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Sample records for dysphagia including gastrostomy-tube

  1. Factors Associated With Gastrostomy Tube Removal in Patients With Dysphagia After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wilmskoetter, Janina; Herbert, Teri Lynn; Bonilha, Heather S

    2017-04-01

    Gastrostomy feeding tubes are commonly placed in patients with dysphagia after stroke. The subsequent removal of the tube is a primary goal during rehabilitation. The purpose of our review was to identify predictors and factors associated with gastrostomy tube removal in patients with dysphagia after stroke. We conducted a literature review following the PRISMA statement and included the search databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and CINAHL. Articles were included in the final analysis per predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Our search retrieved a total of 853 results consisting of 416 articles (after eliminating duplicates). Six articles met our final eligibility criteria. The following factors were identified in at least 1 article as being significantly associated with gastrostomy tube removal: reduced age, decreased number of comorbidities, prolonged inpatient rehabilitation stay, absence of bilateral stroke, nonhemorrhagic stroke, reduced dysphagia severity, absence of aspiration, absence of premature bolus loss, and timely initiation of pharyngeal swallow. Aspiration was the only factor that was investigated by 2 studies-both using multiple regression and both showing stable results, with absence of aspiration increasing the chances for tube removal. In conclusion, little is known about factors associated with gastrostomy tube removal in patients with dysphagia after stroke. Most of the identified factors are associated with stroke or disease severity; however, the role of the individual factors remains unclear. The strongest predictor appears to be absence of aspiration on modified barium swallow studies emphasizing the importance of instrumental swallow studies in this patient population.

  2. Clinical-dosimetric analysis of measures of dysphagia including gastrostomy-tube dependence among head and neck cancer patients treated definitively by intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between dose to various anatomical structures and dysphagia among patients with head and neck cancer treated by definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and materials Thirty-nine patients with squamous cancer of the head and neck were treated by definitive concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT to a median dose of 70 Gy (range, 68 to 72). In each patient, a gastrostomy tube (GT) was prophylacticly placed prior to starting treatment. Prolonged GT dependence was defined as exceeding the median GT duration of 192 days. Dysphagia was scored using standardized quality-of-life instruments. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data incorporating the superior/middle pharyngeal constrictors (SMPC), inferior pharyngeal constrictor (IPC), cricoid pharyngeal inlet (CPI), and cervical esophagus (CE) were analyzed in relation to prolonged GT dependence, dysphagia, and weight loss. Results At 3 months and 6 months after treatment, 87% and 44% of patients, respectively, were GT dependent. Spearman's ρ analysis identified statistical correlations (p < 0.05) between prolonged GT dependence or high grade dysphagia with IPC V65, IPC V60, IPC Dmean, and CPI Dmax. Logistic regression model showed that IPC V65 > 30%, IPC V60 > 60%, IPC Dmean > 60 Gy, and CPI Dmax > 62 Gy predicted for greater than 50% probability of prolonged GT dependence. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that adhering to the following parameters may decrease the risk of prolonged GT dependence and dysphagia: IPC V65 < 15%, IPC V60 < 40%, IPC Dmean < 55 Gy, and CPI Dmax < 60 Gy. PMID:19909531

  3. Predictive factors for removal of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube in post-stroke dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Yi, Youbin; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Juyong; Kim, Woo Jin; Min, Yusun; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2012-11-01

    To investigate predictive factors for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) removal, thereby minimizing unnecessary PEG insertion in post-stroke dysphagia. Retrospective cohort study. A total of 49 patients who undertook PEG tube insertion for post-stroke dysphagia. Patients were divided into a removal group (n = 8) and a sustaining group (n = 41) depending on the presence of a PEG tube. Patients' demographic data, nutritional status, Charlson's Comorbidity Index (CCI), and video-fluoroscopic swallowing study findings at the time of PEG insertion were compared between the 2 groups. Eight out of 49 patients (16.3%) removed the PEG tube at a mean of 4.8 months after the insertion. Demographic data, nutritional status, and CCI were comparable between the 2 groups before tube insertion. Video-fluoroscopic swallowing study findings in the removal group showed a lower prevalence of premature bolus loss (50.0% vs 73.2%; p = 0.032), aspiration (37.5% vs 80.6%; p = 0.012) and pharyngeal trigger delay (12.5% vs 74.2%; p = 0.010) than those in the sustaining group. The absence of aspiration or pharyngeal trigger delay in video-fluoroscopic swallowing study findings at the time of PEG insertion may be a predictive factor for eventual removal of PEG tubes. Identification of removal factors will assist in determining PEG insertion.

  4. Gastrostomy tube placement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... presentations/100125.htm Gastrostomy tube placement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  5. Predictors of Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Placement in Patients with Severe Dysphagia from an Acute-Subacute Hemispheric Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Langmore, Susan; Goddeau, Richard P.; Alhazzani, Adel; Selim, Magdy; Caplan, Louis R.; Zhu, Lin; Safdar, Adnan; Wagner, Cynthia; Frayne, Colleen; Searls, David E.; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, time from stroke onset, infarct location and volume in predicting placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube in patients with severe dysphagia from an acute-subacute hemispheric infarction. We performed a retrospective analysis of a hospital-based patient cohort to analyze the effect of the aforementioned variables on the decision of whether or not to place a PEG tube. Consecutive patients were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for acute ischemic stroke, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT)-4 codes for a formal swallowing evaluation by a speech pathologist, and procedure codes for PEG placement over a 5-year period from existing medical records at our institution. Only patients with severe dysphagia were enrolled. A total of 77 patients met inclusion criteria; 20 of them underwent PEG placement. The relationship between age (dichotomized; < and ≥75 years), time from stroke onset (days), NIHSS score, acute infarct lesion volume (dichotomized; < and ≥100 cc), and infarct location (ie, insula, anterior insula, periventricular white matter, inferior frontal gyrus, motor cortex, or bilateral hemispheres) with PEG tube placement were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. In univariate analysis, NIHSS score (P =.005), lesion volume (P =.022), and presence of bihemispheric infarction (P =.005) were found to be the main predictors of interest. After multivariate adjustment, only NIHSS score (odds ratio [OR], 1.15; 90% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.29; P = .04) and presence of bihemispheric infarcts (OR, 4.67; 90% CI, 1.58–13.75; P =.018) remained significant. Our data indicates that baseline NIHSS score and the presence of bihemispheric infarcts predict PEG placement during hospitalization from an acute-subacute hemispheric infarction in patients with severe dysphagia. These results

  6. Gastrostomy tube insertion in children: the Edmonton experience.

    PubMed

    Ackroyd, Ryan; Saincher, Meghana; Cheng, Simon; El-Matary, Wael

    2011-05-01

    Although gastrostomy tube insertion - whether endoscopic or open - is generally safe, procedure-related complications have been reported. To compare gastrostomy tube insertion-related complications between percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and open gastrostomy at a single pediatric centre. The charts of children (younger than 17 years of age at the time of tube insertion) who underwent endoscopic or open gastrostomy tube insertion from January 2005 to December 2007 at the Stollery Children's Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta) were examined. A total of 298 children underwent gastrostomy tube insertion over a period of three years. After excluding patients with incomplete charts, 160 children (91 boys, mean [± SD] age 3.18 ± 4.73 years) were included. Eighty-five children (mean age 4.50 ± 5.40 years) had their gastrostomy tube inserted endoscopically, while the remaining 75 (mean age 1.68 ± 3.27 years; P<0.001) underwent an open procedure. The overall rate of major complications was 10.2% for the endoscopic technique and 8.6% for the open technique (P=0.1). Major infections were higher in the endoscopic technique group, while persistent gastrocutaneous fistulas after tube removal were more common in the open technique group. Although the rate of major complications was similar between the endoscopic and open tube insertion groups, major infections were more common among children who underwent endoscopic gastrostomy. The decision for gastrostomy tube insertion was primarily based on clinical background.

  7. Estimating Adverse Events After Gastrostomy Tube Placement.

    PubMed

    Stey, Anne M; Kenney, Brian D; Cohen, Mark E; Moss, R Lawrence; Hall, Bruce L; Berman, Loren; Kraemer, Kari; Ko, Clifford Y; Vinocur, Charles D

    2016-03-01

    Gastrostomy feeding tube placement in children is associated with a high frequency of adverse events. This study sought to preoperatively estimate postoperative adverse events in children undergoing gastrostomy feeding tube placement. This was an observational study of children who underwent gastrostomy with or without fundoplication at 1 of 50 participating hospitals, using 2011-2013 data from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric. The outcome was the occurrence of any postoperative complications or mortality at 30 days after gastrostomy tube placement. The preoperative clinical characteristics significantly associated with occurrence of adverse events were included in a multivariate logistic model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was computed to assess model performance and split-set validated. A total of 2817 children were identified as having undergone gastrostomy tube placement. The unadjusted rate of adverse events within 30 days after gastrostomy tube placement was 11%. Thirteen predictor variables were identified. Notable preoperative variables associated with a greater than 75% increase in adverse event rate were preoperative sepsis/septic shock (odds ratio [OR], 10.76, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.84-30.17), central nervous system tumor (OR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.42-7.95), the primary procedure as indicated by the current procedural terminology (CPT) linear risk variable (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.50-2.49), severe cardiac risk factors (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.17-3.03), and preoperative seizure history (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.38-2.62). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.71 with the derivation data set and 0.71 upon split-set validation. Preoperatively estimating postoperative adverse events in children undergoing gastrostomy tube placement is feasible. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of open gastrostomy tube to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube in lung transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Sharven; Ambur, Vishnu; Jayarajan, Senthil; Gaughan, John; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Dauer, Elizabeth; Sjoholm, Lars Ola; Pathak, Abhijit; Santora, Thomas; Goldberg, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lung transplant patients require a high degree of immunosuppression, which can impair wound healing when surgical procedures are required. We hypothesized that because of impaired healing, lung transplant patients requiring gastrostomy tubes would have better outcomes with open gastrostomy tube (OGT) as compared to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG). Methods The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database (2005–2010) was queried for all lung transplant recipients requiring OGT or PEG. Results There were 215 patients requiring gastrostomy tube, with 44 OGT and 171 PEG. The two groups were not different with respect to age (52.0 vs. 56.9 years, p = 0.40) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (3.3 vs. 3.5, p = 0.75). Incidence of acute renal failure was higher in the PEG group (35.2 vs. 11.8%, p = 0.003). Post-operative pneumonia, myocardial infarction, surgical site infection, DVT/PE, and urinary tract infection were not different. Post-operative mortality was higher in the PEG group (11.2 vs. 0.0%, p = 0.02). Using multiple variable analysis, PEG tube was independently associated with mortality (HR: 1.94, 95%C.I: 1.45–2.58). Variables associated with survival included age, female gender, white race, and larger hospital bed capacity. Discussion OGT may be the preferred method of gastric access for lung transplant recipients. Conclusions In lung transplant recipients, OGT results in decreased morbidity and mortality when compared to PEG. PMID:26900455

  9. Gastrocolic fistula as a cause of persistent diarrhea in a patient with a gastrostomy tube.

    PubMed

    Joo, Young Jin; Koo, Jung Hoi; Song, Sun Hong

    2010-11-01

    A 60-year-old man with a history of recurrent strokes secondary to moyamoya disease underwent insertion of a percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy tube because of severe dysphagia. Feeding was continued for 5 months after the procedure without complications. Persistent diarrhea began 2 weeks after admission for comprehensive rehabilitation. Conservative treatment was not effective. Sigmoidoscopy showed a U-shaped tube suggestive of a gastrocolic fistula in the transverse colon. This was confirmed by means of a tubogram obtained through a gastrostomy tube. The diarrhea resolved after changing the gastrostomy tube. This case report highlights the importance of considering other uncommon conditions, such as a gastrocolic fistula, in the differential diagnosis of persistent diarrhea in a patient with a gastrostomy tube.

  10. Factors affecting duration of gastrostomy tube retention in survivors following treatment for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Blanchford, H; Hamilton, D; Bowe, I; Welch, S; Kumar, R; Moor, J W; Welch, A R; Paleri, V

    2014-03-01

    Many patients treated for head and neck cancer require nutritional support, which is often delivered using a gastrostomy tube. It is difficult to predict which patients will retain their gastrostomy tube in the long term. This study aimed to identify the factors which affect the duration of gastrostomy tube retention. In this retrospective study, 151 consecutive patients from one centre were audited. All patients had a mucosal tumour of the head and neck, and underwent gastrostomy tube insertion between 2003 and 2007. There were near-complete data sets for 132 patients. The gastrostomy tube was retained in survivors (n = 66) for a mean of 21.3 months and in non-survivors (n = 66) for 11.9 months. Univariate analysis showed that co-morbidity was the only factor which significantly increased duration of gastrostomy tube retention in survivors (p = 0.041). Co-morbidity alone was associated with a significant increase in gastrostomy tube retention. It is suggested that co-morbidity be included as a variable in future relevant research. Co-morbidity should also be considered when counselling patients about their long-term function following cancer treatment. Gastrostomy tube retention is likely to be affected by many factors, with few single variables having importance independently.

  11. Gastrostomy tube insertion in children: The Edmonton experience

    PubMed Central

    Ackroyd, Ryan; Saincher, Meghana; Cheng, Simon; El-Matary, Wael

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although gastrostomy tube insertion – whether endoscopic or open – is generally safe, procedure-related complications have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To compare gastrostomy tube insertion-related complications between percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and open gastrostomy at a single pediatric centre. METHODS: The charts of children (younger than 17 years of age at the time of tube insertion) who underwent endoscopic or open gastrostomy tube insertion from January 2005 to December 2007 at the Stollery Children’s Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta) were examined. RESULTS: A total of 298 children underwent gastrostomy tube insertion over a period of three years. After excluding patients with incomplete charts, 160 children (91 boys, mean [± SD] age 3.18±4.73 years) were included. Eighty-five children (mean age 4.50±5.40 years) had their gastrostomy tube inserted endoscopically, while the remaining 75 (mean age 1.68±3.27 years; P<0.001) underwent an open procedure. The overall rate of major complications was 10.2% for the endoscopic technique and 8.6% for the open technique (P=0.1). Major infections were higher in the endoscopic technique group, while persistent gastrocutaneous fistulas after tube removal were more common in the open technique group. CONCLUSION: Although the rate of major complications was similar between the endoscopic and open tube insertion groups, major infections were more common among children who underwent endoscopic gastrostomy. The decision for gastrostomy tube insertion was primarily based on clinical background. PMID:21647461

  12. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube replacement unexpected serious events.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Stasinos, Ioannis; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Dimitriadis, George D

    2014-02-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes are replaced due to clogging, breaking, and dislodgement. There are potential complications associated with these procedures, including intraperitoneal placement of the tube and peritonitis, which can occur even in the presence of a well established stoma site. Herein we present a case series of 3 patients with mature gastrocutaneous tracks, who developed peritonitis following tube replacement. In the absence of a consensus or international guidelines regarding the management of patients requiring percoutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube replacement, emphasis should be given on prevention of severe adverse events and on early anticipation of their occurrence. Clinical experience indicates that recognition of high-risk procedures, selection of the appropriate replacement method and confirmation of correct tube placement can improve patients' safety and reduce the complications rate.

  13. A comparison of pediatric gastrostomy tube placement techniques.

    PubMed

    Sulkowski, Jason P; De Roo, Ana C; Nielsen, Jason; Ambeba, Erica; Cooper, Jennifer N; Hogan, Mark J; Erdman, Steven; Deans, Katherine J; Minneci, Peter C; Kenney, Brian

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to compare different techniques for placement of gastrostomy tubes in a pediatric population. A retrospective review was performed for patients less than 18 years of age who underwent gastrostomy tube placement at a single academic children's hospital between 2010 and 2012. Techniques for gastrostomy placement included Open Stamm, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), fluoroscopy guided, laparoscopic, and laparoscopic assisted PEG. Pre-operative characteristics of patients and post-operative outcomes were compared between techniques. Most patients underwent an Open Stamm (43 %) or PEG (39 %). There were significant differences between groups with respect to primary diagnoses, prior surgeries, and ASA classification. Major complications were rare, with less than 3 % requiring reoperation within 30 days; however, minor complications and returns to the emergency department were common. Unintentional tube dislodgements occurred in 22 % of all patients, with Open Stamm technique identified as an independent predictor of unintentional dislodgement (p < 0.0001). Although conclusions from this retrospective analysis are limited due to heterogeneity between groups, open Stamm gastrostomy placement in children was associated with increased negative outcomes including unintentional tube dislodgements, returns to the emergency department, and need for reoperation within 30 days. Prospective analysis of the various techniques is needed to confirm that minimally invasive techniques for gastrostomy tube placement are associated with a less complicated post-operative course.

  14. Foley Catheters as Temporary Gastrostomy Tubes: Experience of a Nurse-Led Service.

    PubMed

    Metussin, Adli; Sia, Rusanah; Bakar, Suriawati; Chong, Vui Heng

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube is the modality of choice for long-term enteral nutrition. In the event that replacement tubes are not available, urinary catheters can be used to maintain patency of the gastrostomy tract. This study reports our experience in a nurse-led service using Foley catheters as temporary gastrostomy tubes and the associated complications. Patients who had used Foley catheter as gastrostomy tube over a 2-year period (Jan 2011 to December 2012) were studied. Twenty-one patients had used Foley catheters as a temporary gastrostomy tube, and 12 (57.4%) did not experience any complications, including three patients who were still using Foley catheters at a median of 15 months (range 3-18). Two patients preferred the Foley catheter as feeding tubes. Six patients had replacements with formal balloon replacement tubes, and two patients did not require replacement. Complications occurred in nine (42.6%) patients: repeated burst Foley catheter balloon with peristomal leakage (n = 4), lumen blockage (n = 1), and catheter migration resulting in small bowel obstruction (n = 4). All complications were successfully managed with tube replacements. We showed that in a nurse-led service, using a Foley catheter as a temporary feeding gastrostomy tube is safe, but requires monitoring for complications.

  15. Quality of life among adults with epidermolysis bullosa living with a gastrostomy tube since childhood.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Lynne D; Mayre-Chilton, Kattya

    2015-03-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare genetic condition characterized by blistering to the skin and internal mucous membranes arising from mild mechanical trauma. The impact on those affected can be significant. They might have increased nutritional requirements because of blistering, chronic wounds, infection, and loss of exudates, and nutritional intake might be compromised because of oropharyngeal blistering and strictures, resulting in malnutrition in many patients. Placement of gastrostomy tubes can help some patients meet nutritional requirements. We report a recent study on how EB patients and their families approached the issue of whether to have a gastrostomy tube placed and how such tubes affect quality of life. Our findings include important insights for clinicians and families about how patients experience life with a gastrostomy. We show how the process of consent can be improved and how patients with a gastrostomy tube can feel more in control of their lives.

  16. Utility of Preoperative Upper Gastrointestinal Series in Laparoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Placement.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Katherine W; Dalton, Brian G A; Boda, Sushanth; Aguayo, Pablo; Hendrickson, Richard J; St Peter, Shawn D; Juang, David

    2015-12-01

    An upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series is a standard preoperative test for patients being evaluated for gastrostomy tube placement. We have recently begun to question the value of the radiation-exposing series in patients who tolerate gastric feeds. A retrospective review was conducted in patients who underwent laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement between 2000 and 2012. Demographics, indication for gastrostomy tube, comorbidities, preoperative imaging, and nutrition were analyzed. Patients with foregut pathology and those who underwent prior gastrointestinal surgery were excluded. Among 695 patients who underwent laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement, the most common indications were failure to thrive (53%), neurologic disorder (25%), and dysphagia (12%). A UGI series was obtained for 420 patients (60%). Of these, 96 were found to have abnormalities (reflux, aspiration, anatomic). However, only 2 of these patients (0.3%) had a change in management, with 1 patient undergoing the Ladd procedure and 1 having negative diagnostic laparoscopy for suspected malrotation. In the subset analysis of 256 patients tolerating goal gastric feeds, 161 (63%) had a preoperative UGI series with only 2 patients (1.2%) having a resultant change in operative management: 1 undergoing the Ladd procedure and 1 having negative diagnostic laparoscopy. Of the 275 patients who did not have a preoperative UGI series, 1 patient (0.4%) was found to have malrotation postoperatively after two coins became lodged in the duodenum. This patient subsequently underwent an elective Ladd procedure. We found minimal impact of an UGI series during evaluation for gastrostomy alone. These studies may be able to be reserved for those with clear clinical indications.

  17. Fluoroscopy-Guided Removal of Pull-Type Gastrostomy Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlers, Christopher M. Schneider, Jens; Lachmann, Ricarda; Herber, Sascha

    2008-11-15

    These case reports demonstrate a radiologic interventional technique for removal of pull-type gastrostomy tubes. This approach proved to be a safe and efficient procedure in two patients. The procedure may be applicable in situations where endoscopic attempts fail.

  18. Comparing open gastrostomy tube to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube in heart transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Ambur, Vishnu; Taghavi, Sharven; Jayarajan, Senthil; Gaughan, John; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Dauer, Elizabeth; Sjoholm, Lars Ola; Pathak, Abhijit; Santora, Thomas; Goldberg, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Impaired wound healing due to immunosuppression has led some surgeons to preferentially use open gastrostomy tube (OGT) over percutaneous gastrostomy tube (PEG) in heart transplant patients when long-term enteral access is deemed necessary. Methods The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (2005–2010) was queried for all heart transplant patients. Those receiving OGT were compared to those treated with PEG tube. Results There were 498 patients requiring long-term enteral access treated with a gastrostomy tube, with 424 (85.2%) receiving a PEG and 74 (14.8%) an OGT. The PEG cohort had higher Charlson comorbidity Index (4.1 vs. 2.0, p = 0.002) and a higher incidence of post-operative acute renal failure (31.5 vs. 12.7%, p = 0.001). Post-operative mortality was not different when comparing the two groups (13.8 vs. 6.1%, p = 0.06). On multivariate analysis, while both PEG (OR: 7.87, 95%C.I: 5.88–10.52, p < 0.001) and OGT (OR 5.87, 95%CI: 2.19–15.75, p < 0.001) were independently associated with mortality, PEG conferred a higher mortality risk. Conclusions This is the largest reported study to date comparing outcomes between PEG and OGT in heart transplant patients. PEG does not confer any advantage over OGT in this patient population with respect to morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. PMID:27141303

  19. Guidelines for routine gastrostomy tube replacement in children.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Sarah; Best, Carolyn

    2013-12-01

    Endoscopic placement of a gastrostomy is the safest method of inserting a gastrostomy in children who are going to require full or supplemental enteral feeding for more than six weeks. Once a stoma tract has formed successfully following initial placement of a gastrostomy tube, the device can be changed to a balloon, button or non-balloon type. Community nursing teams often support a number of children with gastrostomies and their families, replacing the devices as necessary. Guidance for the safe insertion and replacement of balloon and button gastrostomies has been produced by the National Nurses Nutrition Group, the Patient Safety Agency and manufacturers, but standardised national guidelines are required.

  20. Developing a protocol for gastrostomy tube insertion in patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Habib, Syed F; Ahmed, Suhail; Skelly, Rachel; Bhatt, Kavita; Patel, Bhaveshree; Lowe, Derek; Tuson, Julian; Rogers, Simon N

    2014-05-01

    Selecting patients with head and neck cancer requiring a pretreatment gastrostomy feeding tube is not straightforward. The nutritional status and functional deficits associated with the cancer, its treatment, and the long-term side effects predicate the need for gastrostomy tube placement. However, gastrostomy tubes are not without morbidity and are an added burden to the patient. The aim of this retrospective case series review was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer treated with curative intent having gastrostomy placement, with the intent of developing a protocol to help with the timely selection of patients for pretreatment gastrostomy insertion. A gastrostomy tube was placed in 32%. A regression model identified 5 independent predictors (P < .001) to predict gastrostomy tube placement: overall clinical stage, tumor site, clinical T stage, patient age, and clinical N stage. A protocol to help the multidisciplinary team to decide whether a pretreatment gastrostomy tube should be placed is suggested.

  1. Resource utilization after gastrostomy tube placement: defining areas of improvement for future quality improvement projects.

    PubMed

    Correa, Jesus A; Fallon, Sara C; Murphy, Kathleen M; Victorian, Veronica A; Bisset, George S; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A; Lopez, Monica E; Brandt, Mary L; Cass, Darrell L; Rodriguez, J Ruben; Wesson, David E; Lee, Timothy C

    2014-11-01

    Gastrostomy tube (GT) placement is a frequent procedure at a tertiary care children's hospital. Because of underlying patient illness and the nature of the device, patients often require multiple visits to the emergency room for GT-related concerns. We hypothesized that the majority of our patient visits to the ER related to gastrostomy tube concerns were not medically urgent. The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence and indications for GT-related emergency room visits and readmission rates in order to develop family educational material that might allow for these nonurgent concerns to be addressed on an outpatient basis. We reviewed the medical records of all patients with GT placement in the operating room from January 2011 to September 2012. We evaluated our primary outcome of ER visits at less than 30 days after discharge and 30-365 days after discharge. The purpose of the ER visit was categorized as either mechanical (dislodgement, leaking) or wound-related (infection, granulation tissue). Additional outcomes assessed included readmission rates, reoperation rates, and the use of gastrostomy contrast studies. During the study period, 247 patients had gastrostomy tubes placed at our institution at a median age of 15.3 months (range 0.03 months-22 years). Of the total patient population, 219 were discharged less than 30 days after their operation (89%). Of these, 42 (20%) returned to the emergency room a total of 44 times within 30 days of discharge for concerns related to their GT. Avoidable visits related to leaking, mild clogs, and granulation tissue were seen in 17/44 (39%). An additional 40 patients among the entire cohort of 247 (16%) presented to the ER a total of 71 times 31-365 days post-discharge; 59 (83%) of these visits were potentially avoidable. The readmission rate related to the GT was low (4%). Few studies have attempted to quantify the amount of postoperative resources utilized post-GT placement in children. Our findings

  2. [Gastric outlet obstruction caused by gastrostomy tube balloon in 3 cases].

    PubMed

    Akashi, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Yodoe, Kentaro; Yamada, Mariko; Yoshimura, Daisuke; Ochiai, Toshiaki; Tsuchida, Osamu; Kabemura, Teppei

    2012-04-01

    We report 3 cases with unusual complications of gastric outlet obstruction caused by a gastrostomy tube balloon. All cases developed vomiting, and 2 cases were accompanied by hematemesis. Gastric ulcer was observed in 1 case, aspiration pneumonia was observed in 2 cases, and pancreatitis was observed in 1 case. This condition improved rapidly by correction of the position of the balloon in all cases. In patient vomiting during management for gastrostomy we need to consider migration of the gastrostomy tube balloon. Careful management of the gastrostomy tube balloon is important.

  3. Massive reflux and aspiration after radiographically inserted gastrostomy tube placement.

    PubMed

    Chesoni, Sandra A; Bach, John R; Okamura, Erica Mia

    2015-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge, fatal postgastrostomy aspiration within 2 days of enteral nutrition has not been reported. The authors report consecutive cases of severe postgastrotomy aspiration with one being fatal for a 26-yr-old with Duchenne muscular dystrophy 2 days after initiation of gastrostomy feedings. Previous to these consecutive radiographically inserted gastrostomies, all gastrotomies at the institution were percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies or open gastrostomies. Radiographically inserted gastrostomy tubes have an increased likelihood of being oriented toward the esophagus as opposed to the duodenum, which may increase the risk for reflux. Elimination of invasive airway tubes should be delayed until after gastrostomy feedings are documented to be well tolerated. Oximetry and repeated measurements of vital capacity can suggest changes in the status of airway clearance.

  4. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube replacement: A simple procedure?

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2013-01-16

    Replacement of gastrostomy tube in patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is generally considered as a safe and simple procedure. However, it could be associated with serious complications, such as gastrocutaneous tract disruption and intraperitoneal tube placement, which may lead to chemical peritonitis and even death. When PEG tube needs a replacement (e.g., occlusion or breakage of the tube), clinicians must realize that the gastrocutaneous tract of PEG is more friable than that of surgical gastrostomy because there is no suture fixation between gastric wall and abdominal wall in PEG. In general, the tract of PEG begins to mature in 1-2 wk after placement and it is well formed in 4-6 wk. However, this process could take a longer period of time in some patients. Accordingly, this article describes three major principles of a safe PEG tube replacement: (1) good control of the replacement tube along the well-formed gastrocutaneous tract; (2) minimal insertion force during the replacement, and, most importantly; and (3) reliable methods for the confirmation of intragastric tube insertion. In addition, the management of patients with suspected intraperitoneal tube placement (e.g., patients having abdominal pain or signs of peritonitis immediately after PEG tube replacement or shortly after tube feeding was resumed) is discussed. If prompt investigation confirms the intraperitoneal tube placement, surgical intervention is usually required. This article also highlights the fact that each institute should have an optimal protocol for PEG tube replacement to prevent, or to minimize, such serious complications. Meanwhile, clinicians should be aware of these potential complications, particularly if there are any difficulties during the gastrostomy tube replacement.

  5. Fibrin glue as adjuvant treatment for gastrocutaneous fistula after gastrostomy tube removal.

    PubMed

    González-Ojeda, A; Avalos-González, J; Muciño-Hernández, M I; López-Ortega, A; Fuentes-Orozco, C; Sánchez-Hochoa, M; Anaya-Prado, R; Arenas-Márquez, H

    2004-04-01

    Gastrocutaneous fistulas are infrequent after gastrostomy tube removal. However, if the fistulous tract remains permeable, even low-volume output can produce significant cutaneous burns. The use of biodegradable adhesives has been described, where fibrin glue is applied directly over the fistulous tract or under the guidance of procedures such as upper or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy or fistuloscopy. We studied the use of fibrin glue in five consecutive adult patients with gastrocutaneous fistulas after gastrostomy tube removal, with no complications that might impede spontaneous closure. A comparison group included seven patients treated during the preceding 2 years with conservative medical management, who were not treated with fibrin glue. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to age and gender, nor with regard to type of gastrostomy (surgical or endoscopic). The mean output volume from the fistulas was 151.4 +/- 146.1 ml/24 h in the study group and 115.0 +/- 42.7 ml/24 h in the control group, which was not significantly different ( P = 0.80). The duration of previous conservative treatment was 93.8 +/- 85.1 days for the study group and 95.8 +/- 80.7 days for the control group and this also did not differ significantly ( P = 0.93). The time to achieve total fistula closure was 7.0 +/- 3.1 days in the study group and 32.7 +/- 15.7 days in the control group. This difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.004). The time required before oral feeding could be recommenced after spontaneous or induced closure was similar in the two groups, at 2.8 +/- 1.3 days and 4.71 +/- 2.36 days, respectively. Endoscopic guidance allows direct instillation of fibrin glue via the external opening through the whole fistulous tract. This procedure reduces the time required for the closure of gastrocutaneous fistulas.

  6. Why wait: early enteral feeding after pediatric gastrostomy tube placement.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Amanda R; Renaud, Elizabeth; Drucker, Natalie A; Staszak, Jessica; Senay, Ayla; Umesh, Vaibhavi; Williams, Regan F; Markel, Troy A

    2017-06-27

    Early initiation of feedings after gastrostomy tube (GT) placement may reduce associated hospital costs, but many surgeons fear complications could result from earlier feeds. We hypothesized that, irrespective of placement method, starting feedings within the first 6h following GT placement would not result in a greater number of post-operative complications. An IRB-approved retrospective review of all GTs placed between January 2012 and December 2014 at three academic institutions was undertaken. Data was stratified by placement method and whether the patient was initiated on feeds at less than 6h or after. Baseline demographics, operative variables, post-operative management and complications were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used and P-values <0.05 were considered significant. One thousand and forty-eight patients met inclusion criteria. GTs were inserted endoscopically (48.9%), laparoscopically (44.9%), or via an open approach (6.2%). Demographics were similar in early and late fed groups. When controlling for method of placement, those patients who were fed within the first 6h after gastrostomy placement had shorter lengths of stay compared to those fed greater than 6h after placement (P<0.05). Total post-operative outcomes were equivalent between feeding groups for all methods of placement (laparoscopic (P=0.87), PEG (P=0.94), open (P=0.81)). Early initiation of feedings following GT placement was not associated with an increase in complications. Feeds initiated earlier may shorten hospital stays and decrease overall hospital costs. Multi-institutional retrospective. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of french-pezzar and Malecot catheters for percutaneously placed gastrostomy tubes in cats.

    PubMed

    DeBowes, L J; Coyne, B; Layton, C E

    1993-06-15

    Gastrostomy tubes were placed percutaneously in 28 cats by use of an endoscope. French-pezzar mushroom-tip catheters were used for 14 of the procedures, and Malecot catheters were used for the remainder. Inner flanges were not used in gastrostomy tube placement. The french-pezzar catheters remained in place and functional for 2 weeks in all 14 cats. The Malecot catheters remained in place and functional for 2 weeks in 4 cats. Malecot catheters pulled out in 10 cats, and 2 of these cats died or were euthanatized because of complications. The gastrostomy tubes were removed in 18 cats 2 weeks after placement by applying gentle, steady traction and removing the entire catheter or by cutting the tube flush with the skin and leaving the catheter tip in the cat's stomach. Neither method of removal was associated with problems.

  8. Gastrostomy tube placement by endoscopy versus radiologic methods in patients with ALS: a retrospective study of complications and outcome.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jeffrey A; Chen, Richard; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Sufit, Robert L; Heller, Scott; Siddique, Teepu; Wolfe, Lisa

    2013-05-01

    Gastrostomy tube placement for malnutrition and weight loss stabilization occurs in many patients with ALS. We sought to compare the outcome and complications of gastrostomy tube placement by endoscopic (PEG) and multiple radiologic (RIG) methods in ALS patients. A retrospective analysis was conducted on all ALS patients evaluated at Northwestern University who received gastrostomy tubes between January 2009 and March 2012. One hundred and eight gastrostomy tube attempts were made on a total of 100 different patients. Failed gastrostomy tube placement occurred in 15.7% of PEGs and 1.9% of RIGs. Post-procedure aspiration was recognized after 10.5% PEG and 0 RIG attempts. Multivariate analysis revealed a linear increase in risk of post-procedure aspiration for every increase in ALSFRS swallow score. No statistically significant differences in failure or complications were observed when comparing two different methods of RIG (push-type vs. pull-type). Our findings support gastrostomy tube placement by radiographic methods in ALS patients. Gastrostomy tube placement by RIG was more often successful and less often associated with aspiration. Our findings add to the growing body of literature that argues for early gastrostomy tube placement in young patients with prominent bulbar involvement.

  9. Gastrostomy tube placement in patients with advanced dementia or near end of life.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Barrocas, Albert; Wesley, John R; Kliger, Gustavo; Pontes-Arruda, Alessandro; Márquez, Humberto Arenas; James, Rosemarie Lembo; Monturo, Cheryl; Lysen, Lucinda K; DiTucci, Angela

    2014-12-01

    Based on current scientific literature, gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement or other long-term enteral access devices should be withheld in patients with advanced dementia or other near end-of-life conditions. In many instances healthcare providers are not optimally equipped to implement this recommendation at the bedside. Autonomy of the patient or surrogate decision maker should be respected, as should the patient's cultural, religious, social, and emotional value system. Clinical practice needs to address risks, burdens, benefits, and expected short-term and long-term outcomes in order to clarify practice changes. This paper recommends a change in clinical practice and care strategy based on the results of a thorough literature review and provides tools for healthcare clinicians, particularly in the hospital setting, including an algorithm for decision making and a checklist to use prior to the placement of G-tubes or other long-term enteral access devices. Integrating concepts of patient-centered care, shared decision making, health literacy, and the teach-back method of education enhances the desired outcome of ethical dilemma prevention. The goal is advance care planning and a timely consensus among health team members, family members, and significant others regarding end-of-life care for patients who do not have an advance directive and lack the capacity to advocate for themselves. Achieving this goal requires interdisciplinary collaboration and proactive planning within a supportive healthcare institution environment. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. A Behavior Analysis Approach toward Chronic Food Refusal in Children with Gastrostomy-Tube Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Luiselli, Tracy Evans

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a behavior analysis treatment approach to establishing oral feeding in children with multiple developmental disabilities and gastrostomy-tube dependency. Pretreatment screening, functional assessment, and treatment are reported as implemented within a behavioral consultation model. A case study illustrates the sequence and…

  11. A Behavior Analysis Approach toward Chronic Food Refusal in Children with Gastrostomy-Tube Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Luiselli, Tracy Evans

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a behavior analysis treatment approach to establishing oral feeding in children with multiple developmental disabilities and gastrostomy-tube dependency. Pretreatment screening, functional assessment, and treatment are reported as implemented within a behavioral consultation model. A case study illustrates the sequence and…

  12. Gastrostomy Tube Weaning and Treatment of Severe Selective Eating in Childhood: Experience in Israel Using an Intensive Three Week Program.

    PubMed

    Shalem, Tzippora; Fradkin, Akiva; Dunitz-Scheer, Marguerite; Sadeh-Kon, Tal; Goz-Gulik, Tali; Fishler, Yael; Weiss, Batia

    2016-06-01

    Children dependent on gastrostomy tube feeding and those with extremely selective eating comprise the most challenging groups of early childhood eating disorders. We established, for the first time in Israel, a 3 week intensive weaning and treatment program for these patients based on the "Graz model." To investigate the Graz model for tube weaning and for treating severe selective eating disorders in one center in Israel. Pre-program assessment of patients' suitability to participate was performed 3 months prior to the study, and a treatment goal was set for each patient. The program included a multidisciplinary outpatient or inpatient 3 week treatment course. The major outcome measures were achievement of the target goal of complete or partial tube weaning for those with tube dependency, and expansion of the child's nutritional diversity for those with selective eating. Thirty-four children, 28 with tube dependency and 6 with selective eating, participated in four programs conducted over 24 months. Their mean age was 4.3 ± 0.37 years. Of all patients, 29 (85%) achieved the target goal (24 who were tube-dependent and 5 selective eaters). One patient was excluded due to aspiration pneumonia. After 6 months follow-up, 24 of 26 available patients (92%) maintained their target or improved. This intensive 3 week program was highly effective in weaning children with gastrostomy tube dependency and ameliorating severe selective eating. Preliminary evaluation of the family is necessary for completion of the program and achieving the child's personal goal, as are an experienced multidisciplinary team and the appropriate hospital setup, i.e., inpatient or outpatient.

  13. Risk factors for urolithiasis in gastrostomy tube fed children: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Emilie K; Lightdale, Jenifer R; Nelson, Caleb P

    2013-07-01

    Pediatric patients who are fed primarily via gastrostomy tube (G-tube) may be at increased risk for urolithiasis, but no studies have specifically examined risk factors for stones in this population. We aimed to determine clinical differences between G-tube fed (GTF) patients with and without stones, in hopes of identifying modifiable factors associated with increased risk of urolithiasis. We conducted a retrospective case-control study, matching GTF patients with urolithiasis (cases) to GTF children without urolithiasis (controls) based on age (±1 year) and gender. Bivariate comparisons and matched logistic regression modeling were used to determine the unadjusted and adjusted associations between relevant clinical factors and urolithiasis. Forty-one cases and 80 matched controls (mean age 12.0 ± 6.5 years) were included. On bivariate analysis, factors associated with stone formation included: white race, urinary tract infection (UTI), topiramate administration, vitamin D use, malabsorption, dehydration, 2-year duration with G-tube, and whether goal free water intake was documented in the patient chart. On regression analysis, the following factors remained significant: topiramate administration (odds ratio [OR]: 6.58 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.76-24.59]), UTI (OR: 7.70 [95% CI: 1.59-37.17]), and <2 years with a G-tube (OR: 8.78 [95% CI: 1.27-52.50]). Our findings provide a preliminary risk profile for the development of urolithiasis in GTF children. Important associations identified include UTI, topiramate administration, and shorter G-tube duration, which may reflect subclinical chronic dehydration. Of these, topiramate use represents the most promising target for risk reduction.

  14. Emergency Department Visits and Readmissions among Children after Gastrostomy Tube Placement.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Adam B; Heiss, Kurt F; Hall, Matt; Rothstein, David H; Minneci, Peter C; Blakely, Martin L; Browne, Marybeth; Raval, Mehul V; Shah, Samir S; Rangel, Shawn J; Snyder, Charles L; Vinocur, Charles D; Berman, Loren; Cooper, Jennifer N; Arca, Marjorie J

    2016-07-01

    To define the incidence of 30-day postdischarge emergency department (ED) visits and hospital readmissions following pediatric gastrostomy tube (GT) placement across all procedural services (Surgery, Interventional-Radiology, Gastroenterology) in 38 freestanding Children's Hospitals. This retrospective cohort study evaluated patients <18 years of age discharged between 2010 and 2012 after GT placement. Factors significantly associated with ED revisits and hospital readmissions within 30 days of hospital discharge were identified using multivariable logistic regression. A subgroup analysis was performed comparing patients having the GT placed on the date of admission or later in the hospital course. Of 15 642 identified patients, 8.6% had an ED visit within 30 days of hospital discharge, and 3.9% were readmitted through the ED with a GT-related issue. GT-related events associated with these visits included infection (27%), mechanical complication (22%), and replacement (19%). In multivariable analysis, Hispanic ethnicity, non-Hispanic black race, and the presence of ≥3 chronic conditions were independently associated with ED revisits; gastroesophageal reflux and not having a concomitant fundoplication at time of GT placement were independently associated with hospital readmission. Timing of GT placement (scheduled vs late) was not associated with either ED revisits or hospital readmission. GT placement is associated with high rates of ED revisits and hospital readmissions in the first 30 days after hospital discharge. The association of nonmodifiable risk factors such as race/ethnicity and medical complexity is an initial step toward understanding this population so that interventions can be developed to decrease these potentially preventable occurrences given their importance among accountable care organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Percutaneous radiologically guided gastrostomy tube placement: comparison of antegrade transoral and retrograde transabdominal approaches

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Zachary M.; Charles, Hearns W.; Gross, Jonathan S.; Pflager, Daniel; Deipolyi, Amy R.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to compare the antegrade transoral and the retrograde transabdominal approaches for fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement. METHODS Following institutional review board approval, all G-tubes at two academic hospitals (January 2014 to May 2015) were reviewed retrospectively. Retrograde approach was used at Hospital 1 and both antegrade and retrograde approaches were used at Hospital 2. Chart review determined type of anesthesia used during placement, dose of radiation used, fluoroscopy time, procedure time, medical history, and complications. RESULTS A total of 149 patients (64 women, 85 men; mean age, 64.4±1.3 years) underwent G-tube placement, including 93 (62%) placed via the retrograde transabdominal approach and 56 (38%) placed via the antegrade transoral approach. Retrograde placement entailed fewer anesthesiology consultations (P < 0.001), less overall procedure time (P = 0.023), and less fluoroscopy time (P < 0.001). A comparison of approaches for placement within the same hospital demonstrated that the retrograde approach led to significantly reduced radiation dose (P = 0.022). There were no differences in minor complication rates (13%–19%; P = 0.430), or major complication rates (6%–7%; P = 0.871) between the two techniques. CONCLUSION G-tube placement using the retrograde transabdominal approach is associated with less fluoroscopy time, procedure time, radiation exposure, and need for anesthesiology consultation with similar safety profile compared with the antegrade transoral approach. Additionally, it is hypothesized that decreased procedure time and anesthesiology consultation using the transoral approach are likely associated with reduced cost. PMID:27911264

  16. Cinacalcet administration by gastrostomy tube in a child receiving peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Kristen R; Knoderer, Chad A; Johnston, Bethanne; Wilson, Amy C

    2014-07-01

    A 2-year-old male with chronic kidney disease with secondary hyperparathyroidism developed hypercalcemia while receiving calcitriol, without achieving a serum parathyroid hormone concentration within the goal range. Cinacalcet 15 mg (1.2 mg/kg), crushed and administered via gastrostomy tube, was added to the patient's therapy. This therapy was effective in achieving targeted laboratory parameters in our patient despite instructions in the prescribing information that cinacalcet should always be taken whole.

  17. Cinacalcet Administration by Gastrostomy Tube in a Child Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Knoderer, Chad A.; Johnston, Bethanne; Wilson, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old male with chronic kidney disease with secondary hyperparathyroidism developed hypercalcemia while receiving calcitriol, without achieving a serum parathyroid hormone concentration within the goal range. Cinacalcet 15 mg (1.2 mg/kg), crushed and administered via gastrostomy tube, was added to the patient’s therapy. This therapy was effective in achieving targeted laboratory parameters in our patient despite instructions in the prescribing information that cinacalcet should always be taken whole. PMID:25309151

  18. Replacement of mushroom cage gastrostomy tube using a modified technique to allow percutaneous replacement with an endoscopic tube in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Thoraya; Rio, Alan; Ampong, Mary Ann; Sidhu, Paul S

    2010-06-01

    Radiologic inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is the preferred method in our institution for enteral feeding in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Skin-level primary-placed mushroom cage gastrostomy tubes become tight with weight gain. We describe a minimally invasive radiologic technique for replacing mushroom gastrostomy tubes with endoscopic mushroom cage tubes in ALS. All patients with ALS who underwent replacement of a RIG tube were included. Patients were selected for a modified replacement when the tube length of the primary placed RIG tube was insufficient to allow like-for-like replacement. Replacement was performed under local anesthetic and fluoroscopic guidance according to a preset technique, with modification of an endoscopic mushroom cage gastrostomy tube to allow percutaneous placement. Assessment of the success, safety, and durability of the modified technique was undertaken. Over a 60-month period, 104 primary placement mushroom cage tubes in ALS were performed. A total of 20 (19.2%) of 104 patients had a replacement tube positioned, 10 (9.6%) of 104 with the modified technique (male n = 4, female n = 6, mean age 65.5 years, range 48-85 years). All tubes were successfully replaced using this modified technique, with two minor complications (superficial wound infection and minor hemorrhage). The mean length of time of tube durability was 158.5 days (range 6-471 days), with all but one patient dying with a functional tube in place. We have devised a modification to allow percutaneous replacement of mushroom cage gastrostomy feeding tubes with minimal compromise to ALS patients. This technique allows tube replacement under local anesthetic, without the need for sedation, an important consideration in ALS.

  19. Replacement of Mushroom Cage Gastrostomy Tube Using a Modified Technique to Allow Percutaneous Replacement with an Endoscopic Tube in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ammar, Thoraya; Rio, Alan; Ampong, Mary Ann; Sidhu, Paul S.

    2010-06-15

    Radiologic inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is the preferred method in our institution for enteral feeding in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Skin-level primary-placed mushroom cage gastrostomy tubes become tight with weight gain. We describe a minimally invasive radiologic technique for replacing mushroom gastrostomy tubes with endoscopic mushroom cage tubes in ALS. All patients with ALS who underwent replacement of a RIG tube were included. Patients were selected for a modified replacement when the tube length of the primary placed RIG tube was insufficient to allow like-for-like replacement. Replacement was performed under local anesthetic and fluoroscopic guidance according to a preset technique, with modification of an endoscopic mushroom cage gastrostomy tube to allow percutaneous placement. Assessment of the success, safety, and durability of the modified technique was undertaken. Over a 60-month period, 104 primary placement mushroom cage tubes in ALS were performed. A total of 20 (19.2%) of 104 patients had a replacement tube positioned, 10 (9.6%) of 104 with the modified technique (male n = 4, female n = 6, mean age 65.5 years, range 48-85 years). All tubes were successfully replaced using this modified technique, with two minor complications (superficial wound infection and minor hemorrhage). The mean length of time of tube durability was 158.5 days (range 6-471 days), with all but one patient dying with a functional tube in place. We have devised a modification to allow percutaneous replacement of mushroom cage gastrostomy feeding tubes with minimal compromise to ALS patients. This technique allows tube replacement under local anesthetic, without the need for sedation, an important consideration in ALS.

  20. Use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Patton, M L; Haith, L R; Germain, T J; Goldman, W T; Raymond, J T

    1994-09-01

    Alimentation and decompression are imperative to the successful management of the severely burned patient. Utilization of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes for these purposes has become a proven effective procedure in non-burned patients with few major complications. We retrospectively reviewed placement of PEG tubes in 31 burn patients, some of whom had been admitted with additional diagnoses such as inhalation injury and/or dysphagia. In 90% of our burn patients, the use of PEG tubes was without complication. The placement of PEG tubes through burn wound areas or donor sites added no increase in wound complications. In summary, there was no mortality referable to the use of PEG tubes, there were no major operative or wound complications, and feedings were tolerated well. This study reports on the use of PEG tubes in a regional Burn Treatment Center. It shows that PEG tubes offer safe and effective alimentation and decompression in the management of burned patients.

  1. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Dermatomyositis: Associations with Clinical and Laboratory Features Including Autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Mugii, Naoki; Hasegawa, Minoru; Matsushita, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Oohata, Sacihe; Okita, Hirokazu; Yahata, Tetsutarou; Someya, Fujiko; Inoue, Katsumi; Murono, Shigeyuki; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takehara, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia develops with low frequency in patients with dermatomyositis. Our objective was to determine the clinical and laboratory features that can estimate the development of dysphagia in dermatomyositis. This study included 92 Japanese patients with adult-onset dermatomyositis. The associations between dysphagia and clinical and laboratory features including disease-specific autoantibodies determined by immunoprecipitation assays were analyzed. Videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) was performed for all patients with clinical dysphagia (n = 13, 14.1%) but not for patients without clinical dysphagia. Typical findings of dysphagia (pharyngeal pooling, n = 11 and/or nasal regurgitation, n = 4) was detected by VFSS in all patients with clinical dysphagia. Eleven patients with dysphagia (84.6%) had anti-transcription intermediary factor 1γ (TIF-1γ) antibody. By univariate analysis, the average age and the male to female ratio, internal malignancy, and anti-TIF-1γ antibody were significantly higher and the frequency of interstitial lung diseases and manual muscle testing (MMT) scores of sternomastoid and dertoid muscles were significantly lower in patients with dysphagia than in patients without dysphagia. Among patients with anti-TIF-1γ antibody, the mean age, the ratios of male to female and internal malignancy were significantly higher and mean MMT scores of sternomastoid muscle were significantly lower in patients with dysphagia compared with patients without dysphagia. By multivariable analysis, the risk of dysphagia was strongly associated with the existence of internal malignancy and ant-TIF-1γ antibody and was also associated with reduced scores of manual muscle test of sternomastoid muscle. Dysphagia was markedly improved after the treatment against myositis in all 13 patients. These findings indicate that dysphagia can develop frequently in patients with internal malignancy, anti-TIF-1γ antibody, or severe muscle weakness of sternomastoid muscle.

