, 22 adult students with dyslexia and 22 age- and IQ-matched controls were presented with both verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks. Performance was compared on measures of simple span, complex span (requiring both storage and processing), and dynamic memory updating in the two domains. The dyslexic group had significantly lower spans than the controls on all the verbal tasks, both simple and complex, and also on the spatial complex span measure. Impairments remained on the complex span measures after controlling statistically for simple span performance, suggesting a central executive impairment in dyslexia. The novelty of task demands on the initial trials of the spatial updating task also proved more problematic for the dyslexic than control participants. The results are interpreted in terms of extant theories of dyslexia. The possibility of a supervisory attentional system deficit in dyslexia is also raised. It seems clear that working memory difficulties in dyslexia extend into adulthood, can affect performance in both the phonological and visuospatial modalities, and implicate central executive dysfunction, in addition to problems with storage.

  14. Doctors with dyslexia: strategies and support.

    PubMed

    Locke, Rachel; Alexander, Gail; Mann, Richard; Kibble, Sharon; Scallan, Samantha

    2016-10-06

    Looking beyond dyslexia as an individual doctor's issue requires adjusting a working environment to better serve the needs of doctors with dyslexia. With an increasing number of doctors disclosing dyslexia at medical school, how can educators best provide this support? Our research looks at the impact of dyslexia on clinical practice and the coping strategies used by doctors to minimise the effect. Qualitative data were collected from 14 doctors with dyslexia using semi-structured interviews and by survey. 'In situ' demonstration interviews were conducted in order to understand how dyslexia is managed in the workplace from first-hand experience. Employers and educators who have responsibility for meeting the needs of this group were also consulted. Even in cases of doctors who had a diagnosis, they often did not disclose their dyslexia to their employer. Study participants reported having developed individual ways of coping and devised useful 'workarounds'. Support from employers comes in the form of 'reasonable adjustments', although from our data we cannot be sure that such adjustments contribute to an 'enabling' work environment. Supportive characteristics included the opportunity to shadow others and the time and space to complete paperwork on a busy ward. How can educators best provide support [for doctors with dyslexia]? Doctors with dyslexia need to be helped to feel comfortable enough to disclose. Educators need to challenge any negative assumptions that exist as well as promote understanding about the elements that contribute to a positive working environment. As a result of the research there is now practice available for educators to identify evidence-based strategies and resources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  15. Treatment of developmental dyslexia: a review.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Dirk J

    2006-01-01

    Remarkably few research articles on the treatment of developmental dyslexia were published during the last 25 years. Some treatment research arose from the temporal processing theory, some from the phonological deficit hypothesis and some more from the balance model of learning to read and dyslexia. Within the framework of that model, this article reviews the aetiology of dyslexia sub-types, the neuropsychological rationale for treatment, the treatment techniques and the outcomes of treatment research. The possible mechanisms underlying the effects of treatment are discussed.

  16. Learning disabilities, dyslexia, and vision.

    PubMed

    Handler, Sheryl M; Fierson, Walter M; Section on Ophthalmology

    2011-03-01

    Learning disabilities constitute a diverse group of disorders in which children who generally possess at least average intelligence have problems processing information or generating output. Their etiologies are multifactorial and reflect genetic influences and dysfunction of brain systems. Reading disability, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability. It is a receptive language-based learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with decoding, fluent word recognition, rapid automatic naming, and/or reading-comprehension skills. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonologic component of language that makes it difficult to use the alphabetic code to decode the written word. Early recognition and referral to qualified professionals for evidence-based evaluations and treatments are necessary to achieve the best possible outcome. Because dyslexia is a language-based disorder, treatment should be directed at this etiology. Remedial programs should include specific instruction in decoding, fluency training, vocabulary, and comprehension. Most programs include daily intensive individualized instruction that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness and the application of phonics. Vision problems can interfere with the process of reading, but children with dyslexia or related learning disabilities have the same visual function and ocular health as children without such conditions. Currently, there is inadequate scientific evidence to support the view that subtle eye or visual problems cause or increase the severity of learning disabilities. Because they are difficult for the public to understand and for educators to treat, learning disabilities have spawned a wide variety of scientifically unsupported vision-based diagnostic and treatment procedures. Scientific evidence does not support the claims that visual training, muscle exercises, ocular pursuit-and-tracking exercises, behavioral/perceptual vision therapy, "training" glasses

  17. Differential Entrainment of Neuroelectric Delta Oscillations in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Soltész, Fruzsina; Szűcs, Denes; Leong, Victoria; White, Sonia; Goswami, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Oscillatory entrainment to the speech signal is important for language processing, but has not yet been studied in developmental disorders of language. Developmental dyslexia, a difficulty in acquiring efficient reading skills linked to difficulties with phonology (the sound structure of language), has been associated with behavioural entrainment deficits. It has been proposed that the phonological ‘deficit’ that characterises dyslexia across languages is related to impaired auditory entrainment to speech at lower frequencies via neuroelectric oscillations (<10 Hz, ‘temporal sampling theory’). Impaired entrainment to temporal modulations at lower frequencies would affect the recovery of the prosodic and syllabic structure of speech. Here we investigated event-related oscillatory EEG activity and contingent negative variation (CNV) to auditory rhythmic tone streams delivered at frequencies within the delta band (2 Hz, 1.5 Hz), relevant to sampling stressed syllables in speech. Given prior behavioural entrainment findings at these rates, we predicted functionally atypical entrainment of delta oscillations in dyslexia. Participants performed a rhythmic expectancy task, detecting occasional white noise targets interspersed with tones occurring regularly at rates of 2 Hz or 1.5 Hz. Both groups showed significant entrainment of delta oscillations to the rhythmic stimulus stream, however the strength of inter-trial delta phase coherence (ITC, ‘phase locking’) and the CNV were both significantly weaker in dyslexics, suggestive of weaker entrainment and less preparatory brain activity. Both ITC strength and CNV amplitude were significantly related to individual differences in language processing and reading. Additionally, the instantaneous phase of prestimulus delta oscillation predicted behavioural responding (response time) for control participants only. PMID:24204644

  18. Letter Position Dyslexia in Arabic: From Form to Position

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Naama; Haddad-Hanna, Manar

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the reading of 11 Arabic-speaking individuals with letter position dyslexia (LPD), and the effect of letter form on their reading errors. LPD is a peripheral dyslexia caused by a selective deficit to letter position encoding in the orthographic-visual analyzer, which results in migration of letters within words, primarily of middle letters. The Arabic orthography is especially interesting for the study of LPD because Arabic letters have different forms in different positions in the word. As a result, some letter position errors require letter form change. We compared the rate of letter migrations that change letter form with migrations that do not change letter form in 10 Arabic-speaking individuals with developmental LPD, and one bilingual Arabic and Hebrew-speaking individual with acquired LPD. The results indicated that the participants made 40% letter position errors in migratable words when the resulting word included the letters in the same form, whereas migrations that changed letter form almost never occurred. The error rate of the Arabic-Hebrew bilingual reader was smaller in Arabic than in Hebrew. However, when only words in which migrations do not change letter form were counted, the rate was similar in Arabic and Hebrew. Hence, whereas orthographies with multiple letter forms for each letter might seem more difficult in some respects, these orthographies are in fact easier to read in some forms of dyslexia. Thus, the diagnosis of LPD in Arabic should consider the effect of letter forms on migration errors, and use only migratable words that do not require letter-form change. The theoretical implications for the reading model are that letter form (of the position-dependent type found in Arabic) is part of the information encoded in the abstract letter identity, and thus affects further word recognition processes, and that there might be a pre-lexical graphemic buffer in which the checking of orthographic well-formedness takes place

  19. [Handedness, cerebral dysfunction and dyslexia].

    PubMed

    Céspedes, A; Berneosolo, J; Bravo, L; Pinto, A

    1989-01-01

    A frequency distribution of handedness and its relations with minor signs of neurological dysfunction was studied in a group of 56 dyslexic children and 56 good readers. An unusual frequency of 18% left-handed children in the dyslexic group and the high frequency of soft signs in this lefthanded children, is in concordance with recent hypothesis about the dysgenesic brain origin of dyslexia and lefthandedness, postulated by Galaburda, Geschwind and others. They suggest a distorted cortical development of the brain areas related with linguistic functions, with subsequent expression on verbal language reading ability and handedness.

  20. Knockdown of Dyslexia-Gene Dcdc2 Interferes with Speech Sound Discrimination in Continuous Streams

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Anne B.; Chen, Fuyi; Sloan, Andrew M.; Carraway, Ryan S.; Rennaker, Robert L.; LoTurco, Joseph J.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is the most common developmental language disorder and is marked by deficits in reading and phonological awareness. One theory of dyslexia suggests that the phonological awareness deficit is due to abnormal auditory processing of speech sounds. Variants in DCDC2 and several other neural migration genes are associated with dyslexia and may contribute to auditory processing deficits. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that RNAi suppression of Dcdc2 in rats causes abnormal cortical responses to sound and impaired speech sound discrimination. In the current study, rats were subjected in utero to RNA interference targeting of the gene Dcdc2 or a scrambled sequence. Primary auditory cortex (A1) responses were acquired from 11 rats (5 with Dcdc2 RNAi; DC−) before any behavioral training. A separate group of 8 rats (3 DC−) were trained on a variety of speech sound discrimination tasks, and auditory cortex responses were acquired following training. Dcdc2 RNAi nearly eliminated the ability of rats to identify specific speech sounds from a continuous train of speech sounds but did not impair performance during discrimination of isolated speech sounds. The neural responses to speech sounds in A1 were not degraded as a function of presentation rate before training. These results suggest that A1 is not directly involved in the impaired speech discrimination caused by Dcdc2 RNAi. This result contrasts earlier results using Kiaa0319 RNAi and suggests that different dyslexia genes may cause different deficits in the speech processing circuitry, which may explain differential responses to therapy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although dyslexia is diagnosed through reading difficulty, there is a great deal of variation in the phenotypes of these individuals. The underlying neural and genetic mechanisms causing these differences are still widely debated. In the current study, we demonstrate that suppression of a candidate-dyslexia gene causes deficits on tasks of

  1. Knockdown of Dyslexia-Gene Dcdc2 Interferes with Speech Sound Discrimination in Continuous Streams.

    PubMed

    Centanni, Tracy Michelle; Booker, Anne B; Chen, Fuyi; Sloan, Andrew M; Carraway, Ryan S; Rennaker, Robert L; LoTurco, Joseph J; Kilgard, Michael P

    2016-04-27

    Dyslexia is the most common developmental language disorder and is marked by deficits in reading and phonological awareness. One theory of dyslexia suggests that the phonological awareness deficit is due to abnormal auditory processing of speech sounds. Variants in DCDC2 and several other neural migration genes are associated with dyslexia and may contribute to auditory processing deficits. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that RNAi suppression of Dcdc2 in rats causes abnormal cortical responses to sound and impaired speech sound discrimination. In the current study, rats were subjected in utero to RNA interference targeting of the gene Dcdc2 or a scrambled sequence. Primary auditory cortex (A1) responses were acquired from 11 rats (5 with Dcdc2 RNAi; DC-) before any behavioral training. A separate group of 8 rats (3 DC-) were trained on a variety of speech sound discrimination tasks, and auditory cortex responses were acquired following training. Dcdc2 RNAi nearly eliminated the ability of rats to identify specific speech sounds from a continuous train of speech sounds but did not impair performance during discrimination of isolated speech sounds. The neural responses to speech sounds in A1 were not degraded as a function of presentation rate before training. These results suggest that A1 is not directly involved in the impaired speech discrimination caused by Dcdc2 RNAi. This result contrasts earlier results using Kiaa0319 RNAi and suggests that different dyslexia genes may cause different deficits in the speech processing circuitry, which may explain differential responses to therapy. Although dyslexia is diagnosed through reading difficulty, there is a great deal of variation in the phenotypes of these individuals. The underlying neural and genetic mechanisms causing these differences are still widely debated. In the current study, we demonstrate that suppression of a candidate-dyslexia gene causes deficits on tasks of rapid stimulus processing

  2. Oral language deficits in familial dyslexia: A meta-analysis and review.

    PubMed

    Snowling, Margaret J; Melby-Lervåg, Monica

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews 95 publications (based on 21 independent samples) that have examined children at family risk of reading disorders. We report that children at family risk of dyslexia experience delayed language development as infants and toddlers. In the preschool period, they have significant difficulties in phonological processes as well as with broader language skills and in acquiring the foundations of decoding skill (letter knowledge, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming [RAN]). Findings are mixed with regard to auditory and visual perception: they do not appear subject to slow motor development, but lack of control for comorbidities confounds interpretation. Longitudinal studies of outcomes show that children at family risk who go on to fulfil criteria for dyslexia have more severe impairments in preschool language than those who are defined as normal readers, but the latter group do less well than controls. Similarly at school age, family risk of dyslexia is associated with significantly poor phonological awareness and literacy skills. Although there is no strong evidence that children at family risk are brought up in an environment that differs significantly from that of controls, their parents tend to have lower educational levels and read less frequently to themselves. Together, the findings suggest that a phonological processing deficit can be conceptualized as an endophenotype of dyslexia that increases the continuous risk of reading difficulties; in turn its impact may be moderated by protective factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Oral Language Deficits in Familial Dyslexia: A Meta-Analysis and Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews 95 publications (based on 21 independent samples) that have examined children at family risk of reading disorders. We report that children at family risk of dyslexia experience delayed language development as infants and toddlers. In the preschool period, they have significant difficulties in phonological processes as well as with broader language skills and in acquiring the foundations of decoding skill (letter knowledge, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming [RAN]). Findings are mixed with regard to auditory and visual perception: they do not appear subject to slow motor development, but lack of control for comorbidities confounds interpretation. Longitudinal studies of outcomes show that children at family risk who go on to fulfil criteria for dyslexia have more severe impairments in preschool language than those who are defined as normal readers, but the latter group do less well than controls. Similarly at school age, family risk of dyslexia is associated with significantly poor phonological awareness and literacy skills. Although there is no strong evidence that children at family risk are brought up in an environment that differs significantly from that of controls, their parents tend to have lower educational levels and read less frequently to themselves. Together, the findings suggest that a phonological processing deficit can be conceptualized as an endophenotype of dyslexia that increases the continuous risk of reading difficulties; in turn its impact may be moderated by protective factors. PMID:26727308

  4. The anatomical foundations of acquired reading disorders: a neuropsychological verification of the dual-route model of reading.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, E; Aggujaro, S; Molteni, F; Zonca, G; Frustaci, M; Luzzatti, C

    2014-07-01

    In this study we investigated the neural correlates of acquired reading disorders through an anatomo-correlative procedure of the lesions of 59 focal brain damaged patients suffering from acquired surface, phonological, deep, undifferentiated dyslexia and pure alexia. Two reading tasks, one of words and nonwords and one of words with unpredictable stress position, were used for this study. We found that surface dyslexia was predominantly associated with left temporal lesions, while in phonological dyslexia the lesions overlapped in the left insula and the left inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis) and that pure alexia was associated with lesions in the left fusiform gyrus. A number of areas and white matter tracts, which seemed to involve processing along both the lexical and the sublexical routes, were identified for undifferentiated dyslexia. Two cases of deep dyslexia with relatively dissimilar anatomical correlates were studied, one compatible with Coltheart's right-hemisphere hypothesis (1980) whereas the other could be interpreted in the context of Morton and Patterson's (1980), multiply-damaged left-hemisphere hypothesis. In brief, the results of this study are only partially consistent with the current state of the art, and propose new and stimulating challenges; indeed, based on these results we suggest that different types of acquired dyslexia may ensue after different cortical damage, but white matter disconnection may play a crucial role in some cases.

  5. Developmental Dyslexia in Bilingual-Biliterates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanth, Prathibha

    1992-01-01

    Describes two cases of developmental dyslexia in whom learning to read English as compared to Kannada and Hindi (two Indian scripts) were differentially affected. Discusses implications for the understanding of reading acquisition and models of reading. (RS)

  6. In Their Own Words: Dealing with Dyslexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as art, computer science, design, drama, electronics, math, mechanics, music, physics, sales, and sports. Some of ... a Common Learning Disability / What is Dyslexia? / Special Education and Research Winter 2016 Issue: Volume 10 Number ...

  7. Psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Łockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna M; Bogdanowicz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe specific psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia and compare them with psychological resources of adults without developmental dyslexia. Potential differences were analyzed in visual-spatial, creative, and motivational abilities. No evidence was found for either creative, or visuospatial superiority in adults with developmental dyslexia. The results suggest, however, that visual-spatial processing of nonverbal material by adults with developmental dyslexia allows them to efficiently execute tasks that are based on sequential material. Moreover, the participants with specific difficulties in reading and writing exhibited a significantly higher level of aspirations than their peers without such difficulties with a comparable level of educational achievement. These results suggest that succeeding in different fields by highly functioning adult dyslexics may depend on personality and motivational factors, rather than cognitive factors.

  8. The effects of automatic spelling correction software on understanding and comprehension in compensated dyslexia: improved recall following dictation.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Lucy; Leonavičiūtė, Erika; Humby, Trevor

    2014-08-01

    Dyslexia is associated with difficulties in language-specific skills such as spelling, writing and reading; the difficulty in acquiring literacy skills is not a result of low intelligence or the absence of learning opportunity, but these issues will persist throughout life and could affect long-term education. Writing is a complex process involving many different functions, integrated by the working memory system; people with dyslexia have a working memory deficit, which means that concentration on writing quality may be detrimental to understanding. We confirm impaired working memory in a sample of university students with (compensated) dyslexia, and using a within-subject design with three test conditions, we show that these participants demonstrated better understanding of a piece of text if they had used automatic spelling correction software during a dictation/transcription task. We hypothesize that the use of the autocorrecting software reduced demand on working memory, by allowing word writing to be more automatic, thus enabling better processing and understanding of the content of the transcriptions and improved recall. Long-term and regular use of autocorrecting assistive software should be beneficial for people with and without dyslexia and may improve confidence, written work, academic achievement and self-esteem, which are all affected in dyslexia.

  9. Unlocking the nature of the phonological-deep dyslexia continuum: the keys to reading aloud are in phonology and semantics.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Jenni; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2006-03-01

    It has been argued that normal reading and acquired dyslexias reflect the role of three underlying primary systems (phonology, semantics, and vision) rather than neural mechanisms dedicated to reading. This proposal is potentially consistent with the suggestion that phonological and deep dyslexia represent variants of a single reading disorder rather than two separate entities. The current study explored this possibility, the nature of any continuum between the disorders, and the possible underlying bases of it. A case series of patients were given an assessment battery to test for the characteristics of phonological and deep dyslexia. The status of their underlying phonological and semantic systems was also investigated. The majority of participants exhibited many of the symptoms associated with deep dyslexia whether or not they made semantic errors. Despite wide variation in word and nonword reading accuracy, there was considerable symptom overlap across the cohort and, thus, no sensible dividing line to separate the participants into distinct groups. The patient data indicated that the deep-phonological continuum might best be characterized according to the severity of the individual's reading impairment rather than in terms of a strict symptom succession. Assessments of phonological and semantic impairments suggested that the integrity of these primary systems underpinned the patients' reading performance. This proposal was supported by eliciting the symptoms of deep-phonological dyslexia in nonreading tasks.

  10. Dyslexia and the life course.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    The life stories of adults diagnosed with dyslexia as children were examined, with emphasis on the related emotional experiences. The life story method of narrative analysis was used to compare and analyze the accounts of 12 participants who were interviewed extensively. The findings indicated that self-esteem problems may emerge by early childhood as individuals contend with aspects of their learning disabilities that interfere with typical development. By school age, all participants noted self-esteem problems when they experienced struggles or failures in school, which could feel traumatic. Testing and diagnosis improved self-esteem when conducted in a relevant manner that led to adaptation. The central plots of the participants' lives were characterized by the interplay between the functional challenges of their learning disabilities and the related self-esteem issues. Compensation involved the individual's areas of competence and the resources within the environment. Niches in late adolescence and young adulthood held potential to dramatically improve compensation. Participants generally exhibited four ways of life in adulthood and an added sense of emotional insecurity. Each attempted to integrate lifelong emotional experiences related to living with diagnosed dyslexia.

  11. Minor Neurological Dysfunction in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punt, Marja; de Jong, Marianne; de Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). Method: One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of greater than or equal to 85, retardation in…

  12. Minor Neurological Dysfunction in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punt, Marja; de Jong, Marianne; de Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). Method: One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of greater than or equal to 85, retardation in…

  13. Do children with developmental dyslexia have an implicit learning deficit?

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, S; Finzi, A; Menghini, D; Marotta, L; Baldi, S; Petrosini, L

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of specific types of tasks on the efficiency of implicit procedural learning in the presence of developmental dyslexia (DD). Methods: Sixteen children with DD (mean (SD) age 11.6 (1.4) years) and 16 matched normal reader controls (mean age 11.4 (1.9) years) were administered two tests (the Serial Reaction Time test and the Mirror Drawing test) in which implicit knowledge was gradually acquired across multiple trials. Although both tests analyse implicit learning abilities, they tap different competencies. The Serial Reaction Time test requires the development of sequential learning and little (if any) procedural learning, whereas the Mirror Drawing test involves fast and repetitive processing of visuospatial stimuli but no acquisition of sequences. Results: The children with DD were impaired on both implicit learning tasks, suggesting that the learning deficit observed in dyslexia does not depend on the material to be learned (with or without motor sequence of response action) but on the implicit nature of the learning that characterises the tasks. Conclusion: Individuals with DD have impaired implicit procedural learning. PMID:16170083

  14. Academic Achievement of University Students with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Åke; Taube, Karin; Ahl, Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Broadened recruitment to higher education is on the agenda in many countries, and it is also widely recognized that the number of dyslexic students entering higher education is increasing. In Sweden, as in many other European countries, higher education institutions are required to accommodate students with dyslexia. The present study focuses on the study outcome for 50 students with diagnosed dyslexia, mainly in teacher education and nurses' training, at three universities in Northern Sweden. The students trusted their own ability to find information on the Internet but mistrusted their own abilities in reading course books and articles in English and in taking notes. The mean rate of study was 23.5 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits per semester, which is slightly below the national baseline of 26.7. The results show that more than half of the students are examined at a normal rate of study but that about one fifth have a very low rate of study. Messages Most students with dyslexia can compensate for their reading problems. Taking notes during lessons and reading in foreign language may be especially difficult for students with dyslexia. Diagnoses should distinguish between reading comprehension and word decoding. More than half of the students with dyslexia can achieve at a normal rate of study. One-fifth of the students with dyslexia may need a longer period of study than other students.

  15. Depression and anxiety among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jason M; Gregg, Noel

    2012-04-01

    To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety. Results indicated no differences between the college-level groups, although a main effect for gender was found and trended toward females with dyslexia reporting more symptoms of depression and anxiety than did males with dyslexia. Internalizing symptomatology differences were not found for subtypes of ADHD. Transitioning high school students with ADHD, dyslexia, or ADHD/dyslexia reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression than did college underclassmen with these disorders. The unique characteristics and experiences of the college population of individuals with ADHD and/or dyslexia are discussed relative to the general adult population with these disorders.

  16. Early predictors of dyslexia in Chinese children: familial history of dyslexia, language delay, and cognitive profiles.

