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Sample records for dysmetria experimental evidence

  1. Communicating Uncertain Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alexander L.; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments examined when laypeople attribute unexpected experimental outcomes to error, in foresight and in hindsight, along with their judgments of whether the data should be published. Participants read vignettes describing hypothetical experiments, along with the result of the initial observation, considered as either a possibility…

  2. Experimental Evidence for the Pentaquark

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Carman

    2005-02-01

    The present experimental evidence for the existence of light pentaquarks is reviewed, including both positive and null results. I also discuss the CLAS experiments at Jefferson Laboratory that are forthcoming in the near future to address questions regarding existence, mass, width, and other quantum numbers of these five-quark baryon states.

  3. Experimental evidence of the compressibility of arteries.

    PubMed

    Yosibash, Zohar; Manor, Itay; Gilad, Ilan; Willentz, Udi

    2014-11-01

    A definitive answer to the question whether artery walls are incompressible is to our opinion not yet categorically provided. Experimental-based evidence on the level of compressibility in artery walls is not easily achieved because of the difficulties associated with the measurement of very small differences in volumes under physiological pressure in these biological tissues. Past experiments aimed at addressing the question considered different species, different arteries, the experimental devices were not accurate enough and a statistical analysis of the results was missing. A precise experimental device together with a thorough testing protocol, a careful selection of arteries and a statistical analysis is presented for a definitive evaluation of the artery wall compressibility. We provide experimental evidence that in saphenous and femoral porcine arteries under physiological pressure range a relative compressibility of 2-6% is observed. The pre-assumption of incompressibility in many phenomenological constitutive models of artery walls should probably be re-evaluated.

  4. Experimental evidence of electromagnetic pollution of ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Denis

    multiple low orbiting satellites have confirmed a significant increase in their intensity over the populated areas of Europe and Asia. Recently, there are many experimental evidences of the existence of power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) in the ionosphere. Their spectra consist of succession of 50 (60) Hz harmonics which is accompanied by a set of lines separated by 50 (60) or 100 (120) Hz - the central frequency of which is shifted to high frequency. These lines cover rather wide band - according to the available experimental data, their central frequencies are observed from ~1.5 - 3 kHz up to 15 kHz, and recently the main mains frequencies are also observed. The examples of power line harmonic radiation, which were detected by “Sich-1M”, “Chibis-M” and “Demeter” satellites, have been presented and discussed. The available experimental data, as well as theoretical estimations, allow us with a high degree of certainty to say that the permanent satellite monitoring of the ionospheric and magnetospheric anthropogenic EM perturbations is necessary for: a) objective assessment and prediction of the space weather conditions; b) evaluation of the daily or seasonal changes in the level of energy consumption; c) construction of a map for estimation of near space EM pollution. This study is partially supported by SSAU contract N 4-03/13.

  5. Experimental evidence against middle ear oxygen absorption.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, R A; Stuart, D R; Geick, M R; Girgis, S J; McGee, T J

    1985-04-01

    The present theory of eustachian tube (ET) function and middle ear (ME) ventilation posits that oxygen absorbed by the ME mucosa causes negative ME pressure which is relieved by periodic opening of the ET during swallowing and yawning. After developing a method to cannulate the ET of mongrel dogs we connected the cannulas hermetically to manometers. This system excluded ET function and tested the oxygen absorption capacity of the ME. When we controlled respiration and maintained blood gas PO2 and PCO2 at normal levels, we were unable to find any manometric evidence of negative pressure of gas absorption in the dog ME. Lowering the PCO2 and raising the PO2 of the blood by hyperventilation caused negative ME pressure which could be measured manometrically. We confirmed these findings with the tympanometer. Raising the PCO2 and lowering the PO2 by hypoventilation caused positive pressure in the ME. There is no evidence in these experiments that O2 absorption occurs or causes negative ME pressure in the dog. To the contrary there is evidence that elevated blood levels of the more diffusible CO2 cause an increase in the ME pressure and lowered CO2 level causes a negative ME pressure.

  6. Natural compounds as anticancer agents: Experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Cancer prevention research has drawn much attention worldwide. It is believed that some types of cancer can be prevented by following a healthy life style. Cancer chemoprevention by either natural or synthetic agents is a promising route towards lowering cancer incidence. In recent years, the concept of cancer chemoprevention has evolved greatly. Experimental studies in animal models demonstrate that the reversal or suppression of premalignant lesions by chemopreventive agents is achievable. Natural occurring agents such as dietary phytochemicals, tea polyphenols and resveratrol show chemopreventive activity in animal models. Moreover, clinical trials for testing the safety and efficacy of a variety of natural agents in preventing or treating human malignancy have been ongoing. Here, we summarize experimental data on the chemopreventive or tumor suppressive effects of several natural compounds including curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, indole-3-carbinol, and vitamin D. PMID:24520533

  7. Experimental evidence for circular inference in schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardri, Renaud; Duverne, Sandrine; Litvinova, Alexandra S.; Denève, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder that may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking. Here SCZ patients and healthy controls (CTLs) report their level of confidence on a forced-choice task that manipulated the strength of sensory evidence and prior information. Neither group's responses can be explained by simple Bayesian inference. Rather, individual responses are best captured by a model with different degrees of circular inference. Circular inference refers to a corruption of sensory data by prior information and vice versa, leading us to `see what we expect' (through descending loops), to `expect what we see' (through ascending loops) or both. Ascending loops are stronger for SCZ than CTLs and correlate with the severity of positive symptoms. Descending loops correlate with the severity of negative symptoms. Both loops correlate with disorganized symptoms. The findings suggest that circular inference might mediate the clinical manifestations of SCZ.

  8. Experimental evidence for circular inference in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jardri, Renaud; Duverne, Sandrine; Litvinova, Alexandra S; Denève, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder that may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions and disorganized thinking. Here SCZ patients and healthy controls (CTLs) report their level of confidence on a forced-choice task that manipulated the strength of sensory evidence and prior information. Neither group's responses can be explained by simple Bayesian inference. Rather, individual responses are best captured by a model with different degrees of circular inference. Circular inference refers to a corruption of sensory data by prior information and vice versa, leading us to ‘see what we expect' (through descending loops), to ‘expect what we see' (through ascending loops) or both. Ascending loops are stronger for SCZ than CTLs and correlate with the severity of positive symptoms. Descending loops correlate with the severity of negative symptoms. Both loops correlate with disorganized symptoms. The findings suggest that circular inference might mediate the clinical manifestations of SCZ. PMID:28139642

  9. Experimental evidence of condensation-driven airflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyard, P.; Hodnett, M.; Poveda, G.; Burgos Salcedo, J. D.; Peña, C.

    2015-10-01

    The dominant "convection" model of atmospheric circulation is based on the premise that hot air expands and rises, to be replaced by colder air, thereby creating horizontal surface winds. A recent theory put forward by Makarieva and Gorshkov (2007, 2013) maintains that the primary motive force of atmospheric circulation derives from the intense condensation and sharp pressure reduction that is associated with regions where a high rate of evapotranspiration from natural closed-canopy forests provides the "fuel" for cloud formation. The net result of the "biotic pump" theory is that moist air flows from ocean to land, drawn in by the pressure changes associated with a high rate of condensation. To test the physics underpinning the biotic pump theory, namely that condensation of water vapour, at a sufficiently high rate, results in an uni-directional airflow, a 5 m tall experimental apparatus was designed and built, in which a 20 m3 body of atmospheric air is enclosed inside an annular 14 m long space (a "square donut") around which it can circulate freely, allowing for rotary air flows. One vertical side of the apparatus contains some 17 m of copper refrigeration coils, which cause condensation. The apparatus contains a series of sensors measuring temperature, humidity and barometric pressure every five seconds, and air flow every second. The laws of Newtonian physics are used in calculating the rate of condensation inside the apparatus. The results of more than one hundred experiments show a highly significant correlation, with r2 > 0.9, of airflow and the rate of condensation. The rotary air flows created appear to be consistent both in direction and velocity with the biotic pump hypothesis, the critical factor being the rate change in the partial pressure of water vapour in the enclosed body of atmospheric air. Air density changes, in terms of kinetic energy, are found to be orders of magnitude smaller than the kinetic energy of partial pressure change. The

  10. Reconciling Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence on the Impact of Full-Day Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Chloe

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how to interpret evidence on the impact of full-day kindergarten resulting from different study designs, and provides guidance on how this evidence taken in tandem may inform the design and implementation of full-day kindergarten policies. Incorporating both experimental and quasi-experimental estimates on…

  11. Robustness and evidence of mechanisms in early experimental atherosclerosis research.

    PubMed

    Parkkinen, Veli-Pekka

    2016-12-01

    This article considers the evaluation of experimental evidence for a causal relation between cholesterol and atherosclerosis from the beginning of the 1900s until the late 1950s. It has been argued that the medical community failed to see the implications of this early research, and at first unjustifiably rejected a causal link between cholesterol and atherosclerosis. This article argues to the contrary that the medical community was justified to conclude based on the experimental evidence that cholesterol (dietary or blood) is probably not an effective target for preventive treatment. However, the evidence would have been sufficient to ascribe to cholesterol a contributing causal role in atherosclerotic heart disease. This view is argued for based on a rational reconstruction of the researchers' evaluation of evidence, specifically, the robustness of evidence for a manipulable dependence between cholesterol and atherosclerosis on the one hand, and the evidence for a mediating mechanism on the other. The case study is used to illustrate that robustness is a feasible methodological principle even when evidence is discordant, and evidence of mechanism should be evaluated on a par with evidence of statistical dependence in establishing causal claims.

  12. Experimental evidence for lattice effects in high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Billinge, S.J.L.; Kwei, G.H.; Thompson, J.D.

    1994-01-18

    We present an overview of the experimental evidence for a role of the lattice in the mechanism of high temperature superconductivity. It appears unlikely that a solely conventional electron-phonon interaction produces the pairing. However, there is ample evidence of strong electron and spin to lattice coupling and observations of a response of the lattice to the electronic state. We draw attention to the importance of the local structure in discussions of lattice effects in high-{Tc} superconductivity.

  13. Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

  14. Experimental evidence of contagious yawning in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Swartwood, Lexington; Militello, Janine; Sackett, Serena

    2015-09-01

    Experimental evidence of contagious yawning has only been documented in four mammalian species. Here, we report the results from two separate experimental studies designed to investigate the presence of contagious yawning in a social parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). In Study 1, birds were paired in adjacent cages with and without visual barriers, and the temporal association of yawning was assessed between visual conditions. In Study 2, the same birds were exposed to video stimuli of both conspecific yawns and control behavior, and yawning frequency was compared between conditions. Results from both studies demonstrate that yawning is contagious. To date, this is the first experimental evidence of contagious yawning in a non-mammalian species. We propose that future research could use budgerigars to explore questions related to basic forms of empathic processing.

  15. Record dynamics: Direct experimental evidence from jammed colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo; Yunker, Peter

    2016-11-01

    In a broad class of complex materials a quench leads to a multi-scaled relaxation process known as aging. To explain its commonality and the astounding insensitivity to most microscopic details, record dynamics (RD) posits that a small set of increasingly rare and irreversible events, so-called quakes, controls the dynamics. While key predictions of RD are known to concur with a number of experimental and simulational results, its basic assumption on the nature of quake statistics has proven extremely difficult to verify experimentally. The careful distinction of rare (“record”) cage-breaking events from in-cage rattle accomplished in previous experiments on jammed colloids, enables us to extract the first direct experimental evidence for the fundamental hypothesis of RD that the rate of quakes decelerates with the inverse of the system age. The resulting description shows the predicted growth of the particle mean square displacement and of a mesoscopic lengthscale with the logarithm of time.

  16. Experimental evidence for the exotic dibaryon d^{ast }1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrykin, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    We provide strong experimental evidence for the existence of a nonstrange exotic dibaryon with a mass of about 1956 MeV called d^{ast }1(1956). This dibaryon is expected to be stable against strong decay and decays predominantly into two nucleons ( NN) via the isospin-conserving radiative process d^{ast }1 to NN γ . First, we present the experimental evidence for the d^{ast }1(1956) found in the energy spectrum of the coincident photons emitted at ±900 from the reaction p p → p p γ γ at 216 MeV. Then we give an explanation why the WASA/CELSIUS Collaboration did not find signatures of this dibaryon in its proton-proton bremsstrahlung data measured at 310 and 200 MeV. We also present signatures of this dibaryon found in experimental invariant mass spectra of photon pairs from the p p → p p γ γ reaction measured by this collaboration at 1360 and 1200 MeV. These signatures provide very substantial confirmation of the existence of the d^{ast }1(1956).

  17. Chemicals and cancer in humans: first evidence in experimental animals.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J

    1993-01-01

    Certain human diseases have been traced to exposure to environmental and occupational chemicals. In many instances the first evidence of potential adverse effects came from experimental studies and were subsequently discovered in humans. Associations of human cancers, as a diverse group of diseases, and chemicals have been made since the middle 1700s. Since then, nearly 100 chemicals, mixtures of chemicals, or exposure circumstances are now recognized as being or strongly implicated as being carcinogenic to humans. Of the less than 1000 agents evaluated adequately for carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, a varying spectrum of data from studies on humans are available for only about 20-25%. So far, more than 60 agents are linked unequivocally as causing cancer in humans, and another 50 or so are strongly suspected of being carcinogenic to humans. Not all of these have been or can be evaluated in animals because some are industrial processes or "occupations," some are environmental and cultural risk factors, and some are mixtures of agents. For those that can be studied experimentally, the qualitative concordance between humans and animals approaches unity, and in every case there is at least one common organ site of cancer in both species. The evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals preceded that observed in humans for nearly 30 agents and is the subject of this paper. PMID:8354167

  18. Experimental Evidence on Intermittent Lag Synchronization in Coupled Chua's Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. K.; Dana, S. K.

    2003-08-01

    Phase synchronization (PS) in coupled chaotic oscillators has been investigated numerically in Lorenz, Rossler models and also experimentally in cardiorespiratory systems by many researchers. In non-identical oscillators, which is a reality, complete synchronization (CS) of amplitude and phase is difficult to arrive at. Lag synchronization (LS) is an intermediate step between complete (CS) and PS. PS shows promises in communication, in the context of pulse position modulation, in homoclinic chaotic systems. As has been observed earlier by others in numerical experiments that there is an intermittent region between PS and LS. This intermediate region is defined as the intermittent lag synchronization (ILS). Experimental evidence on both PS and ILS using two coupled Chua's oscillator (non-identical) is reported here.

  19. Experimental evidence for compositional syntax in bird calls.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N; Wheatcroft, David; Griesser, Michael

    2016-03-08

    Human language can express limitless meanings from a finite set of words based on combinatorial rules (i.e., compositional syntax). Although animal vocalizations may be comprised of different basic elements (notes), it remains unknown whether compositional syntax has also evolved in animals. Here we report the first experimental evidence for compositional syntax in a wild animal species, the Japanese great tit (Parus minor). Tits have over ten different notes in their vocal repertoire and use them either solely or in combination with other notes. Experiments reveal that receivers extract different meanings from 'ABC' (scan for danger) and 'D' notes (approach the caller), and a compound meaning from 'ABC-D' combinations. However, receivers rarely scan and approach when note ordering is artificially reversed ('D-ABC'). Thus, compositional syntax is not unique to human language but may have evolved independently in animals as one of the basic mechanisms of information transmission.

  20. Experimental evidence for compositional syntax in bird calls

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.; Wheatcroft, David; Griesser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Human language can express limitless meanings from a finite set of words based on combinatorial rules (i.e., compositional syntax). Although animal vocalizations may be comprised of different basic elements (notes), it remains unknown whether compositional syntax has also evolved in animals. Here we report the first experimental evidence for compositional syntax in a wild animal species, the Japanese great tit (Parus minor). Tits have over ten different notes in their vocal repertoire and use them either solely or in combination with other notes. Experiments reveal that receivers extract different meanings from ‘ABC' (scan for danger) and ‘D' notes (approach the caller), and a compound meaning from ‘ABC–D' combinations. However, receivers rarely scan and approach when note ordering is artificially reversed (‘D–ABC'). Thus, compositional syntax is not unique to human language but may have evolved independently in animals as one of the basic mechanisms of information transmission. PMID:26954097

  1. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna

    PubMed Central

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I.; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L. Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-01-01

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic–biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night. PMID:27680661

  2. Experimental evidence for a two-dimensional quantized Hall insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilke, M.; Shahar, D.; Song, S. H.; Tsui, D. C.; Xie, Y. H.; Monroe, Don

    1998-10-01

    The general theoretical definition of an insulator is a material in which the conductivity vanishes at the absolute zero of temperature. In classical insulators, such as materials with a band gap, vanishing conductivities lead to diverging resistivities. But other insulators can show more complex behaviour, particularly in the presence of a high magnetic field, where different components of the resistivity tensor can display different behaviours: the magnetoresistance diverges as the temperature approaches absolute zero, but the transverse (Hall) resistance remains finite. Such a system is known as a Hall insulator. Here we report experimental evidence for a quantized Hall insulator in a two-dimensional electron system-confined in a semiconductor quantum well. The Hall resistance is quantized in the quantum unit of resistance h/e2, where h is Planck's constant and e the electronic charge. At low fields, the sample reverts to being a normal Hall insulator.

  3. Experimental evidence for action imitation in killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Comparative experimental studies of imitative learning have focused mainly on primates and birds. However, cetaceans are promising candidates to display imitative learning as they have evolved in socioecological settings that have selected for large brains, complex sociality, and coordinated predatory tactics. Here we tested imitative learning in killer whales, Orcinus orca. We used a 'do-as-other-does' paradigm in which 3 subjects witnessed a conspecific demonstrator's performance that included 15 familiar and 4 novel behaviours. The three subjects (1) learned the copy command signal 'Do that' very quickly, that is, 20 trials on average; (2) copied 100 % of the demonstrator's familiar and novel actions; (3) achieved full matches in the first attempt for 8-13 familiar behaviours (out of 15) and for the 2 novel behaviours (out of 2) in one subject; and (4) took no longer than 8 trials to accurately copy any familiar behaviour, and no longer than 16 trials to copy any novel behaviour. This study provides experimental evidence for body imitation, including production imitation, in killer whales that is comparable to that observed in dolphins tested under similar conditions. These findings suggest that imitative learning may underpin some of the group-specific traditions reported in killer whales in the field.

  4. Experimental evidence that parasites drive eco-evolutionary feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Franziska S; Anaya-Rojas, Jaime M; Matthews, Blake; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2017-03-20

    Host resistance to parasites is a rapidly evolving trait that can influence how hosts modify ecosystems. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks may develop if the ecosystem effects of host resistance influence selection on subsequent host generations. In a mesocosm experiment, using a recently diverged (<100 generations) pair of lake and stream three-spined sticklebacks, we tested how experimental exposure to a common fish parasite (Gyrodactylus spp.) affects interactions between hosts and their ecosystems in two environmental conditions (low and high nutrients). In both environments, we found that stream sticklebacks were more resistant to Gyrodactylus and had different gene expression profiles than lake sticklebacks. This differential infection led to contrasting effects of sticklebacks on a broad range of ecosystem properties, including zooplankton community structure and nutrient cycling. These ecosystem modifications affected the survival, body condition, and gene expression profiles of a subsequent fish generation. In particular, lake juvenile fish suffered increased mortality in ecosystems previously modified by lake adults, whereas stream fish showed decreased body condition in stream fish-modified ecosystems. Parasites reinforced selection against lake juveniles in lake fish-modified ecosystems, but only under oligotrophic conditions. Overall, our results highlight the overlapping timescales and the interplay of host-parasite and host-ecosystem interactions. We provide experimental evidence that parasites influence host-mediated effects on ecosystems and, thereby, change the likelihood and strength of eco-evolutionary feedbacks.

  5. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs.

  6. The mechanics of intermediate and deep focus earthquakes: experimental evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubnel, A.; Hilairet, N.; Ferrand, T. P.; Incel, S.; Labrousse, L.; Renner, J.; Gasc, J.; Wang, Y.; Green, H. W., II

    2015-12-01

    At least part of the subducting slab seismic activity could be triggered by phase transformations and mineral reactions. However, the way mineral reactions can modify the deformation regime of deep rocks, from ductile to brittle (embrittlement) is still poorly understood and remains one of the outstanding unsolved problems of geophysics and rock mechanics. Here, we provide experimental evidence that, under differential stress at high pressure and temperature conditions (3-5GPa/800-1000°C), shear fractures nucleate and propagate at the onset of the olivine -> spinel transition in the Mg2GeO4 analogue system. The propagation of these fractures is sufficiently rapid to radiate energy in the form of intense acoustic emissions (AEs). Using a similar set-up, a second set of experiments demonstrates that glaucophane and lawsonite mixtures, two of the principal mineral water carriers in the subducted oceanic crust, undergo dynamic fracture instabilities when deformed within the eclogite field (3GPa/400-800°C). This time, AEs are observed due respectively to the glaucophane breakdown into jadeite and talc under low temperature and lawsonite dehydration under higher temperature. Finally, deformation experiments performed on partially serpentinized peridotites at 2-4GPa, 500-700°C, demonstrate that 5% serpentine in sufficient to trigger dehydration embrittlement of the peridotite body. In this case, low serpentine contents may favor initiation of mechanical failure of the olivine "load bearing" network. In all these three cases, various post-mortem microstructural observations techniques (SEM, TEM, Raman, Microprobe, X-ray tomography) reveals that samples deformed under stress almost systematically present high presure (HP) faulting, to the contrary of samples transformed under isostatic conditions. In addition, AEs correspond to acoustic waves radiated by dynamic HP transformational faulting and follow the Gutenberg-Richter law over sometimes more than 4 orders of moment

  7. Insulin Resistance and Environmental Pollutants: Experimental Evidence and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vanparys, Caroline; Van Gaal, Luc F.; Jorens, Philippe G.; Covaci, Adrian; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    Background: The metabolic disruptor hypothesis postulates that environmental pollutants may be risk factors for metabolic diseases. Because insulin resistance is involved in most metabolic diseases and current health care prevention programs predominantly target insulin resistance or risk factors thereof, a critical analysis of the role of pollutants in insulin resistance might be important for future management of metabolic diseases. Objectives: We aimed to critically review the available information linking pollutant exposure to insulin resistance and to open the discussion on future perspectives for metabolic disruptor identification and prioritization strategies. Methods: We searched PubMed and Web of Science for experimental studies reporting on linkages between environmental pollutants and insulin resistance and identified a total of 23 studies as the prime literature. Discussion: Recent studies specifically designed to investigate the effect of pollutants on insulin sensitivity show a potential causation of insulin resistance. Based on these studies, a summary of viable test systems and end points can be composed, allowing insight into what is missing and what is needed to create a standardized insulin resistance toxicity testing strategy. Conclusions: It is clear that current research predominantly relies on top-down identification of insulin resistance–inducing metabolic disruptors and that the development of dedicated in vitro or ex vivo screens to allow animal sparing and time- and cost-effective bottom-up screening is a major future research need. Citation: Hectors TL, Vanparys C, Van Gaal LF, Jorens PG, Covaci A, Blust R. 2013. Insulin resistance and environmental pollutants: experimental evidence and future perspectives. Environ Health Perspect 121:1273–1281; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307082 PMID:24058052

  8. Experimental evidence for carbonate stability in the Earth's lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biellmann, Claudine; Gillet, Philippe; Guyot, Francois; Peyronneau, Jean; Reynard, Bruno

    1993-07-01

    We present experimental results on the stability of carbonates up to 50 GPa and at high temperatures (1500-2500 K). The experiments were conducted in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell, and the run products were characterized by analytical TEM. Dolomite is shown to break down to a CaCO3 + MgCO3 assemblage at pressures between 20 and 50 GPa. No decarbonation was evident, suggesting that carbonates remain stable under these conditions with respect to rocksalt oxide + CO2 assemblages. Equimolar mixed powders of dolomite + enstatite and dolomite + olivine were transformed into magnesite + calcic perovskite and into magnesite + calcic and magnesian perovskites + magnesiowustite, respectively. The very strong partitioning of Ca in silicates suggests that magnesite is the stable carbonate in the presence of silicates in the Earth's lower mantle down to at least 1500 km. Finally, eutectoid or eutectic intergrowth of magnesiowustite and magnesite is observed, suggesting a possible mutual solubility between these two phases at high pressures and high temperatures. Lower mantle magnesiowustite may provide an alternative host for carbon in the Earth's lower mantle.

  9. Yield strength of microcrystalline cellulose: experimental evidence by dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind K

    2013-10-15

    The water-induced ionic charge transport in compacted microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) has been reported to be governed by the densification behaviour. Hence, mechanical properties were expected to correlate with conductivity behaviour of MCC compacts. Both in-die and out-of-die compaction behaviour of MCC powder was investigated using a fully instrumented rotary tablet press. The dielectric measurements were carried out using a Novocontrol Concept 40 broadband dielectric spectrometer and dc conductivity (σdc) was extracted from the low frequency conductivity data at room temperature. As postulated, compaction pressure corresponding to maximum conductivity (σdc max) was observed to correlate with yield strength of MCC, determined using in-die and out-of-die Heckel analysis. Although Heckel transformation is most commonly used in pharmaceutical technology, its general use to characterise the mechanical properties of organic pharmaceutical materials has been criticized. The present study has provided experimental evidence that Heckel equation is practically useful to describe plastic deformation of organic pharmaceutical powders.

  10. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Vaiserman, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies (‘natural experiments’). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression as a possible major contributor to the link between the early-life famine exposure and T2D in adulthood. Findings from these studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the famine may result in induction of persistent epigenetic changes that have adaptive significance in postnatal development but can predispose to metabolic disorders including T2D at the late stages of life. In this review, quasi-experimental data on the developmental programming of T2D are summarized and recent research findings on changes in DNA methylation that mediate these effects are discussed. PMID:28273874

  11. Experimental evidence that wildflower strips increase pollinator visits to crops

    PubMed Central

    Feltham, Hannah; Park, Kirsty; Minderman, Jeroen; Goulson, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Wild bees provide a free and potentially diverse ecosystem service to farmers growing pollination-dependent crops. While many crops benefit from insect pollination, soft fruit crops, including strawberries are highly dependent on this ecosystem service to produce viable fruit. However, as a result of intensive farming practices and declining pollinator populations, farmers are increasingly turning to commercially reared bees to ensure that crops are adequately pollinated throughout the season. Wildflower strips are a commonly used measure aimed at the conservation of wild pollinators. It has been suggested that commercial crops may also benefit from the presence of noncrop flowers; however, the efficacy and economic benefits of sowing flower strips for crops remain relatively unstudied. In a study system that utilizes both wild and commercial pollinators, we test whether wildflower strips increase the number of visits to adjacent commercial strawberry crops by pollinating insects. We quantified this by experimentally sowing wildflower strips approximately 20 meters away from the crop and recording the number of pollinator visits to crops with, and without, flower strips. Between June and August 2013, we walked 292 crop transects at six farms in Scotland, recording a total of 2826 pollinators. On average, the frequency of pollinator visits was 25% higher for crops with adjacent flower strips compared to those without, with a combination of wild and commercial bumblebees (Bombus spp.) accounting for 67% of all pollinators observed. This effect was independent of other confounding effects, such as the number of flowers on the crop, date, and temperature. Synthesis and applications. This study provides evidence that soft fruit farmers can increase the number of pollinators that visit their crops by sowing inexpensive flower seed mixes nearby. By investing in this management option, farmers have the potential to increase and sustain pollinator populations over time

  12. Self-Organization of Blood Pressure Regulation: Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier; Levrard, Thibaud; Courcinous, Sandrine; Victor, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure regulation is a prime example of homeostatic regulation. However, some characteristics of the cardiovascular system better match a non-linear self-organized system than a homeostatic one. To determine whether blood pressure regulation is self-organized, we repeated the seminal demonstration of self-organized control of movement, but applied it to the cardiovascular system. We looked for two distinctive features peculiar to self-organization: non-equilibrium phase transitions and hysteresis in their occurrence when the system is challenged. We challenged the cardiovascular system by means of slow, 20-min Tilt-Up and Tilt-Down tilt table tests in random order. We continuously determined the phase between oscillations at the breathing frequency of Total Peripheral Resistances and Heart Rate Variability by means of cross-spectral analysis. We looked for a significant phase drift during these procedures, which signed a non-equilibrium phase transition. We determined at which head-up tilt angle it occurred. We checked that this angle was significantly different between Tilt-Up and Tilt-Down to demonstrate hysteresis. We observed a significant non-equilibrium phase transition in nine healthy volunteers out of 11 with significant hysteresis (48.1 ± 7.5° and 21.8 ± 3.9° during Tilt-Up and Tilt-Down, respectively, p < 0.05). Our study shows experimental evidence of self-organized short-term blood pressure regulation. It provides new insights into blood pressure regulation and its related disorders. PMID:27065880

  13. Plant-induced weathering of a basaltic rock: experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsinger, Philippe; Fernandes Barros, Omar Neto; Benedetti, Marc F.; Noack, Yves; Callot, Gabriel

    2001-01-01

    The active role of higher plants in the weathering of silicate minerals and rocks is still a question for debate. The present work aimed at providing experimental evidence of the important role of a range of crop plants in such processes. In order to quantitatively assess the possible effect of these diverse plant species on the weathering of a basaltic rock, two laboratory experiments were carried out at room temperature. These compared the amounts of elements released from basalt when leached with a dilute salt solution in the presence or absence of crop plants grown for up to 36 days. For Si, Ca, Mg, and Na, plants resulted in an increase in the release rate by a factor ranging from 1 to 5 in most cases. Ca and Na seemed to be preferentially released relative to other elements, suggesting that plagioclase dissolved faster than the other constituents of the studied basalt. Negligible amounts of Fe were released in the absence of plants as a consequence of the neutral pH and atmospheric pO 2 that were maintained in the leaching solution. However, the amounts of Fe released from basalt in the presence of plants were up to 100- to 500-fold larger than in the absence of plants, for banana and maize. The kinetics of dissolution of basalt in the absence of plants showed a constantly decreasing release rate over the whole duration of the experiment (36 days). No steady state value was reached both in the absence and presence of banana plants. However, in the latter case, the rates remained at a high initial level over a longer period of time (up to 15 days) before starting to decrease. For Fe, the maximum rate of release was reached beyond 4 days and this rate remained high up to 22 days of growth of banana. The possible mechanisms responsible for this enhanced release of elements from basalt in the presence of plants are discussed. Although these mechanisms need to be elucidated, the present results clearly show that higher plants can considerably affect the kinetics

  14. Auger Recombination in Indium Gallium Nitride: Experimental Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krames, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Progress in InGaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) technology has resulted in white-light emitters with efficiencies far exceeding those of conventional light sources such as tungsten-filament-based incandescence and mercury-vapor based fluorescence. Indeed, by now efficacies exceeding 150 lumens per Watt for InGaN-based phosphor-converted white LEDs are claimed, which represent a 90% energy savings compared to the conventional incandescent (i.e., ``light bulb'') solution. However, these high performance levels are obtained under conditions of very low forward current-density for the InGaN LED and do not represent true operating conditions (nor cost-effective utilization) for the device. In order to reduce the cost (and thus increase market penetration of) solid-state lighting, more lumens per unit of semiconductor area are required which in practice necessitates higher drive current densities. Unfortunately, at these higher driver current densities, the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN-based LEDs is observed to decrease significantly. In the fall of 2007, researchers at the Advanced Laboratories of Philips Lumileds were the first to propose Auger recombination as the root-cause mechanism in InGaN which was behind this ``efficiency droop'' [1]. They further proposed to circumvent the problem by employing InGaN-based active region designs that maintain low carrier density, and demonstrated an LED device design that reaches a maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2, compared to ˜1-10 A/cm^2 for typical multiple-quantum-well heterostructures [2]. In this talk we will review the experimental evidence for Auger recombination in InGaN, beginning with the early work from 2007 and then considering additional work from more recent efforts to better understand the details behind this loss mechanism. [4pt] [1] Y. C. Shen, G. O. M"uller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, ``Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence'', Appl. Phys

  15. Bilateral oligopoly in pollution permit markets: experimental evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We experimentally investigate behavior in a bilateral oligopoly using a supply function equilibria model (Klemper and Meyer 1989; Hendricks and McAfee 2010; Malueg and Yates 2009). We focus on the role that market size and the degree of firm heterogeneity have on the market equilibrium. Our results ...

  16. Experimental evidence of interhemispheric transport from airborne carbon monoxide measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, R. E.; Gauntner, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    During the period 28-30 October 1977, a Pan American 747-SP aircraft flew around the world with an automated instrument package that included measurements of atmospheric CO made every 4 sec. The flight path extended from San Francisco, over the North Pole to London, south to Capetown, over the South Pole to Auckland, and back to San Francisco. The data collected show large changes with longitude, which are interpreted as direct evidence of interhemispheric mixing. Possible sources for CO are discussed.

  17. Experimental evidence for formation mechanism of regular circular fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhu, R.; Wang, G.; Wang, P.; Li, H.; Zhang, W.; Ren, G.

    2016-10-01

    Laser active suppressing jamming is one of the most effective technologies to cope with optoelectric imaging systems. In the process of carrying out laser disturbing experiment, regular circular fringes often appeared on the detector, besides laser spot converging by optical system. First of all, the formation of circular fringes has been experimentally investigated by using a simple converging lens to replace the complex optical system. Moreover, circular fringes have been simulated based on the interference theory of coherent light. The coherence between the experimental phenomena and the simulated results showed that the formation mechanism of regular circular fringes was the interference effect between reflected light by back surface of lens and directly refractive light on the detector. At last, the visibility of circular fringes has been calculated from 0.05 to 0.22 according to the current plating standard of lens surface and manufacture technique of optoelectric detector.

  18. Experimental evidence for solitary waves in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widdel, H.-U.

    1991-09-01

    Results are reported from a foil-chaff experimental study of solitary waves using an in situ motion sensor which responds instantly to changes in air velocity. The signal-to-noise ratio of a radar echo from a chaff cloud which was released at a height of 105 km is illustrated. The initial velocity of the foils relative to the ambient air given by the spin of a rocket is decreased by the aerodynamic drag forces, which are proportional to the velocity and air density. After a certain time the foils come practically to rest, they cease to spread, and the radar return cross section then stabilizes on a fairly constant value which it keeps unless atmospheric motions change it through further spreading of the foils. A selection of effects which are difficult to observe and to follow in detail by other experimental methods is presented, and data are adduced which suggest that a solitary wave was observed.

  19. Experimental Evidence for Phonemic Contrasts in a Nonhuman Vocal System.

    PubMed

    Engesser, Sabrina; Crane, Jodie M S; Savage, James L; Russell, Andrew F; Townsend, Simon W

    2015-06-01

    The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback experiments, we demonstrate that this species uses the same acoustic elements (A and B) in different arrangements (AB or BAB) to create two functionally distinct vocalizations. Specifically, the addition or omission of a contextually meaningless acoustic element at a single position generates a phoneme-like contrast that is sufficient to distinguish the meaning between the two calls. Our results indicate that the capacity to rearrange meaningless sounds in order to create new signals occurs outside of humans. We suggest that phonemic contrasts represent a rudimentary form of phoneme structure and a potential early step towards the generative phonemic system of human language.

  20. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France-both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  1. The fungal colonisation of rock-art caves: experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Valme; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Cañaveras, Juan Carlos; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2009-09-01

    The conservation of rock-art paintings in European caves is a matter of increasing interest. This derives from the bacterial colonisation of Altamira Cave, Spain and the recent fungal outbreak of Lascaux Cave, France—both included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Here, we show direct evidence of a fungal colonisation of rock tablets in a testing system exposed in Altamira Cave. After 2 months, the tablets, previously sterilised, were heavily colonised by fungi and bacteria. Most fungi isolated were labelled as entomopathogens, while the bacteria were those regularly identified in the cave. Rock colonisation was probably promoted by the dissolved organic carbon supplied with the dripping and condensation waters and favoured by the displacement of aerosols towards the interior of the cave, which contributed to the dissemination of microorganisms. The role of arthropods in the dispersal of spores may also help in understanding fungal colonisation. This study evidences the fragility of rock-art caves and demonstrates that microorganisms can easily colonise bare rocks and materials introduced into the cavity.

  2. INSTITUTIONS AND BEHAVIOR: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE ON THE EFFECTS OF DEMOCRACY

    PubMed Central

    Bó, Pedro Dal; Foster, Andrew; Putterman, Louis

    2013-01-01

    A novel experiment is used to show that the effect of a policy on the level of cooperation is greater when it is chosen democratically by the subjects than when it is exogenously imposed. In contrast to the previous literature, our experimental design allows us to control for selection effects (e.g. those who choose the policy may be affected differently by it). Our finding implies that democratic institutions may affect behavior directly in addition to having effects through the choice of policies. Our findings have implications for the generalizability of the results of randomized policy interventions. PMID:25076785

  3. Experimental evidence of directivity-enhancing mechanisms in nonlinear lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, R.; Gonella, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    In this letter, we experimentally investigate the directional characteristics of propagating, finite-amplitude wave packets in lattice materials, with an emphasis on the functionality enhancement due to the nonlinearly generated higher harmonics. To this end, we subject a thin, periodically perforated sheet to out-of-plane harmonic excitations, and we design a systematic measurement and data processing routine that leverages the full-wavefield reconstruction capabilities of a laser vibrometer to precisely delineate the effects of nonlinearity. We demonstrate experimentally that the interplay of dispersion, nonlinearity, and modal complexity which is involved in the generation and propagation of higher harmonics gives rise to secondary wave packets with characteristics that conform to the dispersion relation of the corresponding linear structure. Furthermore, these nonlinearly generated wave features display modal and directional characteristics that are complementary to those exhibited by the fundamental harmonic, thus resulting in an augmentation of the functionality landscape of the lattice. These results provide a proof of concept for the possibility to engineer the nonlinear wave response of mechanical metamaterials through a geometric and topological design of the unit cell.

  4. Experimental Evidence of the Gardner Phase in a Granular Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin, A.; Dauchot, O.

    2016-11-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of a vibrated bidimensional packing of bidisperse granular disks below jamming, we provide evidence of a Gardner phase deep into the glass phase. To do so, we perform several compression cycles within a given realization of the same glass and show that the particles select different average vibrational positions at each cycle, while the neighborhood structure remains unchanged. The separation between the cages obtained for different compression cycles plateaus with an increasing packing fraction, while the mean square displacement steadily decreases. This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that reported in recent numerical observations when entering the Gardner phase, for a mean-field model of glass as well as for hard spheres in finite dimension. We also characterize the distribution of the cage order parameters. Here we note several differences from the numerical results, which could be attributed to activated processes and cage heterogeneities.

  5. Predicting the Unpredictable: 75 Years of Experimental Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radin, Dean I.

    2011-11-01

    From time immemorial, people have reported foreknowledge of future events. To determine whether such experiences are best understood via conventional explanations, or whether a retrocausal phenomenon might be involved in some instances, researchers have conducted hundreds of controlled laboratory experiments over the past 75 years. These studies fall into four general classes, and each class has generated repeatable evidence consistent with retrocausation. The statistical results for a class of forced-choice studies is associated with odds against chance of about 1024; for a class of free-response studies, odds about 1020; for psychophysiological-based studies, odds about 1017; and for implicit decision studies, odds about 1010. Effect sizes observed in the latter three classes are nearly identical, indicating replication of similar underlying effects. These effects are also in close agreement with the average effect size across 25,000 conventional social psychology experiments conducted over the last century, suggesting that retrocausal phenomena may not be especially unique, at least not in terms of the magnitude of effect. Bayesian analyses of the most recent classes of experiments confirm that the evidence is strongly in favor of a genuine effect, with Bayes Factors ranging from 13,669 to 1 for implicit decision experiments, to 2.9×1013 to 1 for psychophysiological designs. For the two most recent classes of studies examining retrocausal effects via unconscious physiological or behavioral measures, 85 of 101 studies (84%) reported by 25 different laboratories from the United States, Italy, Spain, Holland, Austria, Sweden, England, Scotland, Iran, Japan, and Australia, have produced results in the direction predicted by a retrocausal effect (odds against chance = 1.3×1012, via a sign test). Assessment of the methodologies used in these studies has not identified plausible conventional alternatives for the observed outcomes, suggesting the existence of a

  6. GEOMORPHOLOGY. Experimental evidence for hillslope control of landscape scale.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, K E; Roering, J J; Ellis, C

    2015-07-03

    Landscape evolution theory suggests that climate sets the scale of landscape dissection by modulating the competition between diffusive processes that sculpt convex hillslopes and advective processes that carve concave valleys. However, the link between the relative dominance of hillslope and valley transport processes and landscape scale is difficult to demonstrate in natural landscapes due to the episodic nature of erosion. Here, we report results from laboratory experiments combining diffusive and advective processes in an eroding landscape. We demonstrate that rainsplash-driven disturbances in our experiments are a robust proxy for hillslope transport, such that increasing hillslope transport efficiency decreases drainage density. Our experimental results demonstrate how the coupling of climate-driven hillslope- and valley-forming processes, such as bioturbation and runoff, dictates the scale of eroding landscapes.

  7. Multiple Openings and Competitiveness of Forward Markets: Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, José Luis; Kujal, Praveen; Rassenti, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We test the competition enhancing effect of selling forward in experimental Cournot duopoly and quadropoly with multiple forward markets. We find that two forward periods yields competitive outcomes and that the results are very close to the predicted theoretical results for quantity setting duopolies and quadropolies. Our experiments lend strong support to the hypothesis that forward markets are competition enhancing. We then test a new market that allows for endogenously determined indefinitely many forward periods that only close when sellers coordinate on selling a zero amount in a forward market. We find that the outcomes under an endogenous close rule are also very competitive. These results hold for both duopolies and quadropolies. PMID:27442516

  8. Mechanisms of methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity: evidence from experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Marcelo; Rocha, João B. T.; Aschner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Neurological disorders are common, costly, and can cause enduring disability. Although mostly unknown, a few environmental toxicants are recognized causes of neurological disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. One of the best known neurotoxins is methylmercury (MeHg), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. In the aquatic environment, MeHg is accumulated in fish, which represent a major source of human exposure. Although several episodes of MeHg poisoning have contributed to the understanding of the clinical symptoms and histological changes elicited by this neurotoxicant in humans, experimental studies have been pivotal in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. The objective of this mini-review is to summarize data from experimental studies on molecular mechanisms of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. While the full picture has yet to be unmasked, in vitro approaches based on cultured cells, isolated mitochondria and tissue slices, as well as in vivo studies based mainly on the use of rodents, point to impairment in intracellular calcium homeostasis, alteration of glutamate homeostasis and oxidative stress as important events in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. The potential relationship among these events is discussed, with particular emphasis on the neurotoxic cycle triggered by MeHg-induced excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. The particular sensitivity of the developing brain to MeHg toxicity, the critical role of selenoproteins and the potential protective role of selenocompounds are also discussed. These concepts provide the biochemical bases to the understanding of MeHg neurotoxicity, contributing to the discovery of endogenous and exogenous molecules that counteract such toxicity and provide efficacious means for ablating this vicious cycle. PMID:21683713

  9. Experimental evidence of bark beetle adaptation to a fungal symbiont.

    PubMed

    Bracewell, Ryan R; Six, Diana L

    2015-11-01

    The importance of symbiotic microbes to insects cannot be overstated; however, we have a poor understanding of the evolutionary processes that shape most insect-microbe interactions. Many bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) species are involved in what have been described as obligate mutualisms with symbiotic fungi. Beetles benefit through supplementing their nutrient-poor diet with fungi and the fungi benefit through gaining transportation to resources. However, only a few beetle-fungal symbioses have been experimentally manipulated to test whether the relationship is obligate. Furthermore, none have tested for adaptation of beetles to their specific symbionts, one of the requirements for coevolution. We experimentally manipulated the western pine beetle-fungus symbiosis to determine whether the beetle is obligately dependent upon fungi and to test for fine-scale adaptation of the beetle to one of its symbiotic fungi, Entomocorticium sp. B. We reared beetles from a single population with either a natal isolate of E. sp. B (isolated from the same population from which the beetles originated), a non-natal isolate (a genetically divergent isolate from a geographically distant beetle population), or with no fungi. We found that fungi were crucial for the successful development of western pine beetles. We also found no significant difference in the effects of the natal and non-natal isolate on beetle fitness parameters. However, brood adult beetles failed to incorporate the non-natal fungus into their fungal transport structure (mycangium) indicating adaption by the beetle to particular genotypes of symbiotic fungi. Our results suggest that beetle-fungus mutualisms and symbiont fidelity may be maintained via an undescribed recognition mechanism of the beetles for particular symbionts that may promote particular associations through time.

  10. Implicit negotiation beliefs and performance: experimental and longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    Kray, Laura J; Haselhuhn, Michael P

    2007-07-01

    The authors argue that implicit negotiation beliefs, which speak to the expected malleability of negotiating ability, affect performance in dyadic negotiations. They expected negotiators who believe negotiating attributes are malleable (incremental theorists) to outperform negotiators who believe negotiating attributes are fixed (entity theorists). In Study 1, they gathered evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the implicit negotiation belief construct. In Study 2, they examined the impact of implicit beliefs on the achievement goals that negotiators pursue. In Study 3, they explored the causal role of implicit beliefs on negotiation performance by manipulating negotiators' implicit beliefs within dyads. They also identified perceived ability as a moderator of the link between implicit negotiation beliefs and performance. In Study 4, they measured negotiators' beliefs in a classroom setting and examined how these beliefs affected negotiation performance and overall performance in the course 15 weeks later. Across all performance measures, incremental theorists outperformed entity theorists. Consistent with the authors' hypotheses, incremental theorists captured more of the bargaining surplus and were more integrative than their entity theorist counterparts, suggesting implicit theories are important determinants of how negotiators perform. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  11. Experimental evidence for efficient hydroxyl radical regeneration in isoprene oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, H.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Rohrer, F.; Bohn, B.; Brauers, T.; Dorn, H.-P.; Häseler, R.; Holland, F.; Kaminski, M.; Li, X.; Lu, K.; Nehr, S.; Tillmann, R.; Wegener, R.; Wahner, A.

    2013-12-01

    Most pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere are removed by oxidation with highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Field measurements have revealed much higher concentrations of hydroxyl radicals than expected in regions with high loads of the biogenic volatile organic compound isoprene. Different isoprene degradation mechanisms have been proposed to explain the high levels of hydroxyl radicals observed. Whether one or more of these mechanisms actually operates in the natural environment, and the potential impact on climate and air quality, has remained uncertain. Here, we present a complete set of measurements of hydroxyl and peroxy radicals collected during isoprene-oxidation experiments carried out in an atmospheric simulation chamber, under controlled atmospheric conditions. We detected significantly higher concentrations of hydroxyl radicals than expected based on model calculations, providing direct evidence for a strong hydroxyl radical enhancement due to the additional recycling of radicals in the presence of isoprene. Specifically, our findings are consistent with the unimolecular reactions of isoprene-derived peroxy radicals postulated by quantum chemical calculations. Our experiments suggest that more than half of the hydroxyl radicals consumed in isoprene-rich regions, such as forests, are recycled by these unimolecular reactions with isoprene. Although such recycling is not sufficient to explain the high concentrations of hydroxyl radicals observed in the field, we conclude that it contributes significantly to the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere in isoprene-rich regions.

  12. Possible Noninvasive Biomarker of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Clinical and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok K.; Blecker, Uwe; Mishra, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) diagnosis and follow-up response to therapy is based on repeated endoscopies and histological examination for eosinophils/HPF. The procedure is invasive and risky in particular for the pediatric population. Presently, there is no highly sensitive and specific noninvasive blood test available to monitor the disease pathogenesis. Reports indicate the expression of PDL1 (CD274) on the eosinophils in allergic patients. Herein, we report that CD274-expressing and -nonexpressing eosinophils were detected in both examined pediatric and adult EoE patients. We show that CD274 expression on blood eosinophils and blood mRNA expression levels increase in the blood of EoE patients and decrease following treatment. These observations are consistent with the esophageal eosinophilia of before and after treatment in both examined patients. These two clinical and experimental analysis reports provide the possibility that the CD274 mRNA and CD274-expressing esinophil levels may be novel possible noninvasive biomarkers for EoE. PMID:27920662

  13. Experimental evidence for mobility/immobility of metals in peat.

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Zemanova, Leona; Voldrichova, Petra; Stepanova, Marketa; Adamova, Marie; Pacherova, Petra; Komarek, Arnost; Krachler, Michael; Prechova, Eva

    2011-09-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of most toxic metals have been significantly altered by anthropogenic activities. Anaerobic, rain-fed organic soils are believed to record historical changes in atmospheric pollution. Suspected postdepositional mobility of trace elements, however, hinders the usefulness of peat bogs as pollution archives. To lower this uncertainty, we quantified the mobility of six trace metals in peat during an 18-month field manipulation. A replicated, reciprocal peat transplant experiment was conducted between a heavily polluted and a relatively unpolluted peatland, located 200 km apart in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Both peatlands were Sphagnum-derived, lawn-dominated, and had water table close to the surface. A strikingly different behavior was observed for two groups of elements. Elements of group I, Fe and Mn, adjusted their abundances and vertical patterns to the host site, showing an extremely high degree of mobility. In contrast, elements of group II, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ti, preserved their original vertical patterns at the host site, showing a high degree of immobility. Our experimental results suggest that not just lead, but also copper and zinc concentration profiles in peat are a reliable archive of temporal pollution changes within a wide pH range (2.5-5.8).

  14. Possible Noninvasive Biomarker of Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok K; Blecker, Uwe; Mishra, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) diagnosis and follow-up response to therapy is based on repeated endoscopies and histological examination for eosinophils/HPF. The procedure is invasive and risky in particular for the pediatric population. Presently, there is no highly sensitive and specific noninvasive blood test available to monitor the disease pathogenesis. Reports indicate the expression of PDL1 (CD274) on the eosinophils in allergic patients. Herein, we report that CD274-expressing and -nonexpressing eosinophils were detected in both examined pediatric and adult EoE patients. We show that CD274 expression on blood eosinophils and blood mRNA expression levels increase in the blood of EoE patients and decrease following treatment. These observations are consistent with the esophageal eosinophilia of before and after treatment in both examined patients. These two clinical and experimental analysis reports provide the possibility that the CD274 mRNA and CD274-expressing esinophil levels may be novel possible noninvasive biomarkers for EoE.

  15. [Is it possible a bioethics based on the experimental evidence?].

    PubMed

    Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    For years there are different types of criticism about principialist bioethics. One alternative that has been proposed is to introduce empirical evidence within the bioethical discourse to make it less formal, less theoretical and closer to reality. In this paper we analyze first in synthetic form diverse alternative proposals to make an empirical bioethics. Some of them are strongly naturalistic while others aim to provide empirical data only for correct or improve bioethical work. Most of them are not shown in favor of maintaining a complete separation between facts and values, between what is and what ought to be. With different nuances these proposals of moderate naturalism make ethical judgments depend normative social opinion resulting into a certain social naturalism. Against these proposals we think to make a bioethics in that relates the empirical facts with ethical duties, we must rediscover empirical reality of human action. Only from it and, in particular, from the activity of discernment that makes practical reason, when judged on the object of his action, it is possible to integrate the mere descriptive facts with ethical judgments of character prescriptive. In conclusion we think that it is not possible to perform bioethics a mode of empirical science, as this would be contrary to natural reason, leading to a sort of scientific reductionism. At the same time we believe that empirical data are important in the development of bioethics and to enhance and improve the innate ability of human reason to discern good. From this discernment could develop a bioethics from the perspective of ethical agents themselves, avoiding the extremes of an excessive normative rationalism, accepting empirical data and not falling into a simple pragmatism.

  16. Animal traditions: experimental evidence of learning by imitation in an unlikely animal.

    PubMed

    Galef, Bennett G

    2010-07-13

    A new field study provides the first experimental evidence of learning by imitation in a free-living animal and demonstrates that social learning can maintain two behavioral traditions in a single population.

  17. Gender Differences in Cooperation: Experimental Evidence on High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Molina, J. Alberto; Giménez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Cuesta, José A.; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir; Sanchez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences. PMID:24367608

  18. Developmental origins of health and disease: experimental and human evidence of fetal programming for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Gusmão Correia, M L; Volpato, A M; Águila, M B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C A

    2012-07-01

    The concept of developmental origins of health and disease has been defined as the process through which the environment encountered before birth, or in infancy, shapes the long-term control of tissue physiology and homeostasis. The evidence for programming derives from a large number of experimental and epidemiological observations. Several nutritional interventions during diverse phases of pregnancy and lactation in rodents are associated with fetal and neonatal programming for metabolic syndrome. In this paper, recent experimental models and human epidemiological studies providing evidence for the fetal programming associated with the development of metabolic syndrome and related diseases are revisited.

  19. The Development of Experimentation and Evidence Evaluation Skills at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piekny, Jeanette; Grube, Dietmar; Maehler, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers taking a domain-general approach to the development of scientific reasoning long thought that the ability to engage in scientific reasoning did not develop until adolescence. However, more recent studies have shown that preschool children already have a basic ability to evaluate evidence and a basic understanding of experimentation.…

  20. Teacher Incentives in Developing Countries: Experimental Evidence from Kenya. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Teacher Incentives in Developing Countries: Experimental Evidence from Kenya"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Paul Glewwe (University of Minnesota), Nauman Illias (The Brattle Group), and Michael Kremer (Harvard University) review findings from recent…

  1. Experimental evidence of the decrease of kinetic energy of hadrons in passing through atomic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Hadrons with kinetic energies higher than the pion production threshold lose their kinetic energies monotonically in traversing atomic nuclei, due to the strong interactions in nuclear matter. This phenomenon is a crude analogy to the energy loss of charged particles in their passage through materials. Experimental evidence is presented.

  2. Teacher Incentives in Developing Countries: Experimental Evidence from India. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Teacher Incentives in Developing Countries: Experimental Evidence from India"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Karthik Muralidharan (Harvard University) and Venkatesh Sundararaman (The World Bank) present findings from a randomized experiment conducted in…

  3. Experimental Evidence for Grazing System Research: What Does it Tell Us?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on grazing systems has been conducted for the past 60 years and the experimental evidence consistently indicates that rotational grazing is comparable to continuous grazing on rangelands. For example, over 80% of the peer-reviewed studies reported that rotational grazing did not result in h...

  4. Role of Oxidative Stress in Refractory Epilepsy: Evidence in Patients and Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas-Rodriguez, Noemi; Huerta-Gertrudis, Bernardino; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Bandala, Cindy; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress, a state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen, is induced by a wide variety of factors. This biochemical state is associated with systemic diseases, and diseases affecting the central nervous system. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder with refractoriness to drug therapy at about 30%. Currently, experimental evidence supports the involvement of oxidative stress in seizures, in the process of their generation, and in the mechanisms associated with refractoriness to drug therapy. Hence, the aim of this review is to present information in order to facilitate the handling of this evidence and determine the therapeutic impact of the biochemical status for this pathology. PMID:23344052

  5. Relevance of the glutathione system in temporal lobe epilepsy: evidence in human and experimental models.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Sampieri, Aristides; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is a state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen, is induced by a wide variety of factors. This biochemical state is associated with diseases that are systemic as well as diseases that affect the central nervous system. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, and temporal lobe epilepsy represents an estimated 40% of all epilepsy cases. Currently, evidence from human and experimental models supports the involvement of oxidative stress during seizures and in the epileptogenesis process. Hence, the aim of this review was to provide information that facilitates the processing of this evidence and investigate the therapeutic impact of the biochemical status for this specific pathology.

  6. Role of oxidative stress in refractory epilepsy: evidence in patients and experimental models.

    PubMed

    Cardenas-Rodriguez, Noemi; Huerta-Gertrudis, Bernardino; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Bandala, Cindy; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia

    2013-01-14

    Oxidative stress, a state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen, is induced by a wide variety of factors. This biochemical state is associated with systemic diseases, and diseases affecting the central nervous system. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder with refractoriness to drug therapy at about 30%. Currently, experimental evidence supports the involvement of oxidative stress in seizures, in the process of their generation, and in the mechanisms associated with refractoriness to drug therapy. Hence, the aim of this review is to present information in order to facilitate the handling of this evidence and determine the therapeutic impact of the biochemical status for this pathology.

  7. Island of Rare Earth Nuclei with Tetrahedral and Octahedral Symmetries: Possible Experimental Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, J.; Dubray, N.; Pangon, V.; Dobaczewski, J.; Olbratowski, P.; Schunck, N.

    2006-08-18

    Calculations using realistic mean-field methods suggest the existence of nuclear shapes with tetrahedral T{sub d} and/or octahedral O{sub h} symmetries sometimes at only a few hundreds of keV above the ground states in some rare earth nuclei around {sup 156}Gd and {sup 160}Yb. The underlying single-particle spectra manifest exotic fourfold rather than Kramers's twofold degeneracies. The associated shell gaps are very strong, leading to a new form of shape coexistence in many rare earth nuclei. We present possible experimental evidence of the new symmetries based on the published experimental results--although an unambiguous confirmation will require dedicated experiments.

  8. Experimental Evidence of the Origin of Nanophase Separation in Low Hole-Doped Colossal Magnetoresistant Manganites.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Gil, Raquel; Ruiz-González, M Luisa; González-Merchante, Daniel; Alonso, José M; Hernando, Antonio; Trasobares, Susana; Vallet-Regí, María; Rojo, Juan M; González-Calbet, José M

    2016-01-13

    While being key to understanding their intriguing physical properties, the origin of nanophase separation in manganites and other strongly correlated materials is still unclear. Here, experimental evidence is offered for the origin of the controverted phase separation mechanism in the representative La1-xCaxMnO3 system. For low hole densities, direct evidence of Mn(4+) holes localization around Ca(2+) ions is experimentally provided by means of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy. These localized holes give rise to the segregated nanoclusters, within which double exchange hopping between Mn(3+) and Mn(4+) remains restricted, accounting for the insulating character of perovskites with low hole density. This localization is explained in terms of a simple model in which Mn(4+) holes are bound to substitutional divalent Ca(2+) ions.

  9. Optical gain in Si/SiO2 lattice: Experimental evidence with nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Räsänen, Markku; Novikov, Sergei; Sinkkonen, Juha

    2001-08-01

    Experimental evidence of population inversion and amplified spontaneous emission was found for Si nanocrystallites embedded in SiO2 surrounding under pumping with 5 ns light pulses at 380, 400, and 500 nm. As an important property, our experiments show a short lifetime of the population inversion allowing a generation of short (a few nanosecond) amplified light pulses in the Si/SiO2 lattice. The estimate for optical gain in the present samples is 6 cm-1 at 720 nm.

  10. Experimental Evidence of Localized Oscillations in the Photosensitive Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Míguez, David G.; Alonso, Sergio; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Sagués, Francesc

    2006-10-01

    The interaction between Hopf and Turing modes has been the subject of active research in recent years. We present here experimental evidence of the existence of mixed Turing-Hopf modes in a two-dimensional system. Using the photosensitive chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction (CDIMA) and external constant background illumination as a control parameter, standing spots oscillating in amplitude and with hexagonal ordering were observed. Numerical simulations in the Lengyel-Epstein model for the CDIMA reaction confirmed the results.

  11. The Development of Experimentation and Evidence Evaluation Skills at Preschool Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Grube, Dietmar; Maehler, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Researchers taking a domain-general approach to the development of scientific reasoning long thought that the ability to engage in scientific reasoning did not develop until adolescence. However, more recent studies have shown that preschool children already have a basic ability to evaluate evidence and a basic understanding of experimentation. Data providing insights into when exactly in the preschool years significant gains in these abilities occur are scarce. Drawing on a sample of 138 preschool children, this longitudinal study therefore examined how children's ability to evaluate evidence and their understanding of experimentation develop between the ages of four and six. Findings showed that the ability to evaluate evidence was already well developed at age four and increased steadily and significantly over time as long as the pattern of covariation was perfect. In the case of imperfect covariation, the proportion of correct answers was low over the period of observation, but showed a significant increase between the ages of four and five. If the data did not allow relationship between variables to be inferred, the proportion of correct answers was low, with a significant increase between the ages of five and six. The children's understanding of experimentation increased significantly between the ages of five and six. The implications of these findings for age-appropriate science programs in preschool are discussed.

  12. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals

    PubMed Central

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J.; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A.; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment. PMID:25904671

  13. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals.

    PubMed

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-05-22

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment.

  14. Estimation of postmortem interval in real cases based on experimentally obtained entomological evidence.

    PubMed

    Arnaldos, M I; García, M D; Romera, E; Presa, J J; Luna, A

    2005-04-20

    Using the entomological evidence obtained in several forensic cases analyzed in our laboratory for comparison, we evaluated the results of an experimental study carried out in a semiurban setting to determine the structure of the sarcosaprophagous fauna from a Mediterranean region of SE Spain. In all, 18 orders of arthropods were collected. The summarized experimental results refer to the most important taxa for estimating the postmortem interval. Thus, the seasonal character of certain Diptera species, such as Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Chrysomya albiceps and Musca domestica, is cited. Among the Coleoptera, the role of Dermestidae as a necrophagous species, and of Staphylinidae and Histeridae as necrophilous, or Cleridae, Tenebrionidae and Nitidulidae as omnivorous, as well as their appearance on the corpse, is described. Among the Hymenoptera, Formicidae were as the most abundant group, acting as omnivores and not apparently related to any particular decomposition stage. The real cases are discussed using data from the literature and the experimentally obtained results. In every case, the most relevant factors for estimating PMI are briefly discussed, mentioning, when possible, the relation with the experimental results. We confirm the significance of the experimental results because they seem to be applicable to actual forensic cases, the details of which enlarge our very little knowledge on the subject in the Iberian Peninsula. The importance of regional faunistic studies of the sarcosaprophagous arthropod community, the results of which may be applied to forensic practice, is mentioned.

  15. Theory and experimental evidence of phonon domains and their roles in pre-martensitic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yongmei M.; Wang, Yu U.; Ren, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Pre-martensitic phenomena, also called martensite precursor effects, have been known for decades while yet remain outstanding issues. This paper addresses pre-martensitic phenomena from new theoretical and experimental perspectives. A statistical mechanics-based Grüneisen-type phonon theory is developed. On the basis of deformation-dependent incompletely softened low-energy phonons, the theory predicts a lattice instability and pre-martensitic transition into elastic-phonon domains via 'phonon spinodal decomposition.' The phase transition lifts phonon degeneracy in cubic crystal and has a nature of phonon pseudo-Jahn-Teller lattice instability. The theory and notion of phonon domains consistently explain the ubiquitous pre-martensitic anomalies as natural consequences of incomplete phonon softening. The phonon domains are characterised by broken dynamic symmetry of lattice vibrations and deform through internal phonon relaxation in response to stress (a particular case of Le Chatelier's principle), leading to previously unexplored new domain phenomenon. Experimental evidence of phonon domains is obtained by in situ three-dimensional phonon diffuse scattering and Bragg reflection using high-energy synchrotron X-ray single-crystal diffraction, which observes exotic domain phenomenon fundamentally different from usual ferroelastic domain switching phenomenon. In light of the theory and experimental evidence of phonon domains and their roles in pre-martensitic phenomena, currently existing alternative opinions on martensitic precursor phenomena are revisited.

  16. Relevance of the Glutathione System in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Evidence in Human and Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Sampieri, Aristides; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is a state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen, is induced by a wide variety of factors. This biochemical state is associated with diseases that are systemic as well as diseases that affect the central nervous system. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, and temporal lobe epilepsy represents an estimated 40% of all epilepsy cases. Currently, evidence from human and experimental models supports the involvement of oxidative stress during seizures and in the epileptogenesis process. Hence, the aim of this review was to provide information that facilitates the processing of this evidence and investigate the therapeutic impact of the biochemical status for this specific pathology. PMID:25538816

  17. Poverty, inequality, and increased consumption of high calorie food: Experimental evidence for a causal link.

    PubMed

    Bratanova, Boyka; Loughnan, Steve; Klein, Olivier; Claassen, Almudena; Wood, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Rising obesity represents a serious, global problem. It is now well established that obesity is associated with poverty and wealth inequality, suggesting that these factors may promote caloric intake. Whereas previous work has examined these links from an epidemiological perspective, the current paper examined them experimentally. In Study 1 we found that people experimentally induced to view themselves as poor (v. wealthy) exhibited increased calorie intake. In Study 2, participants who believed that they were poorer or wealthier than their interaction partners exhibited higher levels of anxiety compared to those in an equal partners condition; this anxiety in turn led to increased calorie consumption for people who had a strong need to belong. The findings provide causal evidence for the poverty-intake and inequality-intake links. Further, we identify social anxiety and a strong need to belong as important social psychological factors linking inequality to increased calorie intake.

  18. Evidence of Experimental Bias in the Life Sciences: Why We Need Blind Data Recording

    PubMed Central

    Lanfear, Robert; Jennions, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Observer bias and other “experimenter effects” occur when researchers’ expectations influence study outcome. These biases are strongest when researchers expect a particular result, are measuring subjective variables, and have an incentive to produce data that confirm predictions. To minimize bias, it is good practice to work “blind,” meaning that experimenters are unaware of the identity or treatment group of their subjects while conducting research. Here, using text mining and a literature review, we find evidence that blind protocols are uncommon in the life sciences and that nonblind studies tend to report higher effect sizes and more significant p-values. We discuss methods to minimize bias and urge researchers, editors, and peer reviewers to keep blind protocols in mind. PMID:26154287

  19. Comparison of ordered and disordered silicon nanowire arrays: experimental evidence of photonic crystal modes.

    PubMed

    Dhindsa, Navneet; Saini, Simarjeet S

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally compared the reflectance between ordered and disordered silicon nanowires to observe the evidence of photonic crystal modes. For similar diameters, the resonance peaks for the ordered nanowires at a spacing of 400 nm was at a shorter wavelength than the disordered nanowires, consistent to the excitation of photonic crystal modes. Furthermore, the resonant wavelength didn't shift while changing the density of the disordered nanowires, whereas there was a significant shift observed in the ordered ones. At an ordered spacing of 800 nm, the resonance wavelength approached that of the disordered structures, indicating that the ordered structures were starting to behave like individual waveguides. To our knowledge, this is the first direct experimental observation of photonic crystal modes in vertical periodic silicon nanowire arrays.

  20. Experimental evidence of high-frequency complete elastic bandgap in pillar-based phononic slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Pourabolghasem, Reza; Mohammadi, Saeed; Eftekhar, Ali A.; Adibi, Ali; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2014-12-08

    We present strong experimental evidence for the existence of a complete phononic bandgap, for Lamb waves, in the high frequency regime (i.e., 800 MHz) for a pillar-based phononic crystal (PnC) membrane with a triangular lattice of gold pillars on top. The membrane is composed of an aluminum nitride film stacked on thin molybdenum and silicon layers. Experimental characterization shows a large attenuation of at least 20 dB in the three major crystallographic directions of the PnC lattice in the frequency range of 760 MHz–820 MHz, which is in agreement with our finite element simulations of the PnC bandgap. The results of experiments are analyzed and the physics behind the attenuation in different spectral windows is explained methodically by assessing the type of Bloch modes and the in-plane symmetry of the displacement profile.

  1. Experimental evidence for allosteric modifier saturation as predicted by the bi-substrate Hill equation.

    PubMed

    Hanekom, A J; Hofmeyr, J H S; Snoep, J L; Rohwer, J M

    2006-09-01

    The cooperative enzyme reaction rates predicted by the bi-substrate Hill equation and the bi-substrate Monod-Wyman-Changeux (MWC) equation when allosterically inhibited are compared in silico. Theoretically, the Hill equation predicts that when the maximum inhibitory effect at a certain substrate condition has been reached, an increase in allosteric inhibitor concentration will have no effect on reaction rate, that is the Hill equation shows allosteric inhibitor saturation. This saturating inhibitory effect is not present in the MWC equation. Experimental in vitro data for pyruvate kinase, a bi-substrate cooperative enzyme that is allosterically inhibited, are presented. This enzyme also shows inhibitor saturation, and therefore serves as experimental evidence that the bi-substrate Hill equation predicts more realistic allosteric inhibitor behaviour than the bi-substrate MWC equation.

  2. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi.