  2. Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Malandraki, Georgia; Robbins, JoAnne

    2013-01-01

    Swallowing is one of the primary functions that enable humans to sustain life. Likewise, it is an important element of healthy life and contributes to quality of life and well-being. When the ability to swallow is lost or impaired, the risk of disability or even death is greatly increased. Rehabilitation potential is diminished and the process is prolonged in the presence of dysphagia. This present chapter describes the anatomical and neurophysiological components of healthy adult swallowing and presbyphagia and the major consequences that swallowing disorders (dysphagia) may have if left untreated. The main neurogenic conditions and diseases leading to dysphagia are also introduced, as well as the major diagnostic and interventional approaches used by swallowing specialists to help patients with dysphagia. The role of the multidisciplinary team is emphasized and screening questions and guidelines are provided to help the neurologist and other professionals provide dysphagic patients with the best swallowing care.

  3. Analysis of patients ≥65 with predominant cervical spine fractures: Issues of disposition and dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Lisa M.; Le, Phong; Drake, Rachel M.; Helmer, Stephen D.; Haan, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cervical spine fractures occur in 2.6% to 4.7% of trauma patients aged 65 years or older. Mortality rates in this population ranges from 19% to 24%. A few studies have specifically looked at dysphagia in elderly patients with cervical spine injury. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate dysphagia, disposition, and mortality in elderly patients with cervical spine injury. Settings and Design: Retrospective review at an the American College of Surgeons-verified level 1 trauma center. Methods: Patients 65 years or older with cervical spine fracture, either isolated or in association with other minor injuries were included in the study. Data included demographics, injury details, neurologic deficits, dysphagia evaluation and treatment, hospitalization details, and outcomes. Statistical Analysis: Categorical and continuous data were analyzed using Chi-square analysis and one-way analysis of variance, respectively. Results: Of 136 patients in this study, 2 (1.5%) had a sensory deficit alone, 4 (2.9%) had a motor deficit alone, and 4 (2.9%) had a combined sensory and motor deficit. Nearly one-third of patients (n = 43, 31.6%) underwent formal swallow evaluation, and 4 (2.9%) had a nasogastric tube or Dobhoff tube placed for enteral nutrition, whereas eight others (5.9%) had a gastrostomy tube or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placed. Most patients were discharged to a skilled nursing unit (n = 50, 36.8%), or to home or home with home health (n = 48, 35.3%). Seven patients (5.1%) died in the hospital, and eight more (5.9%) were transferred to hospice. Conclusion: Cervical spine injury in the elderly patient can lead to significant consequences, including dysphagia and need for skilled nursing care at discharge. PMID:28243007

  4. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion via gastro-gastric fistula in a gastric bypass patient.

    PubMed

    Antanavicius, Gintaras; Leslie, Daniel; Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Kellogg, Todd; Ikramuddin, Sayeed

    2010-07-01

    Enteral feedings are the preferred route of nutritional support for malnourished or critically ill patients. Recent progress in flexible endoscopic and interventional radiological techniques has allowed adaptation of numerous new procedures. Anatomic and functional rearrangement of the gastrointestinal tract often precludes traditional percutaneus endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. Insertion of a gastroscope through the nose, via open pharynx, or neck fistula have been described, but there are no reports in the English literature describing introduction of the gastroscope through a dilated gastro-gastric fistula in a patient with previous open Roux en Y gastric bypass.

  5. Bronchoesophageal Fistula Stenting Using High-Frequency Jet Ventilation and Underwater Seal Gastrostomy Tube Drainage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Managing a patient scheduled for bronchoesophageal fistula repair is challenging for the anesthetist. If appropriate ventilation strategy is not employed, serious complications such as hypoxemia, gastric distension, and pulmonary aspiration can occur. We present the case of a 62-year-old man with a bronchoesophageal fistula in the left main stem bronchus requiring the insertion of a Y-shaped tracheobronchial stent through a rigid bronchoscope, under general anesthesia. We successfully managed this intervention and herein report this case to demonstrate the effectiveness of underwater seal gastrostomy tube drainage used in conjunction with high-frequency jet ventilation during bronchoesophageal fistula stenting. PMID:27672454

  6. Gastrostomy Intraperitoneal Bumper Migration in a Three-Year-Old Child: A Rare Complication following Gastrostomy Tube Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Guanà, Riccardo; Lonati, Luca; Barletti, Claudio; Cisarò, Fabio; Casorzo, Ilaria; Carbonaro, Giulia; Lezo, Antonella; Delmonaco, Angelo Giovanni; Mussa, Alessandro; Capitanio, Martina; Cussa, Davide; Lemini, Riccardo; Schleef, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Feeding gastrostomy is used worldwide for adults and children with feeding impairment to obtain long-term enteral nutrition. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion is considered the gold standard, but after the first months requires gastrostomy tube replacement with a low-profile button. The replacement is known as an easy procedure, but several minor and major complications may occur during and after the manoeuvre. We describe intraperitoneal bumper migration in a 3-year-old boy, a rare complication following gastrostomy tube replacement, and we discuss the recent literature regarding similar cases. PMID:25565933

  7. Gastrostomy Intraperitoneal Bumper Migration in a Three-Year-Old Child: A Rare Complication following Gastrostomy Tube Replacement.

    PubMed

    Guanà, Riccardo; Lonati, Luca; Barletti, Claudio; Cisarò, Fabio; Casorzo, Ilaria; Carbonaro, Giulia; Lezo, Antonella; Delmonaco, Angelo Giovanni; Mussa, Alessandro; Capitanio, Martina; Cussa, Davide; Lemini, Riccardo; Schleef, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    Feeding gastrostomy is used worldwide for adults and children with feeding impairment to obtain long-term enteral nutrition. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion is considered the gold standard, but after the first months requires gastrostomy tube replacement with a low-profile button. The replacement is known as an easy procedure, but several minor and major complications may occur during and after the manoeuvre. We describe intraperitoneal bumper migration in a 3-year-old boy, a rare complication following gastrostomy tube replacement, and we discuss the recent literature regarding similar cases.

  8. Rare case of dysphagia, skin blistering, missing nails in a young boy

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Jasbir; Bajantri, Bharat; Remy, Prospere

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of genetic disorders with an autosomal dominant or an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance and more than 300 mutations. The disorder is characterized by blistering mucocutaneous lesions and has several varying phenotypes due to anchoring defect between the epidermis and dermis. The variation in phenotypic expression depends on the involved structural protein that mediates cell adherence between different layers of the skin. Epidermolysis bullosa can also involve extra-cutaneous sites including eye, nose, ear, upper airway, genitourinary tract and gastrointestinal tract. The most prominent feature of the gastrointestinal tract involvement is development of esophageal stricture. The stricture results from recurrent esophageal mucosal blistering with consequent scarring and most commonly involves the upper esophagus. Here we present a case of a young boy with dominant subtype of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa who presented with dysphagia, extensive skin blistering and missing nails. Management of an esophageal stricture eventually requires dilatation of the stricture or placement of a gastrostomy tube to keep up with the nutritional requirements. Gastrostomy tube also provides access for esophageal stricture dilatation in cases where antegrade approach through the mouth has failed. PMID:25685271

  9. Rare case of dysphagia, skin blistering, missing nails in a young boy.

    PubMed

    Makker, Jasbir; Bajantri, Bharat; Remy, Prospere

    2015-02-16

    Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of genetic disorders with an autosomal dominant or an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance and more than 300 mutations. The disorder is characterized by blistering mucocutaneous lesions and has several varying phenotypes due to anchoring defect between the epidermis and dermis. The variation in phenotypic expression depends on the involved structural protein that mediates cell adherence between different layers of the skin. Epidermolysis bullosa can also involve extra-cutaneous sites including eye, nose, ear, upper airway, genitourinary tract and gastrointestinal tract. The most prominent feature of the gastrointestinal tract involvement is development of esophageal stricture. The stricture results from recurrent esophageal mucosal blistering with consequent scarring and most commonly involves the upper esophagus. Here we present a case of a young boy with dominant subtype of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa who presented with dysphagia, extensive skin blistering and missing nails. Management of an esophageal stricture eventually requires dilatation of the stricture or placement of a gastrostomy tube to keep up with the nutritional requirements. Gastrostomy tube also provides access for esophageal stricture dilatation in cases where antegrade approach through the mouth has failed.

  10. Mitigation of stomach dehiscence risk during gastrostomy tube changes - a retrospective analysis of patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blocher-Smith, Ethan Charles; Smith, David A

    2017-04-01

    Stomach dehiscence from the abdominal wall is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication of gastrostomy tube changes. This retrospective study evaluates gastric aspiration as an inexpensive and safe alternative to endoscopic or radiographic confirmation. From August 1998 to June 2016, 682 patients (301 female, 381 male) underwent 1713 gastrostomy tube changes in the medical setting, with an average age of 7.59years and an average site age of 3.43years. The most common diagnoses were GERD (304), aspiration (168), and failure to thrive (143). All newly inserted tubes were aspirated to visually inspect for gastric fluid. This procedure as a confirmatory test for intragastric placement was found to have a positive predictive value of 99.5% and negative predictive value of 77.8%, with a sensitivity of 99.8% and specificity of 63.6%. In cases with successful aspiration of gastric fluid, 75.5% of changes resulted in no complications, with intraperitoneal insertion or leak in only 0.48% of cases. Positive gastric aspirate is a strong predictor of proper G-tube placement with high sensitivity, eliminating the requirement of specialized equipment and the cost associated with endoscopic or radiographic guidance, and has a comparable or superior risk profile. Study of diagnostic test level II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcervical approach to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion in a patient with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Amir Hafeez; Waqas, Muhammad; Akhtar, Shabbir

    2014-08-01

    This is the case of a 48-year-old woman with recurrent head and neck cancer. Six years before presenting at our institution, she was diagnosed with a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma involving the right maxilla and underwent surgical resection followed by chemoradiation. More recently, she presented at our institution with oral bleeding and pain. Examination revealed severe trismus, and biopsy demonstrated recurrent squamous cell carcinoma. She underwent surgical resection with a plan for simultaneous placement of a feeding gastrostomy tube. Owing to the near non-existent mouth opening, traditional per-oral placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube was impossible. Intraoperatively, following tumor resection, endoscopy was performed via direct pharyngeal access through a right cervical incision. The PEG tube was then placed uneventfully. Numerous studies have shown the superiority of PEG tubes over either radiologically or surgically placed gastrostomy tubes. This report describes an approach to PEG placement in a patient in whom per-oral placement was not feasible.

  12. Acceptable Raltegravir and Etravirine Concentrations in Plasma when Administered via Gastrostomy Tube

    PubMed Central

    Sandkovsky, Uriel; Swindells, Susan; Moore, Ryan; Acosta, Edward P.; Fletcher, Courtney V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Circumstances arise in clinical practice when alternative antiretroviral formulations are urgently needed for those unable to take available tablet or capsule formulations orally. Currently, only a few agents can be administered with commercially available liquid, powder or parenteral formulations. Methods A patient infected with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B required antiretroviral therapy via a gastrostomy because of esophageal perforations. Tablets of the patient’s current regimen of raltegravir, etravirine, tenofovir and emtricitabine (Truvada®) were crushed or dispersed and mixed with water and administered via the gastrostomy tube. Plasma samples 2-hour and 12-hour post dose were obtained and drug concentrations quantitated using validated assays. Results were compared to those in published pharmacokinetic studies from HIV-Infected persons and healthy volunteers. Results The 2 and 12-hour post dose measured raltegravir concentrations were 1,220 ng/mL and 446 ng/mL, respectively. The 2 and 12-hour post dose etravirine concentrations were 212 ng/mL and 274 ng/mL; emtricitabine was 1148 and 164 ng/mL and tenofovir was 320 and 94 ng/mL respectively. Conclusions Plasma concentrations of raltegravir, etravirine, emtricitabine and tenofovir when administered via gastrostomy tube compared favorably with published values. PMID:22392423

  13. Negotiating mothering against the odds: gastrostomy tube feeding, stigma, governmentality and disabled children.

    PubMed

    Craig, Gillian M; Scambler, Graham

    2006-03-01

    Using the findings of a small-scale qualitative investigation based on in-depth interviews with mothers attending a tertiary paediatric referral centre in London, this paper explores professional and parental discourses in relation to gastrostomy tube feeding and disabled children. Detailed accounts are given of women's struggles to negotiate their identities, and those of their children, within dominant discourses of mothering and child-centredness. Constructions of feeding practices as coercive conflict with normative expectations of 'good mothering' and the 'idealised autonomous' child. Although notions of 'stigmatised identities' featured in women's accounts of feeding children, both orally and by tube, stigma fails to explain why mothers are rendered culpable within expert discourses. Prevailing theories of stigma and coping are interrogated and judged to be more descriptive than explanatory. Felt stigma is posited as an aspect of governmentality.

  14. Gastrostomy tube feeding in children with epidermolysis bullosa: consideration of key issues.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Lesley; Mellerio, Jemima E; Martinez, Anna E

    2012-01-01

    Complications of severe forms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) almost invariably lead to chronic malnutrition, jeopardizing immune status, growth, iron status, bone health, wound healing, and quality of life. Although gastrostomy tube (G-tube) feeding has successfully addressed the difficulties of providing nutrition and medications in some children attending our center, others have developed problems such as abdominal distension, poor feed tolerance, and leakage of gastric contents with persistent localized skin ulceration, posing enormous challenges to skin management and nutritional maintenance. Suspicions that G-tube placement and feeding cause or exacerbate these problems has led to a decline in placements at our center over the last 10 years. We therefore recognized that it should not be rejected without due consideration of why some patients seem more prone to complications than others. Thus, information on selected issues and outcomes of G-tube placement was obtained from records of 66 patients undergoing surgery between 1989 and 2008. The complex interrelationships of the sequelae of severe EB, changes in practice over 20 years and lack of data for patients treated early in the series make it impossible to draw firm conclusions at this stage, however, our scrutiny provides valuable information on which to base debate and future studies. It also offers well as useful insights for fellow professionals involved in nutrition support in children with severe EB.

  15. Clinical trial: a randomized study comparing the durability of silicone and latex percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Campoli, Paulo; Cardoso, Daniela; Turchi, Marilia; Mota, Orlando

    2011-04-01

    The use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for nutrition support is increasing worldwide, but few studies have evaluated the durability of and complications related to the different materials used to manufacture gastrostomy tubes. Latex PEG tubes are widely used in our clinical setting, but no studies have compared their durability with silicone PEG tubes. The aim of the present study was to compare the durability of latex tubes with the durability of silicone tubes. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in patients with head and neck cancer with indications for PEG. Sixty patients were randomized to receive either latex or silicone PEG tubes and followed up for 90 days. The analyzed outcomes were duration, peristomal infection, granulated tissue formation, and leakage around the tube. The durability of silicone PEG tubes was significantly greater than the durability of latex PEG tubes. The survival curves showed that silicone PEG tubes lasted twice as long (hazard ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-3.7, P = 0.01). No differences were found with regard to rate of peristomal infection, granulated tissue formation, or leakage. Silicone PEG tubes are associated with a reduced need for replacement (attributable to higher durability) compared with latex PEG tubes. © 2010 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2010 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  16. Stability of Balloon-Retention Gastrostomy Tubes with Different Concentrations of Contrast Material: In Vitro Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E.; Alvarez, Alex; Trimmer, Clayton; Josephs, Shellie; Anderson, Matthew; Dolmatch, Bart

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of two balloon-retention-type gastrostomy tubes when the balloons are inflated with two types of contrast materials at different concentrations. Two commonly used balloon-retention-type tubes (MIC and Tri-Funnel) were inflated to the manufacturer's recommended volumes (4 and 20 cm{sup 3}, respectively) with normal saline or normal saline plus different concentrations of contrast material. Five tubes of each brand were inflated with normal saline and 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% contrast material dilutions, using either nonionic hyperosmolar contrast, or nonionic iso-osmolar contrast. The tubes were submerged in a glass basin containing a solution with a pH of 4. Every week the tubes were visually inspected to determine the integrity of the balloons, and the diameter of the balloons was measured with a caliper. The tests were repeated every week for a total of 12 weeks. The MIC balloons deflated slightly faster over time than the Tri-Funnel balloons. The Tri-Funnel balloons remained relatively stable over the study period for the different concentrations of contrast materials. The deflation rates of the MIC balloons were proportionally related to the concentration of saline and inversely related to the concentration of the contrast material. At high contrast material concentrations, solidification of the balloons was observed. In conclusion, this in vitro study confirms that the use of diluted amounts of nonionic contrast materials is safe for inflating the balloons of two types of balloon-retention feeding tubes. High concentrations of contrast could result in solidification of the balloons and should be avoided.

  17. Stability of balloon-retention gastrostomy tubes with different concentrations of contrast material: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Lopera, Jorge E; Alvarez, Alex; Trimmer, Clayton; Josephs, Shellie; Anderson, Matthew; Dolmatch, Bart

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of two balloon-retention-type gastrostomy tubes when the balloons are inflated with two types of contrast materials at different concentrations. Two commonly used balloon-retention-type tubes (MIC and Tri-Funnel) were inflated to the manufacturer's recommended volumes (4 and 20 cm(3), respectively) with normal saline or normal saline plus different concentrations of contrast material. Five tubes of each brand were inflated with normal saline and 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% contrast material dilutions, using either nonionic hyperosmolar contrast, or nonionic iso-osmolar contrast. The tubes were submerged in a glass basin containing a solution with a pH of 4. Every week the tubes were visually inspected to determine the integrity of the balloons, and the diameter of the balloons was measured with a caliper. The tests were repeated every week for a total of 12 weeks. The MIC balloons deflated slightly faster over time than the Tri-Funnel balloons. The Tri-Funnel balloons remained relatively stable over the study period for the different concentrations of contrast materials. The deflation rates of the MIC balloons were proportionally related to the concentration of saline and inversely related to the concentration of the contrast material. At high contrast material concentrations, solidification of the balloons was observed. In conclusion, this in vitro study confirms that the use of diluted amounts of nonionic contrast materials is safe for inflating the balloons of two types of balloon-retention feeding tubes. High concentrations of contrast could result in solidification of the balloons and should be avoided.

  18. Gastrostomy tube placement in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: Frequency, predictors, and growth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rudra, Sharmistha; Adibe, Obinna O; Malcolm, William F; Smith, P Brian; Cotten, C Michael; Greenberg, Rachel G

    2016-12-01

    Gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement is a common intervention for newborns with severe feeding difficulties. Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are at high risk for feeding problems. Prevalence of G-tube placement and consequent nutritional outcomes of infants with CDH and G-tubes has not been described. Determine factors associated with G-tube placement and growth in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Retrospective cohort study of infants with CDH to evaluate the association of G-tube placement with risk factors using logistic regression. We also assessed the association between growth velocity and G-tube placement and other risk factors using linear regression. The subjects of the study were infants with CDH treated at Duke University Medical Center from 1997 to 2013. Weight gain in infants with CDH that had G-tube placement compared to those infants with CDH that did not. Of the 123 infants with CDH, 85 (69%) survived and G-tubes were placed in 25/85 (29%) survivors. On adjusted analysis, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR=11.26 [95% CI: 1.92-65.89]; P=0.01) and proton pump inhibitor use (OR=17.29 [3.98-75.14], P≤0.001) were associated with G-tube placement. Infants without G-tubes had a growth velocity of 6.5g/day (95% CI: 2.5-10.4) more than infants with G-tubes. Survivors with more complex inpatient courses were more likely to receive G-tubes. Further investigation is needed to identify optimal feeding practices for infants with CDH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Respiratory outcomes of children with BPD and gastrostomy tubes during the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Hayashi, Madoka; Aherrera, Angela D; Collaco, Joseph M

    2014-06-01

    Infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) often undergo gastrostomy tube (GT) placement and/or Nissen fundoplication (Nissen) to improve weight gain and to attenuate chronic respiratory symptoms related to feeding difficulties. After initial hospitalization little is known how these children do with regard to respiratory symptoms when compared to children with BPD who did not receive GTs. This study was done to determine if differences in respiratory outcomes were associated with the presence of a GT or Nissen/GT in children with BPD during the first 2 years of life. Children (n = 398) were recruited from the Johns Hopkins BPD Outpatient Clinic. Medical charts were reviewed and acute care usage and respiratory symptoms were assessed by caregiver questionnaires. Ninety-two children with BPD had GTs, with the majority placed by 6 months of age. Of children with GTs, 64.7% also had Nissen fundoplication. Children with Nissen/GTs were more likely to have birth weights <10th percentile and to be discharged on supplemental oxygen. After initial hospitalization, children with GTs and Nissen/GTs weaned off supplemental oxygen at significantly older ages than children without GTs. Children with Nissen/GTs also had more hospitalizations than children without GTs. Caregivers of children with GTs and Nissen/GTs reported similar respiratory symptoms as caregivers of children without GTs. Weaning off supplemental oxygen occurred later in children with GTs and Nissen/GTs compared to children without GTs. Although children with Nissen/GTs had more re-hospitalizations, there were no differences in reported respiratory symptoms between any of the groups by caregiver questionnaire. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Nasogastric tube feeding and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Nugent, B; Parker, M J; McIntyre, I A

    2010-06-01

    For patients with a diagnosis of head and neck cancer, oral nutrition may not provide adequate nutrition during radical radiotherapy or chemoradiation treatment, resulting in enteral feeding initiation. Enteral feeding may be delivered via a nasogastric tube or by a gastrostomy tube. The present study aimed to determine how different treatment modalities impact on requirement for enteral feeding and which method of enteral feeding provided the most benefit to the patient, as demonstrated by weight loss and the number of unscheduled radiotherapy treatment interruptions. Patients who were treated with radical radiotherapy or chemoradiation between January 2004 and June 2007 were reviewed retrospectively (n = 196, male = 149, female = 47). Data were collected on demographics, diagnosis, T and N classification, nutritional status, unscheduled radiotherapy treatment interruptions, and type and duration of enteral feeding. Subjects were divided into three subgroups depending on the treatment received. Comparisons were then made between methods of enteral feeding. Combined modality treatment (Induction Chemotherapy and Chemoradiation) results in a higher proportion of patients requiring enteral feeding (66-71% compared to 12% for radiotherapy). Patients fed via a prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy lost the least amount of weight during treatment (-4.6% to +1.4%), although the method of enteral feeding did not statistically influence weight difference at the end of treatment. The enteral feeding method did not influence unscheduled radiotherapy treatment interruptions. Combined modality treatment results in a greater requirement for enteral feeding, with these patient groups having the greatest weight loss. The findings obtained in the present study indicate that the method of enteral feeding did not statistically influence weight loss at the end of treatment or unscheduled radiotherapy treatment interruptions.

  1. Enteral feeding in neurologically impaired children with gastroesophageal reflux: Nissen fundoplication and gastrostomy tube placement versus percutaneous gastrojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Veenker, Erin

    2008-10-01

    Parents or caregivers of neurologically impaired children with gastroesophageal reflux who require enteral nutrition are often faced with the option of having their child undergo an antireflux surgery and placement of a gastrostomy tube or have a percutaneous gastrojejunostomy tube placed under fluoroscopic guidance. It is important that nurses have an understanding of these procedures and their associated risks and benefits as well as knowledge of the impact each might have on the daily life and care of these children to help support families during this decision-making process.

  2. Ramsay Hunt syndrome with severe dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Crystal; Fozo, Michael; Rubin, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome, first described by J. Ramsay Hunt in 1907, encompassed the symptoms of otalgia, erythematous vesicular rash on the auricle, and facial paralysis. Although rare, in some cases, the varicella zoster virus responsible for the illness can also be associated with involvement of cranial nerves III-XII, cervical nerves, aseptic meningitis, and the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. We present a case of a patient with clinical evidence of Ramsay Hunt syndrome involving the cranial nerves V, VII, VIII, X, and, possibly, XII. Pharyngeal wall and vocal fold paralysis, and severely reduced laryngeal elevation, resulted in such significant dysphagia that percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement was required. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating the role of prophylactic gastrostomy tube placement prior to definitive chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen M; Li, Bao-Qing; Lau, Derick H; Farwell, D Gregory; Luu, Quang; Stuart, Kerri; Newman, Kathleen; Purdy, James A; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2010-11-15

    To determine the effect of prophylactic gastrostomy tube (GT) placement on acute and long-term outcome for patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. One hundred twenty consecutive patients were treated with chemoradiotherapy for Stage III/IV head and neck cancer to a median dose of 70 Gy (range, 64-74 Gy). The most common primary site was the oropharynx (66 patients). Sixty-seven patients (56%) were treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Seventy patients (58%) received prophylactic GT placement at the discretion of the physician before initiation of chemoradiotherapy. Prophylactic GT placement significantly reduced weight loss during radiation therapy from 43 pounds (range, 0 to 76 pounds) to 19 pounds (range, 0 to 51 pounds), which corresponded to a net change of -14% (range, 0% to -30%) and -8% (range, +1% to -22%) from baseline, respectively (p < 0.001). However, the proportion of patients who were GT-dependent at 6- and 12-months after treatment was 41% and 21%, respectively, compared with 8% and 0%, respectively, for those with and without prophylactic GT (p < 0.001). Additionally, prophylactic GT was associated with a significantly higher incidence of late esophageal stricture compared with those who did not have prophylactic GT (30% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). Although prophylactic GT placement was effective at preventing acute weight loss and the need for intravenous hydration, it was also associated with significantly higher rates of late esophageal toxicity. The benefits of this strategy must be balanced with the risks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Delivery of esomeprazole magnesium through nasogastric and gastrostomy tubes using an oral liquid vehicle as a suspending agent in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachin A; Sander, Stephen; Coleman, Craig I; White, C Michael

    2006-10-01

    The optimal delivery medium for esomeprazole magnesium enteric-coated pellets dispersed in various concentrations of Ora-Plus suspension through commonly used nasogastric and gastrostomy tubes using a previously used standardized in vitro protocol was studied. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase A, 60 size 14 French nasogastric tubes were used to compare esomeprazole pellet delivery via tap water or 30, 50, or 70% Ora-Plus concentrations (15 tubes for each). In phase B, tap water and the concentration that yielded the best pellet delivery from phase A were used with the narrower size 8 and shorter size 20 French tubes. In both phases, the appropriate volume of water was added. All capsules were assumed to have 1,240 pellets. At the end of each administration, pellet retention counts were performed. The results showed excellent delivery of esomeprazole pellets using water as a medium for tube delivery. When compared with tap water as a delivery medium, no differences in pellet retention were observed when 30% and 50% Ora-Plus were used; thus, these Ora-Plus concentrations are feasible alternatives to tap water for nasogastric tube delivery of esomeprazole pellets. Administration of esomeprazole magnesium enteric-coated pellets dispersed in tap water or Ora-Plus through size 14 French nasogastric tubes in vitro delivered over 99% of capsule contents, regardless of the Ora-Plus concentration used. For immediate bedside administration, Ora-Plus at 50% concentration is a feasible alternative to water when delivering the pellets through size 14 French tubes, while 30% Ora-Plus is an alternative to water for all tubes studied.

  5. Evaluating the Role of Prophylactic Gastrostomy Tube Placement Prior to Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Li Baoqing; Lau, Derick H.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Stuart, Kerri; Newman, Kathleen; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan M.D.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of prophylactic gastrostomy tube (GT) placement on acute and long-term outcome for patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty consecutive patients were treated with chemoradiotherapy for Stage III/IV head and neck cancer to a median dose of 70 Gy (range, 64-74 Gy). The most common primary site was the oropharynx (66 patients). Sixty-seven patients (56%) were treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Seventy patients (58%) received prophylactic GT placement at the discretion of the physician before initiation of chemoradiotherapy. Results: Prophylactic GT placement significantly reduced weight loss during radiation therapy from 43 pounds (range, 0 to 76 pounds) to 19 pounds (range, 0 to 51 pounds), which corresponded to a net change of -14% (range, 0% to -30%) and -8% (range, +1% to -22%) from baseline, respectively (p < 0.001). However, the proportion of patients who were GT-dependent at 6- and 12-months after treatment was 41% and 21%, respectively, compared with 8% and 0%, respectively, for those with and without prophylactic GT (p < 0.001). Additionally, prophylactic GT was associated with a significantly higher incidence of late esophageal stricture compared with those who did not have prophylactic GT (30% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Although prophylactic GT placement was effective at preventing acute weight loss and the need for intravenous hydration, it was also associated with significantly higher rates of late esophageal toxicity. The benefits of this strategy must be balanced with the risks.

  6. Prevalence and Predictors of Gastrostomy Tube and Tracheostomy Placement in Anoxic/Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathic Survivors of In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P.; Martinez-Schlurmann, Natalia I.; Lidsky, Karen B.; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Rotta, Alexandre T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current prevalence estimates of gastrostomy tube (GT) /tracheostomy placement in hospitalized patients with anoxic/hypoxic ischemic encephalopathic injury (AHIE) post cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are unknown. We sought, to estimate the prevalence of AHIE in hospitalized patients who had CPR and to identify patient/hospital level factors that predict the performance of GT/tracheostomy in those with AHIE. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (years 2004–2010). All patients who developed AHIE following CPR were included. In this cohort the odds of having GT and tracheostomy was computed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Patient and hospital level factors were the independent variables. Results During the study period, a total of 686,578 CPR events occurred in hospitalized patients. Of these, 94,336 (13.7%) patients developed AHIE. In this AHIE cohort, 6.8% received GT and 8.3% tracheostomy. When compared to the 40–49 yrs age group, those aged >70 yrs were associated with lower odds for GT (OR = 0.65, 95% CI:0.53–0.80, p<0.0001). Those aged <18 years & those >60 years were associated with lower odds for having tracheostomy when compared to the 40–49 years group (p<0.0001). Each one unit increase in co-morbid burden was associated with higher odds for having GT (OR = 1.23,p<0.0001) or tracheostomy (OR = 1.17, p<0.0001). Blacks, Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and other races were associated with higher odds for having GT or tracheostomy when compared to whites (p<0.05). Hospitals located in northeastern regions were associated with higher odds for performing GT (OR = 1.48, p<0.0001) or tracheostomy (OR = 1.63, p<0.0001) when compared to those in Western regions. Teaching hospitals (TH) were associated with higher odds for performing tracheostomy when compared to non-TH (OR = 1.36, 1.20–1.54, p<0.0001). Conclusions AHIE injury occurs in a significant number of in-hospital arrests

  7. [Treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia with neuromuscular electrostimulaiton].

    PubMed

    Terré, Rosa; Martinell, Montse; González, Beatriz; Ejarque, Judith; Mearin, Fermín

    2013-02-16

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is highly prevalent in stroke patients, with a high mortality and morbidity. Neuromuscular electrostimulation (NMES) is a new and potentially useful therapy. We assessed the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of NMES in the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with stroke. Prospective study of stroke patients, with tracheal aspiration revealed by videofluoroscopy (VDF), who underwent conventional therapy of oropharyngeal dysphagia as well as NMES. We did a follow-up at the end of the treatment and 3 months later. Patients underwent 18 courses of treatment (15-20) with a mean stimulation intensity of 12.45mA (range: 6.6-16.7mA). Before starting therapy, 8 patients were fed exclusively by means of a gastrostomy tube; after the treatment, only one patient needed it. No patient had complications. VDF parameters before treatment: oral transition time, swallowing reflex shooting (SRS) and pharyngeal transition time were longer and the hyoid elevation was reduced. After the treatment, the number of patients with tracheal aspiration decreased to 6, but only in 6 it persisted for the three analyzed viscosities (liquid, nectar and pudding), with an overall improvement of the VDF parameters. The only predictive factor of therapeutic effectiveness was the delay in the SRS. NMES is an effective and safe treatment for stroke patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Initial Experience with Computed Tomography and Fluoroscopically Guided Placement of Push-Type Gastrostomy Tubes Using a Rupture-Free Balloon Catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Takeshi Tanabe, Masahiro; Yamatogi, Shigenari; Shimizu, Kensaku; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy placement of push-type gastrostomy tubes using a rupture-free balloon (RFB) catheter under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopic guidance. A total of 35 patients (23 men and 12 women; age range 57-93 years [mean 71.7]) underwent percutaneous CT and fluoroscopically guided gastrostomy placement of a push-type gastrostomy tube using an RFB catheter between April 2005 and July 2008. Technical success, procedure duration, and complications were analyzed. Percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy placement was considered technically successful in all patients. The median procedure time was 39 {+-} 13 (SD) min (range 24-78). The average follow-up time interval was 103 days (range 7-812). No major complications related to the procedure were encountered. No tubes failed because of blockage, and neither tube dislodgement nor intraperitoneal leakage occurred during the follow-up period. The investigators conclude that percutaneous CT and fluoroscopically guided gastrostomy placement with push-type tubes using an RFB catheter is a safe and effective means of gastric feeding when performed by radiologists.

  9. Evaluation of two different methods for per-oral gastrostomy tube placement in patients with motor neuron disease (MND): PIG versus PEG procedures.

    PubMed

    Chavada, Govindsinh; El-Nayal, Ayman; Lee, Fred; Webber, Stephen J; McAlindon, Mark; Walsh, Theresa; Hollinger, Hannah; McDermott, Christopher J; Shaw, Pamela J

    2010-12-01

    Placement of a gastrostomy tube remains the gold standard procedure to maintain nutrition in patients with motor neuron disease (MND) and bulbar muscle weakness. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the most commonly used procedure in this context. Per-oral image guided gastrostomy (PIG) is a new hybrid technique used successfully in non-MND patients. We have modified the PIG technique to improve patient tolerability and have undertaken a pilot evaluation of PIG compared to PEG in MND patients. Nineteen PIG and 16 PEG procedures performed over a period of four years were evaluated. Pre-procedural forced vital capacity (FVC), procedural oxygen saturation, post-procedural complications and survival duration were recorded. Results showed that a gastrostomy tube was successfully placed in 95% of the PIG group and 80% of the PEG group. Rates of minor complications were comparable in both groups (21% in PIG, 23% in PEG). No life-threatening complications occurred in either group. Procedural mean oxygen saturations were higher in the PIG group compared to the PEG group (p < 0.001). No significant survival differences were observed. This study provides evidence for the use of the PIG procedure as a safe and well tolerated alternative to PEG in MND patients.

  10. The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube: a nurse's guide to PEG tubes.

    PubMed

    Simons, Shellie; Remington, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Nurses are primarily responsible for the care and maintenance of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes and yet their care is not often included in nursing skills textbooks. Best practice recommendations to care for a person with a PEG tube are described.

  11. Puncture-Site Metastasis in a Radiologically Inserted Gastrostomy Tube: Case Report and Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Hawken, R.M.A.; Williams, R.W.; Bridger, M.W.M.; Lyons, C.B.A.; Jackson, S.A.

    2005-04-15

    Gastrostomy-site metastases from head and neck cancer have been reported numerous times following endoscopic insertion, with direct implantation being implicated. We present the first reported case of gastrostomy-site metastasis following radiological insertion, and discuss the mechanisms by which this may have occurred. These include: direct implantation, hematogenous dissemination, or the natural shedding of tumor cells into the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Parents' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alsaggaf, Abdullah H; Jan, Mohammed M; Saadah, Omar I; Alsaggaf, Hussain M

    2013-07-01

    To study the attitudes of parents toward percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement and identify contributing factors to their negative attitudes. Thirty consecutive parents were included retrospectively through a single endoscopy unit at the King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January to July 2012. A structured 25-item questionnaire was designed to examine their demographics, attitudes, and experience with the PEG procedure. Patients' ages were 3-19 years (mean: 10.2), mostly with severe cerebral palsy (77%). Their PEG tubes were inserted 2-144 months (mean: 39) prior to the encounter. Only 43% of the parents felt informed and most (73%) had negative attitudes toward the procedure, which was associated with significant delays (p=0.016). After the procedure, most parents (67%) reported a better-than-expected experience, which was associated with their information levels (p=0.03). Most parents (80%) regretted not having the PEG tube placed earlier. This depended on their information level, as those who were not informed were more likely to have strong regrets when compared to those informed (82% versus 42%, p=0.008). Most parents are not well-informed regarding the PEG procedure, which affects their expectations and experiences. Most parents found the experience better than what they expected and regretted not having carried it out earlier.

  13. Timing of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Raynor, E M; Williams, M F; Martindale, R G; Porubsky, E S

    1999-04-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an effective method for providing alimentation in patients with upper aerodigestive tract carcinoma. Multiple complications of this procedure have been reported, ranging from leakage around the tube to tumor seeding of the abdominal cavity. This study was undertaken to determine whether the timing of PEG tube placement with respect to primary tumor extirpation led to a difference in the number and severity of observed complications. The medical records of 43 patients with head and neck carcinoma who had PEG tubes placed from 1995 to 1996 were retrospectively reviewed. Comparisons of timing of PEG tube placement, complication, location, and stage of the primary tumor were performed. In addition, the use of adjuvant therapy with respect to the time of PEG tube placement and complications was evaluated. Of these, 23% were done before and 30% during surgery at the time of primary tumor resection (9 of 13 were after primary removal). One patient had an intraabdominal abscess. Minor complications occurred in 15 of 43 patients (35%) and included granulation tissue at the PEG site, leakage, and tube displacement. Eight of the 9 patients who underwent intraoperative PEG after tumor resection had no complications. Patients who underwent PEG during or after surgery had significantly fewer complications than those who underwent preoperative PEG or had unresectable tumors (P = 0.038). The largest number of complications occurred in patients who underwent preoperative PEG (57%) followed by patients whose tumors were unresectable (31%). There was no statistical difference with regard to tumor location or postoperative x-ray therapy in PEG complications. This study demonstrates that PEG tube placement after tumor resection has the lowest incidence of postoperative complications. Performing PEGs intraoperatively after tumor resection can prevent the need for additional anesthesia to provide alimentation in patients with upper

  14. Severe dysphagia as the presenting symptom of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in a non-alcoholic man.

    PubMed

    Karaiskos, Ilias; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Stefanis, Leonidas

    2008-02-01

    We present the case of a non-alcoholic man, who, following severe malnutrition, presented with dysphagia that necessitated gastrostomy tube placement. The patient subsequently developed encephalopathy, at which point thiamine deficiency was suspected and thiamine supplementation initiated. The encephalopathy and the dysphagia resolved, but the patient was left with a dense amnestic deficit consistent with Korsakoff syndrome. MRI at the time of the encephalopathy revealed lesions consistent with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. This case represents a remarkable example of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome that for a prolonged time period had as its sole manifestation severe dysphagia. To our knowledge, there is only one similar case reported in the literature. This case serves to alert neurologists that isolated dysphagia may be the presenting symptom of this classic neurological syndrome even in the absence of alcoholism.

  15. [Neurogenic dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Wirth, R; Dziewas, R

    2017-02-01

    Approximately half of neurological and geriatric inpatients suffer from oropharyngeal dysphagia. This often leads to pneumonia, malnutrition and dehydration; however, the underlying dysphagia is frequently not diagnosed and treated. This is particularly the case for patients with so-called silent aspiration. Knowledge on the physiology of swallowing, including the central nervous system control of swallowing and the therapeutic options have achieved considerable progress in recent years. In particular, the increasing implementation of flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) has significantly contributed to this knowledge. It provides the ability to identify the individual pattern of oropharyngeal dysphagia leading to a suitable selection of therapeutic and compensatory strategies for individual patients. The various therapeutic options range from modification of the consistency of the diet, over diverse logopedic strategies and stimulation techniques up to interventional procedures.

  16. A retrospective review of enteral nutrition support practices at a tertiary pediatric hospital: A comparison of prolonged nasogastric and gastrostomy tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Ricciuto, Amanda; Baird, Robert; Sant'Anna, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Despite the frequent use of tube-mediated enteral feeding, there is little evidence clarifying best practices pertaining to prolonged nasogastric and gastrostomy tube use in children. At the Montreal Children's Hospital, tube feeding practices are non-standardized and highly variable, with many patients remaining on protracted nasogastric feeds. We aimed to characterize enteral nutrition practices at our institution and to compare prolonged nasogastric and gastrostomy tube use, hypothesizing that earlier gastrostomy improves outcomes, particularly the development of food refusal. In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the charts of children beginning long-term (>3 months) nasogastric or gastrostomy feeds at our institution between January 2007 and December 2011, with follow-up until May 2013. Patient demographics, anthropometric parameters, swallowing assessment, tube feeding duration and complications were recorded. Among 166 patients, the median total tube feeding duration was 24.9 (3.0-75.6) months and varied with underlying disease and swallowing assessment. The median duration of nasogastric tube use was 7.8 (0.7-45.3) months. Food refusal was significantly associated with nasogastric tube exposure >3 months (RR 3.3, p < 0.001, NNT = 3) and anthropometric outcomes were superior in gastrostomy-fed patients. Rates of aspiration pneumonia were similar in both groups. Despite more initial opposition to gastrostomy and a higher complication rate, gastrostomy users appeared more satisfied with their experience, as demonstrated by a much lower discontinuation rate than observed in the nasogastric group. Prolonged nasogastric feeding is common at our institution. Its association with increased food refusal and less favorable anthropometric outcomes may warrant earlier gastrostomy placement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. [Neurogenic Dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Prosiegel, M

    2007-10-01

    Neurogenic dysphagia occurs in many diseases, the most frequent cause being stroke. Diagnostic approaches include neurologic examination and fiberoptic and videofluoroscopic evaluations of swallowing, which are complementary. The pivotal aim of therapeutic interventions is the prevention of aspiration and aspiration pneumonia. Proof of the effectivity of some restitutional, compensatory, and adaptive methods is given.

  18. Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty for treatment of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Hendricker, Ryan M; deSilva, Brad W; Forrest, L Arick

    2010-04-01

    Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty is a well described procedure for the management of glottal incompetence with associated phonatory disturbance. Limited literature exists describing the use of this procedure in the management of dysphagia. We describe our experience with Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty and the treatment of dysphagia. Case series with chart review. Tertiary referral center. Between April 2000 and September 2008, 189 Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasties were performed on 180 patients by the senior author. Complete records and analysis were available for and performed on 121 procedures for 113 patients. The main outcome measures were discontinuation of gastrostomy tube (g-tube) use or avoidance of g-tube, as well as clinical subjective improvement in swallowing function. Fifty-seven of 113 (50%) patients had complaints of dysphagia at presentation, with 47 of 57 (82%) having an objective swallowing evaluation. Thirty-two of 47 (68%) had documented penetration and/or aspiration. Twenty of 57 (35%) patients with dysphagia required g-tubes for alimentation. Eleven of 20 (55%) patients were able to discontinue g-tube use after Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty, and an additional five patients with aspiration were able to avoid need for g-tubes with Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty and swallowing therapy. Gore-Tex medialization laryngoplasty is a well tolerated and well described treatment for the management of glottal incompetence. The procedure is an appropriate adjunct in dysphagia management for the appropriate patient population. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dysphagia in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Elderly patients are inherently predisposed to dysphagia predominately because of comorbid health conditions. With the aging of the population in the United States, along with the increased prevalence of obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease, healthcare providers will increasingly encounter older patients with either oropharyngeal or esophageal disease and complaints of dysphagia. Useful tests to evaluate dysphagia include the videofluoroscopic swallowing study and the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Swallow rehabilitation is useful to help patients compensate for swallowing difficulty and ultimately help strengthen the neuromusculature involved in swallowing. PMID:24772045

  20. Outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion in respiratory impaired amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients under noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Czell, David; Bauer, Matthias; Binek, Janek; Schoch, Otto D; Weber, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with impaired respiratory function is associated with an increased risk of peri-procedural and post-interventional complications. It was the aim of the study to analyze peri- and post-interventional complications and survival after PEG tube placement under noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in ALS patients with various degrees of respiratory impairment. Twenty-six subjects were included in this retrospective case study. Prior to PEG tube placement, training with ventilatory support via an oronasal mask was performed with ALS subjects on the pneumology ward. PEG placement was then performed under continuous NIV. FVC, sniff nasal inspiratory pressure, and demographic data were assessed. Complication rates and 1-month and overall survival rates were analyzed. There were no deaths within 24 hours after PEG placement. One subject died within the first month. The mean survival rate after PEG was 12 ± 10 months (range 0.6-42 months). There was no difference in post-PEG survival between subjects with moderately (> 50%) and severely (< 50%) impaired FVC. In this case series, PEG tube insertion was associated with minimal peri- and post-procedural complications. The low complication rate might be due to the systematic use of procedural NIV in ALS subjects.

  1. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    MedlinePlus

    ... warmth at the tube site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site severe abdominal pain persistent vomiting or diarrhea trouble passing gas or having a bowel movement pink-red tissue (called granulation tissue) coming out ...

  2. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Preparing Your Child for Surgery Managing Home Health Care Preparing Your Child for Anesthesia What Happens in the Operating Room? Going to the Hospital What's It Like to Stay in the Hospital? What's It Like to Have ...

  3. Dysphagia in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Seçil, Yaprak; Arıcı, Şehnaz; İncesu, Tülay Kurt; Gürgör, Nevin; Beckmann, Yeşim; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2016-06-01

    To investigate electrophysiological parameters of swallowing in all stages of Alzheimer's disease. Forty Alzheimer's disease patients, 20 age-matched normal controls and 20 young normal controls were included. Dysphagia limit (DL) and sequential water swallowing (SWS) tests were performed. Cardiac rhythm, respiration and sympathetic skin responses were concomitantly recorded. Dysphagia was found in 30/40 (75%) of Alzheimer's disease patients. Mean volume at the DL test was significantly reduced (16.5±1.0mL) in the Alzheimer's disease group. Swallowing and apnea times in the SWS test were significantly prolonged in elderly controls, but even longer in Alzheimer's disease patients. Alzheimer's disease patients had electrophysiological features of dysphagia, even in the early period of disease. The cortical involvement and severity of cognitive disorder can increase swallowing problems, but subclinical signs of dysphagia may be observed even in patients with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Dysphagia associated with neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, D W

    1994-01-01

    Neurogenic dysphagia results from sensorimotor impairment of the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing due to a neurologic disorder. The symptoms of neurogenic dysphagia include drooling, difficulty initiating swallowing, nasal regurgitation, difficulty managing secretions, choke/cough episodes while feeding, and food sticking in the throat. If unrecognized and untreated, neurogenic dysphagia can lead to dehydration, malnutrition, and respiratory complications. The symptoms of neurogenic dysphagia may be relatively inapparent on account of both compensation for swallowing impairment and diminution of the laryngeal cough reflex due to a variety of factors. Patients with symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia should undergo videofluoroscopy of swallowing, which in the case of neurogenic dysphagia typically reveals impairment of oropharyngeal motor performance and/or laryngeal protection. The many causes of neurogenic dysphagia include stroke, head trauma, Parkinson's disease, motor neuron disease and myopathy. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained neurogenic dysphagia should include consultation by a neurologist, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, blood tests (routine studies plus muscle enzymes, thyroid screening, vitamin B12 and anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies), electromyography/nerve conduction studies, and, in certain cases, muscle biopsy or cerebrospinal fluid examination. Treatment of neurogenic dysphagia involves treatment of the underlying neurologic disorder (if possible), swallowing therapy (if oral feeding is reasonably safe to attempt) and gastrostomy (if oral feeding is unsafe or inadequate).

  5. Beyond mean pharyngeal constrictor dose for beam path toxicity in non-target swallowing muscles: dose-volume correlates of chronic radiation-associated dysphagia (RAD) after oropharyngeal intensity modulated radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s) We sought to identify swallowing muscle dose-response thresholds associated with chronic radiation-associated dysphagia (RAD) after IMRT for oropharyngeal cancer. Materials/Methods T1-4 N0-3 M0 oropharyngeal cancer patients who received definitive IMRT and systemic therapy were examined. Chronic RAD was coded as any of the following ≥ 12 months post-IMRT: videofluoroscopy/endoscopy detected aspiration or stricture, gastrostomy tube and/or aspiration pneumonia. DICOM-RT plan data were autosegmented using a custom region-of-interest (ROI) library and included inferior, middle and superior constrictors (IPC, MPC, and SPC), medial and lateral pterygoids (MPM, LPM), anterior and posterior digastrics (ADM, PDM), intrinsic tongue muscles (ITM), mylo/geniohyoid complex (MHM), genioglossus (GGM), ), masseter (MM), Buccinator (BM), palatoglossus (PGM), and cricopharyngeus (CPM), with ROI dose-volume histograms (DVHs) calculated. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to identify dose-volume effects associated with chronic-RAD, for use in a multivariate (MV) model. Results Of 300 patients, 34 (11%) had chronic-RAD. RPA showed DVH-derived MHM V69 (i.e. the volume receiving ≥69Gy), GGM V35, ADM V60, MPC V49, and SPC V70 were associated with chronic-RAD. A model including age in addition to MHM V69 as continuous variables was optimal among tested MV models (AUC 0.835). Conclusion In addition to SPCs, dose to MHM should be monitored and constrained, especially in older patients (>62-years), when feasible. PMID:26897515

  6. Nutritional Aspects of Dysphagia Management.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, C; Brito-de la Fuente, E; Clavé, P; Costa, A; Assegehegn, G

    This chapter describes the nutritional aspects of dysphagia management by starting with the definition of these two conditions (dysphagia and malnutrition) that share three main clinical characteristics: (a) their prevalence is very high, (b) they can lead to severe complications, and (c) they are frequently underrecognized and neglected conditions. From an anatomical standpoint, dysphagia can result from oropharyngeal and/or esophageal causes; from a pathophysiological perspective, dysphagia can be caused by organic or structural diseases (either benign or malignant) or diseases causing impaired physiology (mainly motility and/or perception disorders). This chapter gathers up-to-date information on the screening and diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia, the consequences of dysphagia (aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration), and on the nutritional management of dysphagic patients. Concerning this last topic, this chapter reviews the rheological aspects of swallowing and dysphagia (including shear and elongational flows) and its influence on the characteristics of the enteral nutrition for dysphagia management (solid/semisolid foods and thickened liquids; ready-to-use oral nutritional supplements and thickening powders), with special focus on the real characteristics of the bolus after mixing with human saliva. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrodiagnostic methods for neurogenic dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, C; Aydogdu, I; Yüceyar, N; Tarlaci, S; Kiylioglu, N; Pehlivan, M; Celebi, G

    1998-08-01

    Swallowing mechanisms and neurogenic dysphagia have not been systematically studied by the EMG technique. It is desirable to evaluate neurogenic dysphagia for diagnostic and possibly for therapeutic purposes using electrophysiological methods. The following methods were described: mechanical upward/downward movements of the larynx were detected using a piezoelectric sensor, while submental integrated EMG activity was recorded during dry and wet swallowing. The EMG activity of cricopharyngeal muscle of the upper oesophageal sphincter was also recorded in some normal subjects and patients. Piecemeal deglutition and the dysphagia limit were determined in all patients to detect dysphagia objectively. In this study 75 normal subjects and 177 neurological patients with various degrees of dysphagia were investigated. Voluntarily triggered oropharyngeal swallowing was commonly pathological in the majority of patients, with or without overt dysphagia. The dysphagia limit appeared to be an objective measure of the degree of dysphagia in more than 90% of patients. Pathophysiological mechanisms were different in at least three groups of patients with neurogenic dysphagia. In the group of patients with muscular disorders, laryngeal elevators were involved while the CP-sphincter was intact. The second group included patients with the clinical signs of corticobulbar fibre involvement such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and pseudobulbar palsy. In these patients, there was incoordination between paretic laryngeal elevators and hyperreflexic CP-sphincter. In the third group (patients with Parkinson's disease), the swallowing reflex was delayed and prolonged. EMG methods described in the present study are very useful for the diagnosis of neurogenic dysphagia, objectively and quickly. They are important to understand the physiological mechanisms for deglutition and its disorders.