    PubMed

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y-C; Wong, Terry T-Y; Wong, Simpson W-L

    2011-02-01

    This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills. Forty-seven at-risk children (21 who were initially language delayed and 26 with familial risk) and 47 control children matched on age, IQ, and mothers' education were tested on syllable awareness, tone detection, rapid automatized naming, visual skill, morphological awareness, and word reading at age 5 and subsequently tested for dyslexia on a standard Hong Kong measure at age 7. Of those with an early language delay, 62% subsequently manifested dyslexia; for those with familial risk, the rate of dyslexia was 50%. Those with dyslexia were best distinguished from those without dyslexia by the age-5 measures of morphological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and word reading itself; other measures did not distinguish the groups. In a combined regression analysis across all participants, morphological awareness uniquely explained word reading accuracy and rapid automatized naming uniquely explained timed word reading at age 7, with all other measures statistically controlled. Separate stepwise regression analyses by group indicated that visual skill uniquely explained subsequent literacy skills in the at-risk group only, whereas tone and syllable awareness were unique predictors of literacy skills in the control group only. Both early language delay and familial risk strongly overlap with subsequent dyslexia in Chinese children. Overall, rapid automatized naming and morphological awareness are relatively strong correlates of developmental dyslexia in Chinese; visual skill and phonological awareness may also be uniquely associated with subsequent literacy development in at-risk and typically developing children, respectively. © 2010

  17. P300 Event-Related Potentials in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papagiannopoulou, Eleni A.; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the timing and the nature of neural disturbances in dyslexia and to further understand the topographical distribution of these, we examined entire brain regions employing the non-invasive auditory oddball P300 paradigm in children with dyslexia and neurotypical controls. Our findings revealed abnormalities for the dyslexia group in…

  18. Dyslexia in Higher Education: The Decision to Study Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Alison M.; Bennett, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students in Higher Education (HE) have dyslexia and are particularly over represented in the visual and creative arts. While dyslexia has been associated with artistic talent, some applicants may perceive their academic opportunities as limited because of negative learning experiences associated with their dyslexia. This…

  19. Cognitive Linguistic Performances of Multilingual University Students Suspected of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word…

  20. On the Bases of Two Subtypes of Development Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manis, Franklin R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied 51 dyslexic children, 51 age-matched normal readers, and 27 younger normal readers to explore whether there are different subtypes of developmental dyslexia, and whether developmental dyslexia represents delay or deviance. Found evidence to support two subtypes: surface and phonological dyslexia. (DR)

  1. Structural Neuroimaging Studies of Dyslexia: Issues of Validity and Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zadina, Janet N.

    This paper argues that because estimates of the number of people with developmental dyslexia range from 3% to 20% of the population, it is imperative that educators be knowledgeable about dyslexia, including being up-to-date on the neuroanatomical dyslexia research. It then reviews neuroanatomical research, including findings from seminal research…

  2. Sentence Comprehension in Young Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseheart, Rebecca; Altmann, Lori J. P.; Park, Heeyoung; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of syntactic complexity on written sentence comprehension in compensated adults with dyslexia. Because working memory (WM) plays a key role in processing complex sentences, and individuals with dyslexia often demonstrate persistent deficits in WM, we hypothesized that individuals with dyslexia would perform more…

  3. Developmental Dyslexia as Developmental and Linguistic Variation: Editor's Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    2002-01-01

    This commentary reviews forthcoming articles on the scientific study of dyslexia, genetic and neurophysiological aspects of dyslexia, cross-linguistic aspects of literacy development and dyslexia, and theory-based practice. It concludes that educators should continue to strive to promote theory-based research and evidence-based practice to achieve…

  4. Dyslexia in Higher Education: The Decision to Study Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Alison M.; Bennett, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students in Higher Education (HE) have dyslexia and are particularly over represented in the visual and creative arts. While dyslexia has been associated with artistic talent, some applicants may perceive their academic opportunities as limited because of negative learning experiences associated with their dyslexia. This…

  5. Cognitive Linguistic Performances of Multilingual University Students Suspected of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word…

  6. Neuropsychological Intervention in Dyslexia: Two Studies on British Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether an appropriate versus an inappropriate hemisphere alluding stimulation treatment of children with L-type dyslexia produces differential reading effects, and effects of hemisphere specific stimulation on children with L-, P-, and M-type dyslexia. Results support the validity of dyslexia subtyping and the…

  7. Understanding Dyslexia. Learning Times. Volume 8, Number 2, Spring 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA Minnesota, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This issue of "Learning Times" includes a feature on understanding dyslexia. Dyslexia is a brain-based, often inherited, disorder that impairs a person's ability to read. It is not the result of low intelligence, lack of motivation, sensory impairment, or inadequate instruction. Early diagnosis of dyslexia is critical, and a child can be…

  8. Dyslexia and the Brain: What Does Current Research Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Roxanne F.; High, Leslie; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Dyslexia is a disorder of the language-processing systems in the brain. It is a specific learning disability in reading that often affects spelling as well. This article describes: (1) Common characteristics experienced by people with dyslexia or reading disabilities; (2) Common misconceptions about dyslexia; (3) What brain research tell us about…

  9. Dyslexia as Disability or Handicap: When Does Vocabulary Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbro, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    General cognitive ability is still a factor in current definitions of dyslexia despite two decades of research showing little or no relevance to the nature of dyslexia. This article suggests one reason why this may be so. The suggestion is based on a distinction between dyslexia as a disability (poor ability)--as it is viewed and explained by…

  10. Dyslexia and Difficulties with Study Skills in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimore, Tilly; Crozier, W. Ray

    2006-01-01

    This article presents findings from a questionnaire survey of 136 male students, 62 with dyslexia and 74 without dyslexia, from 17 British higher education institutions. The students with dyslexia reported difficulties with a wide range of skills and academic tasks, notably note taking, organization of essays and expressing ideas in writing. They…

  11. Depression and Anxiety among Transitioning Adolescents and College Students with ADHD, Dyslexia, or Comorbid ADHD/Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Method: Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety.…

  12. Depression and Anxiety among Transitioning Adolescents and College Students with ADHD, Dyslexia, or Comorbid ADHD/Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Method: Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety.…

  13. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  14. Dyslexia and configural perception of character sequences.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Joseph W; Sussman, Bethany L; Townsend, James T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable non-word, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient-words and pseudowords were processed at super-capacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across string-type. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four string-types and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia.

  15. Dyslexia and configural perception of character sequences

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Joseph W.; Sussman, Bethany L.; Townsend, James T.; Newman, Sharlene D.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable non-word, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient—words and pseudowords were processed at super-capacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across string-type. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four string-types and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia. PMID:25954234

  16. Orthographic analogies and developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hanley, J R; Reynolds, C J; Thornton, A

    1997-08-01

    Goswami (1986, 1988) has demonstrated that children can use orthographic analogies (particularly at the onset-rime level) between the spelling patterns in words to help to decode new words (e.g. using 'beak' to read 'peak'). This strategy has been shown in children as young as six years old. Since it is known that children with developmental dyslexia find it particularly difficult to read words that they have not been specifically taught (Lovett, Warren-Chaplin, Ransby & Borden, 1990), the present study investigated whether dyslexic children might be unable to use analogies. Employing a design similar to that used by Goswami (1988), it was hypothesized that dyslexics would find it difficult to transfer spontaneously knowledge of a 'clue' word to decode new words that could be read by analogy with the clue word. The results of Expt 1 indicated that the dyslexic readers read significantly fewer of the analogous words than a reading age-matched comparison group of younger children. Furthermore, none of the nine dyslexic children read as many of the analogous words as the lowest scoring control child. In a second experiment, a design similar to that of Muter, Snowling & Taylor (1994) was used with a new and larger sample of dyslexic children. In this experiment, all the children were brought to criterion in reading the clue words before the analogous words were presented. Once again, the dyslexic children read significantly fewer words that were analogous with the clue words than did a reading age-matched comparison group. The number of analogous words that the dyslexic children read was significantly correlated with their performance on a test that is sensitive to the ability to detect rhyme. It is argued that a failure to make analogies may be one of the main causes of the reading impairment experienced by children with developmental dyslexia.

  17. Intact crowding and temporal masking in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Doron, Adi; Manassi, Mauro; Herzog, Michael H; Ahissar, Merav

    2015-01-01

    Phonological deficits in dyslexia are well documented. However, there is an ongoing discussion about whether visual deficits limit the reading skills of people with dyslexia. Here, we investigated visual crowding and backward masking. We presented a Vernier (i.e., two vertical bars slightly offset to the left or right) and asked observers to indicate the offset direction. Vernier stimuli are visually similar to letters and are strongly affected by crowding, even in the fovea. To increase task difficulty, Verniers are often followed by a mask (i.e., backward masking). We measured Vernier offset discrimination thresholds for the basic Vernier task, under crowding, and under backward masking, in students with dyslexia (n = 19) and age and intelligence matched students (n = 27). We found no group differences in any of these conditions. Controls with fast visual processing (good backward masking performance), were faster readers. By contrast, no such correlation was found among the students with dyslexia, suggesting that backward masking does not limit their reading efficiency. These findings indicate that neither elevated crowding nor elevated backward masking pose a bottleneck to reading skills of people with dyslexia.

  18. Word Learning Deficits in Children With Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Alt, Mary; Hogan, Tiffany; Green, Samuel; Gray, Shelley; Cabbage, Kathryn; Cowan, Nelson

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of this study is to investigate word learning in children with dyslexia to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses during the configuration stage of word learning. Children with typical development (N = 116) and dyslexia (N = 68) participated in computer-based word learning games that assessed word learning in 4 sets of games that manipulated phonological or visuospatial demands. All children were monolingual English-speaking 2nd graders without oral language impairment. The word learning games measured children's ability to link novel names with novel objects, to make decisions about the accuracy of those names and objects, to recognize the semantic features of the objects, and to produce the names of the novel words. Accuracy data were analyzed using analyses of covariance with nonverbal intelligence scores as a covariate. Word learning deficits were evident for children with dyslexia across every type of manipulation and on 3 of 5 tasks, but not for every combination of task/manipulation. Deficits were more common when task demands taxed phonology. Visuospatial manipulations led to both disadvantages and advantages for children with dyslexia. Children with dyslexia evidence spoken word learning deficits, but their performance is highly dependent on manipulations and task demand, suggesting a processing trade-off between visuospatial and phonological demands.

  19. Molecular genetics of dyslexia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Carrion-Castillo, Amaia; Franke, Barbara; Fisher, Simon E

    2013-11-01

    Dyslexia is a highly heritable learning disorder with a complex underlying genetic architecture. Over the past decade, researchers have pinpointed a number of candidate genes that may contribute to dyslexia susceptibility. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art, describing how studies have moved from mapping potential risk loci, through identification of associated gene variants, to characterization of gene function in cellular and animal model systems. Work thus far has highlighted some intriguing mechanistic pathways, such as neuronal migration, axon guidance, and ciliary biology, but it is clear that we still have much to learn about the molecular networks that are involved. We end the review by highlighting the past, present, and future contributions of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme to studies of genetic factors. In particular, we emphasize the importance of relating genetic information to intermediate neurobiological measures, as well as the value of incorporating longitudinal and developmental data into molecular designs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Arithmetic Abilities in Children With Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    De Clercq-Quaegebeur, Maryse; Casalis, Séverine; Vilette, Bruno; Lemaitre, Marie-Pierre; Vallée, Louis

    2017-01-01

    A high comorbidity between reading and arithmetic disabilities has already been reported. The present study aims at identifying more precisely patterns of arithmetic performance in children with developmental dyslexia, defined with severe and specific criteria. By means of a standardized test of achievement in mathematics ( Calculation and Number Processing Assessment Battery for Children; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006), we analyzed the arithmetic abilities of 47 French children with dyslexia attending 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade. Of them, 40% displayed arithmetic deficits, mostly with regard to number transcoding and mental calculation. Their individual profiles of performance accounted for varying strengths and weaknesses in arithmetic abilities. Our findings showed the pathway for the development of arithmetic abilities in children with dyslexia is not unique. Our study contrasts with the hypotheses suggesting the mutual exclusiveness of the phonological representation deficit and the core number module deficit.

  1. Dyslexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, ... levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, ...

  2. Imaging genetics of FOXP2 in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Wilcke, Arndt; Ligges, Carolin; Burkhardt, Jana; Alexander, Michael; Wolf, Christiane; Quente, Elfi; Ahnert, Peter; Hoffmann, Per; Becker, Albert; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Cichon, Sven; Boltze, Johannes; Kirsten, Holger

    2012-02-01

    Dyslexia is a developmental disorder characterised by extensive difficulties in the acquisition of reading or spelling. Genetic influence is estimated at 50-70%. However, the link between genetic variants and phenotypic deficits is largely unknown. Our aim was to investigate a role of genetic variants of FOXP2, a prominent speech and language gene, in dyslexia using imaging genetics. This technique combines functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and genetics to investigate relevance of genetic variants on brain activation. To our knowledge, this represents the first usage of fMRI-based imaging genetics in dyslexia. In an initial case/control study (n = 245) for prioritisation of FOXP2 polymorphisms for later use in imaging genetics, nine SNPs were selected. A non-synonymously coding mutation involved in verbal dyspraxia was also investigated. SNP rs12533005 showed nominally significant association with dyslexia (genotype GG odds ratio recessive model = 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.9), P = 0.016). A correlated SNP was associated with altered expression of FOXP2 in vivo in human hippocampal tissue. Therefore, influence of the rs12533005-G risk variant on brain activity was studied. fMRI revealed a significant main effect for the factor 'genetic risk' in a temporo-parietal area involved in phonological processing as well as a significant interaction effect between the factors 'disorder' and 'genetic risk' in activation of inferior frontal brain areas. Hence, our data may hint at a role of FOXP2 genetic variants in dyslexia-specific brain activation and demonstrate use of imaging genetics in dyslexia research.

  3. Imaging genetics of FOXP2 in dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Wilcke, Arndt; Ligges, Carolin; Burkhardt, Jana; Alexander, Michael; Wolf, Christiane; Quente, Elfi; Ahnert, Peter; Hoffmann, Per; Becker, Albert; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Cichon, Sven; Boltze, Johannes; Kirsten, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Dyslexia is a developmental disorder characterised by extensive difficulties in the acquisition of reading or spelling. Genetic influence is estimated at 50–70%. However, the link between genetic variants and phenotypic deficits is largely unknown. Our aim was to investigate a role of genetic variants of FOXP2, a prominent speech and language gene, in dyslexia using imaging genetics. This technique combines functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and genetics to investigate relevance of genetic variants on brain activation. To our knowledge, this represents the first usage of fMRI-based imaging genetics in dyslexia. In an initial case/control study (n=245) for prioritisation of FOXP2 polymorphisms for later use in imaging genetics, nine SNPs were selected. A non-synonymously coding mutation involved in verbal dyspraxia was also investigated. SNP rs12533005 showed nominally significant association with dyslexia (genotype GG odds ratio recessive model=2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.1–3.9), P=0.016). A correlated SNP was associated with altered expression of FOXP2 in vivo in human hippocampal tissue. Therefore, influence of the rs12533005-G risk variant on brain activity was studied. fMRI revealed a significant main effect for the factor ‘genetic risk' in a temporo-parietal area involved in phonological processing as well as a significant interaction effect between the factors ‘disorder' and ‘genetic risk' in activation of inferior frontal brain areas. Hence, our data may hint at a role of FOXP2 genetic variants in dyslexia-specific brain activation and demonstrate use of imaging genetics in dyslexia research. PMID:21897444

  4. Clinical experiences of students with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Morris, David; Turnbull, Patricia

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports a study exploring the clinical experiences of student nurses with dyslexia and its potential influence on their practice. Widened access to university education has meant an increase in the number of students with dyslexia. A limited number of studies have explored the academic experiences of dyslexic student nurses. However, nursing students in the United Kingdom spend 50% of their programme in practice settings, and there are no studies detailing their clinical experiences. This qualitative exploratory study involved tape-recorded interviews with a convenience sample of 18 nursing students with a formal dyslexia diagnosis. Data were collected in 2003-2004 and were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants described a number of personalized approaches to managing their difficulties in practice. Whilst many of these may be useful to non-dyslexic students, descriptions of, for example, avoiding answering the telephone, were inappropriate. Some participants contended with discrimination and ridicule, often choosing not to disclose their disability. Less acute clinical environments appeared to provide more satisfying working experience, and this factor may be influential in shaping future career options. Participants valued more time and an undisturbed place to complete clinical documentation. Heightened self-awareness promoted patient safety as the major concern for study participants. Positive aspects of dyslexia were never raised or acknowledged by participants. The clinical setting provides a challenging environment for nursing students with dyslexia, who find personalized ways to manage their disability. A dyslexia diagnosis continues to carry a stigma that may result in non-disclosure, with implications for the level of support available. Greater awareness of the practice-specific needs of such students is required to ensure appropriate support and public safety.

  5. Working-memory endophenotype and dyslexia-associated genetic variant predict dyslexia phenotype.

    PubMed

    Männel, Claudia; Meyer, Lars; Wilcke, Arndt; Boltze, Johannes; Kirsten, Holger; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-10-01

    Developmental dyslexia, a severe impairment of literacy acquisition, is known to have a neurological basis and a strong genetic background. However, effects of individual genetic variations on dyslexia-associated deficits are only moderate and call for the assessment of the genotype's impact on mediating neuro-endophenotypes by the imaging genetics approach. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in German participants with and without dyslexia, we investigated gray matter changes and their association with impaired phonological processing, such as reduced verbal working memory. These endophenotypical alterations were, together with dyslexia-associated genetic variations, examined on their suitability as potential predictors of dyslexia. We identified two gray matter clusters in the left posterior temporal cortex related to verbal working memory capacity. Regional cluster differences correlated with genetic risk variants in TNFRSF1B. High-genetic-risk participants exhibit a structural predominance of auditory-association areas relative to auditory-sensory areas, which may partly compensate for deficient early auditory-sensory processing stages of verbal working memory. The reverse regional predominance observed in low-genetic-risk participants may in turn reflect reliance on these early auditory-sensory processing stages. Logistic regression analysis further supported that regional gray matter differences and genetic risk interact in the prediction of individuals' diagnostic status: With increasing genetic risk, the working-memory related structural predominance of auditory-association areas relative to auditory-sensory areas classifies participants with dyslexia versus control participants. Focusing on phonological deficits in dyslexia, our findings suggest endophenotypical changes in the left posterior temporal cortex could comprise novel pathomechanisms for verbal working memory-related processes translating TNFRSF1B genotype into the dyslexia phenotype.

  6. Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Dyslexia Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability Past Issues / Winter 2016 Table of Contents What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities affect how someone learns to read, ...

  7. Are specific language impairment and dyslexia distinct disorders?

    PubMed

    Catts, Hugh W; Adlof, Suzanne M; Hogan, Tiffany P; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are distinct developmental disorders. Study 1 investigated the overlap between SLI identified in kindergarten and dyslexia identified in 2nd, 4th, or 8th grades in a representative sample of 527 children. Study 2 examined phonological processing in a subsample of participants, including 21 children with dyslexia only, 43 children with SLI only, 18 children with SLI and dyslexia, and 165 children with typical language/reading development. Measures of phonological awareness and nonword repetition were considered. Study 1 showed limited but statistically significant overlap between SLI and dyslexia. Study 2 found that children with dyslexia or a combination of dyslexia and SLI performed significantly less well on measures of phonological processing than did children with SLI only and those with typical development. Children with SLI only showed only mild deficits in phonological processing compared with typical children. These results support the view that SLI and dyslexia are distinct but potentially comorbid developmental language disorders. A deficit in phonological processing is closely associated with dyslexia but not with SLI when it occurs in the absence of dyslexia.

  8. Are Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia Distinct Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Catts, Hugh W.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Hogan, Tiffany; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are distinct developmental disorders. Method Study 1 investigated the overlap between SLI identified in kindergarten and dyslexia identified in 2nd, 4th, or 8th grades in a representative sample of 527 children. Study 2 examined phonological processing in a subsample of participants, including 21 children with dyslexia only, 43 children with SLI only, 18 children with SLI and dyslexia, and 165 children with typical language/reading development. Measures of phonological awareness and nonword repetition were considered. Results Study 1 showed limited but statistically significant overlap between SLI and dyslexia. Study 2 found that children with dyslexia or a combination of dyslexia and SLI performed significantly less well on measures of phonological processing than did children with SLI only and those with typical development. Children with SLI only showed only mild deficits in phonological processing compared with typical children. Conclusions These results support the view that SLI and dyslexia are distinct but potentially comorbid developmental language disorders. A deficit in phonological processing is closely associated with dyslexia but not with SLI when it occurs in the absence of dyslexia. PMID:16478378

  9. Morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Casalis, Séverine; Colé, Pascale; Sopo, Delphine

    2004-06-01

    This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to analyze in more detail the implications of the phonological impairments of dyslexics in dealing with larger units of language such as morphemes. First, the performance of dyslexic children in a series of morphological tasks was compared with the performance of children matched on reading-level and chronological age. In all the tasks, the dyslexic group performed below the chronological age control group, suggesting that morphological awareness cannot be developed entirely independently of reading experience and/or phonological skills. Comparisons with the reading-age control group indicated that, while the dyslexic children were poorer in the morphemic segmentation tasks, they performed normally for their reading level in the sentence completion tasks. Furthermore, they produced more derived words in the production task. This suggests that phonological impairments prevent the explicit segmentation of affixes while allowing the development of productive morphological knowledge. A second study compared dyslexic subgroups defined by their degree of phonological impairment. Our results suggest that dyslexics develop a certain type of morphological knowledge which they use as a compensatory reading strategy.

  10. Cognitive diversity in undergraduate engineering: Dyslexia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Velvet R.

    In the United States, institutions have established multiple programs and initiatives aimed at increasing the diversity of both faculty and students in engineering as means to produce a workforce that will better serve society. However, there are two major problems in addressing engineering student diversity. First, the engineering education research community has paid little attention to date as to how engineering education research characterizes diversity in its broadest sense. Second, research on persons with disabilities in undergraduates engineering, a population of interests within diversity, is minimal. Available disability studies tend to be skewed toward physical disabilities, leading to a neglect of cognitive differences such as learning disabilities (LD). In addition, disability research questions and study designs are inherently steeped in ability bias. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the meaning of ability for students with dyslexia while in undergraduate engineering and establish the significance of cognitive diversity, focusing on LD and more specifically dyslexia, in undergraduate engineering education and answer the following research question: How do undergraduate engineering students with dyslexia experience ability while pursuing and persisting in engineering? The motivation was to lay the groundwork for future engineering education studies on undergraduate students with LD in general but dyslexia in specific. The first goal was to conduct a critical literature review pertaining to the academic strengths of undergraduate students with LD, specifically, dyslexia and the second goal was to describe how undergraduate engineering students with dyslexia experience ability. The intent was not to redefine dyslexia or disability. The intent is to provide an inclusive account of dyslexia, weakness and strengths, within the field of engineering education. This study was conducted from a qualitative inquiry approach, within the social

  11. The role of plasticity-related functional reorganization in the explanation of central dyslexias.

    PubMed

    Welbourne, Stephen R; Woollams, Anna M; Crisp, Jenni; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2011-03-01

    This investigation explored the hypothesis that patterns of acquired dyslexia may reflect, in part, plasticity-driven relearning that dynamically alters the division of labour (DOL) between the direct, orthography → phonology (O → P) pathway and the semantically mediated, orthography → semantics → phonology (O → S → P) pathway. Three simulations were conducted using a variant of the triangle model of reading. The model demonstrated core characteristics of normal reading behaviour in its undamaged state. When damage was followed by reoptimization (mimicking spontaneous recovery), the model reproduced the deficits observed in the central dyslexias-acute phonological damage combined with recovery matched data taken from a series of 12 phonological dyslexic patients-whilst progressive semantic damage interspersed with recovery reproduced data taken from 100 observations of semantic dementia patients. The severely phonologically damaged model also produced symptoms of deep dyslexia (imageability effects, production of semantic and mixed semantic/visual errors). In all cases, the DOL changed significantly in the recovery period, suggesting that postmorbid functional reorganization is important in understanding behaviour in chronic-stage patients. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  12. The locus of impairment in English developmental letter position dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Kezilas, Yvette; Kohnen, Saskia; McKague, Meredith; Castles, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Many children with reading difficulties display phonological deficits and struggle to acquire non-lexical reading skills. However, not all children with reading difficulties have these problems, such as children with selective letter position dyslexia (LPD), who make excessive migration errors (such as reading slime as “smile”). Previous research has explored three possible loci for the deficit – the phonological output buffer, the orthographic input lexicon, and the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. While there is compelling evidence against a phonological output buffer and orthographic input lexicon deficit account of English LPD, the evidence in support of an orthographic-visual analysis deficit is currently limited. In this multiple single-case study with three English-speaking children with developmental LPD, we aimed to both replicate and extend previous findings regarding the locus of impairment in English LPD. First, we ruled out a phonological output buffer and an orthographic input lexicon deficit by administering tasks that directly assess phonological processing and lexical guessing. We then went on to directly assess whether or not children with LPD have an orthographic-visual analysis deficit by modifying two tasks that have previously been used to localize processing at this level: a same-different decision task and a non-word reading task. The results from these tasks indicate that LPD is most likely caused by a deficit specific to the coding of letter positions at the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. These findings provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of dyslexia and its underlying causes. PMID:24917802

  13. The locus of impairment in English developmental letter position dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kezilas, Yvette; Kohnen, Saskia; McKague, Meredith; Castles, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Many children with reading difficulties display phonological deficits and struggle to acquire non-lexical reading skills. However, not all children with reading difficulties have these problems, such as children with selective letter position dyslexia (LPD), who make excessive migration errors (such as reading slime as "smile"). Previous research has explored three possible loci for the deficit - the phonological output buffer, the orthographic input lexicon, and the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. While there is compelling evidence against a phonological output buffer and orthographic input lexicon deficit account of English LPD, the evidence in support of an orthographic-visual analysis deficit is currently limited. In this multiple single-case study with three English-speaking children with developmental LPD, we aimed to both replicate and extend previous findings regarding the locus of impairment in English LPD. First, we ruled out a phonological output buffer and an orthographic input lexicon deficit by administering tasks that directly assess phonological processing and lexical guessing. We then went on to directly assess whether or not children with LPD have an orthographic-visual analysis deficit by modifying two tasks that have previously been used to localize processing at this level: a same-different decision task and a non-word reading task. The results from these tasks indicate that LPD is most likely caused by a deficit specific to the coding of letter positions at the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. These findings provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of dyslexia and its underlying causes.