    PubMed

    Jusino, Michelle A; Lindner, Daniel L; Banik, Mark T; Rose, Kevin R; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2016-03-30

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we demonstrate that excavators facilitate fungal dispersal and thus we report the first experimental evidence of a symbiosis between fungi and a cavity excavator, the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW,Picoides borealis). Swab samples of birds showed that RCWs carry fungal communities similar to those found in their completed excavations. A 26-month field experiment using human-made aseptically drilled excavations in live trees, half of which were inaccessible to RCWs, demonstrated that RCWs directly alter fungal colonization and community composition. Experimental excavations that were accessible to RCWs contained fungal communities similar to natural RCW excavations, whereas inaccessible experimental excavations contained significantly different fungal communities. Our work demonstrates a complex symbiosis between cavity excavators and communities of fungi, with implications for forest ecology, wildlife management, and conservation.

  3. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Mark T.; Rose, Kevin R.; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we demonstrate that excavators facilitate fungal dispersal and thus we report the first experimental evidence of a symbiosis between fungi and a cavity excavator, the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW, Picoides borealis). Swab samples of birds showed that RCWs carry fungal communities similar to those found in their completed excavations. A 26-month field experiment using human-made aseptically drilled excavations in live trees, half of which were inaccessible to RCWs, demonstrated that RCWs directly alter fungal colonization and community composition. Experimental excavations that were accessible to RCWs contained fungal communities similar to natural RCW excavations, whereas inaccessible experimental excavations contained significantly different fungal communities. Our work demonstrates a complex symbiosis between cavity excavators and communities of fungi, with implications for forest ecology, wildlife management, and conservation. PMID:27009222

  4. Experimental Evidence for a Liquid-Liquid Crossover in Deeply Cooled Confined Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupane, Antonio; Fomina, Margarita; Piazza, Irina; Peters, Judith; Schirò, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    In this work we investigate, by means of elastic neutron scattering, the pressure dependence of mean square displacements (MSD) of hydrogen atoms of deeply cooled water confined in the pores of a three-dimensional disordered SiO2 xerogel; experiments have been performed at 250 and 210 K from atmospheric pressure to 1200 bar. The "pressure anomaly" of supercooled water (i.e., a mean square displacement increase with increasing pressure) is observed in our sample at both temperatures; however, contrary to previous simulation results and to the experimental trend observed in bulk water, the pressure effect is smaller at lower (210 K) than at higher (250 K) temperature. Elastic neutron scattering results are complemented by differential scanning calorimetry data that put in evidence, besides the glass transition at about 170 K, a first-order-like endothermic transition occurring at about 230 K that, in view of the neutron scattering results, can be attributed to a liquid-liquid crossover. Our results give experimental evidence for the presence, in deeply cooled confined water, of a crossover occurring at about 230 K (at ambient pressure) from a liquid phase predominant at 210 K to another liquid phase predominant at 250 K; therefore, they are fully consistent with the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.

  5. Experimental evidences of topological surface states of β-Ag2Te

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaev, Azat; Ren, Peng; Xia, Bin; Lin, Qing Hua; Yu, Ting; Qiu, Caiyu; Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Han, Ming-Yong; Li, Zhi Peng; Zhu, Wei Guang; Wu, Qingyu; Feng, Yuan Ping; Shen, Lei; Shen, Shun-Qing; Wang, Lan

    2013-03-01

    We present evidence of topological surface states in β-Ag2Te through first-principles calculations, periodic quantum interference effect and ambipolar electric field effect in single crystalline nanoribbon. Our first-principles calculations show that β-Ag2Te is a topological insulator with a gapless Dirac cone with strong anisotropy. To experimentally probe the topological surface state, we synthesized high quality β-Ag2Te nanoribbons and performed electron transport measurements. The coexistence of pronounced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and weak Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations clearly demonstrates coherent electron transport around the perimeter of β-Ag2Te nanoribbon and therefore the existence of topological surface states, which is further supported by the ambipolar electric field effect for devices fabricated by β-Ag2Te nanoribbons. The experimental evidences of topological surface states and the theoretically predicted anisotropic Dirac cone of β-Ag2Te suggest that the material may be a promising candidate of topological insulator for fundamental study and future spintronic devices.

  6. Delayed school start times and adolescent sleep: A systematic review of the experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Minges, Karl E; Redeker, Nancy S

    2016-08-01

    Many schools have instituted later morning start times to improve sleep, academic, and other outcomes in response to the mismatch between youth circadian rhythms and early morning start times. However, there has been no systematic synthesis of the evidence on the effects of this practice. To examine the impact of delayed school start time on students' sleep, health, and academic outcomes, electronic databases were systematically searched and data were extracted using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Six studies satisfied selection criteria and used pre-post, no control (n = 3), randomized controlled trial (n = 2), and quasi-experimental (n = 1) designs. School start times were delayed 25-60 min, and correspondingly, total sleep time increased from 25 to 77 min per weeknight. Some studies revealed reduced daytime sleepiness, depression, caffeine use, tardiness to class, and trouble staying awake. Overall, the evidence supports recent non-experimental study findings and calls for policy that advocates for delayed school start time to improve sleep. This presents a potential long-term solution to chronic sleep restriction during adolescence. However, there is a need for rigorous randomized study designs and reporting of consistent outcomes, including objective sleep measures and consistent measures of health and academic performance.

  7. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David. A.; Jones, Scott B.; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T.; Smith, Andrew R.; Jones, Davey L.; Marshall, Miles R.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction. PMID:26804897

  8. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, David. A.; Jones, Scott B.; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T.; Smith, Andrew R.; Jones, Davey L.; Marshall, Miles R.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction.

  9. Insight of scent: experimental evidence of olfactory capabilities in the wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans).

    PubMed

    Mardon, J; Nesterova, A P; Traugott, J; Saunders, S M; Bonadonna, F

    2010-02-15

    Wandering albatrosses routinely forage over thousands of kilometres of open ocean, but the sensory mechanisms used in the food search itself have not been completely elucidated. Recent telemetry studies show that some spatial behaviours of the species are consistent with the 'multimodal foraging strategy' hypothesis which proposes that birds use a combination of olfactory and visual cues while foraging at sea. The 'multimodal foraging strategy' hypothesis, however, still suffers from a lack of experimental evidence, particularly regarding the olfactory capabilities of wandering albatrosses. As an initial step to test the hypothesis, we carried out behavioural experiments exploring the sensory capabilities of adult wandering albatrosses at a breeding colony. Three two-choice tests were designed to investigate the birds' response to olfactory and visual stimuli, individually or in combination. Perception of the different stimuli was assessed by comparing the amount of exploration directed towards an 'experimental' display or a 'control' display. Our results indicate that birds were able to perceive the three types of stimulus presented: olfactory, visual and combined. Moreover, olfactory and visual cues were found to have additional effects on the exploratory behaviours of males. This simple experimental demonstration of reasonable olfactory capabilities in the wandering albatross supports the 'multimodal foraging strategy' and is consistent with recent hypotheses of the evolutionary history of procellariiforms.

  10. Live Fast, Die Young: Experimental Evidence of Population Extinction Risk due to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Bestion, Elvire; Teyssier, Aimeric; Richard, Murielle; Clobert, Jean; Cote, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated in recent decades on the drastic impact of climate change on biodiversity. Warming temperatures have induced changes in species physiology, phenology, and have decreased body size. Such modifications can impact population dynamics and could lead to changes in life cycle and demography. More specifically, conceptual frameworks predict that global warming will severely threaten tropical ectotherms while temperate ectotherms should resist or even benefit from higher temperatures. However, experimental studies measuring the impacts of future warming trends on temperate ectotherms' life cycle and population persistence are lacking. Here we investigate the impacts of future climates on a model vertebrate ectotherm species using a large-scale warming experiment. We manipulated climatic conditions in 18 seminatural populations over two years to obtain a present climate treatment and a warm climate treatment matching IPCC predictions for future climate. Warmer temperatures caused a faster body growth, an earlier reproductive onset, and an increased voltinism, leading to a highly accelerated life cycle but also to a decrease in adult survival. A matrix population model predicts that warm climate populations in our experiment should go extinct in around 20 y. Comparing our experimental climatic conditions to conditions encountered by populations across Europe, we suggest that warming climates should threaten a significant number of populations at the southern range of the distribution. Our findings stress the importance of experimental approaches on the entire life cycle to more accurately predict population and species persistence in future climates. PMID:26501958

  11. Live Fast, Die Young: Experimental Evidence of Population Extinction Risk due to Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Bestion, Elvire; Teyssier, Aimeric; Richard, Murielle; Clobert, Jean; Cote, Julien

    2015-10-01

    Evidence has accumulated in recent decades on the drastic impact of climate change on biodiversity. Warming temperatures have induced changes in species physiology, phenology, and have decreased body size. Such modifications can impact population dynamics and could lead to changes in life cycle and demography. More specifically, conceptual frameworks predict that global warming will severely threaten tropical ectotherms while temperate ectotherms should resist or even benefit from higher temperatures. However, experimental studies measuring the impacts of future warming trends on temperate ectotherms' life cycle and population persistence are lacking. Here we investigate the impacts of future climates on a model vertebrate ectotherm species using a large-scale warming experiment. We manipulated climatic conditions in 18 seminatural populations over two years to obtain a present climate treatment and a warm climate treatment matching IPCC predictions for future climate. Warmer temperatures caused a faster body growth, an earlier reproductive onset, and an increased voltinism, leading to a highly accelerated life cycle but also to a decrease in adult survival. A matrix population model predicts that warm climate populations in our experiment should go extinct in around 20 y. Comparing our experimental climatic conditions to conditions encountered by populations across Europe, we suggest that warming climates should threaten a significant number of populations at the southern range of the distribution. Our findings stress the importance of experimental approaches on the entire life cycle to more accurately predict population and species persistence in future climates.

  12. Direct experimental evidence for a multiparticle-hole ground state configuration of deformed 33Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Ushasi; Rahaman, A.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Boretzky, K.; Caesar, C.; Carlson, B. V.; Catford, W. N.; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; de Angelis, G.; Diaz Fernandez, P.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Geissel, H.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Jonson, B.; Johansson, H.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Leifels, Y.; Marganiec, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Najafi, M. A.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Ricciardi, V.; Rossi, D.; Scheit, H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Taylor, J. T.; Togano, Y.; Typel, S.; Volkov, V.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Weigand, M.; Winfield, J. S.; Yakorev, D.; Zoric, M.

    2016-09-01

    The first direct experimental evidence of a multiparticle-hole ground state configuration of the neutron-rich 33Mg isotope has been obtained via intermediate energy (400 A MeV) Coulomb dissociation measurement. The major part ˜(70 ±13 )% of the cross section is observed to populate the excited states of 32Mg after the Coulomb breakup of 33Mg. The shapes of the differential Coulomb dissociation cross sections in coincidence with different core excited states favor that the valence neutron occupies both the s1 /2 and p3 /2 orbitals. These experimental findings suggest a significant reduction and merging of s d -p f shell gaps at N ˜20 and 28. The ground state configuration of 33Mg is predominantly a combination of 32Mg(3.0 ,3.5 MeV ;2-,1-) ⨂νs1/2 , 32Mg(2.5 MeV ;2+) ⨂νp3/2 , and 32Mg(0 ;0+) ⨂νp3/2 . The experimentally obtained quantitative spectroscopic information for the valence neutron occupation of the s and p orbitals, coupled with different core states, is in agreement with Monte Carlo shell model (MCSM) calculation using 3 MeV as the shell gap at N =20 .

  13. Voltammetric Thin-Layer Ionophore-Based Films: Part 1. Experimental Evidence and Numerical Simulations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dajing; Cuartero, Maria; Crespo, Gaston A; Bakker, Eric

    2017-01-03

    Voltammetric thin layer (∼200 nm) ionophore-based polymeric films of defined ion-exchange capacity have recently emerged as a promising approach to acquire multi-ion information about the sample, in analogy to performing multiple potentiometric measurements with individual membranes. They behave under two different regimes that are dependent on the ion concentration. A thin layer control (no mass transport limitation of the polymer film or solution) is identified for ion concentrations of >10 μM, in which case the peak potential serves as the readout signal, in analogy to a potentiometric sensor. On the other hand, ion transfer at lower concentrations is chiefly controlled by diffusional mass transport from the solution to the sensing film, resulting in an increase of peak current with ion concentration. This concentration range is suitable for electrochemical ion transfer stripping analysis. Here, the transition between the two mentioned scenarios is explored experimentally, using a highly silver-selective membrane as a proof-of-concept under different conditions (variation of ion concentration in the sample from 0.1 μM to 1 mM, scan rate from 25 mV s(-1) to 200 mV s(-1), and angular frequency from 100 rpm to 6400 rpm). Apart from experimental evidence, a numerical simulation is developed that considers an idealized conducting polymer behavior and permits one to predict experimental behavior under diffusion or thin-layer control.

  14. The scientific consensus on climate change as a gateway belief: experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Sander L; Leiserowitz, Anthony A; Feinberg, Geoffrey D; Maibach, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    There is currently widespread public misunderstanding about the degree of scientific consensus on human-caused climate change, both in the US as well as internationally. Moreover, previous research has identified important associations between public perceptions of the scientific consensus, belief in climate change and support for climate policy. This paper extends this line of research by advancing and providing experimental evidence for a "gateway belief model" (GBM). Using national data (N = 1104) from a consensus-message experiment, we find that increasing public perceptions of the scientific consensus is significantly and causally associated with an increase in the belief that climate change is happening, human-caused and a worrisome threat. In turn, changes in these key beliefs are predictive of increased support for public action. In short, we find that perceived scientific agreement is an important gateway belief, ultimately influencing public responses to climate change.

  15. Universal limiting shape of worn profile under multiple-mode fretting conditions: theory and experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Andrey I.; Voll, Lars B.; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Popov, Valentin L.

    2016-03-01

    We consider multiple-mode fretting wear in a frictional contact of elastic bodies subjected to a small-amplitude oscillation, which may include in-plane and out-of-plane translation, torsion and tilting (“periodic rolling”). While the detailed kinetics of wear depends on the particular loading history and wear mechanism, the final worn shape, under some additional conditions, occurs to be universal for all types and loading and wear mechanisms. This universal form is determined solely by the radius of the permanent stick region and the maximum indentation depth during the loading cycle. We provide experimental evidence for the correctness of the theoretically predicted limiting shape. The existence of the universal limiting shape can be used for designing joints which are resistant to fretting wear.

  16. Universal limiting shape of worn profile under multiple-mode fretting conditions: theory and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Andrey I.; Voll, Lars B.; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Popov, Valentin L.

    2016-01-01

    We consider multiple-mode fretting wear in a frictional contact of elastic bodies subjected to a small-amplitude oscillation, which may include in-plane and out-of-plane translation, torsion and tilting (“periodic rolling”). While the detailed kinetics of wear depends on the particular loading history and wear mechanism, the final worn shape, under some additional conditions, occurs to be universal for all types and loading and wear mechanisms. This universal form is determined solely by the radius of the permanent stick region and the maximum indentation depth during the loading cycle. We provide experimental evidence for the correctness of the theoretically predicted limiting shape. The existence of the universal limiting shape can be used for designing joints which are resistant to fretting wear. PMID:26979092

  17. Behavioural evidence of magnetoreception in dolphins: detection of experimental magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Dorothee; López Marulanda, Juliana; Hausberger, Martine; Lemasson, Alban

    2014-11-01

    Magnetoreception, meaning the perception of magnetic fields, is supposed to play an important role for orientation/navigation in some terrestrial and aquatic species. Although some spatial observations of free-ranging cetaceans' migration routes and stranding sites led to the assumption that cetaceans may be sensitive to the geomagnetic field, experimental evidence is lacking. Here, we tested the spontaneous response of six captive bottlenose dolphins to the presentation of two magnetized and demagnetized controlled devices while they were swimming freely. Dolphins approached the device with shorter latency when it contained a strongly magnetized neodymium block compared to a control demagnetized block that was identical in form and density and therefore undistinguishable with echolocation. We conclude that dolphins are able to discriminate the two stimuli on the basis of their magnetic properties, a prerequisite for magnetoreception-based navigation.

  18. Pediatric asthma case management: a review of evidence and an experimental study design.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Amanda; Musolf, Jeanne; Meurer, John R; Cohn, Jennifer H; Kelly, Kevin J

    2004-08-01

    Asthma is a complex disease that involves physiological, environmental, and psychosocial factors. This paper reviews childhood asthma case management by social service professionals, lay health workers, and nurses, and it presents a new randomized controlled study using nurse case management in a local community coalition. Evidence suggests the common factor for success involves case managers spending time contacting and patiently and persistently working with the family, thus building a trusting relationship. Although case management time is an expense for a health care payer, provider, and the child and family, the positive outcomes achieved can demonstrate the benefit of these interventions to all parties involved. The described experimental study assesses the cost and effectiveness of home-based nurse case management by a community coalition for children visiting an emergency department for asthma care.

  19. Behavioural evidence of magnetoreception in dolphins: detection of experimental magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremers, Dorothee; López Marulanda, Juliana; Hausberger, Martine; Lemasson, Alban

    2014-11-01

    Magnetoreception, meaning the perception of magnetic fields, is supposed to play an important role for orientation/navigation in some terrestrial and aquatic species. Although some spatial observations of free-ranging cetaceans' migration routes and stranding sites led to the assumption that cetaceans may be sensitive to the geomagnetic field, experimental evidence is lacking. Here, we tested the spontaneous response of six captive bottlenose dolphins to the presentation of two magnetized and demagnetized controlled devices while they were swimming freely. Dolphins approached the device with shorter latency when it contained a strongly magnetized neodymium block compared to a control demagnetized block that was identical in form and density and therefore undistinguishable with echolocation. We conclude that dolphins are able to discriminate the two stimuli on the basis of their magnetic properties, a prerequisite for magnetoreception-based navigation.

  20. The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change as a Gateway Belief: Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Sander L.; Leiserowitz, Anthony A.; Feinberg, Geoffrey D.; Maibach, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently widespread public misunderstanding about the degree of scientific consensus on human-caused climate change, both in the US as well as internationally. Moreover, previous research has identified important associations between public perceptions of the scientific consensus, belief in climate change and support for climate policy. This paper extends this line of research by advancing and providing experimental evidence for a “gateway belief model” (GBM). Using national data (N = 1104) from a consensus-message experiment, we find that increasing public perceptions of the scientific consensus is significantly and causally associated with an increase in the belief that climate change is happening, human-caused and a worrisome threat. In turn, changes in these key beliefs are predictive of increased support for public action. In short, we find that perceived scientific agreement is an important gateway belief, ultimately influencing public responses to climate change. PMID:25714347

  1. First Experimental Evidence for the Transmission of Chlamydia psittaci in Poultry through Eggshell Penetration.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, B; De Boeck, C; Dumont, A; Cox, E; De Reu, K; Vanrompay, D

    2017-02-01

    Eggshell penetration by pathogens is considered a potential route for their transmission in poultry flocks. Additionally, in case of zoonotic pathogens, contact with infected eggs or their consumption can result in human infection. Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium that causes a respiratory disease in poultry and humans. In this study, we provide an experimental evidence for eggshell penetration by C. psittaci. Additionally, we show that after eggshell penetration, C. psittaci could eventually infect the growing embryo. Our findings portend the potential of horizontal trans-shell transmission as a possible route for the spread of C. psittaci infection in poultry flocks. Considering that horizontal transmission of pathogens via eggs mainly occurs in hatcheries and hatching cabinets, we suggest the latter as critical control points in the transmission of C. psittaci to hatching chicks and broilers, as well as to the hatchery workers and consumers of table eggs.

  2. Experimental evidence for melt partitioning between olivine and orthopyroxene in partially molten harzburgite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kevin J.; Zhu, Wen-lu; Montési, Laurent G. J.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Le Roux, Véronique; Xiao, Xianghui

    2016-08-01

    Observations of dunite channels in ophiolites and uranium series disequilibria in mid-ocean ridge basalt suggest that melt transport in the upper mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is strongly channelized. We present experimental evidence that spatial variations in mineralogy can also focus melt on the grain scale. This lithologic melt partitioning, which results from differences in the interfacial energies associated with olivine-melt and orthopyroxene-melt boundaries, may complement other melt focusing mechanisms in the upper mantle such as mechanical shear and pyroxene dissolution. We document here lithologic melt partitioning in olivine-/orthopyroxene-basaltic melt samples containing nominal olivine to orthopyroxene ratio of 3 to 2 and melt fractions of 0.02 to 0.20. Experimental samples were imaged using synchrotron-based X-ray microcomputed tomography at a resolution of 700 nm per voxel. By analyzing the local melt fraction distributions associated with olivine and orthopyroxene grains in each sample, we found that the melt partitioning coefficient, i.e., the ratio of melt fraction around olivine to that around orthopyroxene grains, varies between 1.1 and 1.6. The permeability and electrical conductivity of our digital samples were estimated using numerical models and compared to those of samples containing only olivine and basaltic melt. Our results suggest that lithologic melt partitioning and preferential localization of melt around olivine grains might play a role in melt focusing, potentially enhancing average melt ascent velocities.

  3. The relationship between malnutrition and tuberculosis: evidence from studies in humans and experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Cegielski, J P; McMurray, D N

    2004-03-01

    The oral traditions of medicine and public health have it that malnutrition is an important risk factor for the development of tuberculosis (TB). Malnutrition profoundly affects cell-mediated immunity (CMI), and CMI is the principle host defense against TB. It makes biological sense. Although most health professionals readily accept this principle, much of this belief is based on uncontrolled observations such as disaster situations or on backwards logic from the cachexia common among TB patients. In fact, the evidence in humans is surprisingly thin from the perspective of scientific rigor. And few data, if any, quantify the extent of the relative or attributable risk of TB due to malnutrition. Moreover, until recently, data from experimental animals were based on animal models that were largely not relevant to human TB infection and disease. This article reviews the scientific data supporting the contention that malnutrition is an important risk factor for TB concentrating on observations in humans and on experimental animal studies based on a highly relevant animal model. If it is true, malnutrition may account for a greater population attributable risk of TB than HIV infection, and certainly a much more correctable one.

  4. Lightning injury as a blast injury of skull, brain, and visceral lesions: clinical and experimental evidences.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, M; Hosoda, Y; Fujishiro, Y; Tuyuki, A; Kikuchi, K; Obara, H; Kitagawa, N; Ishikawa, T

    2001-12-01

    The present study attempts to better understand the mechanism of injuries associated with direct lightning strikes. We reviewed the records of 256 individuals struck by lightning between 1965 and 1999, including 56 people who were killed. Basal skull fracture, intracranial haemorrhage, pulmonary haemorrhage, or solid organ rupture was suspected in three men who died. Generally these lesions have been attributed to current flow or falling after being struck. However, examination of surface injuries sustained suggested that the true cause was concussion secondary to blast injury resulting from vaporization of water on the body surface by a surface flashover spark. To investigate this hypothesis, an experimental model of a lightning strike was created in the rat. Saline-soaked blotting paper was used to simulate wet clothing or skin, and an artificial lightning impulse was applied. The resultant lesions were consistent with our hypothesis that the blast was reinforced by the concussive effect of water vaporization. The concordance between the clinical and experimental evidence argues strongly for blast injury as an important source of morbidity and mortality in lightning strikes.

  5. Experimental evidence and molecular modeling of the interaction between hRSV-NS1 and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Deriane Elias; Caruso, Ícaro Putinhon; de Araujo, Gabriela Campos; de Lourenço, Isabella Otenio; de Melo, Fernando Alves; Cornélio, Marinônio Lopes; Fossey, Marcelo Andrés; de Souza, Fátima Pereira

    2016-04-01

    Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus is one of the major causes of acute respiratory infections in children, causing bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) is involved in immune system evasion, a process that contributes to the success of hRSV replication. This protein can act by inhibiting or neutralizing several steps of interferon pathway, as well as by silencing the hRSV ribonucleoproteic complex. There is evidence that quercetin can reduce the infection and/or replication of several viruses, including RSV. The aims of this study include the expression and purification of the NS1 protein besides experimental and computational assays of the NS1-quercetin interaction. CD analysis showed that NS1 secondary structure composition is 30% alpha-helix, 21% beta-sheet, 23% turn and 26% random coils. The melting temperature obtained through DSC analysis was around 56°C. FRET analysis showed a distance of approximately 19Å between the NS1 and quercetin. Fluorescence titration results showed that the dissociation constant of the NS1-quercetin interaction was around 10(-6)M. In thermodynamic analysis, the enthalpy and entropy balanced forces indicated that the NS1-quercetin interaction presented both hydrophobic and electrostatic contributions. The computational results from the molecular modeling for NS1 structure and molecular docking regarding its interaction with quercetin corroborate the experimental data.

  6. Experimental evidence of space charge driven resonances in high intensity linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Dong-O.

    2016-01-01

    In the construction of high intensity accelerators, it is the utmost goal to minimize the beam loss by avoiding or minimizing contributions of various halo formation mechanisms. As a halo formation mechanism, space charge driven resonances are well known for circular accelerators. However, the recent finding showed that even in linear accelerators the space charge potential can excite the 4 σ =360 ° fourth order resonance [D. Jeon et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 054204 (2009)]. This study increased the interests in space charge driven resonances of linear accelerators. Experimental studies of the space charge driven resonances of high intensity linear accelerators are rare as opposed to the multitude of simulation studies. This paper presents an experimental evidence of the space charge driven 4 σ =360 ° resonance and the 2 σx (y )-2 σz=0 resonance of a high intensity linear accelerator through beam profile measurements from multiple wire-scanners. Measured beam profiles agree well with the characteristics of the space charge driven 4 σ =360 ° resonance and the 2 σx (y )-2 σz=0 resonance that are predicted by the simulation.

  7. Key experimental evidence of chromosomal DNA transfer among selected tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Boritsch, Eva C.; Khanna, Varun; Pawlik, Alexandre; Honoré, Nadine; Navas, Victor H.; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Supply, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major driving force of bacterial diversification and evolution. For tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria, the impact of HGT in the emergence and distribution of dominant lineages remains a matter of debate. Here, by using fluorescence-assisted mating assays and whole genome sequencing, we present unique experimental evidence of chromosomal DNA transfer between tubercle bacilli of the early-branching Mycobacterium canettii clade. We found that the obtained recombinants had received multiple donor-derived DNA fragments in the size range of 100 bp to 118 kbp, fragments large enough to contain whole operons. Although the transfer frequency between M. canettii strains was low and no transfer could be observed among classical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains, our study provides the proof of concept for genetic exchange in tubercle bacilli. This outstanding, now experimentally validated phenomenon presumably played a key role in the early evolution of the MTBC toward pathogenicity. Moreover, our findings also provide important information for the risk evaluation of potential transfer of drug resistance and fitness mutations among clinically relevant mycobacterial strains. PMID:27528665

  8. A novel transmembrane topology of presenilin based on reconciling experimental and computational evidence.

    PubMed

    Henricson, Anna; Käll, Lukas; Sonnhammer, Erik L L

    2005-06-01

    The transmembrane topology of presenilins is still the subject of debate despite many experimental topology studies using antibodies or gene fusions. The results from these studies are partly contradictory and consequently several topology models have been proposed. Studies of presenilin-interacting proteins have produced further contradiction, primarily regarding the location of the C-terminus. It is thus impossible to produce a topology model that agrees with all published data on presenilin. We have analyzed the presenilin topology through computational sequence analysis of the presenilin family and the homologous presenilin-like protein family. Members of these families are intramembrane-cleaving aspartyl proteases. Although the overall sequence homology between the two families is low, they share the conserved putative active site residues and the conserved 'PAL' motif. Therefore, the topology model for the presenilin-like proteins can give some clues about the presenilin topology. Here we propose a novel nine-transmembrane topology with the C-terminus in the extracytosolic space. This model has strong support from published data on gamma-secretase function and presenilin topology. Contrary to most presenilin topology models, we show that hydrophobic region X is probably a transmembrane segment. Consequently, the C-terminus would be located in the extracytosolic space. However, the last C-terminal amino acids are relatively hydrophobic and in conjunction with existing experimental data we cannot exclude the possibility that the extreme C-terminus could be buried within the gamma-secretase complex. This might explain the difficulties in obtaining consistent experimental evidence regarding the location of the C-terminal region of presenilin.

  9. Experimental evidence of transport of pesticides through field soils - a review

    SciTech Connect

    Flury, M.

    1996-01-01

    Much information is available in the literature about pesticide transport through soils at the field scale. The purpose of this study is to review the literature with a focus on pesticide leaching to groundwater. The literature was compiled and discussed with respect to different factors that influence pesticide leaching. Pesticide leaching below the root zone has been demonstrated in sandy as well as in loamy soils. Particularly in loamy soils, there is evidence that even strongly adsorbing chemicals can move along preferential flow pathways and that the travel times of pesticides are comparable to those of conservative solutes. The amounts of pesticides leached below the root zone by worst case rainfall events depend on the chemical properties and can reach up to 5% of the applied mass. When there is no heavy rainfall shortly following application of chemicals, the mass annually leached below the root zone is in the range of <0.1 to 1%, occasionally it can reach up to 4%. Although a direct comparison cannot be made, the mass lost by leaching seems generally to be smaller than that lost by runoff, depending of course on the slope of the fields. Several factors that affect pesticide leaching, such as surface preparation, soil structure, soil water content, type of irrigation, pesticide formulation, time of application and rainfall events, are discussed with support of experimental evidence. While some factors showed inconsistent effects, others show promise in controlling leaching mechanisms. These latter factors include initial water content, surface preparation, and time of pesticide application. Based on the reviewed literature recommendations were made for future research activities. 172 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  10. Photorespiratory Bypasses Lead to Increased Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana: Are Predictions Consistent with Experimental Evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Basler, Georg; Küken, Anika; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Arguably, the biggest challenge of modern plant systems biology lies in predicting the performance of plant species, and crops in particular, upon different intracellular and external perturbations. Recently, an increased growth of Arabidopsis thaliana plants was achieved by introducing two different photorespiratory bypasses via metabolic engineering. Here, we investigate the extent to which these findings match the predictions from constraint-based modeling. To determine the effect of the employed metabolic network model on the predictions, we perform a comparative analysis involving three state-of-the-art metabolic reconstructions of A. thaliana. In addition, we investigate three scenarios with respect to experimental findings on the ratios of the carboxylation and oxygenation reactions of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). We demonstrate that the condition-dependent growth phenotypes of one of the engineered bypasses can be qualitatively reproduced by each reconstruction, particularly upon considering the additional constraints with respect to the ratio of fluxes for the RuBisCO reactions. Moreover, our results lend support for the hypothesis of a reduced photorespiration in the engineered plants, and indicate that specific changes in CO2 exchange as well as in the proxies for co-factor turnover are associated with the predicted growth increase in the engineered plants. We discuss our findings with respect to the structure of the used models, the modeling approaches taken, and the available experimental evidence. Our study sets the ground for investigating other strategies for increase of plant biomass by insertion of synthetic reactions. PMID:27092301

  11. First experimental evidence for the presence of a CRISPR toxin in sulfolobus.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Chen, Lanming; Peng, Xu

    2014-11-11

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (cas) genes constitute the adaptive immune system in bacteria and archaea. Although the CRISPR-Cas systems have been hypothesized to encode potential toxins, no experimental data supporting the hypothesis are available in the literature. In this work, we provide the first experimental evidence for the presence of a toxin gene in the type I-A CRISPR system of hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus. csa5, under the control of its native promoter in a shuttle vector, could not be transformed into CRISPR-deficient mutant Sulfolobus solfataricus Sens1, demonstrating a strong toxicity in the cells. A single-amino-acid mutation destroying the intersubunit bridge of Csa5 attenuated the toxicity, indicative of the importance of Csa5 oligomerization for its toxicity. In line with the absence of Csa5 toxicity in S. solfataricus InF1 containing functional CRISPR systems, the expression of csa5 is repressed in InF1 cells. Induced from the arabinose promoter in Sens1 cells, Csa5 oligomers resistant to 1% SDS co-occur with chromosome degradation and cell death, reinforcing the connection between Csa5 oligomerization and its toxicity. Importantly, a rudivirus was shown to induce Csa5 expression and the formation of SDS-resistant Csa5 oligomers in Sulfolobus cells. This demonstrates that the derepression of csa5 and the subsequent Csa5 oligomerization take place in native virus-host systems. Thus, csa5 is likely to act as a suicide gene under certain circumstances to inhibit virus spreading.

  12. Bisphenol A and Reproductive Health: Update of Experimental and Human Evidence, 2007–2013

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Jackye; Vrooman, Lisa; Ricke, William A.; Hunt, Patricia A.; Ehrlich, Shelley; Hauser, Russ; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Taylor, Hugh S.; Swan, Shanna H.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    health: update of experimental and human evidence, 2007–2013. Environ Health Perspect 122:775–786; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307728 PMID:24896072

  13. Experimental Evidence for an Eco-Evolutionary Coupling between Local Adaptation and Intraspecific Competition.

    PubMed

    Siepielski, Adam M; Nemirov, Alex; Cattivera, Matthew; Nickerson, Avery

    2016-04-01

    Determining how adaptive evolution can be coupled to ecological processes is key for developing a more integrative understanding of the demographic factors that regulate populations. Intraspecific competition is an especially important ecological process because it generates negative density dependence in demographic rates. Although ecological factors are most often investigated to determine the strength of density dependence, evolutionary processes such as local adaptation could also feed back to shape variation in the strength of density dependence among populations. Using an experimental approach with damselflies, a predaceous aquatic insect, we find evidence that both density-dependent intraspecific competition and local adaptation can reduce per capita growth rates. In some cases, the effects of local adaptation on reducing per capita growth rates exceeded the ecological competitive effects of a doubling of density. However, we also found that these ecological and evolutionary properties of populations are coupled, and we offer two interpretations of the causes underlying this pattern: (1) the strength of density-dependent competition depends on the extent of local adaptation, or (2) the extent of local adaptation is shaped by the strength of density-dependent competition. Regardless of the underlying causal pathway, these results show how eco-evolutionary dynamics can affect a key demographic process regulating populations.

  14. Experimental evidence for the formation of liquid saline water on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Erik; Martínez, Germán M; Elliott, Harvey M; Rennó, Nilton O

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for deliquescence of perchlorate salts has been discovered in the Martian polar region while possible brine flows have been observed in the equatorial region. This appears to contradict the idea that bulk deliquescence is too slow to occur during the short periods of the Martian diurnal cycle during which conditions are favorable for it. We conduct laboratory experiments to study the formation of liquid brines at Mars environmental conditions. We find that when water vapor is the only source of water, bulk deliquescence of perchlorates is not rapid enough to occur during the short periods of the day during which the temperature is above the salts' eutectic value, and the humidity is above the salts' deliquescence value. However, when the salts are in contact with water ice, liquid brine forms in minutes, indicating that aqueous solutions could form temporarily where salts and ice coexist on the Martian surface and in the shallow subsurface. Key Points The formation of brines at Martian conditions was studied experimentally Bulk deliquescence from water vapor is too slow to occur diurnally on Mars Brines form in minutes when salts are placed in direct contact with ice PMID:25821267

  15. Experimental Evidence of Edge Fluctuation Broadening of ECH Deposition at DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookman, M. W.; Austin, M. E.; Gentle, K. W.; Petty, C. C.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Barada, K.; Ernst, D. E.

    2016-10-01

    This work provides experimental evidence for broadening of the ECH and ECCD deposition by edge density fluctuations. Results on the DIII-D tokamak suggest a deposition FWHM 1.7-2.8 times wider than TORAY-GA. A 1D ECH deposition profile was measured through gyrotron power modulation. From 500 kHz, 48-channel ECE measurements and trial ECH deposition functions, a Fourier transformed heat flux is found and fit to transport drive terms. Radially broader ECH deposition best fit calculated fluxes in discharges with higher levels of edge density turbulence. Broadening of deposition does not arise from anomalous transport, which is minimal on DIII-D. Simulation and theory suggest edge (ρ.9) turbulent n _ e fluctuations refract RF waves that pass through them, broadening radial deposition of ECH and ECCD. On ITER, this effect could hinder NTM suppression by broadening ECCD deposition outside the 3/2 island. Work supported by the U.S. DOE under Award DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  16. Experimental evidence of spatial memory and home range affinity in White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    The role of spatial memory in the movement of animals through landscapes remains elusive. To examine spatial memory and home range affinity of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Minnesota during 1995–2007, I translocated 17 adult does with known home ranges to unfamiliar sites and radio-tracked them after their release. Twelve does wearing transmitting radio-collars returned to their home ranges. Death and collar expiration precluded determination of whether the remaining five does would have returned to home ranges. Three of five does wearing global positioning system collars traveled throughout hundreds of square kilometres, circling, backtracking, and returning to release sites, while two others exhibited directional movement for tens of kilometres. Four does that survived to parturition stopped traveling and moved at hourly rates similar to those of control does during the first three weeks of the typical fawn-rearing period, but continued traveling later. Their aberrant extensive travel before and after interruption by parturition suggests that they recognized they were in unfamiliar areas, demonstrating both their capacity and propensity to search for and occupy the familiar space of their individual home ranges. Their successful return to home ranges provided experimental evidence of spatial memory and further elucidated its pervasive role in White-tailed Deer spatial ecology.

  17. Withanone binds to mortalin and abrogates mortalin-p53 complex: computational and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Grover, Abhinav; Priyandoko, Didik; Gao, Ran; Shandilya, Ashutosh; Widodo, Nashi; Bisaria, Virendra S; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Sundar, Durai

    2012-03-01

    Mortalin binds to p53 tumor suppressor protein and sequesters it in the cytoplasm. This results in an inhibition of the transcriptional activation and control of centrosome duplication functions of p53, thus contributing to human carcinogenesis. Abrogation of mortalin-p53 interaction and reactivation of p53 function could be a valid proposition for cancer therapy. In the present study, we first investigated in silico the interaction of withanone, a withanolide with anticancer activity, with mortalin. We found that withanone could bind to mortalin in a region, earlier predicted critical for binding to p53. Cationic rhodacyanine dye, MKT-077 has also shown to bind the same region and kill cancer cells selectively. We report the molecular dynamic simulations revealing the thermodynamic and structural stability of the withanone-mortalin complexes. We also demonstrate the experimental evidence of abrogation of mortalin-p53 complex by withanone resulting in nuclear translocation and functional reactivation of p53 in human cancer cells. The present study establishes a molecular interaction basis that could be used for screening and development of anticancer drugs with low toxicity to normal cells. Accurate knowledge of the 3D structure of mortalin would further enhance the potential of such analyses to understand the molecular basis of mortalin biology and mortalin based cancer therapy.

  18. The fishermen were right: experimental evidence for tributary refuge hypothesis during floods.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Itsuro; Kanazawa, Yukiyo; Tanaka, Yuuki

    2013-05-01

    Fishermen often anecdotally report an unexpected increase of fish caught in small tributary streams during floods, presumably due to refuge-seeking behavior from the main stem. From a population perspective, this implies the significance of refuge habitats and connectivity for population viability against natural disturbances. Despite the plausibility, however, surprisingly few studies have examined the tributary refuge hypothesis, mainly due to the difficulty in field survey during floods. Here, we made use of a large-scale controlled flood to assess whether fishes move into tributaries during flooding in the main stem. A planned water release from the Satsunai River Dam located on Hokkaido Island in Japan rapidly increased the main stem discharge by more than 20-fold. Before, during, and after flooding censuses in four tributaries provided evidence of the refuge-seeking behavior of fishes from the main stem. For example, more than 10 Dolly Varden char, a salmonid fish, were caught in a tributary during the flood, even though almost no individuals were captured before or after the flood. The fish responded immediately to the flooding, suggesting the need for studies during disturbances. In addition, the likelihood of refuge movements varied among tributaries, suggesting the importance of local environmental differences between tributary and the main stem habitats. This is the first study to experimentally confirm the tributary refuge hypothesis, and underscores the roles of habitat diversity and connectivity during disturbances, even though some habitats are not used during normal conditions.

  19. A review of experimental methylmercury toxicity in rats: neuropathology and evidence for apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, K

    1997-01-01

    As an animal model for examining the pathogenicity of human organic mercury intoxication, rats have been used for the reproduction of human neurologic diseases. Rats experimentally exposed to methylmercury chloride showed clinical signs of neurologic dysfunction characterized by ataxic behavior. Neuropathology of the diseased animals consisted of lesions such as: (a) degeneration of the peripheral nerve and sensory root nerve with preservation of the motor root nerve; (b) degeneration of the posterior funiculus of the spinal cord; and (c) degeneration of cerebellar granule cells with preservation of Purkinje cells. These findings suggest the human neuropathology of this toxicity. The degeneration was characterized by nerve fiber damage or neuronal cell death accompanied by astrocytic gliosis and activated macrophages or microglias. For the cerebellar granule cells, the mechanism of neuronal cell death was shown to be apoptosis. This fact was verified by histologic and ultrastructural findings as well as by in situ nick-end labeling and electrophoretic methods. Evidence of apoptosis involvement in cerebellar degeneration would provide a new viewpoint from which to analyze the selected degeneration of the nervous system in neurotoxicology.

  20. Experimental evidence for paternal effects on offspring growth rate in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus).

    PubMed

    Eilertsen, Eirik Mack; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Liljedal, Ståle; Rudolfsen, Geir; Folstad, Ivar

    2009-01-07

    Sexual selection theory predicts that females should choose males that signal viability and quality. However, few studies have found fitness benefits among females mating with highly ornamented males. Here, we use Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), a teleost fish with no parental care, to investigate whether females could gain fitness benefits by mating with highly ornamented and large-sized males. Carotenoid-based coloration signalled by males during spawning is believed to be an indicator of good genes for this species. Paternal effects on offspring size (body length and dry body mass) were examined experimentally by crossing eggs and sperm in vitro from 12 females and 24 males in a split-brood design and raising larvae to 30 days past hatching. We clearly demonstrated that there was a relationship between offspring size and paternal coloration. However, a negative interaction between paternal length and coloration was evident for offspring length, indicating that positive effects of paternal coloration were only present for smaller males. Thus, the red spawning coloration of the male Arctic charr seems to be an indicator of good genes, but the effect of paternal coloration on offspring length, an indicator of 'offspring quality', is size dependent.

  1. Infectivity of DWV Associated to Flower Pollen: Experimental Evidence of a Horizontal Transmission Route

    PubMed Central

    Luisi, Elena; Forzan, Mario; Giusti, Matteo; Sagona, Simona; Tolari, Francesco; Felicioli, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a honeybee pathogen whose presence is generally associated with infestation of the colony by the mite Varroa destructor, leading to the onset of infections responsible for the collapse of the bee colony. DWV contaminates bee products such as royal jelly, bee-bread and honey stored within the infected hive. Outside the hive, DWV has been found in pollen loads collected directly from infected as well as uninfected forager bees. It has been shown that the introduction of virus-contaminated pollen into a DWV-free hive results in the production of virus-contaminated food, whose role in the development of infected bees from virus-free eggs has been experimentally demonstrated. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to ascertain the presence of DWV on pollen collected directly from flowers visited by honeybees and then quantify the viral load and (ii) determine whether the virus associated with pollen is infective. The results of our investigation provide evidence that DWV is present on pollen sampled directly from visited flowers and that, following injection in individuals belonging to the pollinator species Apis mellifera, it is able to establish an active infection, as indicated by the presence of replicating virus in the head of the injected bees. We also provide the first indication that the pollinator species Osmia cornuta is susceptible to DWV infection. PMID:25419704

  2. Smectite clays in Mars soil - Evidence for their presence and role in Viking biology experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Rishpon, J.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of smectite clays in Martian soils is reviewed and results of experiments with certain active clays simulating the Viking biology experiments are reported. Analyses of Martian soil composition by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and dust storm spectroscopy and Martian geological history strongly suggest the presence of a mixture of weathered ferro-silicate minerals, mainly nontronite and montmorillonite, accompanied by soluble sulphate salts, as major constituents. Samples of montmorillonite and nontronite incubated with (C-14)-formate or the radioactive nutrient medium solution used in the Viking Labeled Release experiment, were found to produce patterns of release of radioactive gas very similar to those observed in the Viking experiments, indicating the iron-catalyzed decomposition of formate as the reaction responsible for the Viking results. The experimental results of Hubbard (1979) simulating the results of the Viking Pyrolytic Release experiment using iron montmorillonites are pointed out, and it is concluded that many of the results of the Viking biology experiments can be explained in terms of the surface activity of smectite clays in catalysis and adsorption.

  3. Spontaneous Time Symmetry Breaking in System with Mixed Strategy Nash Equilibrium: Evidences in Experimental Economics Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhijian; Xu, Bin; Zhejiang Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    In social science, laboratory experiment with human subjects' interaction is a standard test-bed for studying social processes in micro level. Usually, as in physics, the processes near equilibrium are suggested as stochastic processes with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). To the best of our knowledge, near equilibrium, the breaking time symmetry, as well as the existence of robust time anti-symmetry processes, has not been reported clearly in experimental economics till now. By employing Markov transition method to analysis the data from human subject 2x2 Games with wide parameters and mixed Nash equilibrium, we study the time symmetry of the social interaction process near Nash equilibrium. We find that, the time symmetry is broken, and there exists a robust time anti-symmetry processes. We also report the weight of the time anti-symmetry processes in the total processes of each the games. Evidences in laboratory marketing experiments, at the same time, are provided as one-dimension cases. In these cases, time anti-symmetry cycles can also be captured. The proposition of time anti-symmetry processes is small, but the cycles are distinguishable.

  4. Experimental evidence that microbial activity lowers the albedo of glacier surfaces: the cryoconite casserole experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musilova, M.; Tranter, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Anesio, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Darkened glacier and ice sheet surfaces have lower albedos, absorb more solar radiation and consequently melt more rapidly. The increase in glacier surface darkening is an important positive feedback to warming global temperatures, leading to ever growing world-wide ice mass loss. Most studies focus primarily on glacial albedo darkening caused by the physical properties of snow and ice surfaces, and the deposition of dark impurities on glaciers. To date, however, the important effects of biological activity have not been included in most albedo reduction models. This study provides the first experimental evidence that microbial activity can significantly decrease the albedo of glacier surfaces. An original laboratory experiment, the cryoconite casserole, was designed to test the microbial darkening of glacier surface debris (cryoconite) under simulated Greenlandic summer conditions. It was found that minor fertilisation of the cryoconite (at nutrient concentrations typical of glacial ice melt) stimulated extensive microbial activity. Microbes intensified their organic carbon fixation and even mined phosphorous out of the glacier surface sediment. Furthermore, the microbial organic carbon production, accumulation and transformation caused the glacial debris to darken further by 17.3% reflectivity (albedo analogue). These experiments are consistent with the hypothesis that enhanced fertilisation by anthropogenic inputs results in substantial amounts of organic carbon fixation, debris darkening and ultimately to a considerable decrease in the ice albedo of glacier surfaces on global scales. The sizeable amounts of microbially produced glacier surface organic matter and nutrients can thus be a vital source of bioavailable nutrients for subglacial and downstream environments.

  5. Self-deception as self-signalling: a model and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Mijović-Prelec, Danica; Prelec, Draz̆en

    2010-01-01

    Self-deception has long been the subject of speculation and controversy in psychology, evolutionary biology and philosophy. According to an influential ‘deflationary’ view, the concept is an over-interpretation of what is in reality an instance of motivationally biased judgement. The opposite view takes the interpersonal deception analogy seriously, and holds that some part of the self actively manipulates information so as to mislead the other part. Building on an earlier self-signalling model of Bodner and Prelec, we present a game-theoretic model of self-deception. We propose that two distinct mechanisms collaborate to produce overt expressions of belief: a mechanism responsible for action selection (including verbal statements) and an interpretive mechanism that draws inferences from actions and generates emotional responses consistent with the inferences. The model distinguishes between two modes of self-deception, depending on whether the self-deceived individual regards his own statements as fully credible. The paper concludes with a new experimental study showing that self-deceptive judgements can be reliably and repeatedly elicited with financial incentives in a categorization task, and that the degree of self-deception varies with incentives. The study also finds evidence of the two forms of self-deception. The psychological benefits of self-deception, as measured by confidence, peak at moderate levels. PMID:20026461

  6. Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Adam D I; Guillory, Jamie E; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2014-06-17

    Emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness. Emotional contagion is well established in laboratory experiments, with people transferring positive and negative emotions to others. Data from a large real-world social network, collected over a 20-y period suggests that longer-lasting moods (e.g., depression, happiness) can be transferred through networks [Fowler JH, Christakis NA (2008) BMJ 337:a2338], although the results are controversial. In an experiment with people who use Facebook, we test whether emotional contagion occurs outside of in-person interaction between individuals by reducing the amount of emotional content in the News Feed. When positive expressions were reduced, people produced fewer positive posts and more negative posts; when negative expressions were reduced, the opposite pattern occurred. These results indicate that emotions expressed by others on Facebook influence our own emotions, constituting experimental evidence for massive-scale contagion via social networks. This work also suggests that, in contrast to prevailing assumptions, in-person interaction and nonverbal cues are not strictly necessary for emotional contagion, and that the observation of others' positive experiences constitutes a positive experience for people.

  7. Fluorine as a hydrogen-bond acceptor: experimental evidence and computational calculations.

    PubMed

    Dalvit, Claudio; Invernizzi, Christian; Vulpetti, Anna

    2014-08-25

    Hydrogen-bonding interactions play an important role in many chemical and biological systems. Fluorine acting as a hydrogen-bond acceptor in intermolecular and intramolecular interactions has been the subject of many controversial discussions and there are different opinions about it. Recently, we have proposed a correlation between the propensity of fluorine to be involved in hydrogen bonds and its (19)F NMR chemical shift. We now provide additional experimental and computational evidence for this correlation. The strength of hydrogen-bond complexes involving the fluorine moieties CH2F, CHF2, and CF3 was measured and characterized in simple systems by using established and novel NMR methods and compared to the known hydrogen-bond complex formed between acetophenone and p-fluorophenol. Implications of these results for (19)F NMR screening are analyzed in detail. Computed values of the molecular electrostatic potential at the different fluorine atoms and the analysis of the electron density topology at bond critical points correlate well with the NMR results.

  8. Experimental evidence that ecological effects of an invasive fish are reduced at high densities.

    PubMed

    Kornis, Matthew S; Carlson, Jedchada; Lehrer-Brey, Gabrielle; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between invasive species density and ecological impact is a pressing topic in ecology, with implications for environmental management and policy. Although it is widely assumed that invasive species impact will increase with density, theory suggests interspecific competition may diminish at high densities due to increased intraspecific interactions. To test this theory, we experimentally examined intra- and interspecific interactions between a globally invasive fish, round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), and three native species at different round goby densities in a tributary of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Eighteen 2.25 m(2) enclosures were stocked with native fish species at natural abundances, while round gobies were stocked at three different densities: 0 m(-2), 2.7 m(-2), and 10.7 m(-2). After 52 days, native fish growth rate was significantly reduced in the low density goby treatment, while growth in the high density goby treatment mirrored the goby-free treatment for two of three native species. Invertebrate density and gut content weight of native fishes did not differ among treatments. Conversely, gut content weight and growth of round gobies were lower in the high goby density treatment, suggesting interactions between round gobies and native fishes are mediated by interference competition amongst gobies. Our experiment provides evidence that invasive species effects may diminish at high densities, possibly due to increased intraspecific interactions. This is consistent with some ecological theory, and cautions against the assumption that invasive species at moderate densities have low impact.

  9. Experimental evidence that RNA recombination occurs in the Japanese encephalitis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C.-K.; Chen, W.-J.

    2009-11-25

    Due to the lack of a proofreading function and error-repairing ability of genomic RNA, accumulated mutations are known to be a force driving viral evolution in the genus Flavivirus, including the Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus. Based on sequencing data, RNA recombination was recently postulated to be another factor associated with genomic variations in these viruses. We herein provide experimental evidence to demonstrate the occurrence of RNA recombination in the JE virus using two local pure clones (T1P1-S1 and CJN-S1) respectively derived from the local strains, T1P1 and CJN. Based on results from a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay on the C/preM junction comprising a fragment of 868 nucleotides (nt 10-877), the recombinant progeny virus was primarily formed in BHK-21 cells that had been co-infected with the two clones used in this study. Nine of 20 recombinant forms of the JE virus had a crossover in the nt 123-323 region. Sequencing data derived from these recombinants revealed that no nucleotide deletion or insertion occurred in this region favoring crossovers, indicating that precisely, not aberrantly, homologous recombination was involved. With site-directed mutagenesis, three stem-loop secondary structures were destabilized and re-stabilized in sequence, leading to changes in the frequency of recombination. This suggests that the conformation, not the free energy, of the secondary structure is important in modulating RNA recombination of the virus. It was concluded that because RNA recombination generates genetic diversity in the JE virus, this must be considered particularly in studies of viral evolution, epidemiology, and possible vaccine safety.

  10. Designing a light fabric metamaterial being highly macroscopically tough under directional extension: first experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell'Isola, Francesco; Lekszycki, Tomasz; Pawlikowski, Marek; Grygoruk, Roman; Greco, Leopoldo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study a metamaterial constructed with an isotropic material organized following a geometric structure which we call pantographic lattice. This relatively complex fabric was studied using a continuous model (which we call pantographic sheet) by Rivlin and Pipkin and includes two families of flexible fibers connected by internal pivots which are, in the reference configuration, orthogonal. A rectangular specimen having one side three times longer than the other is cut at 45° with respect to the fibers in reference configuration, and it is subjected to large-deformation plane-extension bias tests imposing a relative displacement of shorter sides. The continuum model used, the presented numerical models and the extraordinary advancements of the technology of 3D printing allowed for the design of some first experiments, whose preliminary results are shown and seem to be rather promising. Experimental evidence shows three distinct deformation regimes. In the first regime, the equilibrium total deformation energy depends quadratically on the relative displacement of terminal specimen sides: Applied resultant force depends linearly on relative displacement. In the second regime, the applied force varies nonlinearly on relative displacement, but the behavior remains elastic. In the third regime, damage phenomena start to occur until total failure, but the exerted resultant force continues to be increasing and reaches a value up to several times larger than the maximum shown in the linear regime before failure actually occurs. Moreover, the total energy needed to reach structural failure is larger than the maximum stored elastic energy. Finally, the volume occupied by the material in the fabric is a small fraction of the total volume, so that the ratio weight/resistance to extension is very advantageous. The results seem to require a refinement of the used theoretical and numerical methods to transform the presented concept into a promising technological

  11. The response of cerebral cortex to haemorrhagic damage: experimental evidence from a penetrating injury model.

    PubMed

    Purushothuman, Sivaraman; Marotte, Lauren; Stowe, Sally; Johnstone, Daniel M; Stone, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the response of the brain to haemorrhagic damage is important in haemorrhagic stroke and increasingly in the understanding the cerebral degeneration and dementia that follow head trauma and head-impact sports. In addition, there is growing evidence that haemorrhage from small cerebral vessels is important in the pathogenesis of age-related dementia (Alzheimer's disease). In a penetration injury model of rat cerebral cortex, we have examined the neuropathology induced by a needlestick injury, with emphasis on features prominent in the ageing and dementing human brain, particularly plaque-like depositions and the expression of related proteins. Needlestick lesions were made in neo- and hippocampal cortex in Sprague Dawley rats aged 3-5 months. Brains were examined after 1-30 d survival, for haemorrhage, for the expression of hyperphosphorylated tau, Aβ, amyloid precursor protein (APP), for gliosis and for neuronal death. Temporal cortex from humans diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease was examined with the same techniques. Needlestick injury induced long-lasting changes-haem deposition, cell death, plaque-like deposits and glial invasion-along the needle track. Around the track, the lesion induced more transient changes, particularly upregulation of Aβ, APP and hyperphosporylated tau in neurons and astrocytes. Reactions were similar in hippocampus and neocortex, except that neuronal death was more widespread in the hippocampus. In summary, experimental haemorrhagic injury to rat cerebral cortex induced both permanent and transient changes. The more permanent changes reproduced features of human senile plaques, including the formation of extracellular deposits in which haem and Aβ-related proteins co-localised, neuronal loss and gliosis. The transient changes, observed in tissue around the direct lesion, included the upregulation of Aβ, APP and hyperphosphorylated tau, not associated with cell death. The findings support the possibility that

  12. An hypothesis regarding the origin of aneuploidy in man: indirect evidence from an experimental model.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, M H

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that aneuploidy may be induced in about 10 to 20% of oocytes and recently ovulated eggs when female mice are given an intragastric injection of a dilute solution of ethanol. Similar rates of aneuploidy have also been observed when recently ovulated eggs are briefly exposed in vitro to a dilute solution of ethanol in tissue culture medium. These findings are briefly reviewed, and observations made on the possible underlying mechanism of induction of chromosome malsegregation in the ethanol exposed groups. Attention is drawn to evidence from a wide range of studies on the effect of ethanol, acetaldehyde (its primary metabolite), and anaesthetics on cell division and chromosome segregation in an attempt to substantiate an hypothesis regarding the mode of action of these agents. In the light of this information, it is hypothesised that exposure to ethanol probably interferes with the normal functioning of the cytoskeletal elements of the spindle apparatus, or its precursor elements, during the first or second meiotic divisions. An attempt is also made to account for the very high incidence of aneuploid conceptuses in man, a high proportion of which are spontaneously aborted. It is hypothesised that exposure to ethanol and other spindle active agents during appropriate stages of oogenesis (in particular during the first meiotic division), and possibly also during spermatogenesis, may be important aetiological factors in a proportion of those cases of spontaneous abortion with a numerical chromosome anomaly for which no other obvious cause is recognised. If it is valid to extrapolate from these experimental findings to the clinical situation in man, it is suggested that attention should also be drawn to the potentially greater hazard to the conceptus which could result from maternal alcohol consumption at and shortly before conception. PMID:4009642

  13. Experimental Evidence for Cerenkov Emission of Whistler Waves by Electron Holes Associated with Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, J. P.; Goldman, M. V.; Zhang, X.; Hietala, H.; Krupar, V.; Newman, D. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lapenta, G.

    2015-12-01

    Whistler waves are a ubiquitous plasma phenomenon, observed in a variety of space and laboratory plasma environments. They play a key role in many important and diverse processes, such as particle acceleration in the radiation belts and auroral acceleration region, the dissipation of plasma turbulence at small scales below the inertial range, collisionless shock physics, and magnetic reconnection. In reconnection they may modify the reconnection rate and also whistler physics is crucial to enabling fast reconnection in the Hall reconnection model. Consequently, understanding how whistler waves are generated and how they subsequently interact with the plasma is a problem of wide importance and application. It is well known that whistlers can arise as a result of kinetic instabilities, which grow exponentially from noise as a consequence of unstable electron distributions, for example temperature anisotropy. This is used ubiquitously to predict where and when whistler waves are likely to exist and therefore be of importance in many plasma phenomena. Recently it has been demonstrated theoretically and via computer simulations that whistler waves may also arise via Cerenkov emission from electron hole quasi-particles [Goldman et al., PRL, 2014]. Such wave emission can arise even when the temperature anisotropy leads to damping; in this case the system is analogous to a damped forced oscillator. Here we present novel experimental analysis from THEMIS showing for the first time evidence consistent with the generation of whistlers via Cerenkov emission during magnetotail reconnection. By considering the electromagnetic properties of the electron holes, the amplitude, phase speed and frequency of the associated whistlers, and also the available sub-spin observations of the electron distribution function, we find that the data are best explained by the Cerenkov emission theory rather than by kinetic instabilities due to the electron temperature anisotropy. Whilst the

  14. Life in varying environments: experimental evidence for delayed effects of juvenile environment on adult life history.

    PubMed

    Helle, Heikki; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio

    2012-05-01

    1. The effects of environment experienced during early development on phenotype as an adult has started to gain vast amounts of interest in various taxa. Some evidence on long-term effects of juvenile environment is available, but replicated experimental studies in wild animals are still lacking. 2. Here we report the first replicated experiment in wild mammals which examines the long-term effects of juvenile and adult environments on individual fitness (reproduction, survival and health). The early development of bank vole (Myodes glareolus) individuals took place in either food-supplemented or un-supplemented outdoor enclosures. After the summer, adult individuals were reciprocally changed to either a similar or opposite resource environment to overwinter. 3. Adult environment had an overriding effect on reproductive success of females so that females overwintering in food-supplemented enclosures had a higher probability of breeding and advanced the initiation of breeding. However, the characteristics of their litters were determined by juvenile environment: females initially grown in food-supplemented conditions subsequently produced larger litters with bigger pups and a male-biased sex ratio. 4. In males, individuals growing in un-supplemented conditions had the highest survival irrespective of adult environment during winter, whereas in females, neither the juvenile nor adult environments affected their survival significantly. The physiological condition of voles in spring, as determined by haematological parameters, was also differentially affected by juvenile (plasma proteins and male testosterone) and adult (haematocrit) environments. 5. Our results suggest that (i) life-history trajectories of voles are not strictly specialized to a certain environment and (ii) the plastic life-history responses to present conditions can actually be caused by delayed effects of the juvenile environment. More generally, the results are important for understanding

  15. Experimental evidence for three pheromone races of the scarab beetle Phyllophaga anxia (LeConte).

    PubMed

    Robbins, Paul S; Cash, Daniel B; Linn, Charles E; Roelofs, Wendell L

    2008-02-01

    This study offers experimental evidence for the existence of three pheromone races of the northern genitalic form of Phyllophaga anxia: one race in which females produce and males respond mainly to L-valine methyl ester, a second producing and responding to L-isoleucine methyl ester, and a third producing and responding to an intermediate range of blends of the two compounds. At Franklinville, NY, pheromone gland contents of females were analyzed using coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection. Two types of females were found, one that produced greater than 99% L-valine methyl ester and another that produced greater than 99% L-isoleucine methyl ester. Capture-mark-release-recapture field tests with males at Franklinville established that most males were recaptured in traps baited with the same blends with which they were originally captured. The populations characterized at Franklinville, NY, have also been found at numerous locations from eastern Canada and the northeast and north central USA, sometimes in allopatry and sometimes in sympatry. At a site in Carver, MA, P. anxia males responded to blends of the methyl esters of L-valine and L-isoleucine, and Carver females produced blends similar to those to which the males responded. Populations responding to blends have been identified only from southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island. At a field site near Waterloo, NY, the addition of small proportions of L-isoleucine methyl ester to lures containing L-valine methyl ester did not affect trap captures, but higher proportions of L-isoleucine methyl ester were inhibitory, decreasing trap captures.

  16. Scientific Reasoning in Early and Middle Childhood: The Development of Domain-General Evidence Evaluation, Experimentation, and Hypothesis Generation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation,…

  17. Individual benefits of nestling begging: experimental evidence for an immediate effect, but no evidence for a delayed effect.

    PubMed

    Lessells, C Kate M; Riebel, Katharina; Draganoiu, Tudor Ion

    2011-06-23

    The evolutionary stability of honest signalling by offspring is thought to require that begging displays be costly, so the costs and benefits of begging--and whether they are experienced individually or by the whole brood--are crucial to understanding the evolution of begging behaviour. Begging is known to have immediate individual benefits (parents distribute more food to intensely begging individuals) and delayed brood benefits (parents increase provisioning rate to the brood), but the possibility of delayed individual benefits (previous begging affects the current distribution of food) has rarely, if ever, been researched. We did this using playback of great tit Parus major chick begging and a control sound from either side of the nest. Male parents fed chicks close to the speaker more when great tit chick begging, but not other stimuli, was played back. In contrast, there was no effect of playback at the previous visit on the chicks that male parents fed. We have thus demonstrated an immediate individual benefit to begging, but found no evidence of a delayed individual benefit in this species.

  18. Differential Activities of the Two Closely Related Withanolides, Withaferin A and Withanone: Bioinformatics and Experimental Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, Kavyashree; Uthayakumar, M.; Kanaujia, Shankar P.; Kaul, Sunil C.; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Wadhwa, Renu

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Withanolides are naturally occurring chemical compounds. They are secondary metabolites produced via oxidation of steroids and structurally consist of a steroid-backbone bound to a lactone or its derivatives. They are known to protect plants against herbivores and have medicinal value including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, adaptogenic and anti-oxidant effects. Withaferin A (Wi-A) and Withanone (Wi-N) are two structurally similar withanolides isolated from Withania somnifera, also known as Ashwagandha in Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Ashwagandha alcoholic leaf extract (i-Extract), rich in Wi-N, was shown to kill cancer cells selectively. Furthermore, the two closely related purified phytochemicals, Wi-A and Wi-N, showed differential activity in normal and cancer human cells in vitro and in vivo. We had earlier identified several genes involved in cytotoxicity of i-Extract in human cancer cells by loss-of-function assays using either siRNA or randomized ribozyme library. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we have employed bioinformatics tools on four genes, i.e., mortalin, p53, p21 and Nrf2, identified by loss-of-function screenings. We examined the docking efficacy of Wi-N and Wi-A to each of the four targets and found that the two closely related phytochemicals have differential binding properties to the selected cellular targets that can potentially instigate differential molecular effects. We validated these findings by undertaking parallel experiments on specific gene responses to either Wi-N or Wi-A in human normal and cancer cells. We demonstrate that Wi-A that binds strongly to the selected targets acts as a strong cytotoxic agent both for normal and cancer cells. Wi-N, on the other hand, has a weak binding to the targets; it showed milder cytotoxicity towards cancer cells and was safe for normal cells. The present molecular docking analyses and experimental evidence revealed important insights to the use of Wi-A and

  19. On the early emergence of reverse transcription: theoretical basis and experimental evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazcano, A.; Valverde, V.; Hernandez, G.; Gariglio, P.; Fox, G. E.; Oro, J.

    1992-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase (RT) was first discovered as an essential catalyst in the biological cycle of retroviruses. However, in the past years evidence has accumulated showing that RTs are involved in a surprisingly large number of RNA-mediated transpositional events that include both viral and nonviral genetic entities. Although it is probable that some RT-bearing genetic elements like the different types of AIDS viruses and the mammalian LINE family have arisen in recent geological times, the possibility that reverse transcription first took place in the early Archean is supported by (1) the hypothesis that RNA preceded DNA as cellular genetic material; (2) the existence of homologous regions of the subunit tau of the E. coli DNA polymerase III with the simian immunodeficiency virus RT, the hepatitis B virus RT, and the beta' subunit of the E. coli RNA polymerase (McHenry et al. 1988); (3) the presence of several conserved motifs, including a 14-amino-acid segment that consists of an Asp-Asp pair flanked by hydrophobic amino acids, which are found in all RTs and in most cellular and viral RNA polymerases. However, whether extant RTs descend from the primitive polymerase involved in the RNA-to-DNA transition remains unproven. Substrate specificity of the AMV and HIV-1 RTs can be modified in the presence of Mn2+, a cation which allows them to add ribonucleotides to an oligo (dG) primer in a template-dependent reaction. This change in specificity is comparable to that observed under similar conditions in other nucleic acid polymerases. This experimentally induced change in RT substrate specificity may explain previous observations on the misincorporation of ribonucleotides by the Maloney murine sarcoma virus RT in the minus and plus DNA of this retrovirus (Chen and Temin 1980). Our results also suggest that HIV-infected macrophages and T-cell cells may contain mixed polynucleotides containing both ribo- and deoxyribonucleotides. The evolutionary significance of these

  20. Metal loading effect on rare earth element binding to humic acid: Experimental and modelling evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsac, Rémi; Davranche, Mélanie; Gruau, Gérard; Dia, Aline

    2010-03-01

    The effect of metal loading on the binding of rare earth elements (REE) to humic acid (HA) was studied by combining ultrafiltration and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry techniques. REE-HA complexation experiments were performed at pH 3 for REE/C molar ratios ranging from ca 4 × 10 -4 to 2.7 × 10 -2. Results show that the relative amount of REE bound to HA strongly increases with decreasing REE/C. A middle-REE (MREE) downward concavity is shown by patterns at high metal loading, whereas patterns at low metal loading display a regular increase from La to Lu. Humic Ion Model VI modelling are close to the experimental data variations, provided that (i) the ΔLK 2 parameter (i.e. the Model VI parameter taken into account the presence of strong but low density binding sites) is allowed to increase regularly from La to Lu (from 1.1 to 2.1) and (ii) the published log KMA values (i.e. the REE-HA binding constants specific to Model VI) are slightly modified, in particular with respect to heavy REE. Modelling approach provided evidence that logKdREE patterns with varying REE/C likely arises because REE binding to HA occurs through two types of binding sites in different density: (i) a few strong sites that preferentially complex the heavy REE and thus control the logKdREE atterns at low REE/C; (ii) a larger amount of weaker binding sites that preferentially complex the middle-REE and thus control the logKdREE pattern at high REE/C. Hence, metal loading exerts a major effect on HA-mediated REE binding, which could explain the diversity of published conditional constants for REE binding with HA. A literature survey suggests that the few strong sites activated at low REE/C could be multidentate carboxylic sites, or perhaps N-, or P-functional groups. Finally, an examination of the literature field data proposed that the described loading effect could account for much of the variation in REE patterns observed in natural organic-rich waters (DOC > 5 mg L -1 and 4

  1. Pursuing Quality Evidence: Applying Single-Subject Quality Indicators to Non-Experimental Qualitative Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, Robert A.; Yamamoto, Kathryn K.; Folk, Eric; Kong, Eran; Otsuji, Derek N.