  8. Analysis of dysphagia risk using the modified dysphagia risk assessment for the community-dwelling elderly

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The elderly are susceptible to dysphagia, and complications can be minimized if high-risk groups are screened in early stages and properly rehabilitated. This study provides basic material for the early detection and prevention of dysphagia by investigating the risks of dysphagia and related factors in community-dwelling elders. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 325 community-dwelling elderly people aged 65 or older. The modified dysphagia risk assessment for the community-dwelling elderly was used to assess dysphagia risk. [Results] Approximately 52.6% (n=171) of participants belonged to the high-risk group for dysphagia. After adjusting for confounding variables, people aged 75+, who used dentures, and who needed partial help in daily living had a significantly higher risk of dysphagia. [Conclusion] It is necessary to develop guidelines for dysphagia for early detection and rehabilitation. PMID:27799680

  9. Factors Associated With Long-Term Dysphagia After Definitive Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Caudell, Jimmy J.; Schaner, Philip E.; Meredith, Ruby F.; Locher, Julie L.; Nabell, Lisle M.; Carroll, William R.; Magnuson, J. Scott; Spencer, Sharon A.; Bonner, James A.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: The use of altered fractionation radiotherapy (RT) regimens, as well as concomitant chemotherapy and RT, to intensify therapy for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer can lead to increased rates of long-term dysphagia. Methods and Materials: We identified 122 patients who had undergone definitive RT for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer, after excluding those who had been treated for a second or recurrent head-and-neck primary, had Stage I-II disease, developed locoregional recurrence, had <12 months of follow-up, or had undergone postoperative RT. The patient, tumor, and treatment factors were correlated with a composite of 3 objective endpoints as a surrogate for severe long-term dysphagia: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube dependence at the last follow-up visit; aspiration on a modified barium swallow study or a clinical diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia; or the presence of a pharyngoesophageal stricture. Results: A composite dysphagia outcome occurred in 38.5% of patients. On univariate analysis, the primary site (p = 0.01), use of concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), RT schedule (p = 0.02), and increasing age (p = 0.04) were significantly associated with development of composite long-term dysphagia. The use of concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), primary site (p = 0.02), and increasing age (p = 0.02) remained significant on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The addition of concurrent chemotherapy to RT for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer resulted in increased long-term dysphagia. Early intervention using swallowing exercises, avoidance of nothing-by-mouth periods, and the use of intensity-modulated RT to reduce the dose to the uninvolved swallowing structures should be explored further in populations at greater risk of long-term dysphagia.

  10. [Transdisciplinary approach for sarcopenia. Sarcopenic Dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka

    2014-10-01

    Sarcopenic dysphagia is difficulty swallowing due to sarcopenia of generalized skeletal muscles and swallowing muscles. Presbyphagia refers to age-related changes in the swallowing mechanism in the elderly associated with a frailty in swallowing. Presbyphagia is different from dysphagia. The most common cause of dysphagia is stroke. However, sarcopenic dysphagia may be common in the elderly with sarcopenia and dysphagia. Frail elderly with aspiration pneumonia can simultaneously experience activity-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia of generalized skeletal muscles and swallowing muscles, resulting in the development of sarcopenic dysphagia. Consensus diagnostic criteria for sarcopenic dysphagia were proposed at the 19th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Dysphagia Rehabilitation. The concept of rehabilitation nutrition as a combination of both rehabilitation and nutrition care management is useful for treatment of sarcopenic dysphagia. Therapy for sarcopenic dysphagia includes dysphagia rehabilitation, nutrition improvement and sarcopenia treatment. The core components of dysphagia rehabilitation are oral health care, rehabilitative techniques, and food modification. Nutrition improvement is important, because malnutrition contributes to the etiology of secondary sarcopenia and sarcopenic dysphagia. Assessment of the multi-factorial causes of primary and secondary sarcopenia is important because rehabilitation nutrition for sarcopenia differs depending on its etiology. Treatment of age-related sarcopenia should include resistance training and dietary supplements of amino acids. Therapy for activity-related sarcopenia includes reduced bed rest time and early mobilization and physical activity. Treatment for disease-related sarcopenia requires therapies for advanced organ failure, inflammatory disease, or malignancy, while therapy for nutrition-related sarcopenia involves appropriate nutrition management to increase muscle mass.

  11. Oropharyngeal dysphagia: screening and assessment.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Renée

    2013-12-01

    This article provides an overview of bedside screening and assessment tools in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia including the diagnostic performance of screening tools; the gold standards in assessment of dysphagia (videofluoroscopic and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing); a variety of clinical assessment tools; patient self-evaluation questionnaires; and a list of supplementary methods. In addition, some methodologic issues are discussed, and the need for standardization of terminology, screening and assessment protocols, and the call for evidence-based clinical guidelines.

  12. Dysphagia following cardiovascular surgery: a clinical overview.

    PubMed

    Skoretz, Stacey A; Rebeyka, Darlene M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this clinical paper is to enhance nurses' understanding of normal swallowing physiology and post-operative swallowing impairments (dysphagia) in patients following cardiovascular surgery. Ultimately, the goals of dysphagia assessment and management are to prevent pulmonary complications secondary to aspiration and to ensure safe and adequate nutritional intake and hydration. Risk factors for dysphagia include stroke, compromised respiratory status, endotracheal intubation and/or tracheostomy tubes, and a dependency for feeding and oral care. Other patient characteristics associated with the presence of dysphagia following cardiovascular surgery include advanced age, preoperative congestive heart failure, diabetes, intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography, and prolonged intubation. Clinical and instrumental dysphagia assessment methods are reviewed. A case report is used to illustrate the benefit of nursing involvement in the care of a patient with dysphagia following cardiovascular surgery.

  13. People with intellectual disabilities and dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Janet; Chadwick, Darren; Baines, Susannah; Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris

    2017-03-12

    Dysphagia (difficulties in eating, drinking or swallowing) is associated with serious health complications and psychosocial sequelae. This review aims to summarise the state of the evidence regarding dysphagia in people with intellectual disabilities (excluding prevalence), identify gaps in the evidence base and highlight future research priorities. Studies published from 1 January 1990 to 19 July 2016 were identified using Medline, Cinahl, PsycINFO, Web of Science, email requests and cross citations. Studies were reviewed narratively in relation to identified themes. A total of 35 studies were included in the review. Themes identified were as follows: health conditions associated with dysphagia; mortality; health service use; practice and knowledge in supporting people with intellectual disabilities and dysphagia; intervention effectiveness and quality of life. Dysphagia is associated with respiratory infections and choking and may be under-recognised. Silent aspiration is common and may go unnoticed. Management practices exist, but there are few intervention studies and no randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and hence, the effectiveness of these is currently unclear. Dysphagia is a key concern in relation to people with intellectual disabilities. There is urgent need for research on the management of dysphagia in people with intellectual disabilities, including mealtime support offered, positioning, dietary modification and impact on wellbeing. Implications for Rehabilitation Dysphagia is common in people with intellectual disabilities, associated with serious health risks and may be under-recognised. Caregivers of people with intellectual disabilities should be educated about dysphagia. There is an urgent need for research on improving the management of dysphagia in people with intellectual disabilities. Improved recognition and management of dysphagia may reduce the occurrence of associated health conditions and reduce hospital admissions and premature death

  14. Postoperative dysphagia versus neurogenic dysphagia: scintigraphic assessment.

    PubMed

    Galli, Jacopo; Valenza, Venanzio; D'Alatri, Lucia; Reale, Francesca; Gajate, AnaMaria Samanes; Di Girolamo, Stefano; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2003-01-01

    In order to differentiate the features of dysphagia that occur after supraglottic horizontal laryngectomy from those that occur during neurologic diseases, we divided 38 subjects into 3 groups and submitted them to oropharyngoesophageal scintigraphy. Group 1 (control group) included 15 healthy volunteeers; group 2 comprised 8 patients who had residual dysphagia at least 1 year after supraglottic laryngectomy; and group 3 included 15 patients with various neurologic and neuromuscular disorders. In group 1, the mean values (+/- 2 SD) of selected semiquantitative parameters were consistent with those reported in the literature for normal subjects. In group 2, oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal transit times were not significantly altered, and moderate tracheobronchial post-deglutitive aspiration was present (maximum value, 6.7%; mean value, 2.04%). The pharyngeal retention index was significantly increased (p = .0003) as compared to normal subjects in all cases (maximum value, 40%; mean value, 23%) and was associated in all cases with slight but consistent post-deglutitive aspiration. In group 3, the oral and esophageal phases were significantly prolonged and the retention indices were significantly increased. Statistical analysis documented a significant increase in oral transit time (p = .003), esophageal transit time (p = .01), oral retention index (p = .006), pharyngeal retention index (p = .0007), and esophageal retention index (p = .009) as compared to normal subjects. The swallowing pattern was also altered by 1) an early loss of the bolus from the oral cavity; 2) bolus fragmentation due to double or triple deglutition, reduced lingual propulsion, or the return of a small part of the bolus into the oral cavity during deglutition; and/or 3) double pharyngeal peaks in the activity-time curves. Tracheobronchial aspiration (maximum value, 90%; mean value, 9.70%) was present in some cases, mainly in patients affected by post-stroke dysphagia. On the basis of the

  15. Assessing esophageal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Danielle

    2014-05-01

    Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, is a common problem. Although most cases are attributable to benign disease processes, dysphagia is also a key symptom in several malignancies, making it an important symptom to evaluate. The differential diagnosis of dysphagia requires an understanding of deglutition, in particular the oropharyngeal versus esophageal stages. Stroke is the leading cause of oropharyngeal dysphagia, which is common in older adults and frequently presents as part of a broader complex of clinical manifestations. In esophageal dysphagia, difficulty swallowing is often the main complaint and is caused by localized neuromuscular disorders or obstructive lesions.

  16. Dysphagia in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abraham; Carmona, Richard; Traube, Morris

    2014-02-01

    Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, is a common problem in the elderly. Based on the initial clinical history and physical examination, the dysphagia is assessed as either primarily oropharyngeal or esophageal in origin. Most oropharyngeal dysphagia is of neurologic origin, and management is coordinated with a clinical swallow specialist in conjunction with an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) physician if warning signs imply malignancy. Several structural and functional esophageal disorders can cause dysphagia. If a patient has likely esophageal dysphagia, a video barium esophagram is a good initial test, and referral to a gastroenterologist is generally warranted leading to appropriate treatment.

  17. Management of dysphagia in advanced oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Penner, Jamie L; McClement, Susan E; Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V

    2007-05-01

    Individuals with advanced oropharyngeal cancer often experience dysphagia as a result of their illness and its treatment. Research consistently demonstrates that dysphagia and difficulty with oral intake have many implications, including a negative impact on quality of life. Nurses are in a key position to provide support and initiate appropriate interventions for individuals with dysphagia. Using the Human Response to Illness model (Mitchell et al, 1991) as an organising framework, this paper presents a critical review of the empirical literature regarding dysphagia in individuals with advanced oropharyngeal cancer that will: i) provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of dysphagia; ii) identify current gaps in our knowledge; and iii) establish the foundation for appropriate evidence-based interventions to optimise functioning and quality of life in this patient population.

  18. Incidence of Nasogastric and Gastrostomy Tube at Discharge Is Reduced after Implementing an Oral Feeding Protocol in Premature (< 30 weeks) Infants.

    PubMed

    Kamitsuka, Michael D; Nervik, Patricia A; Nielsen, Shana L; Clark, Reese H

    2017-05-01

    Objective Reduce the number of infants requiring home tube feeds by initiating an oral feeding protocol (OFP). Study Design All infants < 30 weeks' gestation were eligible. The OFP involved four steps: encourage non-nutritive suck before 30 weeks, oral motor exercises starting as early as 30 weeks, swallowing exercises as early as 31 weeks, and an infant-driven oral feeding pathway as early as 32 weeks. Results The study included 129 infants before the protocol (January 2010 to December 2011) and 141 infants after the protocol (March 2013 to May 2015). Between the study periods, a multidisciplinary committee took 8 months to create the OFP, followed by a 3-month orientation of the protocol to the nursing and medical staff. The incidence of home tube feeds for 23 to 29 weeks was 26% before and 15% after the protocol (p = 0.03). Oral feeds were started sooner (p < 0.001), and full oral feedings were achieved earlier after the protocol was initiated (p < 0.001). Conclusion After introducing an OFP, oral feedings were started earlier, full oral feedings were achieved sooner, and the incidence of home tube feeds at discharge was reduced. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Over-the-scope-clip closure of long lasting gastrocutaneous fistula after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube removal in immunocompromised patients: A single center case series.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Henriette; Gubler, Christoph; Valli, Piero V

    2017-02-16

    Over-the-scope-clips (OTSC(®)) have been shown to be an effective and safe endoscopic treatment option for the closure of gastrointestinal perforations, leakages and fistulae. Indications for endoscopic OTSC(®) treatment have grown in number and also include gastro cutaneous fistula (GCF) after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube removal. Non-healing GCF is a rare complication after removal of PEG tubes and may especially develop in immunosuppressed patients with multiple comorbidities. There is growing evidence in the literature that OTSC(®) closure of GCF after PEG tube removal is emerging as an effective, simple and safe endoscopic treatment option. However current evidence is limited to the geriatric population and short standing GCF, while information on closure of long standing GCF after PEG tube removal in a younger population with significant comorbidities is lacking. In this retrospective single-center case-series we report on five patients undergoing OTSC(®) closure of chronic GCF after PEG tube removal. Four out of five patients were afflicted with long lasting, symptomatic fistulae. All five patients suffered from chronic disease associated with a catabolic metabolism (cystic fibrosis, chemotherapy for neoplasia, liver cirrhosis). The mean patient age was 43 years. The mean dwell time of PEG tubes in all five patients was 808 d. PEG tube dwell time was shortest in patient 5 (21 d). The mean duration from PEG tube removal to fistula closure in patients 1-4 was 360 d (range 144-850 d). The intervention was well tolerated by all patients and no adverse events occured. Successful immediate and long-term fistula closure was accomplished in all five patients. This single center case series is the first to show successful endoscopic OTSC(®) closure of long lasting GCF in five consecutive middle-aged patients with significant comorbidities. Endoscopic closure of chronic persistent GCF after PEG tube removal using an OTSC(®) was achieved in all

  20. Over-the-scope-clip closure of long lasting gastrocutaneous fistula after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube removal in immunocompromised patients: A single center case series

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Henriette; Gubler, Christoph; Valli, Piero V

    2017-01-01

    Over-the-scope-clips (OTSC®) have been shown to be an effective and safe endoscopic treatment option for the closure of gastrointestinal perforations, leakages and fistulae. Indications for endoscopic OTSC® treatment have grown in number and also include gastro cutaneous fistula (GCF) after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube removal. Non-healing GCF is a rare complication after removal of PEG tubes and may especially develop in immunosuppressed patients with multiple comorbidities. There is growing evidence in the literature that OTSC® closure of GCF after PEG tube removal is emerging as an effective, simple and safe endoscopic treatment option. However current evidence is limited to the geriatric population and short standing GCF, while information on closure of long standing GCF after PEG tube removal in a younger population with significant comorbidities is lacking. In this retrospective single-center case-series we report on five patients undergoing OTSC® closure of chronic GCF after PEG tube removal. Four out of five patients were afflicted with long lasting, symptomatic fistulae. All five patients suffered from chronic disease associated with a catabolic metabolism (cystic fibrosis, chemotherapy for neoplasia, liver cirrhosis). The mean patient age was 43 years. The mean dwell time of PEG tubes in all five patients was 808 d. PEG tube dwell time was shortest in patient 5 (21 d). The mean duration from PEG tube removal to fistula closure in patients 1-4 was 360 d (range 144-850 d). The intervention was well tolerated by all patients and no adverse events occured. Successful immediate and long-term fistula closure was accomplished in all five patients. This single center case series is the first to show successful endoscopic OTSC® closure of long lasting GCF in five consecutive middle-aged patients with significant comorbidities. Endoscopic closure of chronic persistent GCF after PEG tube removal using an OTSC® was achieved in all patients

  1. Avoiding Negative Dysphagia Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Dennis C; Culbertson, William R

    2014-04-23

    Dysphagia in adults affects their quality of life and can lead to life-threatening conditions. The authors draw on both 30 years of experience as clinicians and also on expert testimony in adult, dysphagia-malpractice cases to make five recommendations with the aim of preventing dysphagia-related deaths. They discuss the importance of informed consent documents and suggest the following nursing actions to reduce these often unnecessary tragedies: consider the importance of diet status; understand and follow speech-language-pathologists' recommendations; be familiar with the dysphagia assessment; be responsive to the need for an instrumental assessment; and ensure dysphagia communication is accurate and disseminated among healthcare professionals. They conclude that most negative dysphagia-management outcomes can be prevented and that nurses play a pivotal role in this prevention.

  2. Pneumomediastinum after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement.

    PubMed

    Yount, Kenan W; Mallory, Melissa A; Turza, Kristin C; Griffiths, Eric R; Lau, Christine L; Sawyer, Robert G

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of esophageal perforation or confounding mechanisms of pneumomediastinum specifically introduced by the addition of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion to esophagogastroduodenoscopy have not been described, and pneumomediastinum in the absence of esophageal perforation after PEG has not been reported. Typically, pneumomediastinum is an ominous finding, although benign causes exist. We present two cases of post-PEG pneumomediastinum not correlated with esophageal perforation on follow-up imaging. When pneumomediastinum is detected after PEG, appropriate studies should be undertaken to confirm its cause and to determine treatment plans. Further investigation may be warranted to ascertain the true incidence, causes, and clinical significance of post-PEG pneumomediastinum.

  3. Dysphagia and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Vesey, Siobhan

    2013-05-01

    Swallowing difficulties can be a symptom of many different disease processes, and are associated with adverse health outcomes; malnutrition, dehydration, pneumonia and death. The use of feeding tubes directly into the stomach as in percutaneous endoscopic gastrosomy (PEG) is an increasingly common treatment option for these patients with more and more being cared for in the community. Living with a gastrostomy tube brings physical and emotional impacts and direct consequences for quality of life. Guidance from the Royal College of Physicians recommends 'nil by mouth' should be a last resort even when swallow function is deemed unsafe. Impaired swallowing can cause increased anxiety and fear. Many patients avoid oral intake leading to malnutrition, isolation and depression. Understanding and balancing the risks and potential benefits of continuing oral intake or choosing gastrostomy makes this a complex and challenging area of health care.

  4. Dysphagia and thoracoabdominal aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, C; Sinha, A; Nightingale, J

    2001-01-01

    Two elderly patients who presented with gradually progressive dysphagia are described. Investigations excluded an intraluminal obstruction and showed extrinsic compression of the oesophagus by an aneurysmal aorta. Surgery was not performed and they were successfully managed with a liquid diet.


Keywords: dysphagia; aortic aneurysm; vascular compression PMID:11264491

  5. The benefits of a 5-day dysphagia intensive placement.

    PubMed

    Cocks, Naomi; Harding, Celia; Pritchard, Madeleine

    2014-10-01

    Finding practical dysphagia opportunities for students pre-qualification is challenging. Discussions with clinicians led to the development of a new placement model. The placement was just five days and had an accompanying workbook. The current study aimed to evaluate the benefits of the placement. Data were analysed from 40 students who attended an adult dysphagia placement and 13 who attended a paediatric dysphagia placement. Measures included a pre and post self-rating questionnaire, qualitative feedback from clinical educators and students and a pre and post measure of knowledge using concept maps. Student self-rating data indicated gains in experience, awareness, knowledge, clinical skills, competence, confidence and interest in dysphagia. Clinical educators and students also reported a range of benefits from this placement. Students who undertook a placement that focused on adult dysphagia significantly increased their knowledge of adult dysphagia, but this did not generalize to paediatric dysphagia. Despite reporting that they felt they had gained in knowledge of dysphagia, the students who did a paediatric dysphagia placement did not significantly increase their knowledge of dysphagia. The study raises a number of important considerations when designing placements including length, timing, intensity, how best to encourage generalization of knowledge, and how best to measure learning.

  6. Dementia and dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Easterling, Caryn S; Robbins, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, more than 12% of the population in the United States was aged 65 years or older. This percentage is expected to increase to 20% of the population by 2030. The prevalence of swallowing disorders, or dysphagia, in older individuals ranges from 7% to 22% and dramatically increases to 40% to 50% in older individuals who reside in long-term care facilities. For older individuals, those with neurologic disease, or those with dementia, the consequence of dysphagia may be dehydration, malnutrition, weight loss, and aspiration pneumonia. Dysphagia can be a result of behavioral, sensory, or motor problems (or a combination of these) and is common in individuals with neurologic disease and dementia. Although there are few studies of the incidence and prevalence of dysphagia in individuals with dementia, it is estimated that 45% of institutionalized dementia patients have dysphagia. The high prevalence of dysphagia in individuals with dementia likely is the result of age-related changes in sensory and motor function in addition to those produced by neuropathology. The following article describes evidence based practices in caring for those individuals with dementia and dysphagia with guidelines for evaluation and management.

  7. Relationship between tongue pressure and dysphagia in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Konaka, Kuni; Kondo, Jugo; Hirota, Nobuko; Tamine, Kenichi; Hori, Kazuhiro; Ono, Takahiro; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Sakoda, Saburo; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Although poststroke dysphagia is an important issue for determining prognosis, the pathophysiology of oral-phase dysphagia has yet to be clarified due to a lack of adequate devices and protocols. The present study investigated the relationships between swallowing pressure production by the tongue and dysphagia in stroke patients using a newly developed method of tongue pressure measurement with a sensor sheet system. Subjects were 64 stroke patients, including 30 patients with dysphagia. A T-shaped sensor sheet with 5 measuring points was attached to the hard palate to record tongue pressure while swallowing 5 ml of water. The average maximal magnitude and incidence of abnormalities such as asynchronous and/or polyphasic patterns in tongue pressure waves in 5 locations were compared between patients with and without dysphagia. The average maximal tongue pressure was significantly smaller in patients with dysphagia than in those without dysphagia. Asynchronous and polyphasic patterns showed a sensitivity of 63 and 87%, and a specificity of 91 and 71%, respectively, for identifying patients with dysphagia. Tongue pressure production during swallowing appears closely related to poststroke dysphagia. Tongue pressure measurement appears useful for evaluating the pathophysiology of oral-phase dysphagia in stroke patients. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Dysphagia in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Suttrup, Inga; Warnecke, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    More than 80 % of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop dysphagia during the course of their disease. Swallowing impairment reduces quality of life, complicates medication intake and leads to malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia, which is a major cause of death in PD. Although the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood, it has been shown that dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the development of dysphagia in PD. Clinical assessment of dysphagia in PD patients is challenging and often delivers unreliable results. A modified water test assessing maximum swallowing volume is recommended to uncover oropharyngeal dysphagia in PD. PD-specific questionnaires may also be useful to identify patients at risk for swallowing impairment. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and videofluoroscopic swallowing study are both considered to be the gold standard for evaluation of PD-related dysphagia. In addition, high-resolution manometry may be a helpful tool. These instrumental methods allow a reliable detection of aspiration events. Furthermore, typical patterns of impairment during the oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal swallowing phase of PD patients can be identified. Therapy of dysphagia in PD consists of pharmacological interventions and swallowing treatment by speech and language therapists (SLTs). Fluctuating dysphagia with deterioration during the off-state should be treated by optimizing dopaminergic medication. The methods used during swallowing treatment by SLTs shall be selected according to the individual dysphagia pattern of each PD patient. A promising novel method is an intensive training of expiratory muscle strength. Deep brain stimulation does not seem to have a clinical relevant effect on swallowing function in PD. The goal of this review is giving an overview on current stages of epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of PD-associated dysphagia, which might be helpful for neurologists

  9. [Dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Fujishima, Ichiro

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia is a life-threatening disorder caused by many medical conditions such as stroke, neurological disorders, tumors, etc. The symptoms of dysphagia are quite variable and diagnosed by observation or through screening involving instrumental swallowing examinations such as video-fluoroscopy and video-endoscopy, to determine functional severity and treatment-prognosis. Direct- and indirect-therapy is used with and without food, respectively. Swallowing rehabilitation is very effective, and could be used in conjunction with compensatory techniques. Here we present an overview of dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation.

  10. Radiological evaluation of dysphagia

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Chen, Y.M.

    1986-11-21

    Dysphagia is a common complaint in patients presenting for radiological or endoscopic examination of the esophagus and is usually due to functional or structural abnormalities of the esophageal body or esophagogastric region. The authors review the radiological evaluation of the esophagus and esophagogastric region in patients with esophageal dysphagia and discuss the roentgenographic techniques used, radiological efficacy for common structural disorders, and evaluation of esophageal motor function. Comparison is made with endoscopy in assessing dysphagia, with the conclusion that the radiological examination be used initially in patients with this complaint.

  11. Predictors of Dysphagia in Acute Pontine Infarction.

    PubMed

    Lapa, Sriramya; Luger, Sebastian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud; Henke, Christian; Wagner, Marlies; Foerch, Christian

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the frequency and the clinical characteristics of neurogenic dysphagia in pontine strokes. In this study, we sought to identify predictors for dysphagia in a cohort of patients with isolated pontine infarctions. We included all patients admitted to our department between 2008 and 2014 having an acute (<48 hours after symptom onset) ischemic stroke in the pons, as documented by means of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Precise infarct localization was stratified according to established vascular territories. The presence of dysphagia was the primary end point of the study and was assessed by a Speech-Language Pathologist according to defined criteria. The study recruited 59 patients, 14 with and 45 without dysphagia. Median (interquartile range) stroke severity (in terms of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale values) was higher in the dysphagic group as compared with patients without dysphagia (8.5 [6-12] versus 2 [1-5]; P<0.001). Infarct localization in the upper part of the pons (78.6% versus 33.3%; P=0.004) and in the anterolateral vascular territory (78.6% versus 31.1%; P=0.002) occurred more often in the dysphagic group. In a multivariate model, age, infarct volume, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale value were independent predictors of dysphagia. Dysphagia occurs frequently in patients with isolated pontine infarctions. Clinical and imaging predictors of dysphagia may help to provide optimal screening, to prevent complications and to improve long-term prognosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. [Oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration].

    PubMed

    Barroso, Julia

    2009-11-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia, or inability to swallow liquids and/or solids, is one of the less well known geriatric syndromes, despite its enormous impact on functional ability, quality of life and health in affected individuals. The origin of oropharyngeal dysphagia can be structural or functional. Patients with neurodegenerative or cerebrovascular diseases and the frail elderly are the most vulnerable. The complications of oropharyngeal dysphagia are malnutrition, dehydration and aspiration, all of which are serious and provoke high morbidity and mortality. Oropharyngeal aspiration causes frequent respiratory infections and aspiration pneumonias. Antibiotic therapy must cover the usual microorganisms of the oropharyngeal flora. Oropharyngeal dysphagia should be identified early in risk groups through the use of screening methods involving clinical examination of swallowing and diagnostic confirmation methods. The simplest and most effective therapeutic intervention is adaptation of the texture of the solid and the viscosity of the liquid.

  13. Diagnostic evaluation of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ian J

    2008-07-01

    Taking a careful history is vital for the evaluation of dysphagia. The history will yield the likely underlying pathophysiologic process and anatomic site of the problem in most patients, and is crucial for determining whether subsequently detected radiographic or endoscopic 'anomalies' are relevant or incidental. Although the symptoms of pharyngeal dysphagia can be multiple and varied, the typical features of neurogenic pharyngeal dysphagia are highly specific, and can accurately distinguish pharyngeal from esophageal disorders. The history will also dictate whether the next diagnostic procedure should be endoscopy, a barium swallow or esophageal manometry. In some difficult cases, all three diagnostic techniques may need to be performed to establish an accurate diagnosis. Stroke is the most common cause of pharyngeal dysphagia. A videoradiographic swallow study is vital in such cases to determine the extent and timing of aspiration and the severity and mechanics of dysfunction as a prelude to therapy.

  14. Dysphagia associated with cervical spine and postural disorders.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Soultana; Exarchakos, Georgios; Beris, Alexander; Ploumis, Avraam

    2013-12-01

    Difficulties with swallowing may be both persistent and life threatening for the majority of those who experience it irrespective of age, gender, and race. The purpose of this review is to define oropharyngeal dysphagia and describe its relationship to cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances due to either congenital or acquired disorders. The etiology and diagnosis of dysphagia are analyzed, focusing on cervical spine pathology associated with dysphagia as severe cervical spine disorders and postural disturbances largely have been held accountable for deglutition disorders. Scoliosis, kyphosis–lordosis, and osteophytes are the primary focus of this review in an attempt to elucidate the link between cervical spine disorders and dysphagia. It is important for physicians to be knowledgeable about what triggers oropharyngeal dysphagia in cases of cervical spine and postural disorders. Moreover, the optimum treatment for dysphagia, including the use of therapeutic maneuvers during deglutition, neck exercises, and surgical treatment, is discussed.

  15. Presbyphagia and Sarcopenic Dysphagia: Association between Aging, Sarcopenia, and Deglutition Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, H

    2014-01-01

    Presbyphagia refers to age-related changes in the swallowing mechanism in the elderly associated with a frailty in swallowing. Presbyphagia is different from dysphagia. Sarcopenic dysphagia is difficulty swallowing due to sarcopenia of generalized skeletal muscles and swallowing muscles. Age-related loss of swallowing muscle mass becomes evident in the geniohyoid muscle and tongue. Elderly subjects with both sarcopenia and dysphagia may have not only disease-related dysphagia but also sarcopenic dysphagia. In cases of aspiration pneumonia, deterioration in activity-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia of generalized skeletal muscles and swallowing muscles may develop into sarcopenic dysphagia. Assessment of sarcopenic dysphagia includes evaluation of both dysphagia and sarcopenia. The 10-item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) and a water test combined with pulse oximetry are useful for dysphagia screening. Assessment of the multi-factorial causes of sarcopenia including nutritional review is important, because rehabilitation of sarcopenic dysphagia differs depending on its etiology. Consensus diagnostic criteria for sarcopenic dysphagia were proposed at the 19th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Dysphagia Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation for sarcopenic dysphagia includes treatment of both dysphagia and sarcopenia. The core components of dysphagia rehabilitation are oral health care, rehabilitative techniques, and food modification. The causes of adult malnutrition may also contribute to the etiology of secondary sarcopenia and sarcopenic dysphagia. Therefore, nutrition management is indispensable for sarcopenic dysphagia rehabilitation. In cases of sarcopenia with numerous complicating causes, treatment should include pharmaceutical therapies for age-related sarcopenia and comorbid chronic diseases, resistance training, early ambulation, nutrition management, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking.

  16. Family Involvement in School-Based Dysphagia Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Maureen E.; Bailey, Rita L.; Nicholson, Joanna K.; Stoner, Julia B.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a practitioner-friendly synthesis of existing literature on family involvement in the management of dysphagia for school-age. Research reviewed includes family perspectives on programs, therapists, and characteristics that comprise effective family involvement in school-based dysphagia management programs. Also included are…

  17. Dysphagia in the elderly: management and nutritional considerations.

    PubMed

    Sura, Livia; Madhavan, Aarthi; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia is a prevalent difficulty among aging adults. Though increasing age facilitates subtle physiologic changes in swallow function, age-related diseases are significant factors in the presence and severity of dysphagia. Among elderly diseases and health complications, stroke and dementia reflect high rates of dysphagia. In both conditions, dysphagia is associated with nutritional deficits and increased risk of pneumonia. Recent efforts have suggested that elderly community dwellers are also at risk for dysphagia and associated deficits in nutritional status and increased pneumonia risk. Swallowing rehabilitation is an effective approach to increase safe oral intake in these populations and recent research has demonstrated extended benefits related to improved nutritional status and reduced pneumonia rates. In this manuscript, we review data describing age related changes in swallowing and discuss the relationship of dysphagia in patients following stroke, those with dementia, and in community dwelling elderly. Subsequently, we review basic approaches to dysphagia intervention including both compensatory and rehabilitative approaches. We conclude with a discussion on the positive impact of swallowing rehabilitation on malnutrition and pneumonia in elderly who either present with dysphagia or are at risk for dysphagia.

  18. Dysphagia in the elderly: management and nutritional considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sura, Livia; Madhavan, Aarthi; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia is a prevalent difficulty among aging adults. Though increasing age facilitates subtle physiologic changes in swallow function, age-related diseases are significant factors in the presence and severity of dysphagia. Among elderly diseases and health complications, stroke and dementia reflect high rates of dysphagia. In both conditions, dysphagia is associated with nutritional deficits and increased risk of pneumonia. Recent efforts have suggested that elderly community dwellers are also at risk for dysphagia and associated deficits in nutritional status and increased pneumonia risk. Swallowing rehabilitation is an effective approach to increase safe oral intake in these populations and recent research has demonstrated extended benefits related to improved nutritional status and reduced pneumonia rates. In this manuscript, we review data describing age related changes in swallowing and discuss the relationship of dysphagia in patients following stroke, those with dementia, and in community dwelling elderly. Subsequently, we review basic approaches to dysphagia intervention including both compensatory and rehabilitative approaches. We conclude with a discussion on the positive impact of swallowing rehabilitation on malnutrition and pneumonia in elderly who either present with dysphagia or are at risk for dysphagia. PMID:22956864

  19. Approaches to the rehabilitation of dysphagia in acute poststroke patients.

    PubMed

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole; Robbins, Joanne

    2013-08-01

    Dysphagia occurs frequently following stroke and may result in serious health consequences including pneumonia, malnutrition, dehydration, and mortality. Prevention of these negative health outcomes requires early identification and treatment of dysphagia. The speech-language pathologist, as part of a multidisciplinary team, holds the primary responsibility for selection of an effective dysphagia rehabilitation program for these patients. Because much research has focused on patients with chronic dysphagia, this review will focus on treatment of patients within the acute phase of recovery poststroke. Although some acute patients may experience transient dysphagia that resolves spontaneously, many will go on to develop chronic dysphagia that may be prevented with provision of early and intensive treatment. An overview of dysphagia following stroke will be provided with information regarding incidence, complications, evaluation, and causes of dysphagia. A thorough discussion of evidence supporting varying approaches to dysphagia rehabilitation will follow with inclusion of several current, novel, and experimental techniques. The importance of the multidisciplinary team and regular reevaluation will be emphasized as well. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Dysphagia Rehabilitation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, one of the most common causes of death in elderly people is aspiration pneumonia. Maintenance of oral hygiene and feeding functions are important elements, especially in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke, neurological diseases, and after operations on the head and neck cancer, as well as in the elderly to prevent aspiration pneumonia. It should also be noted that not only oral health care and physical therapy related to feeding functions but also dental treatment is included in the clinical management during interventions whenever needed. On the other hand, for the patients and/or elderly in need of assistance in maintaining a safe diet, it is recommended that a specialized team comprising physicians, dentists, and speech therapists in functional rehabilitation observes meal conditions of the subjects and evaluates such factors as meal contents, posture during meals, usage of dishes and cutlery, meal times, status of consciousness, perception, and motivation. First, I will present the clinical interventions to those patients, which include oral health care, dental treatment, physical therapy and meal assistance, as well as team approaches in those circumstances. In addition, clinical and basic research results will be introduced, which are expected to foster the understanding of physiology in chewing and swallowing. These results are also expected to develop the clinical technology to maintain or recover the feeding functions.

  1. [Medication-induced dysphagia : A review].

    PubMed

    Schwemmle, C; Jungheim, M; Miller, S; Kühn, D; Ptok, M

    2015-07-01

    As a highly differentiated physiological process, swallowing may be affected by a variety of confounding factors. Primarily described are swallowing disorders caused by mechanical anatomic changes (e. g., alteration of the cervical spine, goiter), surgery for head and neck tumors, thyroid abnormalities, and neuromuscular disorders. Age-related cerebral neurological and blood vessel-associated changes can also cause dysphagia (so-called presbyphagia) or worsen the condition.Medication-associated dysphagia is recognized far less frequently, not paid due attention, or accepted in silence; particularly in older patients. Furthermore, pharmacological interference of different medications is frequently inadequately considered, particularly in the case of polypharmacy.Initial treatment of medication-induced dysphagia includes a critical review of medication status, with the aim of reducing/discontinuing the causative medication by giving precise instructions regarding its administration; as well as antacid medication, diet, and professional oral stimulation or swallowing training.To date, medication-induced dysphagia has not occupied the focus of physicians and therapists. This is despite the fact that many active agents can have a negative effect on swallowing and medication-induced dysphagia caused by polypharmacy is not uncommon, particularly in old age. This article presents an overview of the different classes of drugs in terms of their direct or indirect negative effects on the swallowing function.

  2. Frailty measurements and dysphagia in the outpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Bridget; Vaezi, Alec; Egloff, Ann Marie; Smith, Libby; Wasserman-Wincko, Tamara; Johnson, Jonas T

    2014-09-01

    Deconditioning and frailty may contribute to dysphagia and aspiration. Early identification of patients at risk of aspiration is important. Aspiration prevention would lead to reduced morbidity and health care costs. We therefore wondered whether objective measurements of frailty could help identify patients at risk for dysphagia and aspiration. Consecutive patients (n = 183) were enrolled. Patient characteristics and objective measures of frailty were recorded prospectively. Variables tested included age, body mass index, grip strength, and 5 meter walk pace. Statistical analysis tested for association between these parameters and dysphagia or aspiration, diagnosed by instrumental swallowing examination. Of variables tested for association with grip strength, only age category (P = .003) and ambulatory status (P < .001) were significantly associated with grip strength in linear regression models. Whereas walk speed was not associated with dysphagia or aspiration, ambulatory status was significantly associated with dysphagia and aspiration in multivariable model building. Nonambulatory status is a predictor of aspiration and should be included in risk assessments for dysphagia. The relationship between frailty and dysphagia deserves further investigation. Frailty assessments may help identify those at risk for complications of dysphagia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Dysphagia Practice in 2035: Beyond Fluorography, Thickener, and Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ciucci, Michelle; Jones, Corinne A; Malandraki, Georgia A; Hutcheson, Katherine A

    2016-08-01

    Dysphagia evaluation and management has rapidly become the primary practice area of medical speech pathologists since its adoption in our field less than three decades ago. As a specialty, swallowing and swallowing disorders comprise the largest represented discipline with 10,059 specialty interest group members within the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and 298 board-certified specialists in the American Speech Hearing Association. There are national and international organizations, such as the Dysphagia Research Society and its interdisciplinary journal Dysphagia, that provide continuing education for clinicians and a platform for dysphagia researchers. Despite this rapid growth, herein we identify some significant needs for improving the science and practice of dysphagia clinical care, including a deeper understanding of physiology and neurophysiology, standardization of evaluation, consensus on core sets of dysphagia parameters for clinical and research reporting, personalized algorithms for implementation of evidenced-based practice, metrics for therapy efficacy, and increased buy-in and funding from agencies. The goals of this article are to summarize the status quo of dysphagia research, evaluation, and treatment as well as to make predictions about the future. Medical trends that we speculate will influence dysphagia research and care in the future include, among others, imaging advances, personalized medicine, regenerative medicine, and telehealth.

  4. Can patients determine the level of their dysphagia?

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Hafiz Hamad; Palmer, Joanne; Dalton, Harry Richard; Waters, Carolyn; Luff, Thomas; Strugnell, Madeline; Murray, Iain Alexander

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine if patients can localise dysphagia level determined endoscopically or radiologically and association of gender, age, level and pathology. METHODS Retrospective review of consecutive patients presenting to dysphagia hotline between March 2004 and March 2015 was carried out. Demographics, clinical history and investigation findings were recorded including patient perception of obstruction level (pharyngeal, mid sternal or low sternal) was documented and the actual level of obstruction found on endoscopic or radiological examination (if any) was noted. All patients with evidence of obstruction including oesophageal carcinoma, peptic stricture, Schatzki ring, oesophageal pouch and cricopharyngeal hypertrophy were included in the study who had given a perceived level of dysphagia. The upper GI endoscopy reports (barium study where upper GI endoscopy was not performed) were reviewed to confirm the distance of obstructing lesion from central incisors. A previously described anatomical classification of oesophagus was used to define the level of obstruction to be upper, middle or lower oesophagus and this was compared with patient perceived level. RESULTS Three thousand six hundred and sixty-eight patients were included, 42.0% of who were female, mean age 70.7 ± 12.8 years old. Of those with obstructing lesions, 726 gave a perceived level of dysphagia: 37.2% had oesophageal cancer, 36.0% peptic stricture, 13.1% pharyngeal pouches, 10.3% Schatzki rings and 3.3% achalasia. Twenty-seven point five percent of patients reported pharyngeal level (upper) dysphagia, 36.9% mid sternal dysphagia and 25.9% lower sternal dysphagia (9.5% reported multiple levels). The level of obstructing lesion seen on diagnostic testing was upper (17.2%), mid (19.4%) or lower (62.9%) or combined (0.3%). When patients localised their level of dysphagia to a single level, the kappa statistic was 0.245 (P < 0.001), indicating fair agreement. 48% of patients reporting a single level of

  5. Dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: prevalence and clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Ruoppolo, G; Schettino, I; Frasca, V; Giacomelli, E; Prosperini, L; Cambieri, C; Roma, R; Greco, A; Mancini, P; De Vincentiis, M; Silani, V; Inghilleri, M

    2013-12-01

    To characterize swallowing deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); investigate the delay in dysphagia onset; estimate correlations between dysphagia severity and patients' functional status; identify the symptom(s) most likely to predict dysphagia. A group of 49 consecutive patients with ALS, 14 with bulbar onset and 35 with spinal onset, underwent swallowing evaluation including bedside and fiberoptic endoscopic examination to detect dysphagia. Patients with dysphagia were more likely than those without to have bulbar onset ALS (P = 0.02); more severely impaired chewing (P = 0.01); and tongue muscle deficits (P = 0.001). The only variable measured at first examination significantly associated with dysphagia was a more than mild tongue muscle deficit. The only variable useful in predicting dysphagia was a chewing deficit. In 10 of the 49 patients studied, swallowing evaluation disclosed an impaired cough reflex. Dysphagia in patients with ALS correlates significantly with bulbar onset and with oral swallowing impairment. Fiberoptic swallowing evaluation is a useful tool for detecting swallowing deficits and laryngeal sensitivity in patients with ALS. An impaired cough reflex is an unexpected finding in many patients with ALS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Dysphagia Management in Acute and Sub-acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Vose, Alicia; Nonnenmacher, Jodi; Singer, Michele L.; González-Fernández, Marlís

    2014-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction is common after stroke. More than 50% of the 665 thousand stroke survivors will experience dysphagia acutely of which approximately 80 thousand will experience persistent dysphagia at 6 months. The physiologic impairments that result in post-stroke dysphagia are varied. This review focuses primarily on well-established dysphagia treatments in the context of the physiologic impairments they treat. Traditional dysphagia therapies including volume and texture modifications, strategies such as chin tuck, head tilt, head turn, effortful swallow, supraglottic swallow, super-supraglottic swallow, Mendelsohn maneuver and exercises such as the Shaker exercise and Masako (tongue hold) maneuver are discussed. Other more recent treatment interventions are discussed in the context of the evidence available. PMID:26484001

  7. A collaborative approach to the assessment and management of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Heritage, M

    2001-01-01

    An inter-disciplinary approach to the assessment and management of dysphagia is essential. A partnership between speech and language therapists (SLT) and nurses combines in-depth experience of dysphagia with the holistic knowledge of the patient. Nurses in acute, rehabilitation and mental health settings are trained by SLTs to use a locally-developed screening tool. This allows the nurse to carry out a basic screening assessment when dysphagia is identified, start an interim feeding regime and monitor the patient's progress. Simple or short-term dysphagia can be managed by the dysphagia trained nurses (DTNs). Experience, qualitative and quantitative measurement has shown benefits. Audit results enable us to share our experiences and to plan for future development of the project including a formal validation of the tool.

  8. A prospective psychological evaluation of patients with dysphagia of various etiologies.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Hsu, J J; Williams, D E; Weaver, A L; Zinsmeister, A R

    1996-01-01

    We hypothesized that patients who complain of dysphagia without demonstrable organic abnormality may have an underlying psychological dysfunction. We thus conducted a comprehensive assessment in three groups of patients with dysphagia. Dysphagia was classified as obstructive (Obst) when an obstructive lesion was present on esophagoscopy or barium swallow, motility-related (Mot) when abnormal motility was shown on esophageal manometry in the presence of normal esophagoscopy or barium swallow, or nonobstructive, nonmotility-related (NONM) when manometry and esophagoscopy or barium swallow were both normal. We prospectively evaluated 71 patients with Obst-dysphagia, 15 patients with Mot-dysphagia and 10 patients with NONM-dysphagia with a battery of standardized psychological tests including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory (MBHI). The results indicate that patients with NONM-dysphagia have psychological attributes similar to those found in patients with Obst-dysphagia or Mot-dysphagia. Combination of scores for parameters such as somatization, depression, and anxiety could not distinguish among the three groups of dysphagia patients. We thus conclude that patients with NONM-dysphagia, as a group, have similar psychological profiles compared to patients with dysphagia due to organic causes.

  9. The Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation Approach Applied to Patients With Neurogenic Dysphagia: A Case Series Design Study.

    PubMed

    Malandraki, Georgia A; Rajappa, Akila; Kantarcigil, Cagla; Wagner, Elise; Ivey, Chandra; Youse, Kathleen

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effects of the Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation approach on physiological and functional swallowing outcomes in adults with neurogenic dysphagia. Intervention study; before-after trial with 4-week follow-up through an online survey. Outpatient university clinics. A consecutive sample of subjects (N=10) recruited from outpatient university clinics. All subjects were diagnosed with adult-onset neurologic injury or disease. Dysphagia diagnosis was confirmed through clinical and endoscopic swallowing evaluations. No subjects withdrew from the study. Participants completed the 4-week Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation protocol, including 2 oropharyngeal exercise regimens, a targeted swallowing routine using salient stimuli, and caregiver participation. Treatment included hourly sessions twice per week and home practice for approximately 45 min/d. Outcome measures assessed pre- and posttreatment included airway safety using an 8-point Penetration Aspiration Scale, lingual isometric pressures, self-reported swallowing-related quality of life (QOL), and level of oral intake. Also, patients were monitored for adverse dysphagia-related effects. QOL and adverse effects were also assessed at the 4-week follow-up (online survey). The Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation approach was effective in improving maximum and mean Penetration Aspiration Scale scores (P<.05, η(2)=.8146 and P<.05, η(2)=.799708, respectively) and level of oral intake (P<.005, Cohen d=-1.387). Of the 5 patients who were feeding tube dependent initially, 2 progressed to total oral nutrition, and 2 progressed to partial oral nutrition. One patient remained tube dependent. QOL was significantly improved at the 4-week follow-up (95% confidence interval, 6.38-14.5; P<.00), but not at the posttreatment. No adverse effects were observed/reported. The Intensive Dysphagia Rehabilitation approach was safe and improved physiological and some functional swallowing outcomes in our sample; however

  10. Patients' awareness of symptoms of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Boczko, Faerella

    2006-11-01

    To assess geriatric patients' assessment of their clinical symptoms of dysphagia by means of a customized dysphagia screening tool and the usefulness of this assessment to health care professionals. The screening tool was distributed to an appropriate cohort and the entries correlated with results of standard speech-language pathology clinical assessments. A large long-term care/subacute rehabilitation facility. There were 199 new admissions screened. The patients included 74 (37.2%) males and 125 (60.8%) females. Patients' ages ranged from 50 to 98 with the mean age of 79.9 years. The screening tool used requires yes/no patient responses to 9 clinical indicators of dysphagia: difficulty keeping liquids in the mouth; coughing after drinking; shortness of breath while drinking; voice change after drinking; coughing after eating; shortness of breath after eating; food getting stuck in the mouth/throat when eating; voice change after eating; difficulty with saliva. After completing the questionnaire, the speech-language pathologist then conducted a standard bedside swallowing examination using the same 9 indicators. The findings suggest that although patients are less discriminating than clinicians in recognizing swallowing problems, the screening tool as a generalized indicator of potential for dysphagia is consistent and reliable. Individual items should not be used as indicators of dysphagia, but as a whole, the screening tool completed by patients is a reliable indicator of potential for dysphagia. Patients' awareness of their own swallowing impairment represents an important aspect of functional recovery. The findings of the study indicate that when patients self-identify a swallowing problem, the speech-language pathologist also identifies the existence of a problem, although not the same problem identified by the patient, with the same intensity or with the same manifestation.

  11. [Efficacy of rehabilitation in oropharyngeal dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da

    2007-01-01

    efficacy of rehabilitation in oropharyngeal dysphagia. In our country the practice of speech-language pathology in oropharyngeal dysphagia has increased significantly and, at this moment, deserves attention since practice needs to be based on scientific evidence. Therapeutic techniques and the outcome of rehabilitation in oropharyngeal dysphagia have been studied since the 70s, reaching its high point during the 80s and 90s. Few studies have investigated the efficacy of therapy in the rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia, the vast majority have tried to prove the effects of therapy on the dynamics of swallowing. In Brazil, the studies about oropharyngeal dysphagia have, in great part, investigated assessment procedures, and only a few have worried about rehabilitation. to present a critical analysis about the efficacy of rehabilitation in oropharyngeal dysphagia. this review of the literature indicates that non-randomized studies have compromised the results, once the casuistic of the researches are very heterogeneous--they include neurogenic and mechanical oropharyngeal dyshagia caused by different etiologies. Besides that, therapeutic programs which are used are not sufficiently described, compromising the reproduction of the methodology by other researchers. These results suggest the need for more randomized studies, which can be initially developed as case studies in order to exclude the control variables of therapy efficacy. Another suggestion is, as proposed by present researches, to use scales that can measure the impact of swallowing training in the nutritional and pulmonary condition of dysphagic patients. An important research area, related to the control of therapeutic efficacy and efficiency, are the studies that aim to establish the decrease in hospital and home care costs as a consequence of speech-language intervention with patients with oropharyngeal dyspahgia.