  14. Allophonic Mode of Speech Perception in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serniclaes, Willy; Van Heghe, Sandra; Mousty, Philippe; Carre, Rene; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane

    2004-01-01

    Perceptual discrimination between speech sounds belonging to different phoneme categories is better than that between sounds falling within the same category. This property, known as ''categorical perception,'' is weaker in children affected by dyslexia. Categorical perception develops from the predispositions of newborns for discriminating all…

  15. De-Fusing Dyslexia. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserwald, Lee

    In a continuation study, 12 students with dyslexia participated in muscle testing and exercises. Six areas were evaluated via pre- and post-tests: academics (using measures of spelling, reading, and math); parental observations of changes in their children (behavioral, academic or affective); perceptual drawing; oral reading; written language; and…

  16. Writing in dyslexia: product and process.

    PubMed

    Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Turid

    2013-08-01

    Research on dyslexia has largely centred on reading. The aim of this study was to assess the writing of 13 children with and 28 without dyslexia at age 11 years. A programme for keystroke logging was used to allow recording of typing activity as the children performed a sentence dictation task. Five sentences were read aloud twice each. The task was to type the sentence as correctly as possible, with no time constraints. The data were analysed from a product (spelling, grammar and semantics) and process (transcription fluency and revisions) perspective, using repeated measures ANOVA and t-tests to investigate group differences. Furthermore, the data were correlated with measures of rapid automatic naming and working memory. Results showed that the group with dyslexia revised their texts as much as the typical group, but they used more time, and the result was poorer. Moreover, rapid automatic naming correlated with transcription fluency, and working memory correlated with the number of semantic errors. This shows that dyslexia is generally not an issue of effort and that cognitive skills that are known to be important for reading also affect writing. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Morphological Knowledge in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duranovic, Mirela; Tinjak, Sanela; Turbic-Hadzagic, Amira

    2014-01-01

    The phonological skills are not the only linguistic abilities which are observed to have some influence on reading achievement in dyslexics. In addition to phonological skills, morphological skills should be also taken in consideration. The aim of this study is to extend investigation the linguistic abilities of children with dyslexia to the…

  18. The Use of Orthoptics in Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Herskel M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    In 73 children (6-13 years old) with reading difficulty, ophthalmological evaluation showed that 18 had overt refractive errors, 18 dyslexia and no ocular anomalies, and 37 impaired fusional amplitudes, 24 of whom were dyslexic. In all Ss with poor fusional amplitudes the reading mechanism could be improved with orthoptic exercises. (Author/CL)

  19. Adults with Dyslexia Demonstrate Attentional Orienting Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Judy; Davies, Anne Aimola

    2008-01-01

    Alerting, orienting and executive control of attention are investigated in five adult cases of dyslexia. In comparison with a control group, alerting and executive control were found to be generally intact for each case. Two spatial cueing tasks were employed. For the task requiring target detection, orienting difficulties were evident only in…

  20. Functional Neuroanatomy of Impaired Reading in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmelin, Riitta; Helenius, Paivi

    2004-01-01

    In reading tasks, an underactivation of the left inferior occipitotemporal cortex in dyslexia seems to be the most consistent finding both in neurophysiological and hemodynamic studies. This marked difference appears at about 150 msec after word presentation when the brain enters the letter-string-specific (or, more generally, object-specific)…

  1. Multiple Intelligence and the Child with Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Beryl

    1998-01-01

    Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory has exciting implications for planning new curricula, especially for children with dyslexia. These children have been "educated" in a system that has failed them. Gardner's theory allows an open-ended approach to assessing dyslexic children's intelligence. Understanding the eight…

  2. Impaired Statistical Learning in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabay, Yafit; Thiessen, Erik D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is commonly thought to arise from phonological impairments. However, an emerging perspective is that a more general procedural learning deficit, not specific to phonological processing, may underlie DD. The current study examined if individuals with DD are capable of extracting statistical regularities across…

  3. The Dyslexia Simulation: Impact and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadlington, Elizabeth; Elliot, Cynthia; Kirylo, James

    2008-01-01

    Many students with reading difficulties have a specific learning disability called dyslexia, which is neurobiological in origin and characterized by problems with spelling, decoding, and accurate/fluent word identification, negatively impacting vocabulary growth and comprehension. Consequently, the role of the insightful teacher is critical in…

  4. Explaining the Sex Difference in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Anne B.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Peterson, Robin L.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Males are diagnosed with dyslexia more frequently than females, even in epidemiological samples. This may be explained by greater variance in males' reading performance. Methods: We expand on previous research by rigorously testing the variance difference theory, and testing for mediation of the sex difference by cognitive correlates.…

  5. Dichotic Listening and School Performance in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Asbjornsen, Arve E.; Hushovd, Aud Ellen; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the relationship between school performance and performance on a dichotic listening (DL) task in dyslexic children. Dyslexia is associated with impaired phonological processing, related to functions in the left temporal lobe. DL is a frequently used task to assess functions of the left temporal lobe. Due to the predominance…

  6. Identifying students with dyslexia in higher education.

    PubMed

    Tops, Wim; Callens, Maaike; Lammertyn, Jan; Van Hees, Valérie; Brysbaert, Marc

    2012-10-01

    An increasing number of students with dyslexia enter higher education. As a result, there is a growing need for standardized diagnosis. Previous research has suggested that a small number of tests may suffice to reliably assess students with dyslexia, but these studies were based on post hoc discriminant analysis, which tends to overestimate the percentage of systematic variance, and were limited to the English language (and the Anglo-Saxon education system). Therefore, we repeated the research in a non-English language (Dutch) and we selected variables on the basis of a prediction analysis. The results of our study confirm that it is not necessary to administer a wide range of tests to diagnose dyslexia in (young) adults. Three tests sufficed: word reading, word spelling and phonological awareness, in line with the proposal that higher education students with dyslexia continue to have specific problems with reading and writing. We also show that a traditional postdiction analysis selects more variables of importance than the prediction analysis. However, these extra variables explain study-specific variance and do not result in more predictive power of the model.

  7. Response to "The Many Faces of Dyslexia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaburda, Albert M.

    1986-01-01

    In response to M. Rawson's paper, the author uses an analogy with coronary artery disease to show that current brain research is not entirely at odds with the position that dyslexia may be a developmental variation, rather than a defect. (Author/DB)

  8. Response to "The Many Faces of Dyslexia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaburda, Albert M.

    1986-01-01

    In response to M. Rawson's paper, the author uses an analogy with coronary artery disease to show that current brain research is not entirely at odds with the position that dyslexia may be a developmental variation, rather than a defect. (Author/DB)

  9. Functional Neuroanatomy of Impaired Reading in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmelin, Riitta; Helenius, Paivi

    2004-01-01

    In reading tasks, an underactivation of the left inferior occipitotemporal cortex in dyslexia seems to be the most consistent finding both in neurophysiological and hemodynamic studies. This marked difference appears at about 150 msec after word presentation when the brain enters the letter-string-specific (or, more generally, object-specific)…

  10. Computerised Screening for Dyslexia in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Chris; Horne, Joanna; Simmons, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Identifying dyslexia in adulthood presents particular challenges because of complicating factors such as acquisition of compensatory strategies, differing degrees of intervention and the problem of distinguishing dyslexic adults from those whose literacy difficulties have non-cognitive causes. One of the implications is that conventional literacy…

  11. Teaching Students with Dyslexia in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark J.; Duffy, Sandi; England, David

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the type of adjustments to delivery appropriate for students with dyslexia in a UK higher education setting. Design/methodology/approach: A case study in a UK university department was conducted over a four-year period. Findings: It was found that a variety of adjustments may be required for…

  12. Developmental Dyslexia: A Review of Biological Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaburda, Albert M.

    1985-01-01

    The author considers cerebral dominance and brain asymmetry, the development of the cerebral cortex and examples of aberrancy, and diseases of the immune system, all of which relate to recent anatomical and epidemiological findings in developmental dyslexia. These discoveries have led to testable hypotheses which may enhance current understandings…

  13. Cross-Modal Binding in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Branigan, Holly P.; Parra, Mario A.; Logie, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to learn visual-phonological associations is a unique predictor of word reading, and individuals with developmental dyslexia show impaired ability in learning these associations. In this study, we compared developmentally dyslexic and nondyslexic adults on their ability to form cross-modal associations (or "bindings") based…

  14. Morphological Knowledge in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duranovic, Mirela; Tinjak, Sanela; Turbic-Hadzagic, Amira

    2014-01-01

    The phonological skills are not the only linguistic abilities which are observed to have some influence on reading achievement in dyslexics. In addition to phonological skills, morphological skills should be also taken in consideration. The aim of this study is to extend investigation the linguistic abilities of children with dyslexia to the…

  15. Screening for Multiple Genes Influencing Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shelley D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines the "sib pair" method of linkage analysis designed to locate genes influencing dyslexia, which has several advantages over the "LOD" score method. Notes that the sib pair analysis was able to detect the same linkages as the LOD method, plus a possible third region. Confirms that the sib pair method is an effective means of screening. (RS)

  16. The Use of Orthoptics in Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Herskel M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    In 73 children (6-13 years old) with reading difficulty, ophthalmological evaluation showed that 18 had overt refractive errors, 18 dyslexia and no ocular anomalies, and 37 impaired fusional amplitudes, 24 of whom were dyslexic. In all Ss with poor fusional amplitudes the reading mechanism could be improved with orthoptic exercises. (Author/CL)

  17. Dichotic Listening Deficits in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncrieff, Deborah W.; Black, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Several auditory processing deficits have been reported in children with dyslexia. In order to assess for the presence of a binaural integration type of auditory processing deficit, dichotic listening tests with digits, words and consonant-vowel (CV) pairs were administered to two groups of right-handed 11-year-old children, one group diagnosed…

  18. De-Fusing Dyslexia. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserwald, Lee

    In a continuation study, 12 students with dyslexia participated in muscle testing and exercises. Six areas were evaluated via pre- and post-tests: academics (using measures of spelling, reading, and math); parental observations of changes in their children (behavioral, academic or affective); perceptual drawing; oral reading; written language; and…

  19. Eye Movement Disorders in Dyslexia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festinger, Leon; And Others

    Eye movements of 18 male and seven female dyslexic children and 10 normal children were evaluated to determine if eye movement disorders may be the cause of some of the symptoms associated with dyslexia. Data on eye movements were collected while Ss moved their eyes from one fixation point to another in a nonreading situation. Errors in vertical…

  20. Impaired visual attention in children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Heiervang, Einar; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Reading involves the correct and rapid identification of visual stimuli with letters and words. The processing of visual stimuli depends not only on the integrity of the peripheral and central visual system but also on the attentional systems involved. In the present study, a cue-target visual attention task was administered to a population-based sample of 25 children with dyslexia from 10 to 12 years of age. A control group matched for group size, age, and gender was obtained from the same general population. A two-stage screening process involved a spelling task of regular words followed by a battery of five single-word reading tasks. The cue-target task involved both a computer-controlled stimulus presentation and a computer-controlled measurement of reaction time. The data were analyzed by visual field, cue condition (valid, invalid, and no cue), and cue-target interval (CTI). The results showed a general pattern of slower responses in the dyslexia group compared to the control group. The dyslexia group also had longer reaction times in the short CTI condition (covert shift of attention) and in the long CTI condition (overt shift of attention). The findings may reflect a general attentional deficit to visual stimuli in dyslexia, possibly related to problems with the recruitment of necessary cognitive resources for the performance of complex reaction time tasks and for fluent reading.

  1. Impaired Statistical Learning in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabay, Yafit; Thiessen, Erik D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is commonly thought to arise from phonological impairments. However, an emerging perspective is that a more general procedural learning deficit, not specific to phonological processing, may underlie DD. The current study examined if individuals with DD are capable of extracting statistical regularities across…

  2. Dichotic Listening Deficits in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncrieff, Deborah W.; Black, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Several auditory processing deficits have been reported in children with dyslexia. In order to assess for the presence of a binaural integration type of auditory processing deficit, dichotic listening tests with digits, words and consonant-vowel (CV) pairs were administered to two groups of right-handed 11-year-old children, one group diagnosed…

  3. Computerised Screening for Dyslexia in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Chris; Horne, Joanna; Simmons, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Identifying dyslexia in adulthood presents particular challenges because of complicating factors such as acquisition of compensatory strategies, differing degrees of intervention and the problem of distinguishing dyslexic adults from those whose literacy difficulties have non-cognitive causes. One of the implications is that conventional literacy…

  4. Sentence comprehension in young adults with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Wiseheart, Rebecca; Altmann, Lori J P; Park, Heeyoung; Lombardino, Linda J

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of syntactic complexity on written sentence comprehension in compensated adults with dyslexia. Because working memory (WM) plays a key role in processing complex sentences, and individuals with dyslexia often demonstrate persistent deficits in WM, we hypothesized that individuals with dyslexia would perform more poorly on tasks designed to assess the comprehension of syntactic structures that are especially taxing on WM (e.g., passives, sentences with relative clauses). Compared to their nondyslexic peers, individuals with dyslexia were significantly less accurate and marginally slower on passive sentences. For sentences containing relative clauses, the dyslexic group was also less accurate but did not differ in response times. Covarying WM and word reading in both analyses eliminated group differences showing that syntactic deficits in adults with dyslexia are constrained by both WM and word-reading ability. These findings support previous research showing that syntactic processing deficits are characteristic of dyslexia, even among high-achieving students.

  5. Dyslexia: a new synergy between education and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, John D E

    2009-07-17

    Reading is essential in modern societies, but many children have dyslexia, a difficulty in learning to read. Dyslexia often arises from impaired phonological awareness, the auditory analysis of spoken language that relates the sounds of language to print. Behavioral remediation, especially at a young age, is effective for many, but not all, children. Neuroimaging in children with dyslexia has revealed reduced engagement of the left temporo-parietal cortex for phonological processing of print, altered white-matter connectivity, and functional plasticity associated with effective intervention. Behavioral and brain measures identify infants and young children at risk for dyslexia, and preventive intervention is often effective. A combination of evidence-based teaching practices and cognitive neuroscience measures could prevent dyslexia from occurring in the majority of children who would otherwise develop dyslexia.

  6. Twelve tips for teaching medical students with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Sebastian Charles Keith; Anderson, John Leeds

    2017-07-01

    Dyslexia is a common learning difficulty. As a result of SS' own experiences as a medical student with dyslexia, we have been researching and teaching on this topic for the past two years. Here, we present twelve tips for teaching medical students with dyslexia. These are gathered from our personal experiences and research, discussions with other educators, and wider literature on the topic. This article aims to shed some light on dyslexia, and also to make practical suggestions. Teaching students with dyslexia should not be a daunting experience. Small changes to existing methods, at minor effort, can make a difference - for example, adding pastel colors to slide backgrounds or avoiding Serif fonts. These tips can help educators gain more insight into dyslexia and incorporate small, beneficial adaptations into their teaching.

  7. Disrupted white matter connectivity underlying developmental dyslexia: A machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zaixu; Xia, Zhichao; Su, Mengmeng; Shu, Hua; Gong, Gaolang

    2016-04-01

    Developmental dyslexia has been hypothesized to result from multiple causes and exhibit multiple manifestations, implying a distributed multidimensional effect on human brain. The disruption of specific white-matter (WM) tracts/regions has been observed in dyslexic children. However, it remains unknown if developmental dyslexia affects the human brain WM in a multidimensional manner. Being a natural tool for evaluating this hypothesis, the multivariate machine learning approach was applied in this study to compare 28 school-aged dyslexic children with 33 age-matched controls. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired to extract five multitype WM features at a regional level: white matter volume, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. A linear support vector machine (LSVM) classifier achieved an accuracy of 83.61% using these MRI features to distinguish dyslexic children from controls. Notably, the most discriminative features that contributed to the classification were primarily associated with WM regions within the putative reading network/system (e.g., the superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, thalamocortical projections, and corpus callosum), the limbic system (e.g., the cingulum and fornix), and the motor system (e.g., the cerebellar peduncle, corona radiata, and corticospinal tract). These results were well replicated using a logistic regression classifier. These findings provided direct evidence supporting a multidimensional effect of developmental dyslexia on WM connectivity of human brain, and highlighted the involvement of WM tracts/regions beyond the well-recognized reading system in dyslexia. Finally, the discriminating results demonstrated a potential of WM neuroimaging features as imaging markers for identifying dyslexic individuals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The role of parieto-temporal connectivity in pure neglect dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Ptak, Radek; Di Pietro, Marie; Pignat, Jean-Michel

    2016-10-01

    The initial stages of reading are characterised by parallel and effortless access to letters constituting a word. Neglect dyslexia is an acquired reading disorder characterised by omission or substitution of the initial or the final letters of words. Rarely, the disorder appears in a'pure' form that is, without other signs of spatial neglect. Neglect dyslexia is linked to damage involving the inferior parietal lobe and regions of the temporal lobe, but the precise anatomical basis of the pure form of the disorder is unknown. Here, we show that pure neglect dyslexia is associated with decreased structural connectivity between the inferior parietal and lateral temporal lobe. We examined patient DM, who following bilateral occipito-parietal damage presented left neglect dyslexia together with right visual field loss, but no signs of spatial neglect. DM's reading errors were affected by word length and were much more frequent for pseudowords than for existing words. Most errors were omissions or substitutions of the first or second letter, and the spatial distribution of errors was similar for stimuli presented left or right of fixation. The brain lesions of DM comprised the inferior and superior parietal lobule as well as the cuneus and precuneus of the left hemisphere, and the angular gyrus and lateral occipital cortex of the right hemisphere. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed bilateral decrease of fibre tracts connecting the inferior parietal lobule with the superior and middle temporal cortex. These findings suggest that parieto-temporal connections play a significant role for the deployment of attention within words during reading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Morpheme-based Reading and Spelling in Italian Children with Developmental Dyslexia and Dysorthography.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; De Salvatore, Marinella; Burani, Cristina

    2017-02-08

    Italian sixth graders, with and without dyslexia, read pseudowords and low-frequency words that include high-frequency morphemes better than stimuli not including any morpheme. The present study assessed whether morphemes affect (1) younger children, with and without dyslexia; (2) spelling as well as reading; and (3) words with low-frequency morphemes. Two groups of third graders (16 children with dyslexia and dysorthography and 16 age-matched typically developing children) read aloud and spelt to dictation pseudowords and words. Pseudowords included (1) root + suffix in not existing combinations (e.g. lampadista, formed by lampad-, 'lamp', and -ista, '-ist') and (2) orthographic sequences not corresponding to any Italian root or suffix (e.g. livonosto). Words had low frequency and included: (1) root + suffix, both of high frequency (e.g. bestiale, 'beastly'); (2) root + suffix, both of low frequency (e.g. asprigno, 'rather sour'); and (3) simple words (e.g. insulso, 'vapid'). Children with dyslexia and dysorthography were less accurate than typically developing children. Root + suffix pseudowords were read and spelt more accurately than non-morphological pseudowords by both groups. Morphologically complex (root + suffix) words were read and spelt better than simple words. However, task interacted with morphology: reading was not facilitated by low-frequency morphemes. We conclude that children acquiring a transparent orthography exploit morpheme-based reading and spelling to face difficulties in processing long unfamiliar stimuli. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Different brain activation patterns in dyslexic children: evidence from EEG power and coherence patterns for the double-deficit theory of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Arns, Martijn; Peters, Sylvia; Breteler, Rien; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2007-03-01

    QEEG and neuropsychological tests were used to investigate the underlying neural processes in dyslexia. A group of dyslexic children were compared with a matched control group from the Brain Resource International Database on measures of cognition and brain function (EEG and coherence). The dyslexic group showed increased slow activity (Delta and Theta) in the frontal and right temporal regions of the brain. Beta-1 was specifically increased at F7. EEG coherence was increased in the frontal, central and temporal regions for all frequency bands. There was a symmetric increase in coherence for the lower frequency bands (Delta and Theta) and a specific right-temporocentral increase in coherence for the higher frequency bands (Alpha and Beta). Significant correlations were observed between subtests such as Rapid Naming Letters, Articulation, Spelling and Phoneme Deletion and EEG coherence profiles. The results support the double-deficit theory of dyslexia and demonstrate that the differences between the dyslexia and control group might reflect compensatory mechanisms. These findings point to a potential compensatory mechanism of brain function in dyslexia and helps to separate real dysfunction in dyslexia from acquired compensatory mechanisms.

  11. Neglect dyslexia: a matter of "good looking".

    PubMed

    Primativo, Silvia; Arduino, Lisa S; De Luca, Maria; Daini, Roberta; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2013-09-01

    Brain-damaged patients with right-sided unilateral spatial neglect (USN) often make left-sided errors in reading single words or pseudowords (neglect dyslexia, ND). We propose that both left neglect and low fixation accuracy account for reading errors in neglect dyslexia. Eye movements were recorded in USN patients with (ND+) and without (ND-) neglect dyslexia and in a matched control group of right brain-damaged patients without neglect (USN-). Unlike ND- and controls, ND+ patients showed left lateralized omission errors and a distorted eye movement pattern in both a reading aloud task and a non-verbal saccadic task. During reading, the total number of fixations was larger in these patients independent of visual hemispace, and most fixations were inaccurate. Similarly, in the saccadic task only ND+ patients were unable to reach the moving dot. A third experiment addressed the nature of the left lateralization in reading error distribution by simulating neglect dyslexia in ND- patients. ND- and USN- patients had to perform a speeded reading-at-threshold task that did not allow for eye movements. When stimulus exploration was prevented, ND- patients, but not controls, produced a pattern of errors similar to that of ND+ with unlimited exposure time (e.g., left-sided errors). We conclude that neglect dyslexia reading errors may arise in USN patients as a consequence of an additional and independent deficit unrelated to the orthographic material. In particular, the presence of an altered oculo-motor pattern, preventing the automatic execution of the fine saccadic eye movements involved in reading, uncovers, in USN patients, the attentional bias also in reading single centrally presented words.