    2013-01-01

    The need for quality evidence in support of strategies used while working with persons with autism and intellectual disability (ID) has been long been recognized by researchers and practitioners. The authors reviewed and applied a number of evidence-based indicators, developed through the "What Works Clearinghouse" (WWC), to the conduct…

  2. Quasi-experimental Study Designs Series - Paper 12: Strengthening Global Capacity for Evidence Synthesis of Quasi-experimental Health Systems Research.

    PubMed

    Rockers, Peter C; Tugwell, Peter; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Oliver, Sandy; Atun, Rifat; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; Ranson, M Kent; Daniels, Karen; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-03-28

    Evidence from quasi-experimental studies is often excluded from systematic reviews of health systems research despite the fact that such studies can provide strong causal evidence when well-conducted. This article discusses global coordination of efforts to institutionalize the inclusion of causal evidence from quasi-experiments in systematic reviews of health systems research. In particular, we are concerned with identifying opportunities for strengthening capacity at the global- and local-level for implementing protocols necessary to ensure that reviews that include quasi-experiments are consistently of the highest quality. We first describe the current state of the global infrastructure that facilitates the production of systematic reviews of health systems research. We identify five important types of actors operating within this infrastructure: review authors; synthesis collaborations that facilitate the review process; synthesis interest groups that supplement the work of the larger collaborations; review funders; and end users, including policymakers. Then, we examine opportunities for intervening to build the capacity of each type of actor to support the inclusion of quasi-experiments in reviews. Lastly, we suggest practical next steps for proceeding with capacity building efforts. Due to the complexity and relative nascence of the field, we recommend a carefully planned and executed approach to strengthening global capacity for the inclusion of quasi-experimental studies in systematic reviews.

  3. Evidence of alkali rich melt reactions with mantle peridotite : Natural observations and experimental analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, T. B.; Milke, R.; Wunder, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Heldburg Phonolite, (Thuringia, Germany) is peculiar in its nature due to its absence of a Eu anomaly, and hence lack of feldspar fractionation, as well as the presence of spinel lherzolite xenocrysts. These observations suggest a higher than normal (mantle) pressure of origin, and its potential as a metasomatic agent at depth is explored in this work. Disequilibrium between the phonolite and its entrained upper mantle xenocrysts resulted in the development of secondary reaction rim assemblages of; (1) phlogopite + minor diopside around olivine, (2) pargasitic amphibole, phlogopite and minor diopside around orthopyroxene. We document both the natural rims and the attempts to reproduce them under experimental conditions, in order to elucidate the likely origin of the phonolite and its efficacy for metasomatising the upper mantle. Platinum capsules were loaded with mixtures of crushed mineral separates, (of pure synthetic forsterite, San Carlos olivine, synthetic enstatite or a natural enstatite from Kilosa, Tanzania) with a synthetic Fe-free phonolite melt in a 16:84% weight ratio, respectively. Experiments were run in a piston cylinder apparatus with CaF2 as the pressure medium. In addition to varying PT conditions, a wide range of water contents were tested (0-14wt%). It was found that pressures of 10-14 kbar, and temperatures of 900-1000°C, satisfy the conditions at which the reactions can form, thus, it is likely that the phonolite existed at upper mantle conditions. Water must be present to stabilize the desired hydrous phases, with >6wt% required at 900°C and 10 kbar. The destabilization of feldspar is also essential to the process, hence higher water contents are needed at the lowest PT conditions compared to 4-5 wt. % H2O at greater PT. The formation of amphibole around enstatite appears to be affected by sluggish reaction kinetics and the orientation of the host pyroxene, sometimes leading to diopside single rims. Furthermore we note some of the

  4. Experimental Evidence Linking Elevated CO2, Rhizosphere C/N Stoichiometry and Microbial Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, Y.; Dijkstra, F. A.; Pendall, E.; LeCain, D. R.; Morgan, J.

    2012-12-01

    expected to be more efficient in their C use. Decreasing the C/N ratio of roots decreased SOM respiration and increased the efficiency of SOM-consuming microbes. Direct N additions had a similar but stronger effect. Increased C efficiency with greater nutrient availability is consistent with theoretical expectations of C utilization under nutrient limitation. Notably, the response of C use to N treatments occurred only under eCO2 conditions. This functional contrast was supported by differential responses of microbial PLFA profiles to N treatments under CO2 treatments. Together, these results suggest that the eCO2 environment was more conducive to N limitation, via changes in microbial community structure and function. Our results provide direct experimental evidence of plant-mediated alteration of decomposer C efficiency due to changes in atmospheric CO2 and N availability from both plant and soil sources. An increase in SOM-consuming microbes efficiency in an eCO2 world is likely to have important ecosystem-level implications as it could enhance the amount of C that remains in soil relative to the amount released to the atmosphere. The interactive effects of CO2 and N treatments suggest that microbial efficiency will be more sensitive to changes in nutrient status under the future eCO2 atmosphere.

  5. Counter-intuitive experimental evidence on the initiation of radical crack in ceramic thin films at the atomic scale

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Chunqiang Li, Zhipeng; Lin, Songsheng

    2015-10-15

    The basic issue related to radial crack in ceramic thin films has received considerable attention due to the fact that the radial crack plays an important role in evaluating the toughness properties of ceramic materials. In this work, an atomic-scale new experimental evidence is clearly presented to reveal the counter-intuitive initiation, the nucleation and the propagation mechanism of the radial crack in Al-Cr-N ceramic thin films.

  6. Scientific reasoning in early and middle childhood: the development of domain-general evidence evaluation, experimentation, and hypothesis generation skills.

    PubMed

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation, and non-covariation evidence emerges, (b) when experimentation emerges, (c) when hypothesis generation skills emerge, and (d), whether these abilities develop synchronously during childhood. We administered three scientific reasoning tasks referring to the three components to 223 children of five age groups (from age 4.0 to 13.5 years). Our results show that the three cognitive components of domain-general scientific reasoning emerge asynchronously. The development of domain-general scientific reasoning begins with the ability to handle unambiguous data, progresses to the interpretation of ambiguous data, and leads to a flexible adaptation of hypotheses according to the sufficiency of evidence. When children understand the relation between the level of ambiguity of evidence and the level of confidence in hypotheses, the ability to differentiate conclusive from inconclusive experiments accompanies this development. Implications of these results for designing science education concepts for young children are briefly discussed.

  7. Genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity: the evidence from clinical and experimental animal studies.

    PubMed

    Holmström, Gerd; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Coster, Douglas J; Williams, Keryn A

    2007-12-01

    Despite advances in management and treatment, retinopathy of prematurity remains a major cause of childhood blindness. Evidence for a genetic basis for susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity is examined, including the influences of sex, ethnicity, and ocular pigmentation. The role of polymorphisms is explored in the genes for vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1, and of mutations in the Norrie disease gene. Insights into the genetic basis of retinopathy of prematurity provided by the animal model of oxygen induced retinopathy are examined. Evidence for a genetic component for susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity is strong, although the molecular identity of the gene or genes involved remains uncertain.

  8. The price elasticity of demand for heroin: matched longitudinal and experimental evidence#

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Todd A.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Kline, Brendan; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports estimates of the price elasticity of demand for heroin based on a newly constructed dataset. The dataset has two matched components concerning the same sample of regular heroin users: longitudinal information about real-world heroin demand (actual price and actual quantity at daily intervals for each heroin user in the sample) and experimental information about laboratory heroin demand (elicited by presenting the same heroin users with scenarios in a laboratory setting). Two empirical strategies are used to estimate the price elasticity of demand for heroin. The first strategy exploits the idiosyncratic variation in the price experienced by a heroin user over time that occurs in markets for illegal drugs. The second strategy exploits the experimentally-induced variation in price experienced by a heroin user across experimental scenarios. Both empirical strategies result in the estimate that the conditional price elasticity of demand for heroin is approximately −0.80. PMID:25702687

  9. The price elasticity of demand for heroin: Matched longitudinal and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Todd A; Alessi, Sheila M; Kline, Brendan; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports estimates of the price elasticity of demand for heroin based on a newly constructed dataset. The dataset has two matched components concerning the same sample of regular heroin users: longitudinal information about real-world heroin demand (actual price and actual quantity at daily intervals for each heroin user in the sample) and experimental information about laboratory heroin demand (elicited by presenting the same heroin users with scenarios in a laboratory setting). Two empirical strategies are used to estimate the price elasticity of demand for heroin. The first strategy exploits the idiosyncratic variation in the price experienced by a heroin user over time that occurs in markets for illegal drugs. The second strategy exploits the experimentally induced variation in price experienced by a heroin user across experimental scenarios. Both empirical strategies result in the estimate that the conditional price elasticity of demand for heroin is approximately -0.80.

  10. Long-Term Effects of Teacher Performance Pay: Experimental Evidence from India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Karthik

    2012-01-01

    While the idea of teacher performance-pay is increasingly making its way into policy, the evidence on the effectiveness of such programs is both limited and mixed. The central questions in the literature on teacher performance pay to date have been whether teacher performance pay based on test scores can improve student achievement, and whether…

  11. What Makes an Effective Teacher? Quasi-Experimental Evidence. NBER Working Paper No. 16885

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    2011-01-01

    This paper measures empirically the relationship between classroom teaching practices and student achievements. Based on primary- and middle-school data from Israel, I find very strong evidence that two important elements of teaching practices cause student achievements to improve. In particular, classroom teaching that emphasizes the instilment…

  12. Teacher Performance Pay: Experimental Evidence from India. NBER Working Paper No. 15323

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

    2009-01-01

    Performance pay for teachers is frequently suggested as a way of improving education outcomes in schools, but the theoretical predictions regarding its effectiveness are ambiguous and the empirical evidence to date is limited and mixed. We present results from a randomized evaluation of a teacher incentive program implemented across a large…

  13. Teacher Incentives in Developing Countries: Experimental Evidence from India. Working Paper 2008-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

    2008-01-01

    Performance pay for teachers is frequently suggested as a way of improving educational outcomes in schools, but the empirical evidence to date on its effectiveness is limited and mixed. We present results from a randomized evaluation of a teacher incentive program implemented across a representative sample of government-run rural primary schools…

  14. Evidence for Tempo-Specific Timing in Music Using a Web-Based Experimental Setup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honing, Henkjan

    2006-01-01

    Perceptual invariance has been studied and found in several domains of cognition, including those of speech, motor behavior, and object motion. It has also been the topic of several studies in music perception. However, the existing perceptual studies present rather inconclusive evidence with regard to the perceptual invariance of expressive…

  15. Income Mobility Breeds Tolerance for Income Inequality: Cross-National and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Azim F; Wiwad, Dylan; Aknin, Lara B

    2016-05-01

    American politicians often justify income inequality by referencing the opportunities people have to move between economic stations. Though past research has shown associations between income mobility and resistance to wealth redistribution policies, no experimental work has tested whether perceptions of mobility influence tolerance for inequality. In this article, we present a cross-national comparison showing that income mobility is associated with tolerance for inequality and experimental work demonstrating that perceptions of higher mobility directly affect attitudes toward inequality. We find support for both the prospect of upward mobility and the view that peoples' economic station is the product of their own efforts, as mediating mechanisms.

  16. Experimental evidence of skyrmion-like configurations in bilayer nanodisks with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Stebliy, Maxim E. Kolesnikov, Alexander G.; Davydenko, Alexander V.; Ognev, Alexey V.; Samardak, Alexander S.; Chebotkevich, Ludmila A.

    2015-05-07

    Formation and existence of magnetic skyrmion-like configurations in bilayer nanodisks (Ta(3 nm)/[Co(0.37 nm)/Ni(0.58 nm)]{sub 10}){sub 2} with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are shown experimentally at room temperature. Magnetization reversal through the skyrmion state is studied using magnetic hysteresis measurements. An evolution of skyrmion configurations in the nanodisk structure is analyzed. Experimental methods and micromagnetic simulations help to understand the magnetization reversal processes occurring through the stable skyrmion-like configurations. Formation of the intermediate C-states during magnetization reversal is demonstrated. The skyrmion number for all possible spin configurations is calculated.

  17. Psychoneuroimmunology: an interpretation of experimental and case study evidence towards a paradigm for predictable results.

    PubMed

    Kalt, H W

    2000-07-01

    This paper surveys a number of key experiments and case studies relating to psychoneuroimmunology. It finds that most techniques to influence or even direct the immune system via the mind fall into a series of theoretical categories called passive, active and targeted effects. By examining the results of experiments and studies in the light of these categories a number of important conclusions are drawn. These conclusions explain differences in experimental results, describe those variables that appear to be central to obtaining results, and describe in detail where experimentation should be concentrated to further knowledge of psychoneuroimmunology.

  18. Experimental and theoretical evidence of enhanced ferromagnetism in sonochemical synthesized BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Liang; Liu, Jian; Ju, Sheng; Zheng, Fengang; Dong, Wen; Shen, Mingrong

    2010-12-01

    BiFeO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a sonochemical method and their magnetic behavior was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. With an aid of ultrasonic irradiation, the saturated magnetization of BiFeO3 nanoparticles at room temperature was found to be increased effectively, from 0.007 to 0.012 μB/Fe. The postannealing and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results demonstrate that oxygen vacancies can be generated due to the ultrasonic irradiation and play an important role to increase the ferromagnetism. Our first-principles calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  19. Experimental evidence rejects pairwise modelling approach to coexistence in plant communities

    PubMed Central

    Dormann, Carsten F; Roxburgh, Stephen H

    2005-01-01

    Competition is often invoked as the cause of plant species loss with increasing system productivity. Experimental results for multispecies assemblages are virtually absent and mathematical models are thus used to explore the relationship between competition and coexistence. Modelling approaches to coexistence and diversity in competitive communities commonly employ Lotka–Volterra-type (LV) models with additive pairwise competitive effects. Using pairwise plant competition experiments, we calibrate the LV system and use it to predict plant biomass and coexistence in six three-species and one seven-species experimental mixture. Our results show that five out of the six three-species sets and the seven-species set deviate significantly from LV model predictions. Fitting an additional non-additive competition coefficient resulted in predictions that more closely matched the experimental results, with stable coexistence suggested in all but one case. These results are discussed with particular reference to the possible underlying mechanisms of coexistence in our experimental community. Modelling the effect of competition intensity on stability indicates that if non-additive effects occur, they will be relevant over a wide range of community sizes. Our findings caution against relying on coexistence predictions based on LV models. PMID:16024393

  20. Supplying Disadvantaged Schools with Effective Teachers: Experimental Evidence on Secondary Math Teachers from Teach For America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hanley S.; Clark, Melissa A.; McConnell, Sheena

    2017-01-01

    Teach For America (TFA) is an important but controversial source of teachers for hard-to-staff subjects in high-poverty U.S. schools. We present findings from the first large-scale experimental study of secondary math teachers from TFA. We find that TFA teachers are more effective than other math teachers in the same schools, increasing student…

  1. Criminogenic Effects of the Prison Environment on Inmate Behavior: Some Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Scott D.; Gaes, Gerald G.

    2005-01-01

    The current study analyzed a subset of the experimental data collected by Berk, Ladd, Graziano, and Baek (2003) to test whether different intensities of incarceration make inmates more criminal while incarcerated. There were 561 male inmates whose equivalent classification scores indicated they had the same level of risk to commit institutional…

  2. Experimental evidence of a potentially increased thrombo-embolic disease risk by domestic electromagnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Caprani, A; Richert, A; Flaud, P

    2004-05-01

    We have used the EaHy926 endothelial cell line, able to secrete both pro and anti-aggregant platelet agents, as a model for thrombo-embolic diseases. We experimentally established, by comparing these two secretions with or without a Faraday cage, that the environmental electromagnetic field significantly increases the thrombo-embolic risks in this endothelial cell line.

  3. Evidence That Counts: 12 Teacher-Led Randomised Controlled Trials and Other Styles of Experimental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churches, Richard; McAleavy, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This publication contains 12 (A3 open-out) poster-style reports of teacher experimental research. The style of presentation parallels the type of preliminary reporting common at academic conferences and postgraduate events. At the same time, it aims to act as a form of short primer to introduce teachers to the basic options that there are when…

  4. Mimicking Aphasic Semantic Errors in Normal Speech Production: Evidence from a Novel Experimental Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Catherine; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic errors are commonly found in semantic dementia (SD) and some forms of stroke aphasia and provide insights into semantic processing and speech production. Low error rates are found in standard picture naming tasks in normal controls. In order to increase error rates and thus provide an experimental model of aphasic performance, this study…

  5. Exercise and Physical Activity in Mental Disorders: Clinical and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Zschucke, Elisabeth; Gaudlitz, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that exercise (EX) and physical activity (PA) can prevent or delay the onset of different mental disorders, and have therapeutic benefits when used as sole or adjunct treatment in mental disorders. This review summarizes studies that used EX interventions in patients with anxiety, affective, eating, and substance use disorders, as well as schizophrenia and dementia/mild cognitive impairment. Despite several decades of clinical evidence with EX interventions, controlled studies are sparse in most disorder groups. Preliminary evidence suggests that PA/EX can induce improvements in physical, subjective and disorder-specific clinical outcomes. Potential mechanisms of action are discussed, as well as implications for psychiatric research and practice. PMID:23412549

  6. When and why do territorial coalitions occur? Experimental evidence from a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Detto, Tanya; Jennions, Michael D; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2010-05-01

    Neighboring territory owners are often less aggressive toward each other than to strangers ("dear enemy" effect). There is, however, little evidence for territorial defense coalitions whereby a neighbor will temporarily leave his/her own territory, enter that of a neighbor, and cooperate in repelling a conspecific intruder. This is surprising, as theoreticians have long posited the existence of such coalitions and the circumstances under which they should evolve. Here we document territorial defense coalitions in the African fiddler crab Uca annulipes, which lives in large colonies wherein each male defends a burrow and its surrounding area against neighbors and "floaters" (burrowless males). Fights between a resident and a floater sometimes involve another male who has left his territory to fight the floater challenging his neighbor. Using simple experiments, we provide the first evidence of the rules determining when territorial coalitions form. Our results support recent models that suggest that these coalitions arise from by-product mutualism.

  7. Gluconeogenesis in the ruminant fetus: evaluation of conflicting evidence from radiotracer and other experimental techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists as to whether the gluconeogenetic process is active in the late gestation fetal lamb. In vitro evidence based on measurements of enzyme activity and substrate flux into glucose indicates that the capacity for gluconeogenesis exists in fetal liver. The in vivo conversion of (/sup 14/C)lactate and (/sup 14/C)alanine into glucose in the lamb fetus has been demonstrated. Lactate and alanine account for 49 and 2.3% of the fetal glucose pool, respectively. Although gluconeogenesis can occur in the fetal lamb, alterations in net rates of umbilical uptake of glucose or lactate, fetal blood glucose concentrations, fetal or maternal glucose replacement rates, or maternal nutrition may alter the observed rates of fetal gluconeogenesis.

  8. Experimental evidence and the Landau-Zener promotion in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cindro, N.; Freeman, R.M.; Haas, F.

    1986-04-01

    Recent data from C+O collisions are analyzed in terms of the Landau-Zener promotion in nuclei. Evidence for the presence of this mechanism in nuclear collisions is of considerable interest, since it provides a signature of single-particle orbitals in molecular-type potentials and, at the same time, paves the way to a microscopic understanding of the collision dynamics, in particular of the energy dissipation rate. The analyzed data are of two types: integrated cross sections and angular distributions of inelastically scattered particles. The first set of data shows structure qualitatively consistent with recent calculations of the Landau-Zener effect; for this set of data no other reasonable explanation is presently available. The second set of data, while consistent with the presence of the Landau-Zener promotion, is examined in terms of other possible explanations too. The combined data show evidence favoring the presence of the Landau-Zener promotion in nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  9. Experimental evidence in support of Joule heating associated with geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    High resolution accelerometer measurements in the altitude region 140 to 300 km from a satellite in a near-polar orbit during a period of extremely high geomagnetic activity indicate that Joule heating is the primary source of energy for atmospheric heating associated with geomagnetic activity. This conclusion is supported by the following observational evidence: (1) There is an atmospheric response in the auroral zone which is nearly simulataneous with the onset of geomagnetic activity, with no significant response in the equatorial region until several hours later; (2) The maximum heating occurs at geographic locations near the maximum current of the auroral electrojet; and (3) There is evidence of atmospheric waves originating near the auroral zone at altitudes where Joule heating would be expected to occur. An analysis of atmospheric response time to this heat shows time delays are apparently independent of altitude but are strongly dependent upon geomagnetic latitude.

  10. Experimental and theoretical evidence for bilayer-by-bilayer surface melting of crystalline ice

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, M. Alejandra; Kling, Tanja; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; van Zadel, Marc-Jan; Mezger, Markus; Jochum, Mara N.; Cyran, Jenée D.; Smit, Wilbert J.; Bakker, Huib J.; Shultz, Mary Jane; Morita, Akihiro; Donadio, Davide; Nagata, Yuki; Bonn, Mischa; Backus, Ellen H. G.

    2017-01-01

    On the surface of water ice, a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) has been extensively reported at temperatures below its bulk melting point at 273 K. Approaching the bulk melting temperature from below, the thickness of the QLL is known to increase. To elucidate the precise temperature variation of the QLL, and its nature, we investigate the surface melting of hexagonal ice by combining noncontact, surface-specific vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and spectra calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. Using SFG, we probe the outermost water layers of distinct single crystalline ice faces at different temperatures. For the basal face, a stepwise, sudden weakening of the hydrogen-bonded structure of the outermost water layers occurs at 257 K. The spectral calculations from the molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the experimental findings; this allows us to interpret our experimental findings in terms of a stepwise change from one to two molten bilayers at the transition temperature. PMID:27956637

  11. Theoretical and experimental evidence of non-symmetric doubly localized rogue waves

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingsong; Guo, Lijuan; Zhang, Yongshuai; Chabchoub, Amin

    2014-01-01

    We present determinant expressions for vector rogue wave (RW) solutions of the Manakov system, a two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. As a special case, we generate a family of exact and non-symmetric RW solutions of the NLS equation up to third order, localized in both space and time. The derived non-symmetric doubly localized second-order solution is generated experimentally in a water wave flume for deep-water conditions. Experimental results, confirming the characteristic non-symmetric pattern of the solution, are in very good agreement with theory as well as with numerical simulations, based on the modified NLS equation, known to model accurately the dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave packets in deep water. PMID:25383023

  12. Is hexachloro-cyclo-triphosphazene aromatic? Evidence from experimental charge density analysis.

    PubMed

    Jancik, Vojtech; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Herbst-Irmer, Regine; Martínez-Otero, Diego

    2017-01-30

    Experimental charge density studies of hexachloro-cyclo-triphosphazene (1) and the boat conformation of octachloro-cyclo-tetraphosphazene (2a) were performed in order to unambiguously describe the origin of the electron delocalization in the P3N3 ring in 1. The obtained results were compared to DFT studies in solid state and the gas phase. Electron density analysis revealed a highly polarized nature of the P-N bonds and a modular structure of the P3N3 and P4N4 rings, which can be separated into independent Cl2PN units with a perfect transferability between the compounds. Further analysis of the source function experimentally proves the presence of negative hyperconjugation involving both out-of-plane and in-plane nitrogen electrons as well as electrons of the chlorine atoms. Finally, these results discard the presence of pseudoaromatic delocalization in the nearly-planar P3N3 ring.

  13. Experimental Evidence of the 90° Stop Band in the GSI UNILAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groening, L.; Barth, W.; Bayer, W.; Clemente, G.; Dahl, L.; Forck, P.; Gerhard, P.; Hofmann, I.; Kaiser, M. S.; Maier, M.; Mickat, S.; Milosic, T.; Jeon, D.; Uriot, D.

    2009-06-01

    In a particle accelerator with a periodic structure beam space charge force may excite resonant beam emittance growth if the particle’s transverse phase advance approaches 90°. A recent simulation study with the PARMILA code [D. Jeon , Phys. Rev. ST Accel. BeamsPRABFM1098-4402 12, 054204 (2009)]10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.054204 has shown the feasibility of measuring the stop band of this fourth order resonance in the GSI Universal Linear Accelerator UNILAC and proposed its experimental verification, which is reported here. Measurements of transverse phase space distributions behind a periodically focusing structure reveal a fourfold symmetry characteristic of fourth order resonances as well as a resonance stop band above σ0=90° per focusing cell. These experimental findings agree with results from three different beam dynamics simulation codes, i.e., DYNAMION, PARMILA, and TRACEWIN.

  14. Theoretical and experimental evidence of non-symmetric doubly localized rogue waves.

    PubMed

    He, Jingsong; Guo, Lijuan; Zhang, Yongshuai; Chabchoub, Amin

    2014-11-08

    We present determinant expressions for vector rogue wave (RW) solutions of the Manakov system, a two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. As a special case, we generate a family of exact and non-symmetric RW solutions of the NLS equation up to third order, localized in both space and time. The derived non-symmetric doubly localized second-order solution is generated experimentally in a water wave flume for deep-water conditions. Experimental results, confirming the characteristic non-symmetric pattern of the solution, are in very good agreement with theory as well as with numerical simulations, based on the modified NLS equation, known to model accurately the dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave packets in deep water.

  15. Experimental and theoretical evidence for bilayer-by-bilayer surface melting of crystalline ice.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M Alejandra; Kling, Tanja; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; van Zadel, Marc-Jan; Bisson, Patrick J; Mezger, Markus; Jochum, Mara N; Cyran, Jenée D; Smit, Wilbert J; Bakker, Huib J; Shultz, Mary Jane; Morita, Akihiro; Donadio, Davide; Nagata, Yuki; Bonn, Mischa; Backus, Ellen H G

    2017-01-10

    On the surface of water ice, a quasi-liquid layer (QLL) has been extensively reported at temperatures below its bulk melting point at 273 K. Approaching the bulk melting temperature from below, the thickness of the QLL is known to increase. To elucidate the precise temperature variation of the QLL, and its nature, we investigate the surface melting of hexagonal ice by combining noncontact, surface-specific vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and spectra calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. Using SFG, we probe the outermost water layers of distinct single crystalline ice faces at different temperatures. For the basal face, a stepwise, sudden weakening of the hydrogen-bonded structure of the outermost water layers occurs at 257 K. The spectral calculations from the molecular dynamics simulations reproduce the experimental findings; this allows us to interpret our experimental findings in terms of a stepwise change from one to two molten bilayers at the transition temperature.

  16. Experimental Evidence of Weak Excluded Volume Effects for Nanochannel Confined DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Damini; Miller, Jeremy J.; Muralidhar, Abhiram; Mahshid, Sara; Reisner, Walter; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    In the classical de Gennes picture of weak polymer nanochannel confinement, the polymer contour is envisioned as divided into a series of isometric blobs. Strong excluded volume interactions are present both within a blob and between blobs. In contrast, for semiflexible polymers like DNA, excluded volume interactions are of borderline strength within a blob but appreciable between blobs, giving rise to a chain description consisting of a string of anisometric blobs. We present experimental validation of this subtle effect of excluded volume for DNA nanochannel confinement by performing measurements of variance in chain extension of T4 DNA molecules as a function of effective nanochannel size (305-453 nm). Additionally, we show an approach to systematically reduce the effect of molecular weight dispersity of DNA samples, a typical experimental artifact, by combining confinement spectroscopy with simulations.

  17. Experimental evidence of Xe incorporation in Schottky defects in UO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bès, René; Martin, Philippe Vathonne, Emerson; Delorme, Rémy; Sabathier, Catherine; Freyss, Michel; Bertolus, Marjorie; Glatzel, Pieter

    2015-03-16

    We report here the direct experimental observation of the preferential xenon incorporation site in uranium dioxide and analyse how its incorporation evolves with the annealing temperature. We show that High Energy Resolution Fluorescence Detection X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure in combination with first-principles calculations enable a precise determination of the Xe incorporation site. Our finding provides important insight for the understanding and modeling of noble gases behavior in nuclear oxide fuel.

  18. Recent experimental evidence for the Los Alamos proton storage ring beam instability

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M.A.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; Johnson, D.

    1997-09-01

    The peak intensity of the PSR is limited by a fast transverse instability. In 1996 the authors started a project to upgrade the PSR to 200 {mu}A at 30 Hz, which requires operation above the instability threshold achieved with the present rf system. The authors have, therefore, resumed their experimental program to understand and control the instability. In this paper they will present their latest data.

  19. Colloid-induced kidney injury: experimental evidence may help to understand mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Schortgen, Frédérique; Brochard, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation is widely used, and many patients are therefore exposed to plasma volume expanders. Among these, colloids, particularly hydroxyethyl starches, have been shown in recent experiments and clinical studies to induce acute kidney injury. The mechanisms of colloid-induced acute kidney injury remain incompletely elucidated. The risks associated with colloid osmotic pressure elevation in vivo and the high incidence of osmotic nephrosis lesions in experimental models and clinical studies indicate that hydroxyethyl starches can no longer be considered safe. PMID:19435473

  20. Experimental evidence for strong stabilizing forces at high functional diversity of aquatic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Francesco; Giometto, Andrea; Seymour, Mathew; Rinaldo, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Unveiling the mechanisms that promote coexistence in biological communities is a fundamental problem in ecology. Stable coexistence of many species is commonly observed in natural communities. Most of these natural communities, however, are composed of species from multiple trophic and functional groups, while theory and experiments on coexistence have been focusing on functionally similar species. Here, we investigated how functional diversity affects the stability of species coexistence and productivity in multispecies communities by characterizing experimentally all pairwise species interactions in a pool of 11 species of eukaryotes (10 protists and one rotifer) belonging to three different functional groups. Species within the same functional group showed stronger competitive interactions compared to among-functional group interactions. This often led to competitive exclusion between species that had higher functional relatedness, but only at low levels of species richness. Communities with higher functional diversity resulted in increased species coexistence and community biomass production. Our experimental findings and the results of a stochastic model tailored to the experimental interaction matrix suggest the emergence of strong stabilizing forces when species from different functional groups interact in a homogeneous environment. By combining theoretical analysis with experiments we could also disentangle the relationship between species richness and functional diversity, showing that functional diversity per se is a crucial driver of productivity and stability in multispecies community.

  1. Impact of SOL plasma profiles on lower hybrid current drive: Experimental evidence, mitigation and modeling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, S.; Baek, S. G.; Faust, I.; Wallace, G.; Bonoli, P.; Meneghini, O.; Mumgaard, R.; Parker, R.; Scott, S.; Harvey, R. W.; Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.; Lin, S. Y.; Yang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent progress in understanding and mitigating parasitic wave absorption in edge plasmas is presented. Experimental observations collected on Alcator C-Mod suggest multiple physics mechanisms are involved in such losses. Localized measurement of parametric decay instabilities (PDIs) has been performed using RF Langmuir probes. The divertor heat flux due to LH and ionization power loss have been evaluated quantitatively. We observe that the LHCD efficiency can be recovered when the SOL density profile is controlled by operating the tokamak at high current. The experimental progresses motivated a re-examination of the LHCD simulation model based on the ray-tracing/Fokker-Planck code (GENRAY/CQL3D). The effect of introducing a relatively small wave number broadening in the launched power spectrum and using 2D SOL density and temperature profiles was investigated. Comparison with C-Mod experiment indicates that the new model can explain the experimental trend over a wider density range including the density regime where disagreement was seen previously, suggesting that including realistic SOL geometry is a key to improve the simulation accuracy.

  2. Experimental evidence for the conditions necessary to sustain meandering in coarse-bedded rivers.

    PubMed

    Braudrick, Christian A; Dietrich, William E; Leverich, Glen T; Sklar, Leonard S

    2009-10-06

    Meandering rivers are common on Earth and other planetary surfaces, yet the conditions necessary to maintain meandering channels are unclear. As a consequence, self-maintaining meandering channels with cutoffs have not been reproduced in the laboratory. Such experimental channels are needed to explore mechanisms controlling migration rate, sinuosity, floodplain formation, and planform morphodynamics and to test theories for wavelength and bend propagation. Here we report an experiment in which meandering with near-constant width was maintained during repeated cutoff and regeneration of meander bends. We found that elevated bank strength (provided by alfalfa sprouts) relative to the cohesionless bed material and the blocking of troughs (chutes) in the lee of point bars via suspended sediment deposition were the necessary ingredients to successful meandering. Varying flood discharge was not necessary. Scaling analysis shows that the experimental meander migration was fast compared to most natural channels. This high migration rate caused nearly all of the bedload sediment to exchange laterally, such that bar growth was primarily dependent on bank sediment supplied from upstream lateral migration. The high migration rate may have contributed to the relatively low sinuosity of 1.19, and this suggests that to obtain much higher sinuosity experiments at this scale may have to be conducted for several years. Although patience is required to evolve them, these experimental channels offer the opportunity to explore several fundamental issues about river morphodynamics. Our results also suggest that sand supply may be an essential control in restoring self-maintaining, actively shifting gravel-bedded meanders.

  3. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinszner, Jean-Luc; Erzar, Benjamin; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 103 to 104 s-1 using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  4. Efficient Non-Resonant Absorption of Electromagnetic Beams in Thin Cylindrical Targets: Experimental Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmeteli, Andrey; Kokodiy, Nikolay; Safronov, Boris; Balkashin, Valeriy; Priz, Ivan; Tarasevitch, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical possibility of non-resonant, fast, and efficient (up to 40 percent) heating of very thin conducting cylindrical targets by broad electromagnetic beams was predicted in [Akhmeteli, arXiv:physics/0405091 and 0611169] based on rigorous solution of the diffraction problem. The diameter of the cylinder can be orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength (for the transverse geometry) or the beam waist (for the longitudinal geometry) of the electromagnetic radiation. This can be used for numerous applications, such as pumping of active media of short-wavelength lasers, e.g., through efficient heating of nanotubes with laser radiation. Experimental confirmation of the above results is presented [Akhmeteli, Kokodiy, Safronov, Balkashin, Priz, Tarasevitch, arXiv:1109.1626 and 1208.0066]. Significant (up to 6%) absorption of microwave power focused on a thin fiber (the diameter is three orders of magnitude less than the wavelength) by an ellipsoidal reflector is demonstrated experimentally. For the longitudinal geometry, significant absorption (10%) of the power of a wide CO2 laser beam propagating along a thin wire is demonstrated experimentally (the diameter of the wire is two orders of magnitude less than the beam waist width).

  5. Experimental Evidence of Icosahedral and Decahedral Packing in One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Salazar, J. Jesús; Esparza, Rodrigo; Mejía-Rosales, Sergio Javier; Estrada-Salas, Rubén; Ponce, Arturo; Deepak, Francis Leonard; Castro-Guerrero, Carlos; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The packing of spheres is a subject that has drawn the attention of mathematicians and philosophers for centuries, and that currently attracts the interest of the scientific community in several fields. At the nanoscale, the packing of atoms affect the chemical and structural properties of the material, and hence, its potential applications. This report describes the experimental formation of five-fold nanostructures by the packing of interpenetrated icosahedral and decahedral units. These nanowires, formed by the reaction of a mixture of metal salts (Au and Ag) in the presence of oleylamine, are obtained when the chemical composition is specifically Ag/Au=3/1. The experimental images of the icosahedral nanowires have a high likelihood with simulated electron micrographs of structures formed by two or three Boerdijk-Coxeter-Bernal helices roped on a single structure, whereas for the decahedral wires, simulations using a model of adjacent decahedra match the experimental structures. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the synthesis of nanowires formed by the packing of structures with five-fold symmetry. These icosahedral nanowire structures remind those of quasicrystals that can only be formed if at least two atomic species are present and in which icosahedral and decahedral packing has been found for bulk crystals. PMID:21790155

  6. Astragaloside IV for Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia: Preclinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Lin; Zhou, Qi-Hui; Xu, Meng-Bei; Zhou, Xiao-Li

    2017-01-01

    Astragaloside IV (AST-IV) is a principal component of Radix Astragali seu Hedysari (Huangqi) and exerts potential neuroprotection in experimental ischemic stroke. Here, we systematically assessed the effectiveness and possible mechanisms of AST-IV for experimental acute ischemic stroke. An electronic search in eight databases was conducted from inception to March 2016. The study quality score was evaluated using the CAMARADES. Rev Man 5.0 software was used for data analyses. Thirteen studies with 244 animals were identified. The study quality score of included studies ranged from 3/10 to 8/10. Eleven studies showed significant effects of AST-IV for ameliorating the neurological function score (P < 0.05); seven studies for reducing the infarct volume (P < 0.05); and three or two studies for reducing the brain water content and Evans blue leakage (P < 0.05), respectively, compared with the control. The mechanisms of AST-IV for ischemic stroke are multiple such as antioxidative/nitration stress reaction, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptosis. In conclusion, the findings of present study indicated that AST-IV could improve neurological deficits and infarct volume and reduce the blood-brain barrier permeability in experimental cerebral ischemia despite some methodological flaws. Thus, AST-IV exerted a possible neuroprotective effect during the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury largely through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptosis properties. PMID:28303172

  7. Examination of experimental evidence of chaos in the bound states of 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, L.; Molina, R. A.; Gómez, J. M. G.; Heusler, A.

    2017-01-01

    We study the spectral fluctuations of the 208Pb nucleus using the complete experimental spectrum of 151 states up to excitation energies of 6.20 MeV recently identified at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratorium at Garching, Germany. For natural parity states the results are very close to the predictions of random matrix theory (RMT) for the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution. A quantitative estimate of the agreement is given by the Brody parameter ω , which takes the value ω =0 for regular systems and ω ≃1 for chaotic systems. We obtain ω =0.85 which is, to our knowledge, the closest value to chaos ever observed in experimental bound states of nuclei. By contrast, the results for unnatural parity states are far from RMT behavior. We interpret these results as a consequence of the strength of the residual interaction in 208Pb, which, according to experimental data, is much stronger for natural than for unnatural parity states. In addition, our results show that chaotic and nonchaotic nuclear states coexist in the same energy region of the spectrum.

  8. An Innovative Assay for the Analysis of In Vitro Endothelial Remodeling: Experimental and Computational Evidence.

    PubMed

    Scianna, Marco; Bassino, Eleonora; Munaron, Luca

    2017-02-01

    The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying vascular remodeling are currently investigated by experimental strategies which aim to mimic the complex environmental conditions found in vivo. Some of them focus on the tubulogenic activity of dispersed endothelial cell populations, while others evaluate vascular sprouting. Here we propose a new method to assess matrigel invasion starting from confluent or subconfluent monolayers of human microvascular ECs (HMVEC) seeded on different substrates. The experimental setting is also validated by an improved hybrid multiscale mathematical approach, which integrates a mesoscopic grid-based cellular Potts model, that describes HMVEC phenomenology, with a continuous one, accounting for the kinetics of diffusing growth factors. Both experimental and theoretical approaches show that the endothelial potential to invade, migrate, and organize in tubule structures is a function of selected environmental parameters. The present methodology is intended to be simple to use, standardized for rapid screening and suitable for mechanistic studies. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 243-248, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Natural and experimental evidence of viscerotropic infection caused by Leishmania tropica from North Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Doha, Said A; Shehata, Magdi G; Fahmy, Adel R; Samy, Abdallah M

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form that is quite prevalent in Eastern North parts of the country in Sinai Peninsula. Leishmania tropica was identified by previous reports as the causative agent responsible for viscerotropic infections in-patients and experimental animals. Here, we reported the viscerotropic infections from naturally infected rodent Gerbillus pyramidum floweri collected from North-Sinai. Footpad and tail lesions, spleenomegaly, and malformed dark-colored spleen were the characteristic CL symptoms. The spleen of the rodent found positive to amastigote impression smear. ITS-1 DNA was sequenced and revealed 100% identity of the strain in the current study to the other L. tropica sequences identified from the patients with the suspected CL and inhabited the same study area. The current findings confirmed the susceptibility of gerbil to L. tropica, and raise the concerns for the role of rodents as accidental host suffering the infections. The susceptibility of wild and experimental rodents to the same L. tropica strain was also investigated; BALB/c and G. pyramidum were more susceptible to L. tropica (24.33 ± 4.37 and 25 ± 4.58 days post-infection, respectively). Similar viscerotropic pathologies were reported in experimental infection of only golden hamster (≈ 120 days post-infection), and G. p. floweri (≈ 160 days post-infection).

  10. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling.

    PubMed

    Zinszner, Jean-Luc; Erzar, Benjamin; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-28

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 10(3) to 10(4) s(-1) using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  11. Experimental Evidence for Anomalous Retroactive Influences on Human Cognition and Affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, Daryl J.

    2011-11-01

    Six experiments are described that take well-established psychological effects on human cognition and affect and "time-reverse" them so that the individual's responses are obtained before the putatively causal stimulus events occur. Two of the experiments tested for the retroactive facilitation of recall: It is well known that rehearsing or practicing a set of verbal materials enhances an individual's ability to recall them on a subsequent test. In our experiments, participants were first shown 48 common words one at a time and were then asked to recall as many of those words as they could. They were then given practice exercises on a randomly selected subset of those words. The results show that participants recalled more of the words they later practiced than the control words they did not practice. Two experiments on retroactive priming provide evidence for retroactive influence on an individual's response times when judging the pleasantness or unpleasantness of visual stimuli. Finally, two experiments provide evidence for the retroactive habituation to emotionally arousing visual stimuli. Each of the six experiments yielded statistically significant results, with a combined z = 3.66, p = .0001, and an effect size (d) of 0.25. The six experiments are a subset of nine retroactive influence experiments reported in Bem [1] that yielded a combined z = 6.66, p = 1.34×10-11, and an effect size of 0.22.

  12. Understanding Counterfactuality: A Review of Experimental Evidence for the Dual Meaning of Counterfactuals

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwland, Mante S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cognitive and linguistic theories of counterfactual language comprehension assume that counterfactuals convey a dual meaning. Subjunctive‐counterfactual conditionals (e.g., ‘If Tom had studied hard, he would have passed the test’) express a supposition while implying the factual state of affairs (Tom has not studied hard and failed). The question of how counterfactual dual meaning plays out during language processing is currently gaining interest in psycholinguistics. Whereas numerous studies using offline measures of language processing consistently support counterfactual dual meaning, evidence coming from online studies is less conclusive. Here, we review the available studies that examine online counterfactual language comprehension through behavioural measurement (self‐paced reading times, eye‐tracking) and neuroimaging (electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging). While we argue that these studies do not offer direct evidence for the online computation of counterfactual dual meaning, they provide valuable information about the way counterfactual meaning unfolds in time and influences successive information processing. Further advances in research on counterfactual comprehension require more specific predictions about how counterfactual dual meaning impacts incremental sentence processing. PMID:27512408

  13. Histological and serological evidence of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae)

    PubMed Central

    Berbert, Alceu LCV; Faria, Gabriele G; Gennari-Cardoso, Margareth L; Silva, Maria MMD; Mineo, José R; Loyola, Adriano M

    2007-01-01

    The responses of animal experimental models related to the infectivity, virulence and pathogenicity of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is constantly used to develop new perspectives of investigation. The rodent Calomys callosus, Rengger 1830 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) is an indigenous inhabitant of the savannah environment found in the central regions of Brazil. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the histopathological and serological features of C. callosus after inoculation with the Pb18 strain of P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, A/Sn and B10.A mice strains were also tested to compare the results obtained in C. callosus to these well-established experimental models of resistance and susceptibility respectively. In every instance, survival analysis was performed, and histopathological study of the lungs, liver and spleen was employed to investigate tissue involvement, degree of inflammation and fungal presence. Levels of antibodies to P. brasiliensis were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after 4 weeks and at the advanced stage of infection. The mortality rate was proportional to inoculation dose in all groups, but overall it was much superior in C. callosus than in the B10.A-susceptible mice. Macroscopical and microscopical pathological alterations were also more extensive and remarkable for C. callosus, once again proportional to inoculation dose, but more noticeable differences among the studied groups were found with 0.6 × 105 inoculum. In addition, the serological profile of C. callosus was similar to that found for B10.A-susceptible mice. Infection of C. callosus with 0.6 × 108 Pb18 inoculum resulted in more serious illness, and it decreased in severity in proportion to the inoculum dose. This difference was more pronounced in C. callosus, and the clinical, serological and pathological findings in this animal were more intense and precocious compared with the B10.A-susceptible mice. The present results suggest that C. callosus is a

  14. Histological and serological evidence of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in Calomys callosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae).

    PubMed

    Berbert, Alceu L C V; Faria, Gabriele G; Gennari-Cardoso, Margareth L; Silva, Maria M M D; Mineo, José R; Loyola, Adriano M

    2007-02-01

    The responses of animal experimental models related to the infectivity, virulence and pathogenicity of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is constantly used to develop new perspectives of investigation. The rodent Calomys callosus, Rengger 1830 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) is an indigenous inhabitant of the savannah environment found in the central regions of Brazil. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the histopathological and serological features of C. callosus after inoculation with the Pb18 strain of P. brasiliensis. Furthermore, A/Sn and B10.A mice strains were also tested to compare the results obtained in C. callosus to these well-established experimental models of resistance and susceptibility respectively. In every instance, survival analysis was performed, and histopathological study of the lungs, liver and spleen was employed to investigate tissue involvement, degree of inflammation and fungal presence. Levels of antibodies to P. brasiliensis were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after 4 weeks and at the advanced stage of infection. The mortality rate was proportional to inoculation dose in all groups, but overall it was much superior in C. callosus than in the B10.A-susceptible mice. Macroscopical and microscopical pathological alterations were also more extensive and remarkable for C. callosus, once again proportional to inoculation dose, but more noticeable differences among the studied groups were found with 0.6x10(5) inoculum. In addition, the serological profile of C. callosus was similar to that found for B10.A-susceptible mice. Infection of C. callosus with 0.6x10(8) Pb18 inoculum resulted in more serious illness, and it decreased in severity in proportion to the inoculum dose. This difference was more pronounced in C. callosus, and the clinical, serological and pathological findings in this animal were more intense and precocious compared with the B10.A-susceptible mice. The present results suggest that C. callosus is a

  15. Experimental evidence for the conditions necessary to sustain meandering in coarse-bedded rivers

    PubMed Central

    Braudrick, Christian A.; Dietrich, William E.; Leverich, Glen T.; Sklar, Leonard S.

    2009-01-01

    Meandering rivers are common on Earth and other planetary surfaces, yet the conditions necessary to maintain meandering channels are unclear. As a consequence, self-maintaining meandering channels with cutoffs have not been reproduced in the laboratory. Such experimental channels are needed to explore mechanisms controlling migration rate, sinuosity, floodplain formation, and planform morphodynamics and to test theories for wavelength and bend propagation. Here we report an experiment in which meandering with near-constant width was maintained during repeated cutoff and regeneration of meander bends. We found that elevated bank strength (provided by alfalfa sprouts) relative to the cohesionless bed material and the blocking of troughs (chutes) in the lee of point bars via suspended sediment deposition were the necessary ingredients to successful meandering. Varying flood discharge was not necessary. Scaling analysis shows that the experimental meander migration was fast compared to most natural channels. This high migration rate caused nearly all of the bedload sediment to exchange laterally, such that bar growth was primarily dependent on bank sediment supplied from upstream lateral migration. The high migration rate may have contributed to the relatively low sinuosity of 1.19, and this suggests that to obtain much higher sinuosity experiments at this scale may have to be conducted for several years. Although patience is required to evolve them, these experimental channels offer the opportunity to explore several fundamental issues about river morphodynamics. Our results also suggest that sand supply may be an essential control in restoring self-maintaining, actively shifting gravel-bedded meanders. PMID:19805077

  16. Time-lag in extinction dynamics in experimental populations: evidence for a genetic Allee effect?

    PubMed Central

    Vercken, Elodie; Vincent, Flora; Mailleret, Ludovic; Ris, Nicolas; Tabone, Elisabeth; Fauvergue, Xavier; Gurney, William

    2013-01-01

    1. Propagule pressure, i.e. the number of individuals introduced, is thought to be a major predictor of the establishment success of introduced populations in the field. Its influence in laboratory experimental systems has however been questioned. In fact, other factors involved in long-term population persistence, like habitat size, were usually found to explain most of the dynamics of experimental populations. 2. To better understand the respective influence of short- and long-term factors and their potential interaction on extinction dynamics in experimental systems, we investigated the influence of propagule pressure, habitat size and genetic background on the early dynamics of laboratory-based populations of a hymenopteran parasitoid. 3. The amount of demographic variance differed between establishment and persistence phase and was influenced by habitat size and genetic background (geographic strain), but independent of propagule pressure. In contrast, the probability of extinction within five generations depended on the genetic background and on the interaction between propagule pressure and habitat size. Vulnerability to extinction in small size habitats was increased when populations were founded with a small number of individuals, but this effect was delayed until the third to fifth generations. 4. These results indicate that demographic stochasticity is influential during population establishment, but is not affected by the genetic variability of propagules. On the other hand, extinction might be influenced by a genetic Allee effect triggered by the combination of low propagule pressure and genetic drift. Finally, we documented consistent differences between genetic backgrounds in both deterministic and stochastic population dynamics patterns, with major consequences on extinction risk and ultimately population establishment. PMID:23398653

  17. Experimental evidence for quantum interference and vibrationally induced decoherence in single-molecule junctions.

    PubMed

    Ballmann, Stefan; Härtle, Rainer; Coto, Pedro B; Elbing, Mark; Mayor, Marcel; Bryce, Martin R; Thoss, Michael; Weber, Heiko B

    2012-08-03

    We analyze quantum interference and decoherence effects in single-molecule junctions both experimentally and theoretically by means of the mechanically controlled break junction technique and density-functional theory. We consider the case where interference is provided by overlapping quasidegenerate states. Decoherence mechanisms arising from electronic-vibrational coupling strongly affect the electrical current flowing through a single-molecule contact and can be controlled by temperature variation. Our findings underline the universal relevance of vibrations for understanding charge transport through molecular junctions.

  18. Escape of DNA from a weakly biased thin nanopore: experimental evidence for a universal diffusive behavior.

    PubMed

    Hoogerheide, David P; Albertorio, Fernando; Golovchenko, Jene A

    2013-12-13

    We report experimental escape time distributions of double-stranded DNA molecules initially threaded halfway through a thin solid-state nanopore. We find a universal behavior of the escape time distributions consistent with a one-dimensional first passage formulation notwithstanding the geometry of the experiment and the potential role of complex molecule-liquid-pore interactions. Diffusion constants that depend on the molecule length and pore size are determined. Also discussed are the practical implications of long time diffusive molecule trapping in the nanopore.

  19. Experimental evidences of a large extrinsic spin Hall effect in AuW alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Laczkowski, P.; Rojas-Sánchez, J.-C.

    2014-04-07

    We report an experimental study of a gold-tungsten alloy (7 at. % W concentration in Au host) displaying remarkable properties for spintronics applications using both magneto-transport in lateral spin valve devices and spin-pumping with inverse spin Hall effect experiments. A very large spin Hall angle of about 10% is consistently found using both techniques with the reliable spin diffusion length of 2 nm estimated by the spin sink experiments in the lateral spin valves. With its chemical stability, high resistivity, and small induced damping, this AuW alloy may find applications in the nearest future.

  20. Welfare reform and child care: evidence from 10 experimental welfare-to-work programs.

    PubMed

    Robins, Philip K

    2007-10-01

    This article examines the employment and child care responses of families participating in 10 experimental welfare reform programs conducted in the United States between 1989 and 2002. For the programs analyzed, child care use increases by about the same amount as the increase in employment. Most of the increased child care comprises informal care by a relative, particularly care by a sibling or a grandparent. Although there are significant differences in the child care responses across the various programs tested, there are no significant differences in the impacts for persons leaving welfare versus persons staying on welfare.

  1. Experimental evidence of signal-optical noise interferencelike effect in underwater amplitude-modulated laser optical radar systems.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, L; De Dominicis, L; Ferri de Collibus, M; Fornetti, G; Francucci, M; Guarneri, M; Nuvoli, M; Paglia, E; Ricci, R

    2008-11-15

    We report experimental evidence that in an amplitude-modulated laser optical radar system for underwater 3D imaging the observed contrast oscillations as a function of the modulation frequency originate from an interference-like effect between target signal VT and water backscattered radiation VW. The demonstration relies on the ability to perform a direct measurement of VW in a 25 m long test tank. The proposed data processing method enables one to remove the contribution of water backscattering from the detected signal and drastically reduce signal fluctuations due to the medium. Experiments also confirm the possibility to improve the signal to optical noise ratio and contrast by increasing the modulation frequency.

  2. CAUSAL EFFECTS OF HEALTH SHOCKS ON CONSUMPTION AND DEBT: QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FROM BUS ACCIDENT INJURIES

    PubMed Central

    Mohanan, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Endogeneity between health and wealth presents a challenge for estimating causal effects of health shocks. Using a quasi-experimental design, comprising exogenous shocks sustained as bus accident injuries in India, with controls drawn from travelers on the same bus routes one year later, I present new evidence of causal effects on consumption and debt. Using primary household survey data, I find that households faced with shock-related expenditures are able to smooth consumption on food, housing, and festivals, with small reductions in educational spending. Debt was the principal mitigating mechanism households used, leading to significantly larger levels of indebtedness. PMID:28003706

  3. Experimental evidence for the formation of divalent ytterbium in the photodarkening process of Yb-doped fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Rydberg, S; Engholm, M

    2013-03-25

    In this work we present experimental evidence that the valence instability of the ytterbium ion play a key role for the observed photodarkening mechanism in Yb-doped fiber lasers. Luminescence and excitation spectroscopy performed on UV irradiated Yb/Al doped silica glass preforms and near-infrared diode pumped photodarkened fibers show a concentration increase of Yb(2+) ions. A concentration decrease in Yb(3+) could also be observed for the UV irradiated preform. The findings contribute to an increased understanding of the kinetic processes related to photodarkening in Yb-doped high power fiber lasers.

  4. The behaviour of mosquitoes in relation to humans under holed bednets: the evidence from experimental huts

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Seth R

    2014-01-01

    The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets. It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality. This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: (i) the effect of different numbers or sizes of holes in bednets and (ii) feeding behaviour and mortality with holed nets as compared with unholed nets. As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers. However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality. Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission. PMID:25410994

  5. In situ and experimental evidence for acidic weathering of rocks and soils on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurowitz, J. A.; McLennan, S. M.; Tosca, N. J.; Arvidson, R. E.; Michalski, J. R.; Ming, D. W.; Schröder, C.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental data for alteration of synthetic Martian basalts at pH = 0-1 indicate that chemical fractionations at low pH are vastly different from those observed during terrestrial weathering. Rock surface analyses from Gusev crater are well described by the relationships apparent from low-pH experimental alteration data. A model for rock surface alteration is developed, which indicates that a leached alteration zone is present on rock surfaces at Gusev. This zone is not chemically fractionated to a large degree from the underlying rock interior, indicating that the rock surface alteration process has occurred at low water to rock ratio. The geochemistry of natural rock surfaces analyzed by APXS is consistent with a mixture between adhering soil/dust and the leached alteration zone. The chemistry of rock surfaces analyzed after brushing with the RAT is largely representative of the leached alteration zone. The chemistry of rock surfaces analyzed after grinding with the RAT is largely representative of the interior of the rock, relatively unaffected by the alteration process occurring at the rock surface. Elemental measurements from the Spirit, Opportunity, Pathfinder, and Viking 1 landing sites indicate that soil chemistry from widely separated locations is consistent with the low-pH, low water to rock ratio alteration relationships developed for Gusev rocks. Soils are affected principally by mobility of Fe and Mg, consistent with alteration of olivine-bearing basalt and subsequent precipitation of Fe- and Mg-bearing secondary minerals as the primary control on soil geochemistry.

  6. Experimental evidence of independence of nuclear de-channeling length on the particle charge sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagli, E.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Sytov, A. I.; De Salvador, D.; Berra, A.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.

    2017-02-01

    Under coherent interactions, particles undergo correlated collisions with the crystal lattice and their motion result in confinement in the fields of atomic planes, i.e. particle channeling. Other than coherently interacting with the lattice, particles also suffer incoherent interactions with individual nuclei and may leave their bounded motion, i.e., they de-channel. The latter is the main limiting factor for applications of coherent interactions in crystal-assisted particle steering. We experimentally investigated the nature of de-channeling of 120 GeV/c e- and e+ in a bent silicon crystal at H4-SPS external line at CERN. We found that while channeling efficiency differs significantly for e- (2± 2 %) and e+ (54± 2 %), their nuclear de-channeling length is comparable, (0.6± 0.1) mm for e- and (0.7± 0.3) mm for e+. The experimental proof of the equality of the nuclear de-channeling length for positrons and electrons is interpreted in terms of similar dynamics undergone by the channeled particles in the field of nuclei irrespective of their charge.

  7. Experimental evidence that keeping eggs dry is a mechanism for the antimicrobial effects of avian incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alba, Liliana; Oborn, Allison; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2010-12-01

    Avian incubation dramatically reduces the abundance and diversity of microbial assemblages on eggshells, and this effect has been hypothesized as an adaptive explanation for partial incubation, the bouts of incubation that some birds perform during the egg-laying period. However, the mechanisms for these antimicrobial effects are largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that microbial inhibition is partly achieved through removal of liquid water, which generally enhances microbial growth, from eggshells, and experimentally tested this hypothesis in two ways. First, we placed the first- and second-laid eggs of tree swallow ( Tachycineta bicolor) clutches in unincubated holding nests with either ambient or increased water on eggshells. Second, we added water to eggshells in naturally partially incubated nests. We compared microbial growth on shells during a 5-day experimental period and found that, as predicted, both unincubated groups had higher microbial growth than naturally partially incubated controls, and that only in the absence of incubation did wetted eggs have higher microbial growth than unwetted eggs. Thus, we have shown that water increases microbial growth on eggshells and that incubation nullifies these effects, suggesting that removal of water from egg surfaces is one proximate mechanism for the antimicrobial effects of incubation.

  8. The Trace-Component Trapping Effect: Experimental Evidence, Theoretical Interpretation, and Geochemical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urusov, Vadim S.; Dudnikova, Valentina B.

    1998-04-01

    Experimental data indicating increase of crystal-melt (fluid) partition coefficients in the range of microconcentrations of trace elements are reviewed and analyzed in detail. This concentration dependence of partition coefficients has been referred to as either deviations from Henry's law or the trace-component trapping effect. A critical review of a variety of models proposed to explain this phenomenon is also given. It is shown that the most reasonable and developed of these models relate changes in trace element partition coefficient at low concentrations to interactions between the trace element ions and metastable lattice defects (i.e., linear and planar defects) at low temperatures or intrinsic point defects of thermal origin at higher temperatures. The mechanism of interaction between trace element substituent atoms and intrinsic defects is considered in detail, with particular consideration given to the creation of pair associates, coupled substitutions, and the influence of other impurities on the trace element dissolution. The models developed are fit to the available experimental data to provide descriptions of the dependence of partition coefficients on composition and to estimate the concentrations and free energies of formation of the intrinsic defects (i.e., vacancies and interstitial atoms) in a matrix crystal. Some probable geochemical applications and manifestations of the trapping effect are discussed. This leads to the conclusion that there is an urgent need for further consideration of the problem.

  9. Selective Cooperation in the Supermarket : Field Experimental Evidence for Indirect Reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Lange, Florian; Eggert, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Numerous laboratory experiments suggest that mechanisms of indirect reciprocity might account for human cooperation. However, conclusive field data supporting the predictions of indirect reciprocity in everyday life situations is still scarce. Here, we attempt to compensate for this lack by examining the determinants of cooperative behavior in a German supermarket. Our methods were as follows: Confederates of the experimenter lined up at the checkout, apparently to buy a single item. As an act of cooperation, the waiting person in front (the potential helper) could allow the confederate to go ahead. By this means, the potential helper could take a cost (additional waiting time) by providing the confederate with a benefit (saved waiting time). We recorded the potential helpers' behavior and the number of items they purchased as a quantitative measure proportional to the confederate's benefit. Moreover, in a field experimental design, we varied the confederates' image by manipulating the item they purchased (beer vs. water). As predicted, the more waiting time they could save, the more likely the confederates were to receive cooperation. This relationship was moderated by the confederates' image. Cost-to-benefit ratios were required to be more favorable for beer-purchasing individuals to receive cooperation. Our results demonstrate that everyday human cooperation can be studied unobtrusively in the field and that cooperation among strangers is selective in a way that is consistent with current models of indirect reciprocity.

  10. Experimental evidence that livestock grazing intensity affects the activity of a generalist predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar, Nacho; Lambin, Xavier; Evans, Darren; Pakeman, Robin; Redpath, Steve

    2013-05-01

    Grazing by domestic ungulates has substantial impacts on ecosystem structure and composition. In grasslands of the northern hemisphere, livestock grazing limits populations of small mammals, which are a main food source for a variety of vertebrate predators. However, no experimental studies have described the impact of livestock grazing on vertebrate predators. We experimentally manipulated sheep and cattle grazing intensity in the Scottish uplands to test its impact on a relatively abundant small mammal, the field vole (Microtus agrestis), and its archetypal generalist predator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). We demonstrate that ungulate grazing had a strong consistent negative impact on both vole densities and indices of fox activity. Ungulate grazing did not substantially affect the relationship between fox activity and vole densities. However, the data suggested that, as grazing intensity increased i) fox activity indices tended to be higher when vole densities were low, and ii) the relationship between fox activity and vole density was weaker. All these patterns are surprising given the relative small scale of our experiment compared to large red fox territories in upland habitats of Britain, and suggest that domestic grazing intensity causes a strong response in the activity of generalist predators important for their conservation in grassland ecosystems.

  11. Reaction time effects in lab- versus Web-based research: Experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2016-12-01

    Although Web-based research is now commonplace, it continues to spur skepticism from reviewers and editors, especially whenever reaction times are of primary interest. Such persistent preconceptions are based on arguments referring to increased variation, the limits of certain software and technologies, and a noteworthy lack of comparisons (between Web and lab) in fully randomized experiments. To provide a critical test, participants were randomly assigned to complete a lexical decision task either (a) in the lab using standard experimental software (E-Prime), (b) in the lab using a browser-based version (written in HTML and JavaScript), or (c) via the Web using the same browser-based version. The classical word frequency effect was typical in size and corresponded to a very large effect in all three conditions. There was no indication that the Web- or browser-based data collection was in any way inferior. In fact, if anything, a larger effect was obtained in the browser-based conditions than in the condition relying on standard experimental software. No differences between Web and lab (within the browser-based conditions) could be observed, thus disconfirming any substantial influence of increased technical or situational variation. In summary, the present experiment contradicts the still common preconception that reaction time effects of only a few hundred milliseconds cannot be detected in Web experiments.

  12. Theoretical and experimental evidence of level repulsion states and evanescent modes in sonic crystal stubbed waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-García, V.; Vasseur, J. O.; Garcia-Raffi, L. M.; Hladky-Hennion, A. C.

    2012-02-01

    The complex band structures calculated using the extended plane wave expansion (EPWE) reveal the presence of evanescent modes in periodic systems, never predicted by the classical \\omega(\\vec {k}) methods, providing novel interpretations of several phenomena as well as a complete picture of the system. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally observe that in the ranges of frequencies where a deaf band is traditionally predicted, an evanescent mode with excitable symmetry appears, changing drastically the interpretation of the transmission properties. On the other hand, the simplicity of the sonic crystals in which only the longitudinal polarization can be excited is used to interpret, without loss of generality, the level repulsion between symmetric and antisymmetric bands in sonic crystals as the presence of an evanescent mode connecting both repelled bands. These evanescent modes, obtained using EPWE, explain both the attenuation produced in this range of frequencies and the transfer of symmetry from one band to the other in good agreement with both experimental results and multiple scattering predictions. Thus, the evanescent properties of the periodic system have been revealed to be necessary for the design of new acoustic and electromagnetic applications based on periodicity.

  13. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics.

  14. Resveratrol, from experimental data to nutritional evidence: the emergence of a new food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Raederstorff, Daniel; Kunz, Iris; Schwager, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    The polyphenol resveratrol is found notably in grapes and in a variety of medicinal plants. Recently, resveratrol has been suggested to have cardioprotective effects and to improve metabolic health by mimicking the effects of calorie restriction. Numerous animal and in vitro studies suggest that resveratrol could improve cardiovascular and metabolic health in humans. In view of this compelling preclinical evidence, several human studies investigating the effects of resveratrol on vascular and metabolic health have been initiated. Collectively, the animal, human epidemiological, and first human intervention studies support a role of resveratrol in vascular and metabolic health. This has led to the introduction of the first supplement and food products containing resveratrol and its emergence as a promising new health ingredient. Thus, supplementation with resveratrol may be included in nutritional and lifestyle programs aiming to reduce the risk of vascular and obesity-related problems.

  15. Camera perspective bias in videotaped confessions: experimental evidence of its perceptual basis.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Jennifer J; Lassiter, G Daniel; Schmidt, Heather C; Snyder, Celeste J

    2006-12-01

    The camera perspective from which a criminal confession is videotaped influences later assessments of its voluntariness and the suspect's guilt. Previous research has suggested that this camera perspective bias is rooted in perceptual rather than conceptual processes, but these data are strictly correlational. In 3 experiments, the authors directly manipulated perceptual processing to provide stronger evidence of its mediational role. Prior to viewing a videotape of a simulated confession, participants were shown a photograph of the confessor's apparent victim. Participants in a perceptual interference condition were instructed to visualize the image of the victim in their minds while viewing the videotape; participants in a conceptual interference condition were instructed instead to rehearse an 8-digit number. Because mental imagery and actual perception draw on the same available resources, the authors anticipated that the former, but not the latter, interference task would disrupt the camera perspective bias, if indeed it were perceptually mediated. Results supported this conclusion.

  16. The emotional and attitudinal consequences of religious hypocrisy: experimental evidence using a cognitive dissonance paradigm.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Omar; Gobet, Fernand

    2013-01-01

    We explored the emotional and attitudinal consequences of personal attitude-behavior discrepancies using a religious version of the hypocrisy paradigm. We induced cognitive dissonance in participants (n = 206) by making them feel hypocritical for advocating certain religious behaviors that they had not recently engaged in to their own satisfaction. In Experiment 1, this resulted in higher levels of self-reported guilt and shame compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 further showed that a religious self-affirmation task eliminated the guilt and shame. In Experiment 3, participants boosted their religious attitudes as a result of dissonance, and both religious and non-religious self-affirmation tasks eliminated this effect. The findings provide evidence that dissonance induced through religious hypocrisy can result in guilt and shame as well as an attitude bolstering effect, as opposed to the attitude reconciliation effect that is prevalent in previous dissonance research.

  17. Experimental evidence for the formation of liquid saline water on Mars.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Erik; Martínez, Germán M; Elliott, Harvey M; Rennó, Nilton O

    2014-07-16

    Evidence for deliquescence of perchlorate salts has been discovered in the Martian polar region while possible brine flows have been observed in the equatorial region. This appears to contradict the idea that bulk deliquescence is too slow to occur during the short periods of the Martian diurnal cycle during which conditions are favorable for it. We conduct laboratory experiments to study the formation of liquid brines at Mars environmental conditions. We find that when water vapor is the only source of water, bulk deliquescence of perchlorates is not rapid enough to occur during the short periods of the day during which the temperature is above the salts' eutectic value, and the humidity is above the salts' deliquescence value. However, when the salts are in contact with water ice, liquid brine forms in minutes, indicating that aqueous solutions could form temporarily where salts and ice coexist on the Martian surface and in the shallow subsurface.

  18. Eliciting health care priorities in developing countries: experimental evidence from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Font, Joan Costa; Forns, Joan Rovira; Sato, Azusa

    2016-02-01

    Although some methods for eliciting preferences to assist participatory priority setting in health care in developed countries are available, the same is not true for poor communities in developing countries whose preferences are neglected in health policy making. Existing methods grounded on self-interested, monetary valuations that may be inappropriate for developing country settings where community care is provided through 'social allocation' mechanisms. This paper proposes and examines an alternative methodology for eliciting preferences for health care programmes specifically catered for rural and less literate populations but which is still applicable in urban communities. Specifically, the method simulates a realistic collective budget allocation experiment, to be implemented in both rural and urban communities in Guatemala. We report evidence revealing that participatory budget-like experiments are incentive compatible mechanisms suitable for revealing collective preferences, while simultaneously having the advantage of involving communities in health care reform processes.