  12. Hard to swallow: Developmental biological insights into pediatric dysphagia.

    PubMed

    LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Moody, Sally A; Maynard, Thomas M; Karpinski, Beverly A; Zohn, Irene E; Mendelowitz, David; Lee, Norman H; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2016-01-15

    Pediatric dysphagia-feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity--is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes can compromise craniofacial structures including oropharyngeal muscles and skeletal elements as well as motor and sensory circuits necessary for normal feeding and swallowing. Animal models of developmental disorders that include pediatric dysphagia in their phenotypic spectrum can provide mechanistic insight into pathogenesis of feeding and swallowing difficulties. A fairly common human genetic developmental disorder, DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) includes a substantial incidence of pediatric dysphagia in its phenotypic spectrum. Infant mice carrying a parallel deletion to 22q11DS patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties that approximate those seen in pediatric dysphagia. Altered hindbrain patterning, craniofacial malformations, and changes in cranial nerve growth prefigure these difficulties. Thus, in addition to craniofacial and pharyngeal anomalies that arise independently of altered neural development, pediatric dysphagia may result from disrupted hindbrain patterning and its impact on peripheral and central neural circuit development critical for feeding and swallowing. The mechanisms that disrupt hindbrain patterning and circuitry may provide a foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for improved clinical management of pediatric dysphagia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. [Non-aneurysmatic aortic dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Rivera, P; Ferrer, L; Tuset, J A; Pamos, S; López Mut, J; Luján, M; Tomé, A; Medina, E

    1999-01-01

    Esophageal compression by a vascular structure is a rare cause of dysphagia, the aberrant right subclavian artery being the most common congenital abnormality. Aortica dysphagia is usually observed in the elderly, especially in hypertensive women with cardiopathy and degenerative osteopathy. We report a 73-year-old woman with dysphagia, caused by a non-aneurysmatic aortic elongation, who presented progressive dysphagia, which ended in aphagia associated with heart failure. The diagnostic approach to these patients is discussed. The patient received cinitapride and, following treatment for heart failure, remains asymptomatic after a 3-year follow-up period, although manometric alterations persist.

  14. A case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presented as oropharyngeal Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Noh, Eun Ji; Park, Moo In; Park, Seun Ja; Moon, Won; Jung, Hyun Joo

    2010-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rare disease. It is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurons which leads to muscle weakness and muscle wasting. Respiratory failure limits survival to 2-5 years after disease onset. Several clinical manifestations including dysphagia can result in reductions in both the quality of life and life expectancy. Dysphagia occurs at onset in about one third of case, although generally it occurs in later stage of the disease. Evaluation of dysphagia includes video-fluoroscopic swallow study, radiological esophagogram, flexible endoscopic examination, ultrasound examination, conventional manometry and electromyography. We report a case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a 54-year-old man presenting oropharyngeal dysphagia which was diagnosed by high resolution esophageal manometry presenting abnormality of the upper esophageal sphincter.

  15. An EMG screening method (dysphagia limit) for evaluation of neurogenic dysphagia in childhood above 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Ozdemirkiran, T; Secil, Y; Tarlaci, S; Ertekin, C

    2007-03-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is not rare in older children before the adult age, especially the patients with cerebral palsy. Non-invasive simple tests are needed for the evaluation of children with neurogenic dysphagia including the patients with cerebral palsy. So we aimed to evaluate non-invasive ways to screen for dysphagia in children and the usefulness of this almost new electrophysiologic method for the detection of dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy. Twenty-eight healthy children and 12 patients with cerebral palsy were investigated for the applicability of this method. The movement of the larynx was monitored using a simple piezoelectric wafer sensor and submental surface EMG activity was recorded by bipolar silver-chloride electrodes taped under the chin over the submental muscle complex. The onset and duration of pharyngeal swallowing was recorded from submental-suprahyoid muscles such as the mylohyoid-genitohyoid-anterior digastric complex. By this method, the maximal water volume capacity was measured in single swallows with progressively increasing water volumes, this was called 'dysphagia limit'. The healthy control children revealed to swallow the bolus at once maximally 11.2+/-0.4 and 2.5 ml in average. Dysphagia limit varied from 7 to above 20 ml water volume from age 5-16 years old. Patients with cerebral palsy had the dysphagia limit of 7.7+/-1.8 and 6.4 ml in average. The dysphagia limit was significantly reduced in patients with cerebral palsy (p<0.05). Dysphagia limit seemed to be less sensitive in demonstrating the oropharyngeal swallowing disorders in childhood period (90% in the adult dysphagic patients). But the majority of patients with cerebral palsy (58%) showed abnormality. This electrophysiologic method is completely non-invasive, devoid from any hazard and applicable to children above 5 years. It may be candidate as a screening test before selection of dysphagic children.

  16. Neurogenic [corrected] and oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Rofes, Laia; Clavé, Pere; Ouyang, Ann; Scharitzer, Martina; Pokieser, Peter; Vilardell, Natalia; Ortega, Omar

    2013-10-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a swallowing disorder caused by congenital abnormalities and structural damage and disease-associated damage of the oral cavity, pharynx, and upper esophageal sphincter. Patients with OD lack the protective mechanisms necessary for effective swallowing, exhibiting difficulty controlling food in the mouth and initiating a swallow, leading to choking, coughing, and nasal regurgitation. OD is a major risk factor for malnutrition, dehydration, and aspiration pneumonia. The following on OD includes commentaries on the application of simulation of oropharyngeal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and maneuvers like the Shaker exercise to improve the safety and efficacy of swallow in OD patients; the prevalence of esophageal pathologies in OD patients and the need to evaluate the esophagus, esophagogastric junction, and stomach; and strategies for clinical screening to detect OD and aspiration among high-risk patients and to improve oral health care, maintain nutrition and hydration, and prevent aspiration pneumonia. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Predictors and Outcomes of Dysphagia Screening After Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Joundi, Raed A; Martino, Rosemary; Saposnik, Gustavo; Giannakeas, Vasily; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K

    2017-04-01

    Guidelines advocate screening all acute stroke patients for dysphagia. However, limited data are available regarding how many and which patients are screened and how failing a swallowing screen affects patient outcomes. We sought to evaluate predictors of receiving dysphagia screening after acute ischemic stroke and outcomes after failing a screening test. We used the Ontario Stroke Registry from April 1, 2010, to March 31, 2013, to identify patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and determine predictors of documented dysphagia screening and outcomes after failing the screening test, including pneumonia, disability, and death. Among 7171 patients, 6677 patients were eligible to receive dysphagia screening within 72 hours, yet 1280 (19.2%) patients did not undergo documented screening. Patients with mild strokes were significantly less likely than those with more severe strokes to have documented screening (adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.64). Failing dysphagia screening was associated with poor outcomes, including pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio, 4.71; 95% CI, 3.43-6.47), severe disability (adjusted odds ratio, 5.19; 95% CI, 4.48-6.02), discharge to long-term care (adjusted odds ratio, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.11-3.79), and 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 2.09-2.80). Associations were maintained in patients with mild strokes. One in 5 patients with acute ischemic stroke did not have documented dysphagia screening, and patients with mild strokes were substantially less likely to have documented screening. Failing dysphagia screening was associated with poor outcomes, including in patients with mild strokes, highlighting the importance of dysphagia screening for all patients with acute ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Electrophysiological Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Cumhur

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, neurodegenerative movement disorder that typically affects elderly patients. Swallowing disorders are highly prevalent in PD and can have grave consequences, including pneumonia, malnutrition, dehydration and mortality. Neurogenic dysphagia in PD can manifest with both overt clinical symptoms or silent dysphagia. Regardless, early diagnosis and objective follow-up of dysphagia in PD is crucial for timely and appropriate care for these patients. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the electrophysiological methods that can be used to objectively evaluate dysphagia in PD. We discuss the electrophysiological abnormalities that can be observed in PD, their clinical correlates and the pathophysiology underlying these findings. PMID:25360228

  19. Dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Platteaux, Nele; Dirix, Piet; Dejaeger, Eddy; Nuyts, Sandra

    2010-06-01

    Dysphagia is a very common complaint of head and neck cancer patients and can exist before, during, and after chemoradiotherapy. It leads to nutritional deficiency, weight loss, and prolonged unnatural feeding and also has a major potential risk for aspiration. This has a significant negative impact on the patient's entire quality of life. Because treatment of dysphagia in this setting is rarely effective, prevention is paramount. Several strategies have been developed to reduce dysphagia. These include swallowing exercises, treatment modification techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, selective delineation of elective nodes, reducing xerostomia by parotid-sparing radiotherapy, and adding of radioprotectors. However, more research is needed to further decrease the incidence of dysphagia and improve quality of life.

  20. Establishing a public school dysphagia program: a model for administration and service provision.

    PubMed

    Homer, Emily M

    2008-04-01

    Many school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are hampered in participating in managing children with dysphagia by their school systems' lack of supportive policies and procedures. A need exists to better define the dysphagia-trained SLP's role and clarify the district's responsibility. The purpose of this article is to address the critical administrative issues and administrative components surrounding dysphagia in the schools and to offer the SLP some solutions to these problems. A narrative review of the relevant literature addresses the following questions that are important for administrative planning and implementation of programs for students with dysphagia in the schools: (a) Should school systems assume responsibility for working with students with dysphagia? (b) Why is a system-supported procedure recommended? (c) What service delivery models can a system use to serve students with dysphagia? (d) What components should be included in a dysphagia procedure? SLPs should be proactive in providing dysphagia services to students in the schools. A procedure that is adopted by a school system for all of its employees to follow will offer direction and guidance. This system-supported procedure may provide assurance that dysphagia services are being provided in a professionally acceptable manner. Ongoing staff development and training is essential. A system can implement dysphagia services using existing staff, when possible, and policies and procedures that have been approved by the system.

  1. [Dysphagia with lateral medullary infarction (Wallenberg's syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Oshima, Fumiko

    2011-11-01

    Dysphagia after lateral medullary infarction (LMI) is common. The dysphagia of LMI is dynamically characterized by a failure in triggering of the pharyngeal-phase swallowing movements, reduced output, and lack of coordination (swallowing pattern abnormality). Based on accurate evaluation, we can select suitable rehabilitative approaches for individual patients, including respiratory therapy, food modification, postural changes, and oral care. We focused on the absence of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening of the unaffected side of the medullae. The movement pattern was defined as failure of bolus passage through the intact side of the UES, occurring at least once during the videofluorographic evaluation of each individual. Three abnormal patterns of UES opening were classified. The passage pattern abnormality shows the failure of the stereotyped motor sequence. For severe cases, it is necessary to consider long-term treatment, including botulinum toxin injection or surgery to prevent aspiration and adequate nutritional management.

  2. Management of oropharyngeal neurogenic dysphagia in adults.

    PubMed

    Miles, Anna; Allen, Jacqui E

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews recent literature in the management of neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) including assessment processes and treatments, with a specific focus on OPD as a result of stroke and Parkinson's disease. A large number of high-quality systematic reviews were published that provide an excellent summary of current evidence across assessment and treatment of swallowing disorders. There is building interest and knowledge in technology in both the understanding and treatment of OPD including functional MRI, manometry, and noninvasive brain stimulation. Neurologic disorders demonstrate a high prevalence of OPD resulting in significant decrement to health and healthcare costs. Novel technologies were reported in assessment and tracking of dysphagia as well as emerging innovative therapeutic options.

  3. Dysphagia due to cervical osteophytes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Saeed; Bansal, Meghana; Agarwal, Abhishek

    2012-05-01

    Cervical bony outgrowths or osteophytes are common and usually asymptomatic. In some cases, they may be associated with dysphagia, dysphonia, dyspnea and pulmonary aspiration. The most common causes of cervical osteophytes are osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and ankylosing hyperostosis or Diffuse Idiopathic Spinal Hyperostosis (DISH), also known as Forestier's Disease. Other causes are hypoparathyroidism, trauma, acromegaly, ochronosis and flourosis. However, while dysphagia due to osteophytes is reported in the setting of DISH, it is very rare with osteoarthritis. We report a case of a patient who developed dysphagia due to anterior cervical osteophytes in the setting of osteoarthritis.

  4. Validation of predictive factors of dysphagia risk following thermal burns: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rumbach, Anna F; Ward, Elizabeth C; Heaton, Sarah; Bassett, Lynell V; Webster, Anne; Muller, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the validity and reliability of a risk factor model developed for use in predicting dysphagia risk within the first 24 h after injury/hospitalisation in patients with thermal burns. Three hundred and fifty six patients with thermal burns, with or without inhalation injury, who were consecutively admitted to and received management at a quaternary state-wide burn center over a 12 month period, were included. Patients were reviewed for dysphagia risk by nursing staff using an established set of predictive factors. If risk factors for dysphagia were present, referral to speech-language pathology was initiated to investigate swallow function. Of the 356 admissions, 83 patients were identified as meeting one or more risk criteria for dysphagia after burn. Of these, 24.9% (n = 30; 8.42% of the total cohort) presented with dysphagia. Using these criteria, sensitivity and specificity for detection of dysphagia risk were high (100% and 83.74%, respectively). The criteria over identify patients who may be at risk of dysphagia and who require dysphagia assessment (positive predictive value = 36.14%). However, as a set of predictors of dysphagia risk when thermal burn is the only complaint, a negative result reassures that a patient does not have dysphagia (negative predictive value = 100%). Overall, the risk factor model provided a valid measure for predicting dysphagia risk. Incorporating these criteria into a dysphagia screening assessment can ensure an evidence-based pathway for early detection and timely referral to speech-language pathology for patients at risk of dysphagia after thermal burns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in Machado-Joseph disease.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Sabrina Mello Alves; Felix, Valter Nilton; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio; Sallum, Rubens A A; Cecconello, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    In Machado-Joseph disease, poor posture, dystonia and peripheral neuropathy are extremely predisposing to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which is more commonly associated with muscular dystrophy. To evaluate the clinical characteristics of oropharyngeal dysphagia in Machado-Joseph disease patients. Forty individuals participated in this study, including 20 with no clinical complaints and 20 dysphagic patients with Machado-Joseph disease of clinical type 1, who were all similar in terms of gender distribution, average age, and cognitive function. The medical history of each patient was reviewed and each subject underwent a clinical evaluation of deglutition. At the end, the profile of dysphagia in patients with Machado-Joseph disease was classified according to the Severity Scale of Dysphagia, as described by O'Neil and collaborators. Comparison between dysphagic patients and controls did not reveal many significant differences with respect to the clinical evaluation of the oral phase of deglutition, since afflicted patients only demonstrated deficits related to the protrusion, retraction and tonus of the tongue. However, several significant differences were observed with respect to the pharyngeal phase. Dysphagic patients presented pharyngeal stasis during deglutition of liquids and solids, accompanied by coughing and/or choking as well as penetration and/or aspiration; these signs were absent in the controls. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is part of the Machado-Joseph disease since the first neurological manifestations. There is greater involvement of the pharyngeal phase, in relation to oral phase of the deglutition. The dysphagia of these patients is classified between mild and moderate.

  6. Management of acid-related disorders in patients with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Howden, Colin W

    2004-09-06

    Dysphagia affects a large and growing number of individuals in the United States, particularly the elderly and those who are neurologically impaired. Swallowing difficulties may be due to age-related changes in oropharyngeal and esophageal functioning as well as central nervous system diseases such as stroke, Parkinson disease, and dementia. Among institutionalized individuals, dysphagia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. An appreciation of the physiology of swallowing and the pathophysiology of dysphagia is necessary for proper patient management. Careful history, physical examination, and evaluation of radiologic and endoscopic studies should differentiate oropharyngeal and esophageal etiologies of dysphagia and distinguish mechanical (anatomic) disorders from functional (motor) disorders. A significant percentage of patients with dysphagia have concomitant acid-related disorders that are managed best with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Three of the currently available PPIs are manufactured as capsules containing enteric-coated granules that may be mixed with soft foods or fruit juices before oral administration to those with swallowing difficulties. In addition, omeprazole and lansoprazole may be administered via gastrostomy or nasogastric feeding tubes as suspensions in sodium bicarbonate. Novel dosage formulations of lansoprazole that may be appropriate for patients with dysphagia include the commercially manufactured lansoprazole strawberry-flavored enteric-coated granules for suspension and lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablets.

  7. Dysphagia after Stroke: an Overview

    PubMed Central

    González-Fernández, Marlís; Ottenstein, Lauren; Atanelov, Levan; Christian, Asare B.

    2013-01-01

    Dysphagia affects the vast majority of acute stroke patients. Although it improves within 2 weeks for most, some face longstanding swallowing problems that place them at risk for pneumonia, malnutrition, dehydration, and significantly affect quality of life. This paper discusses the scope, the disease burden, and the tools available for screening and formal evaluation of dysphagia. The most common and recently developed treatment interventions that might be useful in the treatment of this population are discussed. PMID:24977109

  8. Pill swallowing by adults with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Carnaby-Mann, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate differences in swallowing physiology and safety in patients with dysphagia between conventional tablets and a new method of tablet transportation, orally disintegrating technology (ODT) (RapiTab; Schwarz Pharma Inc, Milwaukee, Wis). The study observed a single group, crossover design. Outpatient clinic within an academic teaching hospital. A total of 36 adult dysphagic patients referred to the clinic. All subjects underwent simultaneous nasopharyngeal endoscopic evaluation, surface electromyographic (sEMG) measurement, and respiratory monitoring during swallowing. Subjects were evaluated swallowing the ODT and a conventional tablet formulation. Tablets were randomly and blindly presented to each subject. Subjects completed a preference survey subsequent to swallowing both tablets. Significant differences included greater sEMG amplitude and longer apneic duration when swallowing a conventional tablet compared with the ODT (P<.001). Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly longer total swallow durations (P<.001), a higher number of swallows per tablet (P<.002), and the need for fluid to assist in the clearance of the conventional tablet (P<.001). No significant difference was noted between the 2 tablet preparations in amount of residue or airway compromise during or following the swallow. On a postevaluation survey, patients reported that they preferred the ODT preparation for most of the parameters assessed. Patients with dysphagia frequently complain of trouble swallowing medication. In this study, an ODT formulation provided a method of delivery that required less effort to swallow, did not result in increased levels of airway compromise, and was preferred by dysphagic patients. The ODT medication delivery technology may provide benefit to adults with dysphagia in convenience, compliance, and accuracy of dosing.

  9. Dysphagia Post Subcortical and Supratentorial Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ping; Chen, Xuhui; Zhu, Lequn; Xu, Shuangjin; Huang, Li; Li, Xiangcui; Ye, Qing; Ding, Ruiying

    2016-01-01

    Studies have recognized that the damage in the subcortical and supratentorial regions may affect voluntary and involuntary aspects of the swallowing function. The current study attempted to explore the dysphagia characteristics in patients with subcortical and supratentorial stroke. Twelve post first or second subcortical and supratentorial stroke patients were included in the study. The location of the stroke was ascertained by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The characteristics of swallowing disorder were assessed by video fluoroscopic swallowing assessment/fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. The following main parameters were analyzed: oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, presence of cricopharyngeal muscle achalasia (CMA), distance of laryngeal elevation, the amounts of vallecular residue and pyriform sinus residue (PSR), and the extent of pharyngeal contraction. Eighty-three percent of the 12 patients were found suffering from pharyngeal dysphagia, with 50% having 50%-100% PSRs, 50% having pharyngeal delay, and 41.6% cases demonstrating CMA. Simple regression analysis showed PSRs were most strongly associated with CMA. Pharyngeal delay in the study can be caused by infarcts of basal ganglia/thalamus, infarcts of sensory tract, infarcts of swallowing motor pathways in the centrum semiovale, or a combination of the three. Subcortical and supratentorial stroke may result in pharyngeal dysphagia such as PSR and pharyngeal delay. PSR was mainly caused by CMA. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dysphagia after Cardiac Operations Is Associated with Increased Length of Stay and Costs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Son; Zhu, Allen; Toppen, William; Ashfaq, Adeel; Davis, Jessica; Shemin, Richard; Mendelsohn, Abie H; Benharash, Peyman

    2016-10-01

    Although the true incidence of postoperative dysphagia after cardiac surgery is unknown, it has been reported to occur in 3 to 21.6 per cent of patients. Historically, dysphagia has been associated with increased surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay. This study aimed to evaluate the costs and outcomes associated with dysphagia after cardiac surgery. Patients undergoing nonemergent, nontransplant cardiac operations between June 2013 and June 2014 were eligible for inclusion. Independent predictors of cost were identified through a multivariate linear regression model. Of the 354 patients (35% female) included for analysis, 56 (16%) were diagnosed with postoperative dysphagia. On univariate analysis, patients with dysphagia had increased intensive care unit and total hospital lengths of stay (11.8 vs 5.2 days, P < 0.001 and 18.2 vs 9.7 days, P < 0.001, respectively), and a 57 ± 15 per cent increase in cost of care (P < 0.001). Dysphagia was not associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality (3.6% vs 3.0%, P = 0.83). On multivariate linear regression, the development of dysphagia was independently associated with a 45.1 per cent increase in total hospital costs [95% confidence interval (31% and 59%), P < 0.001]. Dysphagia is an independent and major contributor to health care costs after cardiac operations, suggesting that postoperative dysphagia represents a highly suitable target for quality improvement and cost containment efforts.

  11. Hard to Swallow: Developmental Biological Insights into Pediatric Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Moody, Sally A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Karpinski, Beverly A.; Zohn, Irene E.; Mendelowitz, David; Lee, Norman H.; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric dysphagia—feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity—is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes can compromise craniofacial structures including oropharyngeal muscles and skeletal elements as well as motor and sensory circuits necessary for normal feeding and swallowing. Animal models of developmental disorders that include pediatric dysphagia in their phenotypic spectrum can provide mechanistic insight into pathogenesis of feeding and swallowing difficulties. A fairly common human genetic developmental disorder, DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) includes a substantial incidence of pediatric dysphagia in its phenotypic spectrum. Infant mice carrying a parallel deletion to 22q11DS patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties. Altered hindbrain patterning, neural crest migration, craniofacial malformations, and changes in cranial nerve growth prefigure these difficulties. Thus, in addition to craniofacial and pharyngeal anomalies that arise independently of altered neural development, pediatric dysphagia may reflect disrupted hindbrain patterning and its impact on neural circuit development critical for feeding and swallowing. The mechanisms that disrupt hindbrain patterning and circuitry may provide a foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for improved clinical management of pediatric dysphagia. PMID:26554723

  12. Dysphagia: its nature, assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, John

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia impacts on the health and quality of life of individuals and contributes to the cost of health care. This paper summarises current literature regarding the nature, assessment and management of acquired oro-pharyngeal dysphagia in older adults. It examines the aetiology, prevalence and consequences of dysphagia, as well as issues regarding medication administration. Assessment of dysphagia is explored in terms of multidisciplinary screening, speech and language therapist clinical swallowing evaluation and instrumental assessment.

  13. [Botulism and dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Mangilli, Laura Davison; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2007-01-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic, of an acute characteristic, afebrile and is caused by the action of a toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. This toxin links itself to the receptors of the axon membrane of the motor neurons, preventing the release of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction, causing flaccid paralysis of the cranial nerves and skeleton musculature. To present the speech therapy procedures adopted with a patient with botulism and who was presenting dysphagia. A male adult, with botulism, sent for a speech-language evaluation due to the presence of difficulties when swallowing saliva. During the evaluation the following was observed: alteration in mobility, tonicity and sensibility of the organs of the Orofacial Myofunctional System (OMSs); reduction of the laryngeal movements; stasis of saliva in the oral cavity; absence of the swallowing reflex; absence of the swallowing function. Nine speech therapy sessions were carried out with the following procedures: stimulation of the OMSs--mobility, tonicity and sensibility; stimulation of the oral and pharyngeal reflexes; tests and trainings for swallowing with different food consistencies and with the help of maneuvers aiming at the protection and clearing of the airways. Improvement in mobility, tonicity and sensibility of the OMSs; improvement in the elevation of the larynx; re-establishment of the swallowing function without the assistance of other professionals or clinical maneuvers; vocal quality close to the normal parameters (light hypernasality and pneumophonoarticulatory incoordination). The patient was discharged from hospital and speech therapy; clinical assistance for adjustment and improvement of the OMSs was suggested. Speech therapy demonstrated to be efficient in the re-establishment of OMSs and of the swallowing function, enabling the patient to restore the adequate functionality of his orofacial myofunctional system.

  14. Dysphagia: warning signs and management.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Hardip

    Dysphagia is a condition in which patients have difficulty with some or all parts of the swallowing process. It can lead to penetration of food or drink into the larynx, which can cause aspiration. The prevalence varies but it is thought that 10% of acutely hospitalised elderly patients suffer from dysphagia. There are both obvious and less obvious indicators. Dysphagia is caused by a variety of conditions and can be short term or long term. It affects the patient physically, psychologically and socially. Because nurses spend the most time with patients, they are often the first ones to identify a problem. Therefore, it is sensible for nurses to be trained in how to screen patients for swallowing problems. They can then be referred to speech and language therapists for a formal and thorough assessment. There is a variety of national guidelines available to support health professionals in caring for these patients.

  15. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube in a Syncardia™ Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Amit; Singbartl, Kai; Boone, Jacqueline; Soleimani, Behzad; Zeriouh, Mohamad; Loebe, M; Koerner, Michael; Oei, J Elisabeth; Brehm, Christoph E; Ghodsizad, Ali

    2016-02-22

    As a bridge to transplant, the Syncardia™ total artificial heart (TAH) is an option for patients who are not candidates for left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) due to right ventricular failure. The need for nutritional support in these patients is essential for a favorable outcome. Low body mass indexes and albumin levels have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery patients [Alverdy 2003]. It is not uncommon for postoperative patients to have difficulty in consuming enough calories after surgery, which is further complicated by a hypermetabolic demand due to surgical stress. Enteral nutrition has typically been favored for gut mucosal integrity and bacterial flora [Alverdy 2003] [Engleman 1999]. We describe the need for prolonged enteral nutritional support in a TAH patient that was accomplished with a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube.

  16. Peritonitis following percutaneous gastrostomy tube insertions in children.

    PubMed

    Dookhoo, Leema; Mahant, Sanjay; Parra, Dimitri A; John, Philip R; Amaral, Joao G; Connolly, Bairbre L

    2016-09-01

    Percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy has a high success rate, low morbidity, and can be performed under different levels of sedation or local anesthesia in children. Despite its favourable safety profile, major complications can occur. Few studies have examined peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children. To identify potential risk factors and variables influencing the development and early diagnosis of peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of children who developed peritonitis within 7 days of percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy between 2003 and 2012. From the 1,504 patients who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy, patients who developed peritonitis (group 1) were matched by closest date of procedure to those without peritonitis (group 2). Peritonitis was defined according to recognized clinical criteria. Demographic, clinical, procedural, management and outcomes data were collected. Thirty-eight of 1,504 children (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) who underwent percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy developed peritonitis ≤7 days post procedure (group 1). Fever (89%), irritability (63%) and abdominal pain (55%) occurred on presentation of peritonitis. Group 1 patients were all treated with antibiotics; 41% underwent additional interventions: tube readjustments (8%), aspiration of pneumoperitoneum (23%), laparotomy (10%) and intensive care unit admission (10%). In group 1, enteral feeds started on average 3 days later and patients were discharged 5 days later than patients in group 2. There were two deaths not directly related to peritonitis. Neither age, gender, weight, underlying diagnoses nor operator was identified as a risk factor. Peritonitis following percutaneous retrograde gastrostomy in children occurs in approximately 2.5% of cases. No risk factors for its development were identified. Medical management is usually sufficient for a good outcome. Patients with peritonitis are delayed starting feeds and have a hospital stay that is an average of 5 days longer than those without.

  17. Electrical stimulation therapy for dysphagia: descriptive results of two surveys.

    PubMed

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby-Mann, Giselle D; Faunce, Allison

    2007-07-01

    Given the paucity of objective information on neuromuscular electrical stimulation approaches to dysphagia therapy, and the expanding utilization of this clinical approach, we designed and conducted two surveys to gather large-scale information regarding reported practice patterns, outcomes, complications, and professional perceptions associated with electrical stimulation approaches to dysphagia therapy. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 1000 randomly selected speech-language pathologists in each of two groups: (1) clinicians who had completed a formal electrical stimulation training course and were actively using these techniques, and (2) clinicians who were members of Special Interest Division 13 of the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association. Survey responses were anonymous and no incentive to respond was included. Acceptable response rates were achieved for both surveys (47% and 48%). Both groups of respondents were demographically similar and reported similar practice patterns. Stroke was the most common etiology of dysphagia treated with this approach. The majority of respondents identified no specific dysphagia criteria for application of electrical stimulation, used varied behavioral treatment methods, and did not follow patients beyond therapy. Clinicians reported positive outcomes with no treatment-related complications. Satisfaction with this approach was reported to be high among patients and professionals. Clinicians who did not report using these techniques indicated that they were waiting for more objective information on clinical outcomes and safety. Results of these surveys form an initial description of practice patterns and outcomes associated with electrical stimulation approaches to dysphagia therapy.

  18. [Treatment and rehabilitation of dysphagia following cerebrovascular disease].

    PubMed

    López-Liria, Remedios; Fernández-Alonso, Melodie; Vega-Ramírez, Francisco A; Salido-Campos, M Ángeles; Padilla-Góngora, David

    2014-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Bronchopneumonia is a frequent complication in the first days after a cerebrovascular disease and is linked with a higher rate of mortality. It occurs in patients with an altered level of consciousness or tussigenic reflex, and could be prevented with an early dysphagia rehabilitation programme. AIMS. To review the scientific literature on the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with dysphagia after suffering a stroke, published between 2002 and 2012. DEVELOPMENT. A search conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane, PEDro, CINAHL and ENFISPO databases yielded 15 papers that fulfilled eligibility criteria and the initial aims of the study, providing information about 3,212 patients. The different protocols and techniques for re-education in dysphagia are described and include compensatory strategies, orofacial regulation therapy, music therapy, sensory stimulation, lip muscle, tongue, pharynx, larynx and respiratory tract training, Mendelsohn manoeuvre, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and acupuncture. CONCLUSIONS. The studies examined in this research claim that the treatment of dysphagia following a stroke can improve the function of deglutition (coordination, speed, volume), quality of life and people's social relationships. Further work needs to be carried out to establish or define what kind of therapies, techniques, exercises or manoeuvres are the most effective in dysphagia. Generally agreed treatment or rehabilitation protocols also need to be drawn up within units that address stroke in an integrated manner.

  19. [Dysphagia in Parkinson's Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Suttrup, I; Warnecke, T

    2016-07-01

    Oropharyngeal and esophageal dysphagia are a frequent, but seldom diagnosed symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). More than 80 % of patients with PD develop dysphagia during the course of their disease leading to a reduced quality of life, complicated medication intake, malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia, which is a major cause of death in PD. The underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. Impaired dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic mechanisms of the cortical swallowing network as well as peripheral neuromuscular involvement have been suggested to contribute to its multifactorial genesis. Diagnostic screening methods include PD-specific questionnaires and a modified water test. Fiber optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS), which complement each other, are the gold standard for evaluation of PD-related dysphagia. For evaluation of esophageal dysphagia, the high-resolution manometry (HRM) may be a helpful tool. In addition to dysphagia-specific treatment by speech and language therapists (SLTs), optimized dopaminergic medication is a meaningful therapeutic option. A promising novel method is intensive training of expiratory muscle strength (EMST). Deep brain stimulation does not seem to have a clinically relevant effect on swallowing function in PD.

  20. The incidences and risk factors related to early dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuan-Yin; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Wen-Zhao; Huang, Shan-Hu; Liu, Zhi-Li

    2017-01-01

    Dysphagia is a common complication following anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). The incidences of dysphagia were variable and controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of early dysphagia after ACSS with a new scoring system, and to identify the risk factors of it. A prospective study was carried out and patients who underwent ACSS from March 2014 to August 2014 in our hospital were included in this study. A self-designed dysphagia questionnaire was delivered to all of the patients from the first day to the fifth day after ACSS. Perioperative characteristics of patients were recorded, and incidences and risk factors of dysphagia were analyzed. A total of 104 patients who underwent ACSS were included and incidences of dysphagia from the first to the fifth day after ACSS was 87.5%, 79.81%, 62.14%, 50% and 44.23%, respectively. There was a good correlation between the new dysphagia scoring system and Bazaz scoring system (P < 0.001). Operative time and body mass index (BMI) were the risk factors for dysphagia during the first to the second day postoperatively. However, the dC2-C7angle was the main risk factor for dysphagia from the third to the fifth day after surgery. There were comparatively high incidences of early dysphagia after ACSS, which may be ascribed to operative time, BMI and the dC2-C7 angle. PMID:28267777

  1. Mediastinal granuloma: a rare cause of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Micic, Dejan; Hogarth, Douglas Kyle; Kavitt, Robert T

    2016-06-14

    Dysphagia is commonly attributed to disorders arising from dysfunction of the oesophageal mucosa or oesophageal motility. Mediastinal structures causing compression of the oesophagus remain a rare presenting cause of dysphagia. We report a case of a woman presenting with dysphagia to solid foods and associated symptoms of weight loss. Traditional evaluation for dysphagia was unrevealing until cross-sectional imaging suggested a mediastinal obstructive process. The finding of a mediastinal granuloma, distinct from mediastinal fibrosis, as the aetiology of dysphagia is a rare finding, with specific treatment implications. The patient was treated with itraconazole antifungal therapy with an improvement in her symptoms.

  2. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Stroke, Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, Head Injury, and Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Claire; Gemmell, Elizabeth; Kenworthy, James; Speyer, Renée

    2016-06-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a common condition after stroke, Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and can cause serious complications including malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and premature mortality. Despite its high prevalence among the elderly and associated serious complications, dysphagia is often overlooked and under-diagnosed in vulnerable patient populations. This systematic review aimed to improve understanding and awareness of the prevalence of dysphagia in susceptible patient populations. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, PROSPERO, and disease-specific websites were systematically searched for studies reporting oropharyngeal dysphagia prevalence or incidence in people with stroke, PD, AD, traumatic brain injury, and community-acquired pneumonia, from the USA, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, Japan, China, and regional studies. The quality of study descriptions were assessed based on STROBE guidelines. A total of 1207 publications were identified and 33 met inclusion criteria: 24 in stroke, six in PD, two in traumatic brain injury, and one in patients with traumatic brain injury. Dysphagia was reported in 8.1-80 % of stroke patients, 11-81 % of PD, 27-30 % of traumatic brain injury patients, and 91.7 % of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. No relevant studies of dysphagia in AD were identified. This review demonstrates that dysphagia is highly prevalent in these populations, and highlights discrepancies between studies, gaps in dysphagia research, and the need for better dysphagia management starting with a reliable, standardized, and validated method for oropharyngeal dysphagia identification.

  3. Dysphagia in severe anorexia nervosa and potential therapeutic intervention: a case series.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Samantha R M; Gudridge, Tricia A; Gaudiani, Jennifer L; Mehler, Philip S

    2012-07-01

    In severe anorexia nervosa, there are a litany of medical complications that affect virtually every body system, and severe weakness is a typical characteristic. To our knowledge, aspiration risk, dysphagia recognition, and dysphagia management and intervention have not been well described in the literature in regard to severe anorexia nervosa. The purpose of this case series is to increase awareness among clinicians of possible oropharyngeal dysphagia symptoms that may present in patients with severe anorexia nervosa. We describe the cases of 3 patients with severe anorexia nervosa who presented with symptoms of dysphagia. The speech-language pathology team administered dysphagia therapy to the 3 patients utilizing neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in conjunction with swallowing therapy tasks that included strengthening exercises and compensatory strategies. After the course of dysphagia treatment intervention, the 3 patients were able to tolerate an oral diet with improved swallowing function and no ongoing aspiration. The use of NMES in conjunction with traditional swallowing exercises in the treatment of dysphagia in patients with anorexia nervosa may reduce the need for enteral feeding and prolonged hospitalization. In regard to dysphagia intervention and management within this population and across other populations, rigorous randomized controlled studies are necessary for determining the efficacy of NMES and traditional swallowing therapy implementation.

  4. Association between severity of dysphagia and survival in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Shune, Samantha E; Karnell, Lucy Hynds; Karnell, Michael P; Van Daele, Douglas J; Funk, Gerry F

    2012-06-01

    This study examined risk factors for dysphagia, a common and serious condition in patients with head and neck cancer, and the association between severity of dysphagia and survival. Chart reviews were performed on patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer between January 2001 and April 2003, who had dysphagia diagnoses or swallowing evaluations. Regression analyses determined factors associated with dysphagia and the association between observed survival and severity of dysphagia. Almost 50% of the 407 patients had dysphagia. Risk factors included advanced stage, older age, female sex, and hypopharyngeal tumors. The most severe dysphagia ([L.] nil per os or "nothing by mouth" status), which was associated with lower survival rates, was the strongest independent predictor of survival. Swallowing problems should be considered when determining appropriate cancer-directed treatment and posttreatment care. Because of dysphagia's high incidence rate and association with survival, a speech-language pathologist should be involved to ensure routine diagnostic and therapeutic swallowing interventions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Eosinophilic esophagitis: strictures, impactions, dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Seema; Orenstein, Susan R; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Kocoshis, Samuel A; Putnam, Philip E; Sigurdsson, Luther; Shalaby, Theresa M

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, long known to be a feature of acid reflux, has recently been described in patients with food allergies and macroscopically furrowed esophagus. The pathophysiology and optimal management of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis is unclear. We describe our clinical experience related to eosinophilic esophagitis and obstructive symptoms in children and propose etiopathogenesis and management guidelines. Twelve children with obstructive esophageal symptoms (11 male), median age 5 years, and identified to have eosinophilic esophagitis with > 5 eosinophils per high-power field (eos/hpf) are reported. Of these, four had strictures, six had impactions, and two had only dysphagia. A diagnostic evaluation included esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies in all and upper gastrointestinal series, IgE, radioallergosorbent tests, and skin tests for food allergies in some cases. Esophageal histology specimens were independently analyzed for eosinophil density by two authors. Four of five children with > 20 eos/hpf responded to elimination diets/steroids. The fifth child responded to a fundoplication. Seven children had 5-20 eos/hpf and three of them with no known food allergies responded to antireflux therapy alone. Three others in this group with positive food allergies responded to treatment with elimination diets and/or steroids. The seventh patient in this group was lost to follow-up. In conclusion, on the basis of response to therapy, eosinophilic esophagitis can be subdivided into two groups: those with likely gastroesophageal reflux disease if < 20 eos/hpf and no food allergies, and others with allergic eosinophilic esophagitis associated with food allergies and often with > 20 eos/hpf.

  6. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Antonio; Mozzanica, Francesco; Sonzini, Giulia; Plebani, Daniela; Urbani, Emanuele; Pecis, Marica; Montano, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    Although previous studies demonstrated that patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may present subclinical manifestations of dysphagia, in not one were different textures and volumes systematically studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) with boluses of different textures and volumes in a large cohort of patients with OSAS. A total of 72 OSAS patients without symptoms of dysphagia were enrolled. The cohort was divided in two groups: 30 patients with moderate OSAS and 42 patients with severe OSAS. Each patient underwent a FEES examination using 5, 10 and 20 ml of liquids and semisolids, and solids. Spillage, penetration, aspiration, retention, and piecemeal deglutition were considered. The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), pooling score (PS), and dysphagia outcome and severity scale (DOSS) were used for quantitative analysis. Each patient completed the SWAL-QOL questionnaire. Forty-six patients (64 %) presented spillage, 20 (28 %) piecemeal deglutition, 26 (36 %) penetration, and 30 (44 %) retention. No differences were found in the PAS, PS, and DOSS scores between patients with moderate and severe OSAS. Patients with severe OSAS scored higher General Burden and Food selection subscales of the SWAL-QOL. Depending on the DOSS score, the cohort of patients was divided into those with and those without signs of dysphagia. Patients with signs of dysphagia scored lower in the General Burden and Symptoms subscales of the SWAL-QOL. OSAS patients show signs of swallowing impairment in about half of the population; clinicians involved in the management of these patients should include questions on swallowing when taking the medical history.

  7. Comparison of esophageal motility in patients with solid dysphagia and mixed dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Lin; Orr, William C

    2005-01-01

    It is unclear whether there is any difference in esophageal motor abnormalities between patients complaining of dysphagia for solids or both solids and liquids. The aim of this study was to determine any difference in the manometric findings between patients with dysphagia for solids and those with mixed dysphagia. Manometric tracings were performed in 200 consecutive patients (66 M, 134 F; mean age = 51 years) with nonobstructive dysphagia. Ambulatory pH studies were performed in all patients. Subjects were divided into two groups: patients with solid dysphagia (n = 94, 33 M, 61 F; mean age = 51 years) and those with mixed dysphagia (n = 106, 33 M, 73 F; mean age = 51 years). A normal motility study was the most frequent finding. Achalasia occurred more frequently in patients with mixed dysphagia than in those with solid dysphagia (12% vs. 3%, p < 0.01). Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was observed in 59% of patients with solid dysphagia compared with 29% of patients with mixed dysphagia (p < 0.02). The most common esophageal motility abnormality is nonspecific esophageal motility disorders. This study has shown that abnormal esophageal motility occurs slightly more in mixed dysphagia than solid dysphagia. The clinical utility of a symptomatic differentiation of patients with solid or mixed dysphagia appears to be limited.

  8. Dysphagia: A Short Review of the Current State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koidou, Irene; Kollias, Nikolaos; Sdravou, Katerina; Grouios, George

    2013-01-01

    Dysphagia is the clinical expression of disruption of the synchronized activity surrounding the normal swallowing mechanism. It results from a large number of causes including neurologic, myopathic, metabolic, inflammatory/autoimmune, infectious, structural, iatrogenic, and psychiatric diseases. It can have a significant impact on social and…

  9. Dysphagia: A Short Review of the Current State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koidou, Irene; Kollias, Nikolaos; Sdravou, Katerina; Grouios, George

    2013-01-01

    Dysphagia is the clinical expression of disruption of the synchronized activity surrounding the normal swallowing mechanism. It results from a large number of causes including neurologic, myopathic, metabolic, inflammatory/autoimmune, infectious, structural, iatrogenic, and psychiatric diseases. It can have a significant impact on social and…

  10. The One-Year Attributable Cost of Post-Stroke Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Simpson, Annie N.; Ellis, Charles; Mauldin, Patrick; Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Simpson, Kit

    2014-01-01

    With the recent emphasis on evidence-based practice and healthcare reform, understanding the cost of dysphagia management has never been more important. It is helpful for clinicians to understand and objectively report the costs associated with dysphagia when they advocate for their services in this economy. Having carefully estimated cost of illness, inputs are needed for cost-effectiveness analyses that help support the value of treatments. This study sought to address this issue by examining the 1-year cost associated with a diagnosis of dysphagia post-stroke in South Carolina. Furthermore, this study investigated whether ethnicity and residence differences exist in the cost of dysphagia post-stroke. Data on 3,200 patients in the South Carolina Medicare database from 2004 who had ICD-9 codes for ischemic stroke, 434 and 436, were retrospectively included in this study. Differences between persons with and without dysphagia post-stroke were compared with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, mortality, length of stay, comorbidity, rurality, discharge disposition, and cost to Medicare. Univariate analyses and a gamma-distributed generalized linear multivariable model with a log link function were completed. We found that the 1-year cost to Medicare for persons with dysphagia post ischemic stroke was $4,510 higher than that for persons without dysphagia post ischemic stroke when controlling for age, comorbidities, ethnicity, and proportion of time alive. Univariate analysis revealed that rurality, ethnicity, and gender were not statistically significantly different in comparisons of individuals with or without dysphagia post-stroke. Post-stroke dysphagia significantly increases post-stroke medical expenses. Understanding the expenditures associated with post-stroke dysphagia is helpful for optimal allocation and use of resources. Such information is needed to conduct cost-effectiveness studies. PMID:24948438

  11. [The Determinants of Dysphagia in Patients With Stroke During Hospitalized Rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Szu, Li-Yun; Hsieh, Suh-Ing; Tseng, Su-Mei; Huang, Tzu-Hsin

    2017-06-01

    Stroke was the third leading cause of death in Taiwan in 2014. A study found that 53.61% of stroke patients suffered from dysphagia disorder during the rehabilitation phase, which may result in lung aspiration and death. The determinants of dysphagia among nationally hospitalized-rehabilitation stroke patients have not been explored comprehensively. To explore the incidence of dysphagia among hospitalized-rehabilitation stroke patients and the related determinants of dysphagia. This descriptive and correlational research design employed a convenience sample of 130 hospitalized stroke patients from rehabilitation wards at a northern regional hospital in Taiwan. A questionnaire and functional assessment were used to collect data. Instruments used included personal and clinical characteristics data questionnaire, the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Standardization Swallowing Assessment (SSA), and Acute Stroke Dysphagia Screening (ASDS). Data analyses contained descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The incidence of stroke dysphagia was 63.8% (SSA) and 64.6% (ASDS), respectively. Age, marital status, stroke site, stroke severity (NIHSS), and cognitive status (MMSE) were identified as significant determinants of dysphagia in bivariate logistic regression, whereas stroke severity and cognitive status were identified as significant independent determinants of dysphagia in multivariate logistic regression. Two-thirds of the participant sample were affected by dysphagia, for which NIHSS and cognitive status were identified as significant determinants. Thus, nurses may conduct early screening for high risk populations based on patients' clinical characteristics in order to reduce aspiration pneumonia problems and to improve the quality of clinical care for dysphagia patients.

  12. The one-year attributable cost of post-stroke dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Simpson, Annie N; Ellis, Charles; Mauldin, Patrick; Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Simpson, Kit

    2014-10-01

    With the recent emphasis on evidence-based practice and healthcare reform, understanding the cost of dysphagia management has never been more important. It is helpful for clinicians to understand and objectively report the costs associated with dysphagia when they advocate for their services in this economy. Having carefully estimated cost of illness, inputs are needed for cost-effectiveness analyses that help support the value of treatments. This study sought to address this issue by examining the 1-year cost associated with a diagnosis of dysphagia post-stroke in South Carolina. Furthermore, this study investigated whether ethnicity and residence differences exist in the cost of dysphagia post-stroke. Data on 3,200 patients in the South Carolina Medicare database from 2004 who had ICD-9 codes for ischemic stroke, 434 and 436, were retrospectively included in this study. Differences between persons with and without dysphagia post-stroke were compared with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, mortality, length of stay, comorbidity, rurality, discharge disposition, and cost to Medicare. Univariate analyses and a gamma-distributed generalized linear multivariable model with a log link function were completed. We found that the 1-year cost to Medicare for persons with dysphagia post ischemic stroke was $4,510 higher than that for persons without dysphagia post ischemic stroke when controlling for age, comorbidities, ethnicity, and proportion of time alive. Univariate analysis revealed that rurality, ethnicity, and gender were not statistically significantly different in comparisons of individuals with or without dysphagia post-stroke. Post-stroke dysphagia significantly increases post-stroke medical expenses. Understanding the expenditures associated with post-stroke dysphagia is helpful for optimal allocation and use of resources. Such information is needed to conduct cost-effectiveness studies.

  13. The Huntington's Disease Dysphagia Scale.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Anne-Wil; Verbist, Berit M; Marinus, Johan; Heijnen, Bas; Sjögren, Elisabeth V; Roos, Raymund A C

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the swallowing disturbances of patients with Huntington's disease; therefore, we developed the Huntington's Disease Dysphagia Scale. The scale was developed in four stages: (1) item generation, (2) comprehension testing, (3) evaluation of reliability, (4) item reduction and validity testing. The questionnaire was presented twice to 50 Huntington's disease patients and their caregivers. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate whether the severity of swallowing difficulties increased with advancing disease. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to examine the construct validity with the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire. The final version contained 11 items with five response options and exhibited a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.728. The severity of swallowing difficulties was significantly higher in more advanced Huntington's disease. The correlation with the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire was 0.734. We developed a valid and reliable 11-item scale to measure the severity of dysphagia in Huntington's disease. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Cough responsiveness in neurogenic dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Smith, P E; Wiles, C M

    1998-03-01

    In neurogenic dysphagia a good cough is important for airway protection. If triggering of cough, or its effectiveness, is impaired this might result in an increased aspiration risk. Capsaicin, an agent which induces cough through sensory nerve stimulation, was used to test cough sensitivity in groups of patients with and without neurogenic dysphagia. On the basis of swallowing speed (ml/s) in a validated water test 28 alert neurological inpatients (16 women, aged 22-71 years) were classified into 13 with abnormal and 15 with normal swallowing (median swallowing speed 23% and 99%, median volume/swallow 43% and 106% of that predicted for age and sex respectively: p<0.001). Capsaicin nebulised on air in saline was inhaled via a low resistance valve using a mouthpiece and noseclip. Up to seven incremental concentrations of capsaicin ranging from 0.07-20.0 x 10(-4) mol/l were each inhaled for up to a minute. A pneumotachograph connected to the expiratory limb gave a paper recording of expiratory air flow. Coughs were recorded as high flow expirations of short duration. Capsaicin concentrations at first cough (threshold) were recorded; concentrations at frequencies of 10 and 20 coughs/minute were interpolated from the dose-response curve. Cough threshold tended to be lower in those with abnormal swallowing (non-significant): the (log) concentration of capsaicin producing 10 or 20 coughs/ minute also tended to be lower (p=0.12 and 0.07 respectively) in those with abnormal swallowing. Contrary to expectation, these results suggest that cough responsiveness is enhanced in alert patients with neurogenic dysphagia even after allowing for diagnostic category, the possible presence of a bulbar upper motor neuron lesion, or voluntary respiratory capacity. It is concluded that these patients with neurogenic dysphagia do not have a reduced sensitivity of cough triggering.

  15. The Dysphagia handicap index: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Silbergleit, Alice K; Schultz, Lonni; Jacobson, Barbara H; Beardsley, Tausha; Johnson, Alex F

    2012-03-01

    Quality-of-life indicators for dysphagia provide invaluable information to the treating clinician regarding the success or failure of swallowing therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically efficient, statistically robust patient-reported outcomes tool that measures the handicapping effect of dysphagia on emotional, functional, and physical aspects of individual's lives. 60 statements describing the handicapping effect of dysphagia were collected from patient reports and divided into subscales of physical, emotional, and functional problems. The statements were presented to 77 individuals with dysphagia. Respondents replied never, sometimes, or always to each statement and rated their self-perceived dysphagia severity on a 7-point equal-appearing interval scale. Cronbach's α was performed to assess the internal consistency validation of the items within the questionnaire. The final questionnaire was reduced to 25 items and administered to 214 individuals with dysphagia and 74 controls. Test-retest was performed on 63 individuals with dysphagia. Cronbach's α for the initial and final versions was strong at r = 0.96 and r = 0.94, respectively. Significant differences occurred between the dysphagia and control groups. Test-retest reliability was strong. We present a new, easy-to-complete, statistically robust, patient-reported outcomes measure for assessing the handicapping effect of dysphagia.