  12. Experience of nursing students with dyslexia on clinical placement.

    PubMed

    McPheat, Christopher

    2014-06-17

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the experience of nursing students with dyslexia while on clinical placement. Three main themes emerged, including risk to patient safety, disclosure of dyslexia and support for nursing students. The literature review highlights the lack of dyslexia awareness and understanding in the research and at the trusts at which nursing students are placed, and calls for further research in this area.

  13. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Myers, Emily B.

    2014-01-01

    The comprehension of fluent speech in one's native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is “restored” via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one's peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore, the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal. PMID:24926230

  14. Central auditory testing and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1980-06-01

    A group of dyslexic pupils with normal end organ function was studied by a central auditory battery to determine whether a hearing disability existed. The clinical features of dyslexia are presented with emphasis on the psychological developmental and functional disorders associated with this reading problem. The central battery of Willeford was selected as the test medium and the results of the 77 dyslexic students were compared to the normative data. The model proposed by Sparks, et al., is accepted as the mechanism for dichotic audition. Reference is made to the organic basis of reading disorders from lesion in the calcarine area to the angular gyrus. The competing sentence test, binaural fusion, rapidly alternating speech perception, and filtered speech are described in detail and are organic foundation for the study. The authors indentified a high rate of failure in this investigation. Over 50% of the dyslexic students failed two of the four tests, and each of the 77 failed at least one component. The most sensitive tests were binaural fusion and filtered speech with less variation from the norm in the remaining two components. The effect of maturation in central audition was measured in each of the four tests. The data suggest: 1. the scores are lower in the early ages in each test; 2. that rapidly alternating speech and competing sentences approach the normal range albeit somewhat delayed; and 3. that binaural fusion and filtered speech improve in score somewhat but rather moderately and never approach the normal range. Based upon the central auditory data and in conjunction with the anatomical pathways of vision, the authors suggest the site of lesion to be in the temporo-parietal cortex and the association fibers.

  15. Dyslexia in general practice education: considerations for recognition and support.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, Duncan

    2016-07-01

    Dyslexia is a common developmental learning difficulty, which persists throughout life. It is highly likely that those working in primary care will know, or even work with someone who has dyslexia. Dyslexia can impact on performance in postgraduate training and exams. The stereotypical characteristics of dyslexia, such as literacy difficulties, are often not obvious in adult learners. Instead, recognition requires a holistic approach to evaluating personal strengths and difficulties, in the context of a supportive relationship. Strategies to support dyslexic learners should consider recommendations made in formal diagnostic reports, and aim to address self-awareness and coping skills.

  16. High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children.

    PubMed

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Slot, Esther M; de Bree, Elise H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with dyslexia). The test battery included measures of literacy (reading/spelling) and cognitive abilities related to literacy and language (phonological awareness [PA], rapid automatized naming [RAN], verbal short-term memory [VSTM], working memory [WM], grammar, and vocabulary). It was hypothesized that gifted children with dyslexia would outperform children with dyslexia on literacy tests. In addition, a core-deficit model including dyslexia-related weaknesses and a compensational model involving giftedness-related strengths were tested using Bayesian statistics to explain their reading/spelling performance. Gifted children with dyslexia performed on all literacy tests in between children with dyslexia and TD children. Their cognitive profile showed signs of weaknesses in PA and RAN and strengths in VSTM, WM, and language skills. Findings indicate that phonology is a risk factor for gifted children with dyslexia, but this is moderated by other skills such as WM, grammar, and vocabulary, providing opportunities for compensation of a cognitive deficit and masking of literacy difficulties. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  17. Multilingualism and dyslexia: challenges for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Cline, T

    2000-01-01

    Over the last two decades there has been an expansion of activity and substantial progress in research on dyslexia and research on bilingualism and multilingualism. But the study of dyslexia has generally focused on monolingual learners and the study of bilingualism has tended to focus on speakers who do not have special educational needs. This paper will review the strands of research to date that have a bearing on multilingualism and dyslexia and attempt to identify the major challenges that face researchers and teachers. A satisfactory response cannot be developed without a full understanding of the impact that dyslexia has on language learning and the impact that multilingualism has on literacy learning.

  18. Coherent motion, magnocellular sensitivity and the causation of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Skottun, Bernt C; Skoyles, John R

    2008-01-01

    The central tenet of the magnocellular deficit theory of dyslexia is that dyslexia is caused by a magnocellular deficit. A number of investigators have found deficiencies in visual coherent motion perception among dyslexic readers. These deficiencies have been attributed to magnocellular deficits, which means that they directly reflect the cause of dyslexia. However, similar perceptual deficiencies have been found in association with autism, Williams's syndrome, hemiplegia, and schizophrenia. These findings appear to undermine at least one of the following claims: (1) that a magnocellular deficit is the cause of dyslexia, and (2) that coherent motion is a reliable test of magnocellular sensitivity.

  19. Dyslexia and early intervention: what did we learn from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme?

    PubMed

    van der Leij, Aryan

    2013-11-01

    Part of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme has been dedicated to early intervention. The question of whether the genetically affected learning mechanism of children who are at familial risk (FR) of developing dyslexia could be influenced by training phoneme awareness and letter-sound associations in the prereading phase was investigated. The rationale was that intervention studies reveal insights about the weaknesses of the learning mechanisms of FR children. In addition, the studies aimed to gather practical insights to be used in the development of a system of early diagnosis and prevention. Focused on the last period of kindergarten before formal reading instruction starts in Grade 1, intervention methods with comparable samples and designs but differences in delivery mode (use of computer or manual), tutor (semi-professional or parent), location (at school or at home), and additional practices (serial rapid naming or simple word reading) have been executed to test the hypothesis that the incidence and degree of dyslexia can be reduced. The present position paper summarizes the Dutch Dyslexia Programme findings and relates them to findings of other studies. It is discussed that the Dutch studies provide evidence on why prevention of dyslexia is hard to accomplish. It is argued that effective intervention should not only start early but also be adapted to the individual and often long-lasting educational needs of children at risk of reading failure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed.

    PubMed

    Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Speech and Language Difficulties in Children with and without a Family History of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Julia M.; Myers, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Comorbidity between SLI and dyslexia is well documented. Researchers have variously argued that dyslexia is a separate disorder from SLI, or that children with dyslexia show a subset of the difficulties shown in SLI. This study examines these hypotheses by assessing whether family history of dyslexia and speech and language difficulties are…

  2. Predicting Dyslexia at Age 11 from a Risk Index Questionnaire at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Plante, Elena; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on predicting dyslexia in children ahead of formal literacy training. Because dyslexia is a constitutional impairment, risk factors should be seen in preschool. It was hypothesized that data gathered at age 5 using questions targeting the dyslexia endophenotype should be reliable and valid predictors of dyslexia at age 11. A…

  3. Coping Successfully with Dyslexia: An Initial Study of an Inclusive School-Based Resilience Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Nola; Frydenberg, Erica; Steeg, Charlotte; Bond, Lyndal

    2013-01-01

    A dyslexia coping programme entitled "Success and Dyslexia" was implemented in two primary schools within a whole-class coping programme and whole-school dyslexia professional development context. One hundred and two year 6 students, 23 of whom had dyslexia, undertook surveys pretest, post-test and at 1-year follow-up. Effectiveness of…

  4. Coping Successfully with Dyslexia: An Initial Study of an Inclusive School-Based Resilience Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Nola; Frydenberg, Erica; Steeg, Charlotte; Bond, Lyndal

    2013-01-01

    A dyslexia coping programme entitled "Success and Dyslexia" was implemented in two primary schools within a whole-class coping programme and whole-school dyslexia professional development context. One hundred and two year 6 students, 23 of whom had dyslexia, undertook surveys pretest, post-test and at 1-year follow-up. Effectiveness of…

  5. Beyond Spelling: The Writing Skills of Students with Dyslexia in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tops, W.; Callens, C.; Van Cauwenberghe, E.; Adriaens, J.; Brysbaert, M.

    2013-01-01

    To have a clearer idea of the problems students with dyslexia may face during their studies, we compared writings of 100 students with dyslexia and 100 age matched control students in higher education. The aim of this study was to compare the writing of young adults with dyslexia and young adults without dyslexia. The study was carried out in…

  6. Speech and Language Difficulties in Children with and without a Family History of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Julia M.; Myers, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Comorbidity between SLI and dyslexia is well documented. Researchers have variously argued that dyslexia is a separate disorder from SLI, or that children with dyslexia show a subset of the difficulties shown in SLI. This study examines these hypotheses by assessing whether family history of dyslexia and speech and language difficulties are…

  7. Predicting Dyslexia at Age 11 from a Risk Index Questionnaire at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Plante, Elena; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on predicting dyslexia in children ahead of formal literacy training. Because dyslexia is a constitutional impairment, risk factors should be seen in preschool. It was hypothesized that data gathered at age 5 using questions targeting the dyslexia endophenotype should be reliable and valid predictors of dyslexia at age 11. A…

  8. Beyond Spelling: The Writing Skills of Students with Dyslexia in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tops, W.; Callens, C.; Van Cauwenberghe, E.; Adriaens, J.; Brysbaert, M.

    2013-01-01

    To have a clearer idea of the problems students with dyslexia may face during their studies, we compared writings of 100 students with dyslexia and 100 age matched control students in higher education. The aim of this study was to compare the writing of young adults with dyslexia and young adults without dyslexia. The study was carried out in…

  9. Behavioral Genetic Approach to the Study of Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Soden Hensler, Brooke; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette; Wagner, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Dyslexia is a prominent focus of practitioners, educators, and researchers due to the myriad consequences of failing to read proficiently. The aim of the current study was to provide a brief overview of how twin studies can offer insight on the etiology of many human behaviors and disorders including dyslexia, discuss common misconceptions regarding findings from behavioral genetic studies, briefly review the evidence on the relationship between genes, environment, and dyslexia, and finally present some findings from a large-scale twin study on reading and dyslexia. Method Participants were twins from a large ethnically and socioeconomically diverse twin sample in an ongoing longitudinal study of reading and dyslexia. Heritabilities of reading ability and dyslexia were calculated for 1,024 first grade twins on a standardized reading measure. Children were identified as dyslexic if they scored at the fifteenth percentile or below on a reading measure. Results Relatively high heritabilities were observed for both reading ability and dyslexia indicating substantial genetic influences. Further, results indicated some overlap of genetic factors influencing reading ability and dyslexia. Conclusions Behavioral genetic studies offer a means of understanding the etiology of dyslexia. The current study extended research to a more diverse sample than extant studies and found lower heritability estimates of reading ability and dyslexia, but a similar pattern of results indicating genetic overlap. Twin studies provide perspective for discoveries of specific genes involved in dyslexia by quantifying the amount of variance waiting to be accounted for by genes while simultaneously providing an impetus to continue working on efforts for environmental intervention. PMID:20814252

  10. Developmental dyslexia in Chinese and English populations: dissociating the effect of dyslexia from language differences

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Lee, Hwee Ling; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Tao; Geng, Li Bo; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Shakeshaft, Clare; Twomey, Tae; Green, David W.; Yang, Yi Ming

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that developmental dyslexia has a different neural basis in Chinese and English populations because of known differences in the processing demands of the Chinese and English writing systems. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provide the first direct statistically based investigation into how the effect of dyslexia on brain activation is influenced by the Chinese and English writing systems. Brain activation for semantic decisions on written words was compared in English dyslexics, Chinese dyslexics, English normal readers and Chinese normal readers, while controlling for all other experimental parameters. By investigating the effects of dyslexia and language in one study, we show common activation in Chinese and English dyslexics despite different activation in Chinese versus English normal readers. The effect of dyslexia in both languages was observed as less than normal activation in the left angular gyrus and in left middle frontal, posterior temporal and occipitotemporal regions. Differences in Chinese and English normal reading were observed as increased activation for Chinese relative to English in the left inferior frontal sulcus; and increased activation for English relative to Chinese in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus. These cultural differences were not observed in dyslexics who activated both left inferior frontal sulcus and left posterior superior temporal sulcus, consistent with the use of culturally independent strategies when reading is less efficient. By dissociating the effect of dyslexia from differences in Chinese and English normal reading, our results reconcile brain activation results with a substantial body of behavioural studies showing commonalities in the cognitive manifestation of dyslexia in Chinese and English populations. They also demonstrate the influence of cognitive ability and learning environment on a common neural system for reading. PMID:20488886

  11. Developmental dyslexia in Chinese and English populations: dissociating the effect of dyslexia from language differences.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Lee, Hwee Ling; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Tao; Geng, Li Bo; Seghier, Mohamed L; Shakeshaft, Clare; Twomey, Tae; Green, David W; Yang, Yi Ming; Price, Cathy J

    2010-06-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that developmental dyslexia has a different neural basis in Chinese and English populations because of known differences in the processing demands of the Chinese and English writing systems. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provide the first direct statistically based investigation into how the effect of dyslexia on brain activation is influenced by the Chinese and English writing systems. Brain activation for semantic decisions on written words was compared in English dyslexics, Chinese dyslexics, English normal readers and Chinese normal readers, while controlling for all other experimental parameters. By investigating the effects of dyslexia and language in one study, we show common activation in Chinese and English dyslexics despite different activation in Chinese versus English normal readers. The effect of dyslexia in both languages was observed as less than normal activation in the left angular gyrus and in left middle frontal, posterior temporal and occipitotemporal regions. Differences in Chinese and English normal reading were observed as increased activation for Chinese relative to English in the left inferior frontal sulcus; and increased activation for English relative to Chinese in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus. These cultural differences were not observed in dyslexics who activated both left inferior frontal sulcus and left posterior superior temporal sulcus, consistent with the use of culturally independent strategies when reading is less efficient. By dissociating the effect of dyslexia from differences in Chinese and English normal reading, our results reconcile brain activation results with a substantial body of behavioural studies showing commonalities in the cognitive manifestation of dyslexia in Chinese and English populations. They also demonstrate the influence of cognitive ability and learning environment on a common neural system for reading.

  12. Developmental dyslexia, learning and the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, R I; Fawcett, A J

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical frameworks for dyslexia must explain how the well-established phonological deficits and the literacy deficits arise. Our longstanding research programme has led to a distinctive 'twin level' framework that proposes, first, that the core deficits are well described in terms of poor skill automaticity. Second, these 'cognitive level' symptoms are attributed to abnormal cerebellar function--a 'brain-level' analysis. The evidence includes data from behavioural, imaging, neuroanatomical and learning studies. The frame-work leads to an 'ontogenetic' analysis that links cerebellar deficit at birth, via problems in articulation and working memory, to the known phonological, speed and literacy difficulties. Differences in locus of cerebellar impairment, experience and/or links to other brain regions may account for subtypes of dyslexia and possibly other developmental disorders. The automaticity/ cerebellar deficit framework provides an explicit demonstration that it is possible to explain motor, speed and phonological deficits within a unified account, integrating previously opposed approaches.

  13. Delayed Detection of Tonal Targets in Background Noise in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chait, Maria; Eden, Guinevere; Poeppel, David; Simon, Jonathan Z.; Hill, Deborah F.; Flowers, D. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia are often impaired in their ability to process certain linguistic and even basic non-linguistic auditory signals. Recent investigations report conflicting findings regarding impaired low-level binaural detection mechanisms associated with dyslexia. Binaural impairment has been hypothesized to stem from a…

  14. Visuospatial Superiority in Developmental Dyslexia: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Marzano, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that dyslexia is positively associated with superior visuospatial ability but empirical evidence is inconsistent. We explicitly tested the hypothesis that dyslexia is associated with visuospatial advantage in 20 dyslexic and 21 unimpaired adult readers using paper-and-pencil measures and tests of "everyday"…

  15. Dyslexia--A Molecular Disorder of Neuronal Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaburda, Albert M.

    2005-01-01

    For 25 years now, there has been a serious attempt to get at the fundamental cause(s) of dyslexia in our laboratory. A great deal of research has been carried out on the psychological and brain underpinnings of the linguistic dysfunctions seen in dyslexia, but attempts to get at its cause have been limited. Initially, observations were made on the…

  16. Dyslexia and ADD: 20 Questions Parents Ask. Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Joyce S.

    2002-01-01

    This article uses a question-answer format to present information for parents on dyslexia and attention deficit disorders (ADD). Information includes typical behaviors and skills of children with dyslexia or ADD, how parents can help their children, and the use of medication to control hyperactivity. (KB)

  17. Do Differences in Brain Activation Challenge Universal Theories of Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2006-01-01

    It has been commonly agreed that developmental dyslexia in different languages has a common biological origin: a dysfunction of left posterior temporal brain regions dealing with phonological processes. Siok, Perfetti, Jin, and Tan (2004, "Nature," 431, 71-76) challenge this biological unity theory of dyslexia: Chinese dyslexics show no deficits…

  18. How Do Teachers in Ireland and England Conceptualise Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sheena; McPhillips, Therese; Doveston, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a comparative study using data from questionnaire surveys carried out in England (n = 57) and Ireland (n = 72). The researchers examine how teachers and teaching assistants who are currently teaching pupils with dyslexia in primary schools describe dyslexia and what may have influenced their conceptualisation.…

  19. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  20. Dyslexia--A Molecular Disorder of Neuronal Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaburda, Albert M.

    2005-01-01

    For 25 years now, there has been a serious attempt to get at the fundamental cause(s) of dyslexia in our laboratory. A great deal of research has been carried out on the psychological and brain underpinnings of the linguistic dysfunctions seen in dyslexia, but attempts to get at its cause have been limited. Initially, observations were made on the…

  1. Developmental Dyslexia: Early Precursors, Neurobehavioral Markers, and Biological Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benasich, April A., Ed.; Fitch, R. Holly, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the precursors and early indicators of dyslexia is key to early identification and effective intervention. Now there's a single research volume that brings together the very latest knowledge on the earliest stages of dyslexia and the diverse genetic, neurobiological, and cognitive factors that may contribute to it. Based on findings…

  2. Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological…

  3. Spelling in Adolescents with Dyslexia: Errors and Modes of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tops, Wim; Callens, Maaike; Bijn, Evi; Brysbaert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this study we focused on the spelling of high-functioning students with dyslexia. We made a detailed classification of the errors in a word and sentence dictation task made by 100 students with dyslexia and 100 matched control students. All participants were in the first year of their bachelor's studies and had Dutch as mother tongue. Three…

  4. Are Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia Distinct Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catts, Hugh W.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are distinct developmental disorders. Method: Study 1 investigated the overlap between SLI identified in kindergarten and dyslexia identified in 2nd, 4th, or 8th grades in a representative sample of 527 children. Study 2 examined…

  5. Do Differences in Brain Activation Challenge Universal Theories of Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2006-01-01

    It has been commonly agreed that developmental dyslexia in different languages has a common biological origin: a dysfunction of left posterior temporal brain regions dealing with phonological processes. Siok, Perfetti, Jin, and Tan (2004, "Nature," 431, 71-76) challenge this biological unity theory of dyslexia: Chinese dyslexics show no deficits…

  6. Dyslexia in Chinese Language: An Overview of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia appears to be the most prevalent disability of students with special educational needs in many mainstream classes, affecting around 9.7% of the school population in Hong Kong. The education of these students is therefore of great concern to the community. In the present paper research into dyslexia in the Chinese language is briefly…

  7. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  8. The Mental and Written Arithmetic Abilities of Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Fiona Rachel; Singleton, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The abilities of 19 adult students with dyslexia and 19 students without dyslexia to recall number facts were compared. Despite being matched for estimated IQ, the dyslexic students were less accurate than the non-dyslexic students when answering subtraction and multiplication questions. When the dyslexic students answered addition and subtraction…

  9. Dyslexia and Dyscalculia: Two Learning Disorders with Different Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerl, Karin; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Willburger, Edith

    2009-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that dyslexia and dyscalculia are associated with two largely independent cognitive deficits, namely a phonological deficit in the case of dyslexia and a deficit in the number module in the case of dyscalculia. In four groups of 8- to 10-year-olds (42 control, 21 dyslexic, 20 dyscalculic, and 26…

  10. Dyslexia in Spanish: The State of the Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Francisca; Defior, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    Dyslexia is a persistent problem in written language, consisting of a severe difficulty in word recognition. It is characterized by low reading performance, while other skills are not impaired, being normal or even superior in some cases. This paper reviews different proposals for defining and clarifying causes of dyslexia. Additionally, we…

  11. Temporal sampling in vision and the implications for dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Pammer, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that dyslexia may manifest as a deficit in the neural synchrony underlying language-based codes (Goswami, 2011), such that the phonological deficits apparent in dyslexia occur as a consequence of poor synchronisation of oscillatory brain signals to the sounds of language. There is compelling evidence to support this suggestion, and it provides an intriguing new development in understanding the aetiology of dyslexia. It is undeniable that dyslexia is associated with poor phonological coding, however, reading is also a visual task, and dyslexia has also been associated with poor visual coding, particularly visuo-spatial sensitivity. It has been hypothesized for some time that specific frequency oscillations underlie visual perception. Although little research has been done looking specifically at dyslexia and cortical frequency oscillations, it is possible to draw on converging evidence from visual tasks to speculate that similar deficits could occur in temporal frequency oscillations in the visual domain in dyslexia. Thus, here the plausibility of a visual correlate of the Temporal Sampling Framework is considered, leading to specific hypotheses and predictions for future research. A common underlying neural mechanism in dyslexia, may subsume qualitatively different manifestations of reading difficulty, which is consistent with the heterogeneity of the disorder, and may open the door for a new generation of exciting research. PMID:24596549

  12. Anchoring the Deficit of the Anchor Deficit: Dyslexia or Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willburger, Edith; Landerl, Karin

    2010-01-01

    In the anchoring deficit hypothesis of dyslexia ("Trends Cogn. Sci.", 2007; 11: 458-465), it is proposed that perceptual problems arise from the lack of forming a perceptual anchor for repeatedly presented stimuli. A study designed to explicitly test the specificity of the anchoring deficit for dyslexia is presented. Four groups, representing all…

  13. Dyslexia Limits the Ability to Categorize Talker Dialect

    PubMed Central

    Long, Gayle Beam; Jacewicz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying phonological impairment in dyslexia is associated with a deficit in categorizing regional dialects. Method Twenty adults with dyslexia, 20 school-age children with dyslexia, and 40 corresponding control listeners with average reading ability listened to sentences produced by multiple talkers (both sexes) representing two dialects: Midland dialect in Ohio (same as listeners' dialect) and Southern dialect in Western North Carolina. Participants' responses were analyzed using signal detection theory. Results Listeners with dyslexia were less sensitive to talker dialect than listeners with average reading ability. Children were less sensitive to dialect than adults. Under stimulus uncertainty, listeners with average reading ability were biased toward Ohio dialect, whereas listeners with dyslexia were unbiased in their responses. Talker sex interacted with sensitivity and bias differently for listeners with dyslexia than for listeners with average reading ability. The correlations between dialect sensitivity and phonological memory scores were strongest for adults with dyslexia. Conclusions The results imply that the phonological deficit in dyslexia arises from impaired access to intact phonological representations rather than from poorly specified representations. It can be presumed that the impeded access to implicit long-term memory representations for indexical (dialect) information is due to less efficient operations in working memory, including deficiencies in utilizing talker normalization processes. PMID:27575597

  14. Evaluation of Ocular Movements in Patients with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagge, Aldo; Cavanna, Margherita; Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Iester, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between dyslexia and eye movements and to assess whether this method can be added to the workup of dyslexic patients. The sample was comprised of 11 children with a diagnosis of dyslexia and 11 normal between 8 and 13 years of age. All subjects underwent orthoptic evaluation, ophthalmological…

  15. Learning Strategies and Study Approaches of Postsecondary Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.; Silvestri, Robert; Allingham, Beth H.; Parrila, Rauno; La Fave, Chantal B.