  19. Thioredoxin System Regulation in the Central Nervous System: Experimental Models and Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Adaya, Daniela; Gonsebatt, María E.; Guevara, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species produced continuously during oxidative metabolism are generated at very high rates in the brain. Therefore, defending against oxidative stress is an essential task within the brain. An important cellular system against oxidative stress is the thioredoxin system (TS). TS is composed of thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NADPH. This review focuses on the evidence gathered in recent investigations into the central nervous system, specifically the different brain regions in which the TS is expressed. Furthermore, we address the conditions that modulate the thioredoxin system in both, animal models and the postmortem brains of human patients associated with the most common neurodegenerative disorders, in which the thioredoxin system could play an important part. PMID:24723994

  20. Experimental evidence for the effect of habitat loss on the dynamics of migratory networks.

    PubMed

    Betini, Gustavo S; Fitzpatrick, Mark J; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Migratory animals present a unique challenge for understanding the consequences of habitat loss on population dynamics because individuals are typically distributed over a series of interconnected breeding and non-breeding sites (termed migratory network). Using replicated breeding and non-breeding populations of Drosophila melanogaster and a mathematical model, we investigated three hypotheses to explain how habitat loss influenced the dynamics of populations in networks with different degrees of connectivity between breeding and non-breeding seasons. We found that habitat loss increased the degree of connectivity in the network and influenced population size at sites that were not directly connected to the site where habitat loss occurred. However, connected networks only buffered global population declines at high levels of habitat loss. Our results demonstrate why knowledge of the patterns of connectivity across a species range is critical for predicting the effects of environmental change and provide empirical evidence for why connected migratory networks are commonly found in nature.

  1. Fayalite Oxidation Processes: Experimental Evidence for the Stability of Pure Ferric Fayalite?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Keller, L. P.; Medard, E.; Devouard, B.; Rahman, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Olivine is one of the most important minerals in Earth and planetary sciences. Fayalite Fe2(2+)SiO4, the ferrous end-member of olivine, is present in some terrestrial rocks and primitive meteorites (CV3 chondrites). A ferric fayalite (or ferri-fayalite), Fe(2+) Fe2(3+)(SiO4)2 laihunite, has been reported in Earth samples (magnetite ore, metamorphic and volcanic rocks...) and in Martian meteorites (nakhlites). Laihunite was also synthesized at 1 atmosphere between 400 and 700 C. We show evidence for the stability of a pure ferrifayalite end-member and for potential minerals with XFe(3+) between 2/3 and 1.

  2. Experimental evidence of vocal recognition in young and adult black-legged kittiwakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulard, Hervé; Aubin, T.; White, J.F.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Danchin, E.

    2008-01-01

    Individual recognition is required in most social interactions, and its presence has been confirmed in many species. In birds, vocal cues appear to be a major component of recognition. Curiously, vocal recognition seems absent or limited in some highly social species such as the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla. Using playback experiments, we found that kittiwake chicks recognized their parents vocally, this capacity being detectable as early as 20 days after hatching, the youngest age tested. Mates also recognized each other's long calls. Some birds reacted to their partner's voice when only a part of the long call was played back. Nevertheless, only about a third of the tested birds reacted to their mate's or parents' call and we were unable to detect recognition among neighbours. We discuss the low reactivity of kittiwakes in relation to their cliff-nesting habit and compare our results with evidence of vocal recognition in other larids. ?? 2008 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Experimental evidence that phenotypic divergence in predators drives community divergence in prey.

    PubMed

    Palkovacs, Eric P; Post, David M

    2009-02-01

    Studies of adaptive divergence have traditionally focused on the ecological causes of trait diversification, while the ecological consequences of phenotypic divergence remain relatively unexplored. Divergence in predator foraging traits, in particular, has the potential to impact the structure and dynamics of ecological communities. To examine the effects of predator trait divergence on prey communities, we exposed zooplankton communities in lake mesocosms to predation from either anadromous or landlocked (freshwater resident) alewives, which have undergone recent and rapid phenotypic differentiation in foraging traits (gape width, gill raker spacing, and prey size-selectivity). Anadromous alewives, which exploit large prey items, significantly reduced the mean body size, total biomass, species richness, and diversity of crustacean zooplankton relative to landlocked alewives, which exploit smaller prey. The zooplankton responses observed in this experiment are consistent with patterns observed in lakes. This study provides direct evidence that phenotypic divergence in predators, even in its early stages, can play a critical role in determining prey community structure.

  4. Evidence of experimental postcyclic transmission of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in bonytail chub (Gila elegans).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Scott P; Choudhury, Anindo; Cole, Rebecca A

    2007-02-01

    We examined the role that predation of infected conspecific fish and postcyclic transmission might play in the life cycle of the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) Yamaguti, 1934. Young-of-the-year (YOY) bonytail chub (Gila elegans) were exposed to copepods infected with B. acheilognathi and subsequently fed to subadult bonytail chub. Within 1 wk after consumption of the YOY chub, subadults were necropsied and found infected with gravid and nongravid tapeworms. This study provides evidence that postcyclic transfer of B. acheilognathi can occur. Postcyclic transmission may be an important life history trait of B. acheilognathi that merits consideration when studying the impact and distribution of this invasive and potentially pathogenic tapeworm.

  5. Thioredoxin system regulation in the central nervous system: experimental models and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Silva-Adaya, Daniela; Gonsebatt, María E; Guevara, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species produced continuously during oxidative metabolism are generated at very high rates in the brain. Therefore, defending against oxidative stress is an essential task within the brain. An important cellular system against oxidative stress is the thioredoxin system (TS). TS is composed of thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NADPH. This review focuses on the evidence gathered in recent investigations into the central nervous system, specifically the different brain regions in which the TS is expressed. Furthermore, we address the conditions that modulate the thioredoxin system in both, animal models and the postmortem brains of human patients associated with the most common neurodegenerative disorders, in which the thioredoxin system could play an important part.

  6. Experimental evidence for ecological selection on genome variation in the wild.

    PubMed

    Gompert, Zachariah; Comeault, Aaron A; Farkas, Timothy E; Feder, Jeffrey L; Parchman, Thomas L; Buerkle, C Alex; Nosil, Patrik

    2014-03-01

    Understanding natural selection's effect on genetic variation is a major goal in biology, but the genome-scale consequences of contemporary selection are not well known. In a release and recapture field experiment we transplanted stick insects to native and novel host plants and directly measured allele frequency changes within a generation at 186,576 genetic loci. We observed substantial, genome-wide allele frequency changes during the experiment, most of which could be attributed to random mortality (genetic drift). However, we also documented that selection affected multiple genetic loci distributed across the genome, particularly in transplants to the novel host. Host-associated selection affecting the genome acted on both a known colour-pattern trait as well as other (unmeasured) phenotypes. We also found evidence that selection associated with elevation affected genome variation, although our experiment was not designed to test this. Our results illustrate how genomic data can identify previously underappreciated ecological sources and phenotypic targets of selection.

  7. Evidence of experimental postcyclic transmission of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in bonytail chub (Gila elegans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Cole, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the role that predation of infected conspecific fish and postcyclic transmission might play in the life cycle of the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) Yamaguti, 1934. Young-of-the-year (YOY) bonytail chub (Gila elegans) were exposed to copepods infected with B. acheilognathi and subsequently fed to subadult bonytail chub. Within 1 wk after consumption of the YOY chub, subadults were necropsied and found infected with gravid and nongravid tapeworms. This study provides evidence that postcyclic transfer of B. acheilognathi can occur. Postcyclic transmission may be an important life history trait of B. acheilognathi that merits consideration when studying the impact and distribution of this invasive and potentially pathogenic tapeworm. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  8. Adolescents' implicit theories predict desire for vengeance after peer conflicts: correlational and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David S; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Tirri, Kirsi; Nokelainen, Petri; Dweck, Carol S

    2011-07-01

    Why do some adolescents respond to interpersonal conflicts vengefully, whereas others seek more positive solutions? Three studies investigated the role of implicit theories of personality in predicting violent or vengeful responses to peer conflicts among adolescents in Grades 9 and 10. They showed that a greater belief that traits are fixed (an entity theory) predicted a stronger desire for revenge after a variety of recalled peer conflicts (Study 1) and after a hypothetical conflict that specifically involved bullying (Study 2). Study 3 experimentally induced a belief in the potential for change (an incremental theory), which resulted in a reduced desire to seek revenge. This effect was mediated by changes in bad-person attributions about the perpetrators, feelings of shame and hatred, and the belief that vengeful ideation is an effective emotion-regulation strategy. Together, the findings illuminate the social-cognitive processes underlying reactions to conflict and suggest potential avenues for reducing violent retaliation in adolescents.

  9. Surface patterns on single-crystal films under uniaxial stress: Experimental evidence for the Grinfeld instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berréhar, J.; Caroli, C.; Lapersonne-Meyer, C.; Schott, M.

    1992-11-01

    We study the stress relaxation in single-crystal films of polymerized polydiacetylene, in epitaxy with their monomer substrate. Polymerization induces a uniaxial stress. Two types of surface patterns are observed and studied by atomic force microscopy: films thicker than 175 nm exhibit quasiperiodic cracks perpendicular to the polymer chains; thinner ones exhibit regular wrinkles with the same orientation. The wrinkle surface deformation is stress relaxing and plastic. We show that all experimental results, in particular, the order of magnitude of the pattern spacings, are compatible with the following interpretation: as polymerization proceeds, the uniaxial stress generates a Grinfeld instability (Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 290, 1358 (1986) [Sov. Phys. Dokl. 31, 831 (1986)]) fed by surface diffusion. The crack pattern is a secondary instability, initiated at the sites of stress concentration provided by the wrinkles.

  10. Natural and experimental evidence of melt lubrication of faults during earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Di Toro, Giulio; Hirose, Takehiro; Nielsen, Stefan; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Shimamoto, Toshihiko

    2006-02-03

    Melt produced by friction during earthquakes may act either as a coseismic fault lubricant or as a viscous brake. Here we estimate the dynamic shear resistance (tau(f)) in the presence of friction-induced melts from both exhumed faults and high-velocity (1.28 meters per second) frictional experiments. Exhumed faults within granitoids (tonalites) indicate low tau(f) at 10 kilometers in depth. Friction experiments on tonalite samples show that tau(f) depends weakly on normal stress. Extrapolation of experimental data yields tau(f) values consistent with the field estimates and well below the Byerlee strength. We conclude that friction-induced melts can lubricate faults at intermediate crustal depths.

  11. Experimental evidence of charge exchange recombination of highly ionized iron and titanium in Princeton Large Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Suckewer, S.; Hinnov, E.; Bitter, M.; Hulse, R.; Post, D.

    1980-02-01

    The observed behavior of the emissivitives of boron-like FeXXIII, lithium-like FeXXIV and TiXX, and the helium-like FeXXV ions in the PLT tokamak during highpower neutral (H/sup 0/ or D/sup 0/) beam heating is described. A substantial lowering of the dominant ionization state in the center of the discharge while the electron temperature is rising, is attributed primarily to increased recombination rate of the ions through charge exchange with neutral hydrogen. This interpretation is supported by the different space and time behavior of the lithium-like annd boron-like ions of comparable ionization potentials, and by comparisons of neutral beam heating of the plasma with ion cyclotron resonance heating, which does not appreciably change the neutral hydrogen concentration. The observations are compared with approximate zero-dimensional model calculations, using experimental plasma conditions and estimated charge exchange rates.

  12. Passive Facebook usage undermines affective well-being: Experimental and longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    Verduyn, Philippe; Lee, David Seungjae; Park, Jiyoung; Shablack, Holly; Orvell, Ariana; Bayer, Joseph; Ybarra, Oscar; Jonides, John; Kross, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Prior research indicates that Facebook usage predicts declines in subjective well-being over time. How does this come about? We examined this issue in 2 studies using experimental and field methods. In Study 1, cueing people in the laboratory to use Facebook passively (rather than actively) led to declines in affective well-being over time. Study 2 replicated these findings in the field using experience-sampling techniques. It also demonstrated how passive Facebook usage leads to declines in affective well-being: by increasing envy. Critically, the relationship between passive Facebook usage and changes in affective well-being remained significant when controlling for active Facebook use, non-Facebook online social network usage, and direct social interactions, highlighting the specificity of this result. These findings demonstrate that passive Facebook usage undermines affective well-being.

  13. Experimental evidence that age-specific reproductive success is independent of environmental effects

    PubMed Central

    Daunt, F.; Wanless, S.; Harris, M. P.; Monaghan, P.

    1999-01-01

    An age-specific improvement in reproductive performance has been reported in many iteroparous breeders. However, whether this is a consequence of intrinsic differences in competence amongst age classes or extrinsic differences in the environment they experience is unclear since the timing of breeding within a season generally also differs with age. To disentangle these effects, we experimentally manipulated the timing of breeding in shags, Phalacrocorax aristotelis. Old and young individuals thus reared their chicks at the same time both early and late in the breeding season. When breeding in the same environmental conditions, old pairs performed consistently better than young pairs. These data clearly demonstrate that the age-related differences in reproductive performance are not a result of environmental effects, but rather a consequence of intrinsic differences in brood rearing capacity.

  14. Modulation of MnSOD in Cancer:Epidemiological and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aekyong

    2010-01-01

    Since it was first observed in late 1970s that human cancers often had decreased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein expression and activity, extensive studies have been conducted to verify the association between MnSOD and cancer. Significance of MnSOD as a primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme is unquestionable; results from in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies are in harmony. On the contrary, studies regarding roles of MnSOD in cancer often report conflicting results. Although putative mechanisms have been proposed to explain how MnSOD regulates cellular proliferation, these mechanisms are not capitulated in epidemiological studies. This review discusses most recent epidemiological and experimental studies that examined the association between MnSOD and cancer, and describes emerging hypotheses of MnSOD as a mitochondrial redox regulatory enzyme and of how altered mitochondrial redox may affect physiology of normal as well as cancer cells. PMID:24278510

  15. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR WATER FORMATION VIA OZONE HYDROGENATION ON DUST GRAINS AT 10 K

    SciTech Connect

    Mokrane, H.; Chaabouni, H.; Accolla, M.; Congiu, E.; Dulieu, F.; Chehrouri, M.; Lemaire, J. L.

    2009-11-10

    The formation of water molecules from the reaction between ozone (O{sub 3}) and D-atoms is studied experimentally for the first time. Ozone is deposited on non-porous amorphous solid water ice (H{sub 2}O), and D-atoms are then sent onto the sample held at 10 K. HDO molecules are detected during the desorption of the whole substrate where isotope mixing takes place, indicating that water synthesis has occurred. The efficiency of water formation via hydrogenation of ozone is of the same order of magnitude as that found for reactions involving O-atoms or O{sub 2} molecules and exhibits no apparent activation barrier. These experiments validate the assumption made by models using ozone as one of the precursors of water formation via solid-state chemistry on interstellar dust grains.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of turbulent combustion in a spark ignition engine. Experimental evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beretta, G. P.; Rashidi, M.; Keck, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A method independent of physical modeling assumptions is presented to analyze high speed flame photography and cylinder pressure measurements from a transparent piston spark ignition research engine. The method involves defining characteristic quantities of the phenomena of flame propagation and combustion, and estimating their values from the experimental information. Using only the pressure information, the mass fraction curves are examined. An empirical burning law is presented which simulates such curves. Statistical data for the characteristics delay and burning angles which show that cycle to cycle fractional variations are of the same order of magnitude for both angles are discussed. The enflamed and burnt mass fractions are compared as are the rates of entrainment and burning.

  17. Experimental evidence of localized plasmon resonance in composite materials containing single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuba, M. V.; Paddubskaya, A. G.; Plyushch, A. O.; Kuzhir, P. P.; Slepyan, G. Ya.; Maksimenko, S. A.; Ksenevich, V. K.; Buka, P.; Seliuta, D.; Kasalynas, I.; Macutkevic, J.; Valusis, G.; Thomsen, C.; Lakhtakia, A.

    2012-04-01

    Experimental proof of localized plasmon resonance was found in thin films containing either single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) or SWNT bundles of different length. All samples were prepared by a simple technique that permitted the selection of different SWNT lengths in different samples without significant differences in electronic properties. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that an optical-density peak, the same as a terahertz conductivity peak, shifts to higher frequencies as the SWNT lengths are reduced—in agreement with a similar tendency predicted for the localized plasmon resonance in finite-length SWNTs [Slepyan , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.81.205423 81, 205423 (2010)].

  18. Strain Compensation in Single ZnSe/CdSe Quantum Wells: Analytical Model and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Torsten; Riedl, Thomas; Neumann, Elmar; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lindner, Jörg K N; Pawlis, Alexander

    2017-03-08

    The lattice mismatch between CdSe and ZnSe is known to limit the thickness of ZnSe/CdSe quantum wells on GaAs (001) substrates to about 2-3 monolayers. We demonstrate that this thickness can be enhanced significantly by using In0.12Ga0.88As pseudo substrates, which generate alternating tensile and compressive strains in the ZnSe/CdSe/ZnSe layers resulting in an efficient strain compensation. This method enables to design CdSe/ZnSe quantum wells with CdSe thicknesses ranging from 1 to 6 monolayers, covering the whole visible spectrum. The strain compensation effect is investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and supported by molecular statics simulations. The model approach with the supporting experimental measurements is sufficiently general to be also applied to other highly mismatched material combinations for the design of advanced strained heterostructures.

  19. Three is a crowd in iterated prisoner's dilemmas: experimental evidence on reciprocal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Grujić, Jelena; Eke, Burcu; Cabrales, Antonio; Cuesta, José A.; Sánchez, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocity or conditional cooperation is one of the most prominent mechanisms proposed to explain the emergence of cooperation in social dilemmas. Recent experimental findings on networked games suggest that conditional cooperation may also depend on the previous action of the player. We here report on experiments on iterated, multi-player Prisoner's dilemma, on groups of 2 to 5 people. We confirm the dependence on the previous step and that memory effects for earlier periods are not significant. We show that the behavior of subjects in pairwise dilemmas is qualitatively different from the cases with more players; After an initial decay, cooperation increases significantly reaching values above 80%. The strategy of the players is rather universal as far as their willingness to reciprocate cooperation is concerned, whereas there is much diversity in their initial propensity to cooperate. Our results indicate that, for cooperation to emerge and thrive, three is a crowd. PMID:22962633

  20. Extreme iron enrichment and liquid immiscibility in mafic intrusions: Experimental evidence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, Ilya V.

    2009-07-01

    This paper examines phase equilibria and mass balance constraints on Fe enrichment in tholeiitic liquids in plutonic environments. The peak of Fe enrichment is thought to roughly coincide with magma saturation in Fe-Ti oxides; and olivine starts to react with the liquid at about the same time. This crucial stage of crystallization is examined in detail using a compilation of chemical analyses of 64 experimental charges that comprise liquids (quenched glasses) equilibrated with the liquidus assemblage of olivine, plagioclase, high-Ca pyroxene, and low-Ca pyroxene. Some samples also contain Fe-Ti oxides. It is shown that the 4-phase liquidus assemblage does not constrain a narrow range of liquid compositions. The concentrations of SiO 2 in the selection of experimental glasses vary broadly from 42 to 66 wt.%. Silica content shows strong negative correlations with FeO and CaO/Al 2O 3, and strong positive correlation with alkalis. Extreme Fe enrichment above 22 wt.% FeO is observed only in alkali-free or alkali-poor liquids. Broad compositional variations for the multiply-saturated liquids are attributed to strong non-ideality and complex concentration-activity relationships in ferrobasaltic melts. Liquid immiscibility characteristic of Fe-rich silicate liquids is the ultimate consequence of non-ideality. Petrogenetic implications of phase equilibria and mass balance constraints are discussed for a classical example of the Skaergaard intrusion in East Greenland, where the trend of extreme Fe enrichment has been in contention. It is proposed that seemingly conflicting results of experiments on Skaergaard natural cumulate rocks and model melt compositions can be reconciled if it is assumed that silicate liquid immiscibility in Skaergaard started not at the very end of crystallization but earlier, soon after the start of ilmenite and magnetite crystallization.

  1. Isostaticity and Controlled Force Transmission in the Cytoskeleton: A Model Awaiting Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Raphael

    2006-01-01

    A new model is proposed for force transmission through the cytoskeleton (CSK). A general discussion is first presented on the physical principles that underlie the modeling of this phenomenon. Some fundamental problems of conventional models—continuous and discrete—are examined. It is argued that mediation of focused forces is essential for good control over intracellular mechanical signals. The difficulties of conventional continuous models in describing such mediation are traced to a fundamental assumption rather than to their being continuous. Relevant advantages and disadvantages of continuous and discrete modeling are discussed. It is concluded that favoring discrete models is based on two misconceptions, which are clarified. The model proposed here is based on the idea that focused propagation of mechanical stimuli in frameworks over large distances (compared to the mesh size) can only occur when considerable regions of the CSK are isostatic. The concept of isostaticity is explained and a recently developed continuous isostaticity theory is briefly reviewed. The model enjoys several advantages: it leads to good control over force mediation; it explains nonuniform stresses and action at a distance; it is continuous, making it possible to model force propagation over long distances; and it enables prediction of individual force paths. To be isostatic, or nearly so, CSK networks must possess specific structural characteristics, and these are quantified. Finally, several experimental observations are interpreted using the new model and implications are discussed. It is also suggested that this approach may give insight into the dynamics of reorganization of the CSK. Many of the results are amenable to experimental measurements, providing a testing ground for the proposed picture, and generic experiments are suggested. PMID:16912215

  2. Experimental evidence for chick discrimination without recognition in a brood parasite host.

    PubMed

    Grim, Tomás

    2007-02-07

    Recognition is considered a critical basis for discriminatory behaviours in animals. Theoretically, recognition and discrimination of parasitic chicks are not predicted to evolve in hosts of brood parasitic birds that evict nest-mates. Yet, an earlier study showed that host reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) of an evicting parasite, the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), can avoid the costs of prolonged care for unrelated young by deserting the cuckoo chick before it fledges. Desertion was not based on specific recognition of the parasite because hosts accept any chick cross-fostered into their nests. Thus, the mechanism of this adaptive host response remains enigmatic. Here, I show experimentally that the cue triggering this 'discrimination without recognition' behaviour is the duration of parental care. Neither the intensity of brood care nor the presence of a single-chick in the nest could explain desertions. Hosts responded similarly to foreign chicks, whether heterospecific or experimental conspecifics. The proposed mechanism of discrimination strikingly differs from those found in other parasite-host systems because hosts do not need an internal recognition template of the parasite's appearance to effectively discriminate. Thus, host defences against parasitic chicks may be based upon mechanisms qualitatively different from those operating against parasitic eggs. I also demonstrate that this discriminatory mechanism is non-costly in terms of recognition errors. Comparative data strongly suggest that parasites cannot counter-evolve any adaptation to mitigate effects of this host defence. These findings have crucial implications for the process and end-result of host-parasite arms races and our understanding of the cognitive basis of discriminatory mechanisms in general.

  3. In-Situ and Experimental Evidence for Acidic Weathering of Rocks and Soils on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurowitz, J. A.; McLennan, S. M.; Tosca, N. J.; Arvidson, R. E.; Michalski, J. R.; Ming, D.; Schroeder, C.; Squyres, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental data for alteration of synthetic Martian basalts at pH=0-1 indicate that chemical fractionations at low pH are vastly different from those observed during terrestrial weathering. Rock analyses from Gusev crater are well described by the relationships apparent from low pH experimental alteration data. A model for rock surface alteration is developed which indicates that a leached alteration zone is present on rock surfaces at Gusev. This zone is not chemically fractionated to a large degree from the underlying rock interior, indicating that the rock surface alteration process has occurred at low fluid-to-rock ratio. The geochemistry of natural rock surfaces analyzed by APXS is consistent with a mixture between adhering soil/dust and the leached alteration zone. The chemistry of rock surfaces analyzed after brushing with the RAT is largely representative of the leached alteration zone. The chemistry of rock surfaces analyzed after grinding with the RAT is largely representative of the interior of the rock, relatively unaffected by the alteration process occurring at the rock surface. Elemental measurements from the Spirit, Opportunity, Pathfinder and Viking 1 landing sites indicate that soil chemistry from widely separated locations is consistent with the low-pH, low fluid to rock ratio alteration relationships developed for Gusev rocks. Soils are affected principally by mobility of FeO and MgO, consistent with alteration of olivine-bearing basalt and subsequent precipitation of FeO and MgO bearing secondary minerals as the primary control on soil geochemistry.

  4. Experimental evidence for the basal generation place of the short-latency transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Moleti, A; Sisto, R; Lucertini, M

    2014-05-01

    Time-frequency analysis of the transient-evoked otoacoustic emission response was performed on a population of subjects affected by sensory-neural hearing loss characterized by a sharp audiometric profile, caused by firearm noise exposure (42 ears), and on a control population of normal-hearing subjects (84 ears). Time-frequency filtering permitted a careful evaluation of the relation between the audiometric profile and the spectral shape of the long- and short-latency otoacoustic components. Both filtered spectra closely follow the shape of the audiometric profile, with a frequency shift between them. The typical frequency shift was evaluated by averaging the otoacoustic spectra and the audiograms among groups of ears with the same cutoff frequency. Assuming that the otoacoustic emission source function depends on the local effectiveness of the cochlear amplifier, this experimental evidence suggests that the short-latency response is generated at a cochlear place displaced towards the base by about 0.5-1 mm with respect to the generation place of the long-latency component. The analysis of the control group demonstrates that, below 4 kHz, the observed effect is not dependent on the data acquisition and analysis procedure. These results confirm previous theoretical estimates and independent experimental evidence based on the measured latency difference between the two components.

  5. Body checking in non-clinical women: experimental evidence of a specific impact on fear of uncontrollable weight gain.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Natalie; Waller, Glenn

    2017-01-20

    Body checking is used widely among clinical and non-clinical individuals. It is suggested to be a safety behavior, reducing anxiety initially but potentially enhancing eating and shape concerns in the longer term. However, there is little causal evidence of those negative effects. This experimental study tests the potential negative impact of body checking. Fifty non-clinical women took part in a study of the effects of body checking in naturalistic settings. Each checked their wrist size every 15 minutes for eight hours on one day, then did not check the next day (order randomized). The impact on eating cognitions and body dissatisfaction was measured at the end of each day, and levels of change in those characteristics were also associated with eating pathology levels. Body checking did not result in more negative general eating attitudes or body dissatisfaction, but did result in a significant increase in a specific cognition that is hypothesised to be relevant to eating pathology - the fear of uncontrollable weight gain following eating. This impact was greater among those women with more negative existing eating attitudes. These findings add to the small experimental evidence base, demonstrating negative causal links between body checking and eating pathology. The findings need to be extended to clinical groups, but support the use of existing cognitive-behavioral methods to reduce body checking behavior.

  6. Experimental evidence of seawater drinking in juvenile hooded (Cystophora cristata) and harp seals (Phoca groenlandica).

    PubMed

    Skalstad, I; Nordøy, E S

    2000-09-01

    This study was undertaken to measure whether young harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) drink seawater and, if so, to investigate how the excess salt load is handled. Blood and urine samples were collected from hooded seal pups (n = 3) and harp seal pups (n = 3) after 2 weeks of freshwater exposure, at intervals during 3 weeks of seawater exposure and, finally, after 2 weeks of re-exposure to fresh water. Total water turnover, as measured by injection of tritiated water, was 2200 ml x day(-1) and 3300 ml x day(-1) in hooded seals and harp seals, respectively. The extent of mariposia was taken as the difference between total water turnover and influx of water through food (free and metabolic water) and respiratory water exchange. Seawater drinking amounted to 14% and 27% of total water turnover (rH2O) for the hooded seals and harp seals, respectively. Further evidence of mariposia was obtained from an increase in the excretion rate of the urine osmolytes Na+, Cl- and Mg2+, during the period of seawater exposure. It is concluded that water influx due to seawater drinking can not be excluded as a source of error when estimating food consumption of free-ranging harp seals and hooded seals, by use of labeled water techniques.

  7. Experimental evidence for an absorbing phase transition underlying yielding of a soft glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamanasa, K. Hima; Gokhale, Shreyas; Sood, A. K.; Ganapathy, Rajesh

    2014-03-01

    A characteristic feature of solids ranging from foams to atomic crystals is the existence of a yield point, which marks the threshold stress beyond which a material undergoes plastic deformation. In hard materials, it is well-known that local yield events occur collectively in the form of intermittent avalanches. The avalanche size distributions exhibit power-law scaling indicating the presence of self-organized criticality. These observations led to predictions of a non-equilibrium phase transition at the yield point. By contrast, for soft solids like gels and dense suspensions, no such predictions exist. In the present work, by combining particle scale imaging with bulk rheology, we provide a direct evidence for a non-equilibrium phase transition governing yielding of an archetypal soft solid - a colloidal glass. The order parameter and the relaxation time exponents revealed that yielding is an absorbing phase transition that belongs to the conserved directed percolation universality class. We also identified a growing length scale associated with clusters of particles with high Debye-Waller factor. Our findings highlight the importance of correlations between local yield events and may well stimulate the development of a unified description of yielding of soft solids.

  8. Experimental evidence for a phase transition in magnesium oxide at exoplanet pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Coppari, F.; Smith, R. F.; Eggert, J. H.; Wang, J.; Rygg, J. R.; Lazicki, A.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Collins, G. W.; Duffy, T. S.

    2013-09-22

    Here, magnesium oxide, an important component of the Earth’s mantle, has been extensively studied in the pressure and temperature range found within the Earth. However,much less is known about its behavior under conditions appropriate for newly-discovered super-Earth planets, where pressures can exceed 1000 GPa (10 Mbar). It is widely believed that MgO will follow the rocksalt (B1) to cesium chloride (B2) transformation pathway commonly found for many alkali halides, alkaline earth oxides and various other ionic compounds. Static compression experiments have determined the structure of MgO to 250 GPa but have been unable to reach pressures necessary to induce the predicted transformation, resulting in large uncertainties regarding its properties under conditions relevant to super-Earths and other large planets. Here we report new dynamic x-ray diffraction measurements of ramp-compressed MgO to 900 GPa.We report evidence for the B2 phase beginning near 600 GPa, remaining stable on further compression to 900 GPa, the highest pressure diffraction data ever collected.

  9. Experimental Evidence of an Eco-evolutionary Feedback during Adaptive Divergence.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Blake; Aebischer, Thierry; Sullam, Karen E; Lundsgaard-Hansen, Bänz; Seehausen, Ole

    2016-02-22

    Differences in how organisms modify their environment can evolve rapidly and might influence adaptive population divergence. In a common garden experiment in aquatic mesocosms, we found that adult stickleback from a recently diverged pair of lake and stream populations had contrasting effects on ecosystem metrics. These modifications were caused by both genetic and plastic differences between populations and were sometimes comparable in magnitude to those caused by the presence/absence of stickleback. Lake and stream fish differentially affected the biomass of zooplankton and phytoplankton, the concentration of phosphorus, and the abundance of several prey (e.g., copepods) and non-prey (e.g., cyanobacteria) species. The adult-mediated effects on mesocosm ecosystems influenced the survival and growth of a subsequent generation of juvenile stickleback reared in the same mesocosms. The prior presence of adults decreased the overall growth rate of juveniles, and the prior presence of stream adults lowered overall juvenile survival. Among the survivors, lake juveniles grew faster than co-occurring stream juveniles, except in mesocosm ecosystems previously modified by adult lake fish that were reared on plankton. Overall, our results provide evidence for reciprocal interactions between ecosystem dynamics and evolutionary change (i.e., eco-evolutionary feedbacks) in the early stages of adaptive population divergence.

  10. Experimental Evidence and In Silico Identification of Tryptophan Decarboxylase in Citrus Genus.

    PubMed

    De Masi, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico; Pignone, Domenico; Servillo, Luigi; Facchiano, Angelo

    2017-02-11

    Plant tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) converts tryptophan into tryptamine, precursor of indolealkylamine alkaloids. The recent finding of tryptamine metabolites in Citrus plants leads to hypothesize the existence of TDC activity in this genus. Here, we report for the first time that, in Citrus x limon seedlings, deuterium labeled tryptophan is decarboxylated into tryptamine, from which successively deuterated N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine is formed. These results give an evidence of the occurrence of the TDC activity and the successive methylation pathway of the tryptamine produced from the tryptophan decarboxylation. In addition, with the aim to identify the genetic basis for the presence of TDC, we carried out a sequence similarity search for TDC in the Citrus genomes using as a probe the TDC sequence reported for the plant Catharanthus roseus. We analyzed the genomes of both Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis, available in public database, and identified putative protein sequences of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Similarly, 42 aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase sequences from 23 plant species were extracted from public databases. Potential sequence signatures for functional TDC were then identified. With this research, we propose for the first time a putative protein sequence for TDC in the genus Citrus.

  11. Glycerol is a suberin monomer. New experimental evidence for an old hypothesis

    PubMed

    Moire; Schmutz; Buchala; Yan; Stark; Ryser

    1999-03-01

    The monomer composition of the esterified part of suberin can be determined using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technology and is accordingly believed to be well known. However, evidence was presented recently indicating that the suberin of green cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv Green Lint) fibers contains substantial amounts of esterified glycerol. This observation is confirmed in the present report by a sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction of membrane lipids and by a developmental study, demonstrating the correlated accumulation of glycerol and established suberin monomers. Corresponding amounts of glycerol also occur in the suberin of the periderm of cotton stems and potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. A periderm preparation of wound-healing potato tuber storage parenchyma was further purified by different treatments. As the purification proceeded, the concentration of glycerol increased at about the same rate as that of alpha,omega-alkanedioic acids, the most diagnostic suberin monomers. Therefore, it is proposed that glycerol is a monomer of suberins in general and can cross-link aliphatic and aromatic suberin domains, corresponding to the electron-translucent and electron-opaque suberin lamellae, respectively. This proposal is consistent with the reported dimensions of the electron-translucent suberin lamellae.

  12. Phylogenetic and experimental evidence for host-specialized cryptic species in a biotrophic oomycete.

    PubMed

    Rouxel, Mélanie; Mestre, Pere; Comont, Gwenaelle; Lehman, Brian L; Schilder, Annemiek; Delmotte, François

    2013-01-01

    Assortative mating resulting from host plant specialization has been proposed to facilitate rapid ecological divergence in biotrophic plant pathogens. Downy mildews, a major group of biotrophic oomycetes, are prime candidates for testing speciation by host plant specialization. Here, we combined a phylogenetic and morphological approach with cross-pathogenicity tests to investigate host plant specialization and host range expansion in grapevine downy mildew. This destructive disease is caused by Plasmopara viticola, an oomycete endemic to North America on wild species and cultivated grapevines. Multiple genealogies and sporangia morphology provide evidence that P. viticola is a complex of four cryptic species, each associated with different host plants. Cross-inoculation experiments showed complete host plant specialization on Parthenocissus quinquefolia and on Vitis riparia, whereas cryptic species found on V. aestivalis, V. labrusca and V. vinifera were revealed to be less specific. We reconstructed the recent host range expansion of P. viticola from wild to cultivated grapevines, and showed that it was accompanied by an increase in aggressiveness of the pathogen. This case study on grapevine downy mildew illustrates how biotrophic plant pathogens can diversify by host plant specialization and emerge in agrosystems by shifting to cultivated hosts. These results might have important implications for viticulture, including breeding for resistance and disease management.

  13. No experimental evidence for visual prior entry of angry faces, even when feeling afraid.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Timothy P; Youssef, Hanan; Denson, Thomas F

    2017-02-01

    Threatening stimuli prevent attentional disengagement. Less clear is whether threat captures attention in addition to holding it. One way to measure attentional capture is to examine visual prior entry. Visual prior entry occurs when one stimulus is consciously recognized as appearing prior to other stimuli. Using a temporal order judgments paradigm, we examined whether threatening, angry faces would experience visual prior entry. Such a finding would provide evidence for attentional capture by threat. We further examined whether such attentional capture by threat was contingent on feeling afraid. Using Bayesian analyses, we found moderate support for the null hypothesis in 2 experiments (Ns = 44, 63). Angry faces did not capture attention, and there was no effect of feeling afraid because of watching a horror movie (Experiment 1) or anticipatory fear about giving a speech in front of an expert panel (Experiment 2). These studies were supplemented with a meta-analysis that suggests the visual prior entry effect is very small, if indeed it exists. Thus, the visual prior entry effect for threatening faces is likely a much smaller effect than the extant literature suggests. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Does Incidental Disgust Amplify Moral Judgment? A Meta-Analytic Review of Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Landy, Justin F; Goodwin, Geoffrey P

    2015-07-01

    The role of emotion in moral judgment is currently a topic of much debate in moral psychology. One specific claim made by many researchers is that irrelevant feelings of disgust can amplify the severity of moral condemnation. Numerous researchers have found this effect, but there have also been several published failures to replicate it. Clarifying this issue would inform important theoretical debates among rival accounts of moral judgment. We meta-analyzed all available studies--published and unpublished--in which incidental disgust was manipulated prior to or concurrent with a moral judgment task (k = 50). We found evidence for a small amplification effect of disgust (d = 0.11), which is strongest for gustatory/olfactory modes of disgust induction. However, there is also some suggestion of publication bias in this literature, and when this is accounted for, the effect disappears entirely (d = -0.01). Moreover, prevalent confounds mean that the effect size that we estimate is best interpreted as an upper bound on the size of the amplification effect. On the basis of the results of this meta-analysis, we argue against strong claims about the causal role of affect in moral judgment and suggest a need for new, more rigorous research on this topic.

  15. Experimental evidence for a phase transition in magnesium oxide at exoplanet pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Coppari, F.; Smith, R. F.; Eggert, J. H.; ...

    2013-09-22

    Here, magnesium oxide, an important component of the Earth’s mantle, has been extensively studied in the pressure and temperature range found within the Earth. However,much less is known about its behavior under conditions appropriate for newly-discovered super-Earth planets, where pressures can exceed 1000 GPa (10 Mbar). It is widely believed that MgO will follow the rocksalt (B1) to cesium chloride (B2) transformation pathway commonly found for many alkali halides, alkaline earth oxides and various other ionic compounds. Static compression experiments have determined the structure of MgO to 250 GPa but have been unable to reach pressures necessary to induce themore » predicted transformation, resulting in large uncertainties regarding its properties under conditions relevant to super-Earths and other large planets. Here we report new dynamic x-ray diffraction measurements of ramp-compressed MgO to 900 GPa.We report evidence for the B2 phase beginning near 600 GPa, remaining stable on further compression to 900 GPa, the highest pressure diffraction data ever collected.« less

  16. No Experimental Evidence for Sneaking in a West African Cichlid Fish with Extremely Long Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Langen, Kathrin; Thünken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in fishes, increasing the potential for sperm competition. Sperm competition has enormous impact on both variation in sperm numbers and sperm size. In cichlids, the sperm competition risk is very divergent and longer sperm are usually interpreted as adaptation to sperm competition. Here we examined whether sneaking tactics exist in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a socially monogamous cichlid with biparental brood care from West Africa. The small testis indicates low gonadal investment which is typical for genetically monogamous species. In contrast, sperm length with up to 85 μm is extraordinarily long. We examined the reproductive behaviour of ten groups with a male-biased sex ratio under semi-natural conditions via continuous video recording. We recorded spawning site preferences and correlates of reproductive success and conducted paternity tests using microsatellites. Safe breeding sites that could be successfully defended were preferred. All offspring could be assigned to their parents and no multiple paternities were detected. Body size of spawning pairs predicted their spawning probability and offspring hatching rate suggesting benefits from mating with large individuals. Our study suggests low risk of sperm competition under the given conditions in P. taeniatus and thus first evidence for genetic monogamy in a substrate breeding cichlid. PMID:24386589

  17. Formation of Quartz-Carbonate Veins: Evidence From Experimental Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Brine-Rock System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecky, D. R.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    Quartz-carbonate veins are common in a variety of moderate temperature hydrothermal systems and ore deposits. Associated fluid inclusions have a wide range of compositions, including liquid carbon dioxide fillings. Examination of chemical and physical conditions which result precipitation of quartz and carbonate in veins raises several key questions about multiphase fluid processes and reaction rates. We have been experimentally investigating physical-chemical reaction processes of mixed brine-carbon dioxide fluids for the shallow crust. Synthetic arkose (microcline + oligoclase + quartz + biotite) plus argillaceous shale were reacted with 5.5 molal NaCl brine. The system was held at 200 C and 200 bars for 32 days to approach steady state, then injected with carbon dioxide and allowed to react for an additional 45 days. In a parallel experiment, the system was allowed to react for 77 days without injection of carbon dioxide. Trace ions initially absent from NaCl brine appeared in solution at mM (K, Ca, and silica) to uM (Mg, Al, Fe and Mn) quantities, reflecting reaction of brine with rock. Without carbon dioxide injection, the silica concentration (2.4 mM) was stable below calculated quartz solubility (3.9 mM). Injection of carbon dioxide resulted in decreased pH and increased silica concentration to a level near calculated chalcedony solubility (5.4 mM). Dissolution of silicate minerals is apparently coupled to the acidity, and concomitant inhibition of the precipitation of quartz (and other silicates). A significant increase in concentration of trace metals is consistent with in-situ pH decrease and increased carbon dioxide dissolved in brine. Multi-phase fluid reaction relationships between supercritical carbon dioxide and brine-rock systems allow formation of carbonate vein precipitates in substantial quantities. Brine and continued rock reactions provide a substantial reservoir for Ca, Mg and Fe components. A separate carbon dioxide liquid allows

  18. Experimental evidence for high noble gas solubilities in silicate melts under mantle pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Burkhard C.; Keppler, Hans

    2002-02-01

    The solubilities of Ar and Xe in Fe-free synthetic haplogranitic and tholeiitic melts were experimentally determined in the pressure range of 1-11 GPa and at temperatures between 1500 and 2000°C. Experiments were performed in a piston cylinder apparatus (1-3 GPa) and in a multi-anvil apparatus (2-11 GPa). The noble gas concentrations in the quenched glasses were determined with electron microprobe. As a function of pressure, Ar solubility increases linearly up to about 4-5 GPa where it reaches about 4.0 and 0.8 wt% for the haplogranitic and tholeiitic melt, respectively. At higher pressure the amount of dissolved Ar remains constant, suggesting that some threshold concentration is reached. The Xe solubility in tholeiite melt exhibits a very similar pattern. It increases linearly up to about 6 GPa, where a threshold concentration of 0.8 wt% is reached. A further increase of pressure up to 11 GPa does not result in changes in Xe solubility. The leveling off in noble gas solubility at high pressures may imply that the interstitial sites in the melt structure, suitable for the accommodation of noble gas atoms, are fully occupied. Indeed, the experimental data can be successfully reproduced with the Langmuir isotherm, implying a solubility model in which the gas atoms occupy a certain population of interstitial sites. However, the data can be equally well described by a model assuming mixing of the noble gas atoms with the oxygen atoms of the silicate melt. From a thermodynamic point of view, the constant noble gas solubility at high pressures simply implies that the partial molar volumes of the respective noble gas in the fluid and in the melt are equal. Our results differ from those of Chamorro-Perez et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 145 (1996) 97-107; Nature 393 (1998) 352-355] who reported an abrupt, order-of-magnitude drop of Ar solubility in silica and olivine melt at around 5 GPa, suggesting that melt densification results in an abrupt decrease of the hole size

  19. Yes, it turns: experimental evidence of pearl rotation during its formation.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, Yannick; Czorlich, Yann; Mastail, Max; Le Tohic, Bruno; Defay, Didier; Lyonnard, Pierre; Marigliano, Damien; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Bari, Hubert; Lo, Cedrik; Chabrier, Sébastien; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2015-07-01

    Cultured pearls are human creations formed by inserting a nucleus and a small piece of mantle tissue into a living shelled mollusc, usually a pearl oyster. Although many pearl observations intuitively suggest a possible rotation of the nucleated pearl inside the oyster, no experimental demonstration of such a movement has ever been done. This can be explained by the difficulty of observation of such a phenomenon in the tissues of a living animal. To investigate this question of pearl rotation, a magnetometer system was specifically engineered to register magnetic field variations with magnetic sensors from movements of a magnetic nucleus inserted in the pearl oyster. We demonstrated that a continuous movement of the nucleus inside the oyster starts after a minimum of 40 days post-grafting and continues until the pearl harvest. We measured a mean angular speed of 1.27° min(-1) calculated for four different oysters. Rotation variability was observed among oysters and may be correlated to pearl shape and defects. Nature's ability to generate so amazingly complex structures like a pearl has delivered one of its secrets.

  20. Experimental evidence of dust-induced shaping of surface dissolved organic matter in the oligotrophic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Villena, Elvira; Djaoudi, Kahina; Barani, Aude; Charrière, Bruno; Delmont, Anne; Hélias-Nunige, Sandra; Marc, Tedetti; Wambeke France, Van

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has shown that dust deposition may impact the functioning of the microbial loop. On one hand, it enhances bacterial mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM), and so may limit the carbon export. On the other hand, the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and DOM in the surface ocean can increase the residence time of DOM, promoting its export and sequestration in the deep ocean. The main goal of this study was to experimentally assess whether the bacterial response to dust deposition is prone to have an effect on the residence time of the DOM pool by modifying its bioavailability. The bacterial degradation of DOM was followed on dust-amended and control treatments during long-term incubations. Dissolved organic carbon concentration decreased by 9 μmol L-1 over the course of the experiment in both control and dust-enriched conditions, with no significant differences between treatments. However, significant differences in DOM optical properties appeared at the latest stage of the incubations suggesting an accumulation of DOM of high molecular weight in the dust-amended treatment. At the end of the incubations, the remaining water was filtered and re-used as a new culture medium for a bacterial natural assemblage. Bacterial abundance and production was lower in the treatment previously submitted to dust enrichment, suggesting a decrease in DOM lability after a dust deposition event. These preliminary results point to a new link between dust and ocean carbon cycle through the modification of the residence time of the DOM pool.

  1. Smectite clays in Mars soil: evidence for their presence and role in Viking biology experimental results.

    PubMed

    Banin, A; Rishpon, J

    1979-12-01

    Various chemical, physical and geological observations indicate that smectite clays are probably the major components of the Martian soil. Satisfactory ground-based chemical simulation of the Viking biology experimental results was obtained with the smectite clays nontronite and montmorillonite when they contained iron and hydrogen as adsorbed ions. Radioactive gas was released from the medium solution used in the Viking Labeled Release (LR) experiment when interacted with the clays, at rates and quantities similar to those measured by Viking on Mars. Heating of the active clay (mixed with soluble salts) to 160 degrees C in CO2 atmosphere reduced the decomposition activity considerably, again, as was observed on Mars. The decomposition reaction in LR experiment is postulated to be iron-catalyzed formate decomposition on the clay surface. The main features of the Viking Pyrolytic Release (PR) experiment were also simulated recently (Hubbard, 1979) which the iron clays, including a relatively low '1st peak' and significant '2nd peak'. The accumulated observations on various Martian soil properties and the results of simulation experiments, thus indicate that smectite clays are major and active components of the Martian soil. It now appears that many of the results of the Viking biology experiments can be explained on the basis of their surface activity in catalysis and adsorption.

  2. No Evidence of Complementary Water Use along a Plant Species Richness Gradient in Temperate Experimental Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Dörte; Gockele, Annette; Ravenek, Janneke M.; Roscher, Christiane; Strecker, Tanja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Buchmann, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Niche complementarity in resource use has been proposed as a key mechanism to explain the positive effects of increasing plant species richness on ecosystem processes, in particular on primary productivity. Since hardly any information is available for niche complementarity in water use, we tested the effects of plant diversity on spatial and temporal complementarity in water uptake in experimental grasslands by using stable water isotopes. We hypothesized that water uptake from deeper soil depths increases in more diverse compared to low diverse plant species mixtures. We labeled soil water in 8 cm (with 18O) and 28 cm depth (with ²H) three times during the 2011 growing season in 40 temperate grassland communities of varying species richness (2, 4, 8 and 16 species) and functional group number and composition (legumes, grasses, tall herbs, small herbs). Stable isotope analyses of xylem and soil water allowed identifying the preferential depth of water uptake. Higher enrichment in 18O of xylem water than in ²H suggested that the main water uptake was in the upper soil layer. Furthermore, our results revealed no differences in root water uptake among communities with different species richness, different number of functional groups or with time. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of increased complementarity in water use in more diverse than in less diverse communities of temperate grassland species. PMID:25587998

  3. Message and price components of Family Caps: experimental evidence from New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, Radha; Camasso, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we examine the relative efficacy of two mechanisms--price consideration and the message of social responsibility--in accounting for Family Cap effects on fertility behavior. The Family Cap is a component of welfare reform policy that denies additional cash benefits to children born 10 or more months after a woman entered the welfare rolls. We use data from the New Jersey Family Development Program (FDP) evaluation that employed a classical experimental design. We find that fertility behaviors are influenced by both Family Cap price and message mechanisms but that these effects are conditioned by welfare recipients' time on welfare and race. Black women who have longer stays on welfare are more likely to be influenced by price while women with shorter stays are influenced by both price and the social message. We believe our results have implications not only for future public welfare policy initiatives but for any social policies that attempt to influence behavior directly, through individual rewards and punishments, and indirectly through the activation of social or community pressures.

  4. Impact of bisphenol a on the cardiovascular system - epidemiological and experimental evidence and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2014-08-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous plasticizing agent used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. There is well-documented and broad human exposure to BPA. The potential risk that BPA poses to the human health has attracted much attention from regulatory agencies and the general public, and has been extensively studied. An emerging and rapidly growing area in the study of BPA's toxicity is its impact on the cardiovascular (CV) system. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that higher urinary BPA concentration in humans is associated with various types of CV diseases, including angina, hypertension, heart attack and coronary and peripheral arterial disease. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute BPA exposure promotes the development of arrhythmias in female rodent hearts. Chronic exposure to BPA has been shown to result in cardiac remodeling, atherosclerosis, and altered blood pressure in rodents. The underlying mechanisms may involve alteration of cardiac Ca2+ handling, ion channel inhibition/activation, oxidative stress, and genome/transcriptome modifications. In this review, we discuss these recent findings that point to the potential CV toxicity of BPA, and highlight the knowledge gaps in this growing research area.

  5. Experimental evidence of impacts of an invasive parakeet on foraging behavior of native birds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Resource competition is one potential behavioral mechanism by which invasive species can impact native species, but detecting this competition can be difficult due to the interactions that variable environmental conditions can have on species behavior. This is particularly the case in urban habitats where the disturbed environment can alter natural behavior from that in undisturbed habitats. The rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri), is an increasingly common invasive species, predominantly associated with large urban centers. Using an experimental approach, we tested the behavioral responses of native garden birds in response to the presence of a rose-ringed parakeet versus the presence of a similarly sized and dominant native bird, the great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major). Parakeet presence significantly reduced feeding rates and increased vigilance among native birds compared with our control treatments. Of visits made by native birds in the presence of a parakeet, feeding was more likely to occur in sites within the parakeet range compared with sites outside, suggesting some habituation of native birds has occurred following prior exposure to parakeets but overall foraging behavior is still disrupted. The results of our study suggest that nonnative species can have complex and subtle impacts on native fauna and show that a nonnative competitor can impact native species simply through their presence near resources. PMID:24822022

  6. Experimental evidence for the origin of two kinds of inclusions in diamonds from the deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparik, Tibor; Hutchison, Mark T.

    2000-08-01

    The conditions of origin for the type III inclusions in diamonds from Brazil [Hutchison, Thesis, 1997] and the NaPx-En inclusion from China [Wang and Sueno, Miner. J. 18 (1996) 9-16] were experimentally determined using a split-sphere anvil apparatus (USSA-2000). The type III inclusions formed at a minimum pressure and temperature of 25 GPa and 2000°C, while the origin of the NaPx-En inclusion was close to 23 GPa and 1900°C. Both determinations suggest that the temperature at the corresponding depths is about 300°C higher than predicted by most geotherms for a convecting mantle without a thermal boundary layer at 660 km. Both kinds of inclusions required rapid, single-stage transport by carbonate melt to the Earth's surface, which is consistent with the depths of origin for this melt greater than 660 km. The unusual composition of the NaPx-En inclusion is the result of metasomatism by carbonate melt enriched in Na, K and Mg, and depleted in Si and Al. Since this melt is not kimberlitic in composition, exchange of material between the melt and the mantle was necessary for the melt to become kimberlitic by the time it reached the surface. The resulting metasomatism taking place over a long period of time could cause major changes in the mineral and chemical composition and the structure of the Earth's mantle, and thus play an important role in its evolution.

  7. Transition from wind pollination to insect pollination in sedges: experimental evidence and functional traits.

    PubMed

    Wragg, Peter D; Johnson, Steven D

    2011-09-01

    Transitions from wind pollination to insect pollination were pivotal to the radiation of land plants, yet only a handful are known and the trait shifts required are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that a transition to insect pollination took place in the ancestrally wind-pollinated sedges (Cyperaceae) and that floral traits modified during this transition have functional significance. We paired putatively insect-pollinated Cyperus obtusiflorus and Cyperus sphaerocephalus with related, co-flowering, co-occurring wind-pollinated species, and compared pairs in terms of pollination mode and functional roles of floral traits. Experimentally excluding insects reduced seed set by 56-89% in putatively insect-pollinated species but not in intermingled wind-pollinated species. The pollen of putatively insect-pollinated species was less motile in a wind tunnel than that of wind-pollinated species. Bees, beetles and flies preferred inflorescences, and color-matched white or yellow models, of putatively insect-pollinated species over inflorescences, or color-matched brown models, of wind-pollinated species. Floral scents of putatively insect-pollinated species were chemically consistent with those of other insect-pollinated plants, and attracted pollinators; wind-pollinated species were unscented. These results show that a transition from wind pollination to insect pollination occurred in sedges and shed new light on the function of traits involved in this important transition.

  8. Chemical, experimental, and morphological evidence for diagenetically altered melanin in exceptionally preserved fossils.

    PubMed

    Colleary, Caitlin; Dolocan, Andrei; Gardner, James; Singh, Suresh; Wuttke, Michael; Rabenstein, Renate; Habersetzer, Jörg; Schaal, Stephan; Feseha, Mulugeta; Clemens, Matthew; Jacobs, Bonnie F; Currano, Ellen D; Jacobs, Louis L; Sylvestersen, Rene Lyng; Gabbott, Sarah E; Vinther, Jakob

    2015-10-13

    In living organisms, color patterns, behavior, and ecology are closely linked. Thus, detection of fossil pigments may permit inferences about important aspects of ancient animal ecology and evolution. Melanin-bearing melanosomes were suggested to preserve as organic residues in exceptionally preserved fossils, retaining distinct morphology that is associated with aspects of original color patterns. Nevertheless, these oblong and spherical structures have also been identified as fossilized bacteria. To date, chemical studies have not directly considered the effects of diagenesis on melanin preservation, and how this may influence its identification. Here we use time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to identify and chemically characterize melanin in a diverse sample of previously unstudied extant and fossil taxa, including fossils with notably different diagenetic histories and geologic ages. We document signatures consistent with melanin preservation in fossils ranging from feathers, to mammals, to amphibians. Using principal component analyses, we characterize putative mixtures of eumelanin and phaeomelanin in both fossil and extant samples. Surprisingly, both extant and fossil amphibians generally exhibit melanosomes with a mixed eumelanin/phaeomelanin composition rather than pure eumelanin, as assumed previously. We argue that experimental maturation of modern melanin samples replicates diagenetic chemical alteration of melanin observed in fossils. This refutes the hypothesis that such fossil microbodies could be bacteria, and demonstrates that melanin is widely responsible for the organic soft tissue outlines in vertebrates found at exceptional fossil localities, thus allowing for the reconstruction of certain aspects of original pigment patterns.

  9. Experimental evidence of large changes in terrestrial chlorine cycling following altered tree species composition.

    PubMed

    Montelius, Malin; Thiry, Yves; Marang, Laura; Ranger, Jacques; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Svensson, Teresia; Bastviken, David

    2015-04-21

    Organochlorine molecules (Clorg) are surprisingly abundant in soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl(-)) levels. Despite the widespread abundance of Clorg and the common ability of microorganisms to produce Clorg, we lack fundamental knowledge about how overall chlorine cycling is regulated in forested ecosystems. Here we present data from a long-term reforestation experiment where native forest was cleared and replaced with five different tree species. Our results show that the abundance and residence times of Cl(-) and Clorg after 30 years were highly dependent on which tree species were planted on the nearby plots. Average Cl(-) and Clorg content in soil humus were higher, at experimental plots with coniferous trees than in those with deciduous trees. Plots with Norway spruce had the highest net accumulation of Cl(-) and Clorg over the experiment period, and showed a 10 and 4 times higher Cl(-) and Clorg storage (kg ha(-1)) in the biomass, respectively, and 7 and 9 times higher storage of Cl(-) and Clorg in the soil humus layer, compared to plots with oak. The results can explain why local soil chlorine levels are frequently independent of atmospheric deposition, and provide opportunities for improved modeling of chlorine distribution and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

  10. Experimental Evidence of Classical Conditioning and Microscopic Engrams in an Electroconductive Material

    PubMed Central

    Karbowski, Lukasz M.; Persinger, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic experimental substrates are indispensable tools which can allow researchers to model biological processes non-invasively in three-dimensional space. In this study, we investigated the capacities of an electroconductive material whose properties converge upon those of the brain. An electrically conductive material composed of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, ions, water, and trace amounts of other organic compounds and minerals was classically conditioned as inferred by electrophysiological measurements. Spectral densities evoked during the display of a conditioned stimulus (CS) probe were strongly congruent with those displayed during the conditioned-unconditioned stimulus pairing (CS-UCS). The neutral stimulus consisted of the pulsed light from a LED. The unconditioned stimulus was an alternating current. Interstimulus intervals >130 ms did not result in conditioned responses. Microscopic analysis of the chemically-fixed substratum revealed 10–200 μm wide ‘vessel structures’ within samples exposed to a stimulus. Greater complexity (increased fractal dimensions) was clearly discernable by light microscopy for stained sections of fixed samples that had been conditioned compared to various controls. The denser pixels indicated greater concentration of stain and increased canalization. Implications for learning and memory formation are discussed. PMID:27764215

  11. User preferences and willingness to pay for safe drinking water: Experimental evidence from rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Burt, Zachary; Njee, Robert M; Mbatia, Yolanda; Msimbe, Veritas; Brown, Joe; Clasen, Thomas F; Malebo, Hamisi M; Ray, Isha

    2017-01-01

    Almost half of all deaths from drinking microbiologically unsafe water occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems, when consistently used, can provide safer drinking water and improve health. Social marketing to increase adoption and use of HWTS depends both on the prices of and preferences for these systems. This study included 556 households from rural Tanzania across two low-income districts with low-quality water sources. Over 9 months in 2012 and 2013, we experimentally evaluated consumer preferences for six "low-cost" HWTS options, including boiling, through an ordinal ranking protocol. We estimated consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for these options, using a modified auction. We allowed respondents to pay for the durable HWTS systems with cash, chickens or mobile money; a significant minority chose chickens as payment. Overall, our participants favored boiling, the ceramic pot filter and, where water was turbid, PuR™ (a combined flocculant-disinfectant). The revealed WTP for all products was far below retail prices, indicating that significant scale-up may need significant subsidies. Our work will inform programs and policies aimed at scaling up HWTS to improve the health of resource-constrained communities that must rely on poor-quality, and sometimes turbid, drinking water sources.

  12. Chemical, experimental, and morphological evidence for diagenetically altered melanin in exceptionally preserved fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colleary, Caitlin; Dolocan, Andrei; Gardner, James; Singh, Suresh; Wuttke, Michael; Rabenstein, Renate; Habersetzer, Jörg; Schaal, Stephan; Feseha, Mulugeta; Clemens, Matthew; Jacobs, Bonnie F.; Currano, Ellen D.; Jacobs, Louis L.; Lyng Sylvestersen, Rene; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Vinther, Jakob

    2015-10-01

    In living organisms, color patterns, behavior, and ecology are closely linked. Thus, detection of fossil pigments may permit inferences about important aspects of ancient animal ecology and evolution. Melanin-bearing melanosomes were suggested to preserve as organic residues in exceptionally preserved fossils, retaining distinct morphology that is associated with aspects of original color patterns. Nevertheless, these oblong and spherical structures have also been identified as fossilized bacteria. To date, chemical studies have not directly considered the effects of diagenesis on melanin preservation, and how this may influence its identification. Here we use time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to identify and chemically characterize melanin in a diverse sample of previously unstudied extant and fossil taxa, including fossils with notably different diagenetic histories and geologic ages. We document signatures consistent with melanin preservation in fossils ranging from feathers, to mammals, to amphibians. Using principal component analyses, we characterize putative mixtures of eumelanin and phaeomelanin in both fossil and extant samples. Surprisingly, both extant and fossil amphibians generally exhibit melanosomes with a mixed eumelanin/phaeomelanin composition rather than pure eumelanin, as assumed previously. We argue that experimental maturation of modern melanin samples replicates diagenetic chemical alteration of melanin observed in fossils. This refutes the hypothesis that such fossil microbodies could be bacteria, and demonstrates that melanin is widely responsible for the organic soft tissue outlines in vertebrates found at exceptional fossil localities, thus allowing for the reconstruction of certain aspects of original pigment patterns.

  13. Experimental evidence for modifying the current physical model for ice accretion on aircraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W.; Walker, E.

    1986-01-01

    Closeup movies, still photographs, and other experimental data suggest that the current physical model for ice accretion needs significant modification. At aircraft airspeeds there was no flow of liquid over the surface of the ice after a short initial flow, even at barely subfreezing temperatures. Instead, there were very large stationary drops on the ice surface that lose water from their bottoms by freezing and replenish their liquid by catching the microscopic cloud droplets. This observation disagrees with the existing physical model, which assumes there is a thin liquid film continuously flowing over the ice surface. With no such flow, the freezing-fraction concept of the model fails when a mass balance is performed on the surface water. Rime ice does, as the model predicts, form when the air temperature is low enough to cause the cloud droplets to freeze almost immediately on impact. However, the characteristic shapes of horn-glaze ice or rime ice are primarily caused by the ice shape affecting the airflow locally and consequently the droplet catch and the resulting ice shape. Ice roughness greatly increases the heat transfer coefficient, stops the movement of drops along the surface, and may also affect the airflow initially and thereby the droplet catch. At high subreezing temperatures the initial flow and shedding of surface drops have a large effect on the ice shape. At the incipient freezing limit, no ice forms.

  14. Chemical, experimental, and morphological evidence for diagenetically altered melanin in exceptionally preserved fossils

    PubMed Central

    Colleary, Caitlin; Dolocan, Andrei; Gardner, James; Singh, Suresh; Wuttke, Michael; Rabenstein, Renate; Habersetzer, Jörg; Schaal, Stephan; Feseha, Mulugeta; Clemens, Matthew; Jacobs, Bonnie F.; Currano, Ellen D.; Jacobs, Louis L.; Sylvestersen, Rene Lyng; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Vinther, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    In living organisms, color patterns, behavior, and ecology are closely linked. Thus, detection of fossil pigments may permit inferences about important aspects of ancient animal ecology and evolution. Melanin-bearing melanosomes were suggested to preserve as organic residues in exceptionally preserved fossils, retaining distinct morphology that is associated with aspects of original color patterns. Nevertheless, these oblong and spherical structures have also been identified as fossilized bacteria. To date, chemical studies have not directly considered the effects of diagenesis on melanin preservation, and how this may influence its identification. Here we use time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to identify and chemically characterize melanin in a diverse sample of previously unstudied extant and fossil taxa, including fossils with notably different diagenetic histories and geologic ages. We document signatures consistent with melanin preservation in fossils ranging from feathers, to mammals, to amphibians. Using principal component analyses, we characterize putative mixtures of eumelanin and phaeomelanin in both fossil and extant samples. Surprisingly, both extant and fossil amphibians generally exhibit melanosomes with a mixed eumelanin/phaeomelanin composition rather than pure eumelanin, as assumed previously. We argue that experimental maturation of modern melanin samples replicates diagenetic chemical alteration of melanin observed in fossils. This refutes the hypothesis that such fossil microbodies could be bacteria, and demonstrates that melanin is widely responsible for the organic soft tissue outlines in vertebrates found at exceptional fossil localities, thus allowing for the reconstruction of certain aspects of original pigment patterns. PMID:26417094

  15. Experimental Evidence Shows the Importance of Behavioural Plasticity and Body Size under Competition in Waterfowl

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Versluijs, Martijn; Wessels, Rick; Cao, Lei; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2016-01-01

    When differently sized species feed on the same resources, interference competition may occur, which may negatively affect their food intake rate. It is expected that competition between species also alters behaviour and feeding patch selection. To assess these changes in behaviour and patch selection, we applied an experimental approach using captive birds of three differently sized Anatidae species: wigeon (Anas penelope) (~600 g), swan goose (Anser cygnoides) (~2700 g) and bean goose (Anser fabalis) (~3200 g). We quantified the functional response for each species and then recorded their behaviour and patch selection with and without potential competitors, using different species combinations. Our results showed that all three species acquired the highest nitrogen intake at relatively tall swards (6, 9 cm) when foraging in single species flocks in the functional response experiment. Goose species were offered foraging patches differing in sward height with and without competitors, and we tested for the effect of competition on foraging behaviour. The mean percentage of time spent feeding and being vigilant did not change under competition for all species. However, all species utilized strategies that increased their peck rate on patches across different sward heights, resulting in the same instantaneous and nitrogen intake rate. Our results suggest that variation in peck rate over different swards height permits Anatidae herbivores to compensate for the loss of intake under competition, illustrating the importance of behavioural plasticity in heterogeneous environments when competing with other species for resources. PMID:27727315

  16. Hypervitaminosis A in experimental nonhuman primates: evidence, causes, and the road to recovery.

    PubMed

    Dever, Joseph T; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2009-10-01

    One of the great underlying assumptions made by all scientists utilizing primate models for their research is that the optimal nutritional status and health of the animals in use has been achieved. That is, no nutrient deficiency or excess has compromised their health in any detectable way. To meet this assumption, we rely on the National Research Council's (NRC's) nutritional recommendations for nonhuman primates to provide accurate guidance for proper dietary formulations. We also rely on feed manufacturers to follow these guidelines. With that in mind, the purpose of this commentary is to discuss three related points that we believe have significant ramifications for the health and well being of captive primates as well as for their effective use in biomedical research. First, our laboratory has shown that most experimental primates are likely in a state of hypervitaminosis A. Second, it is apparent that many primate diets are providing vitamin A at levels higher than the NRC's recommendation. Third, the recommendation itself is based on inadequate information about nutrient needs and is likely too high, especially when compared with human requirements.

  17. Overconfidence in wargames: experimental evidence on expectations, aggression, gender and testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Dominic D.P; McDermott, Rose; Barrett, Emily S; Cowden, Jonathan; Wrangham, Richard; McIntyre, Matthew H; Peter Rosen, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Summary Overconfidence has long been noted by historians and political scientists as a major cause of war. However, the origins of such overconfidence, and sources of variation, remain poorly understood. Mounting empirical studies now show that mentally healthy people tend to exhibit psychological biases that encourage optimism, collectively known as ‘positive illusions’. Positive illusions are thought to have been adaptive in our evolutionary past because they served to cope with adversity, harden resolve, or bluff opponents. Today, however, positive illusions may contribute to costly conflicts and wars. Testosterone has been proposed as a proximate mediator of positive illusions, given its role in promoting dominance and challenge behaviour, particularly in men. To date, no studies have attempted to link overconfidence, decisions about war, gender, and testosterone. Here we report that, in experimental wargames: (i) people are overconfident about their expectations of success; (ii) those who are more overconfident are more likely to attack; (iii) overconfidence and attacks are more pronounced among males than females; and (iv) testosterone is related to expectations of success, but not within gender, so its influence on overconfidence cannot be distinguished from any other gender specific factor. Overall, these results constitute the first empirical support of recent theoretical work linking overconfidence and war. PMID:16959643

  18. Quantum criticality in an Ising chain: experimental evidence for emergent E8 symmetry.

    PubMed

    Coldea, R; Tennant, D A; Wheeler, E M; Wawrzynska, E; Prabhakaran, D; Telling, M; Habicht, K; Smeibidl, P; Kiefer, K

    2010-01-08

    Quantum phase transitions take place between distinct phases of matter at zero temperature. Near the transition point, exotic quantum symmetries can emerge that govern the excitation spectrum of the system. A symmetry described by the E8 Lie group with a spectrum of eight particles was long predicted to appear near the critical point of an Ising chain. We realize this system experimentally by using strong transverse magnetic fields to tune the quasi-one-dimensional Ising ferromagnet CoNb2O6 (cobalt niobate) through its critical point. Spin excitations are observed to change character from pairs of kinks in the ordered phase to spin-flips in the paramagnetic phase. Just below the critical field, the spin dynamics shows a fine structure with two sharp modes at low energies, in a ratio that approaches the golden mean predicted for the first two meson particles of the E8 spectrum. Our results demonstrate the power of symmetry to describe complex quantum behaviors.