  16. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: neurogenic etiology and manifestation.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Swapna; Nair, Prem G; Thomas, Philip; Tyagi, Amit Kumar

    2015-03-01

    To determine the type, severity and manifestation of dysphagia in patients with neurogenic etiology. Clinical documentation was done on the different etiologies, its manifestation, assessment findings and management strategies taken for patients with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia who were referred for assessment and management of dysphagia over a period of three months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Flexible endoscopic examination was done in all the patients. The severity of dysphagia in these patients were graded based on Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS). A total of 53 patients with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia were evaluated by an otolaryngologist and a speech language pathologist over a period of three months. The grading of severity based on GUSS for these patients were done. There were 30 patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve injury due to various etiologies, one patient with Neurofibroma-vestibular schwanoma who underwent surgical excision, 16 patients with stroke, two patients with traumatic brain injury, two patients with Parkinsonism and two patients with myasthenia gravis. The manifestation of dysphagia was mainly in the form of prolonged masticatory time, oral transit time, and increased number of swallows required for each bolus, cricopharyngeal spasms and aspiration. Among the dysphagia patients with neurogenic etiology, dysphagia is manifested with a gradual onset and is found to have a progressive course in degenerative disorders. Morbidity and mortality may be reduced with early identification and management of neurogenic dysphagia.

  17. [Videofluoroscopy study of swallowing in neurogenic dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Avdiunina, I A; Popova, L M; Dokuchaeva, N V; Bragina, L K; Dokuchaeva, N F

    2000-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy (VFS) was for the first time used for examining swallowing in 49 patients with nervous diseases. Disturbances in each phase of swallowing act are analyzed with evaluation of the time parameters and defects, causes of aspiration in neurogenic dysphagia are discussed, and cricopharyngeal insufficiency is described. Neurogenic dysphagia is characterized by a combination of disorders which determine the degree of dysphagia. The most severe swallowing disorders were observed in patients with multiple foci in the brain stem and in diphtheritic polyneuropathies. The authors conclude that VFS is the optimal method for the diagnosis of neurogenic dysphagia.

  18. Uses of esophageal function testing: dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Etsuro; Woodland, Philip; Sifrim, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Esophageal function testing should be used for differential diagnosis of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be the consequence of hypermotility or hypomotility of the muscles of the esophagus. Decreased esophageal or esophagogastric junction distensibility can provoke dysphagia. The most well established esophageal dysmotility is achalasia. Other motility disorders can also cause dysphagia. High-resolution manometry (HRM) is the gold standard investigation for esophageal motility disorders. Simultaneous measurement of HRM and intraluminal impedance can be useful to assess motility and bolus transit. Impedance planimetry measures distensibility of the esophageal body and gastroesophageal junction in patients with achalasia and eosinophilic esophagitis.

  19. Clinical dysphagia risk predictors after prolonged orotracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Gisele Chagas; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Zilberstein, Bruno; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To elucidate independent risk factors for dysphagia after prolonged orotracheal intubation. METHODS: The participants were 148 consecutive patients who underwent clinical bedside swallowing assessments from September 2009 to September 2011. All patients had received prolonged orotracheal intubations and were admitted to one of several intensive care units of a large Brazilian school hospital. The correlations between the conducted water swallow test results and dysphagia risk levels were analyzed for statistical significance. RESULTS: Of the 148 patients included in the study, 91 were male and 57 were female (mean age, 53.64 years). The univariate analysis results indicated that specific variables, including extraoral loss, multiple swallows, cervical auscultation, vocal quality, cough, choking, and other signs, were possible significant high-risk indicators of dysphagia onset. The multivariate analysis results indicated that cervical auscultation and coughing were independent predictive variables for high dysphagia risk. CONCLUSIONS: Patients displaying extraoral loss, multiple swallows, cervical auscultation, vocal quality, cough, choking and other signs should benefit from early swallowing evaluations. Additionally, early post-extubation dysfunction recognition is paramount in reducing the morbidity rate in this high-risk population. PMID:24473554

  20. Dysphagia is a common and serious problem for adults with mental illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Kristy J; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2012-03-01

    Adults with mental illness may experience a higher incidence of dysphagia and choking due to factors such as medication side effects and behavioural abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of dysphagia and the most effective interventions for this population. Studies published up to August 2010 were sought via a comprehensive electronic database search (CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase). Studies reporting dysphagia frequency or dysphagia intervention outcomes in adults with mental illness were included. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and quality, and the results were synthesised descriptively. Ten studies were identified, each describing dysphagia frequency or death due to choking asphyxiation. No studies evaluating intervention effectiveness were identified. Study quality was limited by subjective assessment of outcomes. Six studies presented dysphagia frequencies ranging from 9 to 42% in varying subgroups. Four studies presented the frequency of choking asphyxiation death, including a large survey that concluded that adults with organic mental illness were 43 times more likely to die of this cause than the general population. Dysphagia is a common and significant cause of morbidity and mortality in adults with mental illness and our review found that there is a lack of studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention techniques.

  1. Evaluation of dysphagia in early stroke patients by bedside, endoscopic, and electrophysiological methods.

    PubMed

    Umay, Ebru Karaca; Unlu, Ece; Saylam, Guleser Kılıc; Cakci, Aytul; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    We aimed in this study to evaluate dysphagia in early stroke patients using a bedside screening test and flexible fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FFEES) and electrophysiological evaluation (EE) methods and to compare the effectiveness of these methods. Twenty-four patients who were hospitalized in our clinic within the first 3 months after stroke were included in this study. Patients were evaluated using a bedside screening test [including bedside dysphagia score (BDS), neurological examination dysphagia score (NEDS), and total dysphagia score (TDS)] and FFEES and EE methods. Patients were divided into normal-swallowing and dysphagia groups according to the results of the evaluation methods. Patients with dysphagia as determined by any of these methods were compared to the patients with normal swallowing based on the results of the other two methods. Based on the results of our study, a high BDS was positively correlated with dysphagia identified by FFEES and EE methods. Moreover, the FFEES and EE methods were positively correlated. There was no significant correlation between NEDS and TDS levels and either EE or FFEES method. Bedside screening tests should be used mainly as an initial screening test; then FFEES and EE methods should be combined in patients who show risks. This diagnostic algorithm may provide a practical and fast solution for selected stroke patients.

  2. Validation of the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale in various etiologies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyong; Oh, Byung-Mo; Kim, Jung Yoon; Lee, Goo Joo; Lee, Seung Ah; Han, Tai Ryoon

    2014-08-01

    The videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) was developed as an objective predictor of the prognosis of dysphagia after stroke. We evaluated the clinical validity of the VDS for various diseases. We reviewed the medical records of 1,995 dysphagic patients (1,222 men and 773 women) who underwent videofluoroscopic studies in Seoul National University Hospital from April 2002 through December 2009. Their American Speech–Language–Hearing Association’s National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS) swallowing scale, clinical dysphagia scale (CDS), and VDS scores were evaluated on the basis of the clinical and/or videofluoroscopic findings by the consensus of two physiatrists. The correlations between the VDS and the other scales were calculated. The VDS displayed significant correlations with the ASHA NOMS swallowing scale and the CDS in every disease group (p < 0.001 in all groups, including central and peripheral nervous system disorders), and these correlations were more apparent for spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve system disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases (correlation coefficients between the VDS and the ASHA NOMS swallowing scale: −0.603, −0.602, and −0.567, respectively). This study demonstrated that the VDS is applicable to dysphagic patients with numerous etiologies that cause dysphagia

  3. Oral vs. pharyngeal dysphagia: surface electromyography randomized study.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-05-21

    A clear differential diagnosis between oral and pharyngeal dysphagia remains an unsolved problem. Disorders of the oral cavity are frequently overlooked when dysphagia/odybophagia complaints are assessed. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) studies were performed on randomly assigned patients with oral and pharyngeal pathology to evaluate their dysphagia complaints for the sake of differential diagnosis. Parameters evaluated during swallowing for patients after dental surgery (1: n = 62), oral infections (2: n = 49), acute tonsillitis (3: n = 66) and healthy controls (4: n = 50) included timing and amplitude of sEMG activity of masseter, infrahyoid and submental muscles. The duration of swallows and drinking periods was significantly increased in dental patients and was normal in patients with tonsillitis. The electric activity of masseter was significantly lower in Groups 1 and 2 in comparison with the patients with tonsillitis and controls. The submental and infrahyoid activity was normal in dental patients but infrahyoid activity in patients with tonsillitis was high. Dysphagia following dental surgery or oral infections does not affect pharynx and submental muscles and has clear sEMG signs: increased duration of a single swallow, longer drinking time, low activity of the masseter, and normal range of submental activity. Patients with tonsillitis present hyperactivity of infrahyoid muscles. These data could be used for evaluation of symptoms when differential dental/ENT diagnosis is needed.

  4. Clinical characteristics of neurogenic dysphagia in adult patients with Chiari malformation type I.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Li, J; Wang, K; Ge, Y; Jiang, A C; Duan, L P; Wang, Z Y

    2017-04-18

    To investigate changes of swallowing function and associated symptoms in Chiari malformation typeI (CMI) patients with and without dysphagia by the analysis of their clinical and high-resolution manometry (HRM) parameters. A total of 42 patients diagnosed with symptomatic CMI without atlantoaxial dislocations which were confirmed by clinical manifestations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings between January 2010 and July 2015 at Peking University Third Hospital were included in this study. Twenty patients had a history of various dysphagia symptoms, or reported symptoms of choking, coughing after eating or drinking, while the other 22 patients denied symptoms of dysphagia. The data collected from the medical records of these patients included the patient's age, sex, date of diagnosis, duration of illness, symptoms, results of MRI and HRM, and date of surgery. (1) Dysphagia group had 14 female patients, and no-dysphagia group had 8 female patients. Dysphagia usually occurred in female patients, and in addition to dysphagia, we recorded other symptoms and signs in the CMI patients, including numbness, hypoesthesia, limb weakness, neck pain, muscle atrophy, ataxia, hoarseness, symptoms caused by posterior cranial nerve damage, pharyngeal reflex, uvula deviation, and pyramidal signs. A higher percentage of the CMI patients with dysphagia (15/20) had symptoms of posterior cranial nerve damage compared with the control group (5/22; P=0.01). (2)HRM showed a significant difference in upper esophageal sphincter (UES) relax ratio measurement (75.3% vs. 63.1%, P=0.023) and UES proximal margin (17.2 cm vs. 15.7 cm, P=0.005) between the two groups. (3) The percentage of syringomyelia affecting the bulbar or upper cervical region on MRI was significantly higher in the dysphagia group (17/20 vs. 7/22, P=0.001). CMI was usually accompanied by symptoms caused by posterior cranial nerve damage, ataxia, and positive pyramidal signs. Location of the syringomyelia affecting

  5. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SEVERITY OF DYSPHAGIA AND SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS WITH HEAD AND NECK CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Shune, Samantha E.; Karnell, Lucy Hynds; Karnell, Michael P.; Van Daele, Douglas J.; Funk, Gerry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined risk factors for dysphagia, a common and serious condition in patients with head and neck cancer, and the association between severity of dysphagia and survival. Methods Chart reviews were performed on patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer between January 2001 and April 2003, who had dysphagia diagnoses or swallowing evaluations. Regression analyses determined factors associated with dysphagia and the association between observed survival and severity of dysphagia. Results Almost 50% of the 407 patients had dysphagia. Risk factors included advanced stage, older age, female sex, and hypopharyngeal tumors. The most severe dysphagia ([L.] nil per os or “nothing by mouth” status), which was associated with lower survival rates, was the strongest independent predictor of survival. Conclusions Swallowing problems should be considered when determining appropriate cancer-directed treatment and posttreatment care. Because of dysphagia’s high incidence rate and association with survival, a speech-language pathologist should be involved to ensure routine diagnostic and therapeutic swallowing interventions. PMID:22127835

  6. The lived experience of dysphagia following non-surgical treatment for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Nund, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Scarinci, Nerina A; Cartmill, Bena; Kuipers, Pim; Porceddu, Sandro V

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence and severity of dysphagia in people treated non-surgically for primary head and neck cancer (HNC) is well documented. However, few studies have looked beyond the physiological impairment to explore the lived experience of dysphagia in the post-treatment period of HNC. The current study adopted a person-centred, qualitative approach to describe the experiences of people living with dysphagia in the months and years following non-surgical treatment for HNC. Using maximum variation sampling, 24 participants who had undergone radiotherapy treatment for HNC were recruited. Individual interviews were conducted to explore the impact of dysphagia on participants' everyday lives. The themes identified included: (1) physical changes related to swallowing; (2) emotions evoked by living with dysphagia; (3) altered perceptions and changes in appreciation of food; and (4) personal and lifestyle impacts. The data revealed the breadth and significance of the impact of dysphagia on the lives of people treated curatively for HNC. Assessment and management in the post-treatment period must be sufficiently holistic to address both the changing physical states and the psychosocial needs of people with dysphagia following HNC. Rehabilitation services which focus only on impairment-based management will fail to fully meet the support needs of this clinical population.

  7. [Dysphagia management of acute and long-term critically ill intensive care patients].

    PubMed

    Zielske, J; Bohne, S; Axer, H; Brunkhorst, F M; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2014-10-01

    Dysphagia is a severe complication in critically ill patients and affects more than half the patients in an intensive care unit. Dysphagia also has a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for the development of dysphagia are neurological diseases, age >55-70 years, intubation >7 days and sepsis. With increasing numbers of long-term survivors chronic dysphagia is becoming an increasing problem. There is not much knowledge on the influence of specific diseases, including the direct impact of sepsis on the development of dysphagia. Fiberoptic evaluation of swallowing is a standardized tool for bedside evaluation, helping to plan swallowing training during the acute phase and to decrease the rate of chronic dysphagia. For evaluation of chronic dysphagia even more extensive diagnostic tools as well as several options of stepwise rehabilitation using restitution, compensation and adaption strategies for swallowing exist. Currently it seems that these options are not being sufficiently utilized. In general, there is a need for controlled clinical trials analyzing specific swallowing rehabilitation concepts for former critically ill patients and long-term survivors.

  8. Knowledge of nurses regarding dysphagia in patients post stroke in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Rhoda, Anthea; Pickel-Voight, A

    2015-11-09

    Stroke patients commonly experience dysphagia post stroke. Complications of dysphagia include aspiration leading to chest infection and pneumonia, malnutrition, dehydration, and a subsequent increased risk of death. Its early diagnosis and management is an important prerequisite for recovery from stroke during the rehabilitation phase. As nurses are the first health personnel that interact with a patient post stroke, it is important that they are knowledgeable and skilled in the screening of these patients for dysphagia. The aim of the study was to determine the knowledge and factors associated with knowledge of nurses regarding dysphagia in stroke patients. The study used a quantitative survey to determine the knowledge of the nurses employed at an intermediate hospital in Namibia. A convenient sample of 182 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with closed-ended questions, which was developed by the researcher. The data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study confirmed that nurses have a moderate knowledge of the signs, symptoms, and complications of dysphagia, but poor knowledge about its management.Training and experience in the care of dysphagia patients was a stronger predictor of knowledge than the initial qualification or years of experience as a nurse. Post basic training in dysphagia would better equip nurses to manage stroke patients in the acute phase.

  9. Defining and Measuring Dysphagia Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Schroeder, Mae Fern; DeGeorge, Pamela C.; Corey, David M.; Foundas, Anne L.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To continue the development of a quantified, standard method to differentiate individuals with stroke and dysphagia from individuals without dysphagia. Method: Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) were completed on a group of participants with acute stroke (n = 42) and healthy age-matched individuals (n = 25). Calibrated liquid…

  10. Dysphagia in Behçet's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Arma, S.; Habibulla, K. S.; Price, J. J.; Collis, J. Leigh

    1971-01-01

    The association of dysphagia and Behçet's syndrome is described. Care has been taken to establish the exact cause for the dysphagia, and autonomic nervous system abnormalities were demonstrated. The local condition appears to be similar to but not identical with achalasia. In view of this similarity a Heller's myotomy was performed with a satisfactory result. PMID:5576530

  11. Defining and Measuring Dysphagia Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Schroeder, Mae Fern; DeGeorge, Pamela C.; Corey, David M.; Foundas, Anne L.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To continue the development of a quantified, standard method to differentiate individuals with stroke and dysphagia from individuals without dysphagia. Method: Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) were completed on a group of participants with acute stroke (n = 42) and healthy age-matched individuals (n = 25). Calibrated liquid…

  12. A Novel Risk Score to Predict Dysphagia After Cardiac Surgery Procedures.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Joshua C; Magruder, J Trent; Ohkuma, Rika; Dungan, Samuel P; Hayes, Andrea; Vose, Alicia K; Orlando, Megan; Sussman, Marc S; Cameron, Duke E; Whitman, Glenn J R

    2015-08-01

    Although the exact cause of dysphagia after cardiac operations is unknown, timely diagnosis is critical to avoid a devastating aspiration event. Accordingly, we sought to generate the risk of dysphagia in cardiac surgery (RODICS) score to identify patients at risk for its development after heart surgery. All adult heart surgery patients at our institution between January 2011 and March 2012 were analyzed. A videofluoroscopic swallow study stratified patients into two groups based on the presence or absence of dysphagia. Covariates (p < 0.20) were included in a multivariable model to determine the strongest independent predictors of postoperative dysphagia. Based on the relative odds ratios of significant variables, the RODICS score was generated. Risk cohorts were then created based on easily applicable, whole-integer score cutoffs. During the study period, 115 of 1,314 patients (8.8%) undergoing heart surgery were diagnosed with clinically significant dysphagia. The 38-point RODICS score comprises seven patient-specific characteristics and perioperative factors. The low risk (less than 4), intermediate risk (5 to 9), and high risk (more than 9) cohorts had postoperative dysphagia rates of 3.0%, 6.8%, and 21.6%, respectively (p < 0.001). The intermediate-risk cohort (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.33 to 4.27, p = 0.01) and high-risk cohort (odds ratio 8.9, 95% confidence interval: 5.22 to 15.32, p < 0.001) were at significantly higher risk of dysphagia developing. The RODICS score demonstrated excellent discriminatory ability (area under the curve 0.75). The incidence and impact of dysphagia after open cardiac operations is significant. This novel scoring system could lead to prompt identification of patients at high risk for postoperative dysphagia and potentially minimize the complications of aspiration. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Dysphagia Screening by Trained Nurses Reduces Pneumonia Rate in Stroke Patients: A Clinical Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Palli, Christoph; Fandler, Simon; Doppelhofer, Kathrin; Niederkorn, Kurt; Enzinger, Christian; Vetta, Christian; Trampusch, Esther; Schmidt, Reinhold; Fazekas, Franz; Gattringer, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is a common stroke symptom and leads to serious complications such as aspiration and pneumonia. Early dysphagia screening can reduce these complications. In many hospitals, dysphagia screening is performed by speech-language therapists who are often not available on weekends/holidays, which results in delayed dysphagia assessment. We trained the nurses of our neurological department to perform formal dysphagia screening in every acute stroke patient by using the Gugging Swallowing Screen. The impact of a 24/7 dysphagia screening (intervention) over swallowing assessment by speech-language therapists during regular working hours only was compared in two 5-month periods with time to dysphagia screening, pneumonia rate, and length of hospitalization as outcome variables. Overall, 384 patients (mean age, 72.3±13.7 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 3) were included in the study. Both groups (pre-intervention, n=198 versus post-intervention, n=186) were comparable regarding age, sex, and stroke severity. Time to dysphagia screening was significantly reduced in the intervention group (median, 7 hours; range, 1-69 hours) compared with the control group (median, 20 hours; range, 1-183; P=0.001). Patients in the intervention group had a lower rate of pneumonia (3.8% versus 11.6%; P=0.004) and also a reduced length of hospital stay (median, 8 days; range, 2-40 versus median, 9 days; range, 1-61 days; P=0.033). 24/7 dysphagia screening can be effectively performed by nurses and leads to reduced pneumonia rates. Therefore, empowering nurses to do a formal bedside screening for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients timely after admission is warranted whenever speech-language therapists are not available. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Risk factors for dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng-Yu; Yang, Da-Long; Huang, Wen-Zheng; Huo, Li-Shuang; Ma, Lei; Wang, Hui; Yang, Si-Dong; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Dysphagia is a well-known complication following anterior cervical spine surgery. Although risk factors for dysphagia have been reported in the literature, they still remain controversial. This study aims to investigate the risk factors associated with dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched up to June 2016 for studies examining dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery. Risk factors associated with dysphagia were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for outcomes. Data analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.3 and STATA 12.0. Results: The final analysis includes a total of 18 distinct studies. The pooled analysis reveals that there are significant differences in female gender (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.76–2.99, P < 0.001), the use of anterior cervical plate (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.05–2.62, P = 0.03), more than 1 surgical level (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.62–2.66, P < 0.001), the upper surgical level at C3/4 (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.44–6.55, P = 0.004), and the use of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) (OR = 5.52, 95% CI: 2.16–14.10, P < 0.001). However, no significant difference is found in revision surgery (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 0.60–4.68, P = 0.33), the type of fusion (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.62–1.67, P = 0.95), and cervical disc arthroplasty (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.75–2.51, P = 0.30). Conclusion: Female gender, the use of anterior cervical plate, more than 1 surgical level, the upper surgical level at C3/4, and the use of rhBMP-2 are the risk factors for dysphagia following anterior cervical spinal surgery. However, revision surgery, the type of fusion, and cervical disc arthroplasty are unassociated with dysphagia. Considering the limited number of studies, this conclusion should be interpreted cautiously, and larger scale studies are required. PMID

  15. Dysphagia and soft-tissue swelling after anterior cervical surgery: a radiographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Bennett, Jonathan D; Anderson, David G; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Albert, Todd J; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2012-08-01

    Dysphagia is common in the early postoperative period after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Several mechanisms, including soft-tissue swelling, have been implicated as a cause of postoperative dysphagia. To determine whether anterior soft-tissue swelling is greater in patients with postoperative dysphagia. Prospective cohort study. Forty-three patients. Validated dysphagia questionnaire, lateral cervical spine radiographs. Patients undergoing one- or two-level ACDF using allograft bone and anterior instrumentation were enrolled. Baseline patient demographic characteristics and history were recorded. A dysphagia questionnaire, including a dysphagia numeric rating scale (DNRS; range, 0-10), was administered preoperatively and 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively. Lateral cervical radiographs were obtained preoperatively and 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively. The anterior cervical soft-tissue shadow width was measured at each level. Patients were divided into groups based on the 2-week dysphagia questionnaire: Group 1 (no symptoms/mild dysphagia) and Group 2 (moderate/severe dysphagia). Anterior soft-tissue shadow width at each level was compared between groups. Correlation was used to assess the relationship between DNRS and anterior soft-tissue swelling. Forty-three patients (24 females; average age, 47.9) were enrolled. Fifteen patients had one-level and 28 patients had two-level ACDF. The anterior soft-tissue shadow width increased significantly from preoperative values at all levels except C1 at 2 and 6 weeks and C2 at 6 weeks. At 2 weeks, 18 patients had no symptoms/mild dysphagia (Group 1) and 25 patients had moderate/severe dysphagia (Group 2). The average DNRS was 1.1 for Group 1 and 5.3 for Group 2 (p<.001). This difference decreased by 6 weeks but remained significant. There were no significant differences in the soft-tissue measurements between groups at any level. There was no significant correlation between the DNRS and anterior soft-tissue swelling

  16. [Dysphagia and Sonography: what Association?].

    PubMed

    Donati, Thierry; Badini, Matteo; Schwarzenbach, Hans-Rudolf

    2016-06-08

    Achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by dysphagia, chest pain, and drug-resistant reflux symptoms. A detailed anamnesis and esophageal manometry are essential tools for a correct diagnosis. We present a case of a 31 years old woman with typical achalasia symptoms misdiagnosed for many years due to a complex background picture. Despite the evolution in medical sciences, this clinical case underlines the cornerstones of medical profession: patient-physician relation and bedside clinical approach. At the same time, it confirms the increasing role of ultrasonography as a simple but essential tool for a complete general-internal medicine evaluation.

  17. Dysphagia in Stroke: A New Solution

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Claire; Blacker, David

    2010-01-01

    Dysphagia is extremely common following stroke, affecting 13%–94% of acute stroke sufferers. It is associated with respiratory complications, increased risk of aspiration pneumonia, nutritional compromise and dehydration, and detracts from quality of life. While many stroke survivors experience a rapid return to normal swallowing function, this does not always happen. Current dysphagia treatment in Australia focuses upon prevention of aspiration via diet and fluid modifications, compensatory manoeuvres and positional changes, and exercises to rehabilitate paretic muscles. This article discusses a newer adjunctive treatment modality, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and reviews the available literature on its efficacy as a therapy for dysphagia with particular emphasis on its use as a treatment for dysphagia in stroke. There is a good theoretical basis to support the use of NMES as an adjunctive therapy in dysphagia and there would appear to be a great need for further well-designed studies to accurately determine the safety and efficacy of this technique. PMID:20721336

  18. Omission of Dysphagia Therapies in Hospital Discharge Communications

    PubMed Central

    Kind, Amy; Anderson, Paul; Hind, Jacqueline; Robbins, JoAnne; Smith, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the wide implementation of dysphagia therapies, it is unclear whether these therapies are successfully communicated beyond the inpatient setting. Objective To examine the rate of dysphagia recommendation omissions in hospital discharge summaries for high-risk sub-acute care (i.e., skilled nursing facility, rehabilitation, long-term care) populations. Design Retrospective cohort study Subjects All stroke and hip fracture patients billed for inpatient dysphagia evaluations by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and discharged to sub-acute care in 2003-2005 from a single large academic medical center (N=187). Measurements Dysphagia recommendations from final SLP hospital notes and from hospital (physician) discharge summaries were abstracted, coded, and compared for each patient. Recommendation categories included: dietary (food and liquid), postural/compensatory techniques (e.g., chin-tuck), rehabilitation (e.g., exercise), meal pacing (e.g., small bites), medication delivery (e.g., crush pills), and provider/supervision (e.g., 1-to-1 assist). Results 45% of discharge summaries omitted all SLP dysphagia recommendations. 47%(88/186) of patients with SLP dietary recommendations, 82%(93/114) with postural, 100%(16/16) with rehabilitation, 90%(69/77) with meal pacing, 95%(21/22) with medication, and 79%(96/122) with provider/supervision recommendations had these recommendations completely omitted from their discharge summaries. Conclusions Discharge summaries omitted all categories of SLP recommendations at notably high rates. Improved post-hospital communication strategies are needed for discharges to sub-acute care. PMID:20098999

  19. Management of Dysphagia Pre- and Postoperatively in a Case of Eagle's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Vicki; Hoffman Ruddy, Bari; Spector, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Eagle's syndrome (ES) is rare condition, most frequently described within the context of case study presentation. ES results from elongation of the styloid process, contributing to symptoms such as globus sensation in the throat, as well as pain localized to the ear, neck, face, or tongue. Additional symptoms can include hypersalivation, change in vocal quality, submandibular swelling, and dysphagia. This report discusses evaluation, diagnosis, and surgical intervention with respect to Eagle's Syndrome in a patient presenting with moderate-severe dysphagia. PMID:25852957

  20. Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor of dysphagia in hospitalized older people.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keisuke; Akagi, Junji

    2016-04-01

    Sarcopenia can cause varying physical function disorders, including dysphagia. Malnutrition, a potential result of dysphagia, can also cause sarcopenia. However, the association between sarcopenia and dysphagia is not fully understood, despite evidence suggesting correlations between deglutition disorders and degenerative loss of muscle mass. The present study investigated the prevalence of dysphagia among patients with sarcopenia, and the association between the two conditions. We included 224 older adults (mean age 82.5 ± 8.4 years; 37.9% men). Individuals who had a stroke or other diseases that could directly cause dysphagia were excluded. Logistic regression analyses were carried out after adjusting for potential causes of sarcopenia, including malnutrition, a low activity of daily living levels and aging, to investigate the relationship between the skeletal muscle index (SMI), prevalence of sarcopenia diagnosed based on a low SMI and grip strength, and swallowing functions. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form was used to assess their nutritional status, and the Barthel Index was used to evaluate their activities of daily living. The prevalences of sarcopenia and dysphagia were 76.8% and 30.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that Barthel Index, SMI and presence of sarcopenia were significant independent factors for the prevalence of dysphagia, after adjusting for sex, age and nutritional status. Furthermore, subgroup analysis showed that SMI in males, and both hand-grip strength and SMI in females were lower in dysphagic subjects than in non-dysphagic subjects (P ≤ 0.01). Sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for dysphagia among older individuals. However, further studies are required to define causality. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Dysphagia after vertical sleeve gastrectomy: Evaluation of risk factors and assessment of endoscopic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Anand; Yewale, Sayali; Tran, Tung; Brebbia, John S; Shope, Timothy R; Koch, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the risks of medical conditions, evaluate gastric sleeve narrowing, and assess hydrostatic balloon dilatation to treat dysphagia after vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). METHODS VSG is being performed more frequently worldwide as a treatment for medically-complicated obesity, and dysphagia is common post-operatively. We hypothesize that post-operative dysphagia is related to underlying medical conditions or narrowing of the gastric sleeve. This is a retrospective, single institution study of consecutive patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy from 2013 to 2015. Patients with previous bariatric procedures were excluded. Narrowing of a gastric sleeve includes: inability to pass a 9.6 mm gastroscope due to stenosis or sharp angulation or spiral hindering its passage. RESULTS Of 400 consecutive patients, 352 are included; the prevalence of dysphagia is 22.7%; 33 patients (9.3%) have narrowing of the sleeve with 25 (7.1%) having sharp angulation or a spiral while 8 (2.3%) have a stenosis. All 33 patients underwent balloon dilatation of the gastric sleeve and dysphagia resolved in 13 patients (39%); 10 patients (30%) noted resolution of dysphagia after two additional dilatations. In a multivariate model, medical conditions associated with post-operative dysphagia include diabetes mellitus, symptoms of esophageal reflux, a low whole blood thiamine level, hypothyroidism, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and use of opioids. CONCLUSION Narrowing of the gastric sleeve and gastric sleeve stenosis are common after VSG. Endoscopic balloon dilatations of the gastric sleeve resolves dysphagia in 69% of patients. PMID:28058017

  2. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in a Community-Based Elderly Cohort: the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Mi Hyun; Lim, Jae-young

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia and evaluated the association of dysphagia and activities of daily living in a geriatric population residing in an independent-living facility in Korea. Korean men and women 65-yr and older living in a single, typical South Korean city (n=415) were enrolled in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging study. Dysphagia was assessed using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment. Data were collected on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), and medical history and laboratory. The overall prevalence of dysphagia in the random sample was 33.7% (95% CI, 29.1-38.4), including 39.5% in men and 28.4% in women. The identified risk factors for dysphagia were men (OR, 3.6, P=0.023), history of stroke (OR, 2.7, P=0.042) and presence of major depressive disorder (OR, 3.0, P=0.022). Dysphagia was associated with impairment in IADL domains of preparing meals and taking medicine (P=0.013 and P=0.007, respectively). This is the first published report of the prevalence of dysphagia in older community-dwelling Koreans. Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly people that limits some IADL domains. PMID:24133362

  3. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in a community-based elderly cohort: the korean longitudinal study on health and aging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Mi Hyun; Lim, Jae-young; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia and evaluated the association of dysphagia and activities of daily living in a geriatric population residing in an independent-living facility in Korea. Korean men and women 65-yr and older living in a single, typical South Korean city (n=415) were enrolled in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging study. Dysphagia was assessed using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment. Data were collected on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), and medical history and laboratory. The overall prevalence of dysphagia in the random sample was 33.7% (95% CI, 29.1-38.4), including 39.5% in men and 28.4% in women. The identified risk factors for dysphagia were men (OR, 3.6, P=0.023), history of stroke (OR, 2.7, P=0.042) and presence of major depressive disorder (OR, 3.0, P=0.022). Dysphagia was associated with impairment in IADL domains of preparing meals and taking medicine (P=0.013 and P=0.007, respectively). This is the first published report of the prevalence of dysphagia in older community-dwelling Koreans. Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly people that limits some IADL domains.

  4. Dysphagia

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD 20892-3456 Toll-free voice: (800) 241-1044 Toll-free TTY: (800) 241-1055 Email: nidcdinfo@ ... questions in English or Spanish. Voice: (800) 241-1044 TTY: (800) 241-1055 nidcdinfo@nidcd.nih.gov ...

  5. Incidence and impact of dysphagia in patients receiving prolonged endotracheal intubation after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jennifer; Martino, Rosemary; Reichardt, Beatrix; Hickey, Edward J.; Ralph-Edwards, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiac surgery is frequently associated with prolonged endotracheal intubation. Because oral feeding is an important component of patient recovery after high-risk surgery, we sought to examine the contribution of dysphagia in the recuperation process after prolonged endotracheal intubation. Methods All 254 adult patients who survived cardiac surgery between 2001 and 2004 at the Toronto General Hospital and in whom endotracheal intubation lasted for 48 hours or longer were eligible for our retrospective review. We used multivariate regression analysis and parametric modelling to identify patient-specific characteristics associated with postextubation dysphagia and the subsequent resumption of normal oral feeding. Results Dysphagia was diagnosed in 130 (51%) patients. Incremental factors associated with an increased risk for postextubation dysphagia included duration of endotracheal intubation (p < 0.001), the occurrence of a perioperative cerebrovascular event (p = 0.014) and the presence of perioperative sepsis (p = 0.016). Neither preoperative patient risks nor index procedural characteristics were influential factors. The occurrence of dysphagia (p < 0.001) and the duration of endotracheal intubation (p < 0.001) were the only independent factors associated with a delayed return to normal oral feeding. In contrast, several independent factors were associated with a delay to hospital discharge, including the presence of dysphagia (p < 0.001), occurrence of perioperative stroke (p < 0.001), duration of endotracheal intubation (p < 0.001) and number of endotracheal intubation events (p < 0.006). Conclusion Dysphagia is more common in patients with prolonged endotracheal intubation after cardiac surgery than has previously been reported. The duration of postoperative endotracheal intubation is a strong predictor of subsequent dysphagia that both prolongs the return to normal oral feeding and delays subsequent hospital discharge. Patient-or procedure

  6. Incidence and impact of dysphagia in patients receiving prolonged endotracheal intubation after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Barker, Jennifer; Martino, Rosemary; Reichardt, Beatrix; Hickey, Edward J; Ralph-Edwards, Anthony

    2009-04-01

    Cardiac surgery is frequently associated with prolonged endotracheal intubation. Because oral feeding is an important component of patient recovery after high-risk surgery, we sought to examine the contribution of dysphagia in the recuperation process after prolonged endotracheal intubation. All 254 adult patients who survived cardiac surgery between 2001 and 2004 at the Toronto General Hospital and in whom endotracheal intubation lasted for 48 hours or longer were eligible for our retrospective review. We used multivariate regression analysis and parametric modelling to identify patient-specific characteristics associated with postextubation dysphagia and the subsequent resumption of normal oral feeding. Dysphagia was diagnosed in 130 (51%) patients. Incremental factors associated with an increased risk for postextubation dysphagia included duration of endotracheal intubation (p < 0.001), the occurrence of a perioperative cerebrovascular event (p = 0.014) and the presence of perioperative sepsis (p = 0.016). Neither preoperative patient risks nor index procedural characteristics were influential factors. The occurrence of dysphagia (p < 0.001) and the duration of endotracheal intubation (p < 0.001) were the only independent factors associated with a delayed return to normal oral feeding. In contrast, several independent factors were associated with a delay to hospital discharge, including the presence of dysphagia (p < 0.001), occurrence of perioperative stroke (p < 0.001), duration of endotracheal intubation (p < 0.001) and number of endotracheal intubation events (p < 0.006). Dysphagia is more common in patients with prolonged endotracheal intubation after cardiac surgery than has previously been reported. The duration of postoperative endotracheal intubation is a strong predictor of subsequent dysphagia that both prolongs the return to normal oral feeding and delays subsequent hospital discharge. Patient-or procedure-specific factors are not good predictors. To

  7. Efficacy of Electrical Stimulation and Exercise for Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Langmore, Susan E; McCulloch, Timothy M; Krisciunas, Gintas P; Lazarus, Cathy L.; Van Daele, Douglas J; Pauloski, Barbara Roa; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrical stimulation (NMES) is a highly sought after but poorly studied treatment for dysphagia among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with dysphagia. This study investigated the efficacy of NMES in this patient population. Methods In this double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, 170 HNC patients experiencing post-treatment dysphagia were randomized into active NMES + swallow exercise versus sham NMES + swallow exercise groups. Outcomes after a 12-week program included changes in fluoroscopy measures, diet, and quality of life. Results After the 12-week program, the active NMES group had significantly worse Penetration Aspiration Scale scores than the sham group. Both groups reported significantly better diet and quality of life. No other measures were significant. Conclusions NMES did not add benefit to traditional swallow exercises. Unfortunately swallow exercises were not effective by themselves either. For HNC patients with moderate-severe dysphagia caused by radiation therapy, current behavioral therapies are of limited help in reversing long-term dysphagia. PMID:26469360

  8. Treatment for dysphagia (swallowing difficulties) in hereditary ataxia.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Adam P; Keage, Megan J; Johansson, Kerstin; Schalling, Ellika

    2015-11-13

    Hereditary ataxias are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in progressive inco-ordination. Swallowing impairment, also known as dysphagia, is a common and potentially life threatening sequel of disease progression. The incidence and nature of dysphagia in these conditions is largely unknown. The loss of an effective and safe swallow can dramatically affect the health and well-being of an individual. Remediation of difficulties of eating and drinking is an important goal in the clinical care of people with hereditary ataxia. To assess the effects of interventions for swallowing impairment (dysphagia) in people with hereditary ataxias. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) on 14 September 2015. We also searched Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts (LLBA), Dissertation Abstracts, and Trials Registries on 24 September 2015. We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared treatments for hereditary ataxia with placebo or no treatment. We only included studies measuring dysphagia. Three review authors (ES, KJ, MK) independently screened all titles and abstracts. In the event of any disagreement or uncertainty over the inclusion of a particular paper, the review authors planned to meet and reach consensus. We identified no RCTs from the 519 titles and abstracts screened. We excluded papers primarily for not including participants with a hereditary ataxia (that is, being focused on other neurological conditions), being theoretical reviews rather than intervention studies, or being neither randomised nor quasi-randomised trials.We identified five papers of various design that described treatment for dysphagia, or improvement to swallow as a by-product of treatment, in people with hereditary ataxia. None of these studies were RCTs or

  9. Clinical progression and outcome of dysphagia following thermal burn injury: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rumbach, Anna F; Ward, Elizabeth C; Cornwell, Petrea L; Bassett, Lynell V; Muller, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to establish clinical profiles of dysphagic and nondysphagic individuals following thermal burn injury and 2) to provide a clinical profile of the progression and outcome of dysphagia resolution by hospital discharge for a dysphagic cohort. A total of 438 consecutively admitted patients with thermal burns were included. All patients underwent a clinical swallowing examination. Medical parameters regarding burn presentation and its treatment and speech-language pathology specific variables from admission to discharge were collected for each participant. Dysphagia was identified in 49 patients via clinical assessment, and their course of recovery was followed up until the point of dysphagia resolution or discharge. No significant difference was observed between the dysphagic and nondysphagic groups in age, gender, and injury etiology. However, the dysphagic cohort was significantly different from the nondysphagic group in all variables pertaining to injury presentation and medical management. Individuals with dysphagia took significantly longer to start, and maintain, oral intake and required nonoral supplementation for three and a half times longer than those who were nondysphagic. Length of speech-language pathology intervention averaged 1 month for the dysphagics and increased with dysphagia severity. Return to normal fluid consistencies occurred in >75% of dysphagic individuals by week 7 after injury, although resumption of normal diet textures was more protracted, with 75% resuming normal oral intake by week 9. Dysphagia had resolved in 50% of the cohort by week 6, and by hospital discharge, 85% of the dysphagic individuals had resumed normal oral intake of thin fluids and a general diet. This is the first large prospective cohort study to establish clinical profiles of dysphagic and nondysphagic cohorts and document the nature of dysphagia and patterns of recovery within the thermal burn population. These current data will

  10. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A newly established cause of dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Brian M; Shaffer, Eldon A

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis has rapidly become a recognized entity causing dysphagia in young adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge of eosinophilic esophagitis including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis. An extensive search of PubMed/Medline (1966-December 2005) for available English literature in humans for eosinophilic esophagitis was completed. Appropriate articles listed in the bibliographies were also attained. The estimated incidence is 43/105 in children and 2.5/105 in adults. Clinically, patients have a long history of intermittent solid food dysphagia or food impaction. Some have a history of atopy. Subtle endoscopic features may be easily overlooked, including a “feline” or corrugated esophagus with fine rings, a diffusely narrowed esophagus that may have proximal strictures, the presence of linear furrows, adherent white plaques, or a friable (crepe paper) mucosa, prone to tearing with minimal contact. Although no pathologic consensus has been established, a histologic diagnosis is critical. The accep-ted criteria are a dense eosinophilic infiltrate (>20/high power field) within the superficial esophageal mucosa. In contrast, the esophagitis associated with acid reflux disease can also possess eosinophils but they are fewer in number. Once the diagnosis is established, treatment options may include specific food avoidance, topical corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors, or biologic treatment. The long-term prognosis of EE is uncertain; however available data suggests a benign, albeit inconvenient, course. With increasing recognition, this entity is taking its place as an established cause of solid food dysphagia. PMID:16688820

  11. Eosinophilic esophagitis: a newly established cause of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Brian-M; Shaffer, Eldon-A

    2006-04-21

    Eosinophilic esophagitis has rapidly become a recognized entity causing dysphagia in young adults. This review summarizes the current knowledge of eosinophilic esophagitis including the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis. An extensive search of PubMed/Medline (1966-December 2005) for available English literature in humans for eosinophilic esophagitis was completed. Appropriate articles listed in the bibliographies were also attained. The estimated incidence is 43/10(5) in children and 2.5/10(5) in adults. Clinically, patients have a long history of intermittent solid food dysphagia or food impaction. Some have a history of atopy. Subtle endoscopic features may be easily overlooked, including a "feline" or corrugated esophagus with fine rings, a diffusely narrowed esophagus that may have proximal strictures, the presence of linear furrows, adherent white plaques, or a friable (crepe paper) mucosa, prone to tearing with minimal contact. Although no pathologic consensus has been established, a histologic diagnosis is critical. The accepted criteria are a dense eosinophilic infiltrate (>20/high power field) within the superficial esophageal mucosa. In contrast, the esophagitis associated with acid reflux disease can also possess eosinophils but they are fewer in number. Once the diagnosis is established, treatment options may include specific food avoidance, topical corticosteroids, systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors, or biologic treatment. The long-term prognosis of EE is uncertain; however available data suggests a benign, albeit inconvenient, course. With increasing recognition, this entity is taking its place as an established cause of solid food dysphagia.

  12. The Role of C2-C7 Angle in the Development of Dysphagia After Anterior and Posterior Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Yu, Jie

    2016-12-07

    This is a retrospective clinical study. To analyze the relationship between cervical alignment and the development of dysphagia after anterior and posterior cervical (PC) spine surgery [anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), cervical disk replacement (CDR), and PC]. Dysphagia is a known complication of cervical surgery and may be prolonged or occasionally serious. A previous study showed dysphagia after occipitocervical fusion was caused by oropharyneal stenosis resulting from O-C2 (upper cervical lordosis) fixation in a flexed position. However, there have been few reports analyzing the association between the C2-C7 angle (middle-lower cervical lordosis) and postoperative dysphagia. In total, 452 patients were reviewed in this study, including 172 patients who underwent the ACDF procedure, 98 patients who had the CDR procedure, and 182 patients who had the PC procedure between June 2007 and May 2010. The presence and duration of postoperative dysphagia were recorded via face-to-face questioning or telephone interview performed at least 1 year after the procedure. Plain cervical radiographs before and after surgery were collected. The O-C2 angle and C2-C7 angle were measured. The change of O-C2 angle and C2-C7 angle were defined as dO-C2 angle=postoperative O-C2 angle-preoperative O-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle=postoperative C2-C7 angle-preoperative C2-C7 angle. The association between postoperative dysphagia with dO-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle was studied. A total of 12.8% ACDF, 5.1% CDR, and 9.4% PC patients reported dysphagia after cervical surgery. The dC2-C7 angle has considerable impact on postoperative dysphagia. When dC2-C7 angle is >5 degrees, the chance of developing postoperative dysphagia of this patient is significantly greater. The dO-C2 angle, age, sex, body mass index, operative time, blood loss, procedure type, revision surgery, most cephalic operative level, and number of operative levels did not significantly influence the incidence of

  13. A review of the management of dysphagia: a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Zara; Littlejohns, Penelope

    2010-04-01

    Dysphagia is an impairment of swallowing associated with neurological diseases, including stroke. Identification is vitally important but can be difficult because stroke patients with dysphagia rarely perceive that they have a swallowing problem. Assessments of swallowing are not consistently carried out by medical or nursing staff, and often, there are unclear lines of responsibility as to which patients should be referred to a speech-language pathologist. This study measured the prevalence, assessment, and management of dysphagia in three private rehabilitation clinics in South Africa. Findings indicated a prevalence of dysphagia in 56% of patients following stroke, a number far exceeding previously reported statistics. This number may have been inflated due to conservative swallowing assessments given the subjective measures commonly utilized in South Africa, a product of the often-limited availability of imaging technology. All three clinics evidenced a strong multidisciplinary approach in the care and management of dysphagia patients. These findings highlight the need for increased education of collaboration between speech-language pathologists and nursing staff and support the need for future research in the field of poststroke dysphagia.

  14. Development of dysphagia and trismus developed after c1-2 posterior fusion in extended position.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Haruo; Tanaka, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Koshimune, Kouichiro; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Cervical misalignment after upper cervical fusion including the occipital bone may cause trismus or dysphagia, because the occipito-atlanto joint is associated with most of the flex and extended motion of the cervical spine. There are no reports of dysphagia and trismus after C1-2 fusion. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential risk of dysphagia and trismus even after upper cervical short fusion without the occipital bone. The patient was a 69-year-old man with myelopathy caused by os odontoideum and Klippel-Feil syndrome, who developed dysphagia and trismus immediately after C1-2 fusion and C3-6 laminoplasty. Radiographs and CT revealed that his neck posture was extended, but his symptoms still existed a week after surgery. The fixation angle was hyperextended 12 days after the first surgery. His symptoms disappeared immediately after revision surgery. The fixation in the neck-flexed position is thought to be the main cause of the patient's post-operative dysphagia and trismus. Dysphagia and trismus may occur even after short upper cervical fusion without the occipital bone or cervical fusion in the neck-extended position. The pre-operative cervical alignment and range of motion of each segment should be thoroughly evaluated.

  15. Familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors associated with dysphagia and novel type germline mutation of KIT gene.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Seiichi; Nishida, Toshirou; Isozaki, Koji; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Akiko; Takabayashi, Arimichi; Obayashi, Tadashi; Okuno, Tomoko; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Chen, Hui; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Kitamura, Yukihiko

    2002-05-01

    A family with multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), a new type of germline mutation of KIT gene, and dysphagia is reported. The mutation was observed at Asp-820 in tyrosine kinase (TK) II domain. Mutations in TK II domain have been found in mast cell and germ cell tumors but not in GISTs, and the present family members are the first reported cases of GISTs with TK II domain mutations, including sporadic GISTs. Because interleukin 3-dependent Ba/F3 murine lymphoid cells transfected with the mutant KIT complementary DNA grew autonomously without any growth factors and formed tumors in nude mice, the mutation was considered to be gain-of-function type. Family members with the germline KIT mutation reported dysphagia, but those without the mutation did not. The mechanism of dysphagia was examined with gastrointestinal fiberscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, and esophageal manometry. No mechanical obstruction was found, and the esophagus was not remarkably dilated. In the family members with dysphagia, endoscopic ultrasonography at the esophagocardiac junction showed a thickened hyperechoic layer between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers, suggesting hyperplasia of interstitial cells of Cajal at the myenteric plexus layer. Manometry showed low resting lower esophageal sphincter pressure and abnormal simultaneous contractions of the esophagus without normal peristalsis. These findings indicate that the dysphagia of the present family is different from typical achalasia. This is the first report of familial dysphagia caused by germline gain-of-function mutation of the KIT gene at the TK II domain.

  16. [Exploration and approach to artificial airway dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carmona, A; Peñas-Maldonado, L; Yuste-Osorio, E; Díaz-Redondo, A

    2012-01-01

    Airway isolation by endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy impedes or even interrupts speech and swallowing. Pharyngeal and laryngeal impairment frequently occurs after extubation or de-cannulation, common consequences being dysphonia, dysphagia and the aspiration of oral secretions, food, or fluids. Aspiration often leads to pneumonia and eventually death. Although the literature reports a high frequency of dysphagia following intubation and tracheostomy, the data vary considerably, and the true incidence of oropharyngeal dysphagia following artificial airway isolation remains to be established. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence, in order to assess oropharyngeal dysphagia physiology, diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. [Acute dysphagia of oncological origin. Therapeutic management].

    PubMed

    Arias, F; Manterola, A; Domínguez, M A; Martínez, E; Villafranca, E; Romero, P; Vera, R

    2004-01-01

    Dysphagia is one of the most frequent syndromes in patients with tumours of the head and neck, and the oesophagus. This can be the initial symptom or, more frequently, related to the oncological treatment. We review the most important therapeutic and physio-pathological aspects of acute dysphagia of oncological origin. Deglutition is a complex process in which numerous muscular-skeletal structures intervene under the neurological control of different cranial nerves. The complex neuro-muscular coordination needed for a correct deglutition can be affected by numerous situations, both from the effect of the tumours and from their treatment, basically surgery or radiotherapy. In conclusion, it can be affirmed that for a suitable treatment of oncological dysphagia, a correct initial evaluation and an active treatment are required, since not only the patient's quality of life but, on numerous occasions, the possibility of continuing the treatment and thus maintaining the possibilities of a cure depend on control of the dysphagia.