    2008-01-01

    The present study describes the self-reported learning strategies and study approaches of college and university students with and without dyslexia and examines the relationship of those characteristics with reading ability. Students with (n = 36) and without (n = 66) dyslexia completed tests measuring reading rate, reading comprehension, reading…

  16. Neural systems predicting long-term outcome in dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Hoeft, Fumiko; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Black, Jessica M.; Gantman, Alexander; Zakerani, Nahal; Hulme, Charles; Lyytinen, Heikki; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia vary in their ability to improve reading skills, but the brain basis for improvement remains largely unknown. We performed a prospective, longitudinal study over 2.5 y in children with dyslexia (n = 25) or without dyslexia (n = 20) to discover whether initial behavioral or brain measures, including functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), can predict future long-term reading gains in dyslexia. No behavioral measure, including widely used and standardized reading and language tests, reliably predicted future reading gains in dyslexia. Greater right prefrontal activation during a reading task that demanded phonological awareness and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (including arcuate fasciculus) white-matter organization significantly predicted future reading gains in dyslexia. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of these two brain measures, using linear support vector machine (SVM) and cross-validation, predicted significantly above chance (72% accuracy) which particular child would or would not improve reading skills (behavioral measures were at chance). MVPA of whole-brain activation pattern during phonological processing predicted which children with dyslexia would improve reading skills 2.5 y later with >90% accuracy. These findings identify right prefrontal brain mechanisms that may be critical for reading improvement in dyslexia and that may differ from typical reading development. Brain measures that predict future behavioral outcomes (neuroprognosis) may be more accurate, in some cases, than available behavioral measures. PMID:21173250

  17. Dyslexia at a Behavioural and a Cognitive Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether patterns of neuro-cognitive assets and deficits seen in dyslexia also would lead to different patterns of reading and writing. A group of dyslexic children was subgrouped by language comprehension and mathematics skills in accordance with the definition of the British Dyslexia Association of 1998. This…

  18. A Facilitation of Dyslexia through a Remediation of Shakespeare's Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Petronilla

    2016-01-01

    This article shares the author's research focusing on the facilitation of acting students with dyslexia in actor-training. For some individuals with dyslexia the translation of the written text into image-based symbols using technological modalities can play a crucial role to access and make concrete the meaning of the words; in this case…

  19. The Existence of Dyslexia without Severe Literacy Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, T. R.; Wheeler, T. J.; Haslum, M. N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes characteristics of 10-year-old children (n=422) with normal reading ability, but with some signs of dyslexia. Findings indicated these children obtained different results on five measures associated with dyslexia than did other normal achievers without such signs. Measures were underachievement at word recognition, spelling,…

  20. Sight Word and Phonics Training in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Larsen, Linda; Jones, Kristy; Anandakumar, Thushara; Banales, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) compare sight word training and phonics training in children with dyslexia, and (b) determine if different orders of sight word and phonics training have different effects on the reading skills of children with dyslexia. One group of children (n = 36) did 8 weeks of phonics training (reading via grapheme-phoneme…

  1. Visual and Auditory Morphological Priming in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raveh, Michal; Schiff, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The quality of implicit morphological knowledge in adult Hebrew readers with developmental dyslexia was investigated. The priming paradigm was used to examine whether these adults extract and represent morphemic units similarly to normal readers during online word recognition. The group with dyslexia as a whole did not exhibit priming with visual…

  2. High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Slot, Esther M.; de Bree, Elise H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with…

  3. Evaluation of Ocular Movements in Patients with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagge, Aldo; Cavanna, Margherita; Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Iester, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between dyslexia and eye movements and to assess whether this method can be added to the workup of dyslexic patients. The sample was comprised of 11 children with a diagnosis of dyslexia and 11 normal between 8 and 13 years of age. All subjects underwent orthoptic evaluation, ophthalmological…

  4. Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological…

  5. Spelling in Adolescents with Dyslexia: Errors and Modes of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tops, Wim; Callens, Maaike; Bijn, Evi; Brysbaert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this study we focused on the spelling of high-functioning students with dyslexia. We made a detailed classification of the errors in a word and sentence dictation task made by 100 students with dyslexia and 100 matched control students. All participants were in the first year of their bachelor's studies and had Dutch as mother tongue. Three…

  6. High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Slot, Esther M.; de Bree, Elise H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with…

  7. A Facilitation of Dyslexia through a Remediation of Shakespeare's Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Petronilla

    2016-01-01

    This article shares the author's research focusing on the facilitation of acting students with dyslexia in actor-training. For some individuals with dyslexia the translation of the written text into image-based symbols using technological modalities can play a crucial role to access and make concrete the meaning of the words; in this case…

  8. Cortical Thickness and Local Gyrification in Children with Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Victoria J; Juranek, Jenifer; Cirino, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M

    2017-01-19

    Developmental dyslexia is frequently associated with atypical brain structure and function within regions of the left hemisphere reading network. To date, few studies have employed surface-based techniques to evaluate cortical thickness and local gyrification in dyslexia. Of the existing cortical thickness studies in children, many are limited by small sample size, variability in dyslexia identification, and the recruitment of prereaders who may or may not develop reading impairment. Further, no known study has assessed local gyrification index (LGI) in dyslexia, which may serve as a sensitive indicator of atypical neurodevelopment. In this study, children with dyslexia (n = 31) and typically decoding peers (n = 45) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging to assess whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness and LGI. Children with dyslexia demonstrated reduced cortical thickness compared with controls within previously identified reading areas including bilateral occipitotemporal and occipitoparietal regions. Compared with controls, children with dyslexia also showed increased gyrification in left occipitotemporal and right superior frontal cortices. The convergence of thinner and more gyrified cortex within the left occipitotemporal region among children with dyslexia may reflect its early temporal role in processing word forms, and highlights the importance of the ventral stream for successful word reading.

  9. Comorbidities in Preschool Children at Family Risk of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that…

  10. Dyslexia at a Behavioural and a Cognitive Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether patterns of neuro-cognitive assets and deficits seen in dyslexia also would lead to different patterns of reading and writing. A group of dyslexic children was subgrouped by language comprehension and mathematics skills in accordance with the definition of the British Dyslexia Association of 1998. This…

  11. Delayed Detection of Tonal Targets in Background Noise in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chait, Maria; Eden, Guinevere; Poeppel, David; Simon, Jonathan Z.; Hill, Deborah F.; Flowers, D. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia are often impaired in their ability to process certain linguistic and even basic non-linguistic auditory signals. Recent investigations report conflicting findings regarding impaired low-level binaural detection mechanisms associated with dyslexia. Binaural impairment has been hypothesized to stem from a…

  12. Neural systems predicting long-term outcome in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Fumiko; McCandliss, Bruce D; Black, Jessica M; Gantman, Alexander; Zakerani, Nahal; Hulme, Charles; Lyytinen, Heikki; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H; Reiss, Allan L; Gabrieli, John D E

    2011-01-04

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia vary in their ability to improve reading skills, but the brain basis for improvement remains largely unknown. We performed a prospective, longitudinal study over 2.5 y in children with dyslexia (n = 25) or without dyslexia (n = 20) to discover whether initial behavioral or brain measures, including functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), can predict future long-term reading gains in dyslexia. No behavioral measure, including widely used and standardized reading and language tests, reliably predicted future reading gains in dyslexia. Greater right prefrontal activation during a reading task that demanded phonological awareness and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (including arcuate fasciculus) white-matter organization significantly predicted future reading gains in dyslexia. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of these two brain measures, using linear support vector machine (SVM) and cross-validation, predicted significantly above chance (72% accuracy) which particular child would or would not improve reading skills (behavioral measures were at chance). MVPA of whole-brain activation pattern during phonological processing predicted which children with dyslexia would improve reading skills 2.5 y later with >90% accuracy. These findings identify right prefrontal brain mechanisms that may be critical for reading improvement in dyslexia and that may differ from typical reading development. Brain measures that predict future behavioral outcomes (neuroprognosis) may be more accurate, in some cases, than available behavioral measures.

  13. Effects of Dyslexia on Postural Control in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, M.; Magnusson, M.; Lush, D.; Gomez, S.; Fransson, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and…

  14. Trainee Teachers with Dyslexia: Personal Narratives of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazzard, Jonathan; Dale, Kirsty

    2013-01-01

    This paper tells the stories of two trainee teachers and their personal experiences of dyslexia. Both informants were English and training to be primary school teachers in England. Through drawing on their own experiences of education, the stories illustrate how dyslexia has shaped the self-concept, self-esteem and resilience of each informant.…

  15. Visual Stress in Adults with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Chris; Trotter, Susannah

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between dyslexia and visual stress (sometimes known as Meares-Irlen syndrome) is uncertain. While some theorists have hypothesised an aetiological link between the two conditions, mediated by the magnocellular visual system, at the present time the predominant theories of dyslexia and visual stress see them as distinct, unrelated…

  16. Auditory and Motor Rhythm Awareness in Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jennifer M.; Fryer, Ben; Maltby, James; Goswami, Usha

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia appear to be insensitive to basic auditory cues to speech rhythm and stress. For example, they experience difficulties in processing duration and amplitude envelope onset cues. Here we explored the sensitivity of adults with developmental dyslexia to the same cues. In addition, relations with expressive and…

  17. Cognitive Profiling and Preliminary Subtyping in Chinese Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David Wai-Ock; Lee, Suk-Han; Tsang, Suk-Man; Luan, Vivian Hui

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the cognitive profile and subtypes of developmental dyslexia in a nonalphabetic script, Chinese. One hundred and forty-seven Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia were tested on a number of literacy and cognitive tasks. The results showed that rapid naming deficit and orthographic deficit were the…

  18. Sight Word and Phonics Training in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Larsen, Linda; Jones, Kristy; Anandakumar, Thushara; Banales, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) compare sight word training and phonics training in children with dyslexia, and (b) determine if different orders of sight word and phonics training have different effects on the reading skills of children with dyslexia. One group of children (n = 36) did 8 weeks of phonics training (reading via grapheme-phoneme…

  19. Developmental Dyslexia: Early Precursors, Neurobehavioral Markers, and Biological Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benasich, April A., Ed.; Fitch, R. Holly, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the precursors and early indicators of dyslexia is key to early identification and effective intervention. Now there's a single research volume that brings together the very latest knowledge on the earliest stages of dyslexia and the diverse genetic, neurobiological, and cognitive factors that may contribute to it. Based on findings…

  20. Genetics and Neuroscience in Dyslexia: Perspectives for Education and Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte-Korne, Gerd; Ludwig, Kerstin U.; el Sharkawy, Jennifer; Nothen, Markus M.; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Hoffmann, Per

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of the causes of a developmental disorder like dyslexia has received recent input from both neuroscience and genetics. The discovery of 4 candidate genes for dyslexia and the identification of neuronal networks engaged when children read and spell are the basis for introducing this knowledge into education. However, the input…

  1. Double Dissociation of Functions in Developmental Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinsten, Orly; Henik, Avishai

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the association between symbols and their representation in adult developmental dyscalculia and dyslexia. Experiment 1 used comparative judgment of numerals, and it was found that in physical comparisons (e.g., 3-5 vs. 3-5) the dyscalculia group showed a significantly smaller congruity effect than did the dyslexia and the…

  2. Greek University Students with Dyslexia: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a study exploring the personal and educational experiences of Greek students with dyslexia in higher education. Interviews with 16 students with dyslexia (11 male and five female) were conducted to investigate how they experienced school, peer relations, labelling, family support, university, self-esteem and how they made their…

  3. Dyslexia in Chinese Language: An Overview of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia appears to be the most prevalent disability of students with special educational needs in many mainstream classes, affecting around 9.7% of the school population in Hong Kong. The education of these students is therefore of great concern to the community. In the present paper research into dyslexia in the Chinese language is briefly…

  4. What Can Reduce Letter Migrations in Letter Position Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2014-01-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter position within words, such as reading "cloud" as "could." In this study, we assessed the effect of various display manipulations and reading methods on the reading of 10 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD. These manipulations included…

  5. Detecting Preschool Language Impairment and Risk of Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helland, Turid; Jones, Lise Øen; Helland, Wenche

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed and compared results from evidence-based screening tools to be filled out by caregivers to identify preschool children at risk of language impairment (LI) and dyslexia. Three different tools were used: one assessing children's communicative abilities, one assessing risk of developmental dyslexia, and one assessing early…

  6. Visual Search Deficits Are Independent of Magnocellular Deficits in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Craig M.; Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Dyck, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the theory that visual magnocellular deficits seen in groups with dyslexia are linked to reading via the mechanisms of visual attention. Visual attention was measured with a serial search task and magnocellular function with a coherent motion task. A large group of children with dyslexia (n = 70) had slower…

  7. Developmental Dyslexia and Widespread Activation across the Cerebellar Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillieux, Hanne; Vandervliet, Everhard J. M.; Manto, Mario; Parizel, Paul M.; De Deyn, Peter P.; Marien, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is the most common learning disability in school-aged children with an estimated incidence of five to ten percent. The cause and pathophysiological substrate of this developmental disorder is unclear. Recently, a possible involvement of the cerebellum in the pathogenesis of dyslexia has been postulated. In this study, 15…

  8. What Can Reduce Letter Migrations in Letter Position Dyslexia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2014-01-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter position within words, such as reading "cloud" as "could." In this study, we assessed the effect of various display manipulations and reading methods on the reading of 10 Hebrew readers with developmental LPD. These manipulations included…

  9. Developmental Dyslexia and Widespread Activation across the Cerebellar Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillieux, Hanne; Vandervliet, Everhard J. M.; Manto, Mario; Parizel, Paul M.; De Deyn, Peter P.; Marien, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is the most common learning disability in school-aged children with an estimated incidence of five to ten percent. The cause and pathophysiological substrate of this developmental disorder is unclear. Recently, a possible involvement of the cerebellum in the pathogenesis of dyslexia has been postulated. In this study, 15…

  10. The Effect of Syntax on Reading in Neglect Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with text-based neglect dyslexia omit words on the neglected side of the sentence or text, usually on the left side. This study tested whether the syntactic structure of the target sentence affects reading in this type of neglect dyslexia. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, it enables testing whether the beginning of the…

  11. The Effect of Syntax on Reading in Neglect Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with text-based neglect dyslexia omit words on the neglected side of the sentence or text, usually on the left side. This study tested whether the syntactic structure of the target sentence affects reading in this type of neglect dyslexia. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, it enables testing whether the beginning of the…

  12. Chinese Handwriting Performance of Primary School Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sutie S. T.; Au, Ricky K. C.; Leung, Howard W. H.; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Chinese handwriting performance of typical children and children with dyslexia, and to examine whether speed and accuracy of handwriting could reliably discriminate these two groups of children. One hundred and thirty-seven children with dyslexia and 756 typical children were recruited from main stream…

  13. Genetics and Neuroscience in Dyslexia: Perspectives for Education and Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte-Korne, Gerd; Ludwig, Kerstin U.; el Sharkawy, Jennifer; Nothen, Markus M.; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Hoffmann, Per

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of the causes of a developmental disorder like dyslexia has received recent input from both neuroscience and genetics. The discovery of 4 candidate genes for dyslexia and the identification of neuronal networks engaged when children read and spell are the basis for introducing this knowledge into education. However, the input…

  14. Cortical Basis for Dichotic Pitch Perception in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partanen, Marita; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Madler, Burkhard; Edgell, Dorothy; Bjornson, Bruce; Giaschi, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined auditory processing deficits in dyslexia using a dichotic pitch stimulus and functional MRI. Cortical activation by the dichotic pitch task occurred in bilateral Heschl's gyri, right planum temporale, and right superior temporal sulcus. Adolescents with dyslexia, relative to age-matched controls, illustrated greater…

  15. Paired Associate Learning in Chinese Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hong Yun; Xue, Jin

    2009-01-01

    A total of 82 Chinese 11- and 12-year-olds with and without dyslexia were tested on four paired associate learning (PAL) tasks, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, rapid naming, and verbal short-term memory in three different experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrated that children with dyslexia were significantly poorer in visual-verbal…

  16. Visual and Auditory Morphological Priming in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raveh, Michal; Schiff, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The quality of implicit morphological knowledge in adult Hebrew readers with developmental dyslexia was investigated. The priming paradigm was used to examine whether these adults extract and represent morphemic units similarly to normal readers during online word recognition. The group with dyslexia as a whole did not exhibit priming with visual…

  17. Double Dissociation of Functions in Developmental Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinsten, Orly; Henik, Avishai

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the association between symbols and their representation in adult developmental dyscalculia and dyslexia. Experiment 1 used comparative judgment of numerals, and it was found that in physical comparisons (e.g., 3-5 vs. 3-5) the dyscalculia group showed a significantly smaller congruity effect than did the dyslexia and the…

  18. Dyslexia and Dyscalculia: Two Learning Disorders with Different Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landerl, Karin; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Willburger, Edith

    2009-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that dyslexia and dyscalculia are associated with two largely independent cognitive deficits, namely a phonological deficit in the case of dyslexia and a deficit in the number module in the case of dyscalculia. In four groups of 8- to 10-year-olds (42 control, 21 dyslexic, 20 dyscalculic, and 26…

  19. Dichotic listening deficits in children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Moncrieff, Deborah W; Black, Jeffrey R

    2008-02-01

    Several auditory processing deficits have been reported in children with dyslexia. In order to assess for the presence of a binaural integration type of auditory processing deficit, dichotic listening tests with digits, words and consonant-vowel (CV) pairs were administered to two groups of right-handed 11-year-old children, one group diagnosed with developmental dyslexia and an age-matched control group. Dyslexic children performed more poorly than controls from their left ears when listening to digits and words and from their right ears when listening to CVs. Direction of ear advantage varied across individuals in both groups when tested with digits and CVs, but ear advantage was stable with words. Several factors that may have contributed to inconsistencies in direction of ear advantage are discussed. When the children were tested in a directed response mode, degree of ear advantage differed significantly between groups with both words and digits. More dyslexic than control children demonstrated clinically significant reductions in dichotic listening performance, but no uniform pattern of deficit emerged. Only the double correct score and the left ear score with CV pairs were predictive of word recognition performance in dyslexic children. Binaural integration deficits are present in some children with dyslexia. Auditory processing disorder assessment may help delineate factors that underlie or are associated with reading impairment in this population.

  20. Responsiveness to Intervention in Children with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Tilanus, Elisabeth A T; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-08-01

    We examined the responsiveness to a 12-week phonics intervention in 54 s-grade Dutch children with dyslexia, and compared their reading and spelling gains to a control group of 61 typical readers. The intervention aimed to train grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs), and word reading and spelling by using phonics instruction. We examined the accuracy and efficiency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, decoding words and pseudowords, as well as the accuracy of spelling words before and after the intervention. Moreover, responsiveness to intervention was examined by studying to what extent scores at posttest could directly or indirectly be predicted from precursor measures. Results showed that the children with dyslexia were significantly behind in all reading and spelling measures at pretest. During the intervention, the children with dyslexia made more progress on GPC, (pseudo)word decoding accuracy and efficiency, and spelling accuracy than the typical reading group. Furthermore, we found a direct effect of the precursor measures rapid automatized naming, verbal working memory and phoneme deletion on the dyslexic children's progress in GPC speed, and indirect effects of rapid automatized naming and phoneme deletion on word and pseudoword efficiency and word decoding accuracy via the scores at pretest. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cross-modal binding in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Manon W; Branigan, Holly P; Parra, Mario A; Logie, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    The ability to learn visual-phonological associations is a unique predictor of word reading, and individuals with developmental dyslexia show impaired ability in learning these associations. In this study, we compared developmentally dyslexic and nondyslexic adults on their ability to form cross-modal associations (or "bindings") based on a single exposure to pairs of visual and phonological features. Reading groups were therefore compared on the very early stages of associative learning. We used a working memory framework-including experimental designs used to investigate cross-modal binding. Two change-detection experiments showed a group discrepancy in binding that was dependent on spatial location encoding: Whereas group performance was similar when location was an inconsistent cue (Experiment 1), nondyslexic readers showed higher accuracy in binding than dyslexics when location was a consistent cue (Experiment 2). A cued-recall task confirmed that location information discriminates binding ability between reading groups in a more explicit memory recall task (Experiment 3). Our results show that recall for ephemeral cross-modal bindings is supported by location information in nondyslexics, but this information cannot be used to similar effect in dyslexic readers. Our findings support previous demonstrations of cross-modal association difficulty in dyslexia and show that a group discrepancy exists even in a single, initial presentation of visual-phonological pairs. Effective use of location information as a retrieval cue is one mechanism that discriminates reading groups, which may contribute to the longer term cross-modal association problems characteristic of dyslexia.

  2. Multisensory integration and attention in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Harrar, Vanessa; Tammam, Jonathan; Pérez-Bellido, Alexis; Pitt, Anna; Stein, John; Spence, Charles

    2014-03-03

    Developmental dyslexia affects 5%-10% of the population, resulting in poor spelling and reading skills. While there are well-documented differences in the way dyslexics process low-level visual and auditory stimuli, it is mostly unknown whether there are similar differences in audiovisual multisensory processes. Here, we investigated audiovisual integration using the redundant target effect (RTE) paradigm. Some conditions demonstrating audiovisual integration appear to depend upon magnocellular pathways, and dyslexia has been associated with deficits in this pathway; so, we postulated that developmental dyslexics ("dyslexics" hereafter) would show differences in audiovisual integration compared with controls. Reaction times (RTs) to multisensory stimuli were compared with predictions from Miller's race model. Dyslexics showed difficulty shifting their attention between modalities; but such "sluggish attention shifting" (SAS) appeared only when dyslexics shifted their attention from the visual to the auditory modality. These results suggest that dyslexics distribute their crossmodal attention resources differently from controls, causing different patterns in multisensory responses compared to controls. From this, we propose that dyslexia training programs should take into account the asymmetric shifts of crossmodal attention.

  3. Effects of outpatient treatment of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    van Daal, V H; Reitsma, P

    1999-01-01

    The effects of a Dutch intervention program for dyslexia are reported. The program was individually tailored, depending on the style of reading, the phase of the learning process, and the intermediate results of the treatment. Two groups of participants were involved: (a) a group of children with pure dyslexia (n = 109) and (b) a group that had reading problems but also suffered from cognitive deficits or psychiatric symptoms (n = 29). Scores of reading single words and text at intake and after the intervention were analyzed to assess the efficacy of the intervention program. Furthermore, the effects of pre-intervention variables such as intelligence, reported speech, and language problems and of intervention variables such as the initial level of performance and the duration of the treatment were examined. Both groups benefitted from the intervention, but the children with pure dyslexia profited most. Neither of the groups could catch up the reading deficit. Intelligence and reported speech and language problems did not affect the treatment outcomes. Individual differences in treatment outcome were related to the absolute level of word reading and age at intake. In the group with comorbidity, the intervention program was more successful in relatively younger children. Within this group, the cognitive deficits and types of psychiatric problems were not related to the treatment.

  4. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of dyslexia in primary school students.