  19. A spotlight on liquefaction: evidence from clinical settings and experimental models in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2011-01-01

    Liquefaction is one of the most intriguing aspects of human tuberculosis. It is a major cause of the transition from the infection to active disease (tuberculosis, TB) as well as the transmission of M. tuberculosis to other persons. This paper reviews the natural history of liquefaction in humans from a pathological and radiological point of view and discusses how the experimental models available can be used to address the topic of liquefaction and cavity formation. Different concepts that have been related to liquefaction, from the influence of immune response to mechanical factors, are reviewed. Synchronic necrosis or apoptosis of infected macrophages in a close area, together with an ineffective fibrosis, appears to be clue in this process, in which macrophages, the immune response, and bacillary load interact usually in a particular scenario: the upper lobes of the lung. The summary would be that even if being a stochastic effect, liquefaction would result if the organization of the intragranulomatous necrosis (by means of fibrosis) would be disturbed.

  20. No evidence of complementary water use along a plant species richness gradient in temperate experimental grasslands.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Dörte; Gockele, Annette; Ravenek, Janneke M; Roscher, Christiane; Strecker, Tanja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Buchmann, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Niche complementarity in resource use has been proposed as a key mechanism to explain the positive effects of increasing plant species richness on ecosystem processes, in particular on primary productivity. Since hardly any information is available for niche complementarity in water use, we tested the effects of plant diversity on spatial and temporal complementarity in water uptake in experimental grasslands by using stable water isotopes. We hypothesized that water uptake from deeper soil depths increases in more diverse compared to low diverse plant species mixtures. We labeled soil water in 8 cm (with 18O) and 28 cm depth (with ²H) three times during the 2011 growing season in 40 temperate grassland communities of varying species richness (2, 4, 8 and 16 species) and functional group number and composition (legumes, grasses, tall herbs, small herbs). Stable isotope analyses of xylem and soil water allowed identifying the preferential depth of water uptake. Higher enrichment in 18O of xylem water than in ²H suggested that the main water uptake was in the upper soil layer. Furthermore, our results revealed no differences in root water uptake among communities with different species richness, different number of functional groups or with time. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of increased complementarity in water use in more diverse than in less diverse communities of temperate grassland species.

  1. Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Pierre, Fabrice; Corpet, Denis E

    2008-01-01

    Processed meat intake may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, a major cause of death in affluent countries. The epidemiologic studies published to date conclude that the excess risk in the highest category of processed meat-eaters is comprised between 20% and 50% compared with non-eaters. In addition, the excess risk per gram of intake is clearly higher than that of fresh red meat. Several hypotheses, which are mainly based on studies carried out on red meat, may explain why processed meat intake is linked to cancer risk. Those that have been tested experimentally are (i) that high-fat diets could promote carcinogenesis via insulin resistance or fecal bile acids; (ii) that cooking meat at a high temperature forms carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (iii) that carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds are formed in meat and endogenously; (iv) that heme iron in red meat can promote carcinogenesis because it increases cell proliferation in the mucosa, through lipoperoxidation and/or cytotoxicity of fecal water. Nitrosation might increase the toxicity of heme in cured products. Solving this puzzle is a challenge that would permit to reduce cancer load by changing the processes rather than by banning processed meat.

  2. Circadian rhythms of liver physiology and disease: experimental and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2016-04-01

    The circadian clock system consists of a central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks in peripheral tissues. Peripheral clocks in the liver have fundamental roles in maintaining liver homeostasis, including the regulation of energy metabolism and the expression of enzymes controlling the absorption and metabolism of xenobiotics. Over the past two decades, research has investigated the molecular mechanisms linking circadian clock genes with the regulation of hepatic physiological functions, using global clock-gene-knockout mice, or mice with liver-specific knockout of clock genes or clock-controlled genes. Clock dysfunction accelerates the development of liver diseases such as fatty liver diseases, cirrhosis, hepatitis and liver cancer, and these disorders also disrupt clock function. Food is an important regulator of circadian clocks in peripheral tissues. Thus, controlling the timing of food consumption and food composition, a concept known as chrononutrition, is one area of active research to aid recovery from many physiological dysfunctions. In this Review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms of hepatic circadian gene regulation and the relationships between hepatic circadian clock systems and liver physiology and disease. We concentrate on experimental data obtained from cell or mice and rat models and discuss how these findings translate into clinical research, and we highlight the latest developments in chrononutritional studies.

  3. Social learning solves the problem of narrow-peaked search landscapes: experimental evidence in humans.

    PubMed

    Acerbi, Alberto; Tennie, Claudio; Mesoudi, Alex

    2016-09-01

    The extensive use of social learning is considered a major reason for the ecological success of humans. Theoretical considerations, models and experiments have explored the evolutionary basis of social learning, showing the conditions under which learning from others is more adaptive than individual learning. Here we present an extension of a previous experimental set-up, in which individuals go on simulated 'hunts' and their success depends on the features of a 'virtual arrowhead' they design. Individuals can modify their arrowhead either by individual trial and error or by copying others. We study how, in a multimodal adaptive landscape, the smoothness of the peaks influences learning. We compare narrow peaks, in which solutions close to optima do not provide useful feedback to individuals, to wide peaks, where smooth landscapes allow an effective hill-climbing individual learning strategy. We show that individual learning is more difficult in narrow-peaked landscapes, but that social learners perform almost equally well in both narrow- and wide-peaked search spaces. There was a weak trend for more copying in the narrow than wide condition, although as in previous experiments social information was generally underutilized. Our results highlight the importance of tasks' design space when studying the adaptiveness of high-fidelity social learning.

  4. Evidence for an early wet Moon from experimental crystallization of the lunar magma ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yanhao; Tronche, Elodie J.; Steenstra, Edgar S.; van Westrenen, Wim

    2017-01-01

    The Moon is thought to have been covered initially by a deep magma ocean, its gradual solidification leading to the formation of the plagioclase-rich highland crust. We performed a high-pressure, high-temperature experimental study of lunar mineralogical and geochemical evolution during magma ocean solidification that yields constraints on the presence of water in the earliest lunar interior. In the experiments, a deep layer containing both olivine and pyroxene is formed in the first ~50% of crystallization, β-quartz forms towards the end of crystallization, and the last per cent of magma remaining is extremely iron rich. In dry experiments, plagioclase appears after 68 vol.% solidification and yields a floatation crust with a thickness of ~68 km, far above the observed average of 34-43 km based on lunar gravity. The volume of plagioclase formed during crystallization is significantly less in water-bearing experiments. Using the relationship between magma water content and the resulting crustal thickness in the experiments, and considering uncertainties in initial lunar magma ocean depth, we estimate that the Moon may have contained at least 270 to 1,650 ppm water at the time of magma ocean crystallization, suggesting the Earth-Moon system was water-rich from the start.

  5. Yes, it turns: experimental evidence of pearl rotation during its formation

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Yannick; Czorlich, Yann; Mastail, Max; Le Tohic, Bruno; Defay, Didier; Lyonnard, Pierre; Marigliano, Damien; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Bari, Hubert; Lo, Cedrik; Chabrier, Sébastien; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Cultured pearls are human creations formed by inserting a nucleus and a small piece of mantle tissue into a living shelled mollusc, usually a pearl oyster. Although many pearl observations intuitively suggest a possible rotation of the nucleated pearl inside the oyster, no experimental demonstration of such a movement has ever been done. This can be explained by the difficulty of observation of such a phenomenon in the tissues of a living animal. To investigate this question of pearl rotation, a magnetometer system was specifically engineered to register magnetic field variations with magnetic sensors from movements of a magnetic nucleus inserted in the pearl oyster. We demonstrated that a continuous movement of the nucleus inside the oyster starts after a minimum of 40 days post-grafting and continues until the pearl harvest. We measured a mean angular speed of 1.27° min−1 calculated for four different oysters. Rotation variability was observed among oysters and may be correlated to pearl shape and defects. Nature's ability to generate so amazingly complex structures like a pearl has delivered one of its secrets. PMID:26587271

  6. Experimental evidence of environmental effects on age-specific reproductive success: the importance of resource quality.

    PubMed Central

    Pärt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Age-specific access to high-quality resources (e.g. territory or nest site) might be an important determinant for improved reproductive performance with increasing age. I experimentally investigated the effects of territory quality versus other age-related improvements in breeding competence (e.g. foraging skills, breeding experience and local knowledge) on age-specific reproductive success. Territory quality (i.e. territory field layer height) was manipulated in year 2 of northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) that were breeding in the same territory in two consecutive years. Changing territory quality by changing field layer height had a strong effect on within-individual change in the reproductive success of wheatears. This effect was mainly due to a corresponding change in nest predation risk. When territory quality was kept constant (i.e. no between-year change in territory field layer height), within-individual reproductive success did not change between subsequent years. Thus, age-related improvements in foraging skills, breeding experience and local familiarity had no significant effect on within-individual changes in reproductive success. Increased reproductive success with increased age in northern wheatears is therefore mainly explained by an improved access to high-quality territories with increasing age. I conclude that age-dependent access to high-quality breeding resources might be a widespread phenomenon in nature. PMID:11674875

  7. Social learning solves the problem of narrow-peaked search landscapes: experimental evidence in humans

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Alberto; Tennie, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of social learning is considered a major reason for the ecological success of humans. Theoretical considerations, models and experiments have explored the evolutionary basis of social learning, showing the conditions under which learning from others is more adaptive than individual learning. Here we present an extension of a previous experimental set-up, in which individuals go on simulated ‘hunts’ and their success depends on the features of a ‘virtual arrowhead’ they design. Individuals can modify their arrowhead either by individual trial and error or by copying others. We study how, in a multimodal adaptive landscape, the smoothness of the peaks influences learning. We compare narrow peaks, in which solutions close to optima do not provide useful feedback to individuals, to wide peaks, where smooth landscapes allow an effective hill-climbing individual learning strategy. We show that individual learning is more difficult in narrow-peaked landscapes, but that social learners perform almost equally well in both narrow- and wide-peaked search spaces. There was a weak trend for more copying in the narrow than wide condition, although as in previous experiments social information was generally underutilized. Our results highlight the importance of tasks’ design space when studying the adaptiveness of high-fidelity social learning. PMID:27703687

  8. Impact of Bisphenol A on the Cardiovascular System — Epidemiological and Experimental Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous plasticizing agent used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. There is well-documented and broad human exposure to BPA. The potential risk that BPA poses to the human health has attracted much attention from regulatory agencies and the general public, and has been extensively studied. An emerging and rapidly growing area in the study of BPA’s toxicity is its impact on the cardiovascular (CV) system. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that higher urinary BPA concentration in humans is associated with various types of CV diseases, including angina, hypertension, heart attack and coronary and peripheral arterial disease. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute BPA exposure promotes the development of arrhythmias in female rodent hearts. Chronic exposure to BPA has been shown to result in cardiac remodeling, atherosclerosis, and altered blood pressure in rodents. The underlying mechanisms may involve alteration of cardiac Ca2+ handling, ion channel inhibition/activation, oxidative stress, and genome/transcriptome modifications. In this review, we discuss these recent findings that point to the potential CV toxicity of BPA, and highlight the knowledge gaps in this growing research area. PMID:25153468

  9. Pushing the limit: experimental evidence of climate effects on plant range distributions.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Little, Chelsea J; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Johnson, Bart R

    2013-10-01

    Whether species will be extirpated in their current geographic ranges due to rapidly changing climate, and if so, whether they can avoid extinction by shifting their distributions are pressing questions for biodiversity conservation. However, forecasts of climate change impacts on species' geographic distributions rarely incorporate a demographic understanding of species' responses to climate. Because many biotic and abiotic factors at multiple scales control species' range limits, experimentation is essential to establish underlying mechanisms. We used a manipulative climate change experiment embedded within a natural climate gradient to examine demographic responses of 12 prairie species with northern range limits within the Pacific Northwest, USA. During the first year, warming decreased recruitment of species even at the coolest edge of their current ranges, but this effect disappeared when they were moved poleward beyond their current ranges. This response was largely driven by differences in germination rates. Other vital rates responded in unique and sometimes opposing ways (survivorship vs. fitness) to species' current ranges and climate change, and were mediated by indirect effects of climate on competition and nutrient availability. Our results demonstrate the importance of using regional-scale climate manipulations and the need for longer-term experiments on the demographic responses that control species' distributions.

  10. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation. PMID:27229882

  11. Experimental evidence for a cost of resistance to the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, for the palmate newt, Lissotriton helveticus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, is decimating amphibians worldwide. Unsurprisingly, the majority of studies have therefore concentrated on documenting morbidity and mortality of susceptible species and projecting population consequences as a consequence of this emerging infectious disease. Currently, there is a paucity of studies investigating the sub-lethal costs of Bd in apparently asymptomatic species, particularly in controlled experimental conditions. Here we report the consequences of a single dose of B. dendrobatidis zoospores on captive adult palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) for morphological and behavioural traits that associate with reproductive success. Results A single exposure to ~2000 zoospores induced a subclinical Bd infection. One week after inoculation 84% of newts tested positive for Bd, and of those, 98% had apparently lost the infection by the day 30. However, exposed newts suffered significant mass loss compared with control newts, and those experimental newts removing higher levels of Bd lost most mass. We found no evidence to suggest that three secondary sexual characteristics (areas of dorsal crest and rear foot webbing, and length of tail filament) were reduced between experimental versus control newts; in fact, rear foot webbing was 26% more expansive at the end of the experiment in exposed newts. Finally, compared with unexposed controls, exposure to Bd was associated with a 50% earlier initiation of the non-reproductive terrestrial phase. Conclusions Our results suggest that Bd has measureable, but sub-lethal effects, on adult palmate newts, at least under the laboratory conditions presented. We conclude that the effects reported are most likely to be mediated through the initiation of costly immune responses and/or tissue repair mechanisms. Although we found no evidence of hastened secondary sexual trait regression, through reducing individual body condition and potentially

  12. Racemic R,S-venlafaxine hydrochloride-DNA interaction: experimental and computational evidence.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Hadidi, Saba; Ghasemian, Zeinab; Taherpour, Avat Arman

    2015-06-15

    The interaction of racemic R,S-venlafaxine hydrochloride (rac-VEN) drug with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) was studied using various physico-chemical techniques and molecular docking at simulated physiological conditions (pH=7.4). The fluorescence study shows that ct-DNA interacted with rac-VEN and quenched its intrinsic fluorescence in a static quenching process. These results are further supported by UV-Vis spectra. The binding constant of rac-VEN with ct-DNA (0.57 × 10(4)) obtained from the spectroscopic techniques, which is more in keeping with the groove binding with DNA. Furthermore, the competition experiment using Hoechst33258 indicated that rac-VEN may bind to ct-DNA by a minor groove binding mode. In addition, iodide quenching effect on the fluorescence of rac-VEN before and after the interaction with ct-DNA is another evidence to groove binding. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the binding reaction. Molecular simulation studies carried out by using the AutoDock4 and Spartan 10 programs. From the best docking map, we found that R and S-isomers fit in the A6T7T8/T19A18A17 region in minor groove of B-DNA. Finally, these results indicated that the docking of S-VEN-B-DNA is more stable than R-VEN-B-DNA.

  13. Natural and experimental evidence of past seismic faulting from Clay-Clast Aggregates occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutareaud, S.

    2009-04-01

    S. Boutareaud (1), A.M. Boullier (2,3), M. Andreani (4), D.G. Calugaru (5), P. Beck (6), S.R. Song (7,3), T. Shimamoto (8) Spherical aggregates named Clay-Clast Aggregates (CCAs) have been reported from recent investigations on both retrieved clay-bearing fault gouges from shallow depth seismogenic faults and rotary-shear experiments conducted on clay-bearing gouge at seismic slip-rates. We have conducted additional high velocity rotary-shear experiments and low velocity double-shear experiments. From these two types of friction experiments, we demonstrate that a critical temperature depending on dynamic P-T conditions is needed for the formation of CCAs. This temperature corresponds to the transition of water from liquid to vapor or to critical, that induces gouge pore fluid expansion and therefore a thermal pressurization of the fault. We compared natural CCAs obtained by the Taiwan Chelungpu fault Drilling Program (TCDP) from a gouge layer recognized as the last slip surface of the Mw 7.6 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, and CCAs obtained from our high velocity experiments. EDX-SEM element mapping, SEM and TEM observations show strong similar characteristics of the two types of CCAs with a concentric well-organized fabric of the cortex, and reveals that their development may result from the combination of electrostatic and capillary forces in a critical reactive medium during the dynamic slip-weakening. The formation of CCAs appears to be related to the shearing of a clay-rich granular material that expands and become fluidized. Accordingly, the occurrence of CCAs in natural clay-rich fault gouges constitutes new unequivocal textural evidence for shallow depth thermal pressurization and consequently for past seismic faulting.

  14. Racemic R,S-venlafaxine hydrochloride-DNA interaction: Experimental and computational evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Hadidi, Saba; Ghasemian, Zeinab; Taherpour, Avat(Arman)

    2015-06-01

    The interaction of racemic R,S-venlafaxine hydrochloride (rac-VEN) drug with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) was studied using various physico-chemical techniques and molecular docking at simulated physiological conditions (pH = 7.4). The fluorescence study shows that ct-DNA interacted with rac-VEN and quenched its intrinsic fluorescence in a static quenching process. These results are further supported by UV-Vis spectra. The binding constant of rac-VEN with ct-DNA (0.57 × 104) obtained from the spectroscopic techniques, which is more in keeping with the groove binding with DNA. Furthermore, the competition experiment using Hoechst33258 indicated that rac-VEN may bind to ct-DNA by a minor groove binding mode. In addition, iodide quenching effect on the fluorescence of rac-VEN before and after the interaction with ct-DNA is another evidence to groove binding. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the binding reaction. Molecular simulation studies carried out by using the AutoDock4 and Spartan10 programs. From the best docking map, we found that R and S-isomers fit in the A6T7T8/T19A18A17 region in minor groove of B-DNA. Finally, these results indicated that the docking of S-VEN-B-DNA is more stable than R-VEN-B-DNA.

  15. Experimental Evidence for Weathering and Martian Sulfate Formation Under Extremely Cold Weather-Limited Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, Paul B.; Golden, D. C.; Michalski, J.

    2013-01-01

    High resolution photography and spectroscopy of the martian surface (MOC, HiRISE) from orbit has revolutionized our view of Mars with one of the most important discoveries being wide-spread layered sedimentary deposits associated with sulfate minerals across the low to mid latitude regions of Mars [1, 2]. The mechanism for sulfate formation on Mars has been frequently attributed to playa-like evaporative environments under prolonged warm conditions [3]. However, there are several problems with the presence of prolonged surface temperatures on Mars above 273 K during the Noachian including the faint young Sun [4] and the presence of suitable greenhouse gases [5]. The geomorphic evidence for early warm conditions may instead be explained by periodic episodes of warming rather than long term prolonged warm temperatures [6]. An alternate view of the ancient martian climate contends that prolonged warm temperatures were never present and that the atmosphere and climate has been similar to modern conditions throughout most of its history [6]. This view is more consistent with the climate models, but has had a difficult time explaining the sedimentary history of Mars and in particular the presence of sulfate minerals. We suggest here that mixtures of atmospheric aerosols, ice, and dust have the potential for creating small films of cryo-concentrated acidic solutions that may represent an important unexamined environment for understanding weathering processes on Mars [7, 8]. This study seeks to test whether sulfate formation may be possible at temperatures well below 0 C in water limited environments removing the need for prolonged warm periods to form sulfates on early Mars.

  16. Planetary waves and midlatitude sporadic E layers: Strong experimental evidence for a close relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldoupis, Christos; Pancheva, Dora

    2002-06-01

    A large-amplitude, 7-day period westward propagating S = 1 planetary wave has been reported from ground radar and satellite wind measurements in the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) during the second half of August and well into September 1993. Following recent suggestions that planetary waves might play a role in the formation of midlatitude sporadic E layers (Es), we have obtained and analyzed, for the period from August 1 to September 30, 1993, the sporadic E critical frequency (foEs) time series from eight midlatitude ionosonde stations covering a large longitudinal zone from ~58°E to 157°W. The analysis revealed that all eight station foEs data showed a strong 7-day periodicity, occurring concurrently with the 7-day planetary wave reported elsewhere. Using independent methods for the analysis of the foEs time series, we computed identical estimates for the propagation direction, zonal wave number, and phase velocity of the 7-day wave, which are in agreement with those reported from radar and satellite neutral wind MLT measurements. The present findings provide the first direct evidence, proving that planetary waves play an important role in the physics of midlatitude sporadic E region layers. In addition, our results include an important implication, that the Es parameters measured routinely and rather reliably with a dense global network of digital ionosondes, as well as the enormous ionogram databases existing in World Data Centers, may be used as an alternative means of studying large-scale neutral atmospheric dynamics in the MLT region.

  17. Experimental evidence for limited vocal recognition in a wild primate: implications for the social complexity hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Thore J

    2010-10-07

    Although monitoring social information is a key aspect of the social complexity hypothesis, surprisingly little work has compared social knowledge across different species of wild animals. In the present study, I use playback experiments to test for individual recognition in wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada) to compare with published accounts of social knowledge in chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). Geladas and baboons are closely related primates living in socially complex groups that differ dramatically in group size-geladas routinely associate with more than 10 times the number of conspecifics than do baboons. Using grunts from non-rival males to simulate approaches, I examined the strength of a subject male's response when the 'approach' was from the direction of (i) non-rival males (control), or (ii) rival males (a more salient stimulus if playback grunts are not recognized by the subject). I compared responses separately based on the degree of social overlap between the caller and the subject. Responses indicate that male geladas, unlike baboons, do not use vocalizations to recognize all of the individuals they regularly encounter. This represents, to my knowledge, the first documented evidence of 'missing' social knowledge in a natural primate population. The sharp distinction between baboons and geladas suggests that geladas are either unable or unmotivated to keep track of the individual identity of other males in their multi-level society-even males with whom they have a large degree of social overlap. Thus, these results are consistent with the central assumption of the social complexity hypothesis that social cognition is costly.

  18. Experimental evidence for healing during stick-slip at the bases of ice streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoet, Lucas K.; Iverson, Neal R.

    2016-04-01

    The Whillians Ice Stream has twice daily stick-slip events of ca. 50 cm with a maximum inter-event time of ca. 60,000 s. In order for stick-slip phenomena to occur under rate and state friction, two conditions need to be met: 1) A rate-weakening material at the interface, so that a nucleated slip perturbance can be propagated and 2) a material capable of healing (i.e., becoming stronger) when stationary, so that stress can be recharged during hold periods between ruptures. Although rate weakening has been experimentally demonstrated for some basal tills, experimental data relevant to glacier slip that bear on healing have been absent. Without an understanding of the healing mechanisms active at the beds of ice streams, models of the mechanics of ice stream stick-slip or ice stream shut-down will be inadequately informed. We investigated healing mechanisms with slide-hold-slide experiments, a technique common in rock mechanics, using two different ring shear apparatuses. In one set of experiments till alone was sheared, while in another set ice at its melting temperature was slid over till. These two kinds of experiments allowed for the isolation of mechanisms active at ice-till interface from those within the till. In all experiments sliding velocity was ca. 345 m/yr, and effective stress was ca. 150 kPa. Once steady-state sliding friction, μss, was attained, sliding was stopped and the materials were held in stationary contact for a given duration. When sliding was reinitiated, slip resistance initially rose above the previous μss value to a peak friction, μpeak, before returning to μss. The difference between μss and μpeak, Δμ, was then calculated. For each subsequent hold, the duration of stationary contact was increased logarithmically (100, 1,000, 10,000 and 100,000 s) until the maximum hold duration was attained. From the relationship between hold time and Δμ, a healing rate was calculated. Results from both sets of experiment indicate that

  19. Experimental Infection of Mice with Hamster Parvovirus: Evidence for Interspecies Transmission of Mouse Parvovirus 3

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Rachel D; Marcus, Emily C; Wagner, April M; Besselsen, David G

    2010-01-01

    Hamster parvovirus (HaPV) was isolated 2 decades ago from hamsters with clinical signs similar to those induced in hamsters experimentally infected with other rodent parvoviruses. Genetically, HaPV is most closely related to mouse parvovirus (MPV), which induces subclinical infection in mice. A novel MPV strain, MPV3, was detected recently in naturally infected mice, and genomic sequence analysis indicates that MPV3 is almost identical to HaPV. The goal of the present studies was to examine the infectivity of HaPV in mice. Neonatal and weanling mice of several mouse strains were inoculated with HaPV. Tissues, excretions, and sera were harvested at 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk after inoculation and evaluated by quantitative PCR and serologic assays specific for HaPV. Quantitative PCR detected viral DNA quantities that greatly exceeded the quantity of virus in inocula in multiple tissues of infected mice. Seroconversion to both nonstructural and structural viral proteins was detected in most immunocompetent mice 2 or more weeks after inoculation with HaPV. In neonatal SCID mice, viral transcripts were detected in lymphoid tissues by RT-PCR and viral DNA was detected in feces by quantitative PCR at 8 wk after inoculation. No clinical signs, gross, or histologic lesions were observed. These findings are similar to those observed in mice infected with MPV. These data support the hypothesis that HaPV and MPV3 are likely variants of the same viral species, for which the mouse is the natural rodent host with rare interspecies transmission to the hamster. PMID:20412687

  20. Experimental evidence and mathematical modeling of thermal effects on human colonic smooth muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Altomare, A; Gizzi, A; Guarino, M P L; Loppini, A; Cocca, S; Dipaola, M; Alloni, R; Cicala, M; Filippi, S

    2014-07-01

    It has been shown, in animal models, that gastrointestinal tract (GIT) motility is influenced by temperature; nevertheless, the basic mechanism governing thermal GIT smooth muscle responses has not been fully investigated. Studies based on physiologically tuned mathematical models have predicted that thermal inhomogeneity may induce an electrochemical destabilization of peristaltic activity. In the present study, the effect of thermal cooling on human colonic muscle strip (HCMS) contractility was studied. HCMSs were obtained from disease-free margins of resected segments for cancer. After removal of the mucosa and serosa layers, strips were mounted in separate chambers. After 30 min, spontaneous contractions developed, which were measured using force displacement transducers. Temperature was changed every hour (37, 34, and 31°C). The effect of cooling was analyzed on mean contractile activity, oscillation amplitude, frequency, and contraction to ACh (10(-5) M). At 37°C, HCMSs developed a stable phasic contraction (~0.02 Hz) with a significant ACh-elicited mean contractile response (31% and 22% compared with baseline in the circular and longitudinal axis, respectively). At a lower bath temperature, higher mean contractile amplitude was observed, and it increased in the presence of ACh (78% and 43% higher than the basal tone in the circular and longitudinal axis, respectively, at 31°C). A simplified thermochemomechanical model was tuned on experimental data characterizing the stress state coupling the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration to tissue temperature. In conclusion, acute thermal cooling affects colonic muscular function. Further studies are needed to establish the exact mechanisms involved to better understand clinical consequences of hypothermia on intestinal contractile activity.

  1. Experimental infection of mice with hamster parvovirus: evidence for interspecies transmission of mouse parvovirus 3.

    PubMed

    Christie, Rachel D; Marcus, Emily C; Wagner, April M; Besselsen, David G

    2010-04-01

    Hamster parvovirus (HaPV) was isolated 2 decades ago from hamsters with clinical signs similar to those induced in hamsters experimentally infected with other rodent parvoviruses. Genetically, HaPV is most closely related to mouse parvovirus (MPV), which induces subclinical infection in mice. A novel MPV strain, MPV3, was detected recently in naturally infected mice, and genomic sequence analysis indicates that MPV3 is almost identical to HaPV. The goal of the present studies was to examine the infectivity of HaPV in mice. Neonatal and weanling mice of several mouse strains were inoculated with HaPV. Tissues, excretions, and sera were harvested at 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk after inoculation and evaluated by quantitative PCR and serologic assays specific for HaPV. Quantitative PCR detected viral DNA quantities that greatly exceeded the quantity of virus in inocula in multiple tissues of infected mice. Seroconversion to both nonstructural and structural viral proteins was detected in most immunocompetent mice 2 or more weeks after inoculation with HaPV. In neonatal SCID mice, viral transcripts were detected in lymphoid tissues by RT-PCR and viral DNA was detected in feces by quantitative PCR at 8 wk after inoculation. No clinical signs, gross, or histologic lesions were observed. These findings are similar to those observed in mice infected with MPV. These data support the hypothesis that HaPV and MPV3 are likely variants of the same viral species, for which the mouse is the natural rodent host with rare interspecies transmission to the hamster.

  2. Ultrafine Spherical Quartz Formation during Seismic Fault Slip: Natural and Experimental Evidence and Its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, L. W.; Song, Y. F.; Yang, C. M.; Song, S. R.; Wang, C. C.; Dong, J. J.; Suppe, J.; Shimamoto, T.

    2015-12-01

    In recent works on the determination of pseudotachylyte within the principal slip zone (PSZ) of the Chelungpu fault (Taiwan), we demonstrated that frictional melting occurred at shallow depths during the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. Thus, the characteristics of melts are of paramount importance to investigate processes controlling dynamic fault mechanics during seismic slips. We conducted rock friction experiments on siltstone recovered from the Taiwan Chelungpu fault Drilling Project (TCDP) at a slip rate of 1.3 m/s and a normal stress of 1 MPa. Here we not only target to characterize experimental pseudotachylyte and evaluate the associated frictional behavior, but compare it with natural frictional melts of TCDP. Our results show (1) initial shear stress drop was related to the generation of low viscosity melt patches, (2) the evolution of shear stress in the postmelting regime was congruent with frictional melt rheology, and (3) the slip strengthening was presumably resulted from dehydration of the frictional melt. In particular, the state-of-art of in situ synchrotron analyses (X-ray diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscope) determine the presence of ultrafine spherical quartz (USQ) (~10 nm to 50 nm) in the glassy matrices presumably produced at high temperature. Our observations confirm that the USQ formed in rock friction experiments do occur in natural faults. We surmise the USQ is the result of frictional melting on siltstone and represents the latest slip zones of the Chelungpu fault, and further infer that the viscous melts may terminate seismic slips at shallow crustal conditions.

  3. Siliceous sponge spicule dissolution: In field experimental evidences from temperate and tropical waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolino, Marco; Cattaneo-Vietti, Riccardo; Pansini, Maurizio; Santini, Chiara; Bavestrello, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Sponge siliceous spicules are considered a sink in the silica balance of the oceans as their dissolution rate seems to be negligible, but no field data are available about this process. The aim of this study was a first evaluation of the quantitative dissolution rates of some demosponge and hexactinellid spicules (collected in different localities at different latitudes), left at sea for six months in two localities characterised by different water average temperatures: Mediterranean Sea and Celebes Sea. The effects of silica dissolution on the experimented spicules, studied by SEM analysis, produced an enlargement of the axial canal sometimes resulting in empty spicules. While in demosponges the axial canal wall of eroded spicules was perfectly smooth or slightly rough, the hexactinellid Rossella racovitzae showed a cavernous, well recognisable pattern of dissolution. The dissolution rates were determined evaluating the decrease in outer diameter and in the expansion of the axial channel of about 300 spicules for each considered species and locality. The spicules from the Mediterranean Geodia cydonium did not show any detectable dissolution in both localities, while those from Tethya citrina showed a loose of silica of about 23% in the Mediterranean and 47% in the Celebes Sea. Paratetilla bacca from the Red Sea decreased the silica content of about 30% in both the localities. Tetilla leptoderma from Mar del Plata lost about 8% and 42% of silica respectively in Mediterranean and Celebes Sea. Finally, the hexactinellid spicules from the Antarctic Rossella racovitzae showed highest dissolution rates in both experimental sites (37% and 66% in the Mediterranean and Celebes Sea, respectively). The different levels of dissolution can be related to the different taxonomic position in terms of specular structures as well as to the temperatures at which the spicules have been deposited and exposed. In fact, spicules from the same species showed a dissolution rate generally

  4. Fossil bryophytes as recorders of ancient CO2 levels: Experimental evidence and a Cretaceous case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Benjamin J.; Beerling, David J.; Brentnall, Stuart J.; Royer, Dana L.

    2005-09-01

    Biological and geochemical CO2 proxies provide critical constraints on understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 in driving climate change during Earth history. As no single existing CO2 proxy is without its limitations, there is a clear need for new approaches to reconstructing past CO2 concentrations. Here we develop a new pre-Quaternary CO2 proxy based on the stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of astomatous land plants. In a series of CO2-controlled laboratory experiments, we show that the carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) of a range of bryophyte (liverwort and moss) species increases with atmospheric CO2 across the range 375 to 6000 ppm. Separate experiments establish that variations in growth temperature, water content and substrate type have minor impacts on the Δ13C of liverworts but not mosses, indicating the greater potential of liverworts to faithfully record past variations in CO2. A mechanistic model for calculating past CO2 concentrations from bryophyte Δ13C (White et al., 1994) is extended and calibrated using our experimental results. The potential for fossil liverworts to record past CO2 changes is investigated by analyzing the δ13C of specimens collected from Alexander Island, Antarctica dating to the "greenhouse" world of the mid-Cretaceous. Our analysis and isotopic model yield mid-Cretaceous CO2 concentrations of 1000-1400 ppm, in general agreement with independent proxy data and long-term carbon cycle models. The exceptionally long evolutionary history of bryophytes offers the possibility of reconstructing CO2 concentrations back to the mid-Ordovician, pre-dating all currently used quantitative CO2 proxies.

  5. Experimental evidence for enhanced top-down control of freshwater macrophytes with nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Elisabeth S; Nolet, Bart A

    2014-11-01

    The abundance of primary producers is controlled by bottom-up and top-down forces. Despite the fact that there is consensus that the abundance of freshwater macrophytes is strongly influenced by the availability of resources for plant growth, the importance of top-down control by vertebrate consumers is debated, because field studies yield contrasting results. We hypothesized that these bottom-up and top-down forces may interact, and that consumer impact on macrophyte abundance depends on the nutrient status of the water body. To test this hypothesis, experimental ponds with submerged vegetation containing a mixture of species were subjected to a fertilization treatment and we introduced consumers (mallard ducks, for 8 days) on half of the ponds in a full factorial design. Over the whole 66-day experiment fertilized ponds became dominated by Elodea nuttallii and ponds without extra nutrients by Chara globularis. Nutrient addition significantly increased plant N and P concentrations. There was a strong interactive effect of duck presence and pond nutrient status: macrophyte biomass was reduced (by 50%) after the presence of the ducks on fertilized ponds, but not in the unfertilized ponds. We conclude that nutrient availability interacts with top-down control of submerged vegetation. This may be explained by higher plant palatability at higher nutrient levels, either by a higher plant nutrient concentration or by a shift towards dominance of more palatable plant species, resulting in higher consumer pressure. Including nutrient availability may offer a framework to explain part of the contrasting field observations of consumer control of macrophyte abundance.

  6. Experimental evidence for millisecond activation timescales using the Fast IN Chamber (FINCH) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, U.; Jaenicke, R.; Klein, H.; Nillius, B.; Reimann, B.; Wetter, T.; Bingemer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Ice formation in clouds is a subject of great practical and fundamental importance since the occurrence of ice particle initializes dramatic changes in the microphysical structure of the cloud, which finally ends in the formation of precipitation. The initially step of ice formation is largely unknown. Homogenous nucleation of ice occurs only below -40 °C. If an ice nucleus (IN) is present, heterogeneous nucleation may occur at higher temperature. Here deposition freezing, condensation and immersion freezing as well as contact freezing are known. Also growth rates of ice particles are known as function of crystal surface properties, temperature and super saturation. Timescales for homogenous freezing activation in the order of 0.01 seconds and nucleation rates have been measured by Anderson et al. (1980) and Hagen et al., (1981) using their expansion cloud chamber. This contribution of deposition mode freezing measurements by the ice nucleus counter FINCH presents evidence that the activation timescale of this freezing mode is in the order of 1E-3 seconds. FINCH is an Ice Nucleus counter which activates IN in a supersaturated environment at freezing temperatures. The activation conditions are actively controlled by mixing three gas flows (aerosol, particle-free cold-dry and warm-humid flows).See Bundke et al. 2008 for details. In a special operation mode of FINCH we are able to produce a controlled peak super saturation in the order of 1 ms duration. For several test aerosols the results observed in this particular mode are comparable to normal mode operations, where the maximum super saturation remains for more than a second, thus leading to the conclusion that the time for activation is in the order of 1ms or less. References: R.J. Anderson et al, "A Study of Homogeneous Condensation Freezing Nucleation of Small Water Droplets in an Expansion Cloud Chamber, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 37, 2508-2520, 1980 U.Bundke et al., "The fast Ice Nucleus

  7. Experimental evidences on the scaling behavior of a sandy porous media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallico, C.; Straface, S.; Chidichimo, F.; Ferrante, A. P.; De Bartolo, S.

    2012-04-01

    Various authors treated the scaling of the hydrodispersive parameters in porous media. Nevertheless several studies and reports finding in literature on this matter, specifically on the dispersivity increases with scale of measurement, are based on a statistical or experimental approach (Neuman, 1990; Wheatcraft & Tylor, 1988; Clauser, 1992; Schulze-Makuch, 2005). Following this last approach, we analysed the scale behaviour of a sandy porous media, the grain size of which was characterized carefully in laboratory. For this aim we carried out several tracer tests on three cylindrical samples of the considered sandy soil. The diameter of these samples was the same, equal to 0.0635 m, and the lengths respectively equal to 0.15 m, 0.30 m and 0.60 m. At the bottom and the top of the cylindrical sample two membrane were located to allow the water flow. The water arrived in the sample from the bottom by a plastic tube and came out from the top to exclude the presence of air in the soil sample. The flow was produced by a peristaltic pump, able to develop different rates and therefore different flow velocities. For all tests the utilized tracer was NaCl, that was melted in 50 ml of solution with concentration of 5 g/l. The letting in of the solution was performed immediately up pump, by a connection of plastic tubes and a tap. The tests was carried out at first letting in the tracer in short times and after repeating it with continuous letting in. In this way the tests was carried out, repeating them five times with different rates and, therefore, velocities. For each of test the breakthrough curves were obtained and successively the longitudinal dispersivity (αL) and the coefficient of longitudinal dispersion (DL) were calculated. These values, considering also the lengths of the samples, allowed to verify the scaling behaviour of the examined sandy porous media. In fact a specific law to describe the increase of αL with scale was determined. Analogously another law was

  8. Experimental evidence of AGW generation as possible explanation of lithosphere-ionosphere coupling mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yampolski, Y.; Zalizovski, A.; Lizunov, G.; Korepanov, V.

    2003-04-01

    The existence of ionospheric precursors of earthquakes is widely discussed nowadays in numerous papers and monographs. It is a general opinion that for the reliable identification of ionospheric precursors of seismic hazards a problem oriented satellite project is necessary. A couple of such projects DEMETER in France and VARIANT in Ukraine are expected to be launched next year. In order to be more sure with their results a physically valid model of lithospheric-ionospheric interaction should be proposed and its reliability estimated. One of the most supported mechanisms of such interaction is acoustic gravity waves (AGW) generation near the earth surface during the period just preceding the earthquake and their penetration into the ionospheric plasma and interaction with it. Every stage of this mechanism AGW generation, AGW propagation through the atmosphere and AGW interaction with ionospheric plasma still needs clear physical explanation. This paper discusses experimental results obtained in Antarctica at electromagnetic polygon of the Ukrainian station “Akademik Vernadsky”. Recenly a set of super sensitive magnetometers covering frequency band from DC to ~300 Hz was installed there and continuous magnetic field monitoring was organized. Together with extremely low level of electromagnetic disturbances there it allowed to collect statistically significant data set giving new light on the possible model of the third stage of the mentioned interaction mechanism. The main model output is that the AGWs modulate mostly not the electronic concentration as it was accepted early, but the transversal conductivities of the lower ionosphere. The following hypothetical interactions chain of events was proposed and numerically confirmed: AGW excitation ® atmospheric neutral component modulation ® collision frequency variation in E-layer ® Pedersen and Hall conductivities modulation ® dynamo current modulation ® magnetic field variations. This interaction mechanism

  9. Thiol groups controls on arsenite binding by organic matter: new experimental and modeling evidence.

    PubMed

    Catrouillet, Charlotte; Davranche, Mélanie; Dia, Aline; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine; Pédrot, Mathieu; Marsac, Rémi; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-12-15

    Although it has been suggested that several mechanisms can describe the direct binding of As(III) to organic matter (OM), more recently, the thiol functional group of humic acid (HA) was shown to be an important potential binding site for As(III). Isotherm experiments on As(III) sorption to HAs, that have either been grafted with thiol or not, were thus conducted to investigate the preferential As(III) binding sites. There was a low level of binding of As(III) to HA, which was strongly dependent on the abundance of the thiols. Experimental datasets were used to develop a new model (the modified PHREEQC-Model VI), which defines HA as a group of discrete carboxylic, phenolic and thiol sites. Protonation/deprotonation constants were determined for each group of sites (pKA=4.28±0.03; ΔpKA=2.13±0.10; pKB=7.11±0.26; ΔpKB=3.52±0.49; pKS=5.82±0.052; ΔpKS=6.12±0.12 for the carboxylic, phenolic and thiols sites, respectively) from HAs that were either grafted with thiol or not. The pKS value corresponds to that of single thiol-containing organic ligands. Two binding models were tested: the Mono model, which considered that As(III) is bound to the HA thiol site as monodentate complexes, and the Tri model, which considered that As(III) is bound as tridentate complexes. A simulation of the available literature datasets was used to validate the Mono model, with logKMS=2.91±0.04, i.e. the monodentate hypothesis. This study highlighted the importance of thiol groups in OM reactivity and, notably, determined the As(III) concentration bound to OM (considering that Fe is lacking or at least negligible) and was used to develop a model that is able to determine the As(III) concentrations bound to OM.

  10. Experimental evidence of thermo-mechanical pressurization of faults during earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violay, Marie; Di Toro, Giulio; Nielsen, Stefan; Spagnuolo, Elena; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes occur while fault strength decreases with increasing slip and slip rate. Thermo-mechanical pressurization of pore fluids induced by frictional heating during seismic slip is one of the possible mechanisms responsible for fault dynamic weakening. However, has not yet been observed in the laboratory. To investigate seismic slip in the presence of pore fluids, 26 friction experiments were conducted at room temperature on hollow cylinders (50/30 mm external/internal diameter) of Etna basalt (1) under room-dry conditions or immersed in water under either (2) drained conditions (constant pore pressure, preventing fluid pressurization), and (3) undrained conditions (constant pore volume). Experiments were performed by spinning two basalt cylinders with the rotary shear machine (SHIVA, INGV Rome) at target slip rates (V) of 3 m/s, displacements (δ) from 4 m to 6 m, normal stress (σn) ranging from 15 to 35 MPa and initial pore fluid pressure (Pf) of 5 MPa.The experimental data are compared with those obtained from carbonate-bearing rocks (Carrara marble). In all the experiments, the coefficient of friction μ decayed exponentially from a peak value (μp = 0.55 ∓ 0.07) at about the initiation of slip towards a steady-state value μss of 0.1 under room-dry conditions, 0.1 under drained conditions and 0.08 under undrained conditions. The shear stress decay was about 75 percent over the first 5 cm of slip, independently of the ambient conditions. However, at a given σneff, δ and V, steady state shear stress was 20 percent lower under undrained than under drained and room dry conditions. Moreover, Pf under undrained conditions increased with displacement following a power law. Conversely, Pf and σn did not vary under drained conditions. After all experiments, a continuous, 100-200 µm thick, layer of glass (Scanning Electron Microscope investigation) separated the rock cylinders, irrespective of the ambient and hydraulic conditions. In summary, the mechanical

  11. Transition from Slow to Fast Slip with Temperature, Forcing Velocity and Normal Stress: Experimental Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, E. K.; Brown, K. M.; Fialko, Y.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate frictional properties of K-feldspar bearing granite using a heated direct shear apparatus. We study the effects of temperature, applied forcing velocity and normal stress on the evolution of friction. We find that dramatic changes in slip rate and stress drop occur in response to changing experimental conditions. We perform two types of tests in this study: high sampling rate tests and hold tests. High sampling rate (10,000 Hz) tests reveal the effects of varying temperature, normal stress and forcing velocity on the amplitude, duration and velocity of individual slip events. Increasing temperature increases both slip amplitude and slip rate and decreases slip duration. Slip rates gradually increase as temperatures rise from 15 to 300 °C. However, we observe a dramatic jump in slip characteristics as temperatures rise from 300 to 400 °C; slip rates increase by two orders of magnitude from 0.17 to 10.46 mm/s. We speculate that the jump in slip velocities is related to the onset of substantial weakening of the quartz mineral phase and associated increases in contact area. The effect of increasing normal stress or decreasing forcing velocity is similar to but slightly different than temperature effects. We also tend to see increases in slip amplitude and velocity but slip time also increases. We also performed a series of hold tests to study the effect of temperature on the time dependent post slip healing of the frictional surface. We measure peak friction coefficient as a function of hold time at constant normal/shear load at 15, 300 and 500 °C. In rough agreement with results of Dieterich (1972), at 15°C the static coefficient of friction increases as a logarithm of hold time with a pre-multiplying coefficient. Raising temperature increases the value and rate of change of the static friction coefficient as a function of hold time. This suggests that post slip fault strengthening and the subsequent seismic stress drop are enhanced at higher

  12. Experimental evidence for growth advantage and metabolic shift stimulated by photophosphorylation of proteorhodopsin expressed in Escherichia coli at anaerobic condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Li, Yan; Xu, Tuan; Shi, Zhenyu; Wu, Qiong

    2015-05-01

    Since solar light energy is the source of all renewable biological energy, the direct usage of light energy by bacterial cell factory has been a very attractive concept, especially using light energy to promote anaerobic fermentation growth and even recycle low-energy carbon source when energy is the limiting factor. Proteorhodopsin(PR), a light-driven proton pump proven to couple with ATP synthesis when expressed heterogeneously, is an interesting and simple option to enable light usage in engineered strains. However, although it was reported to influence fermentation in some cases, heterogeneous proteorhodopsin expression was never shown to support growth advantage or cause metabolic shift by photophosphorylation so far. Hereby, we presented the first experimental evidence that heterogeneously expressed proteorhodopsin can provide growth advantage and cause ATP-dependent metabolism shift of acetate and lactate changes in Escherichia coli at anaerobic condition. Those discoveries suggest further application potential of PR in anaerobic fermentation where energy is a limiting factor.

  13. Experimental evidence of momentum transport induced by an up-down asymmetric magnetic equilibrium in toroidal plasmas.

    PubMed

    Camenen, Y; Bortolon, A; Duval, B P; Federspiel, L; Peeters, A G; Casson, F J; Hornsby, W A; Karpushov, A N; Piras, F; Sauter, O; Snodin, A P; Szepesi, G

    2010-09-24

    The first experimental evidence of parallel momentum transport generated by the up-down asymmetry of a toroidal plasma is reported. The experiments, conducted in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable, were motivated by the recent theoretical discovery of ion-scale turbulent momentum transport induced by an up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. The toroidal rotation gradient is observed to depend on the asymmetry in the outer part of the plasma leading to a variation of the central rotation by a factor of 1.5-2. The direction of the effect and its magnitude are in agreement with theoretical predictions for the eight possible combinations of plasma asymmetry, current, and magnetic field.

  14. Experimental evidence of the spatial coherence moiré and the filtering of classes of radiator pairs.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Roman; Usuga-Castaneda, Mario; Herrera-Ramírez, Jorge

    2007-08-01

    Evidence of the physical existence of the spatial coherence moiré is obtained by confronting numerical results with experimental results of spatially partial interference. Although it was performed for two particular cases, the results reveal a general behavior of the optical fields in any state of spatial coherence. Moreover, the study of the spatial coherence moiré deals with a new type of filtering, named filtering of classes of radiator pairs, which allows changing the power spectrum at the observation plane by modulating the complex degree of spatial coherence, without altering the power distribution at the aperture plane or introducing conventional spatial filters. This new procedure can optimize some technological applications of actual interest, as the beam shaping for instance.

  15. Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities by Certain Antiepileptic Drugs (Valproic Acid, Oxcarbazepine, and Topiramate): Evidence in Humans and Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Romero-Toledo, Arantxa; Sampieri, Aristides III; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that at least 100 million people worldwide will suffer from epilepsy at some point in their lives. This neurological disorder induces brain death due to the excessive liberation of glutamate, which activates the postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, which in turn cause the reuptake of intracellular calcium (excitotoxicity). This excitotoxicity elicits a series of events leading to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several studies in experimental models and in humans have demonstrated that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit antioxidant effects by modulating the activity of various enzymes associated with this type of stress. Considering the above-mentioned data, we aimed to compile evidence elucidating how AEDs such as valproic acid (VPA), oxcarbazepine (OXC), and topiramate (TPM) modulate oxidative stress. PMID:24454986

  16. Modulation of antioxidant enzymatic activities by certain antiepileptic drugs (valproic acid, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate): evidence in humans and experimental models.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Romero-Toledo, Arantxa; Sampieri, Aristides; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that at least 100 million people worldwide will suffer from epilepsy at some point in their lives. This neurological disorder induces brain death due to the excessive liberation of glutamate, which activates the postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, which in turn cause the reuptake of intracellular calcium (excitotoxicity). This excitotoxicity elicits a series of events leading to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several studies in experimental models and in humans have demonstrated that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit antioxidant effects by modulating the activity of various enzymes associated with this type of stress. Considering the above-mentioned data, we aimed to compile evidence elucidating how AEDs such as valproic acid (VPA), oxcarbazepine (OXC), and topiramate (TPM) modulate oxidative stress.

  17. Compelling experimental evidence of a Dirac cone in the electronic structure of a 2D Silicon layer

    PubMed Central

    Sadeddine, Sana; Enriquez, Hanna; Bendounan, Azzedine; Kumar Das, Pranab; Vobornik, Ivana; Kara, Abdelkader; Mayne, Andrew J.; Sirotti, Fausto; Dujardin, Gérald; Oughaddou, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The remarkable properties of graphene stem from its two-dimensional (2D) structure, with a linear dispersion of the electronic states at the corners of the Brillouin zone (BZ) forming a Dirac cone. Since then, other 2D materials have been suggested based on boron, silicon, germanium, phosphorus, tin, and metal di-chalcogenides. Here, we present an experimental investigation of a single silicon layer on Au(111) using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (HR-ARPES), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The HR-ARPES data show compelling evidence that the silicon based 2D overlayer is responsible for the observed linear dispersed feature in the valence band, with a Fermi velocity of comparable to that of graphene. The STM images show extended and homogeneous domains, offering a viable route to the fabrication of silicene-based opto-electronic devices. PMID:28281666

  18. The effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behaviors: international evidence from correlational, longitudinal, and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Douglas A; Anderson, Craig A; Yukawa, Shintaro; Ihori, Nobuko; Saleem, Muniba; Ming, Lim Kam; Shibuya, Akiko; Liau, Albert K; Khoo, Angeline; Bushman, Brad J; Rowell Huesmann, L; Sakamoto, Akira

    2009-06-01

    Although dozens of studies have documented a relationship between violent video games and aggressive behaviors, very little attention has been paid to potential effects of prosocial games. Theoretically, games in which game characters help and support each other in nonviolent ways should increase both short-term and long-term prosocial behaviors. We report three studies conducted in three countries with three age groups to test this hypothesis. In the correlational study, Singaporean middle-school students who played more prosocial games behaved more prosocially. In the two longitudinal samples of Japanese children and adolescents, prosocial game play predicted later increases in prosocial behavior. In the experimental study, U.S. undergraduates randomly assigned to play prosocial games behaved more prosocially toward another student. These similar results across different methodologies, ages, and cultures provide robust evidence of a prosocial game content effect, and they provide support for the General Learning Model.

  19. The Effects of Prosocial Video Games on Prosocial Behaviors: International Evidence from Correlational, Longitudinal, and Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Anderson, Craig A.; Yukawa, Shintaro; Ihori, Nobuko; Saleem, Muniba; Ming, Lim Kam; Shibuya, Akiko; Liau, Albert K.; Khoo, Angeline; Bushman, Brad J.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Sakamoto, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Although dozens of studies have documented a relation between violent video games and aggressive behaviors, very little attention has been paid to potential effects of prosocial games. Theoretically, games in which game characters help and support each other in nonviolent ways should increase both short-term and long-term prosocial behaviors. We report three studies conducted in three countries with three age groups to test this hypothesis. In the correlational study, Singaporean middle-school students who played more prosocial games behaved more prosocially. In the two longitudinal samples of Japanese children and adolescents, prosocial game play predicted later increases in prosocial behavior. In the experimental study, U.S. undergraduates randomly assigned to play prosocial games behaved more prosocially toward another student. These similar results across different methodologies, ages, and cultures provide robust evidence a prosocial game content effect, and provide support for the General Learning Model. PMID:19321812

  20. Compelling experimental evidence of a Dirac cone in the electronic structure of a 2D Silicon layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeddine, Sana; Enriquez, Hanna; Bendounan, Azzedine; Kumar Das, Pranab; Vobornik, Ivana; Kara, Abdelkader; Mayne, Andrew J.; Sirotti, Fausto; Dujardin, Gérald; Oughaddou, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    The remarkable properties of graphene stem from its two-dimensional (2D) structure, with a linear dispersion of the electronic states at the corners of the Brillouin zone (BZ) forming a Dirac cone. Since then, other 2D materials have been suggested based on boron, silicon, germanium, phosphorus, tin, and metal di-chalcogenides. Here, we present an experimental investigation of a single silicon layer on Au(111) using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (HR-ARPES), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The HR-ARPES data show compelling evidence that the silicon based 2D overlayer is responsible for the observed linear dispersed feature in the valence band, with a Fermi velocity of comparable to that of graphene. The STM images show extended and homogeneous domains, offering a viable route to the fabrication of silicene-based opto-electronic devices.

  1. Experimental evidence for the effects of chronic anthropogenic noise on abundance of Greater Sage-Grouse at leks.

    PubMed

    Blickley, Jessica L; Blackwood, Diane; Patricelli, Gail L

    2012-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that chronic noise from human activities negatively affects wild animals, but most studies have failed to separate the effects of chronic noise from confounding factors, such as habitat fragmentation. We played back recorded continuous and intermittent anthropogenic sounds associated with natural gas drilling and roads at leks of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). For 3 breeding seasons, we monitored sage grouse abundance at leks with and without noise. Peak male attendance (i.e., abundance) at leks experimentally treated with noise from natural gas drilling and roads decreased 29% and 73%, respectively, relative to paired controls. Decreases in abundance at leks treated with noise occurred in the first year of the study and continued throughout the experiment. Noise playback did not have a cumulative effect over time on peak male attendance. There was limited evidence for an effect of noise playback on peak female attendance at leks or male attendance the year after the experiment ended. Our results suggest that sage-grouse avoid leks with anthropogenic noise and that intermittent noise has a greater effect on attendance than continuous noise. Our results highlight the threat of anthropogenic noise to population viability for this and other sensitive species.

  2. Cash transfers, maternal depression and emotional well-being: Quasi-experimental evidence from India's Janani Suraksha Yojana programme.

    PubMed

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Pereira, Shreya K; Dutt, Varun; Tougher, Sarah; Haldar, Kaveri; Kumar, Paresh

    2016-08-01

    Maternal depression is an important public health concern. We investigated whether a national-scale initiative that provides cash transfers to women giving birth in government health facilities, the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), reduced maternal depression in India's largest state, Uttar Pradesh. Using primary data on 1695 women collected in early 2015, our quasi-experimental design exploited the fact that some women did not receive the JSY cash due to administrative problems in its disbursement - reasons that are unlikely to be correlated with determinants of maternal depression. We found that receipt of the cash was associated with an 8.5% reduction in the continuous measure of maternal depression and a 36% reduction in moderate depression. There was no evidence of an association with measures of emotional well-being, namely happiness and worry. The results suggest that the JSY had a clinically meaningful effect in reducing the burden of maternal depression, possibly by lessening the financial strain of delivery care. They contribute to the evidence that financial incentive schemes may have public health benefits beyond improving uptake of targeted health services.

  3. Reanalysis and experimental evidence indicate that the earliest trace fossil of a winged insect was a surface-skimming neopteran.

    PubMed

    Marden, James H

    2013-01-01

    A recent description and analysis of an imprint fossil from the Carboniferous concluded that it was made by a mayfly landing in sediment at the edge of water. Here, I reanalyze that trace fossil and supply experimental evidence regarding wing traces and behavior. The thorax of the trace maker lacked structures characteristic of mayflies, but closely matches a modern neopteran insect family (Taeniopterygidae, Plecoptera) little changed from Early Permian fossils. Edges of the folded wings of live Taeniopteryx leave marks on sediment closely matching marks in the trace fossil. Faint marks lateral to and beyond the reach of meso- and metathoracic legs match the location where wings of surface-skimming Taeniopteryx stoneflies lightly touch the sediment when these insects skim onto wet ground at shorelines. Dimensions of the thorax of the trace indicate relatively weak flight ability compared to fossils from the Early Permian, making doubtful the hypothesis that the trace maker was flight capable. Ultimately, this fossil best fits a scenario in which a neopteran insect skimmed across the surface of water, then folded its wings. Surface skimming as a precursor to the evolution of flight in insects is supported by this fossil evidence of skimming behavior in a Carboniferous insect.

  4. The role of barrier membranes for guided bone regeneration and restoration of large bone defects: current experimental and clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of large bone defects represents a great challenge in orthopedic and craniomaxillofacial surgery. Although there are several methods for bone reconstruction, they all have specific indications and limitations. The concept of using barrier membranes for restoration of bone defects has been developed in an effort to simplify their treatment by offering a sinlge-staged procedure. Research on this field of bone regeneration is ongoing, with evidence being mainly attained from preclinical studies. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current experimental and clinical evidence on the use of barrier membranes for restoration of bone defects in maxillofacial and orthopedic surgery. Although there are a few promising preliminary human studies, before clinical applications can be recommended, future research should aim to establish the 'ideal' barrier membrane and delineate the need for additional bone grafting materials aiming to 'mimic' or even accelerate the normal process of bone formation. Reproducible results and long-term observations with barrier membranes in animal studies, and particularly in large animal models, are required as well as well-designed clinical studies to evaluate their safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness. PMID:22834465

  5. Probabilistic evidential assessment of gunshot residue particle evidence (Part II): Bayesian parameter estimation for experimental count data.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, A; Bozza, S; Taroni, F

    2011-03-20

    Part I of this series of articles focused on the construction of graphical probabilistic inference procedures, at various levels of detail, for assessing the evidential value of gunshot residue (GSR) particle evidence. The proposed models--in the form of Bayesian networks--address the issues of background presence of GSR particles, analytical performance (i.e., the efficiency of evidence searching and analysis procedures) and contamination. The use and practical implementation of Bayesian networks for case pre-assessment is also discussed. This paper, Part II, concentrates on Bayesian parameter estimation. This topic complements Part I in that it offers means for producing estimates usable for the numerical specification of the proposed probabilistic graphical models. Bayesian estimation procedures are given a primary focus of attention because they allow the scientist to combine (his/her) prior knowledge about the problem of interest with newly acquired experimental data. The present paper also considers further topics such as the sensitivity of the likelihood ratio due to uncertainty in parameters and the study of likelihood ratio values obtained for members of particular populations (e.g., individuals with or without exposure to GSR).

  6. The role of barrier membranes for guided bone regeneration and restoration of large bone defects: current experimental and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Rozalia; Mataliotakis, George I; Calori, Giorgio Maria; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2012-07-26

    Treatment of large bone defects represents a great challenge in orthopedic and craniomaxillofacial surgery. Although there are several methods for bone reconstruction, they all have specific indications and limitations. The concept of using barrier membranes for restoration of bone defects has been developed in an effort to simplify their treatment by offering a single-staged procedure. Research on this field of bone regeneration is ongoing, with evidence being mainly attained from preclinical studies. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current experimental and clinical evidence on the use of barrier membranes for restoration of bone defects in maxillofacial and orthopedic surgery. Although there are a few promising preliminary human studies, before clinical applications can be recommended, future research should aim to establish the 'ideal' barrier membrane and delineate the need for additional bone grafting materials aiming to 'mimic' or even accelerate the normal process of bone formation. Reproducible results and long-term observations with barrier membranes in animal studies, and particularly in large animal models, are required as well as well-designed clinical studies to evaluate their safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness.

  7. Direct, experimental evidence of the Fermi surface in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-x

    SciTech Connect

    Haghighi, H.; Kaiser, J.H.; Rayner, S.L.; West, R.N. ); Liu, J.Z.; Shelton, R. ); Howell, R.H.; Sterne, P.A.; Solal, F.; Fluss, M.J. )

    1991-04-29

    We report new measurements of the electron-positron momentum spectra of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} performed with ultra-high statistical precision. These data differ from previous results in two significant respects: They show the D{sub 2} symmetry appropriate for untwinned crystals and, more importantly, they show unmistakable, statistically significant, discontinuities that are evidence of a major Fermi surface section. These results provide a partial answer to a question of special significance to the study of high temperature superconductors i.e. the distribution of the electrons in the material, the electronic structure. Special consideration has been given both experimentally and theoretically to the existence and shape of a Fermi surface in the materials and to the superconducting gap. There are only three experimental techniques that can provide details of the electronic structure at useful resolutions. They are angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation, ACAR, angle resolved photo emission, PE, and de Haas van Alphen measurements. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for Diastereomer- and Enantiomer-Specific Accumulation and Biotransformation of HBCD in Maize Roots.

    PubMed

    Huang, Honglin; Zhang, Shuzhen; Lv, Jitao; Wen, Bei; Wang, Sen; Wu, Tong

    2016-11-15

    Diastereomer- and enantiomer-specific accumulation and biotransformation of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated. Molecular interactions of HBCD with plant enzymes were further characterized by homology modeling combined with molecular docking. The (-)α-, (-)β-, and (+)γ-HBCD enantiomers accumulated to levels in maize significantly higher than those of their corresponding enantiomers. Bioisomerization from (+)/(-)-β- and γ-HBCDs to (-)α-HBCD was frequently observed, and (-)γ-HBCD was most easily converted, with bioisomerization efficiency of 90.5 ± 8.2%. Mono- and dihydroxyl HBCDs, debrominated metabolites including pentabromocyclododecene (PBCDe) and tetrabromocyclododecene (TBCDe), and HBCD-GSH adducts were detected in maize roots. Patterns of hydroxylated and debrominated metabolites were significantly different among HBCD diastereomers and enantiomers. Three pairs of HBCD enantiomers were selectively bound into the active sites and interacted with specific residues of maize enzymes CYP71C3v2 and GST31. (+)α-, (-)β-, and (-)γ-HBCDs preferentially bound to CYP71C3v2, whereas (-)α-, (-)β-, and (+)γ-HBCDs had strong affinities to GST31, consistent with experimental observations that (+)α-, (-)β-, and (-)γ-HBCDs were more easily hydroxylated, and (-)α-, (-)β-, and (+)γ-HBCDs were more easily isomerized and debrominated in maize compared to their corresponding enantiomers. This study for the first time provided both experimental and theoretical evidence for stereospecific behaviors of HBCD in plants.

  9. QED: Experimental Evidence

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is perhaps the most precisely tested physics theory ever conceived. It describes the interaction of charged particles by emitting photons. The most precise prediction of this very precise theory is the magnetic strength of the electron, what physicists call the magnetic moment. Prediction and measurement agree to 12 digits of precision. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln talks about this amazing measurement.

  10. QED: Experimental Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-04-19

    The theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is perhaps the most precisely tested physics theory ever conceived. It describes the interaction of charged particles by emitting photons. The most precise prediction of this very precise theory is the magnetic strength of the electron, what physicists call the magnetic moment. Prediction and measurement agree to 12 digits of precision. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln talks about this amazing measurement.

  11. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background White clover (Trifolium repens) is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH) and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Results T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Conclusions Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens) hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale) to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime), along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a broad adaptive range. PMID

  12. Induction and inhibition of diapause by the same photoperiod: experimental evidence for a "double circadian oscillator clock".

    PubMed

    Spieth, Hubert R; Xue, Fangsen; Strau, Katharina

    2004-12-01

    On the southern Iberian Peninsula, the seasonal life history of the large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, comprises 2 different photoperiodically induced developmental arrests: a hibernation diapause at photophases < 11 h and an estivation diapause at photophases > 14 h. At intermediate photophases (12 h to 13 h), the butterfly responds with a nondiapause. Combined with the experimental setup to determine photosensitivity in insects, the different photoperiodic responses at long-, intermediate-, and short-night conditions were examined to gain more insight into the time measurement mechanism in P. brassicae. The study reveals evidence for a "double circadian oscillator clock" mechanism that is based on 2 submechanisms, a "short-night determining system" and a separate "long-night determining system." This conclusion was drawn from the facts that an LD 9:15 long-night induces a hibernation diapause but inhibits an estivation diapause and, conversely, that an LD 16:8 short-night inhibits a hibernation diapause but induces an estivation diapause. This opposite effect of the same photoperiod supports the argument for the existence of 2 independent targets for light-dark cycles, interpreted as 2 antagonistic time measurement systems. The existence and independence of 2 systems was further shown by differences in long-night versus short-night responses regarding photosensitivity, temperature dependence, and heritable factors. The long-night measurement system is most effective in the 5th larval stage, is highly affected by temperature, and is easy to manipulate by selective inbreeding. The short-night measurement system is most effective in the 4th larval stage, is largely temperature compensated, and is not affected by experimental manipulation of the longnight measurement system.

  13. Assessing the impact of human trampling on vegetation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Pescott, Oliver L; Stewart, Gavin B

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation trampling resulting from recreation can adversely impact natural habitats, leading to the loss of vegetation and the degradation of plant communities. A considerable primary literature exists on this topic, therefore it is important to assess whether this accumulated evidence can be used to reach general conclusions concerning vegetation vulnerability to inform conservation management decisions. Experimental trampling studies on a global scale were retrieved using a systematic review methodology and synthesised using random effects meta-analysis. The relationships between vegetation recovery and each of initial vegetation resistance, trampling intensity, time for recovery, Raunkiaer life-form (perennating bud position), and habitat were tested using random effects multiple meta-regressions and subgroup analyses. The systematic search yielded 304 studies; of these, nine reported relevant randomized controlled experiments, providing 188 vegetation recovery effect sizes for analysis. The synthesis indicated there was significant heterogeneity in the impact of trampling on vegetation recovery. This was related to resistance and recovery time, and the interactions of these variables with Raunkiaer life-form, but was not strongly dependent on the intensity of the trampling experienced. The available evidence suggests that vegetation dominated by hemicryptophytes and geophytes recovers from trampling to a greater extent than vegetation dominated by other life-forms. Variation in effect within the chamaephyte, hemicryptophyte and geophyte life-form sub-groups was also explained by the initial resistance of vegetation to trampling, but not by trampling intensity. Intrinsic properties of plant communities appear to be the most important factors determining the response of vegetation to trampling disturbance. Specifically, the dominant Raunkiaer life-form of a plant community accounts for more variation in the resilience of communities to trampling than the

  14. Experimental Evidence for Self-Limiting Reactive Flow through a Fractured Cement Core: Implications for Time-Dependent Wellbore Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta, Nicolas J; Hesse, Marc A; Bryant, Steven L; Strazisar, Brian R; Lopano, Christina L

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of reactive transport experiments in cement fractures. The experiments simulate coupling between flow and reaction when acidic, CO{sub 2}-rich fluids flow along a leaky wellbore. An analog dilute acid with a pH between 2.0 and 3.15 was injected at constant rate between 0.3 and 9.4 cm/s into a fractured cement core. Pressure differential across the core and effluent pH were measured to track flow path evolution, which was analyzed with electron microscopy after injection. In many experiments reaction was restricted within relatively narrow, tortuous channels along the fracture surface. The observations are consistent with coupling between flow and dissolution/precipitation. Injected acid reacts along the fracture surface to leach calcium from cement phases. Ahead of the reaction front, high pH pore fluid mixes with calcium-rich water and induces mineral precipitation. Increases in the pressure differential for most experiments indicate that precipitation can be sufficient to restrict flow. Experimental data from this study combined with published field evidence for mineral precipitation along cemented annuli suggests that leakage of CO{sub 2}-rich fluids along a wellbore may seal the leakage pathway if the initial aperture is small and residence time allows mobilization and precipitation of minerals along the fracture.