  18. Dysphagia lusorium in elderly: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kantarceken, Bulent; Bulbuloglu, Ertan; Yuksel, Murvet; Cetinkaya, Ali

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Late unset of dysphagia due to vascular abnormalities is a rare condition. We aimed to present a case of right subclavian artery abnormalities caused dysphagia in the elderly. METHODS: A 68-year-old female was admitted with dysphagia seven months ago. Upper endoscopic procedures and routine examinations could not demonstrate any etiology. Multislice computed thorax tomography was performed for probable extra- esophagial lesions. RESULTS: Multislice computed thorax tomography showed right subclavian artery abnormality and esophagial compression with this aberrant artery. CONCLUSION: Causes of dysphagia in the elderly are commonly malignancies, strictures and/or motility disorders. If routine examinations and endoscopic procedures fail to show any etiology, rare vascular abnormalities can be considered in such patients. Multislice computed tomography is a usefull choice in such conditions. PMID:15285045

  19. Isolated acute dysphagia due to varicella-zoster virus.

    PubMed

    Mantero, Vittorio; Rigamonti, Andrea; Valentini, Sergio; Fiumani, Anna; Piamarta, Francesca; Bonfanti, Paolo; Salmaggi, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    We present a case of zoster sine herpete causing isolated acute dysphagia in an immunocompetent patient. The interest of this paper is the atypical presentation of varicella-zoster virus reactivation. A 77-year-old woman presented with a 3-day history of fever and worsening dysphagia for both liquid and solid foods. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis and PCR amplified varicella-zoster virus DNA with high antibody titers in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The panel was suggestive of a cranial neuritis due to varicella-zoster virus, involved cranial nerves, even in the absence of a cutaneous and mucosal rash. Varicella-zoster virus reactivation should be included in the differential diagnosis of isolated or multiple cranial nerve palsies, with or without zosteriform skin lesions. A prompt etiologic diagnosis can lead to early administration of antiviral therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Safe medication swallowing in Dysphagia: a collaborative improvement project.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lawrence D; Little, Jane; Kung, Edward; Williams, Evelyn M; Siemiatkowska, Krystyna; Plowman, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Episodes of choking during medication administration to patients with dysphagia prompted a chart audit and caregiver interview to identify system problems that allowed inappropriate drug administration to occur. Sixty elderly patients residing on two patient care areas in a 500-bed complex continuing care facility were studied. The audit explored the actual nursing medication administration methods and compared this to the information obtained from various communication tools including instructions that appeared on the medication administration record (MAR), the current diet order, the recommendations of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) and comments on the nursing care plan. The audit yielded a number of discrepancies between nursing actions and the instructions obtain from these sources. We proposed that changes to the process of communicating medication swallowing recommendations among team members would lead to greater patient safety. Major practice changes included the use of standardized language by the SLP when making recommendations, the writing of SLP recommendations in the doctor's orders, the inclusion of SLP recommendations on the MAR and the creation of a "dysphagia alert" on the pharmacy computer system. An educational intervention was conducted to implement process changes. Its effectiveness was evaluated using a pre- and post-test and a participant satisfaction survey. A post-implementation audit showed compliance with the practice change. In summary, process changes were implemented to improve compliance with SLP medication-related swallowing recommendations and to prevent the inadvertent prescribing, dispensing or crushing of sustained-release medications in patients with dysphagia.

  1. [Importance of the detection of dysphagia in geriatric patients].

    PubMed

    Zamora Mur, A; Palacín Ariño, C; Guardia Contreras, A I; Zamora Catevilla, A; Clemente Roldán, E; Santaliestra Grau, J

    2017-04-27

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is one of the lesser known geriatric syndromes, despite its enormous impact on functional capacity, quality of life, and health of those affected. A descriptive and prospective study was conducted by the Geriatric Department of Barbastro Hospital (Huesca), from March 2012 to October 2014, as biannual and annual reviews in October 2015. This study included all patients on whom a volume-viscosity clinical examination (MECV-V test) was performed to suspecting dysphagia. The study included 266 patients with a mean age of 82.35±12.3 years, and with a mean Barthel index score of 20.5±25.4, and mean Charlson index of 1.77±1.6. The test was performed in 105 cases after stroke (40%), 53 in dementia (20%), 24 in Parkinsonism (9%), and for other different reasons in 80 (31%). Dysphagia was diagnosed in 228 (86%) cases. Enteral nutrition was given in 25 (10.9%) cases. The test results were shown in the discharge report in 45% of the tests with positive result. The mean survival obtained after test in the patients who died was 230.8±256.5 days. Differences in survival at 12 months were found in patients with positive test, without finding a clear relationship with functional status and comorbidity. Dysphagia has a significant mortality, and the use of thickeners after its detection should be properly reported. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrical neuromuscular stimulation in dysphagia: current status.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Christy L

    2010-06-01

    To assess current information regarding the physiological effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) on the neck and current evidence regarding the clinical effects of adding TES to dysphagia rehabilitation. Physiological studies have demonstrated that when electrical stimulation is applied on the throat it will lower the hyo-laryngeal complex and resist elevation needed for airway protection during swallowing. Submental TES has not been found to effectively elevate the hyo-laryngeal complex. Recent controlled clinical trials have had mixed results. Most indicate that TES is beneficial in the treatment of dysphagia; however, studies differ on whether these effects are greater than, equal to, or less than traditional therapy alone for the rehabilitation of swallowing. Currently TES for dysphagia is one of several tools available to the clinician for the rehabilitation of dysphagia. The two controlled clinical trials demonstrate that use of TES in dysphagia therapy is equivalent to traditional dysphagia therapy and of greater benefit only on one of several measures in one study. TES should be used only in patients who can overcome the resistive lowering of the hyo-laryngeal complex induced by TES which could place severely affected patients at greater risk of penetration.

  3. Palliation of Dysphagia in Carcinoma Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Malage, Somanath; Sreenath, G.S.; Kotlapati, Sudhakar; Cyriac, Sunu

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma has a special place in gastrointestinal carcinomas because it contains two main types, namely, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma esophagus patients require some form of palliation because of locally advanced stage or distant metastasis, where it cannot be subjected to curable treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Many modalities of palliation of dysphagia are available, but the procedure with least morbidity, mortality, and long-term palliation of dysphagia needs to be chosen for the patient. This study aims to discuss the recent trends in palliation of dysphagia with promising results and the most suitable therapy for palliation of dysphagia in a given patient. A total of 64 articles that were published between years 2005 and 2015 on various modes of palliation of dysphagia in carcinoma esophagus were studied, which were mainly randomized and prospective studies. Through this study, we conclude that stents are the first choice of therapy for palliation, which is safe and cost-effective, and they can be combined with either radiotherapy or chemotherapy for long-term palliation of dysphagia with good quality of life. Radiotherapy can be used as a second-line treatment modality. PMID:27279758

  4. Esophageal peristaltic defects in adults with functional dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Ratuapli, Shiva K; Hansel, Stephanie L; Umar, Sarah B; Burdick, George E; Ramirez, Francisco C; Fleischer, David E; Harris, Lucinda A; Lacy, Brian E; DiBaise, John K; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    Functional dysphagia (FD) is characterized by the presence of dysphagia without evidence of mechanical esophageal obstruction, GERD, and histopathology-based esophageal motor disorders. Dysphagia is common in older patients; however, there is a paucity of information regarding the type and frequency of peristaltic abnormalities compared to younger patients. Based on recently validated criteria for classification of weak peristalsis using high-resolution manometry (HRM), we hypothesized that older patients with FD would have more peristaltic defects detected by HRM compared to younger FD patients. A retrospective review of our motility database yielded 65 patients that met inclusion criteria. Patients were divided into two groups based on age (younger: <70 years; older: ≥70 years). Patients were interviewed, completed a quality-of-life questionnaire, and underwent solid-state HRM. The two groups differed in age but in no other demographic characteristics, severity of dysphagia, or quality of life. Dyspeptic symptoms, including nausea (p < 0.001), early satiety (p = 0.01), bloating (p = 0.02), and belching (p = 0.01), were also more prevalent in younger FD patients. Older age was associated with weak peristalsis involving frequent failed peristalsis, small proximal peristaltic defects (2-5 cm), and large proximal peristaltic defects (>5 cm) (p < 0.001). The mean contraction amplitude was also lower in the older group (p < 0.05). These data support the hypothesis that older patients with FD have a higher frequency of peristaltic abnormalities on HRM compared to younger patients. Older age was associated with increased frequency of weak peristalsis with small and large peristaltic defects.

  5. [TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIFIC FOOD PRODUCTS FOR PATIENTS WITH DYSPHAGIA].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Pintor de la Maza, Begoña; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Villar Taibo, Rocío; Urioste Fondo, Ana; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2015-10-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem among elderly and also in some pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases or tumors. Making an adequate diet for this disease may present some difficulties. The aim of this document is to make a detailed technical report about the characteristics of the products that are available in Spain to hydrate and to feed patients with dysphagia. Food and pharmaceutical industries have developed a range of products designed to ensure homogeneous texture and a suitable viscosity to guaranty an adequate hydration. An adequate nutritional status is also achieved with these products for patients with dysphagia, without compromising their safety. The ingredients used to achieve a suitable viscosity are different types of starches, gums and other substances. It has been developed thickeners and gellified water for hydratation, and in case of food there are purees (dehydrated, lyophilized, pasteurized and sterilized), fruit purees, fruit pudding, and dehydrated cereal. Patients who do not meet their nutritional needs have also oral supplements with different viscosities. The industry offers extensive information about the technical characteristics of the products, except for viscosity. It would be recommended for the manufacturers to include in detail the technical specifications of the used methodology and the measurement and the results obtained in the analysis of viscosity that can be consulted by professionals of the Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Units who treat these patients. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Systematic Review on Acupuncture for Treatment of Dysphagia after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qiuping; Xie, Yu; Shi, Junheng; Ou, Aihua; Xu, Nenggui

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture for dysphagia after stroke. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from their inception until 31 September 2016. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) incorporating acupuncture or acupuncture combined with other interventions for treatment of dysphagia after stroke were enrolled. Then they were extracted and assessed by two independent evaluators. Direct comparisons were conducted in RevMan 5.3.0 software. Results 6010 patients of 71 papers were included. The pooled analysis of efficacy rate of 58 studies indicated that acupuncture group was superior to the control group with moderate heterogeneity (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.13 1.21, Z = 9.08, and P < 0.00001); meta-analysis of the studies using blind method showed that the efficacy rate of acupuncture group was 3.01 times that of control group with no heterogeneity (RR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.95 4.65, Z = 4.97, and P < 0.00001). Only 13 studies mentioned the safety evaluation. Conclusion The result showed that the acupuncture group was better than control group in terms of efficacy rate of dysphagia after stroke. And the combining result of those researches using blind method was more strong in proof. Strict evaluation standard and high-quality RCT design are necessary for further exploration. PMID:28852414

  7. A Meta-Analysis of the Incidence of Patient-Reported Dysphagia After Anterior Cervical Decompression and Fusion with the Zero-Profile Implant System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Ma, Litai; Liu, Hao; Xu, MangMang

    2016-04-01

    Dysphagia is a well-known complication following anterior cervical surgery. It has been reported that the Zero-profile Implant System can decrease the incidence of dysphagia following surgery, however, dysphagia after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) with the Zero-profile Implant System remains controversial. Previous studies only focus on small sample sizes. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of dysphagia after ACDF with the Zero-profile Implant System. Studies were collected from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane library and the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database using the keywords "Zero-profile OR Zero-p) AND (dysphagia OR [swallowing dysfunction]". The software STATA (Version 13.0) was used for statistical analysis. Statistical heterogeneity across the various trials, a test of publication bias and sensitivity analysis was performed. 30 studies with a total of 1062 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The occurrence of post-operative transient dysphagia ranged from 0 to 76 % whilst the pooled incidence was 15.6 % (95 % CI, 12.6, 18.5 %). 23 studies reported no persistent dysphagia whilst seven studies reported persistent dysphagia ranging from 1 to 7 %). In summary, the present study observed a low incidence of both transient and persistent dysphagia after ACDF using the Zero-profile Implant System. Most of the dysphagia was mild and gradually decreased during the following months. Moderate or severe dysphagia was uncommon. Future randomized controlled multi-center studies and those focusing on the mechanisms of dysphagia and methods to reduce its incidence are required.

  8. Muscle Tension Dysphagia: Symptomology and Theoretical Framework.

    PubMed

    Kang, Christina H; Hentz, Joseph G; Lott, David G

    2016-11-01

    To identify symptoms, common diagnostic findings, pattern of treatments and referrals offered, and their efficacy in a group of patients with idiopathic functional dysphagia in an otolaryngology setting with multiple providers. Case series with chart review. Tertiary academic center. Following Mayo Clinic Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with dysphagia who had a videofluoroscopic swallow study between January 1, 2013, and April 30, 2015. Each patient's dysphagia symptomology, videofluoroscopic swallow study, flexible laryngoscopy, and medical chart were reviewed to identify the treatment paradigms that were utilized. Sixty-seven adult patients met the inclusion criteria. Abnormal laryngeal muscle tension was present in 97% of patients. Eighty-two percent of patients also demonstrated signs of laryngeal hyperresponsiveness. Nonspecific laryngeal inflammation was evident in 52% of patients. Twenty-seven patients were referred to speech-language pathology for evaluation. Thirteen patients completed a course of voice therapy directed toward unloading muscle tension. All 13 patients self-reported resolution of dysphagia symptoms. The study results suggest that laryngeal muscle tension may be a factor in the underlying etiology in patients with idiopathic functional dysphagia. We propose the diagnostic term muscle tension dysphagia to describe a subset of patients with functional dysphagia. Further prospective studies are needed to better evaluate potential gastroesophageal confounders in this group of patients and to identify an effective paradigm for treatment. In our limited series, speech-language pathology intervention directed toward unloading muscle tension appears effective. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  9. Outcomes of dysphagia intervention in a pulmonary rehabilitation program.

    PubMed

    McKinstry, Anita; Tranter, Maria; Sweeney, Joanne

    2010-06-01

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic respiratory disease demonstrate an increased prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia as a consequence of impaired coordination between respiration and swallowing function. To date, the effect of patient education and intervention on the management of oropharyngeal dysphagia within pulmonary rehabilitation programs has not been reported or evaluated. Data were collected on participants who were enrolled in the Outpatient Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program and who received dysphagia intervention. Intervention consisted of some or all of the following: (1) a 1-hour dysphagia education program, (2) screening for oropharyngeal dysphagia, and (3) individual comprehensive oropharyngeal dysphagia assessment and management if a screening assessment was failed. A statistically significant improvement was found in participants' knowledge of dysphagia and COPD (P < 0.001). Participants' retention of this knowledge 4 days post education remained statistically significant (P < 0.001). Twenty-seven percent of participants who were screened had symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Fifty-five (53%) participants receiving further individual dysphagia assessment/management correctly completed pre/post swallowing-related quality-of-life surveys (SWAL-QOL). Statistically significant improvement was found in the following subscales: Burden of Dysphagia (P < 0.009), Physical Problems of Dysphagia (P < 0.012) and Managing Diet Options/Food Selection (P < 0.016). Dysphagia education, screening, and management in a pulmonary rehabilitation program improved participants' swallowing-related quality of life and overall self-management of chronic respiratory disease and dysphagia.

  10. Clinical prognostic indicators of dysphagia following prolonged orotracheal intubation in ICU patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of postextubation swallowing dysfunction is well documented in the literature with high prevalence in most studies. However, there are relatively few studies with specific outcomes that focus on the follow-up of these patients until hospital discharge. The purpose of our study was to determine prognostic indicators of dysphagia in ICU patients submitted to prolonged orotracheal intubation (OTI). Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational cohort study from 2010 to 2012 of all patients over 18 years of age admitted to a university hospital ICU who were submitted to prolonged OTI and subsequently received a bedside swallow evaluation (BSE) by a speech pathologist. The prognostic factors analyzed included dysphagia severity rate at the initial swallowing assessment and at hospital discharge, age, time to initiate oral feeding, amount of individual treatment, number of orotracheal intubations, intubation time and length of hospital stay. Results After we excluded patients with neurologic diseases, tracheostomy, esophageal dysphagia and those who were submitted to surgical procedures involving the head and neck, our study sample size was 148 patients. The logistic regression model was used to examine the relationships between independent variables. In the univariate analyses, we found that statistically significant prognostic indicators of dysphagia included dysphagia severity rate at the initial swallowing assessment, time to initiate oral feeding and amount of individual treatment. In the multivariate analysis, we found that dysphagia severity rate at the initial swallowing assessment remained associated with good treatment outcomes. Conclusions Studies of prognostic indicators in different populations with dysphagia can contribute to the design of more effective procedures when evaluating, treating, and monitoring individuals with this type of disorder. Additionally, this study stresses the importance of the initial assessment

  11. The SWAL-QOL outcomes tool for oropharyngeal dysphagia in adults: I. Conceptual foundation and item development.

    PubMed

    McHorney, C A; Bricker, D E; Kramer, A E; Rosenbek, J C; Robbins, J; Chignell, K A; Logemann, J A; Clarke, C

    2000-01-01

    In the past two decades, noteworthy advances have been made in measuring the physiologic outcomes of dysphagia, including measurement of duration of structure and bolus movements, stasis, and penetration-aspiration. However, there is a paucity of data on health outcomes from the patients' perspective, such as quality of life and patient satisfaction. A patient-based, dysphagia-specific outcomes tool is needed to enhance information on treatment variations and treatment effectiveness. We present the conceptual foundation and item generation process for the SWAL-QOL, a quality of life and quality of care outcomes tool under development for dysphagia researchers and clinicians.

  12. Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Akinari; Takahashi, Ippei; Kurauchi, Sizuka; Soma, Yuki; Oyama, Toshiaki; Tamura, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Takao; Murashita, Kouichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan. Patients and methods In this study, there were 532 participants (185 males and 347 females). Participants who responded positively to the question “Do you sometimes choke on drinks/food such as tea and soup?” or those who presented with abnormal repetitive saliva swallowing test findings were diagnosed with dysphagia. The data collected from these participants included the following: number of teeth, occurrence of oral dryness, age, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, presence of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and questions from the Mini–Mental State Examination. Results Dysphagia was observed in 33 males (17.8%) and 76 females (21.9%). To explore the effect of the potential risk factors on the prevalence of dysphagia, a model was built by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using the forced entry method, oral dryness (odds ratio [OR] =3.683 and P=0.003 in males; OR =1.797 and P=0.032 in females) and the number of teeth (OR =0.946 and P=0.038 in males) were found to be significantly related to dysphagia. Conclusion This cross-sectional study demonstrated associations between oral conditions and dysphagia. Factors such as oral dryness and number of teeth may contribute to dysphagia more so than aging, lifestyle and comorbidity in community-dwelling adults over the age of 50. PMID:28352164

  13. A Survey of Australian Dysphagia Practice Patterns.

    PubMed

    Rumbach, Anna; Coombes, Caitlin; Doeltgen, Sebastian

    2017-09-20

    Dysphagia assessment and rehabilitation practice is complex, and significant variability in speech-language pathology approaches has been documented internationally. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing-related assessment and rehabilitation practices of SLPs currently working in Australia. One hundred and fifty-four SLPs completed an online questionnaire administered via QuickSurveys from May to July 2015. Results were analysed descriptively. The majority of clinicians had accessed post-graduate training in dysphagia management and assessment (66.23%). Referral and screening were typically on an ad hoc basis (74.03%). Clinical swallow examination (CSE) and Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study were used by 93.51 and 88.31% of respondents, respectively. CSE was the assessment that predominantly informed clinical decision-making (52.63%). Clinicians typically treated clients with dysphagia for 30 min per session (46.10%), with recommendations of repetition of exercises inconsistent across settings. Outcome measures were utilised by many (67.53%), which however were typically informal. Results indicate variable practice patterns for dysphagia assessment and management across Australia. This variability may reflect the heterogeneous nature of dysphagia and the varying needs of patients accessing different services.

  14. Practical Assessment of Dysphagia in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Moo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a quantitative and organ-specific practical test for the diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia based on assessment of stroke patients. Methods An initial test composed of 24 items was designed to evaluate the function of the organs involved in swallowing. The grading system of the initial test was based on the analysis of 50 normal adults. The initial test was performed in 52 stroke patients with clinical symptoms of dysphagia. Aspiration was measured via a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). The odds ratio was obtained to evaluate the correlation between each item in the initial test and the VFSS. A polychotomous linear logistic model was used to select the final test items. Results Eighteen of 24 initial items were selected as significant for the final tests. These 18 showed high initial validity and reliability. The Spearman correlation coefficient for the total score of the test and functional dysphagia scale was 0.96 (p<0.001), indicating a statistically significant positive correlation. Conclusion This study was carried out to design a quantitative and organ-specific test that assesses the causes of dysphagia in stroke patients; therefore, this test is considered very useful and highly applicable to the diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia. PMID:26798618

  15. Dysphagia and associated risk factors following extubation in cardiovascular surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Skoretz, Stacey A; Yau, Terrence M; Ivanov, Joan; Granton, John T; Martino, Rosemary

    2014-12-01

    Following cardiovascular (CV) surgery, prolonged mechanical ventilation of >48 h increases dysphagia frequency over tenfold: 51 % compared to 3-4 % across all durations. Our primary objective was to identify dysphagia frequency following CV surgery with respect to intubation duration. Our secondary objective was to explore characteristics associated with dysphagia across the entire sample. Using a retrospective design, we stratified all consecutive patients who underwent CV surgery in 2009 at our institution into intubation duration groups defined a priori: I (≤ 12 h), II (>12 to ≤ 24 h), III (>24 to ≤ 48 h), and IV (>48 h). Eligible patients were >18 years old who survived extubation following coronary artery bypass alone or cardiac valve surgery. Patients who underwent tracheotomy were excluded. Pre-, peri-, and postoperative patient variables were extracted from a pre-existing database and medical charts by two blinded reviewers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Across the entire sample, multivariable logistic regression analysis determined independent predictors of dysphagia. Across the entire sample, dysphagia frequency was 5.6 % (51/909) but varied by group: I, 1 % (7/699); II, 8.2 % (11/134); III, 16.7 % (6/36); and IV, 67.5 % (27/40). Across the entire sample, the independent predictors of dysphagia included intubation duration in 12-h increments (p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] 1.93, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.63-2.29) and age in 10-year increments (p = 0.004; OR 2.12, 95 % CI 1.27-3.52). Patients had a twofold increase in their odds of developing dysphagia for every additional 12 h with endotracheal intubation and for every additional decade in age. These patients should undergo post-extubation swallow assessments to minimize complications.

  16. [Relationship between dysphagia and malnutritition in patients over 65 years of age].

    PubMed

    Galán Sánchez-Heredero, María José; Santander Vaquero, Cecilio; Cortázar Sáez, Milagros; de la Morena López, Felipe; Susi García, Rosario; Martínez Rincón, María Del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the relationship between oropharyngeal dysphagia, nutritional risk factors and functional impairment in the elderly (>65y) admitted to a medical-surgical hospital unit. Secondary objectives were to determine the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia, the nutritional status and their functional capacity. A cross-sectional observational study was performed. It included patients over 65 years of age admitted to the Gastroenterology-Urology Department in La Princesa University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) during the months of February and March. The following variables were recorded: age, sex, body mass index, family support, diagnosis, comorbidity, oropharyngeal dysphagia (EAT-10 and volume-viscosity evaluation method), malnutrition (Mininutritional Assessment) and functional capacity (Barthel index). A total of 167 patients were recruited, with 30.8% and 15.4% prevalence of dysphagia and malnutrition, respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition increased to 75% in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. The logistic regression analysis showed how conditions as low score on the Barthel index (OR 0.97 [95% CI, 0.95-0.99]), comorbidity (OR 7.98 [CI 95%, 3.09-20.61]) and dysphagia (OR 4.07 [CI 95%, 1.57-10.52]) were associated with a greater likelihood of suffering malnutrition. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is one of the most underdiagnosed and underestimated conditions among elderly patients and one that has a greater effect on their nutritional status. Accordingly, we suggest using established diagnostic methods with a multidisciplinary team collaboration for its early detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of perioperative steroids on dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Adenikinju, Abidemi S.; Halani, Sameer H.; Rindler, Rima S.; Gary, Matthew F.; Michael, Keith W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Dysphagia following anterior cervical spine surgery is common. Steroids potentially reduce post-operative inflammation that leads to dysphagia; however, the efficacy, optimal dose and route of steroid administration have not been fully elucidated. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the effect of peri-operative steroids on the incidence and severity of dysphagia following anterior cervical spine surgery. Methods A PubMed search adherent to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was performed to include clinical studies reporting use of steroids in adult patients following anterior cervical spine surgery. Data regarding steroid dose, route and timing of administration were abstracted. Incidence and severity of post-operative dysphagia were pooled across studies. Results Seven of 72 screened articles met inclusion criteria for a total of 246,298 patients that received steroids. Patients that received systemic and local steroids had significant reductions in rate and severity of dysphagia postoperatively. Reduction of dysphagia severity was more pronounced in patients undergoing multilevel procedures in both groups. There was no difference in infectious complications among patients that received steroids compared with controls. There was no difference in fusion rates at long-term follow-up. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Steroids may reduce dysphagia after anterior cervical spinal procedures in the early post-operative period without increasing complications. This may be especially beneficial in patients undergoing multilevel procedures. Future studies should further define the optimal dose and route of steroid administration, and the specific contraindications for use. PMID:28377867

  18. Psychometric characteristics of health-related quality-of-life questionnaires in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Angelique A; Speyer, Renée; Heijnen, Bas J; Klijn-Zwijnenberg, Iris R

    2014-04-01

    Dysphagia can have severe consequences for the patient's health, influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Sound psychometric properties of HRQoL questionnaires are a precondition for assessing the impact of dysphagia, the focus of this study, resulting in recommendations for the appropriate use of these questionnaires in both clinical practice and research contexts. We performed a systematic review starting with a search for and retrieval of all full-text articles on the development of HRQoL questionnaires related to oropharyngeal dysphagia and/or their psychometric validation from the electronic databases PubMed and Embase published up to June 2011. Psychometric properties were judged according to quality criteria proposed for health status questionnaires. Eight questionnaires were included in this study. Four are aimed solely at HRQoL in oropharyngeal dysphagia: the deglutition handicap index (DHI), dysphagia handicap index (DHI'), M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), and SWAL-QOL, while the EDGQ, EORTC QLQ-STO 22, EORTC QLQ-OG 25 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 focus on other primary diseases resulting in dysphagia. The psychometric properties of the DHI, DHI', MDADI, and SWAL-QOL were evaluated. For appropriate applicability of HRQoL questionnaires, strong scores on the psychometric criteria face validity, criterion validity, and interpretability are prerequisites. The SWAL-QOL has the strongest ratings for these criteria, while the DHI' is the most easy to apply given its 25 items and the use of a uniform scoring format. For optimal use of HRQoL questionnaires in diverse settings, it is necessary to combine psychometric and utility approaches.

  19. Medicine administration errors in patients with dysphagia in secondary care: a multi-centre observational study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jennifer; Wright, David; Wood, John

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the interventions used by nurses when administering oral medicines to patients with and without dysphagia, to quantify the appropriateness of these interventions and the medicine administration error rate. The administration of medicines to patients with dysphagia is complex and potentially more error prone because of the need to match the medication's formulation to the swallowing ability of the patient. Data was collected on the preparation and administration of oral medicines to patients with and without dysphagia, including those with enteral feeding tubes, using undisguised direct observation of 65 nurse-led medicine administration rounds on stroke and care-of-the-elderly wards at four acute general hospitals in East of England between 1 March and 30 June 2008. Of the 2129 medicine administrations observed, 817 involved an error, and of these 313 involved patients with dysphagia. Excluding time errors, the normalized frequency of medicine administration errors for patients with dysphagia was 21.1% compared with 5.9% for patients without. Using a mixed effects model and excluding time errors, there is a higher risk of errors for patients with dysphagia (excluding patients with enteral tubes) compared with those without (P < 0.001) and a further increase in risk of error for patients with enteral tubes compared with dysphagic patients without tubes (P < 0.001). The increased medicine administration error rate in patients with dysphagia requires healthcare professionals to take extra care when prescribing, dispensing and administering medicines to this group. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Validation of the Japanese translation of the Dysphagia Handicap Index

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Fukumoto, Yutaka; Nakayama, Keigo; Sato, Masako; Murata, Miho; Kobayashi, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Background We developed, and examined the reliability and validity of, a Japanese version of the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI; DHI-J), which is a self-reported measure to assess the quality of life (QOL) of individuals with dysphagia. Participants and methods The DHI-J was developed via the back-translation method: the DHI was translated into Japanese and then translated back into English by a native English speaker. The back translation was discussed with and approved by the DHI’s lead author. A total of 229 patients (119 males, 110 females; median age: 66 years) who underwent videofluorography at our hospital between January and December 2013 and 65 controls (23 males, 42 females; median age: 44 years) were included in the study. All the subjects completed the DHI-J and self-reported their dysphagia severity. Twenty-three patients repeated the procedure 1 week later. Patients’ swallowing function was classified as “normal”, “moderately impaired”, or “severely impaired”, and the DHI-J total scores were compared between the severity groups. Results The internal consistency of the DHI-J was high (Cronbach’s α=0.95), as was the test–retest reliability of the 23 patients who answered the questionnaire twice (intraclass correlation coefficient =0.98, P<0.01). The DHI-J total score and its three subscale scores were significantly higher among the patients than among controls. A significant correlation (ρ=0.85) was observed between the DHI-J total score and self-reported dysphagia severity score. Regarding the comparison of DHI-J scores by severity groups, the DHI-J total scores significantly differed between the normal and moderately impaired groups, and the normal and severely impaired groups. However, the moderately and severely impaired groups showed no significant difference in scores. Conclusion The DHI-J is a reliable and valid questionnaire for assessing the QOL of patients with dysphagia. However, we did not survey patients with

  1. [Causes, diagnosis and treatment of neurogenic dysphagia as an interdisciplinary clinical problem].

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Jurek

    2006-01-01

    The intricate mechanism of swallowing can be divided into three phases: oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal. Dysphagia is a disruption in the swallowing process, which include difficulty in transporting (or a lack of transporting) a food or liquid bolus from the mouth through the pharynx and esophagus into the stomach. Causes of disruptions in the swallowing process can be divided into superior (oropharyngeal) and inferior (esophageal) according to Paradowski et al. Neurlologic dysphagia may be caused by a disruption in different parts of the central nervous system (supranuclear level, level of motor and sensory nuclei taking part in swallowing process, peripherial nerves level and a pathology of muscle cells and spindles) or neuromuscular and muscular disorders. Neuromuscular disorders causes according to Waśko-Czopnik et al. are: stroke, brain tumors, brain injury, bulbar and pseudobulbar paralysis, neurodegenerative diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis), tabes dorsalis, multisystem degenerations, Parkinson's disease, delayed dyskineses, Huntington's disease, myasthenia and myasthenic syndromes, myopathies and peripherial neuropathies. The correct diagnosis evaluation include history taking, physical examination with palpation and consultations (laryngological, gastrological and neurological). According to Halama radiological esophagogram, videofluoroscopy, flexible endoscopic examination, ultrasound examination, manometry, electromyography, scintigraphy and 24 hour pH monitoring are main diagnostic procedures of dysphagia. Some of the reasons for the neurologic dysphagia may be treated by surgical and pharmacological methods. Neurologic dysphagia rehabilitation is difficult, long-lasting and often falling far short of expected results. Primary it should include neurologic cause treatment if it is possible. According to WHO International Classification of Functioning and Health in 2001 non-invasive methods of dysphagia treatment may be

  2. Diagnostic value of "dysphagia limit" for neurogenic dysphagia: 17 years of experience in 1278 adults.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Ibrahim; Kiylioglu, Nefati; Tarlaci, Sultan; Tanriverdi, Zeynep; Alpaydin, Sezin; Acarer, Ahmet; Baysal, Leyla; Arpaci, Esra; Yuceyar, Nur; Secil, Yaprak; Ozdemirkiran, Tolga; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2015-03-01

    Neurogenic dysphagia (ND) is a prevalent condition that accounts for significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Screening and follow-up are critical for early diagnosis and management which can mitigate its complications and be cost-saving. The aims of this study are to provide a comprehensive investigation of the dysphagia limit (DL) in a large diverse cohort and to provide a longitudinal assessment of dysphagia in a subset of subjects. We developed a quantitative and noninvasive method for objective assessment of dysphagia by using laryngeal sensor and submental electromyography. DL is the volume at which second or more swallows become necessary to swallow the whole amount of bolus. This study represents 17 years experience with the DL approach in assessing ND in a cohort of 1278 adult subjects consisting of 292 healthy controls, 784 patients with dysphagia, and 202 patients without dysphagia. A total of 192 of all patients were also reevaluated longitudinally over a period of 1-19 months. DL has 92% sensitivity, 91% specificity, 94% positive predictive value, and 88% negative predictive value with an accuracy of 0.92. Patients with ALS, stroke, and movement disorders have the highest sensitivity (85-97%) and positive predictive value (90-99%). The clinical severity of dysphagia has significant negative correlation with DL (r=-0.67, p<0.0001). We propose the DL as a reliable, quick, noninvasive, quantitative test to detect and follow both clinical and subclinical dysphagia and it can be performed in an EMG laboratory. Our study provides specific quantitative features of DL test that can be readily utilized by the neurologic community and nominates DL as an objective and robust method to evaluate dysphagia in a wide range of neurologic conditions. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Third-party disability in carers of people with dysphagia following non-surgical management for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Nund, Rebecca L; Scarinci, Nerina A; Cartmill, Bena; Ward, Elizabeth C; Kuipers, Pim; Porceddu, Sandro V

    2016-01-01

    Third-party disability pertains to the consequences of a person's impairment which impacts on the functioning and ability of their family members or significant others. With the emergence of research demonstrating the pervasive effects of dysphagia following head and neck cancer (HNC) on the carer, the aim of this study was to identify the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domains and categories that describe the third-party disability of carers of people with dysphagia following HNC. Twelve carers of people with dysphagia following HNC participated in individual semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Categories and sub-categories identified from the qualitative analysis were mapped to the ICF using the established linking rules. The majority of the categories and sub-categories from the qualitative analysis were successfully linked to the ICF with most linking to the Activities and Participation component. A number of contextual factors were also identified as impacting on the functioning of carers. The ICF can be successfully used to describe the third-party disability in carers of people with dysphagia following HNC management. This information could be used by clinicians, researchers and policy makers to help establish evidence-based guidelines that include carers in the assessment and management of dysphagia associated with HNC. Clinical levels of distress and reduced quality of life have been associated with caring for a person with dysphagia following head and neck cancer. The flow-on effects of dysphagia experienced by a carer or close family member can be understood as a third-party disability, which impacts on their functioning, activities and participation in the context of the environment and personal factors. Using the ICF to describe the indirect effects of dysphagia on the carer may help to guide the assessment and support of this population, and advocate for the inclusion of the concerns of the carer in

  4. [Management of dysphagia in the institutionalized elderly patient: current situation].

    PubMed

    Botella Trelis, J J; Ferrero López, M I

    2002-01-01

    Elderly patients suffering from dysphagia, institutionalised either in hospital or nursing homes, have been studied. Etiology, characteristics and complications of dysphagia were studied as well as the most frequently used strategies to improve the management of swallowing disorders. A retrospective study of the complications of dysphagia found during the last 4 years in our hospital were conducted in addition to a cross-sectional study of the techniques used to manage dysphagia. A postal questionnaire was sent to all the registered nursing homes in the Valencian Community. Inhospital patients: 58% of physicians estimated that no less than 20% of patients under their care presented dysphagia. 13% of the total number of hospital diets were specific for swallowing disorders. All the patients suffering from dysphagia used a liquid thickener. Nursing Homes residents: 107 questionnaires were returned. This represents 7057 residents of which 3.6% were suffering from dysphagia. 54% of nursing homes have a specific diet for the management of dysphagia, 51% used nasogastric feeding and 30% consider PEG. The most frequent complications were 75% lung aspirations, 39% dehydration, 32% malnourishment and 31% pneumonia. Dysphagia is an important problem in elderly people. In our hospital there is a correct use of a dysphagia diet but it could be more widespread and further measures should be taken. Complications are frequent but are not correctly documented in the medical records. Nursing home residents have frequent and important complications when suffering dysphagia. Interventions towards a better management of dysphagia should be recommended and implemented.

  5. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte leading to Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee; Joo, Won Il

    2013-09-01

    Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress.

  6. Malingering dysphagia and odynophagia electromyographic assessment.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Shoval, Gal; Gavriel, Haim

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the usefulness and investigation technique of suspected malingering dysphagia/odynophagia by surface electromyography (sEMG) of deglutition. Forty patients with suspected malingering dysphagia (group 1), 40 patients with dysphagia/odynophagia due to tonsillectomy (group 2), and 40 healthy individuals (group 3) were involved in the study. The timing, amplitude, and graphic patterns of activity of the masseter, submental, and trapezius muscles were examined during voluntary single water swallows ("normal") and continuous drinking of 100 mL of water. The muscle activity in oral, pharyngeal, and initial esophageal stages of swallowing was measured, and graphic records were evaluated in relation to timing and voltage. The main sEMG patterns of malingering dysphagia/odynophagia are prolonged time of the voluntary oral phase of a swallow (80% of cases, n = 32, P < .01 vs healthy volunteers) with normal timing of the reflex pharyngeal and initial esophageal phases and normal amplitude voltage. In 42.5% of cases (n = 17, P < .05 vs healthy volunteers), tension of skeletal muscles normally not involved in deglutition was observed during single swallowing being at the same time absent during continuous drinking. Dysphagia due to malingering has no pathologic sEMG patterns associated with deglutition. Skeletal muscle tension during deglutition, being observed in some cases, has no connection with the act of swallowing itself. Prolonged oral phase of a swallow is factitious, nonpathologic. Surface EMG, being noninvasive, nonradiographic and inexpensive, can be used for patients with suspected malingering dysphagia, thus avoiding expensive and time-consuming investigation.

  7. Fundoplication for laryngopharyngeal reflux despite preoperative dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Falk, G L; Van der Wall, H; Burton, L; Falk, M G; O'Donnell, H; Vivian, S J

    2017-03-01

    INTRODUCTION Fundoplication for laryngopharyngeal disease with oesophageal dysmotility has led to mixed outcomes. In the presence of preoperative dysphagia and oesophageal dysmotility, this procedure has engendered concern in certain regards. METHODS This paper describes a consecutive series of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) patients with a high frequency of dysmotility. Patients were selected for surgery with 24-hour dual channel pH monitoring, oesophageal manometry and standardised reflux scintigraphy. RESULTS Following careful patient selection, 33 patients underwent fundoplication by laparoscopy. Surgery had high efficacy in symptom control and there was no adverse dysphagia. CONCLUSIONS Evidence of proximal reflux can select a group of patients for good results of fundoplication for atypical symptoms.

  8. School-based speech-language pathologists' perspectives on dysphagia management in the schools.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rita L; Stoner, Julia B; Angell, Maureen E; Fetzer, Alycia

    2008-10-01

    Although provision of dysphagia services is within the scope of practice of speech-language pathologists (SLPs), little is known about the perspectives of school-based SLPs in relation to these services. The purpose of this study was to examine SLPs' perspectives related to school-based management of students with dysphagia. Focus group interviews were conducted with 33 SLPs who were employed by a large school district in the Midwest before development of district-supported policies and protocols related to dysphagia management. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative analysis methods. A variety of common perspectives emerged from the data, including a primary perceived difficulty in adapting practice in dysphagia from medical to educational service delivery models and settings. Additionally, 3 thematic categories of concerns emerged that were related to child characteristics, training, and support. Information gained in this investigation may be used to develop effective service delivery models, policies, and protocols, as well as to identify necessary supports related to the management of students with dysphagia in school settings.

  9. Relationship between Dysphagia and Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Steidl, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Carla Simone; Gonçalves, Bruna Franciele; Fernandes, Natália; Antunes, Vívian; Mancopes, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The literature presents studies correlating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to dysphagia and suggesting that the aspiration laryngeal phenomenon related to changes in the pharyngeal phase contributes significantly to the exacerbation of symptoms of lung disease. Objectives This study aimed to conduct a literature review to identify the relation between dysphagia and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Data Synthesis We found 21 studies and included 19 in this review. The few studies that related to the subject agreed that the presence of dysphagia, due to lack of coordination between swallowing and breathing, may be one of the triggering factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. Conclusions The review noted that there is a relationship between dysphagia and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, identified by studies demonstrating that the difficulties associated with swallowing may lead to exacerbation of the disease. There was difficulty in comparing studies by their methodological differences. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between dysphagia and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, making it possible to develop multiprofessional treatment strategies for these patients, catered to specific needs due to the systemic manifestations of the disease. PMID:25992155

  10. Validity and reliability of swallowing screening tools used by nurses for dysphagia: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiin-Ling; Fu, Shu-Ying; Wang, Wan-Hsiang; Ma, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia following neurological impairment increases the risk of dehydration, malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and even death. Screening for dysphagia has been reported to change negative outcomes. This review evaluated the validity and reliability of measurement tools for screening dysphagia in patients with neurological disorders to identify a feasible tool that can be used by nurses. Electronic databases were searched for studies from 1992 to 2015 related to dysphagia screening measurements. The search was applied to the Pubmed, CINAHL, Cochrane, Medline, EBSCO host, and CEPS + CETD databases. A checklist was used to evaluate the psychometric quality. The tools were evaluated for their feasibility for incorporation into routine care by nurses in hospitals. A total of 104 papers were retrieved, and eight articles finally met the inclusion criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of the screening tools ranged from 29% to 100% and from 65% to 100%, respectively. The interrater reliability ranged from good to excellent agreement. On the basis of quality evaluations, all the included studies had a risk of bias because of inadequate methodological characteristics. The Standardized Swallowing Assessment is the most suitable tool for detecting dysphagia because its psychometric properties and feasibility are higher than those of other screening tools that can be administered by nurses.

  11. Validity and reliability of swallowing screening tools used by nurses for dysphagia: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiin-Ling; Fu, Shu-Ying; Wang, Wan-Hsiang; Ma, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia following neurological impairment increases the risk of dehydration, malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and even death. Screening for dysphagia has been reported to change negative outcomes. This review evaluated the validity and reliability of measurement tools for screening dysphagia in patients with neurological disorders to identify a feasible tool that can be used by nurses. Electronic databases were searched for studies from 1992 to 2015 related to dysphagia screening measurements. The search was applied to the Pubmed, CINAHL, Cochrane, Medline, EBSCO host, and CEPS + CETD databases. A checklist was used to evaluate the psychometric quality. The tools were evaluated for their feasibility for incorporation into routine care by nurses in hospitals. A total of 104 papers were retrieved, and eight articles finally met the inclusion criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of the screening tools ranged from 29% to 100% and from 65% to 100%, respectively. The interrater reliability ranged from good to excellent agreement. On the basis of quality evaluations, all the included studies had a risk of bias because of inadequate methodological characteristics. The Standardized Swallowing Assessment is the most suitable tool for detecting dysphagia because its psychometric properties and feasibility are higher than those of other screening tools that can be administered by nurses. PMID:28757720

  12. The relationship between limit of Dysphagia and average volume per swallow in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; Gomes, Nathália Angelina Costa; Coriolano, Maria das Graças Wanderley de Sales; de Souza, Elizabete Santos; Moura, Danielle Albuquerque Alves; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain the limit of dysphagia and the average volume per swallow in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) but without swallowing complaints and in normal subjects, and to investigate the relationship between them. We hypothesize there is a direct relationship between these two measurements. The study included 10 patients with idiopathic PD and 10 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was recorded over the suprahyoid muscle group. The limit of dysphagia was obtained by offering increasing volumes of water until piecemeal deglutition occurred. The average volume per swallow was calculated by dividing the time taken by the number of swallows used to drink 100 ml of water. The PD group showed a significantly lower dysphagia limit and lower average volume per swallow. There was a significantly moderate direct correlation and association between the two measurements. About half of the PD patients had an abnormally low dysphagia limit and average volume per swallow, although none had spontaneously related swallowing problems. Both measurements may be used as a quick objective screening test for the early identification of swallowing alterations that may lead to dysphagia in PD patients, but the determination of the average volume per swallow is much quicker and simpler.

  13. Gradual onset of dysphagia: a study of patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Young, E C; Durant-Jones, L

    1997-01-01

    This study describes five patients with slowly developing dysphagia secondary to oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD), a progressive neurological disorder characterized by gradual onset of dysphagia, ptosis, and facial and trunk limb weakness. OPMD is a genetic disorder that affects formerly healthy adults who typically begin to experience symptoms in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Despite the debilitating nature of the disease, it is common for affected individuals to live to old age. Because of the gradual progression of dysphagia, as well as the deterioration of articulation, resonance, and breath support, patients with OPMD may come to the attention of physicians, nurses, and speech pathologists before a diagnosis is made. We hope to heighten awareness of how these subjects developed strategies to cope with their swallowing problems without medical intervention until the disease was producing marked symptoms. Patients with suspected dysphagia should be questioned about overt problems with eating and swallowing, but also about their adaptations and compensatory strategies. A Clinical Interview Questionnaire is included that may yield additional information about hidden dysphagia.

  14. Cognitive impairment has no impact on hospital-associated dysphagia in aspiration pneumonia patients.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Shamoto, Hiroshi; Akagi, Junji

    2017-09-21

    Hospital-associated dysphagia, characterized by deconditioning of swallowing as a result of hospitalization, is sometimes observed in patients with aspiration pneumonia (AP). Cognitive impairment is known as a negative factor in dysphagia rehabilitation. The present study aimed to examine the association between cognitive impairment and hospital-associated dysphagia in patients with AP receiving dysphagia rehabilitation. A retrospective observational study was carried out in an acute geriatric hospital. A total of 249 AP patients receiving multidisciplinary individualized dysphagia rehabilitation were included. Patients were divided into four groups according to their Mini-Mental State Examination scores. The Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) was used to assess swallowing ability, and hospital-associated dysphagia was defined as a FOIS decline of ≥1 or ≥2 levels. Body mass index and Barthel Index were obtained to assess nutritional status and activities of daily living. The mean age was 85.6 ± 7.3 years, and 47% were men. Frequencies of hospital-associated dysphagia observed in lowest to highest Mini-Mental State Examination groups were 43.0%, 36.2%, 47.4% and 27.3% (P = 0.133), and 13.9%, 20.7%, 17.5% and 5.5% (P = 0.117) based on FOIS decline ≥1 or ≥2 levels, respectively. Multivariable regression model showed that the Mini-Mental State Examination score was not an independent determinant of FOIS at discharge (beta = 0.063, P = 0.378) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, Barthel Index, pneumonia severity, speech-language pathologist intervention, comorbidities, length of hospital stay and premorbid FOIS. The severity of cognitive impairment has no impact on hospital-associated dysphagia in AP patients receiving dysphagia rehabilitation. A future interventional study will be expected to further validate our findings. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. The effect of sensory level electrical stimulation of the masseter muscle in early stroke patients with dysphagia: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Umay, Ebru K; Yaylaci, Atilay; Saylam, Guleser; Gundogdu, Ibrahim; Gurcay, Eda; Akcapinar, Dehen; Kirac, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Dysphagia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in stroke patients. As the first study in literature, we aimed to evaluate the effects of sensory-level electrical stimulation (SES) to bilateral masseter muscles in early stroke patients with dysphagia. This study was conducted at the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic of our hospital between 2013 and 2015. Ninety-eight patients with dysphagia within the first month after ischemic stroke were included in this study. Patients were evaluated by bedside screening tests (Bedside Dysphagia Score, Neurological Examination Dysphagia Score, Total Dysphagia Score, and Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability test) and by flexible fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) methods. All patients were included in a traditional swallowing therapy. Patients were divided into two groups, namely the "stimulation group" and "sham group." SES was applied to bilateral masseter muscles. Evaluation parameters were compared between the groups before and after therapy. The Friedman test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Fisher exact test were used in this study. There was a significant improvement in dysphagia severity scores evaluated by bedside screening tests and FEES in cognitive and total functionality levels except in motor functional independence level in the stimulation group. In the sham group, there were no significant changes in the evaluation parameters. SES applied to bilateral masseter muscles may provide an effective treatment for both dysphagia and cognitive function in early stroke patients.

  16. A feasibility study incorporating a pilot randomised controlled trial of oral feeding plus pre-treatment gastrostomy tube versus oral feeding plus as-needed nasogastric tube feeding in patients undergoing chemoradiation for head and neck cancer (TUBE trial): study protocol.

    PubMed

    Paleri, Vinidh; Wood, Joshua; Patterson, Joanne; Stocken, Deborah D; Cole, Mike; Vale, Luke; Franks, Jeremy; Guerrero-Urbano, Teresa; Donnelly, Rachael; Barclay, Stewart; Rapley, Tim; Rousseau, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    There are 7000 new cases of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCC) treated by the NHS each year. Stage III and IV HNSCC can be treated non-surgically by radio therapy (RT) or chemoradiation therapy (CRT). CRT can affect eating and drinking through a range of side effects with 90 % of patients undergoing this treatment requiring nutritional support via gastrostomy (G) or nasogastric (NG) tube feeding. Long-term dysphagia following CRT is a primary concern for patients. The effect of enteral feeding routes on swallowing function is not well understood, and the two feeding methods have, to date, not been compared to assess which leads to a better patient outcome. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing these two options with particular emphasis on patient willingness to be randomised and clinician willingness to approach eligible patients. This is a mixed methods multicentre study to establish the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial comparing oral feeding plus pre-treatment gastrostomy versus oral feeding plus as required nasogastric tube feeding in patients with HNSCC. A total of 60 participants will be randomised to the two arms of the study (1:1 ratio). The primary outcome of feasibility is a composite of recruitment (willingness to randomise and be randomised) and retention. A qualitative process evaluation investigating patient, family and friends and staff experiences of trial participation will also be conducted alongside an economic modelling exercise to synthesise available evidence and provide estimates of cost-effectiveness and value of information. Participants will be assessed at baseline (pre-randomisation), during CRT weekly, 3 months and 6 months. Clinicians are in equipoise over the enteral feeding options for patients being treated with CRT. Swallowing outcomes have been identified as a top priority for patients following treatment and this trial would inform

  17. Dysphagia in Ramsay Hunt's Syndrome - A Case Report -

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae Hoon; Kwon, Bum Sun; Ryu, Ki Hyung; Lee, Ho Jun; Lim, Woo Hyun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Park, Young Geun

    2011-01-01

    Ramsay-Hunt syndrome is caused by varicella zoster virus infection in the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve. It is characterized by facial palsy, otic pain, and herpetic vesicles around the auricle and external auditory canal. Additionally, symptoms may develop related to other cranial nerve involvement, such as dizziness or hearing loss by the vestibulocochlear nerve being invaded. We report a rare case of a Ramsay-Hunt syndrome patient who developed dysphagia due to multiple cranial nerve involvement including the glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve. PMID:22506200

  18. Interventions for dysphagia in long-term, progressive muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katherine; Pitceathly, Robert D S; Rose, Michael R; McGowan, Susan; Hill, Marguerite; Badrising, Umesh A; Hughes, Tom

    2016-02-09

    Normal swallowing function is divided into oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal phases. The anatomy and physiology of the oral cavity facilitates an oral preparatory phase of swallowing, in which food and liquid are pushed towards the pharynx by the tongue. During pharyngeal and oesophageal phases of swallowing, food and liquid are moved from the pharynx to the stomach via the oesophagus. Our understanding of swallowing function in health and disease has informed our understanding of how muscle weakness can disrupt swallowing in people with muscle disease. As a common complication of long-term, progressive muscle disease, there is a clear need to evaluate the current interventions for managing swallowing difficulties (dysphagia). This is an update of a review first published in 2004. To assess the effects of interventions for dysphagia in people with long-term, progressive muscle disease. On 11 January 2016, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, LILACS, and CINAHL. We checked references in the identified trials for additional randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 12 January 2016 for ongoing or completed but unpublished clinical trials. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed the effect of interventions for managing dysphagia in adults and children with long-term, progressive muscle disease, compared to other interventions, placebo, no intervention, or standard care. Quasi-randomised controlled trials are trials that used a quasi-random method of allocation, such as date of birth, alternation, or case record number. Review authors previously excluded trials involving people with muscle conditions of a known inflammatory or toxic aetiology. In this review update, we decided to include trials of

  19. A rare cause of dysphagia: compression of the esophagus by an anterior cervical osteophyte due to ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Ilknur; Bağcacı, Sinan; Sallı, Ali; Kucuksen, Sami; Uğurlu, Hatice

    2013-09-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory rheumatological disease affecting the axial skeleton with various extra-articular complications. Dysphagia due to a giant anterior osteophyte of the cervical spine in AS is extremely rare. We present a 48-year-old male with AS suffering from progressive dysphagia to soft foods and liquids. Esophagography showed an anterior osteophyte at C5-C6 resulting in esophageal compression. The patient refused surgical resection of the osteophyte and received conservative therapy. However, after 6 months there was no improvement in dysphagia. This case illustrates that a large cervical osteophyte may be the cause of dysphagia in patients with AS and should be included in the diagnostic workup in early stages of the disease.