    PubMed

    Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Visudhiphan, Pongsak; Santikul, Kanitta

    2002-11-01

    Dyslexia is the most common subtype of learning disabilities with a prevalence ranging from 5-10 per cent. The central difficulty in dyslexia is the phonological awareness deficit. The authors have developed a screening test to assess the reading ability of Thai primary school students. 1. To study the prevalence of dyslexia in first to sixth grade students at Wat Samiannaree School. 2. To study the clinical characteristics such as sex, neurological signs, verbal intelligence and comorbid attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) of the dyslexia group. A total of 486 first to sixth grade students were administered "Raven's progressive matrices test" for estimation of intellectual functioning. Those who scored below the fifth percentile were labeled as mental retardation and excluded from the study. The students' reading ability was evaluated by 3 steps; first by classroom teachers using some items of the screening test, second by the researchers examining some more items individually, and third by the special educator assessing more details in reading and phonology. The students who had a reading ability two-grade levels below their actual grades and impairment in phonology were diagnosed with dyslexia. The prevalence of dyslexia and probable dyslexia were found to be 6.3 per cent and 12.6 per cent, respectively. The male to female ratio of dyslexia was 3.4:1. The dyslexia group had significantly lower Thai language scores than those of the normal group (p < 0.05). All of the dyslexia group had a normal grossly neurological examination but 90 per cent showed positive soft neurological signs. Mean verbal intellectual quotient score in the dyslexia group assessed by using Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--Revised was 76 +/- 7. The comorbid ADHD was 8.7 per cent in the dyslexia group. Dyslexia was a common problem among primary school students in this study. Further studies in a larger population and different socioeconomic statuses are required to

  5. Planum Temporale Morphology in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Juliana Sanchez; Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A.; Miller, Carlin J.; Miller, Scott R.; Hynd, George W.

    2013-01-01

    The planum temporale is a highly lateralized cortical region, located within Wernicke’s area, which is thought to be involved in auditory processing, phonological processing, and language. Research has linked abnormal morphology of the planum temporale to developmental dyslexia, although results have varied in large part due to methodological inconsistencies in the literature. This study examined the asymmetry of the planum temporale in 29 children who met criteria for dyslexia and 26 children whose reading was unimpaired. Leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale was found in the total sample and this leftward asymmetry was significantly reduced in children with dyslexia. This reduced leftward asymmetry in children with dyslexia was due to a planum temporale that is larger in the right hemisphere. This study lends support to the idea that planum temporale asymmetry is altered in children with developmental dyslexia. PMID:23707683

  6. Neural processing of amplitude and formant rise time in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Peter, Varghese; Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate how children with dyslexia weight amplitude rise time (ART) and formant rise time (FRT) cues in phonetic discrimination. Passive mismatch responses (MMR) were recorded for a/ba/-/wa/contrast in a multiple deviant odd-ball paradigm to identify the neural response to cue weighting in 17 children with dyslexia and 17 age-matched control children. The deviant stimuli had either partial or full ART or FRT cues. The results showed that ART did not generate an MMR in either group, whereas both partial and full FRT cues generated MMR in control children while only full FRT cues generated MMR in children with dyslexia. These findings suggest that children, both controls and those with dyslexia, discriminate speech based on FRT cues and not ART cues. However, control children have greater sensitivity to FRT cues in speech compared to children with dyslexia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Anomalous Cerebellar Anatomy in Chinese Children with Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia. PMID:27047403

  8. Callosal transfer in different subtypes of developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Pesenti, S; Facoetti, A; Bonanomi, M; Libera, L; Lorusso, M L

    2001-02-01

    Sixteen controls (age 6-13) and 20 native Italian children with developmental dyslexia (age 7-15) received a test of callosal transfer of tactile information. Among the dyslexic children, 7 had a diagnosis of L-type, 7 of P-type and 6 of M-type dyslexia according to Bakker's classification. Both control children and children with dyslexia made a significantly larger number of errors in the crossed localization condition (implying callosal transfer of tactile information) vs. the uncrossed condition. In the same condition, children with dyslexia made a significantly larger number of errors than controls. In the crossed localization condition L-types and M-types made a significantly larger number of errors than P-types and controls, while there was no significant difference in performance between P-types and controls. These findings are discussed in terms of defective callosal transfer or deficient somatosensory representation in children with L- and M-dyslexia.

  9. Spelling in adolescents with dyslexia: errors and modes of assessment.

    PubMed

    Tops, Wim; Callens, Maaike; Bijn, Evi; Brysbaert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this study we focused on the spelling of high-functioning students with dyslexia. We made a detailed classification of the errors in a word and sentence dictation task made by 100 students with dyslexia and 100 matched control students. All participants were in the first year of their bachelor's studies and had Dutch as mother tongue. Three main error categories were distinguished: phonological, orthographic, and grammatical errors (on the basis of morphology and language-specific spelling rules). The results indicated that higher-education students with dyslexia made on average twice as many spelling errors as the controls, with effect sizes of d ≥ 2. When the errors were classified as phonological, orthographic, or grammatical, we found a slight dominance of phonological errors in students with dyslexia. Sentence dictation did not provide more information than word dictation in the correct classification of students with and without dyslexia.

  10. Dyslexia and Voxel-Based Morphometry: Correlations between Five Behavioural Measures of Dyslexia and Gray and White Matter Volumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H. Steven; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics…

  11. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  12. Dyslexia and Voxel-Based Morphometry: Correlations between Five Behavioural Measures of Dyslexia and Gray and White Matter Volumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H. Steven; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics…

  13. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  14. Time-based prospective memory in adults with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Zięcik, Adam P; Sterling, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is memory for delayed intentions. Despite its importance to everyday life, the few studies on PM function in adults with dyslexia which exist have relied on self-report measures. To determine whether self-reported PM deficits can be measured objectively, laboratory-based PM tasks were administered to 24 adults with dyslexia and 25 age- and IQ-matched adults without dyslexia. Self-report data indicated that people with dyslexia felt that time-based PM (TBPM; requiring responses at certain times in the future) was most problematic for them and so this form of PM was the focus of investigation. Whilst performing the ongoing task from which they were required to break out every 3 min to make a PM-related response, the participants were allowed to make clock checks whenever they wished. The cognitive demands made on ongoing behaviour were manipulated to determine whether loading executive resources had a mediating role in dyslexia-related deficits in PM, resulting in three tasks with varying working memory load. A semi-naturalistic TBPM task was also administered, in which the participants were asked to remind the experimenter to save a data file 40 min after being given this instruction. Dyslexia-related differences were found across all three computerized tasks, regardless of cognitive load. The adults with dyslexia made fewer correct PM responses and also fewer clock checks. On the semi-naturalistic task, the participants with dyslexia were less likely to remember to remind the experimenter to save the file. This is the first study to document PM deficits in dyslexia using objective measures of performance. Since TBPM impairments were found under more naturalistic conditions as well as on computerized tasks, the results have implications for workplace support for adults with dyslexia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional connectivity of the angular gyrus in normal reading and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, B; Rumsey, J M; Donohue, B C

    1998-07-21

    The classic neurologic model for reading, based on studies of patients with acquired alexia, hypothesizes functional linkages between the angular gyrus in the left hemisphere and visual association areas in the occipital and temporal lobes. The angular gyrus also is thought to have functional links with posterior language areas (e.g., Wernicke's area), because it is presumed to be involved in mapping visually presented inputs onto linguistic representations. Using positron emission tomography , we demonstrate in normal men that regional cerebral blood flow in the left angular gyrus shows strong within-task, across-subjects correlations (i.e., functional connectivity) with regional cerebral blood flow in extrastriate occipital and temporal lobe regions during single word reading. In contrast, the left angular gyrus is functionally disconnected from these regions in men with persistent developmental dyslexia, suggesting that the anatomical disconnection of the left angular gyrus from other brain regions that are part of the "normal" brain reading network in many cases of acquired alexia is mirrored by its functional disconnection in developmental dyslexia.

  16. Functional connectivity of the angular gyrus in normal reading and dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, B.; Rumsey, J. M.; Donohue, B. C.

    1998-01-01

    The classic neurologic model for reading, based on studies of patients with acquired alexia, hypothesizes functional linkages between the angular gyrus in the left hemisphere and visual association areas in the occipital and temporal lobes. The angular gyrus also is thought to have functional links with posterior language areas (e.g., Wernicke’s area), because it is presumed to be involved in mapping visually presented inputs onto linguistic representations. Using positron emission tomography , we demonstrate in normal men that regional cerebral blood flow in the left angular gyrus shows strong within-task, across-subjects correlations (i.e., functional connectivity) with regional cerebral blood flow in extrastriate occipital and temporal lobe regions during single word reading. In contrast, the left angular gyrus is functionally disconnected from these regions in men with persistent developmental dyslexia, suggesting that the anatomical disconnection of the left angular gyrus from other brain regions that are part of the “normal” brain reading network in many cases of acquired alexia is mirrored by its functional disconnection in developmental dyslexia. PMID:9671783

  17. White Matter Alterations in Infants at Risk for Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Langer, Nicolas; Peysakhovich, Barbara; Zuk, Jennifer; Drottar, Marie; Sliva, Danielle D; Smith, Sara; Becker, Bryce L C; Grant, P Ellen; Gaab, Nadine

    2017-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a heritable condition characterized by persistent difficulties in learning to read. White matter alterations in left-lateralized language areas, particularly in the arcuate fasciculus (AF), have been observed in DD, and diffusion properties within the AF correlate with (pre-)reading skills as early as kindergarten. However, it is unclear how early these alterations can be observed. We investigated white matter structure in 14 infants with (FHD+; ages 6.6-17.6 months) and 18 without (FHD-; ages 5.1-17.6 months) familial risk for DD. Diffusion scans were acquired during natural sleep, and early language skills were assessed. Tractography for bilateral AF was reconstructed using manual and automated methods, allowing for independent validation of results. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated at multiple nodes along the tracts for more precise localization of group differences. The analyses revealed significantly lower FA in the left AF for FHD+ compared with FHD- infants, particularly in the central portion of the tract. Moreover, expressive language positively correlated with FA across groups. Our results demonstrate that atypical brain development associated with DD is already present within the first 18 months of life, suggesting that the deficits associated with DD may result from altered structural connectivity in left-hemispheric regions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Developmental Dyslexia in Chinese and English Populations: Dissociating the Effect of Dyslexia from Language Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Wei; Lee, Hwee Ling; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Tao; Geng, Li Bo; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Shakeshaft, Clare; Twomey, Tae; Green, David W.; Yang, Yi Ming; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that developmental dyslexia has a different neural basis in Chinese and English populations because of known differences in the processing demands of the Chinese and English writing systems. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provide the first direct statistically based investigation…

  19. Precursors of developmental dyslexia: an overview of the longitudinal Dutch Dyslexia Programme study.

    PubMed

    van der Leij, Aryan; van Bergen, Elsje; van Zuijen, Titia; de Jong, Peter; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben

    2013-11-01

    Converging evidence suggests that developmental dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder, characterized by deficits in the auditory, visual, and linguistic domains. In the longitudinal project of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme, 180 children with a familial risk of dyslexia (FR) and a comparison group of 120 children without FR (noFR) were followed from the age of 2 months up to 9 years. Children were assessed on (1) auditory, speech, and visual event-related potentials every half year between 2 and 41 months; (2) expressive and receptive language, motor development, behaviour problems, and home-literacy environment by questionnaires at the age of 2 and 3; (3) speech-language and cognitive development from 47 months onwards; and (4) preliteracy and subskills of reading, and reading development during kindergarten and Grades 2 and 3. With regard to precursors of reading disability, first analyses showed specific differences between FR and noFR children in neurophysiological, cognitive, and early language measures. Once reading tests administered from age 7 to 9 years were available, the children were divided into three groups: FR children with and without dyslexia, and controls. Analyses of the differences between reading groups yielded distinct profiles and developmental trajectories. On early speech and visual processing, and several cognitive measures, performance of the non-dyslexic FR group differed from the dyslexic FR group and controls, indicating continuity of the influence of familial risk. Parental reading and rapid naming skills appeared to indicate their offspring's degree of familial risk. Furthermore, on rapid naming and nonverbal IQ, the non-dyslexic FR group performed similarly to the controls, suggesting protective factors. There are indications of differences between the FR and control groups, irrespective of reading outcome. These results contribute to the distinction between the deficits correlated to dyslexia as a manifest reading disorder

  20. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8-14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  1. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8–14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  2. [Dyslexia: a disease, a disorder or something else?].

    PubMed

    Artigas-Pallarés, J

    2009-02-27

    Although dyslexia is widely diagnosed and affects a very important portion of the childhood population, a conceptual definition of the condition is still lacking. This paper analyses different contributions from molecular genetics, neurocognitive research and evolutionary psychology so as to provide a series of reflections that may further our understanding of the nature of dyslexia and make it easier to categorise. Genetics has shown that dyslexia is linked to quantitative, pleiotropic genes. Moreover, dyslexia is not linked to a single gene, but is polygenic. Another genetic characteristic is its heterogeneity, that is to say, dyslexia may be due to a variety of different genetic combinations. This model, which has recently been put forward to make sense of and lend coherence to the data provided by genetics and neurocognitive research, has been called the multiple deficit model. Writing, on the other hand, is seen as a cultural technique that was invented only recently, if we compare it with whole process of human evolution. In order to learn to read and write successfully, the brain has had to adapt structures that were designed by the process of natural selection to perform functions that are typical of our species and have absolutely nothing to do with reading. Taking the multiple deficit model as its starting point, this article analyses the therapeutic response to stimulant medication as a way of improving nuclear aspects of dyslexia, when dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder coincide.

  3. Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2014-08-01

    The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Mothers speak differently to infants at-risk for dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Goswami, Usha; Burnham, Denis

    2016-10-27

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested in deficits in reading and spelling skills that is consistently associated with difficulties in phonological processing. Dyslexia is genetically transmitted, but its manifestation in a particular individual is thought to depend on the interaction of epigenetic and environmental factors. We adopt a novel interactional perspective on early linguistic environment and dyslexia by simultaneously studying two pre-existing factors, one maternal and one infant, that may contribute to these interactions; and two behaviours, one maternal and one infant, to index the effect of these factors. The maternal factor is whether mothers are themselves dyslexic or not (with/without dyslexia) and the infant factor is whether infants are at-/not-at family risk for dyslexia (due to their mother or father being dyslexic). The maternal behaviour is mothers' infant-directed speech (IDS), which typically involves vowel hyperarticulation, thought to benefit speech perception and language acquisition. The infant behaviour is auditory perception measured by infant sensitivity to amplitude envelope rise time, which has been found to be reduced in dyslexic children. Here, at-risk infants showed significantly poorer acoustic sensitivity than not-at-risk infants and mothers only hyperarticulated vowels to infants who were not at-risk for dyslexia. Mothers' own dyslexia status had no effect on IDS quality. Parental speech input is thus affected by infant risk status, with likely consequences for later linguistic development.

  5. Exploring the learning experiences of nursing students with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Child, J; Langford, E

    To examine the learning experiences of nursing students with dyslexia during clinical placements to establish ways of improving support in practice, A phenomenological lifeworld approach was adopted using semi-structured interviews. Students reflected on their experiences during clinical placements, allowing the researcher to gain an in-depth knowledge of the students' lived experience of dyslexia. Twelve student nurses, six with dyslexia and six without, were interviewed using a standard set of questions, and the data were collated and analysed. Using a comparison group of students without dyslexia was felt to be important to contextualise and compare the students' experiences. Three main themes emerged: the value of work-based learning days, the importance of the clinical placement mentor role and the need for advocacy. Both groups of nursing students contributed to recommendations relating to support in practice and those with dyslexia also shared their individual coping strategies, Nursing students with dyslexia may benefit from sharing placement experiences with colleagues outside the clinical environment. They may also benefit from receiving support from their placement mentor and a representative from the university who knows about dyslexia.

  6. The incidence of dyslexia among young offenders in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John; Al Malki, Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the incidence of dyslexia among young offenders in Kuwait. A total of 91 children/young adults from 8 juvenile delinquent welfare centres across Kuwait were interviewed and tested. A measure of non-verbal reasoning ability was used to exclude those with low general ability. The remaining 53 participants were tested on their ability to identify alliteration and rhyme, retain and manipulate sequences of digit and letter names, decode novel letter strings and identify words within letter chains. Participants' reading accuracy, rate of reading, reading comprehension and ability to spell correctly dictated text were also assessed. These measures were used to determine those with indicators of dyslexia. The results indicated that the percentage of individuals presenting evidence of dyslexia was much larger (greater than 20%) in this population of young offenders than would be expected based on the national average (around 6%) of dyslexics in Kuwait derived from a nationwide study (A survey study of dyslexia in Kuwait, Kuwait Dyslexia Association: Kuwait City; 2002). These findings replicate previous evidence for an increased frequency of dyslexia among young offenders. The implications of such findings are discussed in terms of dyslexia awareness, socio-cultural factors, education and intervention, particularly in Kuwait juvenile delinquent welfare centres.

  7. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S.; Milham, Michael P.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the “reading network.” Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same “double hit” of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status. PMID:25610779

  8. Cortical thickness abnormalities associated with dyslexia, independent of remediation status.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yizhou; Koyama, Maki S; Milham, Michael P; Castellanos, F Xavier; Quinn, Brian T; Pardoe, Heath; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Blackmon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in cortical structure are commonly observed in children with dyslexia in key regions of the "reading network." Whether alteration in cortical features reflects pathology inherent to dyslexia or environmental influence (e.g., impoverished reading experience) remains unclear. To address this question, we compared MRI-derived metrics of cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), gray matter volume (GMV), and their lateralization across three different groups of children with a historical diagnosis of dyslexia, who varied in current reading level. We compared three dyslexia subgroups with: (1) persistent reading and spelling impairment; (2) remediated reading impairment (normal reading scores), and (3) remediated reading and spelling impairments (normal reading and spelling scores); and a control group of (4) typically developing children. All groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, and IQ. We hypothesized that the dyslexia group would show cortical abnormalities in regions of the reading network relative to controls, irrespective of remediation status. Such a finding would support that cortical abnormalities are inherent to dyslexia and are not a consequence of abnormal reading experience. Results revealed increased CT of the left fusiform gyrus in the dyslexia group relative to controls. Similarly, the dyslexia group showed CT increase of the right superior temporal gyrus, extending into the planum temporale, which resulted in a rightward CT asymmetry on lateralization indices. There were no group differences in SA, GMV, or their lateralization. These findings held true regardless of remediation status. Each reading level group showed the same "double hit" of atypically increased left fusiform CT and rightward superior temporal CT asymmetry. Thus, findings provide evidence that a developmental history of dyslexia is associated with CT abnormalities, independent of remediation status.

  9. Dyslexia Linked to Visual Strengths Useful in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneps, Matthew H.; Brockmole, J. R.; Rose, L. T.; Pomplun, M.; Sonnert, G.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2011-05-01

    Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological condition characterized by difficulties in reading, writing, and spelling. The fact that those with dyslexia include many accomplished scientists, including some recognized with a Nobel Prize, has prompted researchers to suggest that the neurology of dyslexia may predispose these individuals to advantages in visually-intensive domains such as science. Here, we report evidence of a link between dyslexia and abilities for visual processing useful in astronomy. First, we show that when images of natural scenes are Gaussian-blurred, so as to remove high-frequency detail (and resemble many astronomical images), college students with dyslexia significantly outperform those who are typical readers in learning the spatial contexts presented. Second, we show that when the threshold ability to detect radio signatures characteristic of black holes is measured in a laboratory simulation, astrophysicists with dyslexia significantly outperform those who are typical readers in this task when the visual periphery is important. In a third experiment, using eye-tracking technologies, we demonstrate that visual strategies significantly correlate with success in the black hole task, but that college students with dyslexia tend not to employ the strategies most likely to lead to success. Collectively, these studies suggest that dyslexia is linked to neurological advantages useful in astronomical careers, but that left to their own devices students with dyslexia may not benefit from these advantages without practice or training. These studies imply that many students who are struggling to read may find successful careers in astronomy or other fields that build on visual advantages linked to their reading disability, but that education and training may be vital in helping these students realize their strengths. This material is based upon work supported by the George E. Burch Fellowship (Smithsonian Institution) and the National Science Foundation

  10. Sensory theories of developmental dyslexia: three challenges for research.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen the publication of a range of new theories suggesting that the basis of dyslexia might be sensory dysfunction. In this Opinion article, the evidence for and against several prominent sensory theories of dyslexia is closely scrutinized. Contrary to the causal claims being made, my analysis suggests that many proposed sensory deficits might result from the effects of reduced reading experience on the dyslexic brain. I therefore suggest that longitudinal studies of sensory processing, beginning in infancy, are required to successfully identify the neural basis of developmental dyslexia. Such studies could have a powerful impact on remediation.

  11. Auditory and visual processing in children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Craig M; Conlon, Elizabeth G

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the temporal stability and longitudinal replicability of visual and auditory sensory processes found to be poor in children with dyslexia. Seventy children with dyslexia and 52 normal readers were tested twice, 9 months apart, on measures of visual and auditory sensory processing and on phonological and orthographic skills. About 30% of children with dyslexia were found to have sensory deficits. Associations were found between sensory and cognitive skills. Based on analyses of agreement, the temporal stability of the sensory tasks was poor. Future research should develop sensory measures with high temporal stability that can control for maturation.

  12. Longitudinal Stability of Phonological and Surface Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.; Wadsworth, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Limited evidence supports the external validity of the distinction between developmental phonological and surface dyslexia. We previously identified children age 8 to 13 meeting criteria for these subtypes (Peterson, Pennington, & Olson, 2013), and now report on their reading and related skills approximately 5 years later. Longitudinal stability of subtype membership was fair and appeared stronger for phonological than surface dyslexia. Phonological dyslexia was associated with a pronounced phonological awareness deficit, but subgroups otherwise had similar cognitive profiles. Subtype did not inform prognosis. Results provide modest evidence for the validity of the distinction, although not for its clinical utility. PMID:25429194

  13. Phonology, reading acquisition, and dyslexia: insights from connectionist models.

    PubMed

    Harm, M W; Seidenberg, M S

    1999-07-01

    The development of reading skill and bases of developmental dyslexia were explored using connectionist models. Four issues were examined: the acquisition of phonological knowledge prior to reading, how this knowledge facilitates learning to read, phonological and nonphonological bases of dyslexia, and effects of literacy on phonological representation. Compared with simple feedforward networks, representing phonological knowledge in an attractor network yielded improved learning and generalization. Phonological and surface forms of developmental dyslexia, which are usually attributed to impairments in distinct lexical and nonlexical processing "routes," were derived from different types of damage to the network. The results provide a computationally explicit account of many aspects of reading acquisition using connectionist principles.

  14. Extension of a recent therapy for dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Fahle, M; Luberichs, J

    1995-11-01

    Recently, peculiarities of visual perception were found in dyslexic patients. Therefore, we investigated visual acuity, reading and spelling capabilities, as well as peripheral letter recognition in 54 children with reading and/or spelling problems. Subsequently, the children and their parents trained at home for approximately 0.5 h daily during 2-3 months. Training consisted of reading through a small aperture and of visuomotor coordination tasks. The mean results obtained in a reading test for all patients improved significantly after the training, but less so than those recorded in previous studies on children suffering from dyslexia. Although the therapy clearly improved performance, it was less specific than previously claimed.