  15. Experimental evidence for the formation of CoFe{sub 2}C phase with colossal magnetocrystalline-anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A. E-mail: ecarpenter2@vcu.edu; Bertino, Massimo; Qian, Meichun; Khanna, Shiv N. E-mail: ecarpenter2@vcu.edu; Clifford, Dustin; Carpenter, Everett E. E-mail: ecarpenter2@vcu.edu

    2015-05-25

    Attainment of magnetic order in nanoparticles at room temperature is an issue of critical importance for many different technologies. For ordinary ferromagnetic materials, a reduction in size leads to decreased magnetic anisotropy and results in superparamagnetic relaxations. If, instead, anisotropy could be enhanced at reduced particle sizes, then it would be possible to attain stable magnetic order at room temperature. Herein, we provide experimental evidence substantiating the synthesis of a cobalt iron carbide phase (CoFe{sub 2}C) of nanoparticles. Structural characterization of the CoFe{sub 2}C carbide phase was performed by transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and energy electron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction was also performed as a complimentary analysis. Magnetic characterization of the carbide phase revealed a blocking temperature, T{sub B}, of 790 K for particles with a domain size as small as 5 ± 1 nm. The particles have magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 4.6 ± 2 × 10{sup 6 }J/m{sup 3}, which is ten times larger than that of Co nanoparticles. Such colossal anisotropy leads to thermally stable long range magnetic order. Moreover, the thermal stability constant is much larger than that of the commonly used FePt nanoparticles. With thermal stability and colossal anisotropy, the CoFe{sub 2}C nanoparticles have huge potential for enhanced magnetic data storage devices.

  16. Kava and kava hepatotoxicity: requirements for novel experimental, ethnobotanical and clinical studies based on a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Qiu, Samuel X; Xuan, Tran Dang; Lebot, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Kava hepatotoxicity is a well described disease entity, yet there is uncertainty as to the culprit(s). In particular, there is so far no clear evidence for a causative role of kavalactones and non-kavalactone constituents, such as pipermethystine and flavokavain B, identified from kava. Therefore, novel enzymatic, analytical, toxicological, ethnobotanical and clinical studies are now required. Studies should focus on the identification of further potential hepatotoxic constituents, considering in particular possible adulterants and impurities with special reference to ochratoxin A and aflatoxins (AFs) producing Aspergillus varieties, which should be urgently assessed and published. At present, Aspergillus and other fungus species producing hepatotoxic mycotoxins have not yet been examined thoroughly as possible contaminants of some kava raw materials. Its occurence may be facilitated by high humidity, poor methods for drying procedures and insufficient storage facilities during the time after harvest. Various experimental studies are recommended using aqueous, acetonic and ethanolic kava extracts derived from different plant parts, such as peeled rhizomes and peeled roots including their peelings, and considering both noble and non-noble kava cultivars. In addition, ethnobotanical studies associated with local expertise and surveillance are required to achieve a good quality of kava as the raw material. In clinical trials of patients with anxiety disorders seeking herbal anxiolytic treatment with kava extracts, long-term safety and efficacy should be tested using traditional aqueous extracts obtained from peeled rhizomes and peeled roots of a noble kava cultivar, such as Borogu, to evaluate the risk: benefit ratio. Concomitantly, more research should be conducted on the bioavailability of kavalactones and non-kavalactones derived from aqueous kava extracts. To be on the side of caution and to ensure lack of liver injury, kava consuming inhabitants of the kava

  17. Deciphering The Speed of Link: Experimental Evidence of a Rapid Increase in Soil Respiration Following the Onset of Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayler, Z. E.; Keitel, C.; Jansen, K.; Gessler, A.

    2011-12-01

    The degree of coupling between aboveground assimilation and transport with below-ground metabolism is an indicator of ecosystem nutrient cycling and energy turnover in the rhizosphere as well as having a large impact on their long-term storage capacity in the soil. Understanding how and when assimilates arrive below-ground for mineralization is necessary to predict how nutrient and energy cycles might be altered by current and future changes in climate, species distribution and land use. Currently, there are two proposed mechanisms that describe the link between assimilation and below-ground respiration via the phloem: 1) the transport of assimilates basipetally according to the Münch theory, and 2) pressure-concentration waves. The transport of assimilates through the phloem by mechanism 1 is often quantified through isotopic labeling studies. Thus, the time between isotopic labeling in the canopy and when the labeled carbon is respired from the rhizoshpere characterizes the degree of coupling between aboveground and below-ground metabolism. The timing between the uptake and below-ground respiration of the labeled carbon is termed the "speed of link". Based on statistical approaches, recent studies have reported a speed of link on the order of one day or less in mature forests, which is too fast for phloem transport by molecular diffusion or classical sink-source dynamics. These studies often cite mechanism 2 to support their conclusions despite the lack of experimental evidence. In this presentation, we report results from experiments designed to observe the mechanisms behind the speed of link of Douglas-fir saplings. We kept the plants for several days (0,1 and 6 days) in the dark to create a large carbon source-sink gradient with the intention of inducing a strong pressure-concentration wave. Following the no light treatment, in a controlled growth chamber, we introduced labelled CO2 prior to exposing the plant to light. Upon exposing the plants to light, the

  18. Diverse convergent evidence in the genetic analysis of complex disease: coordinating omic, informatic, and experimental evidence to better identify and validate risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In omic research, such as genome wide association studies, researchers seek to repeat their results in other datasets to reduce false positive findings and thus provide evidence for the existence of true associations. Unfortunately this standard validation approach cannot completely eliminate false positive conclusions, and it can also mask many true associations that might otherwise advance our understanding of pathology. These issues beg the question: How can we increase the amount of knowledge gained from high throughput genetic data? To address this challenge, we present an approach that complements standard statistical validation methods by drawing attention to both potential false negative and false positive conclusions, as well as providing broad information for directing future research. The Diverse Convergent Evidence approach (DiCE) we propose integrates information from multiple sources (omics, informatics, and laboratory experiments) to estimate the strength of the available corroborating evidence supporting a given association. This process is designed to yield an evidence metric that has utility when etiologic heterogeneity, variable risk factor frequencies, and a variety of observational data imperfections might lead to false conclusions. We provide proof of principle examples in which DiCE identified strong evidence for associations that have established biological importance, when standard validation methods alone did not provide support. If used as an adjunct to standard validation methods this approach can leverage multiple distinct data types to improve genetic risk factor discovery/validation, promote effective science communication, and guide future research directions. PMID:25071867

  19. Nutrition, weight gain, and eating behavior in pregnancy: a review of experimental evidence for long-term effects on the risk of obesity in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity has reached near epidemic proportions in the developed world. As reproductive age women are a part of this trend, the effect of maternal obesity on the developing fetus must be investigated. In this review, we evaluated the experimental evidence relating maternal nutritional status and eat...

  20. Experimental evidence and DFT studies of next-nearest-neighbor magnetic interactions through diamagnetic 3d and 4d ions.

    PubMed

    Costes, Jean-Pierre; Duhayon, Carine; Vendier, Laure; Colacio, Enrique; Mota Ávila, Antonio J; Suarez Varela, Jose

    2012-01-16

    of interaction. The presence of weak ferromagnetic interactions through large NC-Ni-CN or NC-Ag-CN bridges (Cu···Cu distances larger than 10 Å) furnishes experimental evidence for the existence of next-nearest-neighbor interactions through diamagnetic centers. DFT calculations do confirm the existence of these magnetic transmission pathways through the diamagnetic metal bridge.

  1. Evidence Evaluation: Measure "Z" Corresponds to Human Utility Judgments Better than Measure "L" and Optimal-Experimental-Design Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusconi, Patrice; Marelli, Marco; D'Addario, Marco; Russo, Selena; Cherubini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Evidence evaluation is a crucial process in many human activities, spanning from medical diagnosis to impression formation. The present experiments investigated which, if any, normative model best conforms to people's intuition about the value of the obtained evidence. Psychologists, epistemologists, and philosophers of science have proposed…

  2. Estimation of critical frequency and height maximum for path middle point on evidence derived from experimental oblique sounding data: comparison of calculated values with experimental and IRI values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Anton G.; Kotovich, Galina V.

    2006-11-01

    The work is devoted to experimental checking of technique for estimation of f 0F2 and hmF2 values in path midpoint through oblique sounding (OS) data. In this work data obtained by Irkutsk chirp-sounder on the Norilsk-Irkutsk path were used and data obtained by Podkamennaya Tunguska ionospheric station (which located near estimating path middle point) were used also. During the calculation, the experimental distance-frequency characteristics (DFC) of path are recalculated into height-frequency characteristics (HFC) in path midpoint by means of Smith method. It lets us to determine f 0F2 value in path middle point. For hmF2 definition N(h) profile is used which was obtained by recalculation of HFC by means the Guliaeva technique. Also the fast method of recalculation was probed in two DFC points. In the work comparison was made between calculated f 0F2 values and experimental f 0F2 values obtained by Podkamennaya Tunguska ionospheric station. Comparison of estimating hmF2 values with values calculated by Dudeney method from experimental f 0E, f 0F2, M(3000)F2 values at Podkamennaya Tunguska was carried out. In addition, estimating values was compared with values given by the IRI model. A capability of the IRI model adaptation by f 0F2 and hmF2 values was investigated. It will help during diagnostics, working out regional models of ionosphere and during the adaptation of various models of ionosphere to the real conditions.

  3. Metal-free α-Amination of Secondary Amines: Computational and Experimental Evidence for Azaquinone Methide and Azomethine Ylide Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Dieckmann, Arne; Richers, Matthew T.; Platonova, Alena Yu.; Zhang, Chen; Seidel, Daniel; Houk, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed a combined computational and experimental study to elucidate the mechanism of a metal-free α-amination of secondary amines. Calculations predicted azaquinone methides and azomethine ylides as the reactive intermediates and showed that iminium ions are unlikely to participate in these transformations. These results were confirmed by experimental deuterium labeling studies and the successful trapping of the postulated azomethine ylide and azaquinone methide intermediates. In addition, computed barrier heights for the rate-limiting step correlate qualitatively with experimental findings. PMID:23517448

  4. Experimental evidence that an asteroid impact led to the extinction of many species 65 million years ago

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, L.W.

    1982-09-01

    The development of the theory that the mass extinction of the dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was caused by an asteroid impact is reviewed. The personnel involved, the objections to the theory, and the evidence refuting those objections are presented chronologically. (ACR)

  5. Early-life adversity accelerates cellular ageing and affects adult inflammation: Experimental evidence from the European starling

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Andrews, Clare; Reichert, Sophie; Bedford, Tom; Kolenda, Claire; Parker, Craig; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Monaghan, Pat; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with accelerated cellular ageing during development and increased inflammation during adulthood. However, human studies can only establish correlation, not causation, and existing experimental animal approaches alter multiple components of early-life adversity simultaneously. We developed a novel hand-rearing paradigm in European starling nestlings (Sturnus vulgaris), in which we separately manipulated nutritional shortfall and begging effort for a period of 10 days. The experimental treatments accelerated erythrocyte telomere attrition and increased DNA damage measured in the juvenile period. For telomere attrition, amount of food and begging effort exerted additive effects. Only the combination of low food amount and high begging effort increased DNA damage. We then measured two markers of inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, when the birds were adults. The experimental treatments affected both inflammatory markers, though the patterns were complex and different for each marker. The effect of the experimental treatments on adult interleukin-6 was partially mediated by increased juvenile DNA damage. Our results show that both nutritional input and begging effort in the nestling period affect cellular ageing and adult inflammation in the starling. However, the pattern of effects is different for different biomarkers measured at different time points. PMID:28094324

  6. Experimental Evidence of the Superiority of the Prevalence Model of Conceptual Change over the Classical Models and Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Patrice; Sauriol, Érik; Riopel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the effects on 558 grades five and six students of three different teaching conditions: the "classical" model of conceptual change (for which cognitive conflict is considered as a precondition to the transformation of knowledge), the "prevalence" model of conceptual change (in which…

  7. Influence of Birth Weight on the Renal Development and Kidney Diseases in Adulthood: Experimental and Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Maria C. P.; Oliveira, Vanessa; Ponzio, Beatriz; Rangel, Marina; Palomino, Zaira; Gil, Frida Zaladek

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical and experimental studies support the hypothesis that foetal programming is an important determinant of nephropathy, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and type 2 diabetes during adulthood. In this paper, the renal repercussions of foetal programming are emphasised, and the physiopathological mechanisms are discussed. The programming of renal diseases is detailed based on the findings of kidney development and functional parameters. PMID:22778952

  8. Modafinil: a useful medication for cocaine addiction? Review of the evidence from neuropharmacological, experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Raga, Jose; Knecht, Carlos; Cepeda, Sonsoles

    2008-06-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder associated with severe medical and psychosocial complications. However, there are no approved medications for cocaine dependent individuals. Modafinil, a medication that differs chemically and pharmacologically from other central nervous system stimulants, has been suggested to be potentially useful for this complex disorder. The present paper aims to critically review the published evidence from laboratory and clinical studies on modafinil for cocaine addiction, including discussion of its pharmacological characteristics and how it may relate with cocaine neurobiology. Whilst its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated, different neurotransmitter systems have been implicated, including modulation on dopamine, glutamate/GABA, noradrenaline and the hypocretin/orexin system, but it is possible that modafinil acts by a synergistic combination of mechanisms. With a favourable pharmacokinetic profile, it appears to have a low abuse potential. Laboratory and clinical studies provide consistent, albeit preliminary, evidence of the potential usefulness of modafinil for cocaine dependent patients. Not only there is no evidence of pharmacokinetic interactions between modafinil and cocaine, but in addition cocaine induced euphoria and cardiovascular effects appear to be attenuated by modafinil. Furthermore, modafinil has been shown to decrease cocaine self-administration. In addition, modafinil treated patient are more likely to achieve protracted abstinence than placebo treated patients. However, further research is needed to confirm these findings.

  9. Evidence for the Use of Isoflurane as a Replacement for Chloral Hydrate Anesthesia in Experimental Stroke: An Ethical Issue

    PubMed Central

    Maud, Pétrault; Thavarak, Ouk; Cédrick, Lachaud; Michèle, Bastide; Vincent, Bérézowski; Olivier, Pétrault; Régis, Bordet

    2014-01-01

    Since an ethical issue has been raised regarding the use of the well-known anesthetic agent chloral hydrate, owing to its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects in animals, attention of neuroscientists has turned to finding out an alternative agent able to meet not only potency, safety, and analgesic efficacy, but also reduced neuroprotective effect for stroke research. The aim of this study was to compare the potential of chloral hydrate and isoflurane for both modulating the action of the experimental neuroprotectant MK801 and exerting analgesia. After middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, no difference was observed in 24 h survival rate, success of ischemia, or infarct volume reduction between both anesthetics. However, isoflurane exerted a more pronounced analgesic effect than chloral hydrate as evidenced by formalin test 3 hours after anesthesia onset, thus encouraging the use of isoflurane in experimental stroke models. PMID:24719888

  10. When Genomics Is Not Enough: Experimental Evidence for a Decrease in LINE-1 Activity During the Evolution of Australian Marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Susanne; Lammers, Fritjof

    2016-01-01

    The autonomous transposable element LINE-1 is a highly abundant element that makes up between 15% and 20% of therian mammal genomes. Since their origin before the divergence of marsupials and placental mammals, LINE-1 elements have contributed actively to the genome landscape. A previous in silico screen of the Tasmanian devil genome revealed a lack of functional coding LINE-1 sequences. In this study we present the results of an in vitro analysis from a partial LINE-1 reverse transcriptase coding sequence in five marsupial species. Our experimental screen supports the in silico findings of the genome-wide degradation of LINE-1 sequences in the Tasmanian devil, and identifies a high frequency of degraded LINE-1 sequences in other Australian marsupials. The comparison between the experimentally obtained LINE-1 sequences and reference genome assemblies suggests that conclusions from in silico analyses of retrotransposition activity can be influenced by incomplete genome assemblies from short reads. PMID:27389686

  11. Experimental evidence of the increased transport due to the wall bounded magnetic drift in low temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gaboriau, F. Baude, R.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.

    2014-05-26

    This paper presents experimental results on plasma transport across the magnetic field (B) in magnetized low-temperature plasma sources. Due to the presence of chamber walls, this transport can be complex even in a non-turbulent regime. In particular, in configurations without cylindrical symmetry, the magnetic drifts tend to be bounded by the chamber walls, thereby inducing plasma asymmetry and reducing magnetic confinement. In this work, we measure electron and ion current densities at metal chamber walls bounding a rectangular magnetic filter and demonstrate that these current densities are asymmetrically nonuniform. We also provide an experimental confirmation of model predictions of increased cross-field electron transport in such filter configuration, scaling as 1/B rather than the classical 1/B{sup 2} scaling.

  12. Silica-rich lavas in the oceanic crust: experimental evidence for fractional crystallization under low water activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Martin; Koepke, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally investigated phase relations and phase compositions as well as the influence of water activity ( aH2O) and redox conditions on the equilibrium crystallization path within an oceanic dacitic potassium-depleted system at shallow pressure (200 MPa). Moreover, we measured the partitioning of trace elements between melt and plagioclase via secondary ion mass spectrometry for a highly evolved experiment (SiO2 = 74.6 wt%). As starting material, we used a dacitic glass dredged at the Pacific-Antarctic Rise. Phase assemblages in natural high-silica systems reported from different locations of fast-spreading oceanic crust could be experimentally reproduced only in a relatively small range of temperature and melt-water content ( T ~950 °C; melt H2O < 1.5 wt%) at redox conditions slightly below the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer. The relatively low water content is remarkable, because distinct hydrothermal influence is generally regarded as key for producing silica-rich rocks in an oceanic environment. However, our conclusion is also supported by mineral and melt chemistry of natural evolved rocks; these rocks are only congruent to the composition of those experimental phases that are produced under low aH2O. Low FeO contents under water-saturated conditions and the characteristic enrichment of Al2O3 in high aH2O experiments, in particular, contradict natural observations, while experiments with low aH2O match the natural trend. Moreover, the observation that highly evolved experimental melts remain H2O-poor while they are relatively enriched in chlorine implies a decoupling between these two volatiles during crustal contamination.

  13. Experimental evidence of E × B plasma rotation in a 2.45 GHz hydrogen discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Cortázar, O. D.; Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.

    2015-12-15

    An experimental observation of a rotating plasma structure in a 2.45 GHz microwave-driven hydrogen discharge is reported. The rotation is presumably produced by E × B drift. The formation of the rotating plasma structure is sensitive to the strength of the off-resonance static magnetic field. The rotation frequency is on the order of 10 kHz and is affected by the neutral gas pressure and applied microwave power.

  14. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats: evidence of its antioxidant property.

    PubMed

    Naik, Suresh R; Thakare, Vishnu N; Patil, Snehal R

    2011-07-01

    The present study investigates the protective effects of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity using various animal models with biochemical parameters like serum marker enzymes and antioxidants in target tissues. In addition, liver and cardiac histoarchitecture changes were also studied. Curcumin treatment inhibited carrageenin and albumin induced edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation. The increased relative weight of liver and heart in CCl(4) induced liver injury and isoproterenol induced cardiac necrosis were also reduced by curcumin treatment. Elevated serum marker enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased lipid peroxidation, decreased gluthione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in edematous, granulomatus, liver and heart tissues during inflammation, liver injury and cardiac necrosis, respectively. Curcumin treatment reversed all these above mentioned biochemical changes significantly in all animal models studied. Even histoarchitecture alterations observed in liver injury and cardiac necrosis observed were partially reversed (improved) by curcumin treatments. In in vitro experiments too curcumin inhibited iron catalyzed lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates, scavenged nitric oxide spontaneously generated from nitroprusside and inhibited heat induced hemolysis of rat erythrocytes. The present in vitro and in vivo experimental findings suggest the protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced inflammation, hepatotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity in rats.

  15. Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Triantafillidis, John K.; Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Vagianos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in experimental colitis. All relevant studies published in Medline and Embase up to June 2015 have been reviewed. The results of bowel histology and serum parameters have been recorded. A satisfactory number of published experimental studies, and a quite large one of both herbal and plant products tested in different studies have been reported. The results showed that in the majority of the studies, herbal therapy reduced the inflammatory activity of experimental colitis and diminished the levels of many inflammatory indices, including serum cytokines and indices of oxidative stress. The most promising plant and herbal products were tormentil extracts, wormwoodherb, Aloe vera, germinated barley foodstuff, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, Panax notoginseng, Ixeris dentata, green tea, Cordia dichotoma, Plantago lanceolata, Iridoidglycosides, and mastic gum. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit via various mechanisms, including immune regulation, anti-oxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-κB, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing these natural substances should be urgently conducted. PMID:27366027

  16. Experimental evidences for a new model in the description of the adsorption-coupled reduction of Cr(VI) by protonated banana skin.

    PubMed

    López-García, Marta; Lodeiro, Pablo; Herrero, Roberto; Barriada, José L; Rey-Castro, Carlos; David, Calin; Sastre de Vicente, Manuel E

    2013-07-01

    This work reports experimental evidences, not previously considered, to evaluate the Cr(VI) removal by protonated banana skin biomass. Variations in the number of hydroxyl groups, quantified by potentiometric titrations, and CO2 evolution during experiments, were attributed mainly to the oxidation of hydroxylic entities present in the studied material. The results indicate that these groups together with the carboxylic moieties are the main functionalities involved on the adsorption-coupled reduction process. The column experiment carried out provides a new approach to obtain the maximum reduction capacity of the material (3.72 mmol g(-1)). Moreover, we hereby propose a model that reports the first evidence for the instant bound of Cr(III) species to the material used, formed after the reduction of Cr(VI) present in solution. The removal process was quantified carrying out experiments under various pHs, biomass doses and Cr(VI) concentrations, and the mechanism underlying chromium removal was identified.

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors as Mediators of Phthalate-Induced Effects in the Male and Female Reproductive Tract: Epidemiological and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Latini, Giuseppe; Scoditti, Egeria; Verrotti, Alberto; De Felice, Claudio; Massaro, Marika

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that male as well as female reproductive function has been declining in human and wildlife populations over the last 40 years. Several factors such as lifestyle or environmental xenobiotics other than genetic factors may play a role in determining adverse effects on reproductive health. Among the environmental xenobiotics phthalates, a family of man-made pollutants are suspected to interfere with the function of the endocrine system and therefore to be endocrine disruptors. The definition of endocrine disruption is today extended to broader endocrine regulations, and includes activation of metabolic sensors, such as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Toxicological studies have shown that phthalates can activate a subset of PPARs. Here, we analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence linking phthalate exposure to both PPAR activation and adverse effects on male and female reproductive health. PMID:18288285

  18. Circum-crater variability of deposits from discrete, laterally and vertically migrating volcanic explosions: Experimental evidence and field implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G. A.; Sonder, I.

    2015-12-01

    Circumferential variation in sorting, thickness, granulometry, and componentry of tephra ring deposits can result from instabilities in the eruptive jet and interactions with the confining crater. Jet instabilities result in fingers of high particle concentrations that form deposits radiating away from a crater, referred to as rays. Two major types of rayed deposits are described from subsurface explosion experiments: (1) symmetrical rayed deposits with an axisymmetric ejecta blanket, which result from vertically directed eruptive jets and (2) zones of rays that extend out from sectors of a crater, with an asymmetrical proximal ejecta skirt, that result from inclined jets. Variations within each group are also associated with variations in the explosion depth relative to the energy of the explosion. Although the surface morphology of rays is likely to be lost in natural tephra rings due to overlapping deposits of numerous explosions, rayed deposits are expected to be preserved in cross section as lenses of relatively coarse and poorly sorted material compared to surrounding deposits. Asymmetrical deposits of inclined jets are anticipated to be particularly distinctive. The experimental facies associations indicate that these deposits would be easily distinguished, given sufficient exposure, from other heterogeneities caused by wind influence, collapse of the crater rim, or the influence of topography on density currents. These experimental results can also be used to further the discussion of deposits from inclined jets from other explosion scenarios, such as Vulcanian blasts and hydrothermal explosions. The experimental rayed deposits described here indicate that the classic interpretation of clast concentration zones in tephra ring deposits must be reevaluated.

  19. Experimental simulation of cat electromyogram: evidence for algebraic summation of motor-unit action-potential trains.

    PubMed

    Day, S J; Hulliger, M

    2001-11-01

    Prompted by the observation that the slope of the relationship between average rectified electromyography (EMG) and the ensemble activation rate of a pool of motor units progressively decreased (showing a downward nonlinearity), an experimental study was carried out to test the widely held notion that the EMG is the simple algebraic sum of motor-unit action-potential trains. The experiments were performed on the cat soleus muscle under isometric conditions, using electrical stimulation of alpha-motor axons isolated in ventral root filaments. The EMG signals were simulated experimentally under conditions where the activation of nearly the entire pool of motor units or of subsets of motor units was completely controlled by the experimenter. Sets of individual motor units or of small groups of motor units were stimulated independently, using stimulation profiles that were strictly repeatable between trials. This permitted a rigorous quantitative comparison of EMGs that were recorded during combined activation of multiple motor filaments with EMGs that were synthesized from the algebraic summation of motor unit action potential trains generated by individual nerve filaments. These were recorded separately by individually stimulating the same filaments with the same activation profiles that were employed during combined stimulation. During combined activation of up to 10 motor filaments, experimentally recorded and computationally synthesized EMGs were virtually identical. This indicates that EMG signals indeed are the outcome of the simple algebraic summation of motor-unit action-potential trains generated by concurrently active motor units. For both recorded and synthesized EMGs, it was confirmed that EMG magnitude increased nonlinearly with the ensemble activation rate of a pool of motor units. The nonlinearity was largely abolished when EMG magnitude was estimated as the sum of rectified, instead of raw, motor-unit action-potential trains. This suggests that the

  20. Experimental Evidence Supported by Simulations of a Very High H2 Diffusion in Metal Organic Framework Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salles, F.; Jobic, H.; Maurin, G.; Koza, M. M.; Llewellyn, P. L.; Devic, T.; Serre, C.; Ferey, G.

    2008-06-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements are combined with molecular dynamics simulations to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the metal organic frameworks MIL-47(V) and MIL-53(Cr). We find that the diffusivity of hydrogen at low loading is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than in zeolites. Such a high mobility has never been experimentally observed before in any nanoporous materials, although it was predicted in carbon nanotubes. Either 1D or 3D diffusion mechanisms are elucidated depending on the chemical features of the MIL framework.

  1. Experimental Evidence Supported by Simulations of a Very High H{sub 2} Diffusion in Metal Organic Framework Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Salles, F.; Maurin, G.; Jobic, H.; Koza, M. M.; Llewellyn, P. L.; Devic, T.; Serre, C.; Ferey, G.

    2008-06-20

    Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements are combined with molecular dynamics simulations to extract the self-diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in the metal organic frameworks MIL-47(V) and MIL-53(Cr). We find that the diffusivity of hydrogen at low loading is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than in zeolites. Such a high mobility has never been experimentally observed before in any nanoporous materials, although it was predicted in carbon nanotubes. Either 1D or 3D diffusion mechanisms are elucidated depending on the chemical features of the MIL framework.

  2. Experimental evidence of single round-trip oscillation in polarization self-modulated vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ropars, G.; Langot, P.; Brunel, M.; Vallet, M.; Bretenaker, F.; Le Floch, A.; Choquette, K.D.

    1997-05-01

    The polarizations and frequencies of the two eigenstates of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser with an external cavity containing a quarter-wave plate are theoretically and experimentally analyzed. It is shown that the polarizations of these eigenstates are fixed by the neutral axes of the quarter-wave plate. The optical pulses at a frequency equal to a half of the free spectral range of the external cavity, observed through a linear polarizer, are due to beats between the two eigenstates. All these features show that such polarization self-modulated lasers oscillate in a single round trip. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Direct Experimental Evidence for Atomic Tunneling of Europium in Crystalline Eu8GaGe30

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, R. P.; Keppens, Veerle; Bonville, Pierre; Nolas, G. S.; Grandjean, F.; Long, G. J.; Christen, Hans M; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David

    2006-01-01

    Moessbauer-effect and microwave absorption experimental evidence unambiguously demonstrates the presence of slow, {approx}450 MHz, tunneling of magnetic europium between four equivalent sites in Eu{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Ge{sub 30}, a stoichiometric clathrate. Remarkably, six of the eight europium atoms, or 11% of the constituents in this solid, tunnel between these four sites separated by 0.55 {angstrom}. The off centering of the atoms or ions in crystalline clathrates appears to be a promising route for producing Rabi oscillators in solid-state materials.

  4. Experimental evidence of intermittent chaos in a glow discharge plasma without external forcing and its numerical modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S. Kumar Shaw, Pankaj; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.; Janaki, M. S.; Saha, Debajyoti; Michael Wharton, Alpha

    2014-03-15

    Intermittent chaos was observed in a glow discharge plasma as the system evolved from regular type of relaxation oscillations (of larger amplitude) to an irregular type of oscillations (of smaller amplitude) as the discharge voltage was increased. Floating potential fluctuations were analyzed by different statistical and spectral methods. Features like a gradual change in the normal variance of the interpeak time intervals, a dip in the skewness, and a hump in the kurtosis with variation in the control parameter have been seen, which are strongly indicative of intermittent behavior in the system. Detailed analysis also suggests that the intrinsic noise level in the experiment increases with the increasing discharge voltage. An attempt has been made to model the experimental observations by a second order nonlinear ordinary differential equation derived from the fluid equations for an unmagnetized plasma. Though the experiment had no external forcing, it was conjectured that the intrinsic noise in the experiment could be playing a vital role in the dynamics of the system. Hence, a constant bias and noise as forcing terms were included in the model. Results from the theoretical model are in close qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-10-01

    Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes.

  6. Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-10-01

    Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes.

  7. Mental Practice Combined with Motor Rehabilitation to Treat Upper Limb Hemiparesis of Post-Stroke Patients: Clinical and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Sergio; Lattari, Eduardo; Paes, Flávia; Rocha, Nuno B.F.; Nardi, Antonio E.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Mura, Gioia; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Carta, Mauro G.; Campos, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of disability in the world. Due to the extended lifetime of the world's population, the number of people affected by stroke has increased substantially over the last years. Stroke may lead to sensorimotor deficits, usually causing hemiplegia or hemiparesia. In order to reduce motor deficits and accelerate functional recovery, MP combined with motor rehabilitation was introduced to the rehabilitation process of post-stroke patients. Evidence has shown that MP combining with motor rehabilitation based on activities of daily living was more effective than conventional motor rehabilitation used per se. This combination proved very useful and effective, with significant results in improvement of motor deficits in post-stroke patients. However, further studies must be conducted to determine specific parameters, such as type of imagery, frequency or duration. PMID:27346996

  8. Mental Practice Combined with Motor Rehabilitation to Treat Upper Limb Hemiparesis of Post-Stroke Patients: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sergio; Lattari, Eduardo; Paes, Flávia; Rocha, Nuno B F; Nardi, Antonio E; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Mura, Gioia; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Carta, Mauro G; Campos, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of disability in the world. Due to the extended lifetime of the world's population, the number of people affected by stroke has increased substantially over the last years. Stroke may lead to sensorimotor deficits, usually causing hemiplegia or hemiparesia. In order to reduce motor deficits and accelerate functional recovery, MP combined with motor rehabilitation was introduced to the rehabilitation process of post-stroke patients. Evidence has shown that MP combining with motor rehabilitation based on activities of daily living was more effective than conventional motor rehabilitation used per se. This combination proved very useful and effective, with significant results in improvement of motor deficits in post-stroke patients. However, further studies must be conducted to determine specific parameters, such as type of imagery, frequency or duration.

  9. Effects of Exercise on Physical and Mental Health, and Cognitive and Brain Functions in Schizophrenia: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Rimes, Ridson Rosa; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Manochio, João; Paes, Flávia; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Mura, Gioia; Wegner, Mirko; Budde, Henning; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Rocha, Joana; Tavares, João Manuel R S; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Exercise promotes several health benefits, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory improvements. It is believed that the practice of exercise in individuals with psychiatric disorders, e.g. schizophrenia, can cause significant changes. Schizophrenic patients have problematic lifestyle habits compared with general population; this may cause a high mortality rate, mainly caused by cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate changes in physical and mental health, cognitive and brain functioning due to the practice of exercise in patients with schizophrenia. Although still little is known about the benefits of exercise on mental health, cognitive and brain functioning of schizophrenic patients, exercise training has been shown to be a beneficial intervention in the control and reduction of disease severity. Type of training, form of execution, duration and intensity need to be better studied as the effects on physical and mental health, cognition and brain activity depend exclusively of interconnected factors, such as the combination of exercise and medication. However, one should understand that exercise is not only an effective nondrug alternative, but also acts as a supporting linking up interventions to promote improvements in process performance optimization. In general, the positive effects on mental health, cognition and brain activity as a result of an exercise program are quite evident. Few studies have been published correlating effects of exercise in patients with schizophrenia, but there is increasing evidence that positive and negative symptoms can be improved. Therefore, it is important that further studies be undertaken to expand the knowledge of physical exercise on mental health in people with schizophrenia, as well as its dose-response and the most effective type of exercise.

  10. Experimental evidence of bulk chemistry constraint on SiO2 solubility in clinopyroxene at high-pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Toshisuke; Osanai, Yasuhito

    2015-06-01

    We have experimentally confirmed that the solubility of SiO2 in clinopyroxene at ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic conditions is buffered by coesite and kyanite. The present findings were derived from high-pressure experiments on metapelite glass, powdered andesite and eclogite glass under anhydrous conditions. The metapelite glass and powdered andesite were recrystallised in boron nitride capsules at 8 GPa and 1100-1500 °C. The eclogite glass was heated in an AuPd capsule, both ends of which were welded, at 3 GPa and 1000 °C. Clinopyroxene nucleated from metapelite glass, the bulk composition of which is saturated in both SiO2 and Al2SiO5 components plotting within the Jd (Na,K)(Al,Cr)(Si,Ti)2O6-Qtz (Si,Ti)O2-Grt M3(Al,Cr)2(Si,Ti)3O12-Als (Al,Cr)2(Si,Ti)O5 tetrahedron (M = Fe, Mn, Mg, Ni, Zn, Ca), coexists with garnet, coesite and kyanite. The average excess silica content of the clinopyroxene ranges from 23.4 to 35.4 mol%. In contrast, an andesite experiment saturated in SiO2 but undersaturated in Al2SiO5 within the Jd-Qtz-Aug M(Si,Ti)O3-Grt tetrahedron produced clinopyroxene, garnet and coesite but no kyanite. The average excess silica in the clinopyroxene was 9.7-15.5 mol%, which is comparable to previous experimental data. Experiment on the eclogite glass with similar composition to andesite yielded clinopyroxene, garnet and coesite. An average excess silica content in clinopyroxene counts 6.4 mol%, which is much lower than that obtained from the andesite. The SiO2 content of clinopyroxene coexisting with garnet, coesite and kyanite is much higher than that of clinopyroxene coexisting with garnet and coesite without kyanite. Although the temperature dependence is unclear, the SiO2 solubility increases with pressure and Fe/(Fe+Mg). Clinopyroxene forms the solid solution series Jd-Es □0.5M0.5Al(Si,Ti)2O6 and Aug-Es, rather than Jd-Ts MAl2(Si,Ti)O6 and Es-Ts joins. Our experimental data suggest the probable existence of octahedral Si which may accompany the M2

  11. Does Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Ameliorate Oxidative Stress in Diabetes? Evidence Based on Experimental and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Karen Ekkelund; Rakipovski, Günaj; Raun, Kirsten; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has shown to influence the oxidative stress status in a number of in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. Well-known effects of GLP-1 including better glycemic control, decreased food intake, increased insulin release and increased insulin sensitivity may indirectly contribute to this phenomenon, but glucose-independent effects on ROS level, production and antioxidant capacity have been suggested to also play a role. The potential ‘antioxidant’ activity of GLP-1 along with other proposed glucose-independent modes of action related to ameliorating redox imbalance remains a controversial topic but could hold a therapeutic potential against micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications. This review discusses the presently available knowledge from experimental and clinical studies on the effects of GLP-1 on oxidative stress in diabetes and diabetes-related complications. PMID:26381142

  12. The role of Schottky barrier in the resistive switching of SrTiO3: direct experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xue-Bing; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Guo, Xin

    2015-01-07

    Single crystalline SrTiO3 doped with 0.1 wt% Nb was used as a model system to evaluate the role of the Schottky barrier in the resistive switching of perovskites. The Ti bottom electrode formed an ohmic contact in the Ni/Nb:SrTiO3/Ti stack, whereas the Ni top electrode created a strong Schottky barrier, which was reflected in a huge semi-circle in the impedance spectrum of the stack. Bipolar switching was achieved in the voltage range of -4 to 4 V for the stack, two clear resistance states were created by electric pulses, and the Schottky barrier heights corresponding to the high/low resistance states were experimentally determined. A direct relationship between the resistance state and the Schottky barrier height was thus established.

  13. How communication changes when we cannot mime the world: Experimental evidence for the effect of iconicity on combinatoriality.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gareth; Lewandowski, Jirka; Galantucci, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    Communication systems are exposed to two different pressures: a pressure for transmission efficiency, such that messages are simple to produce and perceive, and a pressure for referential efficiency, such that messages are easy to understand with their intended meaning. A solution to the first pressure is combinatoriality--the recombination of a few basic meaningless forms to express an infinite number of meanings. A solution to the second is iconicity--the use of forms that resemble what they refer to. These two solutions appear to be incompatible with each other, as iconic forms are ill-suited for use as meaningless combinatorial units. Furthermore, in the early stages of a communication system, when basic referential forms are in the process of being established, the pressure for referential efficiency is likely to be particularly strong, which may lead it to trump the pressure for transmission efficiency. This means that, where iconicity is available as a strategy, it is likely to impede the emergence of combinatoriality. Although this hypothesis seems consistent with some observations of natural language, it was unclear until recently how it could be soundly tested. This has changed thanks to the development of a line of research, known as Experimental Semiotics, in which participants construct novel communication systems in the laboratory using an unfamiliar medium. We conducted an Experimental Semiotic study in which we manipulated the opportunity for iconicity by varying the kind of referents to be communicated, while keeping the communication medium constant. We then measured the combinatoriality and transmission efficiency of the communication systems. We found that, where iconicity was available, it provided scaffolding for the construction of communication systems and was overwhelmingly adopted. Where it was not available, however, the resulting communication systems were more combinatorial and their forms more efficient to produce. This study enriches

  14. Molecular concept and experimental evidence of H2O, CH4 and CO2 adsorption on organic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Krooss, Bernhard; Busch, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Unconventional gas, such as shale gas or coalbed methane offers an attractive low-carbon solution and furthermore provides possibilities for CO2-storage and coevally for enhanced gas recovery. In order to better understand gas and water interaction with organic matter (coal) of different maturity we developed a molecular concept with experimental and literature support for sorption of these fluids on organic material over the entire range of thermal maturity. With increasing burial depth and temperature CO2 and CH4 are the main volatiles released when organic material matures (cf. coalification). While most CO2 is generally dissolved in formation water and transported away from the coal, most CH4 (coalbed methane, CBM) remains adsorbed to the coal pore structure and is produced as unconventional gas. We present here the experimental basis and a conceptual model and to explain CO2 and CH4 sorption in the presence of water on coal with varying coal maturity (from lignite to anthracite). Adsorption experiments have been performed on different maturity coals at various temperatures, pressures up to 20 MPa and under dry and moist conditions. With increasing coal maturity we find for both gases a linear sorption capacity trend for moisture-equilibrated and a more parabolic trend for dry coal samples. When investigating the difference in CH4 and CO2 sorption capacity on coal of different maturity as a function of moisture content we infer that oxygen containing functional groups account for the selective sorption properties of gases and water to coals. Additionally restrictions in translational and vibrational movements of the sorbed gas molecules induced by adsorbed water molecules cause differences in the presence of water.

  15. Experimental evidence of excited electron number density and temperature effects on electron-phonon coupling in gold films

    SciTech Connect

    Giri, Ashutosh; Gaskins, John T.; Foley, Brian M.; Cheaito, Ramez; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-01-28

    The electronic transport properties of metals with weak electron-phonon coupling can be influenced by non-thermal electrons. Relaxation processes involving non-thermal electrons competing with the thermalized electron system have led to inconsistencies in the understanding of how electrons scatter and relax with the less energetic lattice. Recent theoretical and computational works have shown that the rate of energy relaxation with the metallic lattice will change depending on the thermalization state of the electrons. Even though 20 years of experimental works have focused on understanding and isolating these electronic relaxation mechanisms with short pulsed irradiation, discrepancies between these existing works have not clearly answered the fundamental question of the competing effects between non-thermal and thermal electrons losing energy to the lattice. In this work, we demonstrate the ability to measure the electron relaxation for varying degrees of both electron-electron and electron-phonon thermalization. This series of measurements of electronic relaxation over a predicted effective electron temperature range up to ∼3500 K and minimum lattice temperatures of 77 K validate recent computational and theoretical works that theorize how a nonequilibrium distribution of electrons transfers energy to the lattice. Utilizing this wide temperature range during pump-probe measurements of electron-phonon relaxation, we explain discrepancies in the past two decades of literature of electronic relaxation rates. We experimentally demonstrate that the electron-phonon coupling factor in gold increases with increasing lattice temperature and laser fluences. Specifically, we show that at low laser fluences corresponding to small electron perturbations, energy relaxation between electrons and phonons is mainly governed by non-thermal electrons, while at higher laser fluences, non-thermal electron scattering with the lattice is less influential on the energy relaxation

  16. Experimental evidence for trait utility of gill raker number in adaptive radiation of a north temperate fish.

    PubMed

    Roesch, C; Lundsgaard-Hansen, B; Vonlanthen, P; Taverna, A; Seehausen, O

    2013-07-01

    North temperate fish in post-glacial lakes are textbook examples for rapid parallel adaptive radiation into multiple trophic specialists within individual lakes. Speciation repeatedly proceeded along the benthic-limnetic habitat axis, and benthic-limnetic sister species diverge in the number of gill rakers. Yet, the utility of different numbers of gill rakers for consuming benthic vs. limnetic food has only very rarely been experimentally demonstrated. We bred and raised families of a benthic-limnetic species pair of whitefish under common garden conditions to test whether these species (i) show heritable differentiation in feeding efficiency on zooplankton, and (ii) whether variation in feeding efficiency is predicted by variation in gill raker numbers. We used zooplankton of three different size classes to investigate prey size dependency of divergence in feeding efficiency and to investigate the effect strength of variation in the number of gill rakers. Our results show strong interspecific differences in feeding efficiency. These differences are largest when fish were tested with the smallest zooplankton. Importantly, feeding efficiency is significantly positively correlated with the number of gill rakers when using small zooplankton, also when species identity is statistically controlled for. Our results support the hypothesis that a larger number of gill rakers are of adaptive significance for feeding on zooplankton and provide one of the first experimental demonstrations of trait utility of gill raker number when fish feed on zooplankton. These results are consistent with the suggested importance of divergent selection driven feeding adaptation during adaptive radiation of fish in post-glacial lakes.

  17. Ontogenic and ecological control of metamorphosis onset in a carapid fish, Carapus homei: experimental evidence from vertebra and otolith comparisons.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Eric; Lecchini, David; Lagardere, Francoise; Vandewalle, Pierre

    2004-08-01

    In Carapus homei, reef colonisation is associated with a penetration inside a sea cucumber followed by heavy transformations during which the length of the fish is reduced by 60%. By comparing vertebral axis to otolith ontogenetic changes, this study aimed (i) to specify the events linked to metamorphosis, and (ii) to establish to what extent these fish have the ability to delay it. Different larvae of C. homei were caught when settling on the reef and kept in different experimental conditions for at least 7 days and up to 21 days: darkness or natural light conditions, presence of sea cucumber or not, and food deprivation or not. Whatever the nutritional condition, a period of darkness seems sufficient to initiate metamorphosis. Twenty-one days in natural light conditions delayed metamorphosis, whereas the whole metamorphosis process is the fastest (15 days) for larvae living in sea cucumbers. Whether the metamorphosis was initiated or not, otoliths were modified with the formation of a transition zone, whose structure varied depending on the experimental conditions. At day 21, larvae maintained in darkness had an otolith transition zone with more increments (around 80), albeit wider than those (more or less 21) of individuals kept under natural lighting. These differences in otolith growth could indicate an increased incorporation rate of released metabolites by metamorphosing larvae. However, the presence of a transition zone in delayed-metamorphosis larvae suggests that these otolith changes record the endogenously-induced onset of metamorphosis, whereas body transformations seem to be modulated by the environmental conditions of settlement.

  18. Experimental evidence for field-induced emergent clock anisotropies in the XY pyrochlore Er2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudet, J.; Hallas, A. M.; Thibault, J.; Butch, N. P.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Gaulin, B. D.

    2017-02-01

    The XY pyrochlore antiferromagnet Er2Ti2O7 exhibits a rare case of Z6 discrete symmetry breaking in its ψ2 magnetic ground state. Despite being well-studied theoretically, systems with high discrete symmetry breakings are uncommon in nature. Thus, Er2Ti2O7 provides an experimental playground for the study of broken Zn symmetry, for n >2 . A recent theoretical work examined the effect of a magnetic field on a pyrochlore lattice with broken Z6 symmetry and applied it to Er2Ti2O7 . This study predicted multiple domain transitions depending on the crystallographic orientation of the magnetic field, inducing rich and controllable magnetothermodynamic behavior. In this work, we present neutron scattering measurements on Er2Ti2O7 with a magnetic field applied along the [001] and [111] directions and provide experimental observation of these exotic domain transitions. In a [001] field, we observe a ψ2 to ψ3 transition at a critical field of 0.18 ±0.05 T. We are thus able to extend the concept of the spin-flop transition, which has long been observed in Ising systems, to higher discrete Zn symmetries. In a [111] field, we observe a series of domain-based phase transitions for fields of 0.15 ±0.03 T and 0.40 ±0.03 T. We show that these field-induced transitions are consistent with the emergence of twofold, threefold, and possibly sixfold Zeeman terms. Considering all the possible ψ2 and ψ3 domains, these Zeeman terms can be mapped onto an analog clock—exemplifying a literal clock anisotropy. Lastly, our quantitative analysis of the [001] domain transition in Er2Ti2O7 is consistent with order-by-disorder as the dominant ground state selection mechanism.

  19. Experimental evidence of a link between breeding conditions and the decision to breed or to help in a colonial cooperative bird.

    PubMed Central

    Covas, Rita; Doutrelant, Claire; du Plessis, Morné A.

    2004-01-01

    In many species mature individuals delay independent reproduction and may help others to reproduce. This behaviour is often explained through ecological constraints, although recently attention has also been paid to the variation in habitat quality. If the quality of vacant habitat influences the fitness trade-off between delaying reproduction and breeding independently, individuals should delay reproduction when conditions for breeding are poor. Yet, no study has experimentally manipulated habitat quality or the conditions experienced during the breeding period to test this assertion conclusively. We report results from an experiment conducted on a colonial cooperative bird with no territory constraints on reproduction. We artificially improved breeding conditions in several colonies of sociable weavers, Philetairus socius, through the provision of an easily obtainable and unlimited supply of food. We provide experimental evidence showing that under enhanced conditions some individuals reduce their age at first reproduction, a greater proportion of colony members engage in independent breeding and proportionally fewer birds act as helpers. Hence, these results also provide evidence for a direct influence of reproductive costs on life-history decisions such as age at first reproduction and breeding and helping behaviours. PMID:15255101

  20. A strenuous experimental journey searching for spectroscopic evidence of a bridging nickel–iron–hydride in [NiFe] hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Direct spectroscopic evidence for a hydride bridge in the Ni–R form of [NiFe] hydrogenase has been obtained using iron-specific nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS). The Ni–H–Fe wag mode at 675 cm−1 is the first spectroscopic evidence for a bridging hydride in Ni–R as well as the first iron-hydride-related NRVS feature observed for a biological system. Although density function theory (DFT) calculation assisted the determination of the Ni–R structure, it did not predict the Ni–H–Fe wag mode at ∼675 cm−1 before NRVS. Instead, the observed Ni–H–Fe mode provided a critical reference for the DFT calculations. While the overall science about Ni–R is presented and discussed elsewhere, this article focuses on the long and strenuous experimental journey to search for and experimentally identify the Ni–H–Fe wag mode in a Ni–R sample. As a methodology, the results presented here will go beyond Ni–R and hydrogenase research and will also be of interest to other scientists who use synchrotron radiation for measuring dilute samples or weak spectroscopic features. PMID:26524296

  1. Sclereids are strong enough to support the delicate corollas: experimental and computational data evidence from Camellia sinensis (L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shuo; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Hong

    2017-03-02

    Sclereids are a fundamental cell type that widely exist in higher plants and are generally thought to have a mechanical function. However, the occurrence of sclereids in the ephemeral corolla has rarely been documented and their biological significance is poorly understood. In this study, flower buds from Camellia sinensis at various ontogenetic stages were sampled, cleared, sectioned, stained, and examined using light microscopy to ascertain the morphology and distribution of sclereids and their variation. In addition, Camellia japonica plants with distinctive floral structures were investigated and compared to explore whether sclereid occurrence is associated with floral form. In particular, a computational simulation using finite element analysis was undertaken to investigate how corollas, with and without sclereids, responded to wind and rain. The results showed that sclereids have some mechanical properties that are based on their shape and distribution, which make the soft corolla strong enough to protect the inner ovary. Thus, corolla sclereids may explain how the seemingly delicate corolla performs its protective function in response to environmental stresses. These findings provide further evidence for the hypothesis that flower traits exhibit adaptive responses to abiotic factors in addition to their traditionally recognized pollinator-mediated selection.

  2. Experimental Evidence that 3-Methylglutaric Acid Disturbs Mitochondrial Function and Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain Synaptosomes: New Converging Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, Ana Laura; Paz-Loyola, Ariana Lizbeth; de Lima, María Eduarda; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Seminotti, Bianca; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Wajner, Moacir; Santamaría, Abel

    2016-10-01

    3-Methylglutaric acid (3MGA) is an organic acid that accumulates in various organic acidemias whose patients present neurodegeneration events in children coursing with metabolic acidurias. Limited evidence describes the toxic mechanisms elicited by 3MGA in the brain. Herein, we explored the effects of 3MGA on different toxic endpoints in synaptosomal and mitochondrial-enriched fractions of adult rat brains to provide novel information on early mechanisms evoked by this metabolite. At 1 and 5 mM concentration, 3MGA increased lipid peroxidation, but decreased mitochondrial function only at 5 mM concentration. Despite less intense effects were obtained at 1 mM concentration, its co-administration with the kynurenine pathway (KP) metabolite and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) agonist, quinolinic acid (QUIN, 50 and 100 µM), produced toxic synergism on markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function. The toxicity of 3MGA per se (5 mM) was prevented by the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 and the NMDAr antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA), suggesting cannabinoid and glutamatergic components in the 3MGA pattern of toxicity. The synergic model (3MGA + QUIN) was also sensitive to KYNA and the antioxidant S-allylcysteine, but not to the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-nitroarginine methyl ester. These findings suggest various underlying mechanisms involved in the neurotoxicity of 3MGA that may possibly contribute to the neurodegeneration observed in acidemias.

  3. Communities of different plant diversity respond similarly to drought stress: experimental evidence from field non-weeded and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Lanta, Vojtěch; Doležal, Jiří; Zemková, Lenka; Lepš, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Accelerating rate of species loss has prompted researchers to study the role of species diversity in processes that control ecosystem functioning. Although negative impact of species loss has been documented, the evidence concerning its impact on ecosystem stability is still limited. Here, we studied the effects of declining species and functional diversity on plant community responses to drought in the field (open to weed colonization) and greenhouse conditions. Both species and functional diversity positively affected the average yields of field communities. However, this pattern was similar in both drought-stressed and control plots. No effect of diversity on community resistance, biomass recovery after drought and resilience was found because drought reduced biomass production similarly at each level of diversity by approximately 30%. The use of dissimilarity (characterized by Euclidean distance) revealed higher variation under changing environments (drought-stressed vs. control) in more diverse communities compared to less species-rich assemblages. In the greenhouse experiment, the effect of species diversity affected community resistance, indicating that more diverse communities suffered more from drought than species-poor ones. We conclude that our study did not support the insurance hypothesis (stability properties of a community should increase with species richness) because species diversity had an equivocal effect on ecosystem resistance and resilience in an environment held under non-weeded practice, regardless of the positive relationship between sown species diversity and community biomass production. More species-rich communities were less resistant against drought-stressed conditions than species-poor ones grown in greenhouse conditions.

  4. Communities of different plant diversity respond similarly to drought stress: experimental evidence from field non-weeded and greenhouse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanta, Vojtěch; Doležal, Jiří; Zemková, Lenka; Lepš, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Accelerating rate of species loss has prompted researchers to study the role of species diversity in processes that control ecosystem functioning. Although negative impact of species loss has been documented, the evidence concerning its impact on ecosystem stability is still limited. Here, we studied the effects of declining species and functional diversity on plant community responses to drought in the field (open to weed colonization) and greenhouse conditions. Both species and functional diversity positively affected the average yields of field communities. However, this pattern was similar in both drought-stressed and control plots. No effect of diversity on community resistance, biomass recovery after drought and resilience was found because drought reduced biomass production similarly at each level of diversity by approximately 30 %. The use of dissimilarity (characterized by Euclidean distance) revealed higher variation under changing environments (drought-stressed vs. control) in more diverse communities compared to less species-rich assemblages. In the greenhouse experiment, the effect of species diversity affected community resistance, indicating that more diverse communities suffered more from drought than species-poor ones. We conclude that our study did not support the insurance hypothesis (stability properties of a community should increase with species richness) because species diversity had an equivocal effect on ecosystem resistance and resilience in an environment held under non-weeded practice, regardless of the positive relationship between sown species diversity and community biomass production. More species-rich communities were less resistant against drought-stressed conditions than species-poor ones grown in greenhouse conditions.

  5. Further Evaluation of the Tripartite Structure of Subjective Well-Being: Evidence From Longitudinal and Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Metler, Samantha J; Busseri, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB; Diener, 1984) comprises three primary components: life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). Multiple competing conceptualizations of the tripartite structure of SWB have been employed, resulting in widespread ambiguity concerning the definition, operationalization, analysis, and synthesis of SWB-related findings (Busseri & Sadava, 2011). We report two studies evaluating two predominant structural models (as recently identified by Busseri, 2015): a hierarchical model comprising a higher-order latent SWB factor with LS, PA, and NA as indicators; and a causal systems model specifying unidirectional effects of PA and NA on LS. A longitudinal study (N = 452; Mage  = 18.54; 76.5% female) and a lab-based experiment (N = 195; Mage  = 20.42 years; 87.6% female; 81.5% Caucasian) were undertaken. Structural models were evaluated with respect to (a) associations among SWB components across time (three months, three years in Study 1; one week in Study 2) and (b) the impact of manipulating the individual SWB components (Study 2). A hierarchical structural model was supported in both studies; conflicting evidence was found for the causal systems model. A hierarchical model provides a robust conceptualization for the tripartite structure of SWB.

  6. Experimental evidence that adult antipredator behaviour is heritable and not influenced by behavioural copying in a wild bird

    PubMed Central

    Bize, Pierre; Diaz, Claris; Lindström, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the relative importance of genetics and behavioural copying is crucial to appraise the evolvability of behavioural consistencies. Yet, genetic and non-genetic factors are often deeply intertwined, and experiments are required to address this issue. We investigated the sources of variation of adult antipredator behaviour in the Alpine swift (Apus melba) by making use of long-term behavioural observations on parents and cross-fostered offspring. By applying an ‘animal model’ approach to observational data, we show that antipredator behaviour of adult Alpine swifts was significantly repeatable over lifetime (r = 0.273) and heritable (h2 = 0.146). Regression models also show that antipredator behaviours differed between colonies and sexes (females were more tame), and varied with the hour and year of capture. By applying a parent–offspring regression approach to 59 offspring that were exchanged as eggs or hatchlings between pairs of nests, we demonstrate that offspring behaved like their biological parents rather than like their foster parents when they were adults themselves. Those findings provide strong evidence that antipredator behaviour of adult Alpine swifts is shaped by genetics and/or pre-hatching maternal effects taking place at conception but not by behavioural copying. PMID:21976691

  7. Experimental and geochemical evidence for derivation of the El Capitan Granite, California, by partial melting of hydrous gabbroic lower crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratajeski, K.; Sisson, T.W.; Glazner, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Partial melting of mafic intrusions recently emplaced into the lower crust can produce voluminous silicic magmas with isotopic ratios similar to their mafic sources. Low-temperature (825 and 850??C) partial melts synthesized at 700 MPa in biotite-hornblende gabbros from the central Sierra Nevada batholith (Sisson et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol 148:635-661, 2005) have major-element and modeled trace-element (REE, Rb, Ba, Sr, Th, U) compositions matching those of the Cretaceous El Capitan Granite, a prominent granite and silicic granodiorite pluton in the central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith (Yosemite, CA, USA) locally mingled with coeval, isotopically similar quartz diorite through gabbro intrusions (Ratajeski et al. in Geol Soc Am Bull 113:1486-1502, 2001). These results are evidence that the El Capitan Granite, and perhaps similar intrusions in the Sierra Nevada batholith with lithospheric-mantle-like isotopic values, were extracted from LILE-enriched, hydrous (hornblende-bearing) gabbroic rocks in the Sierran lower crust. Granitic partial melts derived by this process may also be silicic end members for mixing events leading to large-volume intermediate composition Sierran plutons such as the Cretaceous Lamarck Granodiorite. Voluminous gabbroic residues of partial melting may be lost to the mantle by their conversion to garnet-pyroxene assemblages during batholithic magmatic crustal thickening. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  8. Sclereids are strong enough to support the delicate corollas: experimental and computational data evidence from Camellia sinensis (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shuo; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Sclereids are a fundamental cell type that widely exist in higher plants and are generally thought to have a mechanical function. However, the occurrence of sclereids in the ephemeral corolla has rarely been documented and their biological significance is poorly understood. In this study, flower buds from Camellia sinensis at various ontogenetic stages were sampled, cleared, sectioned, stained, and examined using light microscopy to ascertain the morphology and distribution of sclereids and their variation. In addition, Camellia japonica plants with distinctive floral structures were investigated and compared to explore whether sclereid occurrence is associated with floral form. In particular, a computational simulation using finite element analysis was undertaken to investigate how corollas, with and without sclereids, responded to wind and rain. The results showed that sclereids have some mechanical properties that are based on their shape and distribution, which make the soft corolla strong enough to protect the inner ovary. Thus, corolla sclereids may explain how the seemingly delicate corolla performs its protective function in response to environmental stresses. These findings provide further evidence for the hypothesis that flower traits exhibit adaptive responses to abiotic factors in addition to their traditionally recognized pollinator-mediated selection. PMID:28252101

  9. Experimental evidence of threat-sensitive collective avoidance responses in a large wild-caught herring school.

    PubMed

    Rieucau, Guillaume; Boswell, Kevin M; De Robertis, Alex; Macaulay, Gavin J; Handegard, Nils Olav

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation is commonly thought to improve animals' security. Within aquatic ecosystems, group-living prey can learn about immediate threats using cues perceived directly from predators, or from collective behaviours, for example, by reacting to the escape behaviours of companions. Combining cues from different modalities may improve the accuracy of prey antipredatory decisions. In this study, we explored the sensory modalities that mediate collective antipredatory responses of herring (Clupea harengus) when in a large school (approximately 60,000 individuals). By conducting a simulated predator encounter experiment in a semi-controlled environment (a sea cage), we tested the hypothesis that the collective responses of herring are threat-sensitive. We investigated whether cues from potential threats obtained visually or from the perception of water displacement, used independently or in an additive way, affected the strength of the collective avoidance reactions. We modified the sensory nature of the simulated threat by exposing the herring to 4 predator models differing in shape and transparency. The collective vertical avoidance response was observed and quantified using active acoustics. The combination of sensory cues elicited the strongest avoidance reactions, suggesting that collective antipredator responses in herring are mediated by the sensory modalities involved during threat detection in an additive fashion. Thus, this study provides evidence for magnitude-graded threat responses in a large school of wild-caught herring which is consistent with the "threat-sensitive hypothesis".

  10. Experimental Evidence of Threat-Sensitive Collective Avoidance Responses in a Large Wild-Caught Herring School

    PubMed Central

    Rieucau, Guillaume; Boswell, Kevin M.; De Robertis, Alex; Macaulay, Gavin J.; Handegard, Nils Olav

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation is commonly thought to improve animals' security. Within aquatic ecosystems, group-living prey can learn about immediate threats using cues perceived directly from predators, or from collective behaviours, for example, by reacting to the escape behaviours of companions. Combining cues from different modalities may improve the accuracy of prey antipredatory decisions. In this study, we explored the sensory modalities that mediate collective antipredatory responses of herring (Clupea harengus) when in a large school (approximately 60 000 individuals). By conducting a simulated predator encounter experiment in a semi-controlled environment (a sea cage), we tested the hypothesis that the collective responses of herring are threat-sensitive. We investigated whether cues from potential threats obtained visually or from the perception of water displacement, used independently or in an additive way, affected the strength of the collective avoidance reactions. We modified the sensory nature of the simulated threat by exposing the herring to 4 predator models differing in shape and transparency. The collective vertical avoidance response was observed and quantified using active acoustics. The combination of sensory cues elicited the strongest avoidance reactions, suggesting that collective antipredator responses in herring are mediated by the sensory modalities involved during threat detection in an additive fashion. Thus, this study provides evidence for magnitude-graded threat responses in a large school of wild-caught herring which is consistent with the “threat-sensitive hypothesis”. PMID:24489778

  11. Experimental Evidence Shows Salubrinal, an eIF2α Dephosphorylation Inhibitor, Reduces Xenotoxicant-Induced Cellular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Masato; Komoike, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the subsequent unfolded protein response (UPR) are involved in the pathogenesis of not only the protein misfolding disorders such as certain neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, but also in the cytotoxicity of environmental pollutants, industrial chemicals, and drugs. Thus, the modulation of ER stress signaling pathways is an important issue for protection against cellular damage induced by xenotoxicants. The substance salubrinal has been shown to prevent dephosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α). The phosphorylation of eIF2α appears to be cytoprotective during ER stress, because inhibition of the translation initiation activity of eIF2α reduces global protein synthesis. In addition, the expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a transcription factor that induces the expression of UPR target genes, is up-regulated through alternative translation. This review shows that salubrinal can protect cells from the damage induced by a wide range of xenotoxicants, including environmental pollutants and drugs. The canonical and other possible mechanisms of cytoprotection by salubrinal from xenotoxicant-induced ER stress are also discussed. PMID:26193263

  12. Direct experimental evidence for differing reactivity alterations of minerals following irradiation. The case of calcite and quartz

    DOE PAGES

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Kumar, Aditya; Field, Kevin G.; ...

    2016-01-29

    Concrete, used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs), may be exposed to radiation emanating from the reactor core. Until recently, concrete has been assumed immune to radiation exposure. Direct evidence acquired on Ar+ -ion irradiated calcite and quartz indicates, on the contrary, that, such minerals, which constitute aggregates in concrete, may be significantly altered by irradiation. More specifically, while quartz undergoes disordering of its atomic structure resulting in a near complete lack of periodicity, calcite only experiences random rotations, and distortions of its carbonate groups. As a result, irradiated quartz shows a reduction in density of around 15%,more » and an increase in chemical reactivity, described by its dissolution rate, similar to a glassy silica. However, calcite shows little change in dissolution rate - although its density noted to reduce by 9%. These differences are correlated with the nature of bonds in these minerals, i.e., being dominantly ionic or covalent, and the rigidity of the mineral's atomic network that is characterized by the number of topological constraints (nc) that are imposed on the atoms in the network. Our outcomes have major implications on the durability of concrete structural elements formed with calcitic or quartzitic aggregates in nuclear power plants.« less

  13. Trade-off between cancer and aging: What role do other diseases play? Evidence from experimental and human population studies

    PubMed Central

    Yashin, Anatoli I.; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.; Akushevich, Igor V.; Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Kulminski, Alexander; Akushevich, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    The potential gain in life expectancy which could result from the complete elimination of mortality from cancer in the U.S. would not exceed 3 years if one were to consider cancer independently of other causes of death. In this paper, we review evidence of trade-offs between cancer and aging as well as between cancer and other diseases, which, if taken into account, may substantially increase estimates of gain in life expectancy resulting from cancer eradication. We also used the Multiple Causes of Death (MCD) data to evaluate correlations among mortalities from cancer and other major disorders including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s diseases, and asthma. Our analyses revealed significant negative correlations between cancer and other diseases suggesting stronger population effects of cancer eradication. Possible mechanisms of the observed dependencies and emerging perspectives of using dependent competing risks models for evaluating the effects of reduction of mortality from cancer on life expectancy are discussed. PMID:18452970

  14. Direct experimental evidence for differing reactivity alterations of minerals following irradiation. The case of calcite and quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Kumar, Aditya; Field, Kevin G.; Wang, Bu; Yu, Yingtian; Le Pape, Yann; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav

    2016-01-29

    Concrete, used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs), may be exposed to radiation emanating from the reactor core. Until recently, concrete has been assumed immune to radiation exposure. Direct evidence acquired on Ar+ -ion irradiated calcite and quartz indicates, on the contrary, that, such minerals, which constitute aggregates in concrete, may be significantly altered by irradiation. More specifically, while quartz undergoes disordering of its atomic structure resulting in a near complete lack of periodicity, calcite only experiences random rotations, and distortions of its carbonate groups. As a result, irradiated quartz shows a reduction in density of around 15%, and an increase in chemical reactivity, described by its dissolution rate, similar to a glassy silica. However, calcite shows little change in dissolution rate - although its density noted to reduce by 9%. These differences are correlated with the nature of bonds in these minerals, i.e., being dominantly ionic or covalent, and the rigidity of the mineral's atomic network that is characterized by the number of topological constraints (nc) that are imposed on the atoms in the network. Our outcomes have major implications on the durability of concrete structural elements formed with calcitic or quartzitic aggregates in nuclear power plants.

  15. Direct Experimental Evidence for Differing Reactivity Alterations of Minerals following Irradiation: The Case of Calcite and Quartz

    PubMed Central

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Kumar, Aditya; Field, Kevin G.; Wang, Bu; Yu, Yingtian; Le Pape, Yann; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Concrete, used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs), may be exposed to radiation emanating from the reactor core. Until recently, concrete has been assumed immune to radiation exposure. Direct evidence acquired on Ar+-ion irradiated calcite and quartz indicates, on the contrary, that, such minerals, which constitute aggregates in concrete, may be significantly altered by irradiation. More specifically, while quartz undergoes disordering of its atomic structure resulting in a near complete lack of periodicity, calcite only experiences random rotations, and distortions of its carbonate groups. As a result, irradiated quartz shows a reduction in density of around 15%, and an increase in chemical reactivity, described by its dissolution rate, similar to a glassy silica. Calcite however, shows little change in dissolution rate - although its density noted to reduce by ≈9%. These differences are correlated with the nature of bonds in these minerals, i.e., being dominantly ionic or covalent, and the rigidity of the mineral’s atomic network that is characterized by the number of topological constraints (nc) that are imposed on the atoms in the network. The outcomes have major implications on the durability of concrete structural elements formed with calcite or quartz bearing aggregates in nuclear power plants. PMID:26822012

  16. Direct Experimental Evidence for Differing Reactivity Alterations of Minerals following Irradiation: The Case of Calcite and Quartz.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Kumar, Aditya; Field, Kevin G; Wang, Bu; Yu, Yingtian; Le Pape, Yann; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav

    2016-01-29

    Concrete, used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs), may be exposed to radiation emanating from the reactor core. Until recently, concrete has been assumed immune to radiation exposure. Direct evidence acquired on Ar(+)-ion irradiated calcite and quartz indicates, on the contrary, that, such minerals, which constitute aggregates in concrete, may be significantly altered by irradiation. More specifically, while quartz undergoes disordering of its atomic structure resulting in a near complete lack of periodicity, calcite only experiences random rotations, and distortions of its carbonate groups. As a result, irradiated quartz shows a reduction in density of around 15%, and an increase in chemical reactivity, described by its dissolution rate, similar to a glassy silica. Calcite however, shows little change in dissolution rate - although its density noted to reduce by ≈9%. These differences are correlated with the nature of bonds in these minerals, i.e., being dominantly ionic or covalent, and the rigidity of the mineral's atomic network that is characterized by the number of topological constraints (nc) that are imposed on the atoms in the network. The outcomes have major implications on the durability of concrete structural elements formed with calcite or quartz bearing aggregates in nuclear power plants.