  20. The Neurobiology of Swallowing and Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological study of swallowing and its dysfunction, defined as dysphagia, has evolved over two centuries beginning with electrical stimulation applied directly to the central nervous system, and then followed by systematic investigations that have used lesioning, transmagnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic…

  1. The Neurobiology of Swallowing and Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological study of swallowing and its dysfunction, defined as dysphagia, has evolved over two centuries beginning with electrical stimulation applied directly to the central nervous system, and then followed by systematic investigations that have used lesioning, transmagnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic…

  2. Dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: a systematic review of potential preventative measures.

    PubMed

    Joaquim, Andrei F; Murar, Jozef; Savage, Jason W; Patel, Alpesh A

    2014-09-01

    Anterior cervical spine surgery is one of the most common spinal procedures performed around the world, but dysphagia is a frequent postoperative complication. Many factors have been associated with an increased risk of swallowing difficulties, including multilevel surgery, revision surgery, and female gender. The objective of this study was to review and define potential preventative measures that can decrease the incidence of dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery. This was a systematic literature review. A systematic review in the Medline database was performed. Articles related to dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery and potential preventative measures were included. Twenty articles met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. These articles reported several potential preventative measures to avoid postoperative dysphagia. Preoperative measures include performing tracheal exercises before the surgical procedure. Intraoperative measures can be summarized as avoiding a prolonged operative time and the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein in routine anterior cervical spine surgery, using small and smoother cervical plates, using anchored spacers instead of plates, application of steroid before wound closure, performing arthroplasty instead of anterior cervical fusion for one-level disease, decreasing tracheal cuff pressure during medial retraction, using specific retractors, and changing the dissection plan. Current literature supports several preventative measures that may decrease the incidence of postoperative dysphagia. Although the evidence is limited and weak, most of these measures did not appear to increase other complications and can be easily incorporated into a surgical practice, especially in patients who are at high risk for postoperative dysphagia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bedside screening to detect oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with neurological disorders: an updated systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kertscher, Berit; Speyer, Renée; Palmieri, Maria; Plant, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a highly prevalent comorbidity in neurological patients and presents a serious health threat, which may le to outcomes of aspiration pneumonia ranging from hospitalization to death. Therefore, an early identification of risk followed by an accurate diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia is fundamental. This systematic review provides an update of currently available bedside screenings to identify oropharyngeal dysphagia in neurological patients. An electronic search was carried out in the databases PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsychInfo (formerly PsychLit), and all hits from 2008 up to December 2012 were included in the review. Only studies with sufficient methodological quality were considered, after which the psychometric characteristics of the screening tools were determined. Two relevant bedside screenings were identified, with a minimum sensitivity and specificity of ≥70 and ≥60 %, respectively.

  4. Feeding Problems and Their Underlying Mechanisms in the Esophageal Atresia–Tracheoesophageal Fistula Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Lisa; Rosen, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Feeding difficulties such as dysphagia, coughing, choking, or vomiting during meals, slow eating, oral aversion, food refusal, and stressful mealtimes are common in children with repaired esophageal atresia (EA) and the reasons for this are often multifactorial. The aim of this review is to describe the possible underlying mechanisms contributing to feeding difficulties in patients with EA and approaches to management. Underlying mechanisms for these feeding difficulties include esophageal dysphagia, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration, and aversions related to prolonged gastrostomy tube feeding. The initial diagnostic evaluation for feeding difficulties in a patient with EA may involve an esophagram, videofluoroscopic imaging or fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation during swallowing, upper endoscopy with biopsies, pH-impedance testing, and/or esophageal motility studies. The main goal of management is to reduce the factors contributing to feeding difficulties and may include reducing esophageal stasis, maximizing reflux therapies, treating underlying lung disease, dilating strictures, and altering feeding methods, routes, or schedules. PMID:28620597

  5. Dysphonia and dysphagia after anterior cervical decompression.

    PubMed

    Tervonen, Hanna; Niemelä, Mika; Lauri, Eija-Riitta; Back, Leif; Juvas, Anja; Räsänen, Pirjo; Roine, Risto P; Sintonen, Harri; Salmi, Tapani; Vilkman, S Erkki; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the effects of anterior cervical decompression (ACD) on swallowing and vocal function. The study comprised 114 patients who underwent ACD. The early group (50 patients) was examined immediately pre- and postoperatively, and the late group (64 patients) was examined at only 3 to 9 months postoperatively. Fifty age- and sex-matched patients from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery who had not been intubated in the previous 5 years were used as a control group. All patients in the early and control groups were examined by a laryngologist; patients in the late group were examined by a laryngologist and a neurosurgeon. Videolaryngostroboscopy was performed in all members of the patient and control groups, and the function of the ninth through 12th cranial nerves were clinically evaluated. Data were collected concerning swallowing, voice quality, surgery results, and health-related quality of life. Patients with persistent dysphonia were referred for phoniatric evaluation and laryngeal electromyography (EMG). Those with persistent dysphagia underwent transoral endoscopic evaluation of swallowing function and videofluorography. Sixty percent of patients in the early group reported dysphonia and 69% reported dysphagia at the immediate postoperative visit. Unilateral vocal fold paresis occurred in 12%. The prevalence of both dysphonia and dysphagia decreased in both groups 3 to 9 months postoperatively. All six patients with vocal fold paresis in the early group recovered, and in the late group there were two cases of vocal fold paresis. The results of laryngeal EMG were abnormal in 14 of 16 patients with persistent dysphonia. Neither intraoperative factors nor age or sex had any effect on the occurrence of dysphonia, dysphagia, or vocal fold paresis. Most patients were satisfied with the surgical outcome. Dysphonia, dysphagia, and vocal fold paresis are common but usually transient complications of ACD

  6. Oropharyngeal dysphagia and language delay in partial trisomy 9p: case report.

    PubMed

    Rossi, N F; Gatto, A R; Cola, P C; Souza, D H; Moretti-Ferreira, D; Giacheti, C M

    2009-09-22

    The phenotype of partial trisomy 9p includes global developmental delay, microcephaly, bulbous nose, downturned oral commissures, malformed ears, hypotonia, and severe cognitive and language disorders. We present a case report and a comparative review of clinical findings on this condition, focusing on speech-language development, cognitive abilities and swallowing evaluation. We suggest that oropharyngeal dysphagia should be further investigated, considering that pulmonary and nutritional disorders affect the survival and quality of life of the patient. As far as we know, this is the first study of a patient with partial trisomy 9p described with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

  7. Decreased tongue pressure is associated with sarcopenia and sarcopenic dysphagia in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keisuke; Akagi, Junji

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the association between tongue pressure and factors related to sarcopenia such as aging, activities of daily living, nutritional state, and dysphagia. One-hundred-and-four patients without a history of treatment of stroke and without a diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease (36 men and 68 women), with a mean age of 84.1 ± 5.6 years, hospitalized from May 2013 to June 2013 were included in this study. Maximum voluntary tongue pressure against the palate (MTP) was measured by a device consisting of a disposable oral balloon probe. Nutritional and anthropometric parameters such as serum albumin concentration, Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-SF), body mass index, arm muscle area (AMA), and others and presence of sarcopenia and dysphagia were analyzed to evaluate their relationships. Correlation analysis and univariate or multivariate analysis were performed. Simple correlation analysis showed that MTP correlated with Barthel index (BI), MNA-SF, serum albumin concentration, body mass index, and AMA. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that sarcopenia, BI, MNA-SF, and age were the independent explanatory factors for decreased MTP, and the propensity score for dysphagia, including causes of primary or secondary sarcopenia, and the presence of sarcopenia were significantly associated with the presence of dysphagia. Decreased MTP and dysphagia were related to sarcopenia or the causes of sarcopenia in the studied population. Furthermore, the clinical condition of sarcopenic dysphagia may be partially interpreted as the presence of sarcopenia and causal factors for sarcopenia.

  8. Risk of dysphagia and speech and language delay in PHACE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kari L; Arvedson, Joan C; Bayer, Michelle L; Drolet, Beth A; Chun, Robert; Siegel, Dawn H

    2015-01-01

    PHACE (posterior fossa, hemangioma, arterial lesions, cardiac, and eye) syndrome consists of infantile hemangiomas of the head and neck along with a spectrum of noncutaneous anomalies. Neurodevelopmental abnormalities have also been noted. Here we describe the association between PHACE syndrome and abnormalities in oropharyngeal development and coordination manifesting as dysphagia or speech and language delay. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 34 patients with PHACE syndrome. Data were collected from prior clinical notes and radiographic studies and the results of a comprehensive questionnaire that those who attended the July 2012 PHACE Syndrome Family Conference completed. Seventeen of 34 patients with PHACE syndrome and signs or symptoms of dysphagia or speech or language problems were included for analysis. Nine had dysphagia, seven had a history of cardiac surgery, four had a posterior fossa malformation, and seven had lip or oropharynx hemangiomas. Speech or language delay was noted in 16; posterior fossa abnormalities and lip or oropharynx hemangiomas were the most commonly seen associated finding in this group. There was considerable overlap between subset populations with dysphagia, speech delay, and language delay. A subset of individuals with PHACE syndrome experience dysphagia, speech delay, or language delay. This risk seems to be greater in certain subsets of patients, including those with posterior fossa malformations or lip or oropharynx hemangiomas and those with a history of cardiac surgery. Although this descriptive study was not comprehensive enough to examine prevalence, the high incidence of dysphagia and speech and language delay seen in our cohort warrants future prospective studies to further investigate the association. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluating a novel approach to enhancing dysphagia management: workplace-based, blended e-learning.

    PubMed

    Ilott, Irene; Bennett, Bev; Gerrish, Kate; Pownall, Sue; Jones, Amanda; Garth, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the learning effect and resource use cost of workplace-based, blended e-learning about dysphagia for stroke rehabilitation nurses. Dysphagia is a potentially life-threatening problem that compromises quality of life. In many countries, nurses play a crucial role in supporting the management of patients with swallowing problems, yet the literature reports a need for training. A single-group, pre- and post-study with mixed methods. Each blended e-learning session comprised a needs analysis, e-learning programmes, practical skills about modifying fluids and action planning to transfer learning into practice. Participants were the population of registered nurses (n = 22) and healthcare assistants (n = 10) on a stroke rehabilitation ward in a large, teaching hospital in England between August 2010-March 2011. Data collection comprised observation (34 hours), questionnaires administered at four time points to examine change in attitude, knowledge and practice, and estimating the resource use cost for the service. Nonparametric tests and content analysis were used to analyse the data. All participants achieved a nationally recognised level of competence. The learning effect was evident on the post- and follow-up measures, with some items of dysphagia knowledge and attitude achieving significance at the p ≤ 0·05 level. The most common self-reported changes in practice related to medicines management, thickening fluids and oral hygiene. The resource use cost was estimated at £2688 for 108 hours training. Workplace-based, blended e-learning was an acceptable, cost effective way of delivering essential clinical knowledge and skills about dysphagia. Dysphagia should be viewed as a patient safety issue because of the risks of malnutrition, dehydration and aspiration pneumonia. As such, it is pertinent to many members of the interdisciplinary team. Consideration should be given to including dysphagia management in initial education and continuing professional

  10. Age-Related Differences in Clinical Characteristics and Esophageal Motility in Patients with Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Nakato, Rui; Manabe, Noriaki; Kamada, Tomoari; Matsumoto, Hideo; Shiotani, Akiko; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken

    2016-12-02

    Dysphagia in elderly patients has a major effect on nutrition and quality of life (QOL). Although several studies have shown that aging itself is associated with changes in esophageal motility, the impact of these changes on dysphagia symptoms and QOL is unknown. This study assessed the manometric diagnoses of elderly patients with dysphagia compared with diagnoses in younger counterparts. Participants included 116 consecutive patients examined for dysphagia from 2007 to 2014. We divided patients into three groups by age: Group A, 66 years and older (24 men, 23 women); Group B, 45-65 years (18 men, 24 women); and Group C, 44 years and younger (15 men, 12 women). The three groups were compared in regard to symptoms, esophageal motility, and health-related QOL (HRQOL). All patients underwent esophageal manometry examination and completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning their symptoms; HRQOL assessment was based on results of the Short Form-8 General Health Survey. Symptoms rated ≥4 points on the Likert scale were defined as significant. Although all patients had dysphagia as a major symptom, more elderly patients reported globus sensation, whereas more young patients reported heartburn as the primary symptom. Manometric diagnoses were generally similar across the three groups. Ineffective esophageal motility was more prevalent in Groups A and C than in Group B, although the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences in manometric parameters or HRQOL were detected among the three groups. Despite differences in symptom patterns, broad manometric diagnoses and impairment of HRQOL in elderly patients with dysphagia are similar to those in younger counterparts.

  11. Altered resting-state functional and white matter tract connectivity in stroke patients with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Ma, Zhenxing; Tu, Shipeng; Zhou, Muke; Chen, Sihan; Guo, Zhiwei; Gong, Qiyong; He, Li; Huang, Xiaoqi; Yao, Dezhong; Lui, Su; Yu, Bo; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhou, Dong; He, Chengqi

    2014-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction is intractable after acute stroke. Our understanding of the alterations in neural networks of patients with neurogenic dysphagia is still developing. The aim was to investigate cerebral cortical functional connectivity and subcortical structural connectivity related to swallowing in unilateral hemispheric stroke patients with dysphagia. We combined a resting-state functional connectivity with a white matter tract connectivity approach, recording 12 hemispheric stroke patients with dysphagia, 12 hemispheric stroke patients without dysphagia, and 12 healthy controls. Comparisons of the patterns in swallowing-related functional connectivity maps between patient groups and control subjects included (a) seed-based functional connectivity maps calculated from the primary motor cortex (M1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA) to the entire brain, (b) a swallowing-related functional connectivity network calculated among 20 specific regions of interest (ROIs), and (c) structural connectivity described by the mean fractional anisotropy of fibers bound through the SMA and M1. Stroke patients with dysphagia exhibited dysfunctional connectivity mainly in the sensorimotor-insula-putamen circuits based on seed-based analysis of the left and right M1 and SMA and decreased connectivity in the bilateral swallowing-related ROIs functional connectivity network. Additionally, white matter tract connectivity analysis revealed that the mean fractional anisotropy of the white matter tract was significantly reduced, especially in the left-to-right SMA and in the corticospinal tract. Our results indicate that dysphagia secondary to stroke is associated with disruptive functional and structural integrity in the large-scale brain networks involved in motor control, thus providing new insights into the neural remodeling associated with this disorder.

  12. The role of C2-C7 and O-C2 angle in the development of dysphagia after cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Yu, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Dysphagia is a known complication of cervical surgery and may be prolonged or occasionally serious. A previous study showed that dysphagia after occipitocervical fusion was caused by oropharyngeal stenosis resulting from O-C2 (upper cervical lordosis) fixation in a flexed position. However, there have been few reports analyzing the association between the C2-C7 angle (middle-lower cervical lordosis) and postoperative dysphagia. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between cervical lordosis and the development of dysphagia after anterior and posterior cervical spine surgery (AC and PC). Three hundred fifty-four patients were reviewed in this retrospective clinical study, including 172 patients who underwent the AC procedure and 182 patients who had the PC procedure between June 2007 and May 2010. The presence and duration of postoperative dysphagia were recorded via face-to-face questioning or telephone interview performed at least 1 year after the procedure. Plain cervical radiographs before and after surgery were collected. The O-C2 angle and the C2-C7 angle were measured. Changes in the O-C2 angle and the C2-C7 angle were defined as dO-C2 angle = postoperative O-C2 angle - preoperative O-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle = postoperative C2-C7 angle - preoperative C2-C7 angle. The association between postoperative dysphagia with dO-C2 angle and dC2-C7 angle was studied. Results showed that 12.8 % of AC and 9.4 % of PC patients reported dysphagia after cervical surgery. The dC2-C7 angle has considerable impact on postoperative dysphagia. When the dC2-C7 angle is greater than 5°, the chance of developing postoperative dysphagia is significantly greater. The dO-C2 angle, age, gender, BMI, operative time, blood loss, procedure type, revision surgery, most cephalic operative level, and number of operative levels did not significantly influence the incidence of postoperative dysphagia. No relationship was found between the dC2-C7 angle and the degree of

  13. Identification of dysphagia using the Toronto Bedside Swallowing Screening Test (TOR-BSST©): are 10 teaspoons of water necessary?

    PubMed

    Martino, Rosemary; Maki, Ellen; Diamant, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Dysphagia screening often includes administration of water. This study assessed the accuracy in identifying dysphagia with each additional teaspoon of water. The original research of the TOR-BSST(©) permitted this assessment. Trained nurses from acute and rehabilitation facilities prospectively administered the TOR-BSST(©) to 311 eligible stroke inpatients. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for the water item using 10 teaspoons plus a sip as the standard. The proportion of positive screenings was 59.2% in acute and 38.5% in rehabilitation. Of all four items that form the TOR-BSST(©), the water swallow item contributed to the identification of dysphagia in 42.7% in acute and 29.0% in rehabilitation patients. Across all patients, dysphagia accuracy was that five teaspoons resulted in a sensitivity of 79% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 70-86), eight a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI = 85-96) and 10 a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI = 90-99). Although a primary contributor, the water swallow item alone does not identify all patients with dysphagia. For a water swallow to accurately identify dysphagia, it is critical to administer 10 teaspoons. The TOR-BSST(©) water swallow item contributes largely to the total TOR-BSST(©)'s screening score and in making the test highly accurate and reliable.

  14. Rheological Characterization and Cluster Classification of Iranian Commercial Foods, Drinks and Desserts to Recommend for Esophageal Dysphagia Diets

    PubMed Central

    ZARGARAAN, Azizollaah; OMARAEE, Yasaman; RASTMANESH, Reza; TAHERI, Negin; FADAVI, Ghasem; FADAEI, Morteza; MOHAMMADIFAR, Mohammad Amin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In the absence of dysphagia-oriented food products, rheological characterization of available food items is of importance for safe swallowing and adequate nutrient intake of dysphagic patients. In this way, introducing alternative items (with similar ease of swallow) is helpful to improve quality of life and nutritional intake of esophageal cancer dysphagia patients. The present study aimed at rheological characterization and cluster classification of potentially suitable foodstuffs marketed in Iran for their possible use in dysphagia diets. Methods In this descriptive study, rheological data were obtained during January and February 2012 in Rheology Lab of National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute Tehran, Iran. Steady state and oscillatory shear parameters of 39 commercial samples were obtained using a Physica MCR 301 rheometer (Anton-Paar, GmbH, Graz, Austria). Matlab Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (R2012 a) was utilized for cluster classification of the samples. Results Using an extended list of rheological parameters and fuzzy logic methods, 39 commercial samples (drinks, main courses and desserts) were divided to 5 clusters and degree of membership to each cluster was stated by a number between 0 and 0.99. Conclusion Considering apparent viscosity of foodstuffs as a single criterion for classification of dysphagia-oriented food products is shortcoming of current guidelines in dysphagia diets. Authors proposed to some revisions in classification of dysphagia-oriented food products and including more rheological parameters (especially, viscoelastic parameters) in the classification. PMID:26060647

  15. Rheological Characterization and Cluster Classification of Iranian Commercial Foods, Drinks and Desserts to Recommend for Esophageal Dysphagia Diets.

    PubMed

    Zargaraan, Azizollaah; Omaraee, Yasaman; Rastmanesh, Reza; Taheri, Negin; Fadavi, Ghasem; Fadaei, Morteza; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2013-12-01

    In the absence of dysphagia-oriented food products, rheological characterization of available food items is of importance for safe swallowing and adequate nutrient intake of dysphagic patients. In this way, introducing alternative items (with similar ease of swallow) is helpful to improve quality of life and nutritional intake of esophageal cancer dysphagia patients. The present study aimed at rheological characterization and cluster classification of potentially suitable foodstuffs marketed in Iran for their possible use in dysphagia diets. In this descriptive study, rheological data were obtained during January and February 2012 in Rheology Lab of National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute Tehran, Iran. Steady state and oscillatory shear parameters of 39 commercial samples were obtained using a Physica MCR 301 rheometer (Anton-Paar, GmbH, Graz, Austria). Matlab Fuzzy Logic Toolbox (R2012 a) was utilized for cluster classification of the samples. Using an extended list of rheological parameters and fuzzy logic methods, 39 commercial samples (drinks, main courses and desserts) were divided to 5 clusters and degree of membership to each cluster was stated by a number between 0 and 0.99. Considering apparent viscosity of foodstuffs as a single criterion for classification of dysphagia-oriented food products is shortcoming of current guidelines in dysphagia diets. Authors proposed to some revisions in classification of dysphagia-oriented food products and including more rheological parameters (especially, viscoelastic parameters) in the classification.

  16. Assessment of Pediatric Dysphagia and Feeding Disorders: Clinical and Instrumental Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvedson, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of infants and children with dysphagia (swallowing problems) and feeding disorders involves significantly more considerations than a clinical observation of a feeding. In addition to the status of feeding in the child, considerations include health status, broad environment, parent-child interactions, and parental concerns.…

  17. Assessment of Pediatric Dysphagia and Feeding Disorders: Clinical and Instrumental Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvedson, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of infants and children with dysphagia (swallowing problems) and feeding disorders involves significantly more considerations than a clinical observation of a feeding. In addition to the status of feeding in the child, considerations include health status, broad environment, parent-child interactions, and parental concerns.…

  18. The Utility of Pitch Elevation in the Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald; Logemann, Jeri A.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a pitch elevation task in the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Method: This study was a pilot prospective cohort study including 40 consecutive patients (16 male and 24 female) who were referred by their physician for a swallowing evaluation. Patients were evaluated with a noninstrumental clinical…

  19. The Utility of Pitch Elevation in the Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald; Logemann, Jeri A.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a pitch elevation task in the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Method: This study was a pilot prospective cohort study including 40 consecutive patients (16 male and 24 female) who were referred by their physician for a swallowing evaluation. Patients were evaluated with a noninstrumental clinical…

  20. Patients with chronic pain and dysphagia (CPD): unmet medical needs and pharmacologic treatment options.

    PubMed

    Argoff, Charles E; Kopecky, Ernest A

    2014-12-01

    options while mitigating accidental exposure and abuse liability. The number of patients with CPD may be larger than is currently anticipated by healthcare providers. Physicians should proactively include a discussion of dysphagia as part of the patient examination. CPD is an unmet medical need. There are novel opioid formulations in clinical development that address the limitations of current opioid treatments. This manuscript reviews the problems associated with dysphagia on medication administration and adherence, currently available treatment options, and opioid analgesic formulations currently in clinical development.

  1. Pemphigus vulgaris: a rare cause of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Al-Janabi, Ali; Greenfield, Simon

    2015-10-22

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. The case reported presented unusually with dyspepsia that was not responsive to protein pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. This progressed to severe dysphagia and odynophagia. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed extensive ulceration of the esophagus, and direct immunofluorescence of an esophageal biopsy showed bright intercellular staining with C3 and IgG, confirming the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris. Immunological remission was achieved after a number of courses of pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. The patient has remained in remission for 5 years, but has required regular dilation of esophageal strictures for symptom relief. During this period, a chronic lymphocytosis was incidentally noted on routine blood tests, and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was diagnosed. It is essential to investigate PPI-resistant symptoms, dysphagia and odynophagia, as they may indicate a serious underlying cause.

  2. [Neurogenic dysphagia: physiology, physiopathology and rehabilitative treatment].

    PubMed

    Patti, F; Emmi, N; Restivo, D A; Liberto, A; Pappalardo, A; Torre, L M; Reggio, A

    2002-01-01

    Swallowing is both a voluntary than a reflex function. It consist in transporting feeding from mouth to the stomach. Swallowing function occurs with very frequency during the day and needs complex neuromuscular coordination. Several neurologic diseases determine swallowing disorders. Dysphagia, is the difficulty in swallowing. In slight disorders, swallowing function is sufficiently compensated, symptoms are few or absent. Sometimes the patient is able to compensate and obtains a safe deglutition. Rehabilitation of swallowing disorders is based on the assessment of all symptoms and troubles causing dysphagia and on the improvement of the specific disabilities. Rehabilitation is aimed to make patient able for a safe oral feeding. We can use classic specific physiotherapy, compensatory movements of head and neck, electrostimulation, and the chemical myotomia by botulinum toxin injection.

  3. Rehabilitation of neurogenic dysphagia with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Klor, B M; Milianti, F J

    1999-01-01

    Neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia is common in nursing home populations, and the risk of aspiration is sufficient to indicate the need for percutaneous endoscopid gastrostomy (PEG) feedings. Although intake provided through the PEG may meet the nutritional and hydration requirements for this group of patients, the risk of complication, e.g., aspiration of reflux, skin breakdown at the site of insertion, potential for infection, digestive difficulties, higher risk of rehospitalization, pneumonia, prolonged nursing home stay, and greater morbidity than for those without PEG tubes, may compromise the gains accrued from the ease of feeding. In an attempt to reduce these complications and return individuals to per orum (PO) diets, a program was developed to treat the dysphagia. Sixteen male nursing home patients were enrolled in a treatment program based on videofluoroscopic examination. Interventions included combinations of dietary consistency modifications, compensatory techniques, and direct swallow retraining. Results indicated such an approach reintroduced successful oral feeding in all patients, improved dietary consistency, resulted in a mean weight gain of 5.1 pounds, yielded a mean albumin increase of 0.5 g/dl, and allowed PEG tubes to be removed in 10 of the 16 patients. As a result of intervention, these findings suggest significant benefits in both quality of life issues and health care savings for this neurogenically based population.

  4. Endoscopic laser palliation for advanced malignant dysphagia.

    PubMed Central

    Bown, S G; Hawes, R; Matthewson, K; Swain, C P; Barr, H; Boulos, P B; Clark, C G

    1987-01-01

    Palliative treatment of malignant dysphagia aims to optimise swallowing for the maximum time possible with the minimum of general distress to these seriously ill patients. Thirty four patients considered unsuitable for surgery because of advanced malignancy, other major pathology or in whom previous surgery had been unsuccessful were treated endoscopically with the Nd YAG laser. Significant improvement was achieved in 29 (85%). On a scale of 0-4 (0 = normal swallowing; 4 = dysphagia for all fluids), mean improvement was 1.7, with 25 patients (74%) able to swallow most, or all solids after treatment. With increasing experience, the average number of treatment sessions required for each patient became less; initial time in hospital became comparable to that needed for intubation. Failures were caused by inappropriate patient selection (3), or laser related perforation (2). The mean survival in the whole group was 19 weeks (range 2-44). Eighteen patients needed further treatment for recurrent dysphagia, a mean of six weeks (range 2-15) after initial therapy. Ten of these responded, but eight eventually required insertion of a prosthetic tube. The duration of good palliation was very variable after initial laser therapy. Images Fig. 3 PMID:2443431

  5. Dysphagia complications of the Minerva brace.

    PubMed

    Odderson, I R; Lietzow, D

    1997-12-01

    The effects of cervical bracing on swallowing function have not been evaluated in neurologically intact individuals. An 83-year-old woman fell, striking her head, and suffered C1, odontoid, and C3 fractures. She had no neurologic deficits and was placed in a Minerva brace. Subsequently, she developed coughing during her meals, a low-grade fever, and transient hoarseness, and complained of stiffness in the facial muscles. Aspiration pneumonia in the left lower lobe was diagnosed. In the absence of any neurologic condition, this was attributed to the Minerva brace. Less than 1 week later, the brace was replaced with a halo-vest, and the dysphagia resolved. This case shows that dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia may be caused by wearing a cervical brace and illustrates the importance of assessing swallowing in individuals who wear such braces. Particular attention should be paid to swallowing and cervical bracing in patients with additional risk factors for dysphagia such as advanced age or neurologic deficits.

  6. Foramen Magnum Meningioma: Dysphagia of Atypical Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Matthew W.; Mobley, Bret C.; Cheng, Walter W.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We present a case of a foramen magnum meningioma that highlights the importance of the neurologic exam when evaluating a patient with dysphagia. A 58-year-old woman presented with an 18-month history of progressive dysphagia, chronic cough and 30-pound weight loss. Prior gastroenterologic and laryngologic workup was unrevealing. Results Her neurologic examination revealed an absent gag reflex, decreased sensation to light touch on bilateral distal extremities, hyperreflexia, and tandem gait instability. Repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy was normal, whereas laryngoscopy and video fluoroscopy revealed marked hypopharyngeal dysfunction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a 3.1 × 2.7 × 2.9 cm foramen magnum mass consistent with meningioma. The patient underwent neurosurgical resection of her mass with near complete resolution of her neurologic symptoms. Pathology confirmed diagnosis of a WHO grade I meningothelial meningioma. Conclusion CNS pathology is an uncommon but impressive cause of dysphagia. Our case demonstrates the importance of a thorough neurologic survey when evaluating such a patient. PMID:18080720

  7. Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: practical recommendations to guide management.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Michel; Davidson, Zoe; Bouvoie, Veronique; Evenepoel, Nathalie; Haan, Jurn; Soudon, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a rapidly progressive neuromuscular disorder causing weakness of the skeletal, respiratory, cardiac and oropharyngeal muscles with up to one third of young men reporting difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). Recent studies on dysphagia in DMD clarify the pathophysiology of swallowing disorders and offer new tools for its assessment but little guidance is available for its management. This paper aims to provide a step-by-step algorithm to facilitate clinical decisions regarding dysphagia management in this patient population. This algorithm is based on 30 years of clinical experience with DMD in a specialised Centre for Neuromuscular Disorders (Inkendaal Rehabilitation Hospital, Belgium) and is supported by literature where available. Dysphagia can worsen the condition of ageing patients with DMD. Apart from the difficulties of chewing and oral fragmentation of the food bolus, dysphagia is rather a consequence of an impairment in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. By contrast with central neurologic disorders, dysphagia in DMD accompanies solid rather than liquid intake. Symptoms of dysphagia may not be clinically evident; however laryngeal food penetration, accumulation of food residue in the pharynx and/or true laryngeal food aspiration may occur. The prevalence of these issues in DMD is likely underestimated. There is little guidance available for clinicians to manage dysphagia and improve feeding for young men with DMD. This report aims to provide a clinical algorithm to facilitate the diagnosis of dysphagia, to identify the symptoms and to propose practical recommendations to treat dysphagia in the adult DMD population. Implications for Rehabilitation Little guidance is available for the management of dysphagia in Duchenne dystrophy. Food can penetrate the vestibule, accumulate as residue or cause aspiration. We propose recommendations and an algorithm to guide management of dysphagia. Penetration/residue accumulation

  8. Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: practical recommendations to guide management

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, Michel; Davidson, Zoe; Bouvoie, Veronique; Evenepoel, Nathalie; Haan, Jurn; Soudon, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a rapidly progressive neuromuscular disorder causing weakness of the skeletal, respiratory, cardiac and oropharyngeal muscles with up to one third of young men reporting difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). Recent studies on dysphagia in DMD clarify the pathophysiology of swallowing disorders and offer new tools for its assessment but little guidance is available for its management. This paper aims to provide a step-by-step algorithm to facilitate clinical decisions regarding dysphagia management in this patient population. Methods: This algorithm is based on 30 years of clinical experience with DMD in a specialised Centre for Neuromuscular Disorders (Inkendaal Rehabilitation Hospital, Belgium) and is supported by literature where available. Results: Dysphagia can worsen the condition of ageing patients with DMD. Apart from the difficulties of chewing and oral fragmentation of the food bolus, dysphagia is rather a consequence of an impairment in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. By contrast with central neurologic disorders, dysphagia in DMD accompanies solid rather than liquid intake. Symptoms of dysphagia may not be clinically evident; however laryngeal food penetration, accumulation of food residue in the pharynx and/or true laryngeal food aspiration may occur. The prevalence of these issues in DMD is likely underestimated. Conclusions: There is little guidance available for clinicians to manage dysphagia and improve feeding for young men with DMD. This report aims to provide a clinical algorithm to facilitate the diagnosis of dysphagia, to identify the symptoms and to propose practical recommendations to treat dysphagia in the adult DMD population.Implications for RehabilitationLittle guidance is available for the management of dysphagia in Duchenne dystrophy.Food can penetrate the vestibule, accumulate as residue or cause aspiration.We propose recommendations and an algorithm to guide management of

  9. Functional outcome assessment of adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    McHorney, C A; Rosenbek, J C

    1998-01-01

    Neurologic and mechanical abnormalities of the oropharynx often result in oropharyngeal dysphagia. Assessment of dysphagia and its treatment has been limited largely to measurement of the biomechanical aspects of bolus flow. This article reviews the measurement tools in current use and in development for assessing oropharyngeal dysphagia in terms of the "value compass" for health services. A number of measurement needs for this clinical population are identified and discussed.

  10. Giant Cervical Osteophyte: An Unusual Cause of Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sudhir Kumar; Bhosale, Sunil Krishna; Aggarwal, Rishi Anil

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia due to skeletal causes is a rare entity. A large cervical osteophyte can cause mechanical compression of the pharyngo-oesophageal segment leading to dysphagia. Large cervical osteophytes can occur in cervical spondylosis, ankylosing spondylitis or Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH). A 60-year-old female came with progressive dysphagia due to a giant cervical osteophyte anterior to C4 and C5 vertebral bodies causing compression of the pharyngo-oesophageal segment. The patient was treated by surgical excision of the osteophyte by orthopaedic surgeons. The patient had complete relief of dysphagia following excision of the osteophyte. PMID:27891363

  11. [Monitoring of a protocol for the adequacy of the pharmaceutical form of the oral medication to the degree of dysphagia in patients hospitalized in an internal medicine service].

    PubMed

    García Aparicio, J; Herrero Herrero, J I; Moreno Gómez, A Ma; Martínez Sotelo, J; González del Valle, E; Fernández de la Fuente, Ma A

    2011-01-01

    The oral route is the most convenient way of administering medication, although it may not be safe. Dysphagia is one of the factors rendering difficult a proper feeding and administration of medication. to improve the administration of oral medication in patients with dysphagia by changing the pharmaceutical formulation of the principles prescribed to tolerable textures. Pilot project for the application of a dysphagia protocol that included the patients admitted to the Internal Medicine Unit at Los Montalvos Center for 4 months. After detecting the suspicion of dysphagia, a dysphagia-viscosity test was applied to know the tolerated textures. Then, the pharmaceutical formulations were adapted and the manipulation instructions for the drugs were indicated for their proper administration. 23 out of 627 admitted patients were included, with a mean age of 85 years (σ±7.4). The pathologies implicated in dysphagia were: dementia (65.2%); cerebrovascular disease (30.4%), and Parkinson's disease (4.4%). The best texture for drug intake was a "pudding" in 48.0%. 43 active ingredients were reviewed and 134 interventions were performed: in 41% of the cases, swallowing was made easier by mixing the drug with the food and in 59% water and a thickener were used. 94% of the recommendations were considered to be appropriate. the adaptation of the pharmaceutical formulations to the degree of dysphagia impacts on the improvement of healthcare quality by implementing safety in drug prescription and administration processes.

  12. Influence of anterior cervical plate design on Dysphagia: a 2-year prospective longitudinal follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael J; Bazaz, Raj; Furey, Christopher G; Yoo, Jung

    2005-10-01

    To compare the incidence, prevalence, and rate of improvement of dysphagia in patients undergoing anterior cervical spine surgery with two different anterior instrumentation designs. The study subjects were 156 consecutive patients undergoing anterior cervical spine surgery with plate fixation. We compared the incidence of dysphagia among the two different plate groups both produced by the same manufacturer (Medtronic Danek); the Atlantis plate has thicker and wider plate dimensions than the Zephir plate. Dysphagia evaluations were performed prospectively by telephone interviews at 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 months following the procedure. Risk factors such as gender, revision surgery, and number of surgical levels were compared between the groups and were not statistically different. Overall incidences of dysphagia were 49%, 37%, 20%, 15.4%, and 11% at 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Severe and disabling dysphagia is reported to be a relatively uncommon complication of anterior cervical surgery. However, a significant number of patients report mild to moderate discomfort including double-swallowing and catching sensation. Except at the 2-month follow-up point, the Atlantis plate group had higher incidences of dysphagia than the Zephir group at all time points (57% vs 50%, 36% vs 4%, 23% vs 14%, 17% vs 7%, 14% vs 0% at 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively). The Atlantis plate group had a 14% incidence of dysphagia at 2 years compared with the Zephir group, which had a 0% incidence at 2 years (P < 0.04). For primary surgeries, there was a higher incidence of dysphagia at all time points in the Atlantis group when compared with the Zephir group (58% vs 43%, 35% vs 30%, 22% vs 10%, 17% vs 0%, and 13% vs 0% at 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively) (P < 0.04 at 1 year). A regression analysis was performed. The resulting formulas predict the permanent rate of dysphagia for the Atlantis group is 13.6% and for the Zephir group is 3.58%. The use of a smaller and

  13. Isolated dysphagia as initial sign of anti-IgLON5 syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Nico; Ruck, Tobias; Heidbreder, Anna; Kleffner, Ilka; Dittrich, Ralf; Muhle, Paul; Warnecke, Tobias; Dziewas, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report on dysphagia as initial sign in a case of anti-IgLON5 syndrome and provide an overview of the current literature. Methods: The diagnostic workup included cerebral MRI, fiber optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) with the FEES tensilon test, a videofluoroscopic swallowing study, evoked potentials and peripheral nerve conduction studies, polysomnography, lumbar puncture, and screening for neural autoantibodies. A systematic review of all published cases of IgLON5 syndrome is provided. Results: We report a case of anti-IgLON5 syndrome presenting with slowly progressive neurogenic dysphagia. FEES revealed severe neurogenic dysphagia and bilateral palsy of the vocal cords. Autoantibody screening was positive for IgLON5 IgG (+++, 1:1,000) serum levels but no other known neural autoantibody. Polysomnography was highly suggestive of non-REM parasomnia. Symptoms were partially responsive to immunotherapy. Conclusions: Slowly progressive neurogenic dysphagia may occur as initial sign of anti-IgLON5 syndrome highlighting another clinical presentation of this rare disease. PMID:27900347

  14. Functional benefits of dysphagia therapy using adjunctive sEMG biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby Mann, Giselle D; Groher, Michael E; Helseth, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a retrospective analysis of functional outcome, time in therapy, and cost per unit of functional change in patients who received therapy for pharyngeal dysphagia. Twenty-five patients presenting dysphagia following stroke and 20 patients with dysphagia following treatment for head/neck cancer completed a systematic therapy program supplemented with surface electromyographic (sEMG) biofeedback. Eighty-seven percent (39/45) of all patients increased their functional oral intake of food/liquid including 92% of stroke patients and 80% of head/neck cancer patients. Patients with dysphagia following stroke demonstrated greater improvement than those in the head/neck cancer group. Patients in the stroke group completed more therapy sessions thus increasing the total cost of therapy, but they made more functional progress resulting in lower costs per unit of functional change than patients in the head/neck cancer group. Limitations of this study are described in reference to implications for future clinical research on the efficacy of this therapy approach.

  15. Dysphagia in individuals with tetraplegia: incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Shem, Kazuko; Castillo, Kathleen; Wong, Sandra; Chang, James

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Dysphagia following cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) can increase risk for pulmonary complications that may delay the rehabilitative process. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for dysphagia after cervical SCI. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Individuals with cervical SCI within 31 days of injury underwent a bedside swallow evaluation (BSE) followed by a videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) within 72 hours of the BSE. Subjects were diagnosed as having dysphagia if they had positive findings in either BSE or VFSS. Results Twenty-nine patients (7 female and 22 male) were enrolled. Of these, 21 (72%) had high cervical tetraplegia (C4 or higher) and 8 (38%) had lower cervical tetraplegia. A tracheostomy was present in 18 (62%) patients; 15 (52%) subjects were on ventilators. Dysphagia was diagnosed in 12 (41%) subjects. Dysphagia was noted in 62% of the subjects with tracheostomy and 53% of the subjects on the ventilator, but only tracheostomy resulted in a statistically significant association with dysphagia (P = 0.047). All three subjects who had nasogastric tubes were diagnosed with dysphagia (P = 0.029). The relationships between dysphagia and gender, high versus low tetraplegia, presence of halo or collar, head injury, and ventilator use were not statistically significant, but age was a significant risk factor (P = 0.028). Conclusions Dysphagia is present in about 41% of individuals with acute tetraplegia. Only age, tracheostomy, and nasogastric tubes were identified as significant risk factors for dysphagia for individuals with tetraplegia. No relationship between dysphagia and level of SCI, spine surgery, collar, and ventilator use was found to exist. PMID:21528631

  16. Definition, prevalence and burden of oropharyngeal dysphagia: a serious problem among older adults worldwide and the impact on prognosis and hospital resources.

    PubMed

    Cichero, Julie A Y; Altman, Kenneth W

    2012-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia describes difficulty with eating and drinking. This benign statement does not reflect the personal, social, and economic costs of the condition. Dysphagia has an insidious nature in that it cannot be 'seen' like a hemiplegia or a broken limb. It is often a comorbid condition, most notably of stroke, and many other neurodegenerative disorders. Conservative estimates of annual hospital costs associated with dysphagia run to USD 547 million. Length of stay rises by 1.64 days. The true prevalence of dysphagia is difficult to determine as it has been reported as a function of care setting, disease state and country of investigation. However, extrapolating from the literature, prevalence rises with admission to hospital and affects 55% of those in aged care settings. Consequences of dysphagia include malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia and potentially death. The mean cost for an aspiration pneumonia episode of care is USD 17,000, rising with the number of comorbid conditions. Whilst financial costs can be objectively counted, the despair, depression, and social isolation are more difficult to quantify. Both sufferers and their families bear the social and psychological burden of dysphagia. There may be a cost-effective role for screening and early identification of dysphagia, particularly in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Surgical management of dysphagia and airway obstruction in patients with prominent ventral cervical osteophytes.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Matthew L; Archibald, David J; Graner, Darlene E; Kasperbauer, Jan L

    2011-03-01

    Large projecting ventral cervical osteophytes are associated with senile degenerative skeletal disease, post-traumatic osteophytogenesis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). The vast majority of patients with cervical osteophytes are asymptomatic. However, in a small subset this condition may lead to upper aerodigestive compromise manifesting as dysphagia and/or airway obstruction. Conservative medical therapy is usually sufficient, but patients with intractable disease may require surgical intervention, including tracheostomy, feeding tube placement, or osteophytectomy. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who presented to a tertiary referral center over a decade (1998-2008) with complaints of dysphagia and/or respiratory compromise and underwent osteophytectomy for treatment of recalcitrant symptoms. A total of nine patients met criteria. Six patients were diagnosed with DISH, two with trauma-associated osteophytogenesis, and one with senile degenerative vertebral disease. The mean age was 68 years and included seven males and two females. All patients had symptoms of dysphagia and two had simultaneous airway complaints. All patients underwent an anterolateral approach for osteophyte decompression, one of which required concurrent tracheostomy. Following surgery, 100% of patients had significant improvement in dysphagia and respiratory complaints. Eight of nine patients returned to an unrestricted diet and only one required postoperative abstinence from bulky foods; both patients with additional airway complaints were successfully decannulated after surgery. Degenerative conditions and DISH may lead to osteophyte-associated dysphagia and/or airway complaints. Surgical decompression through osteophytectomy is an effective alternative to tracheostomy and feeding tube in carefully selected patients and should be considered for surgically fit patients who fail conservative medical management.

  18. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in myotonic dystrophy type 1: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Walmari; Baijens, Laura W J; Kremer, Bernd

    2014-06-01

    A systematic review was conducted to investigate the pathophysiology of and diagnostic procedures for oropharyngeal dysphagia in myotonic dystrophy (MD). The electronic databases Embase, PubMed, and The Cochrane Library were used. The search was limited to English, Dutch, French, German, Spanish, and Portuguese publications. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of the included articles. Swallowing assessment tools, the corresponding protocols, the studies' outcome measurements, and main findings are summarized and presented. The body of literature on pathophysiology of swallowing in dysphagic patients with MD type 1 remains scant. The included studies are heterogeneous with respect to design and outcome measures and hence are not directly comparable. More importantly, most studies had methodological problems. These are discussed in detail and recommendations for further research on diagnostic examinations for swallowing disorders in patients with MD type 1 are provided.

  19. Tongue pressure profile training for dysphagia post stroke (TPPT): study protocol for an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Steele, Catriona M; Bayley, Mark A; Péladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Stokely, Shauna L

    2013-05-07

    It is estimated that approximately 50% of stroke survivors will experience swallowing difficulty, or dysphagia. The associated sequelae of dysphagia include dehydration, malnutrition, and aspiration pneumonia, all of which have can have serious medical consequences. To improve swallowing safety and efficiency, alternative nutritional intake methods (for example, a feeding tube) or a modified diet texture (such as pureed foods or thickened liquids) may be recommended but these modifications may negatively affect quality of life. An alternative approach to treating dysphagia has emerged over the past few years, targeting stronger lingual muscles through maximal isometric pressure tasks. Although these studies have shown promising results, thin-liquid bolus control continues to be challenging for patients with dysphagia. Previous work investigating lingual pressures when healthy participants swallow has suggested that greater task specificity in lingual exercises may yield improved results with thin liquids. This is a small, exploratory randomized clinical trial being conducted with post-stroke patients 4 to 20 weeks after onset of dysphagia secondary to impaired lingual control. At enrollment, participants are randomly assigned to one of two treatment protocols, either tongue pressure profile training (TPPT) or the control treatment, tongue pressure strength-and-accuracy training (TPSAT). Each treatment protocol consists of 24 sessions of treatment over 8 to 12 weeks with monitoring of tongue pressure as well as a baseline and outcome videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Tongue pressure measures, videofluoroscopic measures, and functional outcome measures will be obtained following training of 60 participants (30 in each condition), to determine whether TPPT yields better outcomes. This study will continue to explore options beyond tube feeding and modified diets for people with neurogenic dysphagia following stroke. Should the novel protocol, TPPT, prove to be more

  20. Is esophageal dysphagia in the extreme elderly (>or=80 years) different to dysphagia younger adults? A clinical motility service audit.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J M; Fraser, R J; Heddle, R; Hebbard, G; Checklin, H

    2008-01-01

    Dysphagia in elderly patients has major effects on nutrition and quality of life. Although aging itself is associated with changes in esophageal motility, the impact of this on symptoms such as dysphagia is unclear. Data in the extreme elderly are also limited. Symptoms and manometric diagnoses from 23 consecutive older patients (older dysphagia [OD]) >or=80 reporting esophageal dysphagia (12 female, mean age 83 (range 80-93) were compared with those from 23 gender matched younger patients (young dysphagia [YD]) also with dysphagia (mean age 35, range [17-46]). More older patients reported dysphagia as their primary symptom (OD 22/23 vs YD 14/23, P = 0.005). Overall, dysphagia was most common for solids only (OD 16/23 vs YD 15/23) and rare for liquids only (OD 1/23 vs YD 3/23). Dysphagia for both liquids and solids was more frequent in older patients (OD 6/23 vs YD 1/23, P < 0.05). Fewer older patients reported heartburn (OD 3/23 vs YD 14/23, P = 0.001). Manometric diagnoses were generally similar between OD and YD patients with the most common diagnoses being 'nonspecific esophageal motility disorder' (nine each) and 'ineffective peristalsis' (OD = 6, YD = 7). There was a trend for diagnoses related to lower esophageal sphincter failure to be more frequent in younger subjects (OD 1 vs YD 7, P = 0.053). Despite differences in symptom patterns, broad manometric diagnoses in the extreme elderly with dysphagia are similar to younger dysphagia patients. Further studies are required to determine whether this relates to insensitivity in recording or reporting of esophageal manometry (or perceptual differences associated with aging).

  1. Schoolchildren with dysphagia associated with medically complex conditions.

    PubMed

    Lefton-Greif, Maureen A; Arvedson, Joan C

    2008-04-01

    This article reviews population trends and general characteristics of children with dysphagia in schools, provides an overview of dysphagia teams and the roles of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) in school and hospital settings, and describes assessment and treatment of swallowing and feeding problems in children with complex medical histories. A review of the literature of swallowing and feeding problems in young children and population trends for children who are at risk for dysphagia was completed. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the complexities that are common to this population and to provide practical information to maximize the health and education outcomes of children with dysphagia. SLPs in schools are increasingly evaluating and treating children with dysphagia associated with medically complex conditions. There is a rising incidence in preterm births and the survival of medically fragile children, suggesting that a greater number of children will be at risk for dysphagia in the future. Limited evidence is available to support most therapeutic interventions. School-based SLPs are uniquely positioned to identify swallowing and feeding problems, evaluate and treat children with dysphagia, participate on dysphagia teams in the school setting, and interact with the medical team.