  15. Space representation in children with dyslexia and children without dyslexia: contribution of line bisection and circle centering tasks.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Stéphanie; Quercia, Patrick; Bonnetblanc, François; Michel, Carine

    2013-11-01

    Line bisection tasks (different space locations and different line lengths) and circle centering tasks (visuo-proprioceptive and proprioceptive explorations, with left or right starting positions) were used to investigate space representation in children with dyslexia and children without dyslexia. In line bisection, children with dyslexia showed a significant rightward bias for central and right-sided locations and a leftward bias for left-sided location. Furthermore, the spatial context processing was asymmetrically more efficient in the left space. In children without dyslexia, no significant bias was observed in central lines but the spatial context processing was symmetrical in both spaces. When the line length varied, no main effect was shown. These results strengthen the 'inverse pseudoneglect' hypothesis in dyslexia. In the lateral dimension of the circle centering tasks, children showed a response bias in the direction of the starting hand location for proprioceptive condition. For radial dimension, the children showed a forward bias in visuo-proprioceptive condition and more backward error in proprioceptive condition. Children with dyslexia showed a forward bias in clockwise exploration and more accurate performance in counterclockwise exploration for left starting position which may be in accordance with leftward asymmetrical spatial context processing in line bisection. These results underline the necessity to use the line bisection task with different locations as an appropriate experimental paradigm to study lateral representational bias in dyslexia. The contribution of the present results in the understanding of space representation in children with dyslexia and children without dyslexia is discussed in terms of attentional processes and neuroanatomical substrate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dyslexia and learning a foreign language: a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Simon, C S

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with dyslexia can expect to have difficulties learning a second language since second language learning builds on native language learning. The factors that have a negative impact on learning one's native language have a similar impact on learning a foreign language (e.g., difficulties with phonemic awareness, retrieving and processing linguistic information, working memory, metalinguistic explanations, stabilizing sound-symbol relationships). This participant observer report provides (1) a brief review of research on how dyslexia complicates learning a second language; (2) a description of how dyslexia has affected my educational experiences; (3) a description of personal experiences learning a foreign language between 1992-1998; and (4) recommendations for individuals with dyslexia who are faced with fulfilling a foreign language requirement and for their foreign language instructors.

  17. Are auditory and visual processing deficits related to developmental dyslexia?

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Papadopoulos, Timothy C; Zarouna, Elena; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if children with dyslexia learning to read a consistent orthography (Greek) experience auditory and visual processing deficits and if these deficits are associated with phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and orthographic processing. We administered measures of general cognitive ability, phonological awareness, orthographic processing, short-term memory, rapid automatized naming, auditory and visual processing, and reading fluency to 21 Grade 6 children with dyslexia, 21 chronological age-matched controls and 20 Grade 3 reading age-matched controls. The results indicated that the children with dyslexia did not experience auditory processing deficits, but about half of them showed visual processing deficits. Both orthographic processing and rapid automatized naming deficits were associated with dyslexia in our sample, but it is less clear that they were associated with visual processing deficits. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. P300 event-related potentials in children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Papagiannopoulou, Eleni A; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-04-01

    To elucidate the timing and the nature of neural disturbances in dyslexia and to further understand the topographical distribution of these, we examined entire brain regions employing the non-invasive auditory oddball P300 paradigm in children with dyslexia and neurotypical controls. Our findings revealed abnormalities for the dyslexia group in (i) P300 latency, globally, but greatest in frontal brain regions and (ii) decreased P300 amplitude confined to the central brain regions (Fig. 1). These findings reflect abnormalities associated with a diminished capacity to process mental workload as well as delayed processing of this information in children with dyslexia. Furthermore, the topographical distribution of these findings suggests a distinct spatial distribution for the observed P300 abnormalities. This information may be useful in future therapeutic or brain stimulation intervention trials.

  19. Cognitive development: gaming your way out of dyslexia?

    PubMed

    Bavelier, D; Green, C S; Seidenberg, M S

    2013-04-08

    A recent study found that dyslexic children trained on action video games show significant improvements on basic measures of both attention and reading ability, suggesting future directions for the study of dyslexia intervention paradigms.

  20. Patterns of developmental dyscalculia with or without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E; Rosati, Mario; Lucangeli, Daniela

    2007-08-01

    This study has been conducted in order to investigate the extent to which some characteristics of dyscalculia may be common to dyslexia. Seven multiple single-cases were studied: two children with dyslexia only, two with dyscalculia only, and three more children with comorbidity of dyslexia and dyscalculia. Each participant was assessed with a standardized comprehensive battery of arithmetical, reading, and cognitive tests. We observed that a clinical impairment in mental and written calculations, arithmetical facts retrieval, number comparison, number alignment, and identification of arithmetical signs may appear with a normal reading capacity and independently of a short-term verbal memory deficit. These findings add convergent support to the evidence mainly obtained from group comparisons that the more distinctive characteristics of dyscalculia are functionally independent of dyslexia.

  1. The Double-Deficit Hypothesis in Spanish Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Hernandez-Valle, Isabel; Rodriguez, Cristina; Guzman, Remedios; Diaz, Alicia; Ortiz, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of developmental dyslexia was investigated in seven to twelve year old Spanish children. It was observed that the double deficit (DD) group had the greatest difficulty with reading.

  2. Functional neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: the role of orthographic depth

    PubMed Central

    Richlan, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic depth (OD) (i.e., the complexity, consistency, or transparency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences in written alphabetic language) plays an important role in the acquisition of reading skills. Correspondingly, developmental dyslexia is characterized by different behavioral manifestations across languages varying in OD. This review focuses on the question of whether these different behavioral manifestations are associated with different functional neuroanatomical manifestations. It provides a review and critique of cross-linguistic brain imaging studies of developmental dyslexia. In addition, it includes an analysis of state-of-the-art functional neuroanatomical models of developmental dyslexia together with orthography-specific predictions derived from these models. These predictions should be tested in future brain imaging studies of typical and atypical reading in order to refine the current neurobiological understanding of developmental dyslexia, especially with respect to orthography-specific and universal aspects. PMID:24904383

  3. 'Groundbreaking' Research Offers Clues to Cause of Dyslexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... a cause of dyslexia -- partly because the reduced adaptation was seen in young kids, and not only ... The new study aimed to see whether "neural adaptation" might play a role. Adaptation is how the ...

  4. The Double-Deficit Hypothesis in Spanish Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Hernandez-Valle, Isabel; Rodriguez, Cristina; Guzman, Remedios; Diaz, Alicia; Ortiz, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of developmental dyslexia was investigated in seven to twelve year old Spanish children. It was observed that the double deficit (DD) group had the greatest difficulty with reading.

  5. The influence of contrast on coherent motion processing in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Elizabeth G; Lilleskaret, Gry; Wright, Craig M; Power, Garry F

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the experiments was to investigate how manipulating the contrast of the signal and noise dots in a random dot kinematogram (RDK), influenced on motion coherence thresholds in adults with dyslexia. In the first of two experiments, coherent motion thresholds were measured when the contrasts of the signal and noise dots in an RDK were manipulated. A significantly greater processing benefit was found for the group with dyslexia than a control group when the signal dots were of higher contrast than the noise dots. However, a significant processing disadvantage was found for the group with dyslexia relative to the control group when the signal dots were of lower contrast than the noise dots. These findings were interpreted as supporting evidence for the noise exclusion hypothesis of dyslexia. In Experiment 2, the effect on coherent motion thresholds of presenting a cue that alerted observers to which stimuli, high or low contrast contained the signals dots was investigated. When the cue directed attention to low contrast signal dots presented in high contrast noise, coherent motion thresholds were only enhanced for the group with dyslexia. This manipulation produced equivalent coherent motion thresholds in the reader groups. In other conditions, the group with dyslexia had significantly higher coherent motion thresholds than the control group. It was concluded that adults with dyslexia who show evidence of a coherent motion deficit (37% of the dyslexia group in each experiment), have a specific difficulty in noise exclusion. This appears to occur as consequence of a sensory processing deficit in the magnocellular or dorsal stream.

  6. Paying attention to reading: the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Shaywitz, Sally E; Shaywitz, Bennett A

    2008-01-01

    Extraordinary progress in functional brain imaging, primarily advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging, now allows scientists to understand the neural systems serving reading and how these systems differ in dyslexic readers. Scientists now speak of the neural signature of dyslexia, a singular achievement that for the first time has made what was previously a hidden disability, now visible. Paralleling this achievement in understanding the neurobiology of dyslexia, progress in the identification and treatment of dyslexia now offers the hope of identifying children at risk for dyslexia at a very young age and providing evidence-based, effective interventions. Despite these advances, for many dyslexic readers, becoming a skilled, automatic reader remains elusive, in great part because though children with dyslexia can be taught to decode words, teaching children to read fluently and automatically represents the next frontier in research on dyslexia. We suggest that to break through this "fluency" barrier, investigators will need to reexamine the more than 20-year-old central dogma in reading research: the generation of the phonological code from print is modular, that is, automatic and not attention demanding, and not requiring any other cognitive process. Recent findings now present a competing view: other cognitive processes are involved in reading, particularly attentional mechanisms, and that disruption of these attentional mechanisms play a causal role in reading difficulties. Recognition of the role of attentional mechanisms in reading now offer potentially new strategies for interventions in dyslexia. In particular, the use of pharmacotherapeutic agents affecting attentional mechanisms not only may provide a window into the neurochemical mechanisms underlying dyslexia but also may offer a potential adjunct treatment for teaching dyslexic readers to read fluently and automatically. Preliminary studies suggest that agents traditionally used to treat

  7. Using our current understanding of dyslexia to support early identification and intervention.

    PubMed

    Schatschneider, Christopher; Torgesen, Joseph K

    2004-10-01

    One of the major risk factors for reading disability is difficulty learning to read words in text in an accurate and fluent manner. This is apparent when a child at risk of dyslexia first starts to attempt to read. Dyslexic children struggle to grasp and automate the alphabetic principle (ie, they cannot "sound out" words or use phonemic decoding strategies) and therefore have difficulty deciphering unfamiliar words that they have not encountered before. Even though many of these words are part of the child's oral vocabulary, the child cannot recognize them in printed form. As a result, reading can be extremely laborious and time-consuming, fraught with errors, and altogether an unrewarding, aversive experience. To be an efficient reader, one must be able to rapidly and effortlessly recognize many words by sight, and for a child to acquire this facility requires multiple exposures to these words. The difficulty that dyslexic children have in developing reliable and efficient phonemic decoding ability makes the acquisition of a lexicon of sight words a much slower process than it is for the average reader. Several other factors can affect a child's ability to read, which are reviewed herein. However, early recognition and treatment of deficient phonologic awareness are an extremely important step in the prevention of a reading problem in the child who is at risk of dyslexia.

  8. Dyslexia and dyscalculia: two learning disorders with different cognitive profiles.

    PubMed

    Landerl, Karin; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Willburger, Edith

    2009-07-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that dyslexia and dyscalculia are associated with two largely independent cognitive deficits, namely a phonological deficit in the case of dyslexia and a deficit in the number module in the case of dyscalculia. In four groups of 8- to 10-year-olds (42 control, 21 dyslexic, 20 dyscalculic, and 26 dyslexic/dyscalculic), phonological awareness, phonological and visual-spatial short-term and working memory, naming speed, and basic number processing skills were assessed. A phonological deficit was found for both dyslexic groups, irrespective of additional arithmetic deficits, but not for the dyscalculia-only group. In contrast, deficits in processing of symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitudes were observed in both groups of dyscalculic children, irrespective of additional reading difficulties, but not in the dyslexia-only group. Cognitive deficits in the comorbid dyslexia/dyscalculia group were additive; that is, they resulted from the combination of two learning disorders. These findings suggest that dyslexia and dyscalculia have separable cognitive profiles, namely a phonological deficit in the case of dyslexia and a deficient number module in the case of dyscalculia.

  9. Single-digit arithmetic in children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert

    2010-05-01

    It has been suggested that individuals with dyslexia show poorer performance on those aspects of arithmetic that involve the manipulation of verbal representations, such as the use of fact retrieval strategies. The present study examined this in 13 children with dyslexia who showed normal general mathematics achievement and 16 matched controls. All children completed a multiplication and a subtraction task, which were specifically designed to elicit the use of retrieval and procedural strategies, respectively. Our findings revealed that despite normal mathematics achievement, children with dyslexia were less accurate and slower in single-digit arithmetic, particularly in multiplication. The reaction time data revealed an interesting group by operation interaction. Control children were significantly faster in multiplication than in subtraction, whereas no such operation effect was found in children with dyslexia. This suggests that in multiplication children with dyslexia used less retrieval or less efficient retrieval (or both). This is in line with the hypothesis that children with dyslexia may have difficulties with the verbal aspects of number and arithmetic, as retrieval strategies depend upon phonological representations in long-term memory. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Integral treatment of children with dyslexia--40 years experience].

    PubMed

    Stošljević, Miodrag; Odović, Gordana; Adamović, Milosav

    2012-01-01

    Dyslexia represents a significant pediatric problem requiring prompt and appropriate treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the significance of integral rehabilitation approach in treating dyslexia of children. Objectives of the study were accomplished on a sample of 300 children, aged 11-15 years, with etiologically variable dyslexia. The results gained from the integral treatment of children with dyslexia were more successful than those obtained from isolated logaoedic treatment, when compared in 10-15 examined variables; replacement of graphically similar letters (p = 0.000), replacement of syllables (p = 0.010), replacement of words--guessing (p = 0.019), structural errors--displacement or insertion (p = 0.038), adding letters and syllables (p = 0.001), repeating of word parts (p = 0.001), reading of a word in several wrong ways (p = 0.001), omission of words and whole lines (p = 0.000), returning to already read line (p = 0.000), level of dyslexia (p = 0.000). Dyslexia requires a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach in which integral rehabilitation treatment has an exceptionally large significance.

  11. Paired associate learning in Chinese children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hong Yun; Xue, Jin

    2009-06-01

    A total of 82 Chinese 11- and 12-year-olds with and without dyslexia were tested on four paired associate learning (PAL) tasks, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, rapid naming, and verbal short-term memory in three different experiments. Experiment 1 demonstrated that children with dyslexia were significantly poorer in visual-verbal PAL than nondyslexic children but that these groups did not differ in visual-visual PAL performance. In Experiment 2, children with dyslexia had more difficulties in transferring rules to new stimuli in a rule-based visual-verbal PAL task as compared with children without dyslexia. Long-term retention of PAL was not impaired in dyslexic children across either experiment. In Experiment 3, rates of visual-verbal PAL deficits among children with dyslexia were all at or above 39%, the highest among all cognitive deficits tested. Moreover, rule-based visual-verbal PAL, in addition to morphological awareness and rapid naming ability, uniquely distinguished children with and without dyslexia even with other metalinguistic skills statistically controlled. Results underscore the importance of visual-verbal PAL for understanding reading impairment in Chinese children.

  12. The Speed of Articulatory Movements Involved in Speech Production in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duranovic, Mirela; Sehic, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    A group of children with dyslexia (mean ages 9 and 14 years) was studied, together with group of children without dyslexia matched for age. Participants were monolingual native speakers of the Bosnian language with transparent orthography. In total, the diagnostic tests were performed with 41 children with dyslexia and 41 nondyslexic children. The…

  13. Developing an Ambivalence Perspective on Medical Labelling in Education: Case Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solvang, Per

    2007-01-01

    There are several social actors involved in the process of constructing the social meaning of dyslexia--namely, parents, teachers, educational authorities and organisations representing dyslectics. Some of these actors emphasise the constructive social powers related to the dyslexia label, while others perceive dyslexia as diagnostic reasoning…

  14. The Influence of Spelling Ability on Vocabulary Choices When Writing for Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is a prerequisite to expressing vocabulary in writing. Research has shown that children with dyslexia are hesitant spellers when composing. This study aimed to determine whether the hesitant spelling of children with dyslexia, evidenced by frequent pausing, affects vocabulary choices when writing. A total of 31 children with dyslexia,…

  15. Auditory Frequency Discrimination in Adults with Dyslexia: A Test of the Anchoring Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijnen, Frank; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Vlutters, Leoni D.; Winkel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A recent hypothesis ascribes dyslexia to a perceptual anchoring deficit. Supporting results have so far been obtained only in children with dyslexia and additional learning difficulties, but the hypothesis has been argued to apply to all individuals with dyslexia. Method: The authors measured auditory frequency discrimination thresholds…

  16. Response Inhibition and Its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Johanna M.; Labuhn, Andju S.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third-graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a…

  17. Learners with Dyslexia: Exploring Their Experiences with Different Online Reading Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chwen Jen; Keong, Melissa Wei Yin; Teh, Chee Siong; Chuah, Kee Man

    2015-01-01

    To date, empirically derived guidelines for designing accessible online learning environments for learners with dyslexia are still scarce. This study aims to explore the learning experience of learners with dyslexia when reading passages using different online reading affordances to derive some guidelines for dyslexia-friendly online text. The…

  18. Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients…

  19. Writing Problems in Developmental Dyslexia: Under-Recognized and Under-Treated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Nielsen, Kathleen H.; Abbott, Robert D.; Wijsman, Ellen; Raskind, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    The International Dyslexia Association defines dyslexia as unexpected problems of neurobiological origin in accuracy and rate of oral reading of single real words, single pseudowords, or text or of written spelling. However, prior research has focused more on the reading than the spelling problems of students with dyslexia. A test battery was…

  20. "Just Deal with It": Neoliberalism in Dyslexic Students' Talk about Dyslexia and Learning at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Harriet; Billington, Tom

    2017-01-01

    There are different ways of theorising dyslexia and different ways of constructing meanings around dyslexia in different learning contexts. This paper considers the role of neoliberalist ideology in shaping conversations about dyslexia and "fairness" during two focus group conversations analysed as part of a study into the discursive…

  1. The Speed of Articulatory Movements Involved in Speech Production in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duranovic, Mirela; Sehic, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    A group of children with dyslexia (mean ages 9 and 14 years) was studied, together with group of children without dyslexia matched for age. Participants were monolingual native speakers of the Bosnian language with transparent orthography. In total, the diagnostic tests were performed with 41 children with dyslexia and 41 nondyslexic children. The…

  2. Response Inhibition and Its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Johanna M.; Labuhn, Andju S.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third-graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a…

  3. Aggression and Risk of Future Violence in Forensic Psychiatric Patients with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellstrom, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery "The Pigeon". The patients…

  4. The Influence of Spelling Ability on Vocabulary Choices When Writing for Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is a prerequisite to expressing vocabulary in writing. Research has shown that children with dyslexia are hesitant spellers when composing. This study aimed to determine whether the hesitant spelling of children with dyslexia, evidenced by frequent pausing, affects vocabulary choices when writing. A total of 31 children with dyslexia,…

  5. Investigating Speech Perception in Children with Dyslexia: Is There Evidence of a Consistent Deficit in Individuals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messaoud-Galusi, Souhila; Hazan, Valerie; Rosen, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The claim that speech perception abilities are impaired in dyslexia was investigated in a group of 62 children with dyslexia and 51 average readers matched in age. Method: To test whether there was robust evidence of speech perception deficits in children with dyslexia, speech perception in noise and quiet was measured using 8 different…

  6. Voices of Teachers with Dyslexia in Finnish and English Further and Higher Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Eila; Bell, Sheena

    2010-01-01

    This paper sheds light onto a poorly presented group of professionals--teachers with dyslexia in Finnish and English further and higher educational settings. The purpose of this qualitative study was, firstly, to discover what teachers with dyslexia could tell us about the manifestation of dyslexia and the challenges they face in the practice of…

  7. Writing Problems in Developmental Dyslexia: Under-Recognized and Under-Treated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Nielsen, Kathleen H.; Abbott, Robert D.; Wijsman, Ellen; Raskind, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    The International Dyslexia Association defines dyslexia as unexpected problems of neurobiological origin in accuracy and rate of oral reading of single real words, single pseudowords, or text or of written spelling. However, prior research has focused more on the reading than the spelling problems of students with dyslexia. A test battery was…

  8. Developing an Ambivalence Perspective on Medical Labelling in Education: Case Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solvang, Per

    2007-01-01

    There are several social actors involved in the process of constructing the social meaning of dyslexia--namely, parents, teachers, educational authorities and organisations representing dyslectics. Some of these actors emphasise the constructive social powers related to the dyslexia label, while others perceive dyslexia as diagnostic reasoning…

  9. Hemisphere-Specific Treatment of Dyslexia Subtypes: Better Reading with Anxiety-Laden Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strien, Jan W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Forty children with dyslexia were treated with visual hemisphere-specific stimulation based on their subtype of dyslexia. Children with L-type dyslexia (hurried, inaccurate reading) who received treatment with anxiety-laden words made fewer substantive errors and more fragmentations on a text-reading task, compared to children who received…

  10. Factors Associated with Successful Learning in Pupils with Dyslexia: A Motivational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burden, Robert; Burdett, Julia

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, Neil Humphrey and Patricia Mullins published their research into personal constructs and attribution for academic success and failure in dyslexia in BJSE's "Research Section". Their work suggested that pupils with dyslexia, in a range of settings, experience real challenges to their self-esteem and that dyslexia leads to "negative…

  11. Copying Skills in Relation to Word Reading and Writing in Chinese Children with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Chung, Kevin K. H.; Tong, Xiuhong

    2011-01-01

    Because Chinese character learning typically relies heavily on rote character copying, we tested independent copying skill in third- and fourth-grade Chinese children with and without dyslexia. In total, 21 Chinese third and fourth graders with dyslexia and 33 without dyslexia (matched on age, nonverbal IQ, and mother's education level) were given…

  12. Voices of Teachers with Dyslexia in Finnish and English Further and Higher Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Eila; Bell, Sheena

    2010-01-01

    This paper sheds light onto a poorly presented group of professionals--teachers with dyslexia in Finnish and English further and higher educational settings. The purpose of this qualitative study was, firstly, to discover what teachers with dyslexia could tell us about the manifestation of dyslexia and the challenges they face in the practice of…

  13. Auditory Frequency Discrimination in Adults with Dyslexia: A Test of the Anchoring Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijnen, Frank; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Vlutters, Leoni D.; Winkel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A recent hypothesis ascribes dyslexia to a perceptual anchoring deficit. Supporting results have so far been obtained only in children with dyslexia and additional learning difficulties, but the hypothesis has been argued to apply to all individuals with dyslexia. Method: The authors measured auditory frequency discrimination thresholds…

  14. Deficient Morphological Processing in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia: Another Barrier to Efficient Word Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Rachel; Raveh, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Research on dyslexia has focused on the phonological level of linguistic analysis. Here we extend the investigation of the linguistic competence of individuals with dyslexia to the morphological level of linguistic analysis. We examine whether adult Hebrew readers with dyslexia extract and represent morphemic units similarly to normal readers.…

  15. Investigating Speech Perception in Children with Dyslexia: Is There Evidence of a Consistent Deficit in Individuals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messaoud-Galusi, Souhila; Hazan, Valerie; Rosen, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The claim that speech perception abilities are impaired in dyslexia was investigated in a group of 62 children with dyslexia and 51 average readers matched in age. Method: To test whether there was robust evidence of speech perception deficits in children with dyslexia, speech perception in noise and quiet was measured using 8 different…

  16. Factors Associated with Successful Learning in Pupils with Dyslexia: A Motivational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burden, Robert; Burdett, Julia

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, Neil Humphrey and Patricia Mullins published their research into personal constructs and attribution for academic success and failure in dyslexia in BJSE's "Research Section". Their work suggested that pupils with dyslexia, in a range of settings, experience real challenges to their self-esteem and that dyslexia leads to "negative…

  17. Do Weak Phonological Representations Impact on Arithmetic Development? A Review of Research into Arithmetic and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Fiona R.; Singleton, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We review significant empirical studies of the arithmetic abilities of children with dyslexia. These studies suggest that the academic impairments of children with dyslexia are not limited to reading and spelling, but also include aspects of mathematics. A consistent finding across a number of studies is that children with dyslexia have difficulty…

  18. Reading ability and phonological awareness in Japanese children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Seki, Ayumi; Kassai, Kazumi; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Koeda, Tatsuya

    2008-03-01

    In alphabetic languages, the deficit of the phonological awareness is considered as the core deficit in developmental dyslexia. However, the role of phonological awareness in the acquisition of reading Japanese kana, the transparent, mora-based phonogram, has not been understood completely. We examine the abilities of Japanese dyslexic children on different types of Japanese phonological tasks, and discussed which tasks significantly account for each aspect of reading ability. Fifteen dyslexic children (9.53+/-1.52 years old), and 15 children with normal reading ability (9.17+/-0.90 years old) participated in this study. They performed three types of phonological awareness tasks. The mora counting task and the mora reversal task of words require phonological awareness at the mora level. The letter rhyming task, which resembles the task in English language, requires phonological awareness at the phoneme level. We evaluated the reading ability by the reading speed, the reading errors, and the number of pauses while reading sentences aloud. The task performances of the dyslexic group on all three phonological awareness tasks were significantly lower than those of the control group. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the mora counting task and the rhyming letter task most significantly explained the reading speed and number of reading pauses. The mora reversal task of words, together with the antegraded digit span, significantly explained the reading errors. Japanese dyslexics showed deficits of phonological awareness both at the mora and the phoneme levels. Phonological awareness must be crucial for acquiring the ability of decoding phonograms, including Japanese kana.