  17. Direct Experimental Evidence for Differing Reactivity Alterations of Minerals following Irradiation: The Case of Calcite and Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Kumar, Aditya; Field, Kevin G.; Wang, Bu; Yu, Yingtian; Le Pape, Yann; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Concrete, used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs), may be exposed to radiation emanating from the reactor core. Until recently, concrete has been assumed immune to radiation exposure. Direct evidence acquired on Ar+-ion irradiated calcite and quartz indicates, on the contrary, that, such minerals, which constitute aggregates in concrete, may be significantly altered by irradiation. More specifically, while quartz undergoes disordering of its atomic structure resulting in a near complete lack of periodicity, calcite only experiences random rotations, and distortions of its carbonate groups. As a result, irradiated quartz shows a reduction in density of around 15%, and an increase in chemical reactivity, described by its dissolution rate, similar to a glassy silica. Calcite however, shows little change in dissolution rate - although its density noted to reduce by ≈9%. These differences are correlated with the nature of bonds in these minerals, i.e., being dominantly ionic or covalent, and the rigidity of the mineral’s atomic network that is characterized by the number of topological constraints (nc) that are imposed on the atoms in the network. The outcomes have major implications on the durability of concrete structural elements formed with calcite or quartz bearing aggregates in nuclear power plants.

  18. Experimental Evidence for Fast Lithium Diffusion and Isotope Fractionation in Water-bearing Rhyolitic Melts at Magmatic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichy, S. B.; Till, C. B.; Roggensack, K.; Hervig, R. L.; Clarke, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is to extend the existing database of experimentally-determined lithium diffusion coefficients to more natural cases of water-bearing melts at the pressure-temperature range of the upper crust. In particular, we are investigating Li intra-melt and melt-vapor diffusion and Li isotope fractionation, which have the potential to record short-lived magmatic processes (seconds to hours) in the shallow crust, especially during decompression-induced magma degassing. Hydrated intra-melt Li diffusion-couple experiments on Los Posos rhyolite glass [1] were performed in a piston cylinder at 300 MPa and 1050 °C. The polished interfaces between the diffusion couples were marked by addition of Pt powder for post-run detection. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses indicate that lithium diffuses extremely fast in the presence of water. Re-equilibration of a hydrated ~2.5 mm long diffusion-couple experiment was observed during the heating period from room temperature to the final temperature of 1050 °C at a rate of ~32 °C/min. Fractionation of ~40‰ δ7Li was also detected in this zero-time experiment. The 0.5h and 3h runs show progressively higher degrees of re-equilibration, while the isotope fractionation becomes imperceptible. Li contamination was observed in some experiments when flakes filed off Pt tubing were used to mark the diffusion couple boundary, while the use of high purity Pt powder produced better results and allowed easier detection of the diffusion-couple boundary. The preliminary lithium isotope fractionation results (δ7Li vs. distance) support findings from [2] that 6Li diffuses substantially faster than 7Li. Further experimental sets are in progress, including lower run temperatures (e.g. 900 °C), faster heating procedure (~100 °C/min), shorter run durations and the extension to mafic systems. [1] Stanton (1990) Ph.D. thesis, Arizona State Univ., [2] Richter et al. (2003) GCA 67, 3905-3923.

  19. Influences of Electromagnetic Energy on Bio-Energy Transport through Protein Molecules in Living Systems and Its Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Shude; Wang, Xianghui; Zhong, Lisheng

    2016-07-25

    The influences of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on bio-energy transport and its mechanism of changes are investigated through analytic and numerical simulation and experimentation. Bio-energy transport along protein molecules is performed by soliton movement caused by the dipole-dipole electric interactions between neighboring amino acid residues. As such, EMFs can affect the structure of protein molecules and change the properties of the bio-energy transported in living systems. This mechanism of biological effect from EMFs involves the amino acid residues in protein molecules. To study and reveal this mechanism, we simulated numerically the features of the movement of solitons along protein molecules with both a single chain and with three channels by using the Runge-Kutta method and Pang's soliton model under the action of EMFs with the strengths of 25,500, 51,000, 76,500, and 102,000 V/m in the single-chain protein, as well as 17,000, 25,500, and 34,000 V/m in the three-chain protein, respectively. Results indicate that electric fields (EFs) depress the binding energy of the soliton, decrease its amplitude, and change its wave form. Also, the soliton disperses at 102,000 V/m in a single-chain protein and at 25,500 and 34,000 V/m in three-chain proteins. These findings signify that the influence of EMFs on the bio-energy transport cannot be neglected; however, these variations depend on both the strength and the direction of the EF in the EMF. This direction influences the biological effects of EMF, which decrease with increases in the angle between the direction of the EF and that of the dipole moment of amino acid residues; however, randomness at the macroscopic level remains. Lastly, we experimentally confirm the existence of a soliton and the validity of our conclusion by using the infrared spectra of absorption of the collagens, which is activated by another type of EF. Thus, we can affirm that both the described mechanism and the corresponding theory are

  20. Influences of Electromagnetic Energy on Bio-Energy Transport through Protein Molecules in Living Systems and Its Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Shude; Wang, Xianghui; Zhong, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    The influences of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on bio-energy transport and its mechanism of changes are investigated through analytic and numerical simulation and experimentation. Bio-energy transport along protein molecules is performed by soliton movement caused by the dipole–dipole electric interactions between neighboring amino acid residues. As such, EMFs can affect the structure of protein molecules and change the properties of the bio-energy transported in living systems. This mechanism of biological effect from EMFs involves the amino acid residues in protein molecules. To study and reveal this mechanism, we simulated numerically the features of the movement of solitons along protein molecules with both a single chain and with three channels by using the Runge–Kutta method and Pang’s soliton model under the action of EMFs with the strengths of 25,500, 51,000, 76,500, and 102,000 V/m in the single-chain protein, as well as 17,000, 25,500, and 34,000 V/m in the three-chain protein, respectively. Results indicate that electric fields (EFs) depress the binding energy of the soliton, decrease its amplitude, and change its wave form. Also, the soliton disperses at 102,000 V/m in a single-chain protein and at 25,500 and 34,000 V/m in three-chain proteins. These findings signify that the influence of EMFs on the bio-energy transport cannot be neglected; however, these variations depend on both the strength and the direction of the EF in the EMF. This direction influences the biological effects of EMF, which decrease with increases in the angle between the direction of the EF and that of the dipole moment of amino acid residues; however, randomness at the macroscopic level remains. Lastly, we experimentally confirm the existence of a soliton and the validity of our conclusion by using the infrared spectra of absorption of the collagens, which is activated by another type of EF. Thus, we can affirm that both the described mechanism and the corresponding theory

  1. Identification in residue analysis based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: Experimental evidence to update performance criteria.

    PubMed

    Mol, Hans G J; Zomer, Paul; García López, Mónica; Fussell, Richard J; Scholten, Jos; de Kok, Andre; Wolheim, Anne; Anastassiades, Michelangelo; Lozano, Ana; Fernandez Alba, Amadeo

    2015-05-11

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is one of the most widely used techniques for identification (and quantification) of residues and contaminants across a number of different chemical domains. Although the same analytical technique is used, the parameters and criteria for identification vary depending on where in the world the analysis is performed and for what purpose (e.g. determination of pesticides, veterinary drugs, forensic toxicology, sports doping). The rationale for these differences is not clear and in most cases the criteria are essentially based on expert opinions rather than underpinned by experimental data. In the current study, the variability of the two key identification parameters, retention time and ion ratio, was assessed and compared against requirements set out in different legal and guidance documents. The study involved the analysis of 120 pesticides, representing various chemical classes, polarities, molecular weights, and detector response factors, in 21 different fruit and vegetable matrices of varying degrees of complexity. The samples were analysed non-fortified, and fortified at 10, 50 and 200 μg kg(-1), in five laboratories using different LC-MS/MS instruments and conditions. In total, over 135,000 extracted-ion chromatograms were manually verified to provide an extensive data set for the assessment. The experimental data do not support relative tolerances for retention time, or different tolerances for ion ratios depending on relative abundance of the two product ions measured. Retention times in today's chromatographic systems are sufficiently stable to justify an absolute tolerance of ±0.1 min. Ion ratios are stable as long as sufficient response is obtained for both product ions. Ion ratio deviations are typically within ±20% (relative), and within ±45% (relative) in case the response of product ions are close to the limit of detection. Ion ratio tolerances up to 50% did not result in false positives and

  2. Evidence for tissue-specific activation of renal angiotensinogen mRNA expression in chronic stable experimental heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Schunkert, H; Ingelfinger, J R; Hirsch, A T; Tang, S S; Litwin, S E; Talsness, C E; Dzau, V J

    1992-01-01

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may contribute to the pathophysiology of heart failure by the generation of angiotensin II at local sites within the kidneys. Angiotensin II may directly influence renal hemodynamics, glomerular contractility, and tubular sodium reabsorption, thereby promoting sodium and fluid retention in this syndrome. In the present study, we examined components of the circulating RAS as well as the intrarenal expressions of renin and angiotensinogen mRNA in rats with stable compensated heart failure (HF) 12 wk after experimental myocardial infarction. Renal angiotensinogen mRNA level in vehicle-treated HF rats increased 47%, as compared with sham control rats (P = 0.001). The increase in angiotensinogen mRNA levels was more pronounced in animals with medium (46%, P < 0.05) and large (66%, P < 0.05) infarcts than in those with small infarcts (31%, P = NS). There were no differences in liver angiotensinogen mRNA, circulating angiotensinogen, angiotensin II, plasma renin concentration (PRC), kidney renin content (KRC), and renal renin mRNA level between sham and HFv. In addition, in a separate group of rats with heart failure, we demonstrated that renal angiotensin II concentration increased twofold (P < 0.05) as compared with that of age-matched sham operated controls. A parallel group of heart failure rats (HFe, n = 11) was treated with enalapril (25 mg/kg per d) in drinking water for 6 wk before these measurements. Blood pressure decreased significantly during treatment (91 vs. 103 mm Hg, P < 0.05). Enalapril treatment in HF rats increased renin mRNA level (2.5-fold, P < 0.005), KRC (5.6-fold, P = 0.005), and PRC (15.5-fold, P < 0.005). The increase in renal angiotensinogen mRNA level observed in HFv rats was markedly attenuated in enalapril treated HF rats (P < 0.001), suggesting a positive feedback of angiotensin II on renal angiotensinogen synthesis. These findings demonstrate an activation of intrarenal RAS, but no changes in

  3. Microvascular experimental evidence on the relative significance of restoring oxygen carrying capacity vs. blood viscosity in shock resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Salazar Vázquez, Beatriz Y; Wettstein, Reto; Cabrales, Pedro; Tsai, Amy G; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2008-10-01

    The development of volume replacement fluids for resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock comprises oxygen carrying and non carrying fluids. Non oxygen carrying fluids or plasma expanders are used up to the transfusion trigger, and upon reaching this landmark either blood, and possibly in the near future oxygen carrying blood substitutes, are used. An experimental program in hemorrhagic shock using the hamster chamber window model allowed to compare the relative performance of most fluids proposed for shock resuscitation. This model allows investigating simultaneously the microcirculation and systemic reactions, in the awake condition, in a tissue isolated from the environment. Results from this program show that in general plasma expanders such as Ringer's lactate and dextran 70 kDa do not sufficiently restore blood viscosity upon reaching the transfusion trigger, causing microvascular collapse. This is in part restored by a blood transfusion, independently of the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells. These results lead to the proposal that effective blood substitutes must be designed to prevent microvascular collapse, manifested in the decrease of functional capillary density. Achievement of this goal, in combination with the increase of oxygen affinity, significantly postpones the need for a blood transfusion, and lowers the total requirement of restoration of intrinsic oxygen carrying capacity.

  4. Experimental evidence of genome-wide impact of ecological selection during early stages of speciation-with-gene-flow.

    PubMed

    Egan, Scott P; Ragland, Gregory J; Assour, Lauren; Powell, Thomas H Q; Hood, Glen R; Emrich, Scott; Nosil, Patrik; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    Theory predicts that speciation-with-gene-flow is more likely when the consequences of selection for population divergence transitions from mainly direct effects of selection acting on individual genes to a collective property of all selected genes in the genome. Thus, understanding the direct impacts of ecologically based selection, as well as the indirect effects due to correlations among loci, is critical to understanding speciation. Here, we measure the genome-wide impacts of host-associated selection between hawthorn and apple host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae), a model for contemporary speciation-with-gene-flow. Allele frequency shifts of 32 455 SNPs induced in a selection experiment based on host phenology were genome wide and highly concordant with genetic divergence between co-occurring apple and hawthorn flies in nature. This striking genome-wide similarity between experimental and natural populations of R. pomonella underscores the importance of ecological selection at early stages of divergence and calls for further integration of studies of eco-evolutionary dynamics and genome divergence.

  5. Temporal separation between CO2 assimilation and growth? Experimental and theoretical evidence from the desiccation-tolerant moss Syntrichia ruralis.

    PubMed

    Royles, Jessica; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Hodgson, Dominic A; Convey, Peter; Griffiths, Howard

    2013-03-01

    The extent of an external water layer around moss tissue influences CO(2) assimilation. Experiments on the desiccation-tolerant moss Syntrichia ruralis assessed the real-time dependence of the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of CO(2) and H(2)O in terms of moss water status and integrated isotope signals in cellulose. As external (capillary) water, and then mesophyll water, evaporated from moss tissue, assimilation rate, relative water content and the stable isotope composition of tissue water (δ(18)O(TW)), and the CO(2) and H(2)O fluxes, were analysed. After drying, carbon (δ(13)C(C)) and oxygen (δ(18)O(C)) cellulose compositions were determined. During desiccation, assimilation and (13)CO(2) discrimination increased to a maximum and then declined; δ(18)O(TW) increased progressively by 8‰, indicative of evaporative isotopic enrichment. Experimental and meteorological data were combined to predict tissue hydration dynamics over one growing season. Nonsteady-state model predictions of δ(18)O(TW) were consistent with instantaneous measurements. δ(13)C(C) values suggest that net assimilation occurs at 25% of maximum relative water content, while δ(18)O(C) data suggests that cellulose is synthesized during much higher relative water content conditions. This implies that carbon assimilation and cellulose synthesis (growth) may be temporally separated, with carbon reserves possibly contributing to desiccation tolerance and resumption of metabolism upon rehydration.

  6. Ultrastructural and biochemical aspects of liver mitochondria during recovery from ethanol-induced alterations. Experimental evidence of mitochondrial division.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, O. R.; Roatta de Conti, L. L.; Bolaños, L. P.; Stoppani, A. O.

    1978-01-01

    To study the morphologic and biochemical changes occuring in liver mitochondria during recovery from ethanol-induced injury, rats fed a 6-month high-alcohol regimen plus a nutritionally adequate diet which did not induce fatty liver were compared with isocalorically fed controls. After this period the alcohol-fed animals displayed striking ultrastructural changes of liver mitochondria and a decreased respiratory activity with succinate or malate-glutamate as substrate. On the contrary, the respiratory rate with I-glycerophosphate was 50% increased. Regression changes were studied after alcohol was withdrawn from the diet. Enlarged mitochondria rapidly disappeared (in 24 hours), although a few megamitochondria were still present after 8 days of abstinence. A similar recovery was observed for the functional alterations. At the end of the experimental period, only a slight decrease of the maximal respiratory rate using malate-glutamate as a substrate was noted. The ultrastructural findings and the morphometric data suggest that the way in which mitochondrial normalization takes place is based on partition of these organelles. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 13 PMID:623205

  7. A novel pathway for the biosynthesis of heme in Archaea: genome-based bioinformatic predictions and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Sonja; Rolfes, Sarah; Raux-Deery, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J; Jahn, Dieter; Layer, Gunhild

    2010-12-13

    Heme is an essential prosthetic group for many proteins involved in fundamental biological processes in all three domains of life. In Eukaryota and Bacteria heme is formed via a conserved and well-studied biosynthetic pathway. Surprisingly, in Archaea heme biosynthesis proceeds via an alternative route which is poorly understood. In order to formulate a working hypothesis for this novel pathway, we searched 59 completely sequenced archaeal genomes for the presence of gene clusters consisting of established heme biosynthetic genes and colocalized conserved candidate genes. Within the majority of archaeal genomes it was possible to identify such heme biosynthesis gene clusters. From this analysis we have been able to identify several novel heme biosynthesis genes that are restricted to archaea. Intriguingly, several of the encoded proteins display similarity to enzymes involved in heme d(1) biosynthesis. To initiate an experimental verification of our proposals two Methanosarcina barkeri proteins predicted to catalyze the initial steps of archaeal heme biosynthesis were recombinantly produced, purified, and their predicted enzymatic functions verified.

  8. Microvascular experimental evidence on the relative significance of restoring oxygen carrying capacity vs. blood viscosity in shock resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Salazar Vázquez, Beatriz Y.; Wettstein, Reto; Cabrales, Pedro; Tsai, Amy G.; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Summary The development of volume replacement fluids for resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock comprises oxygen carrying and non carrying fluids. Non oxygen carrying fluids or plasma expanders are used up to the transfusion trigger, and upon reaching this landmark either blood, and possibly in the near future oxygen carrying blood substitutes, are used. An experimental program in hemorrhagic shock using the hamster chamber window model allowed to compare the relative performance of most fluids proposed for shock resuscitation. This model allows investigating simultaneously the microcirculation and systemic reactions, in the awake condition, in a tissue isolated from the environment. Results from this program show that in general plasma expanders such as Ringer’s lactate and dextran 70 kDa do not sufficiently restore blood viscosity upon reaching the transfusion trigger, causing microvascular collapse. This is in part restored by a blood transfusion, independently of the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells. These results lead to the proposal that effective blood substitutes must be designed to prevent microvascular collapse, manifested in the decrease of functional capillary density. Achievement of this goal, in combination with the increase of oxygen affinity, significantly postpones the need for a blood transfusion, and lowers the total requirement of restoration of intrinsic oxygen carrying capacity. PMID:18502215

  9. Experimental evidence of negative quantum capacitance in topological insulator for sub-60-mV/decade steep switching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H.; Lee, H.; Park, J.; Yu, H.-Y.; Kim, T. G.; Shin, C.

    2016-11-01

    As a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI), bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) has two-dimensional electron gas on its surface where negative quantum capacitance (NQC) can exist at a specific biasing condition. In order to experimentally confirm NQC in a TI, a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor (i.e., metal-Bi2Te3-SiO2-silicon) is fabricated. The capacitance-voltage measurement of the MIS capacitor at 300 K shows that as the depletion capacitance in silicon decreases, the total capacitance of the MIS capacitor, which consists of two capacitors connected in series (i.e., insulator capacitor and depletion capacitor), increases in the depletion region at a frequency of 50 kHz. The amplified capacitance indicates the existence of NQC on the surface of the TI, and it originates from the strongly correlated electron system. The NQC of the TI opens avenues for sub-60-mV/decade steep switching silicon devices.

  10. Experimental evidence for the immediate impact of fertilization and irrigation upon the plant and invertebrate communities of mountain grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Andrey, Aline; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Pernollet, Claire; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    The response of montane and subalpine hay meadow plant and arthropod communities to the application of liquid manure and aerial irrigation – two novel, rapidly spreading management practices – remains poorly understood, which hampers the formulation of best practice management recommendations for both hay production and biodiversity preservation. In these nutrient-poor mountain grasslands, a moderate management regime could enhance overall conditions for biodiversity. This study experimentally assessed, at the site scale, among low-input montane and subalpine meadows, the short-term effects (1 year) of a moderate intensification (slurry fertilization: 26.7–53.3 kg N·ha−1·year−1; irrigation with sprinklers: 20 mm·week−1; singly or combined together) on plant species richness, vegetation structure, hay production, and arthropod abundance and biomass in the inner European Alps (Valais, SW Switzerland). Results show that (1) montane and subalpine hay meadow ecological communities respond very rapidly to an intensification of management practices; (2) on a short-term basis, a moderate intensification of very low-input hay meadows has positive effects on plant species richness, vegetation structure, hay production, and arthropod abundance and biomass; (3) vegetation structure is likely to be the key factor limiting arthropod abundance and biomass. Our ongoing experiments will in the longer term identify which level of management intensity achieves an optimal balance between biodiversity and hay production. PMID:25360290

  11. Experimental Identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Strains L20 and JL03 Heptosyltransferases, Evidence for a New Heptosyltransferase Signature Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally identified the activities of six predicted heptosyltransferases in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae genome serotype 5b strain L20 and serotype 3 strain JL03. The initial identification was based on a bioinformatic analysis of the amino acid similarity between these putative heptosyltrasferases with others of known function from enteric bacteria and Aeromonas. The putative functions of all the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae heptosyltrasferases were determined by using surrogate LPS acceptor molecules from well-defined A. hydrophyla AH-3 and A. salmonicida A450 mutants. Our results show that heptosyltransferases APL_0981 and APJL_1001 are responsible for the transfer of the terminal outer core D-glycero-D-manno-heptose (D,D-Hep) residue although they are not currently included in the CAZY glycosyltransferase 9 family. The WahF heptosyltransferase group signature sequence [S(T/S)(GA)XXH] differs from the heptosyltransferases consensus signature sequence [D(TS)(GA)XXH], because of the substitution of D261 for S261, being unique. PMID:23383222

  12. Experimental evidence and modeling studies support a synchronizing role for electrical coupling in the cat thalamic reticular neurons in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, Pablo; Crochet, Sylvain; Timofeev, Igor; Bazhenov, Maxim; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Steriade, Mircea

    2010-01-01

    Thalamic reticular (RE) neurons are crucially implicated in brain rhythms. Here, we report that RE neurons of adult cats, recorded and stained intracellularly in vivo, displayed spontaneously occurring spikelets, which are characteristic of central neurons that are coupled electrotonically via gap junctions. Spikelets occurred spontaneously during spindles, an oscillation in which RE neurons play a leading role, as well as during interspindle lulls. They were significantly different from excitatory postsynaptic potentials and also distinct from fast prepotentials that are presumably dendritic spikes generated synaptically. Spikelets were strongly reduced by halothane, a blocker of gap junctions. Multi-site extracellular recordings performed before, during and after administration of halothane demonstrated a role for electrical coupling in the synchronization of spindling activity within the RE nucleus. Finally, computational models of RE neurons predicted that gap junctions between these neurons could mediate the spread of low-frequency activity at great distances. These experimental and modeling data suggest that electrotonic coupling within the RE nucleus plays an important role in the generation and synchronization of low-frequency (spindling) activities in the thalamus. PMID:15245484

  13. Experimental evidence for spring and autumn windows for the detection of geobotanical anomalies through the remote sensing of overlying vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labovitz, M. L.; Masuoka, E. J.; Bell, R.; Nelson, R. F.; Larsen, C. A.; Hooker, L. K.; Troensegaard, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that in many regions of the world, vegetation is the predominant factor influencing variation in reflected energy in the 0.4-2.5 micron region of the spectrum. Studies have, therefore, been conducted regarding the utility of remote sensing for detecting changes in vegetation which could be related to the presence of mineralization. The present paper provides primarily a report on the results of the second year of a multiyear study of geobotanical-remote-sensing relationships as developed over areas of sulfide mineralization. The field study has a strong experimental design basis. It is proceeded by first delineating the boundaries of a large geographic region which satisfied a set of previously enumerated field-site criteria. Within this region, carefully selected pairs of mineralized and nonmineralized test sites were examined over the growing season. The experiment is to provide information about the spectral and temporal resolutions required for remote-sensing-geobotanical exploration. The obtained results are evaluated.

  14. Experimental evidence of the synergistic effects of warming and invasive algae on a temperate reef-builder coral.

    PubMed

    Kersting, Diego K; Cebrian, Emma; Casado, Clara; Teixidó, Núria; Garrabou, Joaquim; Linares, Cristina

    2015-12-22

    In the current global climate change scenario, stressors overlap in space and time, and knowledge on the effects of their interaction is highly needed to understand and predict the response and resilience of organisms. Corals, among many other benthic organisms, are affected by an increasing number of global change-related stressors including warming and invasive species. In this study, the cumulative effects between warming and invasive algae were experimentally assessed on the temperate reef-builder coral Cladocora caespitosa. We first investigated the potential local adaptation to thermal stress in two distant populations subjected to contrasting thermal and necrosis histories. No significant differences were found between populations. Colonies from both populations suffered no necrosis after long-term exposure to temperatures up to 29 °C. Second, we tested the effects of the interaction of both warming and the presence of invasive algae. The combined exposure triggered critical synergistic effects on photosynthetic efficiency and tissue necrosis. At the end of the experiment, over 90% of the colonies subjected to warming and invasive algae showed signs of necrosis. The results are of particular concern when considering the predicted increase of extreme climatic events and the spread of invasive species in the Mediterranean and other seas in the future.

  15. Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotropy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen Kii, Mikhail S.; Barchers, Jeffrey D.; Karis, Stephen J.; Osmon, Christina L.; Brown, James M.; Fugate, Robert Q.

    1999-09-01

    We report preliminary results of wavefront tilt measurements for the star Polaris at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5 m telescope at Kirtland AFB in Albuquerque, NM. We measured full aperture gradient tilt by using five pupil masks representing aperture diameters from 0.1m to 3.5m. Two optical configurations were exploited. In the first configuration, five images of Polaris were recorded simultaneously on one camera frame. The telescope was operated in its normal sidereal pointing mode. In the second configuration, pupil masks were changed sequentially. Additional measurements were collected with the telescope bolted to attempt to mitigate the effects of mont jitter. The coordinate system of the tilt measurement was rotated so that the cross-correlation coefficient between X- and Y-axis tilt components is equal to zero. Several interesting results were obtained. We observed anisotropy of the statistics of wavefront tilt. The observed one-axis tilt variances are unequal and the horizontal tilt variance is consistently greater than the vertical one. We believe these effects dare due to anisotropy of the large evidence of the effects of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt. The measured tilt variance vs. aperture diameter curve has a knee beyond which the tilt variance no longer decreases for larger diameters. In the low and high frequency range the tilt power spectra obey the f(superscript -2/3) and f(superscript -11/3) power law, respectively. The tilt temporal correlation scale for the 3.5m aperture is on the order of 0.4 sec.

  16. Fluorescent proteins function as a prey attractant: experimental evidence from the hydromedusa Olindias formosus and other marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Steven H D; Dunn, Casey W

    2015-07-31

    Although proteins in the green fluorescent protein family (GFPs) have been discovered in a wide array of taxa, their ecological functions in these organisms remain unclear. Many hypothesized roles are related to modifying bioluminescence spectra or modulating the light regime for algal symbionts, but these do not explain the presence of GFPs in animals that are non-luminous and non-symbiotic. Other hypothesized functions are unrelated to the visual signals themselves, including stress responses and antioxidant roles, but these cannot explain the localization of fluorescence in particular structures on the animals. Here we tested the hypothesis that fluorescence might serve to attract prey. In laboratory experiments, the predator was the hydromedusa Olindias formosus (previously known as O. formosa), which has fluorescent and pigmented patches on the tips of its tentacles. The prey, juvenile rockfishes in the genus Sebastes, were significantly more attracted (P<1×10(-5)) to the medusa's tentacles under lighting conditions where fluorescence was excited and tentacle tips were visible above the background. The fish did not respond significantly when treatments did not include fluorescent structures or took place under yellow or white lights, which did not generate fluorescence visible above the ambient light. Furthermore, underwater observations of the behavior of fishes when presented with a brightly illuminated point showed a strong attraction to this visual stimulus. In situ observations also provided evidence for fluorescent lures as supernormal stimuli in several other marine animals, including the siphonophore Rhizophysa eysenhardti. Our results support the idea that fluorescent structures can serve as prey attractants, thus providing a potential function for GFPs and other fluorescent proteins in a diverse range of organisms.

  17. Experimental and observational evidence reveals that predators in natural environments do not regulate their prey: They are passengers, not drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, T. C. R.

    2013-11-01

    Among both ecologists and the wider community there is a tacit assumption that predators regulate populations of their prey. But there is evidence from a wide taxonomic and geographic range of studies that predators that are adapted to co-evolved prey generally do not regulate their prey. This is because predators either cannot reproduce as fast as their prey and/or are inefficient hunters unable to catch enough prey to sustain maximum reproduction. The greater capacity of herbivores to breed successfully is, however, normally restricted by a lack of enough food of sufficient quality to support reproduction. But whenever this shortage is alleviated by a large pulse of food, herbivores increase their numbers to outbreak levels. Their predators are unable to contain this increase, but their numbers, too, surge in response to this increase in food. Eventually both their populations will crash once the food supply runs out, first for the herbivores and then for the predators. Then an “over-run” of predators will further depress the already declining prey population, appearing to be controlling its abundance. This latter phenomenon has led many ecologists to conclude that predators are regulating the numbers of their prey. However, it is the same process that is revealed during outbreaks that limits populations of both predator and prey in “normal” times, although this is usually not readily apparent. Nevertheless, as all the diverse cases discussed here attest, the abundance of predators and their co-evolved prey are both limited by their food: the predators are passengers, not drivers.

  18. Adaptation to the sky: Defining the feather with integument fossils from Mesozoic China and experimental evidence from molecular laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Fu-Cheng; Xu, Xing; Yu, Minke; Widelitz, Randall B.; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Hou, Lianhai

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue of Evo-Devo of the amniote integument, Alibardi has discussed the adaptation of the integument to the land. Here we will discuss the adaptation to the sky. We first review a series of fossil discoveries representing intermediate forms of feathers or feather-like appendages from dinosaurs and Mesozoic birds from the Jehol Biota of China. We then discuss results from the molecular and developmental biological experiments using chicken integument as the model. Feather forms can be modulated using retrovirus mediated gene mis-expression that mimics those found in nature today and in the evolutionary past. The molecular conversions among different types of integument appendages (feather, scale, tooth) are discussed. From these evidences, we recognize that not all organisms with feathers are birds, and that not all skin appendages with hierarchical branches are feathers. We develop a set of criteria for true avian feathers: 1) possessing actively proliferating cells in the proximal follicle for a proximo – distal growth mode; 2) forming hierarchical branches of rachis, barbs and barbules, with barbs shaped by differential cell death into either bilaterally or radially symmetric structures; 3) having a follicle structure, with a mesenchyme core during development; 4) maturing into a structure consisting of epithelia without a mesenchyme core with two sides of the vane facing the previous basal and supra-basal layer, respectively; and 5) having stem cells and dermal papilla in the follicle and hence the ability to molt and regenerate. A model of feather evolution from feather bud → barbs → barbules → rachis is presented, which is opposite to the old view of scale plate → rachis → barbs → barbules. PMID:12949768

  19. Experimental evidence for the effect of small wind turbine proximity and operation on bird and bat activity.

    PubMed

    Minderman, Jeroen; Pendlebury, Chris J; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Park, Kirsty J

    2012-01-01

    The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating <50 kW) sector is growing rapidly. In spite of evidence of effects of large wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6-18 m hub height) and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0-5 m), bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat "pass" per hour) decreases from 84% (71-91%) to 28% (11-54%) as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20-25 m) from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65-89%) to 59% (32-81%)), and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat.

  20. Experimental Evidence for the Effect of Small Wind Turbine Proximity and Operation on Bird and Bat Activity

    PubMed Central

    Minderman, Jeroen; Pendlebury, Chris J.; Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Park, Kirsty J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating <50 kW) sector is growing rapidly. In spite of evidence of effects of large wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6–18 m hub height) and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0–5 m), bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat “pass” per hour) decreases from 84% (71–91%) to 28% (11–54%) as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20–25 m) from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65–89%) to 59% (32–81%)), and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat. PMID:22859969

  1. Fluorescent proteins function as a prey attractant: experimental evidence from the hydromedusa Olindias formosus and other marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Steven H. D.; Dunn, Casey W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although proteins in the green fluorescent protein family (GFPs) have been discovered in a wide array of taxa, their ecological functions in these organisms remain unclear. Many hypothesized roles are related to modifying bioluminescence spectra or modulating the light regime for algal symbionts, but these do not explain the presence of GFPs in animals that are non-luminous and non-symbiotic. Other hypothesized functions are unrelated to the visual signals themselves, including stress responses and antioxidant roles, but these cannot explain the localization of fluorescence in particular structures on the animals. Here we tested the hypothesis that fluorescence might serve to attract prey. In laboratory experiments, the predator was the hydromedusa Olindias formosus (previously known as O. formosa), which has fluorescent and pigmented patches on the tips of its tentacles. The prey, juvenile rockfishes in the genus Sebastes, were significantly more attracted (P<1×10−5) to the medusa's tentacles under lighting conditions where fluorescence was excited and tentacle tips were visible above the background. The fish did not respond significantly when treatments did not include fluorescent structures or took place under yellow or white lights, which did not generate fluorescence visible above the ambient light. Furthermore, underwater observations of the behavior of fishes when presented with a brightly illuminated point showed a strong attraction to this visual stimulus. In situ observations also provided evidence for fluorescent lures as supernormal stimuli in several other marine animals, including the siphonophore Rhizophysa eysenhardti. Our results support the idea that fluorescent structures can serve as prey attractants, thus providing a potential function for GFPs and other fluorescent proteins in a diverse range of organisms. PMID:26231627

  2. Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shankleman, M.; Sykes, C.; Mandeville, K.L.; Di Costa, S.; Yarrow, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. Study design A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, completed at a university in London, UK. Methods Mock-ups of cigarette packets were presented to participants with their branded portion in either standardised (plain) or manufacturer-designed (branded) format. Health warnings were present on all packets, representing all three types currently in use in the UK: black & white text, colour text, or colour images with accompanying text. Gaze position was recorded using a specialised eye tracker, providing the main outcome measure, which was the mean proportion of a five-second viewing period spent gazing at the warning-label region of the packet. Results An opportunity sample of 30 (six male, mean age = 23) young adults met the following inclusion criteria: 1) not currently a smoker; 2) <100 lifetime cigarettes smoked; 3) gaze position successfully tracked for > 50% viewing time. These participants spent a greater proportion of the available time gazing at the warning-label region when the branded section of the pack was standardised (following current Australian guidelines) rather than containing the manufacturer's preferred design (mean difference in proportions = 0.078, 95% confidence interval 0.049 to 0.106, p < 0.001). There was no evidence that this effect varied based on the type of warning label (black & white text vs. colour text vs. colour image & text; interaction p = 0.295). Conclusions During incidental viewing of cigarette packets, young adult never-smokers are likely to spend more time looking at health warnings if manufacturers are compelled to use standardised packaging, regardless of the warning design. PMID:25542740

  3. Experimental evidence of nitrogen control on pCO2 in phosphorus-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoon waters

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Roberta B.; Marotta, Humberto; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Natural and human-induced controls on carbon dioxide (CO2) in tropical waters may be very dynamic (over time and among or within ecosystems) considering the potential role of warmer temperatures intensifying metabolic responses and playing a direct role on the balance between photosynthesis and respiration. The high magnitude of biological processes at low latitudes following eutrophication by nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs into coastal lagoons waters may be a relevant component of the carbon cycle, showing controls on partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) that are still poorly understood. Here we assessed the strength of N control on pCO2 in P-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoons waters, using four experimental treatments in microcosms: control (no additional nutrients) and three levels of N additions coupled to P enrichments. In humic coastal lagoons waters, a persistent CO2 supersaturation was reported in controls and all nutrient-enriched treatments, ranging from 24- to 4-fold the atmospheric equilibrium value. However, both humic and clear coastal lagoons waters only showed significant decreases in pCO2 in relation to the controlled microcosms in the two treatments with higher N addition levels. Additionally, clear coastal lagoons water microcosms showed a shift from CO2 sources to CO2 sinks, in relation to the atmosphere. Only in the two more N-enriched treatments did pCO2 substantially decrease, from 650 µatm in controls and less N-enriched treatments to 10 µatm in more N-enriched microcosms. Humic substrates and N inputs can modulate pCO2 even in P-enriched coastal lagoons waters, thereby being important drivers on CO2 outgassing from inland waters. PMID:23390422

  4. Field and experimental evidence of a new caiman trypanosome species closely phylogenetically related to fish trypanosomes and transmitted by leeches.

    PubMed

    Fermino, Bruno R; Paiva, Fernando; Soares, Priscilla; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R; Viola, Laerte B; Ferreira, Robson C; Botero-Arias, Robinson; de-Paula, Cátia D; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmen S A; Teixeira, Marta M G; Camargo, Erney P

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosoma terena and Trypanosoma ralphi are known species of the South American crocodilians Caiman crocodilus, Caiman yacare and Melanosuchus niger and are phylogenetically related to the tsetse-transmitted Trypanosoma grayi of the African Crocodylus niloticus. These trypanosomes form the Crocodilian clade of the terrestrial clade of the genus Trypanosoma. A PCR-survey for trypanosomes in caiman blood samples and in leeches taken from caimans revealed unknown trypanosome diversity and frequent mixed infections. Phylogenies based on SSU (small subunit) of rRNA and gGAPDH (glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase) gene sequences revealed a new trypanosome species clustering with T. terena and T. ralphi in the crocodilian clade and an additional new species nesting in the distant Aquatic clade of trypanosomes, which is herein named Trypanosoma clandestinus n. sp. This new species was found in Caiman yacare, Caiman crocodilus and M. niger from the Pantanal and Amazonian biomes in Brazil. Large numbers of dividing epimastigotes and unique thin and long trypomastigotes were found in the guts of leeches (Haementeria sp.) removed from the mouths of caimans. The trypanosomes recovered from the leeches had sequences identical to those of T. clandestinus of caiman blood samples. Experimental infestation of young caimans (Caiman yacare) with infected leeches resulted in long-lasting T. clandestinus infections that permitted us to delineate its life cycle. In contrast to T. terena, T. ralphi and T. grayi, which are detectable by hemoculturing, microscopy and standard PCR of caiman blood, T. clandestinus passes undetected by these methods due to very low parasitemia and could be detected solely by the more sensitive nested PCR method. T. clandestinus n. sp. is the first crocodilian trypanosome known to be transmitted by leeches and positioned in the aquatic clade closest to fish trypanosomes. Our data show that caimans can host trypanosomes of the aquatic or

  5. Experimental Evidence for the Interplay of Exogenous and Endogenous Factors on the Movement Ecology of a Migrating Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emily B.; Moore, Frank R.; Fischer, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Movement patterns during songbird migration remain poorly understood despite their expected fitness consequences in terms of survival, energetic condition and timing of migration that will carry over to subsequent phases of the annual cycle. We took an experimental approach to test hypotheses regarding the influence of habitat, energetic condition, time of season and sex on the hour-by-hour, local movement decisions of a songbird during spring stopover. To simulate arrival of nocturnal migrants at unfamiliar stopover sites, we translocated and continuously tracked migratory red-eyed vireos (Vireo olivaceus) throughout spring stopover with and without energetic reserves that were released in two replicates of three forested habitat types. Migrants moved the most upon release, during which time they selected habitat characterized by greater food abundance and higher foraging attack rates. Presumably under pressure to replenish fuel stores necessary to continue migration in a timely fashion, migrants released in poorer energetic condition moved faster and further than migrants in better condition and the same pattern was true for migrants released late in spring relative to those released earlier. However, a migrant's energetic condition had less influence on their behavior when they were in poor quality habitat. Movement did not differ between sexes. Our study illustrates the importance of quickly finding suitable habitat at each stopover site, especially for energetically constrained migrants later in the season. If an initial period prior to foraging were necessary at each stop along a migrant's journey, non-foraging periods would cumulatively result in a significant energetic and time cost to migration. However, we suggest behavior during stopover is not solely a function of underlying resource distributions but is a complex response to a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. PMID:22844528

  6. Effect of phytoplankton community composition and cell size on absorption properties in eutrophic shallow lakes: field and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlin; Yin, Yan; Wang, Mingzhu; Liu, Xiaohan

    2012-05-21

    We investigated phytoplankton absorption properties of Lake Taihu, in the spring and summer of 2005 and 2006, and for 17 days studied laboratory cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus (chlorophyta) and Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanophyta) to determine the effect of phytoplankton community composition and cell size on the absorption properties. There were significant seasonal differences in phytoplankton community composition and absorption coefficients. In spring, the phytoplankton community was dominated by chlorophyta with large cells, whereas in summer was dominated by cyanophyta with small cells. Phytoplankton absorption coefficients increased significantly from spring to summer, with the increase in chlorophyll a (Chla) concentration. In addition, Chla-specific absorption coefficients increased with the phytoplankton community succession from chlorophyta to cyanophyta. In culture, the cells density of S. obliquus was generally lower than that of M. aeruginosa, and Chla concentrations of S. obliquus were significantly higher than those of M. aeruginosa. Correspondingly, the Chla-specific absorption coefficients of S. obliquus were significantly lower than those of M. aeruginosa. Significant exponential correlations were found between absorption and Chla-specific absorption coefficients and Chla concentration for S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa. In addition, we developed a model to predict absorption and Chla-specific absorption coefficients using Chla concentration and cell size when data from two species was grouped together. Field and experimental results both showed that the Chla-specific absorption coefficients of cyanophyta were significantly higher than those of chlorophyta. The variability in specific absorption can attributed to phytoplankton community composition, cell size and pigment composition. As phytoplankton community composition changed significantly with season in the lake, and as variation in the cell sizes and accessory pigments of the phytoplankton

  7. Experimental evidence for fundamental, and not realized, niche partitioning in a plant-herbivore community interaction network.

    PubMed

    Augustyn, Willem J; Anderson, Bruce; Ellis, Allan G

    2016-07-01

    Patterns of niche partitioning can result from local ecological interactions (e.g. interspecific competition) occurring within a contemporary time frame (realized niche partitioning). Alternatively, they may represent the end product of historical processes acting over long time frames (fundamental niche partitioning). Niche partitioning is often detected by analysing patterns of resource use within communities, but experiments are rarely conducted to test whether patterns of non-overlapping resource use reflect realized or fundamental niche partitioning. We studied a community of restio leafhoppers from the genus Cephalelus and their host plants, the Restionaceae (restios). We used network and experimental approaches to determine whether network modularity (a measure of niche partitioning within local communities) reflects fundamental or realized niche partitioning. Using a weighted modularity index for two party networks (e.g. insect-plant), we determined whether the network of this community is modular (i.e. consists of groups of species interacting strongly, with weak interactions between groups). We also aimed to identify specific Cephalelus - restio modules (groups). Using knowledge of module membership to design experiments, we tested whether Cephalelus species from two different modules, Cephalelus uncinatus and Cephalelus pickeri, prefer and perform better on restios from their own modules vs. restios from other modules. These experiments were performed under controlled conditions, eliminating the influences of competition and predation on host choices. The Cephalelus - restio community was modular, implying niche partitioning. Cephalelus also preferred and performed better on restios from their own modules in the absence of local contemporary factors. Most niche partitioning in the investigated Cephalelus community is not caused by local interactions, and thus, host use patterns represent fundamental niches. Our findings highlight the importance of

  8. Dependence of Invadopodia Function on Collagen Fiber Spacing and Cross-Linking: Computational Modeling and Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Enderling, Heiko; Alexander, Nelson R.; Clark, Emily S.; Branch, Kevin M.; Estrada, Lourdes; Crooke, Cornelia; Jourquin, Jérôme; Lobdell, Nichole; Zaman, Muhammad H.; Guelcher, Scott A.; Anderson, Alexander R. A.; Weaver, Alissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Invadopodia are subcellular organelles thought to be critical for extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and the movement of cells through tissues. Here we examine invadopodia generation, turnover, and function in relation to two structural aspects of the ECM substrates they degrade: cross-linking and fiber density. We set up a cellular automaton computational model that simulates ECM penetration and degradation by invadopodia. Experiments with denatured collagen (gelatin) were used to calibrate the model and demonstrate the inhibitory effect of ECM cross-linking on invadopodia degradation and penetration. Incorporation of dynamic invadopodia behavior into the model amplified the effect of cross-linking on ECM degradation, and was used to model feedback from the ECM. When the model was parameterized with spatial fibrillar dimensions that closely matched the organization, in real life, of native ECM collagen into triple-helical monomers, microfibrils, and macrofibrils, little or no inhibition of invadopodia penetration was observed in simulations of sparse collagen gels, no matter how high the degree of cross-linking. Experimental validation, using live-cell imaging of invadopodia in cells plated on cross-linked gelatin, was consistent with simulations in which ECM cross-linking led to higher rates of both invadopodia retraction and formation. Analyses of invadopodia function from cells plated on cross-linked gelatin and collagen gels under standard concentrations were consistent with simulation results in which sparse collagen gels provided a weak barrier to invadopodia. These results suggest that the organization of collagen, as it may occur in stroma or in vitro collagen gels, forms gaps large enough so as to have little impact on invadopodia penetration/degradation. By contrast, dense ECM, such as gelatin or possibly basement membranes, is an effective obstacle to invadopodia penetration and degradation, particularly when cross-linked. These results provide a

  9. New experimental evidence to support roaming in the reaction Cl + isobutene (i-C4H8)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Wei; Hung, Ching-Ming; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2017-01-01

    The reaction Cl + isobutene (i-C4H8) was reported by Suits et al. to proceed via, in addition to abstraction, an addition-elimination path following a roaming excursion of Cl; a near-zero translational energy release and an isotropic angular distribution observed at a small collision energy characterized this mechanism. We employed a new experimental method to further characterize this roaming mechanism through observation of the internal distribution of HCl (v, J) and their temporal behavior upon irradiation of a mixture of Cl2C2O2 and i-C4H8 in He or Ar buffer gas. With 1–3 Torr buffer gas added to approach the condition of small collision energy, the intensities of emission of HCl (v = 1, 2) and the HCl production rates increased significantly; Ar shows a more significant effect than He because Ar quenches Cl more efficiently to reduce the collisional energy and facilitate the roaming path. According to kinetic modeling, the rate of addition-elimination (roaming) increased from kE ≈ 2 × 105 s−1 when little buffer gas was present to ~1.9 × 106 s−1 when 2–3 Torr of Ar was added, and the branching ratio for formation of [HCl (v = 2)]/[HCl (v = 1)] increased from 0.02 ± 0.01 for abstraction to 0.06 ± 0.01 for roaming. PMID:28079173

  10. New experimental evidence to support roaming in the reaction Cl + isobutene (i-C4H8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Wei; Hung, Ching-Ming; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2017-01-01

    The reaction Cl + isobutene (i-C4H8) was reported by Suits et al. to proceed via, in addition to abstraction, an addition-elimination path following a roaming excursion of Cl; a near-zero translational energy release and an isotropic angular distribution observed at a small collision energy characterized this mechanism. We employed a new experimental method to further characterize this roaming mechanism through observation of the internal distribution of HCl (v, J) and their temporal behavior upon irradiation of a mixture of Cl2C2O2 and i-C4H8 in He or Ar buffer gas. With 1–3 Torr buffer gas added to approach the condition of small collision energy, the intensities of emission of HCl (v = 1, 2) and the HCl production rates increased significantly; Ar shows a more significant effect than He because Ar quenches Cl more efficiently to reduce the collisional energy and facilitate the roaming path. According to kinetic modeling, the rate of addition-elimination (roaming) increased from kE ≈ 2 × 105 s‑1 when little buffer gas was present to ~1.9 × 106 s‑1 when 2–3 Torr of Ar was added, and the branching ratio for formation of [HCl (v = 2)]/[HCl (v = 1)] increased from 0.02 ± 0.01 for abstraction to 0.06 ± 0.01 for roaming.

  11. Field and experimental evidence of a new caiman trypanosome species closely phylogenetically related to fish trypanosomes and transmitted by leeches

    PubMed Central

    Fermino, Bruno R.; Paiva, Fernando; Soares, Priscilla; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R.; Viola, Laerte B.; Ferreira, Robson C.; Botero-Arias, Robinson; de-Paula, Cátia D.; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmen S.A.; Teixeira, Marta M.G.; Camargo, Erney P.

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma terena and Trypanosoma ralphi are known species of the South American crocodilians Caiman crocodilus, Caiman yacare and Melanosuchus niger and are phylogenetically related to the tsetse-transmitted Trypanosoma grayi of the African Crocodylus niloticus. These trypanosomes form the Crocodilian clade of the terrestrial clade of the genus Trypanosoma. A PCR-survey for trypanosomes in caiman blood samples and in leeches taken from caimans revealed unknown trypanosome diversity and frequent mixed infections. Phylogenies based on SSU (small subunit) of rRNA and gGAPDH (glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase) gene sequences revealed a new trypanosome species clustering with T. terena and T. ralphi in the crocodilian clade and an additional new species nesting in the distant Aquatic clade of trypanosomes, which is herein named Trypanosoma clandestinus n. sp. This new species was found in Caiman yacare, Caiman crocodilus and M. niger from the Pantanal and Amazonian biomes in Brazil. Large numbers of dividing epimastigotes and unique thin and long trypomastigotes were found in the guts of leeches (Haementeria sp.) removed from the mouths of caimans. The trypanosomes recovered from the leeches had sequences identical to those of T. clandestinus of caiman blood samples. Experimental infestation of young caimans (Caiman yacare) with infected leeches resulted in long-lasting T. clandestinus infections that permitted us to delineate its life cycle. In contrast to T. terena, T. ralphi and T. grayi, which are detectable by hemoculturing, microscopy and standard PCR of caiman blood, T. clandestinus passes undetected by these methods due to very low parasitemia and could be detected solely by the more sensitive nested PCR method. T. clandestinus n. sp. is the first crocodilian trypanosome known to be transmitted by leeches and positioned in the aquatic clade closest to fish trypanosomes. Our data show that caimans can host trypanosomes of the aquatic or

  12. Initial experimental evidence of self-collimation of TNSA proton beam in a stack of conducting foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Pavel

    2013-10-01

    Phenomena consistent with self-collimation (or weak self-focusing) of laser target-normal-sheath-accelerated (TNSA) protons was experimentally observed for the first time, in a specially engineered structure (``lens'') consisting of a stack of 300 thin aluminum foils separated by 50 μm vacuum gaps. The experiments were carried out in a ``passive environment,'' i.e. no external fields applied, neutralization plasma or injection of secondary charged particles was imposed. Experiments were performed at the petawatt ``PHELIX'' laser user facility (E = 100 J, Δt = 400 fs, λ = 1062 nm) at the ``Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung-GSI'' in Darmstadt, Germany. The observed rms beam spot reduction depends inversely on energy, with a focusing degree decreasing monotonically from 2 at 5.4 MeV to 1.5 MeV at 18.7 MeV. The physics inside the lens is complex, resulting in a number of different mechanisms that can potentially affect the particle dynamics within the structure. We present a plausible simple interpretation of the experiment in which the combination of magnetic self-pinch forces generated by the beam current together with the simultaneous reduction of the repulsive electrostatic forces due to the foils are the dominant mechanisms responsible for the observed focusing/collimation. This focusing technique could be applied to a wide variety of space-charge dominated proton and heavy ion beams and impact fields and applications, such as HEDP science, inertial confinement fusion in both fast ignition and heavy ion fusion approaches, compact laser-driven injectors for a LINAC or synchrotron, medical therapy, materials processing, etc.

  13. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma in gastric ulcer: An overview of experimental evidences

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Lekha

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Three subtypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, have been identified so far. PPARα is expressed in the liver, kidney, small intestine, heart, and muscle, where it activates the fatty acid catabolism and control lipoprotein assembly in response to long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic drugs (e.g., fenofibrate). PPARβ/δ is more broadly expressed and is implicated in fatty acid oxidation, keratinocyte differentiation, wound healing, and macrophage response to very low density lipoprotein metabolism. This isoform has been implicated in transcriptional-repression functions and has been shown to repress the activity of PPARα or PPARγ target genes. PPARγ1 and γ2 are generated from a single-gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma by differential promoter usage and alternative splicing. PPARγ1 is expressed in colon, immune system (e.g., monocytes and macrophages), and other tissues where it participates in the modulation of inflammation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. PPARs regulate gene expression through distinct mechanisms: Ligand-dependent transactivation, ligand-independent repression, and ligand-dependent transrepression. Studies in animals have demonstrated the gastric antisecretory activity of PPARα agonists like ciprofibrate, bezafibrate and clofibrate. Study by Pathak et al also demonstrated the effect of PPARα agonist, bezafibrate, on gastric secretion and gastric cytoprotection in various gastric ulcer models in rats. The majority of the experimental studies is on pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, which are PPARγ activators. In all the studies, both the PPARγ activators showed protection against the gastric ulcer and also accelerate the ulcer healing in gastric ulcer model in rats. Therefore, PPARα and PPARγ may be a target for gastric ulcer therapy

  14. Experimental evidence of edge intrinsic momentum source driven by kinetic ion loss and edge radial electric fields in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Boedo, J. A.; deGrassie, J. S.; Grierson, B.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Battaglia, D. J.; Rudakov, D. L.; Belli, E. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Hollmann, E.; Lasnier, C.; Solomon, W. M.; Unterberg, E. A.; Watkins, J.

    2016-09-21

    Here, bulk ion toroidal velocity profiles, VD+||, peaking at 40–60 km/s are observed with Mach probes in a narrow edge region of DIII-D discharges without external momentum input. This intrinsic rotation can be well reproduced by a first principle, collisionless kinetic loss model of thermal ion loss that predicts the existence of a loss-cone distribution in velocity space resulting in a co-Ip directed velocity. We consider two kinetic models, one of which includes turbulence-enhanced momentum transport, as well as the Pfirsch-Schluter (P-S) fluid mechanism. We measure a fine structure of the boundary radial electric field, Er, insofar ignored, featuring large (10–20 kV/m) positive peaks in the scrape off layer (SOL) at, or slightly inside, the last closed flux surface of these low power L- and H-mode discharges in DIII-D. The Er structure significantly affects the ion-loss model, extended to account for a non-uniform electric field. We also find that VD+|| is reduced when the magnetic topology is changed from lower single null to upper single null. The kinetic ion loss model containing turbulence-enhanced momentum transport can explain the reduction, as we find that the potential fluctuations decay with radius, while we need to invoke a topology-enhanced collisionality on the simpler kinetic model. The P-S mechanism fails to reproduce the damping. We show a clear correlation between the near core VC6+|| velocity and the peak edge VD+|| in discharges with no external torque, further supporting the hypothesis that ion loss is the source for intrinsic torque in the present tokamaks. However, we also show that when external torque is injected in the core, it can complete with, and eventually overwhelm, the edge source, thus determining the near SOL flows. Finally, we show some additional evidence that the ion/electron distribution in the SOL is non-Maxwellian.

  15. Experimental evidence of edge intrinsic momentum source driven by kinetic ion loss and edge radial electric fields in tokamaks

    DOE PAGES

    Boedo, J. A.; deGrassie, J. S.; Grierson, B.; ...

    2016-09-21

    Here, bulk ion toroidal velocity profiles, VD+||, peaking at 40–60 km/s are observed with Mach probes in a narrow edge region of DIII-D discharges without external momentum input. This intrinsic rotation can be well reproduced by a first principle, collisionless kinetic loss model of thermal ion loss that predicts the existence of a loss-cone distribution in velocity space resulting in a co-Ip directed velocity. We consider two kinetic models, one of which includes turbulence-enhanced momentum transport, as well as the Pfirsch-Schluter (P-S) fluid mechanism. We measure a fine structure of the boundary radial electric field, Er, insofar ignored, featuring largemore » (10–20 kV/m) positive peaks in the scrape off layer (SOL) at, or slightly inside, the last closed flux surface of these low power L- and H-mode discharges in DIII-D. The Er structure significantly affects the ion-loss model, extended to account for a non-uniform electric field. We also find that VD+|| is reduced when the magnetic topology is changed from lower single null to upper single null. The kinetic ion loss model containing turbulence-enhanced momentum transport can explain the reduction, as we find that the potential fluctuations decay with radius, while we need to invoke a topology-enhanced collisionality on the simpler kinetic model. The P-S mechanism fails to reproduce the damping. We show a clear correlation between the near core VC6+|| velocity and the peak edge VD+|| in discharges with no external torque, further supporting the hypothesis that ion loss is the source for intrinsic torque in the present tokamaks. However, we also show that when external torque is injected in the core, it can complete with, and eventually overwhelm, the edge source, thus determining the near SOL flows. Finally, we show some additional evidence that the ion/electron distribution in the SOL is non-Maxwellian.« less

  16. Experimental evidence of edge intrinsic momentum source driven by kinetic ion loss and edge radial electric fields in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedo, J. A.; deGrassie, J. S.; Grierson, B.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Battaglia, D. J.; Rudakov, D. L.; Belli, E. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Hollmann, E.; Lasnier, C.; Solomon, W. M.; Unterberg, E. A.; Watkins, J.

    2016-09-01

    Bulk ion toroidal velocity profiles, V| | D + , peaking at 40-60 km/s are observed with Mach probes in a narrow edge region of DIII-D discharges without external momentum input. This intrinsic rotation can be well reproduced by a first principle, collisionless kinetic loss model of thermal ion loss that predicts the existence of a loss-cone distribution in velocity space resulting in a co-Ip directed velocity. We consider two kinetic models, one of which includes turbulence-enhanced momentum transport, as well as the Pfirsch-Schluter (P-S) fluid mechanism. We measure a fine structure of the boundary radial electric field, Er, insofar ignored, featuring large (10-20 kV/m) positive peaks in the scrape off layer (SOL) at, or slightly inside, the last closed flux surface of these low power L- and H-mode discharges in DIII-D. The Er structure significantly affects the ion-loss model, extended to account for a non-uniform electric field. We also find that V| | D + is reduced when the magnetic topology is changed from lower single null to upper single null. The kinetic ion loss model containing turbulence-enhanced momentum transport can explain the reduction, as we find that the potential fluctuations decay with radius, while we need to invoke a topology-enhanced collisionality on the simpler kinetic model. The P-S mechanism fails to reproduce the damping. We show a clear correlation between the near core V| | C 6 + velocity and the peak edge V| | D + in discharges with no external torque, further supporting the hypothesis that ion loss is the source for intrinsic torque in the present tokamaks. However, we also show that when external torque is injected in the core, it can complete with, and eventually overwhelm, the edge source, thus determining the near SOL flows. Finally, we show some additional evidence that the ion/electron distribution in the SOL is non-Maxwellian.

  17. Charge Transport in 4 nm Molecular Wires with Interrupted Conjugation: Combined Experimental and Computational Evidence for Thermally Assisted Polaron Tunneling.

    PubMed

    Taherinia, Davood; Smith, Christopher E; Ghosh, Soumen; Odoh, Samuel O; Balhorn, Luke; Gagliardi, Laura; Cramer, Christopher J; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2016-04-26

    We report the synthesis, transport measurements, and electronic structure of conjugation-broken oligophenyleneimine (CB-OPI 6) molecular wires with lengths of ∼4 nm. The wires were grown from Au surfaces using stepwise aryl imine condensation reactions between 1,4-diaminobenzene and terephthalaldehyde (1,4-benzenedicarbaldehyde). Saturated spacers (conjugation breakers) were introduced into the molecular backbone by replacing the aromatic diamine with trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane at specific steps during the growth processes. FT-IR and ellipsometry were used to follow the imination reactions on Au surfaces. Surface coverages (∼4 molecules/nm(2)) and electronic structures of the wires were determined by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the wires were acquired using conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) in which an Au-coated AFM probe was brought into contact with the wires to form metal-molecule-metal junctions with contact areas of ∼50 nm(2). The low bias resistance increased with the number of saturated spacers, but was not sensitive to the position of the spacer within the wire. Temperature dependent measurements of resistance were consistent with a localized charge (polaron) hopping mechanism in all of the wires. Activation energies were in the range of 0.18-0.26 eV (4.2-6.0 kcal/mol) with the highest belonging to the fully conjugated OPI 6 wire and the lowest to the CB3,5-OPI 6 wire (the wire with two saturated spacers). For the two other wires with a single conjugation breaker, CB3-OPI 6 and CB5-OPI 6, activation energies of 0.20 eV (4.6 kcal/mol) and 0.21 eV (4.8 kcal/mol) were found, respectively. Computational studies using density functional theory confirmed the polaronic nature of charge carriers but predicted that the semiclassical activation energy of hopping should be higher for CB-OPI molecular wires than for the OPI 6 wire. To reconcile the experimental and

  18. Long-term geochemical evolution of the near field repository: Insights from reactive transport modelling and experimental evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Domènech, Cristina; Fernández, Ana M.; Villar, María V.; Muurinen, Arto; Carlsson, Torbjörn; Sellin, Patrik; Hernán, Pedro

    2008-12-01

    The KBS-3 underground nuclear waste repository concept designed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) includes a bentonite buffer barrier surrounding the copper canisters and the iron insert where spent nuclear fuel will be placed. Bentonite is also part of the backfill material used to seal the access and deposition tunnels of the repository. The bentonite barrier has three main safety functions: to ensure the physical stability of the canister, to retard the intrusion of groundwater to the canisters, and in case of canister failure, to retard the migration of radionuclides to the geosphere. Laboratory experiments (< 10 years long) have provided evidence of the control exerted by accessory minerals and clay surfaces on the pore water chemistry. The evolution of the pore water chemistry will be a primordial factor on the long-term stability of the bentonite barrier, which is a key issue in the safety assessments of the KBS-3 concept. In this work we aim to study the long-term geochemical evolution of bentonite and its pore water in the evolving geochemical environment due to climate change. In order to do this, reactive transport simulations are used to predict the interaction between groundwater and bentonite which is simulated following two different pathways: (1) groundwater flow through the backfill in the deposition tunnels, eventually reaching the top of the deposition hole, and (2) direct connection between groundwater and bentonite rings through fractures in the granite crosscutting the deposition hole. The influence of changes in climate has been tested using three different waters interacting with the bentonite: present-day groundwater, water derived from ice melting, and deep-seated brine. Two commercial bentonites have been considered as buffer material, MX-80 and Deponit CA-N, and one natural clay (Friedland type) for the backfill. They show differences in the composition of the exchangeable cations and in the accessory mineral

  19. Long-term geochemical evolution of the near field repository: insights from reactive transport modelling and experimental evidences.

    PubMed

    Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Domènech, Cristina; Fernández, Ana M; Villar, María V; Muurinen, Arto; Carlsson, Torbjörn; Sellin, Patrik; Hernán, Pedro

    2008-12-12

    The KBS-3 underground nuclear waste repository concept designed by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) includes a bentonite buffer barrier surrounding the copper canisters and the iron insert where spent nuclear fuel will be placed. Bentonite is also part of the backfill material used to seal the access and deposition tunnels of the repository. The bentonite barrier has three main safety functions: to ensure the physical stability of the canister, to retard the intrusion of groundwater to the canisters, and in case of canister failure, to retard the migration of radionuclides to the geosphere. Laboratory experiments (< 10 years long) have provided evidence of the control exerted by accessory minerals and clay surfaces on the pore water chemistry. The evolution of the pore water chemistry will be a primordial factor on the long-term stability of the bentonite barrier, which is a key issue in the safety assessments of the KBS-3 concept. In this work we aim to study the long-term geochemical evolution of bentonite and its pore water in the evolving geochemical environment due to climate change. In order to do this, reactive transport simulations are used to predict the interaction between groundwater and bentonite which is simulated following two different pathways: (1) groundwater flow through the backfill in the deposition tunnels, eventually reaching the top of the deposition hole, and (2) direct connection between groundwater and bentonite rings through fractures in the granite crosscutting the deposition hole. The influence of changes in climate has been tested using three different waters interacting with the bentonite: present-day groundwater, water derived from ice melting, and deep-seated brine. Two commercial bentonites have been considered as buffer material, MX-80 and Deponit CA-N, and one natural clay (Friedland type) for the backfill. They show differences in the composition of the exchangeable cations and in the accessory mineral

  20. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C.Cheng. 1. Evidence from pressure-volume curve analysis of dead tissue.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongmei; Pan, Shaoan; Ding, Yiting; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a mini-review of evidence for negative turgor pressure in leaf cells starting with experimental evidence in the late 1950s and ending with biomechanical models published in 2014. In the present study, biomechanical models were used to predict how negative turgor pressure might be manifested in dead tissue, and experiments were conducted to test the predictions. The main findings were as follows: (i) Tissues killed by heating to 60 or 80 °C or by freezing in liquid nitrogen all became equally leaky to cell sap solutes and all seemed to pass freely through the cell walls. (ii) Once cell sap solutes could freely pass the cell walls, the shape of pressure-volume curves was dramatically altered between living and dead cells. (iii) Pressure-volume curves of dead tissue seem to measure negative turgor defined as negative when inside minus outside pressure is negative. (iv) Robinia pseudoacacia leaves with small palisade cells had more negative turgor than Metasequoia glyptostroboides with large cells. (v) The absolute difference in negative turgor between R. pseudoacacia and M. glyptostroboides approached as much as 1.0 MPa in some cases. The differences in the manifestation of negative turgor in living versus dead tissue are discussed.

  1. Nutrition, weight gain and eating behavior in pregnancy: a review of experimental evidence for long-term effects on the risk of obesity in offspring.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sarbattama; Carpenter, Arielle H; Hochstadt, Jessica; Huddleston, Juli Y; Kustanovich, Vladimir; Reynolds, Ashley A; Roberts, Susan

    2012-08-20

    Obesity has reached near epidemic proportions in the developed world. As reproductive age women are a part of this trend, the effect of maternal obesity on the developing fetus must be investigated. In this review, we evaluated the experimental evidence relating maternal nutritional status and eating behavior before and during pregnancy on the risk of obesity in the offspring. The studies were compiled and selected based on their methodologies, study design and relevance. The analyzed studies were compiled to quantify, if possible, the relationship between maternal and offspring weight. Descriptive and observational studies were also included if they were seminal in the field. Based on the current data, maternal obesity is a critical factor exacerbating multigenerational obesity. Mechanistic studies, mainly in animals, have identified potential areas for intervention which might limit transmission of adverse risk factors for obesity from mothers to infants during pregnancy.

  2. A comparison between theoretical and experimental state-to-state charge transfer cross sections for H(+) + H2 at 20 eV: Evidence for quantum effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Michael; Niedner, Gereon; Toennies, J. Peter

    1988-06-01

    A 3-D quantum mechanical close coupling study for the system H(+) +H2 is communicated. The quantum calculations, caried out in the finite order swiden approximation, show a better fit to previous experiments than the classical trajectory surface hopping (TSH) calculations, and provide direct evidence for the usefulness of a quantum treatment in predicting charge transfer (CT) processes. The total differential cross sections (summed over all final vibrational states) for the CT processes were calculated, in good agreement with experimental results. It is shown that a quantum mechanical treatment of both the inelastic and the charge transfer nonadiabatic processes is feasible and provides a superior description of the experiments compared to the TSH treatment. This demonstrates the importance of quantum effects in ion-molecule charge transfer.

  3. Loss for photoemission versus gain for Auger: Direct experimental evidence of crystal-field splitting and charge transfer in photoelectron spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Woicik, J. C.; Weiland, C.; Rumaiz, A. K.

    2015-05-29

    Here, we find a 5 eV satellite in the Ti1s photoelectron spectrum of the transition-metal oxide SrTiO3. This satellite appears in addition to the well-studied 13 eV structure that is typically associated with the Ti2p core line. We give direct experimental evidence that the presence of two satellites is due to the crystal-field splitting of the metal 3d orbitals. They originate from ligand 2pt2g → metal3dt2g and ligand 2peg → metal 3deg monopole charge-transfer excitations within the sudden approximation of quantum mechanics. This assignment is made by the energetics of the resonant and high-energy threshold behaviors of the TiK–L2L3 Augermore » decay that follows Ti1s photoionization.« less

  4. Multiple intra-tube junctions in the inner tube of peapod-derived double walled carbon nanotubes: theoretical study and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ziwei; Li, Hui; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Ding, Feng

    2012-01-07

    The coalescence process of fullerenes in the hollow core of single walled carbon nanotubes is systematically explored by the kinetic Monte Carlo method. Two elongation (or growth) modes via the coalescence (i) between an inner tube and fullerenes and (ii) between neighboring inner tubes are identified. It is found that the coalescence of two inner tubes mostly creates a very stable intra-tube junction which is composed of multiple pentagon-heptagon pairs. As a consequence, the study predicts that the inner tube of peapod derived double walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) must contain many intra-tube junctions. Careful high resolution transmission electron microscopy observation on peapod-grown DWNT sample provides experimental evidence of the presence of the junctions.