  19. A developmental framework for developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Frith, U

    1986-01-01

    There are surprisingly few theories of the normal development of literacy that take into account the different cognitive processes underlying reading and spelling skills. The present framework suggests three phases, corresponding to the acquisition of logographic, alphabetic, and, finally, orthographic skills. At each phase, a new skill is introduced with either reading (input processes) or writing (output processes) acting as pacemaker. This stepwise progress is driven by a certain opposition between reading and writing processes. At any of the critical points where a new step has to be taken, breakdown can occur. This will result in different types of literacy disorder. However, the disorder will not only be characterized by the deficiency in a particular skill, but also by compensatory skills which will inevitably develop. Only by using models of this type will we be able to achieve a properly developmental perspective for developmental dyslexia.

  20. Handedness, dyslexia and twinning in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Götestam, K O; Coates, T J; Ekstrand, M

    1992-04-01

    A study of handedness, dyslexia, stuttering and twinning, was included in a study of sexual habits of homosexual men. A questionnaire was mailed to homosexuals, and 394 forms suitable for data analysis were received. The results showed an increased rate of lefthand writing (17.5% compared to 8-8.4%), and a clear left shift. There were increased occurrence of both stuttering (7.1% compared to 1.6%) and reading difficulties (7.9% compared to 1-3%). The incidence of twins was lower than the population (1.3%). The results confirm earlier attempts to show a left shift in homosexuals, and support Geschwind's hypotheses about etiological factors for both lefthandedness and homosexuality.

  1. Functional and morphometric brain dissociation between dyslexia and reading ability.

    PubMed

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Meyler, Ann; Hernandez, Arvel; Juel, Connie; Taylor-Hill, Heather; Martindale, Jennifer L; McMillon, Glenn; Kolchugina, Galena; Black, Jessica M; Faizi, Afrooz; Deutsch, Gayle K; Siok, Wai Ting; Reiss, Allan L; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2007-03-06

    In functional neuroimaging studies, individuals with dyslexia frequently exhibit both hypoactivation, often in the left parietotemporal cortex, and hyperactivation, often in the left inferior frontal cortex, but there has been no evidence to suggest how to interpret the differential relations of hypoactivation and hyperactivation to dyslexia. To address this question, we measured brain activation by functional MRI during visual word rhyme judgment compared with visual cross-hair fixation rest, and we measured gray matter morphology by voxel-based morphometry in dyslexic adolescents in comparison with (i) an age-matched group, and (ii) a reading-matched group younger than the dyslexic group but equal to the dyslexic group in reading performance. Relative to the age-matched group (n = 19; mean 14.4 years), the dyslexic group (n = 19; mean 14.4 years) exhibited hypoactivation in left parietal and bilateral fusiform cortices and hyperactivation in left inferior and middle frontal gyri, caudate, and thalamus. Relative to the reading-matched group (n = 12; mean 9.8 years), the dyslexic group (n = 12; mean 14.5 years) also exhibited hypoactivation in left parietal and fusiform regions but equal activation in all four areas that had exhibited hyperactivation relative to age-matched controls as well. In regions that exhibited atypical activation in the dyslexic group, only the left parietal region exhibited reduced gray matter volume relative to both control groups. Thus, areas of hyperactivation in dyslexia reflected processes related to the level of current reading ability independent of dyslexia. In contrast, areas of hypoactivation in dyslexia reflected functional atypicalities related to dyslexia itself, independent of current reading ability, and related to atypical brain morphology in dyslexia.

  2. Inflectional spelling deficits in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Egan, Joanne; Tainturier, Marie-Josèphe

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine past-tense spelling deficits in developmental dyslexia and their relationship to phonological abilities, spoken morphological awareness and word specific orthographic memory. Three groups of children (28 9-year-old dyslexic, 28 chronological age-matched and 28 reading/spelling age-matched children) completed a battery of tests including spelling regularly inflected words (e.g., kissed) and matched one-morpheme words (e.g., wrist). They were also assessed on a range of tests of reading and spelling abilities and associated linguistic measures. Dyslexic children were impaired in relation to chronological age-matched controls on all measures. Furthermore, they were significantly poorer than younger reading and spelling age-matched controls at spelling inflected verbs, supporting the existence of a specific deficit in past-tense spelling in dyslexia. In addition to under-using the -ed spelling on inflected verbs, the dyslexic children were less likely to erroneously apply this spelling to one-morpheme words than younger controls. Dyslexics were also poorer than younger controls at using a consistent spelling for stems presented in isolation versus as part of an inflected word, indicating that they make less use of the morphological relations between words to support their spelling. In line with this interpretation, regression analyses revealed another qualitative difference between the spelling and reading age-matched group and the dyslexic group: while both spoken morphological awareness and orthographic word specific memory were significant predictors of the accuracy of past-tense spelling in the former group, only orthographic memory (irregular word reading and spelling) was a significant factor in the dyslexic group. Finally, we identified a subgroup of seven dyslexic children who were severely deficient in past-tense spelling. This subgroup was also significantly worse than other dyslexics and than younger controls on scores

  3. Dyslexia as disability or handicap: when does vocabulary matter?

    PubMed

    Elbro, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    General cognitive ability is still a factor in current definitions of dyslexia despite two decades of research showing little or no relevance to the nature of dyslexia. This article suggests one reason why this may be so. The suggestion is based on a distinction between dyslexia as a disability (poor ability)-as it is viewed and explained by psycholinguistic and neuropsychological research-and dyslexia seen as a handicap (the consequences of a poor ability) in the educational world. While general knowledge and ability may be irrelevant to the nature of dyslexia as a disability, general knowledge and ability does relate to an ensuing handicap. Vocabulary is possibly the most closely linked subcomponent of "general knowledge and ability" to reading. It was thus hypothesized that when reading ability was controlled individuals with high vocabulary would be more likely than others would to experience a reading handicap as a function of poor reading. Conversely, vocabulary would not relate to the severity of the reading disability per se. These hypotheses were supported by results from a study of 165 adult poor readers.

  4. Impaired stress awareness in Spanish children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-02-01

    The role of segmental phonology in developmental dyslexia (DD) is well established (e.g., deficit in phonological awareness), but the role of suprasegmental phonology (prosody) has been less widely investigated. Stress is one of the main prosodic features and refers to the relative prominence of syllables (strong/weak) within a word. The aim of the present study is to examine stress awareness in children with dyslexia and the possible mediation of phonemic awareness on suprasegmental phonological skills. Thirty-one Spanish children with DD and 31 chronological age-control children participated. Two stress awareness tasks were administrated, one with words and another with pseudowords. Results show that the children with dyslexia performed more poorly on both tasks than control children. The pattern of results in accuracy and reaction time suggest that, while children without difficulties use different strategies depending on the type of item, the children with dyslexia employ the same strategy to resolve the two tasks without any benefit of lexical knowledge about stress. Even so, this strategy did not work so efficiently as it did in the control group, which led the group with dyslexia to make a greater number of mistakes. It was also found that, when phonemic awareness was entered as a covariate, accuracy differences disappeared, but only in the word stress task. However, when lexical knowledge was not necessary (as in the pseudoword stress task) differences still remained statistically significant. Implications on the importance of suprasegmental processing in reading acquisition disabilities are discussed.

  5. Assessment of neglect dyslexia with functional reading materials.

    PubMed

    Galletta, Elizabeth E; Campanelli, Luca; Maul, Kristen K; Barrett, A M

    2014-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a neurocognitive disorder that affects perception, representation, and/or motor planning. Neglect dyslexia in spatial neglect after right hemisphere damage may co-occur with, or be dissociated from, other spatial neglect signs. Previous neglect dyslexia research focused on word-level stimuli and reading errors. Using single words for assessment may leave some people with neglect dyslexia undiagnosed, and assessment materials that are closer to texts read in real life may better capture neglect dyslexia. The authors tested reading in 67 right hemisphere stroke survivors with 4 types of text materials: words, phrases, an article, and a menu. Accuracy on reading the menu and article texts was significantly poorer than reading the words and phrases. The hypothesis that assessment materials with ecological validity such as reading a menu and reading an article may be more challenging than reading single words and phrases was supported. Results suggest that neglect dyslexia assessment after stroke should include text materials comparable to those read in everyday life. Increasing the spatial extent of training materials in future research might also yield better functional generalization after right brain stroke.

  6. Perceptual learning of acoustic noise by individuals with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Agus, Trevor R; Carrión-Castillo, Amaia; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Ramus, Franck

    2014-06-01

    A phonological deficit is thought to affect most individuals with developmental dyslexia. The present study addresses whether the phonological deficit is caused by difficulties with perceptual learning of fine acoustic details. A demanding test of nonverbal auditory memory, "noise learning," was administered to both adults with dyslexia and control adult participants. On each trial, listeners had to decide whether a stimulus was a 1-s noise token or 2 abutting presentations of the same 0.5-s noise token (repeated noise). Without the listener's knowledge, the exact same noise tokens were presented over many trials. An improved ability to perform the task for such "reference" noises reflects learning of their acoustic details. Listeners with dyslexia did not differ from controls in any aspect of the task, qualitatively or quantitatively. They required the same amount of training to achieve discrimination of repeated from nonrepeated noises, and they learned the reference noises as often and as rapidly as the control group. However, they did show all the hallmarks of dyslexia, including a well-characterized phonological deficit. The data did not support the hypothesis that deficits in basic auditory processing or nonverbal learning and memory are the cause of the phonological deficit in dyslexia.

  7. Risk and protective factors in gifted children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Slot, Esther M; de Jong, Peter F

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated risk and protective factors associated with dyslexia and literacy development, both at the group and individual level, to gain more insight in underlying cognitive profiles and possibilities for compensation in high-IQ children. A sample of 73 Dutch primary school children included a dyslexic group, a gifted-dyslexic group, and a borderline-dyslexic group (i.e., gifted children with relative literacy problems). Children were assessed on literacy, phonology, language, and working memory. Competing hypotheses were formulated, comparing the core-deficit view to the twice-exceptionality view on compensation with giftedness-related strengths. The results showed no indication of compensation of dyslexia-related deficits by giftedness-related strengths in gifted children with dyslexia. The higher literacy levels of borderline children compared to gifted children with dyslexia seemed the result of both fewer combinations of risk factors and less severe phonological deficits in this group. There was no evidence for compensation by specific strengths more relevant to literacy development in the borderline group. Accordingly, the findings largely supported the core-deficit view, whereas no evidence for the twice-exceptionality view was found. Besides practical implications, the findings also add to knowledge about the different manifestations of dyslexia and associated underlying cognitive factors at the higher end of the intelligence spectrum.

  8. The intergenerational multiple deficit model and the case of dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Elsje; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Which children go on to develop dyslexia? Since dyslexia has a multifactorial etiology, this question can be restated as: what are the factors that put children at high risk for developing dyslexia? It is argued that a useful theoretical framework to address this question is Pennington’s (2006) multiple deficit model (MDM). This model replaces models that attribute dyslexia to a single underlying cause. Subsequently, the generalist genes hypothesis for learning (dis)abilities (Plomin and Kovas, 2005) is described and integrated with the MDM. Next, findings are presented from a longitudinal study with children at family risk for dyslexia. Such studies can contribute to testing and specifying the MDM. In this study, risk factors at both the child and family level were investigated. This led to the proposed intergenerational MDM, in which both parents confer liability via intertwined genetic and environmental pathways. Future scientific directions are discussed to investigate parent-offspring resemblance and transmission patterns, which will shed new light on disorder etiology. PMID:24920944

  9. Teacher knowledge of basic language concepts and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Erin K; Joshi, R Malatesha; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S

    2011-05-01

    Roughly one-fifth of the US population displays one or more symptoms of dyslexia: a specific learning disability that affects an individual's ability to process written language. Consequently, elementary school teachers are teaching students who struggle with inaccurate or slow reading, poor spelling, poor writing, and other language processing difficulties. Findings from studies have indicated that teachers lack essential knowledge needed to teach struggling readers, particularly children with dyslexia. However, few studies have sought to assess teachers' knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia in conjunction with knowledge of basic language concepts related to reading instruction. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine elementary school teachers' knowledge of basic language concepts and their knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia. Findings from the present study indicated that teachers, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language concepts (i.e. syllable counting), but failed to demonstrate explicit knowledge of others (i.e. phonics principles). Also, teachers seemed to hold the common misconception that dyslexia is a visual processing deficit rather than phonological processing deficit. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Dissociation between exact and approximate addition in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiujie; Meng, Xiangzhi

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that number sense and language are involved in number representation and calculation, in which number sense supports approximate arithmetic, and language permits exact enumeration and calculation. Meanwhile, individuals with dyslexia have a core deficit in phonological processing. Based on these findings, we thus hypothesized that children with dyslexia may exhibit exact calculation impairment while doing mental arithmetic. The reaction time and accuracy while doing exact and approximate addition with symbolic Arabic digits and non-symbolic visual arrays of dots were compared between typically developing children and children with dyslexia. Reaction time analyses did not reveal any differences across two groups of children, the accuracies, interestingly, revealed a distinction of approximation and exact addition across two groups of children. Specifically, two groups of children had no differences in approximation. Children with dyslexia, however, had significantly lower accuracy in exact addition in both symbolic and non-symbolic tasks than that of typically developing children. Moreover, linguistic performances were selectively associated with exact calculation across individuals. These results suggested that children with dyslexia have a mental arithmetic deficit specifically in the realm of exact calculation, while their approximation ability is relatively intact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physics, Dyslexia and Learning: A Collaboration for Disabled Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskal, Barbara M.; Wright, Lyndsey; Taylor, P. C.

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have found that children with dyslexia reason differently with respect to language from those who do not have dyslexia. Dyslexic students' brains work differently than do students without dyslexia. Some researchers speculate that these differences provide dyslexic students with an advantage in science. The presentation will describe an outreach activity which developed and delivered instructional modules in physics to students in grades kindergarten through sixth. These modules were tested on thirty students who attended a summer camp designed for students who have been diagnosed with dyslexia. Eighty percent of students who have learning disabilities have dyslexia. Many of the students who attended this camp have experienced repeated failure in the traditional school system, which emphasizes literacy with little attention to science. A number of science and engineering professors collaborated with this camp to build instructional modules that were delivered one hour per day, during two weeks of this five week summer camp (ten hours of hands-on physics instruction). Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected with respect to the impact that this camp had on students' understanding and interests in science. The results of these efforts will be presented.

  12. Resting State EEG Hemispheric Power Asymmetry in Children with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Papagiannopoulou, Eleni A; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder estimated to affect between 4 and 7% of the population. It is often referred to as a learning disability and is characterized by deficits in the linguistic system. To better understand the neural underpinnings of dyslexia, we examined the electroencephalography (EEG) power spectra between pre-adolescents with dyslexia and neurotypical control children during eyes closed state. We reported the differences in spontaneous oscillatory activity of each major EEG band (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) adopting a global as well as in a region-by-region and hemispheric approach to elucidate whether there are changes in asymmetry in children with dyslexia compared to controls. We also examined the relationship between EEG power spectra and clinical variables. The findings of our study confirm the presence of an atypical linguistic network, evident in children with dyslexia. This abnormal network hallmarked by a dominance of theta activity suggests that these abnormalities are present prior to these children learning to read, thus implicating delayed maturation and abnormal hypoarousal mechanisms.

  13. Resting State EEG Hemispheric Power Asymmetry in Children with Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Papagiannopoulou, Eleni A.; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder estimated to affect between 4 and 7% of the population. It is often referred to as a learning disability and is characterized by deficits in the linguistic system. To better understand the neural underpinnings of dyslexia, we examined the electroencephalography (EEG) power spectra between pre-adolescents with dyslexia and neurotypical control children during eyes closed state. We reported the differences in spontaneous oscillatory activity of each major EEG band (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) adopting a global as well as in a region-by-region and hemispheric approach to elucidate whether there are changes in asymmetry in children with dyslexia compared to controls. We also examined the relationship between EEG power spectra and clinical variables. The findings of our study confirm the presence of an atypical linguistic network, evident in children with dyslexia. This abnormal network hallmarked by a dominance of theta activity suggests that these abnormalities are present prior to these children learning to read, thus implicating delayed maturation and abnormal hypoarousal mechanisms. PMID:26942169

  14. Family patterns of development dyslexia, Part II: Behavioral phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, P.H.; Melngailis, I.; Bedrosian, M.

    1995-12-18

    The motor control of bimanual coordination and motor speech was compared between first degree relatives from families with at least 2 dyslexic family members, and families where probands were the only affected family members. Half of affected relatives had motor coordination deficits; and they came from families in which probands also showed impaired motor coordination. By contrast, affected relatives without motor deficits came from dyslexia families where probands did not have motor deficits. Motor coordination deficits were more common and more severe among affected offspring in families where both parents were affected than among affected offspring in families where only one parent was affected. However, motor coordination deficits were also more common and more severe in affected parents when both parents were affected than among affected parents in families where only one parent was affected. We conclude that impaired temporal resolution in motor action identifies a behavioral phenotype in some subtypes of developmental dyslexia. The observed pattern of transmission for motor deficits and reading impairment in about half of dyslexia families was most congruent with a genetic model of dyslexia in which 2 codominant major genes cosegregate in dyslexia pedigrees where the proband is also motorically impaired. 54 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Morphological differences in the lateral geniculate nucleus associated with dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo-Chica, Mónica; Hegarty, John P.; Schneider, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a common learning disability characterized by normal intelligence but difficulty in skills associated with reading, writing and spelling. One of the most prominent, albeit controversial, theories of dyslexia is the magnocellular theory, which suggests that malfunction of the magnocellular system in the brain is responsible for the behavioral deficits. We sought to test the basis of this theory by directly measuring the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), the only location in the brain where the magnocellular and parvocellular streams are spatially disjoint. Using high-resolution proton-density weighted MRI scans, we precisely measured the anatomical boundaries of the LGN in 13 subjects with dyslexia (five female) and 13 controls (three female), all 22–26 years old. The left LGN was significantly smaller in volume in subjects with dyslexia and also differed in shape; no differences were observed in the right LGN. The functional significance of this asymmetry is unknown, but these results are consistent with the magnocellular theory and support theories of dyslexia that involve differences in the early visual system. PMID:26082892

  16. Cognitive profiling and preliminary subtyping in Chinese developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David Wai-Ock; Lee, Suk-Han; Tsang, Suk-Man; Luan, Vivian Hui

    2004-02-01

    The present study examined the cognitive profile and subtypes of developmental dyslexia in a nonalphabetic script, Chinese. One hundred and forty-seven Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia were tested on a number of literacy and cognitive tasks. The results showed that rapid naming deficit and orthographic deficit were the two most dominant types of cognitive deficits in Chinese developmental dyslexia, and that rapid naming and orthographic processing had significant unique contributions to literacy performance. Seven subtypes of dyslexia--global deficit, orthographic deficit, phonological memory deficit, mild difficulty, and three other subtypes with rapid-naming-related deficits--were identified using scores of the cognitive tasks as classification measures in cluster analyses. These subtypes were validated with a behaviour checklist and three literacy measures. The authors suggested that orthographic and rapid naming deficits in Chinese dyslexic children might pose an interrelated problem in developing orthographic knowledge and representation. Therefore, orthographic-related difficulties may be the crux of the problem in Chinese developmental dyslexia.

  17. Cognitive-linguistic performances of multilingual university students suspected of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Lindgrén, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-05-01

    High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word retrieval, phonological processing and other cognitive functions relevant for dyslexia. Reading and writing were examined in the two domestic languages, Swedish and Finnish. The most prominent group differences in reading and writing emerged on accuracy measures in both languages (reading text aloud, proofreading, writing to dictation, free writing). The dyslexia group also performed less well on speeded segmentation of written input, complex speeded naming and complex phoneme manipulation. The pattern of results fits the phonological deficit hypothesis of dyslexia and indicates the presence of pervasive underlying defects in compensated dyslexia. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Aggression and risk of future violence in forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Selenius, Heidi; Hellström, Ake; Belfrage, Henrik

    2011-05-01

    Dyslexia does not cause criminal behaviour, but it may worsen aggressive behaviour tendencies. In this study, aggressive behaviour and risk of future violence were compared between forensic psychiatric patients with and without dyslexia. Dyslexia was assessed using the Swedish phonological processing battery 'The Pigeon'. The patients filled in the Aggression Questionnaire, and trained assessors performed the risk assessments using HCR-20 version 2. Patients with dyslexia self-reported more aggressive behaviour compared with those without dyslexia. There was only a nearly significant tendency (p = 0.06) for the patients with dyslexia to receive higher scores in the HCR-20 compared with the patients without dyslexia, and phonological processing skills did not significantly predict aggression or risk of future violence. However, regression analyses demonstrated that poor phonological processing skills are a significant predictor of anger, which in turn significantly predicts risk of future violence. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A review of the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in the adult population.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Ferrer, M; Piedra Martínez, E

    Adult dyslexia affects about 4% of the population. However, studies on the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood are scarce compared to paediatric studies. This review investigates the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood. Using PsycINFO, a database of psychology abstracts, we identified 11 studies on genetics, 9 neurostructural studies, 13 neurofunctional studies and 24 neurophysiological studies. Results from the review show that dyslexia is highly heritable and displays polygenic transmission. Likewise, adult neuroimaging studies found structural, functional, and physiological changes in the parieto-occipital and occipito-temporal regions, and in the inferior frontal gyrus, in adults with dyslexia. According to different studies, aetiology in cases of adult dyslexia is complex. We stress the need for neurobiological studies of dyslexia in languages with transparent spelling systems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Dyslexia: A solution through Ayurveda evidences from Ayurveda for the management of dyslexia in children: A review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anita; Gothecha, Vinod K; Ojha, Nisha K

    2012-10-01

    Dyslexia is one of the commonest learning disability. It is defined as a disorder where a child, in spite of all the classroom teaching, is not able to attain the language skills of reading, writing and spelling according to their level of intelligence. Dyslexia individuals often have difficulty in relating to the association between sound and their respective letters. Reversing or transposing the letters while writing is characteristic with letters such as b and d, P and q, etc., The prevalence among school children is reported as 9.87% and in the selected families, it is 28.32%. Dyslexia significantly interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily life and are not primarily due to sensory, motor or mentally handicaps. About 40% of dyslexic children and adolescents dropout of schools. According to Ayurveda, learning is a result of successive and complex interaction of Indriyas (cognitive and motor organs), Indriyartha (sense organs), Mana (psyche), Atma and Buddhi (intellect). Above all, the functioning of these factors is governed by Tridosha (vata, pitta and kapha) and Triguna (Sattva, Raja and Tama) in a specific coordination and balance Any disturbance in these Tridosha and Triguna will cause disordered functioning of Indriya, Mana and Buddhi leading to impaired learning or Dyslexia Ayurvedic drugs can help in the management of dyslexia by making these Tridosha and Triguna in well-balanced state and also by providing Medhya (intellect promoting) drugs to improve the learning ability in these children.