  5. Neurovascular unit dysfunction with blood-brain barrier hyperpermeability contributes to major depressive disorder: a review of clinical and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Souhel; Pearlman, Daniel M; Devinsky, Orrin; Najjar, Amanda; Zagzag, David

    2013-12-01

    About one-third of people with major depressive disorder (MDD) fail at least two antidepressant drug trials at 1 year. Together with clinical and experimental evidence indicating that the pathophysiology of MDD is multifactorial, this observation underscores the importance of elucidating mechanisms beyond monoaminergic dysregulation that can contribute to the genesis and persistence of MDD. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are mechanistically linked to the presence of neurovascular dysfunction with blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability in selected neurological disorders, such as stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. In contrast to other major psychiatric disorders, MDD is frequently comorbid with such neurological disorders and constitutes an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in disorders characterized by vascular endothelial dysfunction (cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus). Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in the neurobiology of MDD. More recent evidence links neurovascular dysfunction with BBB hyperpermeability to MDD without neurological comorbidity. We review this emerging literature and present a theoretical integration between these abnormalities to those involving oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in MDD. We discuss our hypothesis that alterations in endothelial nitric oxide levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling are central mechanistic links in this regard. Understanding the contribution of neurovascular dysfunction with BBB hyperpermeability to the pathophysiology of MDD may help to identify novel therapeutic and preventative approaches.

  6. Enhancing the gene-environment interaction framework through a quasi-experimental research design: evidence from differential responses to September 11.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a gene-environment interaction framework to examine the differential responses to an objective external stressor based on genetic variation in the production of depressive symptoms. This article advances the literature by utilizing a quasi-experimental environmental exposure design, as well as a regression discontinuity design, to control for seasonal trends, which limit the potential for gene-environment correlation and allow stronger causal claims. Replications are attempted for two prominent genes (5-HTT and MAOA), and three additional genes are explored (DRD2, DRD4, and DAT1). This article provides evidence of a main effect of 9/11 on reports of feelings of sadness and fails to replicate a common finding of interaction using 5-HTT but does show support for interaction with MAOA in men. It also provides new evidence that variation in the DRD4 gene modifies an individual's response to the exposure, with individuals with no 7-repeats found to have a muted response.

  7. Neurovascular unit dysfunction with blood-brain barrier hyperpermeability contributes to major depressive disorder: a review of clinical and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    About one-third of people with major depressive disorder (MDD) fail at least two antidepressant drug trials at 1 year. Together with clinical and experimental evidence indicating that the pathophysiology of MDD is multifactorial, this observation underscores the importance of elucidating mechanisms beyond monoaminergic dysregulation that can contribute to the genesis and persistence of MDD. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are mechanistically linked to the presence of neurovascular dysfunction with blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability in selected neurological disorders, such as stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast to other major psychiatric disorders, MDD is frequently comorbid with such neurological disorders and constitutes an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in disorders characterized by vascular endothelial dysfunction (cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus). Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in the neurobiology of MDD. More recent evidence links neurovascular dysfunction with BBB hyperpermeability to MDD without neurological comorbidity. We review this emerging literature and present a theoretical integration between these abnormalities to those involving oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in MDD. We discuss our hypothesis that alterations in endothelial nitric oxide levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling are central mechanistic links in this regard. Understanding the contribution of neurovascular dysfunction with BBB hyperpermeability to the pathophysiology of MDD may help to identify novel therapeutic and preventative approaches. PMID:24289502

  8. Numerical and experimental evidence of the inter-blade cavitation vortex development at deep part load operation of a Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Avellan, F.

    2016-11-01

    Francis turbines are subject to various types of the cavitation flow depending on the operating conditions. In order to compensate for the stochastic nature of renewable energy sources, it is more and more required to extend the operating range of the generating units, from deep part load to full load conditions. In the deep part load condition, the formation of cavitation vortices in the turbine blade to blade channels called inter-blade cavitation vortex is often observed. The understanding of the dynamic characteristics of these inter-blade vortices and their formation mechanisms is of key importance in an effort of developing reliable flow simulation tools. This paper reports the numerical and experimental investigations carried out in order to establish the vortex characteristics, especially the inception and the development of the vortex structure. The unsteady RANS simulation for the multiphase flow is performed with the SST- SAS turbulence model by using the commercial flow solver ANSYS CFX. The simulation results in terms of the vortex structure and the cavitation volume are evaluated by comparing them to the flow visualizations of the blade channel acquired through a specially instrumented guide vane as well as from the downstream of the runner across the draft tube cone. The inter-blade cavitation vortex is successfully captured by the simulation and both numerical and experimental results evidence that the inter-blade vortices are attached to the runner hub.

  9. In vivo evidence for CD4+ and CD8+ suppressor T cells in vaccination-induced suppression of murine experimental autoimmune thyroiditis

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.C.; Kong, Y.C. )

    1991-09-01

    In several experimental autoimmune diseases, including experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT), vaccination with attenuated autoantigen-specific T cells has provided protection against subsequent induction of disease. However, the mechanism(s) of vaccination-induced suppression remains to be clarified. Since the authors have previously shown that suppression generated by pretreatment with mouse thyroglobulin (MTg) or thyroid-stimulating hormone in EAT is mediated by CD4+, not CD8+, suppressor T cells, they examined the role of T cell subsets in vaccination-induced suppression of EAT. Mice were vaccinated with irradiated, MTg-primed, and MTg-activated spleen cells and then challenged. Pretreatment with these cells suppressed EAT induced by immunization with MTg and adjuvant, but not by adoptive transfer of thyroiditogenic cells, suggesting a mechanism of afferent suppression. The activation of suppressor mechanisms did not require CD8+ cells, since mice depleted of CD8+ cells before vaccination showed reduced EAT comparable to control vaccinated mice. Furthermore, depletion of either the CD4+ or the CD8+ subset after vaccination did not significantly abrogate suppression. However, suppression was eliminated by the depletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ cells in vaccinated mice. These results provide evidence for the cooperative effects of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vaccination-induced suppression of EAT.

  10. Lack of evidence for vertical transmission of SAV 3 using gametes of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., exposed by natural and experimental routes.

    PubMed

    Kongtorp, R T; Stene, A; Andreassen, P A; Aspehaug, V; Graham, D A; Lyngstad, T M; Olsen, A B; Olsen, R S; Sandberg, M; Santi, N; Wallace, C; Breck, O

    2010-11-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) is an important cause of losses in farmed salmonids in Norway, the United Kingdom and Ireland. As the spread of salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the causal agent, to naïve populations is of major concern to the farming industry, it is important to uncover the transmission routes of the virus. This study was conducted to investigate the potential for vertical transmission of SAV subtype 3. Progeny of broodstock with signs of late-stage PD and persistent RT-PCR signals for SAV were followed from fertilization to smoltification in an experimental facility. Fertilized ova were either not disinfected or taken through one of three different disinfection regimes. Also, ova and milt from uninfected broodfish from a different population were exposed to a cell-cultured strain of SAV 3 immediately before fertilization to simulate a viraemic phase in parent fish. A group of uninfected controls were also included in the study. Fertilized ova from bath exposed and negative control groups were double disinfected. Following fertilization, experimental fish went through a normal freshwater phase. However, fry were stressed at first feeding to enhance replication of possibly latent virus. Smoltification was induced by an artificial light regime, and experimental fish were followed to the late smoltification phase. Selected samples were investigated by real-time RT-PCR for SAV, by histology for evidence of PD and by serology for neutralising antibodies against SAV. All analysed samples of progeny were negative. This result shows that SAV 3 is not readily transmitted vertically from parents to offspring. Additional negative PCR results from salmon sampled in commercial hatcheries support these findings. Also, recent studies have shown that risk factors for the horizontal transmission route explain the vast majority of PD outbreaks in Norway. It is concluded that if it happens at all, vertical transmission is of minor importance in the spread of SAV 3.

  11. Experimental evidence for kinetic effects on B/Ca in synthetic calcite: Implications for potential B(OH)4- and B(OH)3 incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, Joji; Penman, Donald E.; Zachos, James C.; Zeebe, Richard E.

    2015-02-01

    The boron to calcium ratio (B/Ca) in biogenic CaCO3 is being increasingly utilized as a proxy for past ocean carbonate chemistry. However, B/Ca of cultured and core-top foraminifers show dependence on multiple physicochemical seawater properties and only a few of those have been inorganically tested for their impacts. Accordingly, our understanding of the controls on foraminiferal B/Ca and thus how to interpret B/Ca in fossil shells is incomplete. To gain a clearer understanding of the B incorporation mechanism, we performed inorganic calcite precipitation experiments using a pH-stat system. As previously reported, we confirm that B/Ca in calcite increases with both fluid pH and total B concentration (denoted as [BT], where [BT] = [B(OH)3] + [B(OH)4-]). We provide the first evidence that B/Ca also increases with the concentration of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and calcium ion. With the exception of the [BT] experiments, these chemical manipulations were accompanied by an increase in calcite saturation, and accordingly precipitation rate (denoted as R). But when pH and [Ca2+] were jointly varied at a fixed saturation level to maintain relatively constant R at different pH and [Ca2+] combinations, B/Ca was insensitive to both pH and [Ca2+] changes. These experimental results unequivocally suggest kinetic effects related to R on B/Ca. Furthermore, with a suite of chemical manipulations we found that the B/Ca variability is explicable by just R and the [BT]/[DIC] ratio in the parent fluids. This observation was particularly robust for relatively rapidly precipitated samples, whereas for relatively slowly precipitated samples, it was somewhat ambiguous whether the [BT]/[DIC] or [B(OH)4-]/[HCO3-] ratio provides a better fit to the experimental data. Nonetheless, our experimental results can be considered as indirect evidence for incorporation of both B(OH)4- and B(OH)3 into calcite. We propose a simple mathematical expression to describe the mode of B

  12. Experimental evidence of coherent transport.

    PubMed

    Flores-Olmedo, E; Martínez-Argüello, A M; Martínez-Mares, M; Báez, G; Franco-Villafañe, J A; Méndez-Sánchez, R A

    2016-04-28

    Coherent transport phenomena are difficult to observe due to several sources of decoherence. For instance, in the electronic transport through quantum devices the thermal smearing and dephasing, the latter induced by inelastic scattering by phonons or impurities, destroy phase coherence. In other wave systems, the temperature and dephasing may not destroy the coherence and can then be used to observe the underlying wave behaviour of the coherent phenomena. Here, we observe coherent transmission of mechanical waves through a two-dimensional elastic Sinai billiard with two waveguides. The flexural-wave transmission, performed by non-contact means, shows the quantization when a new mode becomes open. These measurements agree with the theoretical predictions of the simplest model highlighting the universal character of the transmission fluctuations.

  13. Experimental evidence of coherent transport

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Olmedo, E.; Martínez-Argüello, A. M.; Martínez-Mares, M.; Báez, G.; Franco-Villafañe, J. A.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Coherent transport phenomena are difficult to observe due to several sources of decoherence. For instance, in the electronic transport through quantum devices the thermal smearing and dephasing, the latter induced by inelastic scattering by phonons or impurities, destroy phase coherence. In other wave systems, the temperature and dephasing may not destroy the coherence and can then be used to observe the underlying wave behaviour of the coherent phenomena. Here, we observe coherent transmission of mechanical waves through a two-dimensional elastic Sinai billiard with two waveguides. The flexural-wave transmission, performed by non-contact means, shows the quantization when a new mode becomes open. These measurements agree with the theoretical predictions of the simplest model highlighting the universal character of the transmission fluctuations. PMID:27121226

  14. Improving implementation of evidence-based practice in mental health service delivery: protocol for a cluster randomised quasi-experimental investigation of staff-focused values interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing acceptance that optimal service provision for individuals with severe and recurrent mental illness requires a complementary focus on medical recovery (i.e., symptom management and general functioning) and personal recovery (i.e., having a ‘life worth living’). Despite significant research attention and policy-level support, the translation of this vision of healthcare into changed workplace practice continues to elude. Over the past decade, evidence-based training interventions that seek to enhance the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of staff working in the mental health field have been implemented as a primary redress strategy. However, a large body of multi-disciplinary research indicates disappointing rates of training transfer. There is an absence of empirical research that investigates the importance of worker-motivation in the uptake of desired workplace change initiatives. ‘Autonomy’ is acknowledged as important to human effectiveness and as a correlate of workplace variables like productivity, and wellbeing. To our knowledge, there have been no studies that investigate purposeful and structured use of values-based interventions to facilitate increased autonomy as a means of promoting enhanced implementation of workplace change. Methods This study involves 200 mental health workers across 22 worksites within five community-managed organisations in three Australian states. It involves cluster-randomisation of participants within organisation, by work site, to the experimental (values) condition, or the control (implementation). Both conditions receive two days of training focusing on an evidence-based framework of mental health service delivery. The experimental group receives a third day of values-focused intervention and 12 months of values-focused coaching. Well-validated self-report measures are used to explore variables related to values concordance, autonomy, and self-reported implementation success. Audits of work

  15. Hybrid zone dynamics are influenced by genotype-specific variation in life-history traits: Experimental evidence from hybridizing Gambusia species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Kim T.

    1993-01-01

    Results from two experiments are presented that contrast differences in life-history traits and population dynamics between two species of live bearing fishes (Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki) that hybridize across portions of the southeastern United States. Progeny from parental holbrooki and holbrooki-affinis F1 crosses exhibited larger lengths at birth, at 15 days, and matured earlier, and at larger size than did progeny from parental affinis and affinis-holbrooki F1 crosses. Comparisons of experimental populations of affinis, holbrooki, and mixed (affinis + holbrooki) species composition followed over two years revealed that affinis populations consistently exhibited smaller population size, lower carrying capacity, lower recruitment, and larger over-winter mortality than did holbrooki or mixed populations. Evidence for density-dependent reductions in fecundity and concomitant increases in juvenile mortality rates were observed in all populations, but were most pronounced for affinis populations. Genotype-specific differences in life-history traits appear to confer differential advantage to offspring of parental holbrooki origin and F1 progeny of holbrooki maternal parentage given the resource availability and the age structure and densities experienced during these experiments. Results have direct implications regarding the rate and direction of evolution within hybrid zones formed by these two species.

  16. New insights into the negative thermal expansion: Direct experimental evidence for the “guitar-string” effect in cubic ScF3

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Lei; Chen, Jun; Sanson, Andrea; Wu, Hui; Rodriguez, Clara Guglieri; Olivi, Luca; Ren, Yang; Fan, Longlong; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2016-06-23

    The understanding of the negative thermal expansion (NTE) mechanism remains challenging but critical for the development of NTE materials. This study sheds light on NTE of ScF3, one of the most outstanding materials with NTE. The local dynamics of ScF3 has been investigated by a combined analysis of synchrotron-based X-ray total scattering, ex-tended X-ray absorption fine structure and neutron powder diffraction. Very interestingly, we observe that i) the Sc-F nearest-neighbor distance strongly expands with increasing temperature while the Sc-Sc next-nearest-neighbor distance contracts, ii) the thermal ellipsoids of relative vibrations be-tween Sc-F nearest-neighbors are highly elongated in the direction perpendicular to the Sc-F bond, indicating that the Sc-F bond is much softer to bend than to stretch, and iii) there is mainly dynamically transverse motion of fluorine atoms, rather than static shifts. Here, these results are the direct experimental evidence for the NTE mechanism, in which the rigid unit is not necessary for the occurrence of NTE, and the key role is played by the transverse thermal vibrations of fluorine atoms through the “guitar-string” effect.

  17. Experimental evidence for the evolution of indirect genetic effects: changes in the interaction effect coefficient, psi (Psi), due to sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Stephen F; Rundle, Howard D; Blows, Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Indirect genetics effects (IGEs)--when the genotype of one individual affects the phenotypic expression of a trait in another--may alter evolutionary trajectories beyond that predicted by standard quantitative genetic theory as a consequence of genotypic evolution of the social environment. For IGEs to occur, the trait of interest must respond to one or more indicator traits in interacting conspecifics. In quantitative genetic models of IGEs, these responses (reaction norms) are termed interaction effect coefficients and are represented by the parameter psi (Psi). The extent to which Psi exhibits genetic variation within a population, and may therefore itself evolve, is unknown. Using an experimental evolution approach, we provide evidence for a genetic basis to the phenotypic response caused by IGEs on sexual display traits in Drosophila serrata. We show that evolution of the response is affected by sexual but not natural selection when flies adapt to a novel environment. Our results indicate a further mechanism by which IGEs can alter evolutionary trajectories--the evolution of interaction effects themselves.

  18. Experimental evidence of transition between dynamical and kinematical diffraction regimes in ion-implanted Si observed through X-ray multiple-beam diffraction mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaris, Guilherme A.; Lang, Rossano; Bettini, Jefferson; dos Santos, Adenilson O.; Cardoso, Lisandro P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the dependence of a Laue diffraction streak on the crystalline perfection of Xe-implanted Si(001) substrates is presented, based on the observation in the X-ray multiple diffraction (XRMD) mappings, as an experimental evidence of the transition between dynamical and kinematical diffraction regimes. A direct observation of the implanted region by transmission electron microscopy revealed an amorphous Si layer, which recrystallizes into a heavily twinned and faulted microstructure after thermal treatment at 800 °C. Besides the lattice damages, the annealing induces the formation of Xe bubbles. Both singularly affect the XRMD pattern, primarily the four-fold streaks profile of the ( 000 ) ( 002 ) ( 1 1 ¯ 1 ¯ ) ( 1 1 ¯ 3 ) four-beam simultaneous case when compared with the pristine Si pattern, highlighting the intra- and inter-block diffractions and the role played by the primary extinction effect. Such features provide information on the dominant diffraction regime. The findings are also discussed and compared to the conventional reciprocal space mappings via the asymmetric Si(113) reflection.

  19. Experimental evidence for an optical interference model for vibrational sum frequency generation on multilayer organic thin film systems. I. Electric dipole approximation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Daniel B; Massari, Aaron M

    2015-01-14

    In the field of vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) applied to organic thin film systems, a significant challenge to data analysis is in the accurate description of optical interference effects. Herein, we provide experimental evidence that a model recently developed in our lab provides an accurate description of this phenomenon. We studied the organic small molecule N,N'-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide vapor deposited as a thickness gradient on silicon wafer substrates with two oxide thicknesses and two surface preps. VSFG data were obtained using the ssp and the sps polarization combinations in the imide carbonyl stretching region as a function of organic thickness. In this first of two reports, the data are modeled and interpreted within the ubiquitous electric dipole approximation for VSFG. The intrinsic sample responses are parameterized during the fitting routines while optical interference effects are simply calculated from the model using known refractive indices, thin film thicknesses, and beam angles. The results indicate that the thin film model provides a good description of optical interferences, indicating that interfacial terms are significant. Inconsistencies between the fitting results within the bounds of the electric dipole response motivate deliberation for additional effects to be considered in the second report.

  20. Experimental evidence for an optical interference model for vibrational sum frequency generation on multilayer organic thin film systems. I. Electric dipole approximation

    SciTech Connect

    O’Brien, Daniel B.; Massari, Aaron M.

    2015-01-14

    In the field of vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) applied to organic thin film systems, a significant challenge to data analysis is in the accurate description of optical interference effects. Herein, we provide experimental evidence that a model recently developed in our lab provides an accurate description of this phenomenon. We studied the organic small molecule N,N′-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide vapor deposited as a thickness gradient on silicon wafer substrates with two oxide thicknesses and two surface preps. VSFG data were obtained using the ssp and the sps polarization combinations in the imide carbonyl stretching region as a function of organic thickness. In this first of two reports, the data are modeled and interpreted within the ubiquitous electric dipole approximation for VSFG. The intrinsic sample responses are parameterized during the fitting routines while optical interference effects are simply calculated from the model using known refractive indices, thin film thicknesses, and beam angles. The results indicate that the thin film model provides a good description of optical interferences, indicating that interfacial terms are significant. Inconsistencies between the fitting results within the bounds of the electric dipole response motivate deliberation for additional effects to be considered in the second report.

  1. New Insights into the Negative Thermal Expansion: Direct Experimental Evidence for the "Guitar-String" Effect in Cubic ScF3.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Chen, Jun; Sanson, Andrea; Wu, Hui; Guglieri Rodriguez, Clara; Olivi, Luca; Ren, Yang; Fan, Longlong; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2016-07-13

    The understanding of the negative thermal expansion (NTE) mechanism remains challenging but critical for the development of NTE materials. This study sheds light on NTE of ScF3, one of the most outstanding materials with NTE. The local dynamics of ScF3 has been investigated by a combined analysis of synchrotron-based X-ray total scattering, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and neutron powder diffraction. Very interestingly, we observe that (i) the Sc-F nearest-neighbor distance strongly expands with increasing temperature, while the Sc-Sc next-nearest-neighbor distance contracts, (ii) the thermal ellipsoids of relative vibrations between Sc-F nearest-neighbors are highly elongated in the direction perpendicular to the Sc-F bond, indicating that the Sc-F bond is much softer to bend than to stretch, and (iii) there is mainly dynamically transverse motion of fluorine atoms, rather than static shifts. These results are direct experimental evidence for the NTE mechanism, in which the rigid unit is not necessary for the occurrence of NTE, and the key role is played by the transverse thermal vibrations of fluorine atoms through the "guitar-string" effect.

  2. Loss for photoemission versus gain for Auger: Direct experimental evidence of crystal-field splitting and charge transfer in photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Woicik, J. C.; Weiland, C.; Rumaiz, A. K.

    2015-05-29

    Here, we find a 5 eV satellite in the Ti1s photoelectron spectrum of the transition-metal oxide SrTiO3. This satellite appears in addition to the well-studied 13 eV structure that is typically associated with the Ti2p core line. We give direct experimental evidence that the presence of two satellites is due to the crystal-field splitting of the metal 3d orbitals. They originate from ligand 2pt2g → metal3dt2g and ligand 2peg → metal 3deg monopole charge-transfer excitations within the sudden approximation of quantum mechanics. This assignment is made by the energetics of the resonant and high-energy threshold behaviors of the TiK–L2L3 Auger decay that follows Ti1s photoionization.

  3. New insights into the negative thermal expansion: Direct experimental evidence for the “guitar-string” effect in cubic ScF3

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Lei; Chen, Jun; Sanson, Andrea; ...

    2016-06-23

    The understanding of the negative thermal expansion (NTE) mechanism remains challenging but critical for the development of NTE materials. This study sheds light on NTE of ScF3, one of the most outstanding materials with NTE. The local dynamics of ScF3 has been investigated by a combined analysis of synchrotron-based X-ray total scattering, ex-tended X-ray absorption fine structure and neutron powder diffraction. Very interestingly, we observe that i) the Sc-F nearest-neighbor distance strongly expands with increasing temperature while the Sc-Sc next-nearest-neighbor distance contracts, ii) the thermal ellipsoids of relative vibrations be-tween Sc-F nearest-neighbors are highly elongated in the direction perpendicular tomore » the Sc-F bond, indicating that the Sc-F bond is much softer to bend than to stretch, and iii) there is mainly dynamically transverse motion of fluorine atoms, rather than static shifts. Here, these results are the direct experimental evidence for the NTE mechanism, in which the rigid unit is not necessary for the occurrence of NTE, and the key role is played by the transverse thermal vibrations of fluorine atoms through the “guitar-string” effect.« less

  4. Experimental evidence of the photonic band gap in hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal based on a mixture of (HMDSO, O2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amri, R.; Sahel, S.; Manaa, C.; Bouaziz, L.; Gamra, D.; Lejeune, M.; Clin, M.; Zellama, K.; Bouchriha, H.

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid One-dimensional photonic crystal coated from a mixture of an organic compound (HMDSO) and oxygen (O2) is elaborated by PECVD technique. The originality of the method consists in obtaining layers of different permittivity with the same gas mixture, but with different flow. The change in flow is optimized to obtain organic/inorganic layers of good quality with high and low refractive index of 2.1 and 1.4 corresponding respectively to HMDSO and SiO2 materials as assigned by IR measurement. Evidence of the photonic band gap is obtained by measuring the transmissions and reflections spectra which show that it appears only after 13 periods with a width of 325 nm corresponding to energy 3.8 eV. We have also introduced a defect in this photonic structure by changing the thickness of central layer, and observed the presence of a frequency mode corresponding to this defect. Our results are interpreted by using a theoretical model based on transfer matrix wich well reproduced the experimental data.

  5. Testing predictions of the Janzen–Connell hypothesis: a meta-analysis of experimental evidence for distance- and density-dependent seed and seedling survival

    PubMed Central

    Comita, Liza S; Queenborough, Simon A; Murphy, Stephen J; Eck, Jenalle L; Xu, Kaiyang; Krishnadas, Meghna; Beckman, Noelle; Zhu, Yan; Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    The Janzen–Connell hypothesis proposes that specialist natural enemies, such as herbivores and pathogens, maintain diversity in plant communities by reducing survival rates of conspecific seeds and seedlings located close to reproductive adults or in areas of high conspecific density. Variation in the strength of distance- and density-dependent effects is hypothesized to explain variation in plant species richness along climatic gradients, with effects predicted to be stronger in the tropics than the temperate zone and in wetter habitats compared to drier habitats. We conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify peer-reviewed experimental studies published in the 40+ years since the hypothesis was first proposed. Using data from these studies, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the current weight of evidence for the distance and density predictions of the Janzen–Connell hypothesis. Overall, we found significant support for both the distance- and density-dependent predictions. For all studies combined, survival rates were significantly reduced near conspecifics compared to far from conspecifics, and in areas with high densities of conspecifics compared to areas with low conspecific densities. There was no indication that these results were due to publication bias. The strength of distance and density effects varied widely among studies. Contrary to expectations, this variation was unrelated to latitude, and there was no significant effect of study region. However, we did find a trend for stronger distance and density dependence in wetter sites compared to sites with lower annual precipitation. In addition, effects were significantly stronger at the seedling stage compared to the seed stage. Synthesis. Our study provides support for the idea that distance- and density-dependent mortality occurs in plant communities world-wide. Available evidence suggests that natural enemies are frequently the cause of such patterns, consistent with the Janzen

  6. Experimental evidence for the triplet-like spin state appearing in ground-state singlet biradicals as a key feature for generalized ferrimagnetic spin alignment.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Kensuke; Shiomi, Daisuke; Ise, Tomoaki; Sato, Kazunobu; Takui, Takeji

    2006-02-09

    The authors have previously proposed a theoretical model for exotic spin alignment in organic molecular assemblages: The alternating chain of organic biradicals in a singlet (Sb=0) ground state and monoradicals with S=1/2 has a ferrimagnetic ground state for the whole chain, which has been termed generalized ferrimagnetism. An important feature of the generalized ferrimagnetic spin alignment has been found in the deviation of the expectation value Sb2 of the biradical spin from zero. Even a triplet-like spin state Sb2=2 (Sb=1) has been predicted in the theoretical calculations. In this study, we have found experimental evidence for the pseudo-triplet state appearing in the ground-state singlet biradical of a real open-shell compound. At first, we have demonstrated from theoretical calculations that the singlet biradical has Sb2=2 (Sb=1) in a molecular pair with an S=1 metal ion as well as with the S=1/2 monoradical. The pseudo-triplet state of the biradical affords a singlet state of the whole system of the biradical-metal ion pair, which is readily detectable in experiments for verifying the theoretical prediction. As a model compound for the biradical-metal ion pair, a transition metal complex, [(bnn)(Ni(hfac)2)1.5(H2O)] (1), has been synthesized from a nitronyl nitroxide-based ground-state singlet biradical bnn and Ni(hfac)2. From X-ray crystallographic analyses, the compound contains a molecular pair of bnn and Ni(hfac)2, which serves as a model system under the above theoretical studies. It has been found from the analysis of the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility that the bnn-Ni(hfac)2 pair has the singlet (S=0) ground state. The singlet ground state of the pair results from an antiparallel coupling of the pseudo-triplet of the biradical and the S=1 spin on the Ni ion. The pseudo-triplet state in the ground-state singlet biradical has thus been verified experimentally, which is crucially important to realize the generalized ferrimagnetic spin

  7. Beyond the blank slate: routes to learning new coordination patterns depend on the intrinsic dynamics of the learner-experimental evidence and theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Kostrubiec, Viviane; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio; Fuchs, Armin; Kelso, J A Scott

    2012-01-01

    Using an approach that combines experimental studies of bimanual movements to visual stimuli and theoretical modeling, the present paper develops a dynamical account of sensorimotor learning, that is, how new skills are acquired and old ones modified. A significant aspect of our approach is the focus on the individual learner as the basic unit of analysis, in particular the quantification of predispositions and capabilities that the individual learner brings to the learning environment. Such predispositions constitute the learner's behavioral repertoire, captured here theoretically as a dynamical landscape ("intrinsic dynamics"). The learning process is demonstrated to not only lead to a relatively permanent improvement of performance in the required task-the usual outcome-but also to alter the individual's entire repertoire. Changes in the dynamical landscape due to learning are shown to result from two basic mechanisms or "routes": bifurcation and shift. Which mechanism is selected depends the initial individual repertoire before new learning begins. Both bifurcation and shift mechanisms are accommodated by a dynamical model, a relatively straightforward development of the well-established HKB model of movement coordination. Model simulations show that although environmental or task demands may be met equally well using either mechanism, the bifurcation route results in greater stabilization of the to-be-learned behavior. Thus, stability not (or not only) error is demonstrated to be the basis of selection, both of a new pattern of behavior and the path (smooth shift versus abrupt qualitative change) that learning takes. In line with these results, recent neurophysiological evidence indicates that stability is a relevant feature around which brain activity is organized while an individual performs a coordination task. Finally, we explore the consequences of the dynamical approach to learning for theories of biological change.

  8. Improper hydrogen bonded cyclohexane C-Hax···Yax contacts: theoretical predictions and experimental evidence from 1H NMR spectroscopy of suitable axial cyclohexane models.

    PubMed

    Kolocouris, Antonios; Zervos, Nikolaos; De Proft, Frank; Koch, Andreas

    2011-06-03

    C-H(ax)···Y(ax) contacts are a textbook prototype of steric hindrance in organic chemistry. The nature of these contacts is investigated in this work. MP2/6-31+G(d,p) calculations predicted the presence of improper hydrogen bonded C-H(ax)···Y(ax) contacts of different strength in substituted cyclohexane rings. To support the theoretical predictions with experimental evidence, several synthetic 2-substituted adamantane analogues (1-24) with suitable improper H-bonded C-H(ax)···Y(ax) contacts of different strength were used as models of a substituted cyclohexane ring. The (1)H NMR signal separation, Δδ(γ-CH(2)), within the cyclohexane ring γ-CH(2)s is raised when the MP2/6-31+G(d,p) calculated parameters, reflecting the strength of the H-bonded C-H(ax)···Y(ax) contact, are increased. In molecules with enhanced improper H-bonded contacts C-H(ax)···Y(ax), like those having sterically crowded contacts (Y(ax) = t-Bu) or contacts including considerable electrostatic attractions (Y(ax) = O-C or O═C) the calculated DFT steric energies of the γ-axial hydrogens are considerably reduced reflecting their electron cloud compression. The results suggest that the proton H(ax) electron cloud compression, caused by the C-H(ax)···Y(ax) contacts, and the resulting increase in Δδ(γ-CH(2)) value can be effected not just from van der Waals spheres compression, but more generally from electrostatic attraction forces and van der Waals repulsion, both of which are improper H-bonding components.

  9. Vertical motion of a charged colloidal particle near an AC polarized electrode with a nonuniform potential distribution: theory and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey A; Sides, Paul J; Prieve, Dennis C

    2004-06-08

    Electroosmotic flow in the vicinity of a colloidal particle suspended over an electrode accounts for observed changes in the average height of the particle when the electrode passes alternating current at 100 Hz. The main findings are (1) electroosmotic flow provides sufficient force to move the particle and (2) a phase shift between the purely electrical force on the particle and the particle's motion provides evidence of an E2 force acting on the particle. The electroosmotic force in this case arises from the boundary condition applied when faradaic reactions occur on the electrode. The presence of a potential-dependent electrode reaction moves the likely distribution of electrical current at the electrode surface toward uniform current density around the particle. In the presence of a particle the uniform current density is associated with a nonuniform potential; thus, the electric field around the particle has a nonzero radial component along the electrode surface, which interacts with unbalanced charge in the diffuse double layer on the electrode to create a flow pattern and impose an electroosmotic-flow-based force on the particle. Numerical solutions are presented for these additional height-dependent forces on the particle as a function of the current distribution on the electrode and for the time-dependent probability density of a charged colloidal particle near a planar electrode with a nonuniform electrical potential boundary condition. The electrical potential distribution on the electrode, combined with a phase difference between the electric field in solution and the electrode potential, can account for the experimentally observed motion of particles in ac electric fields in the frequency range from approximately 10 to 200 Hz.

  10. Evidence for topographic organization in the cerebellum of motor control versus cognitive and affective processing

    PubMed Central

    Stoodley, Catherine J.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cerebellar damage often present with the cerebellar motor syndrome of dysmetria, dysarthria and ataxia, yet cerebellar lesions can also result in the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, including executive, visual-spatial, and linguistic impairments, and affective dysregulation. We have hypothesized that there is topographic organization in the human cerebellum such that the anterior lobe and lobule VIII contain the representation of the sensorimotor cerebellum; lobules VI and VII of the posterior lobe comprise the cognitive cerebellum; and the posterior vermis is the anatomical substrate of the limbic cerebellum. Here we analyze anatomical, functional neuroimaging, and clinical data to test this hypothesis. We find converging lines of evidence supporting regional organization of motor, cognitive, and limbic behaviors in the cerebellum. The cerebellar motor syndrome results when lesions involve the anterior lobe and parts of lobule VI, interrupting cerebellar communication with cerebral and spinal motor systems. Cognitive impairments occur when posterior lobe lesions affect lobules VI and VII (including Crus I, Crus II, and lobule VIIB), disrupting cerebellar modulation of cognitive loops with cerebral association cortices. Neuropsychiatric disorders manifest when vermis lesions deprive cerebrocerebellar limbic loops of cerebellar input. We consider this functional topography to be a consequence of the differential arrangement of connections of the cerebellum with the spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebral hemispheres, reflecting cerebellar incorporation into the distributed neural circuits subserving movement, cognition, and emotion. These observations provide testable hypotheses for future investigations. PMID:20152963

  11. The Role of the Cerebellum in Schizophrenia: an Update of Clinical, Cognitive, and Functional Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Hernàn; Amado, Isabelle; Mouchet-Mages, Sabine; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile

    2008-01-01

    The role of the cerebellum in schizophrenia has been highlighted by Andreasen's hypothesis of “cognitive dysmetria,” which suggests a general dyscoordination of sensorimotor and mental processes. Studies in schizophrenic patients have brought observations supporting a cerebellar impairment: high prevalence of neurological soft signs, dyscoordination, abnormal posture and propioception, impaired eyeblink conditioning, impaired adaptation of the vestibular-ocular reflex or procedural learning tests, and lastly functional neuroimaging studies correlating poor cognitive performances with abnormal cerebellar activations. Despite those compelling evidences, there has been, to our knowledge, no recent review on the clinical, cognitive, and functional literature supporting the role of the cerebellum in schizophrenia. We conducted a Medline research focusing on cerebellar dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Emphasis was given to recent literature (after 1998). The picture arising from this review is heterogeneous. While in some domains, the role of the cerebellum seems clearly defined (ie, neurological soft signs, posture, or equilibrium), in other domains, the cerebellar contribution to schizophrenia seems limited or indirect (ie, cognition) if present at all (ie, affectivity). Functional models of the cerebellum are proposed as a background for interpreting these results. PMID:17562694

  12. Experimental evidence for 60 Hz magnetic fields operating through the signal transduction cascade. Effects on calcium influx and c-MYC mRNA induction.

    PubMed

    Liburdy, R P; Callahan, D E; Harland, J; Dunham, E; Sloma, T R; Yaswen, P

    1993-11-22

    We tested the hypothesis that early alterations in calcium influx induced by an imposed 60 Hz magnetic field are propagated down the signal transduction (ST) cascade to alter c-MYC mRNa induction. To test this we measured both ST parameters in the same cells following 60 Hz magnetic field exposures in a specialized annular ring device (220 G (22 mT), 1.7 mV/cm maximal E(induced), 37 degrees C, 60 min). Ca2+ influx is a very early ST marker that precedes the specific induction of mRNA transcripts for the proto-oncogene c-MYC, an immediate early response gene. In three experiments influx of 45Ca2+ in the absence of mitogen was similar to that in cells treated with suboptimal levels of Con-A (1 micrograms/ml). However, calcium influx was elevated 1.5-fold when lymphocytes were exposed to Con-A plus magnetic fields; this co-stimulatory effect is consistent with previous reports from our laboratory [FEBS Lett. 301 (1992) 53-59; FEBS Lett. 271 (1990) 157-160; Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 649 (1992) 74-95]. The level of c-MYC mRNA transcript copies in non-activated cells and in suboptimally-activated cells was also similar, which is consistent with the above calcium influx findings. Significantly, lymphocytes exposed to the combination of magnetic fields plus suboptimal Con-A responded with an approximate 3.0-fold increase in band intensity of c-MYC mRNA transcripts. Importantly, transcripts for the housekeeping gene GAPDH were not influenced by mitogen or magnetic fields. We also observed that lymphocytes that failed to exhibit increased calcium influx in response to magnetic fields plus Con-A, also failed to exhibit an increase in total copies of c-MYC mRNA. Thus, calcium influx and c-MYC mRNA expression, which are sequentially linked via the signal transduction cascade in contrast to GAPDH, were both increased by magnetic fields. These findings support the above ST hypothesis and provide experimental evidence for a general biological framework for understanding magnetic field

  13. Experimental evidence of resonant energy collisional transfers between argon 1s and 2p states and ground state H atoms by laser collisional induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Emile; van Dijk, Jan; Kroesen, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, laser collisional induced fluorescence (LCIF) is used to probe resonant excitation transfers in an argon/hydrogen plasma resulting from heavy particle collisions. Different radiative transitions between the 1s and 2p states (in Paschen's notation) of argon are optically pumped by a nanosecond laser pulse. The spontaneous fluorescence and collisional responses of the argon and hydrogen systems are monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. A surfatron plasma source is used to generate an argon plasma with a few per cent hydrogen addition at pressures between 0.65 and 20 mbar. The electron density is measured independently by means of Thomson scattering. The overall response of the plasma due to optical pumping of argon is briefly discussed and an overview of the known heteronuclear excitation transfers in an argon/hydrogen plasma is given. The propagation of the shortcut in the Ar(1s) to H(n = 2) excitation transfer due to the optical pumping of the Ar(1s) states is seen in the atomic hydrogen LCIF responses. For the first time, we give direct experimental evidence of the existence of an efficient excitation transfer: Additionally, measurements are performed in order to estimate the resonant energy transfer between the resonant argon 1s states and hydrogen atoms: for which no previously measured cross sections could be found in the literature. These are extra quenching channels of argon 1s and 2p states that should be included in collisional-radiative modeling of argon-hydrogen discharges. The high repetition rate of the dye laser allows us to obtain a high sensitivity in the measurements. LCIF is shown to be a powerful tool for unraveling electron and also heavy particle excitation channels in situ in the plasma phase. The technique was previously developed for measuring electron or species densities locally in the plasma, but we show that it can be advantageously used to probe collisional transfers between very short-lived species which exist

  14. Review: geological and experimental evidence for secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca (calcite-aragonite seas) and its effects on marine biological calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.

    2010-09-01

    Synchronized transitions in the polymorph mineralogy of the major reef-building and sediment-producing calcareous marine organisms and abiotic CaCO3 precipitates (ooids, marine cements) throughout Phanerozoic time are believed to have been caused by tectonically induced variations in the Mg/Ca ratio of seawater (molar Mg/Ca>2="aragonite seas", <2="calcite seas"). Here, I assess the geological evidence in support of secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca and its effects on marine calcifiers, and review a series of recent experiments that investigate the effects of seawater Mg/Ca (1.0-5.2) on extant representatives of calcifying taxa that have experienced variations in this ionic ratio of seawater throughout the geologic past. Secular variation in seawater Mg/Ca is supported by synchronized secular variations in (1) the ionic composition of fluid inclusions in primary marine halite, (2) the mineralogies of late stage marine evaporites, abiogenic carbonates, and reef- and sediment-forming marine calcifiers, (3) the Mg/Ca ratios of fossil echinoderms, molluscs, rugose corals, and abiogenic carbonates, (4) global rates of tectonism that drive the exchange of Mg2+ and Ca2+ along zones of ocean crust production, and (5) additional proxies of seawater Mg/Ca including Sr/Mg ratios of abiogenic carbonates, Sr/Ca ratios of biogenic carbonates, and Br concentrations in marine halite. Laboratory experiments have revealed that aragonite-secreting bryopsidalean algae and scleractinian corals and calcite-secreting coccolithophores exhibit higher rates of calcification and growth in experimental seawaters formulated with seawater Mg/Ca ratios that favor their skeletal mineral. These results support the assertion that seawater Mg/Ca played an important role in determining which hypercalcifying marine organisms were the major reef-builders and sediment-producers throughout Earth history. The observation that primary production increased along with calcification within the bryopsidalean

  15. Evidence for distinct cognitive deficits after focal cerebellar lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gottwald, B; Wilde, B; Mihajlovic, Z; Mehdorn, H

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Anatomical evidence and lesion studies, as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, indicate that the cerebellum contributes to higher cognitive functions. Cerebellar posterior lateral regions seem to be relevant for cognition, while vermal lesions seem to be associated with changes in affect. However, the results remain controversial. Deficits of patients are sometimes still attributed to motor impairment. Methods: We present data from a detailed neuropsychological examination of 21 patients with cerebellar lesions due to tumour or haematoma, and 21 controls matched for age, sex, and years of education. Results: Patients showed deficits in executive function, and in attentional processes such as working memory and divided attention. Further analysis revealed that patients with right-sided lesions were in general more impaired than those with left-sided lesions. Conclusions: Those hypotheses that suggest that lesions of the right cerebellar hemisphere lead to verbal deficits, while those of the left lead to non-verbal deficits, have in part been confirmed. The generally greater impairment of those patients with a right-sided lesion has been interpreted as resulting from the connection of the right cerebellum to the left cerebral hemisphere, which is dominant for language functions and crucial for right hand movements. Motor impairment was correlated with less than half of the cognitive measures, with no stronger tendency for correlation with cognitive tests that require motor responses discernible. The results are discussed on the basis of an assumption that the cerebellum has a predicting and preparing function, indicating that cerebellar lesions lead to a "dysmetria of thought." PMID:15489381

  16. Experimental evidence and theoretical modeling of two-photon absorption dynamics in the reduction of intensity noise of solid-state Er:Yb lasers.

    PubMed

    El Amili, Abdelkrim; Kervella, Gaël; Alouini, Mehdi

    2013-04-08

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the intensity noise reduction induced by two-photon absorption in a Er,Yb:Glass laser is reported. The time response of the two-photon absorption mechanism is shown to play an important role on the behavior of the intensity noise spectrum of the laser. A model including an additional rate equation for the two-photon-absorption losses is developed and allows the experimental observations to be predicted.

  17. Comment on Marden (2013): "reanalysis and experimental evidence indicate that the earliest trace fossil of a winged insect was a surface skimming neopteran".

    PubMed

    Benner, Jacob S; Knecht, Richard J; Engel, Michael S

    2013-07-01

    Marden's (2013) reanalysis of Knecht et al. (2011) suggesting that specimen SEMC-F97 is the result of the skimming behavior of a neopteran insect and, more importantly, fossil evidence of "… surface skimming as a precursor to the evolution of flight in insects" (Marden 2013) is found to be deficient on three fronts: (1) the principal specimen was never viewed firsthand which led to significant morphological misinterpretations; (2) poorly designed and executed neoichnological experiments led to incredulous results; and (3) the assumption that this specimen is fossil evidence supporting the surface skimming hypothesis of the origin of insect flight despite the fact that since its induction into the literature that hypothesis has been refuted based on significant paleontological, phylogenetic, genetic, and developmental evidence.

  18. Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Predictors of Success in Adult Education Programs: Evidence from Experimental Data with Low-Income Welfare Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leininger, Lindsey Jeanne; Kalil, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    Using data on approximately 2,000 low-income welfare recipients in a three-site random-assignment intervention conducted in the early 1990s (the NEWWS), we examine the role of cognitive and non-cognitive factors in moderating experimental impacts of an adult education training program for women who lacked a high school degree or GED at the time of…

  19. Evidence That Counts--What Happens When Teachers Apply Scientific Methods to Their Practice: Twelve Teacher-Led Randomised Controlled Trials and Other Styles of Experimental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churches, Richard; McAleavy, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This publication contains 12 (A3 open-out) poster-style reports of teacher experimental research. The style of presentation parallels the type of preliminary reporting common at academic conferences and postgraduate events. At the same time, it aims to act as a form of short primer to introduce teachers to the basic options that there are when…

  20. Kinetic Studies on the Reaction of Chlorosulfonyl Isocyanate with Monofluoralkenes: Experimental Evidence for Both Stepwise and Concerted Mechanisms, and a Pre-equilibrium Complex on the Reaction Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    lactams that are readily reduced to β-lactams. Substitution of a vinyl hydrogen for a vinyl fluorine changes the dynamics for reaction with CSI so...hydrogen for a vinyl fluorine changes the dynamics for reaction with CSI so that a concerted pathway is favored. Rate constants were measured for...step pathway has not been demonstrated experimentally.3c In a recent paper, we found that substituting a hydrogen for a fluorine on the π-bond of an

  1. Binding of monovalent metal cations by the p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene: experimental evidence for cation-pi interactions in water.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jean-Pierre; Morel-Desrosiers, Nicole

    2006-02-07

    Gibbs free energies, enthalpies and entropies for the binding of Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Ag+, Tl+ and NH4+ by the p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene in water are determined by microcalorimetry. Whereas no significant heat effect is detected with Na+ or Ag+, suggesting that these cations are not complexed, weak but selective binding is observed with the other cations. The whole set of thermodynamic parameters, which demonstrate that the cations bind inside the cavity of the calixarene, evidence the importance of the cation-pi interactions for these complexes in water.

  2. Thermal conductivity and specific heat of the spin-ice compound Dy2Ti2O7: Experimental evidence for monopole heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolland, G.; Breunig, O.; Valldor, M.; Hiertz, M.; Frielingsdorf, J.; Lorenz, T.

    2012-08-01

    Elementary excitations in the spin-ice compound Dy2Ti2O7 can be described as magnetic monopoles propagating independently within the pyrochlore lattice formed by magnetic Dy ions. We studied the magnetic-field dependence of the thermal conductivity κ(B) for B||[001] and observe clear evidence for magnetic heat transport originating from the monopole excitations. The magnetic contribution κmag is strongly field dependent and correlates with the magnetization M(B). The diffusion coefficient obtained from the ratio of κmag and the magnetic specific heat is strongly enhanced below 1 K, indicating a high mobility of the monopole excitations in the spin-ice state.

  3. Origin of primitive ultra-calcic arc melts at crustal conditions - Experimental evidence on the La Sommata basalt, Vulcano, Aeolian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzo, Giovanni; Di Carlo, Ida; Pichavant, Michel; Rotolo, Silvio G.; Scaillet, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    To interpret primitive magma compositions in the Aeolian arc and contribute to a better experimental characterization of ultra-calcic arc melts, equilibrium phase relations have been determined experimentally for the La Sommata basalt (Som-1, Vulcano, Aeolian arc). Som-1 (Na2O + K2O = 4.46 wt.%, CaO = 12.97 wt.%, MgO = 8.78 wt.%, CaO/Al2O3 = 1.03) is a reference primitive ne-normative arc basalt with a strong ultra-calcic affinity. The experiments have been performed between 44 and 154 MPa, 1050 and 1150 °C and from NNO + 0.2 to NNO + 1.9. Fluid-present conditions were imposed with H2O-CO2 mixtures yielding melt H2O concentrations from 0.7 to 3.5 wt.%. Phases encountered include clinopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and Fe-oxide. Clinopyroxene is slightly earlier than olivine in the crystallization sequence. It is the liquidus phase at 150 MPa, being joined by olivine on the liquidus between 44 and 88 MPa. Plagioclase is the third phase to appear in the crystallization sequence and orthopyroxene was not found. Experimental clinopyroxenes (Fs7-16) and olivines (Fo78-92) partially reproduce the natural phenocryst compositions (respectively Fs5-7 and Fo87-91). Upon progressive crystallization, experimental liquids shift towards higher SiO2 (up to ~ 55 wt.%), Al2O3 (up to ~ 18 wt.%) and K2O (up to ~ 5.5 wt.%) and lower CaO, MgO and CaO/Al2O3. Experimental glasses and natural whole-rock compositions overlap, indicating that progressive crystallization of Som-1 type melts can generate differentiated compositions such as those encountered at Vulcano. The low pressure cotectic experimental glasses reproduce glass inclusions in La Sommata clinopyroxene but contrast with glass inclusions in olivine which preserve basaltic melts more primitive than Som-1. Phase relations for the La Sommata basalt are identical in all critical aspects to those obtained previously on a synthetic ultra-calcic arc composition. In particular, clinopyroxene + olivine co-saturation occurs at very low

  4. Experimental evidence for the global acidification of surface ocean at the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary: the biogenic calcite-poor spherule layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premović, Pavle I.

    2009-07-01

    The massive amount of impact-generated atmospheric CO2 at the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary (KPB) would have accumulated globally in the surface ocean, leading to acidification and CaCO3 undersaturation. These chemical changes would have caused a crisis of biocalcification of calcareous plankton and enhanced dissolution of their shells; these factors together may have played a crucial role in forming the biogenic calcite-poor KPB spherule layers observed at numerous oceanic sites and marine (now on land) sites in Europe and Africa. Experimental data and observations indicate that the deposition spherule layer probably lasted only a few decades at most.

  5. The emotional toll of hell: cross-national and experimental evidence for the negative well-being effects of hell beliefs.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Azim F; Aknin, Lara B

    2014-01-01

    Though beliefs in Heaven and Hell are related, they are associated with different personality characteristics and social phenomena. Here we present three studies measuring Heaven and Hell beliefs' associations with and impact on subjective well-being. We find that a belief in Heaven is consistently associated with greater happiness and life satisfaction while a belief in Hell is associated with lower happiness and life satisfaction at the national (Study 1) and individual (Study 2) level. An experimental priming study (Study 3) suggests that these differences are mainly driven by the negative emotional impact of Hell beliefs. Possible cultural evolutionary explanations for the persistence of such a distressing religious concept are discussed.

  6. Net Loss of CaCO3 from a subtropical calcifying community due to seawater acidification: Mesocosm-scale experimental evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersson, A.J.; Kuffner, I.B.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Jokiel, P.L.; Rodgers, K.S.; Tan, A.

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of seawater owing to oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO 2 originating from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes has raised serious concerns regarding its adverse effects on corals and calcifying communities. Here we demonstrate a net loss of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) material as a result of decreased calcification and increased carbonate dissolution from replicated subtropical coral reef communities (N=3) incubated in continuous-flow mesocosms subject to future seawater conditions. The calcifying community was dominated by the coral Montipora capitata. Daily average community calcification or Net Ecosystem Calcification (NECC=CaCO3 production - dissolution) was positive at 3.3 mmol CaCO3 m-2 h-1 under ambient seawater pCO2 conditions as opposed to negative at -0.04 mmol CaCO3 m-2 h-1 under seawater conditions of double the ambient pCO2. These experimental results provide support for the conclusion that some net calcifying communities could become subject to net dissolution in response to anthropogenic ocean acidification within this century. Nevertheless, individual corals remained healthy, actively calcified (albeit slower than at present rates), and deposited significant amounts of CaCO3 under the prevailing experimental seawater conditions of elevated pCO2.

  7. The influence of the blood vessel diameter on the full scattering profile from cylindrical tissues: experimental evidence for the shielding effect.

    PubMed

    Feder, Idit; Duadi, Hamootal; Dreifuss, Tamar; Fixler, Dror

    2016-10-01

    Optical methods for detecting physiological state based on light-tissue interaction are noninvasive, inexpensive, simplistic, and thus very useful. The blood vessels in human tissue are the main cause of light absorbing and scattering. Therefore, the effect of blood vessels on light-tissue interactions is essential for optically detecting physiological tissue state, such as oxygen saturation, blood perfusion and blood pressure. We have previously suggested a new theoretical and experimental method for measuring the full scattering profile, which is the angular distribution of light intensity, of cylindrical tissues. In this work we will present experimental measurements of the full scattering profile of heterogenic cylindrical phantoms that include blood vessels. We show, for the first time that the vessel diameter influences the full scattering profile, and found higher reflection intensity for larger vessel diameters accordance to the shielding effect. For an increase of 60% in the vessel diameter the light intensity in the full scattering profile above 90° is between 9% to 40% higher, depending on the angle. By these results we claim that during respiration, when the blood-vessel diameter changes, it is essential to consider the blood-vessel diameter distribution in order to determine the optical path in tissues. A CT scan of the measured silicon-based phantoms. The phantoms contain the same blood volume in different blood-vessel diameters.

  8. Experimental evidence for evolved tolerance to avian malaria in a wild population of low elevation Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens).

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Carter T; Saili, Katerine S; Utzurrum, Ruth B; Jarvi, Susan I

    2013-12-01

    Introduced vector-borne diseases, particularly avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus spp.), continue to play significant roles in the decline and extinction of native forest birds in the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian honeycreepers are particularly susceptible to avian malaria and have survived into this century largely because of persistence of high elevation refugia on Kaua'i, Maui, and Hawai'i Islands, where transmission is limited by cool temperatures. The long term stability of these refugia is increasingly threatened by warming trends associated with global climate change. Since cost effective and practical methods of vector control in many of these remote, rugged areas are lacking, adaptation through processes of natural selection may be the best long-term hope for recovery of many of these species. We document emergence of tolerance rather than resistance to avian malaria in a recent, rapidly expanding low elevation population of Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) on the island of Hawai'i. Experimentally infected low elevation birds had lower mortality, lower reticulocyte counts during recovery from acute infection, lower weight loss, and no declines in food consumption relative to experimentally infected high elevation Hawai'i 'Amakihi in spite of similar intensities of infection. Emergence of this population provides an exceptional opportunity for determining physiological mechanisms and genetic markers associated with malaria tolerance that can be used to evaluate whether other, more threatened species have the capacity to adapt to this disease.

  9. Experimental evidence for evolved tolerance to avian malaria in a wild population of low elevation Hawai`i `Amakihi (Hemignathus virens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Saili, Katerine S.; Utzurrum, Ruth B.; Jarvi, Susan I.

    2013-01-01

    Introduced vector-borne diseases, particularly avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus spp.), continue to play significant roles in the decline and extinction of native forest birds in the Hawaiian Islands. Hawaiian honeycreepers are particularly susceptible to avian malaria and have survived into this century largely because of persistence of high elevation refugia on Kaua‘i, Maui, and Hawai‘i Islands, where transmission is limited by cool temperatures. The long term stability of these refugia is increasingly threatened by warming trends associated with global climate change. Since cost effective and practical methods of vector control in many of these remote, rugged areas are lacking, adaptation through processes of natural selection may be the best long-term hope for recovery of many of these species. We document emergence of tolerance rather than resistance to avian malaria in a recent, rapidly expanding low elevation population of Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) on the island of Hawai‘i. Experimentally infected low elevation birds had lower mortality, lower reticulocyte counts during recovery from acute infection, lower weight loss, and no declines in food consumption relative to experimentally infected high elevation Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi in spite of similar intensities of infection. Emergence of this population provides an exceptional opportunity for determining physiological mechanisms and genetic markers associated with malaria tolerance that can be used to evaluate whether other, more threatened species have the capacity to adapt to this disease.

  10. Experimental evidence supporting the insensitivity of cloud droplet formation to the mass accommodation coefficient for condensation of water vapor to liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langridge, Justin M.; Richardson, Mathews S.; Lack, Daniel A.; Murphy, Daniel M.

    2016-06-01

    The mass accommodation coefficient for uptake of water vapor to liquid water, αM, has been constrained using photoacoustic measurements of aqueous absorbing aerosol. Measurements performed over a range of relative humidities and pressures were compared to detailed model calculations treating coupled heat and mass transfer occurring during photoacoustic laser heating cycles. The strengths and weaknesses of this technique are very different to those for droplet growth/evaporation experiments that have typically been applied to these measurements, making this a useful complement to existing studies. Our measurements provide robust evidence that αM is greater than 0.1 for all humidities tested and greater than 0.3 for data obtained at relative humidities greater than 88% where the aerosol surface was most like pure water. These values of αM are above the threshold at which kinetic limitations are expected to impact the activation and growth of aerosol particles in warm cloud formation.

  11. Experimental evidence for glasslike behavior in a KMnF3: Na+ crystal from x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratuszna, Alicja; Daniel, Philippe; Kapusta, Joanna; Rousseau, Michel

    1998-05-01

    Investigation of the structural and vibrational properties of a KMnF3:14% Na-doped perovskite crystal was performed using x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering. While the x-ray results give evidence of the usual sequence of structural phase transition, classically described for the pure KMnF3 compound with only slight differences, the Raman technique suggests the existence of a large structural disorder. In particular, the existence of an intense low-frequency broad band in the Raman spectra is discussed in terms of overdamped soft modes, indicating a relaxation process or glasslike behavior. From lattice-dynamics calculations it is suggested that this peak could be associated with a ``Boson line'' as occurs in glasses. An interpretation is proposed.

  12. Experimental evidence of V{sub O}−Zn{sub i} complex to be intrinsic donor in bulk ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Asghar, M.; Mahmood, K.; Hasan, M.-A; Tsu, R.; Ferguson, I. T.

    2014-02-21

    Theoretical evidence of V{sub O}−Zn{sub i} to be a native donor in bulk ZnO has been under debate. To resolve the issue, we annealed several pieces of as grown zinc rich n-type ZnO thin film having N{sub D} ∼ 3.26 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si (001) substrate in oxygen environment at 500°C – 800°C, keeping a step of 100°C for one hour, each. Room temperature Hall measurements demonstrated that free donor concentration decreased exponentially and Arrhenius plot yielded activation energy to be 1.2±0.02 eV. This value is in an agreement with the theoretically reported activation energy of V{sub O}−Zn{sub i} donor complex in ZnO.

  13. Experimental Evidence that Fungi are Dominant Microbes in Carbon Content and Growth Response to Added Soluble Organic Carbon in Moss-rich Tundra Soil.

    PubMed

    Anderson, O Roger; Lee, Jee Min; McGuire, Krista

    2016-05-01

    Global warming significantly affects Arctic tundra, including permafrost thaw and soluble C release that may differentially affect tundra microbial growth. Using laboratory experiments, we report some of the first evidence for the effects of soluble glucose-C enrichment on tundra soil prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) and fungi, with comparisons to microbial eukaryotes. Fungal increase in C-biomass was equivalent to 10% (w/w) of the added glucose-C, and for prokaryote biomass 2% (w/w), the latter comparable to prior published results. The C-gain after 14 d was 1.3 mg/g soil for fungi, and ~200 μg/g for prokaryotes.

  14. Egg whites from eggs of chickens infected experimentally with avian hepatitis E virus contain infectious virus, but evidence of complete vertical transmission is lacking.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X-J

    2007-05-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV. Vertical transmission of HEV has been reported in humans, but not in other animals. In this study, we showed that avian HEV could be detected in chicken egg-white samples. Subsequently, avian HEV in egg white was found to be infectious, as evidenced by the appearance of viraemia, faecal virus shedding and seroconversion in chickens inoculated with avian HEV-positive egg white, but not in chickens inoculated with HEV-negative egg white. To further assess the possibility of vertical transmission of avian HEV, batches of embryonated eggs from infected hens were hatched, and hatched chicks were monitored for evidence of avian HEV infection. However, no virus was detected in samples collected from the hatched chicks throughout this study, suggesting that avian HEV could not complete the vertical transmission cycle. The possible implications of our findings are also discussed.

  15. Exploring the metabolic potential of microbial communities in ultra-basic, reducing springs at The Cedars, CA, USA: Experimental evidence of microbial methanogenesis and heterotrophic acetogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Lukas; Cumming, Emily; Cox, Alison; Rietze, Amanda; Morrissey, Liam; Lang, Susan Q.; Richter, Andreas; Suzuki, Shino; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Morrill, Penny L.

    2016-04-01

    Present-day serpentinization generates groundwaters with conditions (pH > 11, Eh < -550 mV) favorable for the microbial and abiotic production of organic compounds from inorganic precursors. Elevated concentrations of methane, C2-C6 alkanes, acetate, and formate have been detected at these sites, but the microbial or abiotic origin of these compounds remains unclear. While geochemical data indicate that methane at most sites of present-day serpentinization is abiogenic, the stable carbon, hydrogen, and clumped isotope data as well as the hydrocarbon gas composition from The Cedars, CA, USA, are consistent with a microbial origin for methane. However, there is no direct evidence of methanogenesis at this site of serpentinization. We report on laboratory experiments in which the microbial communities in fluids and sediments from The Cedars were incubated with 13C labeled substrates. Increasing methane concentrations and the incorporation of 13C into methane in live experiments, but not in killed controls, demonstrated that methanogens converted methanol, formate, acetate (methyl group), and bicarbonate to methane. The apparent fractionation between methane and potential substrates (α13CCH4-CO2(g) = 1.059 to 1.105, α13CCH4-acetate = 1.042 to 1.119) indicated that methanogenesis was dominated by the carbonate reduction pathway. Increasing concentrations of volatile organic acid anions indicated microbial acetogenesis. α13CCO2(g)-acetate values (0.999 to 1.000), however, were inconsistent with autotrophic acetogenesis, thus suggesting that acetate was produced through fermentation. This is the first study to show direct evidence of microbial methanogenesis and acetogenesis by the native microbial community at a site of present-day serpentinization.

  16. The Emotional Toll of Hell: Cross-National and Experimental Evidence for the Negative Well-Being Effects of Hell Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, Azim F.; Aknin, Lara B.

    2014-01-01

    Though beliefs in Heaven and Hell are related, they are associated with different personality characteristics and social phenomena. Here we present three studies measuring Heaven and Hell beliefs' associations with and impact on subjective well-being. We find that a belief in Heaven is consistently associated with greater happiness and life satisfaction while a belief in Hell is associated with lower happiness and life satisfaction at the national (Study 1) and individual (Study 2) level. An experimental priming study (Study 3) suggests that these differences are mainly driven by the negative emotional impact of Hell beliefs. Possible cultural evolutionary explanations for the persistence of such a distressing religious concept are discussed. PMID:24465514

  17. The costs and benefits in an unusual symbiosis: experimental evidence that bitterling fish (Rhodeus sericeus) are parasites of unionid mussels in Europe.

    PubMed

    Reichard, M; Ondracková, M; Przybylski, M; Liu, H; Smith, C

    2006-05-01

    Interspecific symbiotic relationships involve a complex network of interactions, and understanding their outcome requires quantification of the costs and benefits to both partners. We experimentally investigated the costs and benefits in the relationship between European bitterling fish (Rhodeus sericeus) and freshwater mussels that are used by R. sericeus for oviposition. This relationship has hitherto been thought mutualistic, on the premise that R. sericeus use mussels as foster parents of their embryos while mussels use R. sericeus as hosts for their larvae. We demonstrate that R. sericeus is a parasite of European mussels, because it (i) avoids the cost of infection by mussel larvae and (ii) imposes a direct cost on mussels. Our experiments also indicate a potential coevolutionary arms race between bitterling fishes and their mussel hosts; the outcome of this relationship may differ between Asia, the centre of distribution of bitterling fishes, and Europe where they have recently invaded.

  18. Experimental evidence of formation of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and POC export provoked by dust addition under current and high pCO2 conditions.

    PubMed

    Louis, Justine; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Gazeau, Frédéric; Guieu, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of organic carbon export to the deep ocean, under anthropogenic forcing such as ocean warming and acidification, needs to be investigated in order to evaluate potential positive or negative feedbacks on atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and therefore on climate. As such, modifications of aggregation processes driven by transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) formation have the potential to affect carbon export. The objectives of this study were to experimentally assess the dynamics of organic matter, after the simulation of a Saharan dust deposition event, through the measurement over one week of TEP abundance and size, and to evaluate the effects of ocean acidification on TEP formation and carbon export following a dust deposition event. Three experiments were performed in the laboratory using 300 L tanks filled with filtered seawater collected in the Mediterranean Sea, during two 'no bloom' periods (spring at the start of the stratification period and autumn at the end of this stratification period) and during the winter bloom period. For each experiment, one of the two tanks was acidified to reach pH conditions slightly below values projected for 2100 (~ 7.6-7.8). In both tanks, a dust deposition event of 10 g m-2 was simulated at the surface. Our results suggest that Saharan dust deposition triggered the abiotic formation of TEP, leading to the formation of organic-mineral aggregates. The amount of particulate organic carbon (POC) exported was proportional to the flux of lithogenic particles to the sediment traps. Depending on the season, the POC flux following artificial dust deposition ranged between 38 and 90 mg m-2 over six experimental days. Such variability is likely linked to the seasonal differences in the quality and quantity of TEP-precursors initially present in seawater. Finally, these export fluxes were not significantly different at the completion of the three experiments between the two pH conditions.

  19. Experimental evidence of formation of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and POC export provoked by dust addition under current and high pCO2 conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Gazeau, Frédéric; Guieu, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of organic carbon export to the deep ocean, under anthropogenic forcing such as ocean warming and acidification, needs to be investigated in order to evaluate potential positive or negative feedbacks on atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and therefore on climate. As such, modifications of aggregation processes driven by transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) formation have the potential to affect carbon export. The objectives of this study were to experimentally assess the dynamics of organic matter, after the simulation of a Saharan dust deposition event, through the measurement over one week of TEP abundance and size, and to evaluate the effects of ocean acidification on TEP formation and carbon export following a dust deposition event. Three experiments were performed in the laboratory using 300 L tanks filled with filtered seawater collected in the Mediterranean Sea, during two ‘no bloom’ periods (spring at the start of the stratification period and autumn at the end of this stratification period) and during the winter bloom period. For each experiment, one of the two tanks was acidified to reach pH conditions slightly below values projected for 2100 (~ 7.6–7.8). In both tanks, a dust deposition event of 10 g m-2 was simulated at the surface. Our results suggest that Saharan dust deposition triggered the abiotic formation of TEP, leading to the formation of organic-mineral aggregates. The amount of particulate organic carbon (POC) exported was proportional to the flux of lithogenic particles to the sediment traps. Depending on the season, the POC flux following artificial dust deposition ranged between 38 and 90 mg m-2 over six experimental days. Such variability is likely linked to the seasonal differences in the quality and quantity of TEP-precursors initially present in seawater. Finally, these export fluxes were not significantly different at the completion of the three experiments between the two pH conditions. PMID:28212418

  20. Experimental evidence for diel variations of the carbon isotope composition in leaf, stem and phloem sap organic matter in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Arthur; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Peuke, Andreas D; Ghashghaie, Jaleh; Farquhar, Graham D

    2008-07-01

    Carbon isotope fractionation in metabolic processes following carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) is not as well described as the discrimination during photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. However, post-carboxylation fractionation can influence the diel variation of delta(13)C of leaf-exported organic matter and can cause inter-organ differences in delta(13)C. To obtain a more mechanistic understanding of post-carboxylation modification of the isotopic signal as governed by physiological and environmental controls, we combined the modelling approach of Tcherkez et al., which describes the isotopic fractionation in primary metabolism with the experimental determination of delta(13)C in leaf and phloem sap and root carbon pools during a full diel course. There was a strong diel variation of leaf water-soluble organic matter and phloem sap sugars with relatively (13)C depleted carbon produced and exported during the day and enriched carbon during the night. The isotopic modelling approach reproduces the experimentally determined day-night differences in delta(13)C of leaf-exported carbon in Ricinus communis. These findings support the idea that patterns of transitory starch accumulation and remobilization govern the diel rhythm of delta(13)C in organic matter exported by leaves. Integrated over the whole 24 h day, leaf-exported carbon was enriched in (13)C as compared with the primary assimilates. This may contribute to the well-known--yet poorly explained--relative (13)C depletion of autotrophic organs compared with other plant parts. We thus emphasize the need to consider post-carboxylation fractionations for studies that use delta(13)C for assessing environmental effects like water availability on ratio of mole fractions of CO(2) inside and outside the leaf (e.g. tree ring studies), or for partitioning of CO(2) fluxes at the ecosystem level.