  2. Schoolchildren with Dysphagia Associated with Medically Complex Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefton-Greif, Maureen A.; Arvedson, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews population trends and general characteristics of children with dysphagia in schools, provides an overview of dysphagia teams and the roles of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) in school and hospital settings, and describes assessment and treatment of swallowing and feeding problems in children with complex medical…

  3. Dysphagia in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Assessed by Validated Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Sally K.; Garrod, Rachel; Hart, Nicholas; Miller, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive muscular weakness and death, most typically from respiratory complications. Dysphagia is common in DMD; however, the most appropriate swallowing assessments have not been universally agreed and the symptoms of dysphagia remain under-reported. Aims: To investigate symptoms of…

  4. [Dysphagia as the sole manifestation of myasthenia gravis].

    PubMed

    Romo González, Ramiro Javier; Chaves, Emiliano; Copello, Hercilia

    2010-06-01

    Dysphagia as the sole manifestation of myasthenia gravis is very rare. Here we describe a case of an adult patient who developed an insidious onset of oropharyngeal dysphagia as the first and sole manifestation of myasthenia gravis. After multiple evaluations the underlying disease was recognized by electromyographics studies. English and Spanish literature on the matter was reviewed.

  5. Dysphagia in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Assessed by Validated Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Sally K.; Garrod, Rachel; Hart, Nicholas; Miller, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive muscular weakness and death, most typically from respiratory complications. Dysphagia is common in DMD; however, the most appropriate swallowing assessments have not been universally agreed and the symptoms of dysphagia remain under-reported. Aims: To investigate symptoms of…

  6. Schoolchildren with Dysphagia Associated with Medically Complex Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefton-Greif, Maureen A.; Arvedson, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews population trends and general characteristics of children with dysphagia in schools, provides an overview of dysphagia teams and the roles of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) in school and hospital settings, and describes assessment and treatment of swallowing and feeding problems in children with complex medical…

  7. Validation of the Mayo Dysphagia Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Grudell, A B M; Alexander, J A; Enders, F B; Pacifico, R; Fredericksen, M; Wise, J L; Locke, G R; Arora, A; Zais, T; Talley, N J; Romero, Y

    2007-01-01

    While multiple instruments characterize upper gastrointestinal symptoms, a validated instrument devoted to the measurement of a spectrum of esophageal dysphagia attributes is not available. Therefore, we constructed and validated the Mayo Dysphagia Questionnaire (MDQ). The 27 items of the MDQ underwent content validity, feasibility, concurrent validity, reproducibility, internal consistency, and construct validity testing. To assess content validity, five esophageal subspecialty gastroenterologists reviewed the items to ensure inclusion of pertinent domains. Feasibility testing was done with eight outpatients who refined problematic items. To assess concurrent validity, 70 patient responses on the MDQ were compared to responses gathered in a structured patient-physician interview. A separate group of 70 outpatients completed the MDQ twice to assess the reproducibility of each item. A total of 148 patients participated in the validation process (78 [53%] men; mean age 62). On average, the MDQ took 6 minutes to complete. A single item (odynophagia) tested poorly with a kappa value of <0.4. Otherwise, the majority of concurrent validity kappa values were in the good to excellent range with a mean of 0.63 (95% CI 0.22-0.89). The majority of reproducibility kappa values were also in the good to excellent range with a median kappa value of 0.76 (interquartile range: 0.67-0.81). Cronbach's alpha values were excellent in the range of 0.86-0.88. Spearman rank correlation coefficients to assess construct validity were also excellent in the range of 0.87-0.98. Thus, the MDQ is a concise instrument that demonstrates overall excellent concurrent validity, reproducibility, internal consistency, and construct validity for the features of esophageal dysphagia.

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and dysphagia in children.

    PubMed

    Putnam, P E

    1997-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common problem in children that is sometimes associated with dysphagia. Choking, food refusal, and food "getting stuck" are non-specific symptoms that may arise consequent to reflux and esophagitis. Swallowing plays a role in reflux physiology, functioning as a major clearance mechanism after reflux episodes. Therefore, failure of swallowing to effectively perform that function contributes to reflux pathophysiology. The diagnosis and treatment of GERD in children must be carried out systematically and thoroughly. Multiple interacting factors are common, thus complicating the process.

  9. Acoustic characteristics of voluntary expiratory sounds after swallow for detecting dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, M; Yokoyama, K; Takei, Y; Furuya, N; Nakamichi, Y; Ihara, Y; Takahashi, K; Groher, M E

    2014-09-01

    This research was designed to investigate the acoustic characteristics of voluntary expiratory sounds after swallow for detecting dysphagia. Forty-nine patients with complaints of swallow difficulty received a videofluorographic (VF) examination. They were divided into three groups: nine who did not have any apparent disease (Group N), 22 patients with head and neck cancer (Group H&N) and 18 patients with other diseases including cerebrovascular disease (Group OD). After liquid barium swallows, they exhaled voluntarily without voicing. Videofluorographic findings were classified into four groups: normal (Normal), acceptable swallow (Acceptable), swallow with residue (Resid) and swallows with penetration or aspiration (Pen/Asp). The duration of expiratory sounds was measured on the time waveform. Frequency characteristics of expiratory sounds were obtained using one-third octave band analysis ranging from 62·5 to 2000·0 Hz of central frequency. The averaged level of the 1000·0-Hz band was chosen as the reference band level (RB level). The revised averaged level of each band was obtained by subtracting the RB level from the averaged level of each band. Zero decibel of the revised magnitude of the 125·0-Hz band was set as the critical value to differentiate dysphagia (Resid or Pen/Asp) from no dysphagia (Normal or Acceptable). Comparison of this assessment with VF findings showed a significant percentage agreement (85·4%). These results suggest that frequency characteristics of post-swallow expiratory sounds can differentiate dysphagia from no dysphagia among multiple dysphagic patient groups. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Occurrence of Dysphagia Following Botulinum Toxin Injection in Parkinsonism-related Cervical Dystonia: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Addie; Almeida, Leonardo; Hess, Christopher W.; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Okun, Michael S.; Rodriguez, Ramon L.; Rundle-Gonzalez, Valerie; Shukla, Aparna Wagle; Malaty, Irene A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim was to compare the occurrence of post-injection dysphagia in parkinsonism-related cervical dystonia (PRCD) versus cervical dystonia (CD) of other etiologies (non-PRCD). A secondary objective was to explore potential clinical differences between PRCD and non-PRCD and their respective responses to botulinum toxin (BoNT). Methods A cross-sectional chart review was carried out of patients treated for CD with Onabotulinumtoxin A at the University of Florida. We collected demographic information, dose of BoNT injected, patient-reported presence of dysphagia as a side effect, patient-perceived duration of benefit and efficacy according to the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGIS). Results Of the 144 patients included, 24 patients were diagnosed with PRCD and 120 were diagnosed as non-PRCD. Data analysis showed no significant differences in number of weeks of benefit from BoNT (PRCD 9.1±3.7 versus non-PRCD 9.4±3.7 weeks, p = 0.830), BoNT dosage (PRCD 235.0±95.6 versus non-PRCD 263.7±101.3 units, p = 0.181), median CGIS score (median = 2 or “much improved” for both groups, p = 0.88), or the presence of dysphagia after BoNT (PRCD 17% versus non-PRCD 19 %, p = 0.753, n = 132). In a subgroup analysis of the non-PRCD group, patients who experienced dysphagia were older than those who did not (63.9±8.9 years versus 58.1±14.4 years, p = 0.02). Discussion Despite an increased baseline risk of dysphagia in patients with PRCD, BoNT appears to be equally safe and equally beneficial in PRCD and non-PRCD patients. PMID:27830106

  11. [Cervicogenic dysphagia: swallowing difficulties caused by functional and organic disorders of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Grgić, Vjekoslav

    2013-01-01

    shortened muscles, passive and active mobilization of the facet joints). As the patients with CD usually respond well to the appropriate therapy, cervical causes of dysphagia cannot be overlooked in patients with difficulty swallowing, including patients with disorders of the central control of swallowing.

  12. Characteristics of Patients With Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Risk Factors Related to Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics and risk factors of dysphagia with the Videofluoroscopic Dysphagia Scale (VDS) using a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) in patients with ruptured aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Methods Data of 64 patients presenting with first-ever ruptured aSAH were analyzed. Characteristics of dysphagia were evaluated using VFSS and all subjects were divided into a high (>47) and low risk group (≤47) by the VDS score. Clinical and functional parameters were assessed by medical records including demographics, hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM), the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the Hunt and Hess scale, endotracheal intubation, acute management modalities, as well as Korean version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) and Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI). Radiologic factors identified the amount of hemorrhage, ventricular rupture, and aneurysmal location. Results About a half of the subjects showed oral phase abnormalities and the oral transit time was delayed in 46.8% of the patients. The pharyngeal transit time was also prolonged in 39.0% of the subjects and the proportion of penetration and aspiration observed was 46.8%. The parameters-GCS score (p=0.048), hemorrhagic volume (p=0.028), presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p=0.038), and K-MMSE (p=0.007)-were predisposing factors for dysphagia in patients with aSAH. Conclusion Abnormalities in the oral phase were more prominent in patients with aSAH than in those with other types of stroke. The risk factors associated with dysphagia persisting over 6 months after stroke onset were the initial GCS, hemorrhage volume, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage, and cognitive status as measured by the K-MMSE. PMID:28119832

  13. Interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Angela T; Dodrill, Pamela; Ward, Elizabeth C

    2012-10-17

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia encompasses problems with the oral preparatory phase of swallowing (chewing and preparing the food), oral phase (moving the food or fluid posteriorly through the oral cavity with the tongue into the back of the throat) and pharyngeal phase (swallowing the food or fluid and moving it through the pharynx to the oesophagus). Populations of children with neurological impairment who commonly experience dysphagia include, but are not limited to, those with acquired brain impairment (for example, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, stroke), genetic syndromes (for example, Down syndrome, Rett syndrome) and degenerative conditions (for example, myotonic dystrophy). To examine the effectiveness of interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment. We searched the following electronic databases in October 2011: CENTRAL 2011(3), MEDLINE (1948 to September Week 4 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 40)
, CINAHL (1937 to current)
, ERIC (1966 to current), PsycINFO (1806 to October Week 1 2011), Science Citation Index (1970 to 7 October 2011), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 7 October 2011), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011(3), DARE 2011(3), Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN Register) (15 October 2011), ClinicalTrials.gov (15 October 2011) and WHO ICTRP (15 October 2011). We searched for dissertations and theses using Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, Australasian Digital Theses Program and DART-Europe E-theses Portal (11 October 2011). Finally, additional references were also obtained from reference lists from articles. The review included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials for children with oropharyngeal dysphagia and neurological impairment. All three review authors (AM, PD and EW) independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion and discussed results. In cases of uncertainty over whether an abstract met inclusion criterion, review

  14. Dysphagia in unilateral medullary infarction: lateral vs medial lesions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Miseon; Lee, Jae H; Kim, Jong S

    2005-09-13

    To study dysphagia in pure, unilateral medullary infarction using video fluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) tests and to compare the results between lateral medullary infarction (LMI) and medial medullary infarction (MMI). We studied 46 patients with medullary infarction (37 LMI, 9 MMI). Based on the MRI findings, each LMI was classified rostrocaudally as either a rostral or caudal lesion, and horizontally as either a superficial (lateral + dorsal) or nonsuperficial lesion. Each MMI was assigned to either a deep (lesion extending to the dorsal surface) or superficial lesion group. VFS examination was conducted and an 8-point scale was used for assessing the severity of dysphagia. Based on these results, dysphagia was classified as: 1) problems on timing of hyolaryngeal excursion (PT), and 2) problems on range of hyolaryngeal excursion (PR). Dysphagia was more frequent (p < 0.05) in MMI patients (78%) than in LMI patients (35%). Among the LMI patients, dysphagia was more frequent (p < 0.01) and severe (p < 0.01) in the rostral than in the caudal group and in the nonsuperficial than in the superficial group. In the MMI group, there was no difference in the frequency of dysphagia between the deep and superficial groups. Regarding the characteristics of dysphagia, seven (54%) of the LMI patients had PR, five (38%) had PT, and one (8%) had both. For the MMI patients, PT was frequent (86%) but PR was present in only one patient (14%). Five MMI patients (71%) showed no responses to penetration or aspiration, and silent dysphagia was observed in only four LMI patients (31%). Dysphagia is as frequent and severe in medial medullary infarction (MMI) as in lateral medullary infarction (LMI) patients. The types and characteristics of dysphagia are different between the LMI and MMI patients, implicating the rationale for a different treatment strategy.

  15. Dysphagia-gastroesophageal reflux complex: complications due to dysfunction of solitary tract nucleus-mediated vago-vagal reflex.

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Kawashima, Y; Kondo, A; Chikumaru, Y; Matsui, A; Nagata, I; Ohno, K

    2006-06-01

    We report on the complication of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in four patients with lower brainstem dysfunction. These patients suffered from perinatal asphyxia, cerebellar hemorrhage, or congenital dysphagia of unknown origin and showed facial nerve palsy, inspiratory stridor due to vocal cord paralysis, central sleep apnea, and dysphagia, in various combinations. Naso-intestinal tube feeding was introduced in all of the patients due to recurrent vomiting and aspiration pneumonia resulting from GER. T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed symmetrical high intensity lesions in the tegmentum of the lower pons and the medulla oblongata in two of the patients, and pontomedullary atrophy in another patient. In normal subjects, lower esophageal sphincter contraction is provoked by distension of the gastric wall, through a vago-vagal reflex. Since this reflex arc involves the solitary tract nucleus, where the swallowing center is located, the association of dysphagia and GER in the present patients is thought to result from the lesions in the tegmentum of medulla oblongata. We propose the term "dysphagia-GER complex" to describe the disturbed motility of the upper digestive tract due to lower brainstem involvement. In children with brainstem lesions, neurological assessment of GER is warranted, in addition to the examination of other signs of brainstem dysfunction, including dysphagia and respiratory disturbance.

  16. Swallowing rehabilitation with nutrition therapy improves clinical outcome in patients with dysphagia at an acute care hospital.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masako; Higashibeppu, Naoki; Arioka, Yasutaka; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia is associated with nutritional deficits and increased risk of aspiration pneumonia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition therapy for the patients with dysphagia at an acute care hospital. We also tried to clarify the factors which improve swallowing function in these patients. Seventy patients with dysphagia were included in the present study. Multidisciplinary nutrition support team evaluated swallowing function and nutrition status. Most patients were fed by parenteral or enteral nutrition at the time of the first round. Of these 70 patients, 36 became able to eat orally. The improvement of swallowing function was associated with higher BMI in both genders and higher AMC in men. Mortality was high in the patients with lower BMI and %AMC, suggesting importance of maintaining muscle mass. Thirteen (38.2%) of 34 patients who did not show any improvement in swallowing function died, but no patients who showed improvement died (p<0.001). In addition, the patients with nutrition intake about<22 kcal/kg/day during follow-up period, showed significantly poorer recovery from dysphagia and poor outcome, compared to those with about>22 kcal/kg/day. These results suggest that it is important to maintain nutritional status to promote rehabilitation in patients with dysphagia even in an acute care hospital.

  17. Aspiration pneumonia after chemo–intensity-modulated radiation therapy of oropharyngeal carcinoma and its clinical and dysphagia-related predictors

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Klaudia U.; Lee, Oliver E.; Lyden, Teresa H.; Haxer, Marc J.; Feng, Felix Y.; Schipper, Mathew; Worden, Francis; Prince, Mark E.; McLean, Scott A.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess aspiration pneumonia (AsPn) rates and predictors after chemo-irradiation for head and neck cancer. Methods The was a prospective study of 72 patients with stage III to IV oropharyngeal cancer treated definitively with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) concurrent with weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel. AsPn was recorded prospectively and dysphagia was evaluated longitudinally through 2 years posttherapy by observer-rated (Common Toxicity Criteria version [CTCAE]) scores, patient-reported scores, and videofluoroscopy. Results Sixteen patients (20%) developed AsPn. Predictive factors included T classification (p = .01), aspiration detected on videofluoroscopy (videofluoroscopy-asp; p = .0007), and patient-reported dysphagia (p = .02–.0003), but not observer-rated dysphagia (p = .4). Combining T classification, patient reported dysphagia, and videofluoroscopy-asp, provided the best predictive model. Conclusion AsPn continues to be an under-reported consequence of chemo-irradiation for head and neck cancer. These data support using patient-reported dysphagia to identify high-risk patients requiring videofluoroscopy evaluation for preventive measures. Reducing videofluoroscopy-asp rates, by reducing swallowing structures radiation doses and by trials reducing treatment intensity in patients predicted to do well, are likely to reduce AsPn rates. PMID:23729173

  18. Chemo-IMRT of oropharyngeal cancer aiming to reduce dysphagia: Swallowing organs late complication probabilities and dosimetric correlates

    PubMed Central

    Eisbruch, Avraham; Kim, Hyungjin M.; Feng, Felix Y.; Lyden, Teresa H.; Haxer, Marc J.; Feng, Mary; Worden, Frank P.; Bradford, Carol R.; Prince, Mark E.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Haken, Randall K Ten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Assess dosimetric correlates of long-term dysphagia after chemo-IMRT of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) sparing parts of the swallowing organs. Patients and Methods Prospective longitudinal study: weekly chemotherapy concurrent with IMRT for stages III/IV OPC, aiming to reduce dysphagia by sparing non-involved parts of swallowing-related organs: pharyngeal constrictors (PC), glottic and supraglottic larynx (GSL), and esophagus, as well as oral cavity and major salivary glands. Dysphagia outcomes included patient-reported Swallowing and Eating Domain scores, Observer-based (CTCAEv.2) dysphagia, and videofluoroscopy (VF), before and periodically after therapy through 2 years. Relationships between dosimetric factors and worsening (from baseline) of dysphagia through 2 years were assessed by linear mixed-effects model. Results 73 patients participated. Observer-based dysphagia was not modeled because at >6 months there were only four grade ≥2 cases (one of whom feeding-tube dependent). PC, GSL, and esophagus mean doses, as well as their partial volume doses (VDs), were each significantly correlated with all dysphagia outcomes. However, the VDs for each organ inter-correlated and also highly correlated with the mean doses, leaving only mean doses significant. Mean doses to each of the parts of the PCs (superior, middle and inferior) were also significantly correlated with all dysphagia measures, with superior PCs demonstrating highest correlations. For VF-based strictures, most significant predictor was esophageal mean doses (48±17 Gy in patients with, vs 27±12 in patients without strictures, p=0.004). Normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) increased moderately with mean doses without any threshold. For increased VF-based aspirations or worsened VF summary scores, TD50 and TD25 were 63Gy and 56Gy for PC, and 56Gy and 39Gy for GSL, respectively. For both PC and GSL, patient-reported swallowing TDs were substantially higher than VF-based TDs. Conclusions

  19. Chemo-IMRT of Oropharyngeal Cancer Aiming to Reduce Dysphagia: Swallowing Organs Late Complication Probabilities and Dosimetric Correlates

    SciTech Connect

    Eisbruch, Avraham; Kim, Hyungjin M.; Feng, Felix Y.; Lyden, Teresa H.; Haxer, Marc J.; Feng, Mary; Worden, Frank P.; Bradford, Carol R.; Prince, Mark E.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Assess dosimetric correlates of long-term dysphagia after chemo-intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) sparing parts of the swallowing organs. Patients and Methods: Prospective longitudinal study: weekly chemotherapy concurrent with IMRT for Stages III/IV OPC, aiming to reduce dysphagia by sparing noninvolved parts of swallowing-related organs: pharyngeal constrictors (PC), glottic and supraglottic larynx (GSL), and esophagus, as well as oral cavity and major salivary glands. Dysphagia outcomes included patient-reported Swallowing and Eating Domain scores, Observer-based (CTCAEv.2) dysphagia, and videofluoroscopy (VF), before and periodically after therapy through 2 years. Relationships between dosimetric factors and worsening (from baseline) of dysphagia through 2 years were assessed by linear mixed-effects model. Results: Seventy-three patients participated. Observer-based dysphagia was not modeled because at >6 months there were only four Grade {>=}2 cases (one of whom was feeding-tube dependent). PC, GSL, and esophagus mean doses, as well as their partial volume doses (V{sub D}s), were each significantly correlated with all dysphagia outcomes. However, the V{sub D}s for each organ intercorrelated and also highly correlated with the mean doses, leaving only mean doses significant. Mean doses to each of the parts of the PCs (superior, middle, and inferior) were also significantly correlated with all dysphagia measures, with superior PCs demonstrating highest correlations. For VF-based strictures, most significant predictor was esophageal mean doses (48{+-}17 Gy in patients with, vs 27{+-}12 in patients without strictures, p = 0.004). Normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) increased moderately with mean doses without any threshold. For increased VF-based aspirations or worsened VF summary scores, toxic doses (TDs){sub 50} and TD{sub 25} were 63 Gy and 56 Gy for PC, and 56 Gy and 39 Gy for GSL, respectively. For

  20. Acupuncture for Dysphagia after Chemoradiation in Head and Neck Cancer: Rationale and Design of a Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weidong; Wayne, Peter M.; Davis, Roger B.; Buring, Julie E.; Li, Hailun; Goguen, Laura A.; Rosenthal, David S.; Tishler, Roy B.; Posner, Marshall R.; Haddad, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Dysphagia is a common side effect following chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Current dysphagia management includes swallowing therapy and dilation procedures, but these treatments have limitations. While acupuncture has been reported to positively impact swallowing function and quality of life (QOL) in patients with dysphagia, current evidence is inconclusive. Material and Methods In an ongoing trial, 42 squamous cell carcinoma HNC patients, who are receiving platinum-based CRT with curative intent, are being recruited from a comprehensive cancer center. They are randomized to 12 sessions of either active acupuncture or to sham acupuncture during and following CRT over a 24-week period. Blinded research staff assesses outcomes at baseline, 20 weeks post-CRT (end of acupuncture), and 12 months after baseline (6-month follow-up). The primary outcome is change in M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory score from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes include QOL measures pertaining to HNC patients. In addition, a subset of study patients are tested for salivary flow rates and cytokines, including plasma transforming growth factor –β1 and interleukin 6 (n=10 per arm), to preliminarily explore the biological mechanisms of acupuncture for dysphagia. Discussion This paper addresses unique challenges related to study design in nonpharmacological, sham-controlled acupuncture trials including development of evidence-based credible verum and sham treatment protocols, blinding, and assuring fidelity of treatment. Results of this study will inform the feasibility of conducting a large scale trial and will provide preliminary evidence regarding the value of acupuncture for dysphagia in HNC patients. PMID:22406102

  1. Lymphocytic Esophagitis: An Emerging Clinicopathologic Disease Associated with Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, Sarina; Gupta, Amit; Reed, Craig C; Speck, Olga; Woosley, John T; Dellon, Evan S

    2016-10-01

    Lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is a recently described clinicopathological condition, but little is known about its features and clinical associations. The aim of this study was to characterize patients with LyE, compare them to non-LyE controls, and identify risk factors. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients ≥18 years old who underwent upper endoscopy with esophageal biopsy between January 1, 2000, and June 1, 2012. Archived pathology slides were re-reviewed, and LyE was diagnosed if there was lymphocyte-predominant esophageal inflammation with no eosinophils or granulocytes. Three non-LyE controls groups were also defined: reflux, eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), and normal. Clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records, and LyE cases were compared to non-LyE controls. Twenty-seven adults were diagnosed with LyE, and the majority were female (63 %). The most common symptom was dysphagia (70 %). Fifty-two percentage had a prior or current diagnosis of reflux. Endoscopic findings included strictures (37 %), erosive esophagitis (33 %), rings (26 %), and hiatal hernia (26 %); 33 % of patients required dilation. After histology re-review, 78 % of LyE patients were found to have more than 20 lymphs/hpf. In comparison with the normal, reflux and EoE controls, patients with LyE tended to be nonwhite (p < 0.01), were more commonly tobacco users (p = 0.02) and less likely to have seasonal allergies (p = 0.02). LyE commonly presents with dysphagia due to esophageal strictures which require dilation. Smoking was associated with LyE, whereas atopy was not. LyE should be considered as a diagnostic possibility in patients with these characteristics undergoing upper endoscopy.

  2. [Validity of schintigraphy in the study of neurogenic dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Galli, J; Valenza, V; D'Alatri, L; Gajate Samanes, A M; Reale, F; La Mura, F

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to verify the validity and potential application of oropharyngealesophageal scintigraphy in the analysis of neurogenic dysphagia. Scintigraphy was used on 36 patients divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (control) comprised 17 healthy volunteers; Group 2 included 19 patients suffering from various neurological and neuromuscular pathologies (myasthenia gravis, Parkinson's disease, polymyositis, stroke, paralysis of the last cranial nerves). In group 1 scintigraphy provided normal results both for mode of swallowing and transit, and for the values of the various parameters studied. On the other hand, scintigraphy showed that in group 2 all oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing were altered vs the controls with a statistically significant increase in the average values for the oral transit time (OTT) (1.45 sec., p = 0.0005), pharyngeal transit time (OTT) (3.23 sec., p = 0.044), esophageal transit time (ETT) e19.87 sec., p = 0.005) as well as in the corresponding bolus retention indexes ORU (12.95%, p = 0.0003), FIR (15.05%, p = 0.0003) and ERI (28.63%, p = 0.002). Moreover, the quality and means of swallowing also proved altered while tracheobronchial aspiration was only seen in 6 of the 19 patients (maximum value: 90%, average value; 7.66%) with a marked prevalence in the stroke subgroup (4/8). In light of these results and considering the low dose of radiation (0.00043 Gy), the lack of invasiveness and excellent tolerability, scintigraphy has confirmed its clinical validity in the functional, objective and quali-quantitative study of deglutition, even in patients suffering from neurogenic dysphagia.

  3. Validation of a dysphagia screening tool in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Edmiaston, Jeff; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Loehr, Lynda; Nassief, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    Although many dysphagia screening tools exist, none has high sensitivity and reliability or can be administered quickly with minimal training. To design and validate a swallowing screening tool to be used by health care professionals who are not speech language pathologists to identify dysphagia and aspiration risk in acute stroke patients. In a prospective study of 300 patients admitted to the stroke service at an urban tertiary care hospital, interrater and test-retest reliabilities of a new tool (the Acute Stroke Dysphagia Screen) were established. The tool was administered by nursing staff when patients were admitted to the stroke unit. A speech language pathologist blinded to the results with the new tool administered the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability, a clinical bedside evaluation, with dysphagia operationally defined by a score less than 178. The mean time from admission to screening with the new tool was 8 hours. The mean time between administration of the new tool and the clinical bedside evaluation was 32 hours. For the new tool, interrater reliability was 93.6% and test-retest reliability was 92.5%. The new tool had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 74% for detecting dysphagia and a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 68% for detecting aspiration risk. The Acute Stroke Dysphagia Screen is an easily administered and reliable tool that has sufficient sensitivity to detect both dysphagia and aspiration risk in acute stroke patients.

  4. Validation of a Dysphagia Screening Tool in Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Edmiaston, Jeff; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Loehr, Lynda; Nassief, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Background Although many dysphagia screening tools exist, none has high sensitivity and reliability or can be administered quickly with minimal training. Objective To design and validate a swallowing screening tool to be used by health care professionals who are not speech language pathologists to identify dysphagia and aspiration risk in acute stroke patients. Methods In a prospective study of 300 patients admitted to the stroke service at an urban tertiary care hospital, interrater and test-retest reliabilities of a new tool (the Acute Stroke Dysphagia Screen) were established. The tool was administered by nursing staff when patients were admitted to the stroke unit. A speech language pathologist blinded to the results with the new tool administered the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability, a clinical bedside evaluation, with dysphagia operationally defined by a score less than 178. Results The mean time from admission to screening with the new tool was 8 hours. The mean time between administration of the new tool and the clinical bedside evaluation was 32 hours. For the new tool, interrater reliability was 93.6% and test-retest reliability was 92.5%. The new tool had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 74% for detecting dysphagia and a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 68% for detecting aspiration risk. Conclusions The Acute Stroke Dysphagia Screen is an easily administered and reliable tool that has sufficient sensitivity to detect both dysphagia and aspiration risk in acute stroke patients. PMID:19875722

  5. POSTFUNDOPLICATION DYSPHAGIA CAUSES SIMILAR WATER INGESTION DYNAMICS AS ACHALASIA.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Roberto Oliveira; Santos, Carla Manfredi; Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Alves, Leda Maria Tavares; Nascimento, Weslania Viviane

    2016-01-01

    - After surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease dysphagia is a symptom in the majority of patients, with decrease in intensity over time. However, some patients may have persistent dysphagia. - The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the dynamics of water ingestion in patients with postfundoplication dysphagia compared with patients with dysphagia caused by achalasia, idiopathic or consequent to Chagas' disease, and controls. - Thirty-three patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, assessed more than one year after surgery, together with 50 patients with Chagas' disease, 27 patients with idiopathic achalasia and 88 controls were all evaluated by the water swallow test. They drunk, in triplicate, 50 mL of water without breaks while being precisely timed and the number of swallows counted. Also measured was: (a) inter-swallows interval - the time to complete the task, divided by the number of swallows during the task; (b) swallowing flow - volume drunk divided by the time taken; (c) volume of each swallow - volume drunk divided by the number of swallows. - Patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, Chagas' disease and idiopathic achalasia took longer to ingest all the volume, had an increased number of swallows, an increase in interval between swallows, a decrease in swallowing flow and a decrease in water volume of each swallow compared with the controls. There was no difference between the three groups of patients. There was no correlation between postfundoplication time and the results. - It was concluded that patients with postfundoplication dysphagia have similar water ingestion dynamics as patients with achalasia.

  6. The Use of Brain Stimulation in Dysphagia Management.

    PubMed

    Simons, Andre; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2017-04-01

    Dysphagia is common sequela of brain injury with as many as 50% of patients suffering from dysphagia following stroke. Currently, the majority of guidelines for clinical practice in the management of dysphagia focus on the prevention of complications while any natural recovery takes place. Recently, however, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques like transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have started to attract attention and are applied to investigate both the physiology of swallowing and influences on dysphagia. TMS allows for painless stimulation of the brain through an intact skull-an effect which would normally be impossible with electrical currents due to the high resistance of the skull. By comparison, tDCS involves passing a small electric current (usually under 2 mA) produced by a current generator over the scalp and cranium external to the brain. Initial studies used these techniques to better understand the physiological mechanisms of swallowing in healthy subjects. More recently, a number of studies have investigated the efficacy of these techniques in the management of neurogenic dysphagia with mixed results. Controversy still exists as to which site, strength and duration of stimulation yields the greatest improvement in dysphagia. And while multiple studies have suggested promising effects of NIBS, more randomised control trials with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate the short- and long-term effects of NIBS in neurogenic dysphagia.

  7. Resolution of life-threatening dysphagia caused by caudal occipital malformation syndrome following foramen magnum decompressive surgery.

    PubMed

    Graham, K J; Black, A P; Brain, P H

    2012-08-01

    A Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was presented with acute onset, life-threatening dysphagia suspected to be secondary to medulla oblongata compression caused by caudal occipital malformation syndrome. The patient required urgent tracheostomy tube placement to remain stable and was subsequently cured of the presenting neurological deficits by foramen magnum decompressive surgery. Neurogenic dysphagia is a relatively common presenting sign in human Chiari malformation syndromes, but has not been described as a major clinical sign in veterinary patients. Caudal occipital malformation syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis list for susceptible breeds presenting with dysphagia. Early recognition favours expeditious surgical intervention and a positive outcome in human patients, and this may also be the case in veterinary patients. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Radiological evidence of subclinical dysphagia in motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Briani, C; Marcon, M; Ermani, M; Costantini, M; Bottin, R; Iurilli, V; Zaninotto, G; Primon, D; Feltrin, G; Angelini, C

    1998-04-01

    Dysphagia in motor neuron disease (MND) may lead to dangerous complications such as cachexia and aspiration pneumonia. Functional evaluation of the oropharyngeal tract is crucial for identifying specific swallowing dysfunctions and planning appropriate rehabilitation. As part of a multidisciplinary study on the treatment of dysphagia in patients with neuromuscular diseases, 23 MND patients with different degrees of dysphagia underwent videofluoroscopy, videopharyngolaryngoscopy and pharyngo-oesophageal manometry. The results of the three instrumental investigations were analysed in order (1) to define the pattern of swallowing in MND patients complaining of dysphagia; (2) to evaluate whether subclinical abnormalities may be detected; and (3) to assess the role of videofluoroscopy, videopharyngolaryngoscopy and manometry in the evaluation of MND patients with deglutition problems. Correlations between the instrumental findings and clinical features (age of the patients, duration and severity of the disease, presence and degree of dysphagia) were also assessed. The results of our study showed that: (1) The oral phase of deglutition was compromised most often, followed by the pharyngeal phase. (2) In all patients without clinical evidence of dysphagia, subclinical videofluoroscopic alterations were present in a pattern similar to that found in the dysphagic group. (3) Videofluoroscopy was the most sensitive technique in identifying oropharyngeal alterations of swallowing. Impairment of the oral phase, abnormal pharyngo-oesophageal motility and incomplete relaxation of the upper oesophageal sphincter were the changes most sensitive in detecting dysphagia. Videofluoroscopy was also capable of detecting preclinical abnormalities in non-dysphagic patients who later developed dysphagia. Practical guidelines for the use of instrumental investigations in the assessment and management of dysphagia in MND patients are proposed.

  9. Thyroid Lymphoma as a Cause of Dysphagia and Dyspnea in a Patient without Palpable Nodules or Goiter.

    PubMed

    Frizzell, Jarrod D; Perkins, Brandon J; Morehead, R Scott

    2009-01-01

    Tumors originating in the neck are well-known causes of progressive dysphagia and dyspnea (including stridor), and thyroid lymphoma is an uncommon example. Physical examination provides an important first step in the evaluation of such complaints, as tumors large enough to produce such symptoms are typically considered to be palpable, if not able to be seen grossly. In this case presentation, the authors describe a nonsubsternal thyroid lymphoma measuring 3 x 4 cm at its largest diameter, producing dysphagia and leading to respiratory emergency, that was entirely nonpalpable to physical exam even after confirmation of its presence by computed tomography.

  10. [Efficacy of high-frequency cinematography in diagnosis of dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Oelerich, M; Mai, R; Müller-Miny, H; Peters, P E

    1995-10-01

    Dysphagia is a common symptom in clinical practice. Due to the broad spectrum of underlying diseases many disciplines are involved in the therapy and diagnosis of dysphagia, where radiology plays a central role. The radiologist is confronted with different diagnostic problems and has to choose the most appropriate type of investigation. In many cases no organic disorder can be demonstrated by clinical examination, endoscopy or conventional radiological techniques. In this setting cineradiography is an outstanding tool for finding functional or structural changes in the swallowing chain. This study underlines the efficiency of cineradiography in the diagnosis of dysphagia.

  11. Exploring scale-up, spread, and sustainability: an instrumental case study tracing an innovation to enhance dysphagia care.

    PubMed

    Ilott, Irene; Gerrish, Kate; Pownall, Sue; Eltringham, Sabrina; Booth, Andrew

    2013-10-29

    Adoption, adaptation, scale-up, spread, and sustainability are ill-defined, undertheorised, and little-researched implementation science concepts. An instrumental case study will track the adoption and adaptation, or not, of a locally developed innovation about dysphagia as a patient safety issue. The case study will examine a conceptual framework with a continuum of spread comprising hierarchical control or 'making it happen', participatory adaptation or 'help it happen', and facilitated evolution or 'let it happen'. This case study is a prospective, longitudinal design using mixed methods. The fifteen-month (October 2012 to December 2013) instrumental case study is set in large, healthcare organisation in England. The innovation refers to introducing a nationally recognised, inter-disciplinary dysphagia competency framework to guide workforce development about fundamental aspects of care. Adoption and adaptation will be examined at an organisational level and along two, contrasting care pathways: stroke and fractured neck of femur. A number of educational interventions will be deployed, including training a cadre of trainers to cascade the essentials of dysphagia management and developing a Dysphagia Toolkit as a learning resource. Mixed methods will be used to investigate scale-up, spread, and sustainability in acute and community settings. A purposive sample of senior managers and clinical leaders will be interviewed to identify path dependency or the context specific particularities of implementation. A pre- and post-evaluation, using mealtime observations and a survey, will investigate the learning effect on staff adherence to patient specific dysphagia recommendations and attitudes towards dysphagia, respectively. Official documents and an ethnographic field journal allow critical junctures, temporal aspects and confounding factors to be explored. Researching spread and sustainability presents methodological and practical challenges. These include fidelity

  12. Can IMRT or Brachytherapy Reduce Dysphagia Associated With Chemoradiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer? The Michigan and Rotterdam Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Eisbruch, Avraham Levendag, Peter C.; Feng, Felix Y.; Teguh, David; Lyden, Teresa M.A.; Schmitz, Paul I.M.; Haxer, Marc; Noever, Inge; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Heijmen, Ben J.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia is a major late complication of intensive chemoradiotherapy of head and neck cancer. The initial clinical results of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), or brachytherapy, planned specifically to reduce dysphagia are presented. Patients and Methods: Previous research at Michigan University has suggested that the pharyngeal constrictors and glottic and supraglottic larynx are likely structures whose damage by chemo-RT causes dysphagia and aspiration. In a prospective Michigan trial, 36 patients with oropharyngeal (n = 31) or nasopharyngeal (n = 5) cancer underwent chemo-IMRT. IMRT cost functions included sparing noninvolved pharyngeal constrictors and the glottic and supraglottic larynx. After a review of published studies, the retropharyngeal nodes at risk were defined as the lateral, but not the medial, retropharyngeal nodes, which facilitated sparing of the swallowing structures. In Rotterdam, 77 patients with oropharyngeal cancer were treated with IMRT, three dimensional RT, or conventional RT; also one-half received brachytherapy. The dysphagia endpoints included videofluoroscopy and observer-assessed scores at Michigan and patient-reported quality-of-life instruments in both studies. Results: In both studies, the doses to the upper and middle constrictors correlated highly with the dysphagia endpoints. In addition, doses to the glottic and supraglottic larynx were significant in the Michigan series. In the Rotterdam series, brachytherapy (which reduced the doses to the swallowing structures) was the only significant factor on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The dose-response relationships for the swallowing structures found in these studies suggest that reducing their doses, using either IMRT aimed at their sparing, or brachytherapy, might achieve clinical gains in dysphagia.

  13. Effects of the Evidence-Based Nursing Care Algorithm of Dysphagia for Nursing Home Residents.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeonhwan; Oh, Seieun; Chang, Heekyung; Bang, Hwal Lan

    2015-11-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Effects of the Evidence-Based Nursing Care Algorithm of Dysphagia for Nursing Home Residents" found on pages 30-39, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until October 31, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Explain the development and testing of the Evidence-Based Nursing Care Algorithm of

  14. Giant Dermoid Cyst Causing Dysphagia and Dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Derin, Serhan; Koseoglu, Sabri; Sahan, Leyla; Dere, Yelda; Sahan, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Dermoid cysts are benign lesions seen in young adults. The second most common localization is the floor of the mouth. They are usually asymptomatic over years but can be symptomatic due to secondary changes or the size. Herein, we report a case of 19-year-old woman who applied to emergency service with dyspnea, dysphagia and enlarging of a mass in the submental region. The patient cannot be entubated because of the mass pushing the tongue base backward closing the laryngeal view. Elective tracheostomy was performed for providing airflow during the operation. After the operation a cystic mass fulfilled with keratin lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium in addition to the dermal appendages such as sweat glands and follicular structures were seen histopathologically and the case was diagnosed as dermoid cyst of the submental region. In such patients with quick enlarging of mass causing airway obstructions, the tracheostomy can be the preferable method because of the difficulties in entubation.

  15. [Dysphagia in a young woman from Somalia].

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Suzanne; van Altena, Richard; van Steenwijk, Reindert P; Rauws, Erik A J; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, Jan Karel M

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing worldwide. The determination of possible resistance is essential for adequate treatment. Tuberculosis is common amongst immigrants from Somalia and extra-pulmonary localisation is often seen. A 21-year-old woman from Somalia presented with progressive dysphagia and severe weight loss. Endoscopy revealed two ulcers in the mid-oesophagus. A chest x-ray showed enlarged lymph nodes in the right hilar and mediastinal regions. The Ziehl-Neelsen stain and PCR for mycobacteria were negative. Sputum samples and oesophageal biopsies were cultured. Quadruple tuberculostatic therapy was started empirically. After five weeks, a sputum culture grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which was resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid. She was treated with second-line anti-tuberculous therapy and eventually recovered. Tuberculosis can manifest in many ways. It is important to obtain patient material for culture; not only to confirm the diagnosis but also for the determination of possible resistance which is necessary for adequate therapy.

  16. Lymphoma Presenting as Acute-Onset Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Daniel B.; Bursaw, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    A 61-year-old man with recent Bell's palsy developed acute vocal cord paralysis causing severe dysphagia. CSF analysis showed elevated protein and a normal cell count; contrast-enhanced MRI of the brain was normal. He was treated with IVIG for a presumed bulbar-variant AIDP and gradually improved. Six months later, the patient developed rapidly progressive hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Repeat MRI revealed bilateral enhancement of the eighth cranial nerves and a hypercellular mass in the left temporal lobe. Biopsy of the mass confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Lymphomatous invasion of the cranial nerves should be considered in cases of relapsing cranial neuropathies. PMID:26635982

  17. What is "usual care" in dysphagia rehabilitation: a survey of USA dysphagia practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Carnaby, Giselle D; Harenberg, Lindsay

    2013-12-01

    The scope of dysphagia rehabilitation has been expanding. Therapeutic approaches have begun to move away from the use of behavioral compensations and maneuvers only, toward a greater emphasis on research-supported exercise-based therapies. Given the change in focus and demand for evidence-based practice, this study surveyed licensed speech language pathologists who treat dysphagic adults to ascertain the utilization of exercise-based techniques and supportive research in treatment decision-making. A web-based survey was created using Qualtrics online software. The survey consisted of 29 questions on demographics and treatment options for a deidentified patient in a video-supported fictional scenario. Initially, a field test was conducted by sending the survey to a sample population of 12 local speech pathologists working in adult dysphagia rehabilitation. Responses were collated and analyzed for item agreement and internal consistency. A blast e-mail containing a link to the modified survey was then sent out to members of the American Speech Language Hearing Association Special Interest Group 13. Participants were given 2 months to complete the survey. A total of 254 responses were analyzed using descriptive, correlative, and associative methods. Respondents were experienced speech-language pathologists (SLP) working in primarily acute and rehabilitation settings and treating more than 50 dysphagic cases in a 6-month period. They reported treating dysphagic patients daily for an average of 30 min a session. Follow-up of treated patients was infrequent. Most respondents reported using self-developed assessment techniques, and as a group they recommended 47 different treatment techniques and more than 90 different treatment combinations for the same hypothetical patient case. The majority of respondents also described the common outcome of dysphagia treatment as returning a patient to a safe and functional oral diet, but not preinjury status. Results demonstrate a

  18. Prediction of outcome in neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia within 72 hours of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Ickenstein, Guntram W; Höhlig, Carolin; Prosiegel, Mario; Koch, Horst; Dziewas, Rainer; Bodechtel, Ulf; Müller, Rainer; Reichmann, Heinz; Riecker, Axel

    2012-10-01

    Stroke is the most frequent cause of neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia (NOD). In the acute phase of stroke, the frequency of NOD is greater than 50% and, half of this patient population return to good swallowing within 14 days while the other half develop chronic dysphagia. Because dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and in-hospital mortality, it is important to pay attention to swallowing problems. The question arises if a prediction of severe chronic dysphagia is possible within the first 72 hours of acute stroke. On admission to the stroke unit, all stroke patients were screened for swallowing problems by the nursing staff within 2 hours. Patients showing signs of aspiration were included in the study (n = 114) and were given a clinical swallowing examination (CSE) by the swallowing/speech therapist within 24 hours and a swallowing endoscopy within 72 hours by the physician. The primary outcome of the study was the functional communication measure (FCM) of swallowing (score 1-3, tube feeding dependency) on day 90. The grading system with the FCM swallowing and the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) in the first 72 hours was tested in a multivariate analysis for its predictive value for tube feeding-dependency on day 90. For the FCM level 1 to 3 (P < .0022) and PAS level 5 to 8 (P < .00001), the area under the curve (AUC) was 72.8% and showed an odds ratio of 11.8 (P < .00001; 95% confidence interval 0.036-0.096), achieving for the patient a 12 times less chance of being orally fed on day 90 and therefore still being tube feeding-dependent. We conclude that signs of aspiration in the first 72 hours of acute stroke can predict severe swallowing problems on day 90. Consequently, patients should be tested on admission to a stroke unit and evaluated with established dysphagia scales to prevent aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. A dysphagia program can lead to better communication within the stroke unit team to initiate the appropriate

  19. [Translation and validation of the Spanish version of the EAT-10 (Eating Assessment Tool-10) for the screening of dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Burgos, R; Sarto, B; Segurola, H; Romagosa, A; Puiggrós, C; Vázquez, C; Cárdenas, G; Barcons, N; Araujo, K; Pérez-Portabella, C

    2012-01-01

    The Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT-10) is a self-administered, analogical, direct-scoring screening tool for dysphagia. To translate and adapt the EAT-10 into Spanish, and to evaluate its psychometric properties. After the translation and back-translation process of the EAT-10 ES, a prospective study was performed in adult patients with preserved cognitive and functional abilities. Patients in 3 clinical situations, diagnosed with dysphagia (DD), patients at risk of dysphagia (RD), and patients not at risk of dysphagia (SRD) were recruited from 3 settings: a hospital Nutritional Support Unit (USN), a nursing home (RG) and primary care centre (CAP). Patients completed the EAT-10 ES during a single visit. Both patients and researchers completed a specific questionnaire regarding EAT-10 ES' comprehension. 65 patients were included (age 75 ± 9.1 y), 52.3% women. Mean time of administration was 3.8 ± 1.7 minutes. 95.4% of patients considered that all tool items were comprehensible and 72.3% found it easy to assign scores. EAT-10 ES' internal consistency, Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was 0.87. A high correlation was observed between all tool items and global scores (p < 0.001). Mean score for patients in group DD was 15 ± 8.9 points, 6.7 ± 7.7 points in group RD, and 2 ± 3.1 points in group SRD. Male patients, previously diagnosed of dysphagia or patients from the NSU showed significantly higher scores on the EAT-10 ES (p < 0.001). EAT-10 ES has proven to be reliable, valid and to have internal consistency. Is it an easy-to-understand tool that can be completed quickly, making it useful for the screening of dysphagia in routine clinical practice.

  20. Symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Verdonschot, Rob J C G; Baijens, Laura W J; Serroyen, Jan L; Leue, Carsten; Kremer, Bernd

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the presence and severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia who visit the outpatient clinic for dysphagia. Symptoms of anxiety and depression (affective symptoms) were prospectively assessed in 96 patients using the validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. In addition, all patients underwent a standardized examination protocol used for regular healthcare in the outpatient setting for dysphagia. The protocol included the following: otorhinolaryngological examination, logopedic observation of oral intake, fiber optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, videofluoroscopy of swallowing, the Functional Oral Intake Scale, a dysphagia severity scale, and the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory. Depending on the presence/absence of symptoms of anxiety and depression, several groups were distinguished. Descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to test for group differences. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and/or depression (cut-off score >8). Clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety were observed in 37% (N=34) and clinically relevant symptoms of depression in 32.6% (N=31) of the present patient population, with 21.3% having symptoms of both anxiety and depression. In total, 47.3% (N=43) of this population showed affective symptoms. Given that psychological burden can enhance somatic complaints, the high number of patients suffering from affective symptoms is a relevant clinical outcome in dysphagic patients. The contribution of anxiety or depression to the development or worsening of oropharyngeal dysphagia and their role in interdisciplinary treatment strategy is warranting further research. © 2013.

  1. Development of International Terminology and Definitions for Texture-Modified Foods and Thickened Fluids Used in Dysphagia Management: The IDDSI Framework.

    PubMed

    Cichero, Julie A Y; Lam, Peter; Steele, Catriona M; Hanson, Ben; Chen, Jianshe; Dantas, Roberto O; Duivestein, Janice; Kayashita, Jun; Lecko, Caroline; Murray, Joseph; Pillay, Mershen; Riquelme, Luis; Stanschus, Soenke

    2017-04-01

    Dysphagia is estimated to affect ~8% of the world's population (~590 million people). Texture-modified foods and thickened drinks are commonly used to reduce the risks of choking and aspiration. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) was founded with the goal of developing globally standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and liquids applicable to individuals with dysphagia of all ages, in all care settings, and all cultures. A multi-professional volunteer committee developed a dysphagia diet framework through systematic review and stakeholder consultation. First, a survey of existing national terminologies and current practice was conducted, receiving 2050 responses from 33 countries. Respondents included individuals with dysphagia; their caregivers; organizations supporting individuals with dysphagia; healthcare professionals; food service providers; researchers; and industry. The results revealed common use of 3-4 levels of food texture (54 different names) and ≥3 levels of liquid thickness (27 different names). Substantial support was expressed for international standardization. Next, a systematic review regarding the impact of food texture and liquid consistency on swallowing was completed. A meeting was then convened to review data from previous phases, and develop a draft framework. A further international stakeholder survey sought feedback to guide framework refinement; 3190 responses were received from 57 countries. The IDDSI Framework (released in November, 2015) involves a continuum of 8 levels (0-7) identified by numbers, text labels, color codes, definitions, and measurement methods. The IDDSI Framework is recommended for implementation throughout the world.

  2. Development of International Terminology and Definitions for Texture-Modified Foods and Thickened Fluids Used in Dysphagia Management: The IDDSI Framework

    PubMed Central

    Cichero, Julie A. Y.; Lam, Peter; Steele, Catriona M.; Hanson, Ben; Chen, Jianshe; Dantas, Roberto O.; Duivestein, Janice; Kayashita, Jun; Lecko, Caroline; Murray, Joseph; Pillay, Mershen; Riquelme, Luis; Stanschus, Soenke

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is estimated to affect ~8% of the world’s population (~590 million people). Texture-modified foods and thickened drinks are commonly used to reduce the risks of choking and aspiration. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) was founded with the goal of developing globally standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and liquids applicable to individuals with dysphagia of all ages, in all care settings, and all cultures. A multi-professional volunteer committee developed a dysphagia diet framework through systematic review and stakeholder consultation. First, a survey of existing national terminologies and current practice was conducted, receiving 2050 responses from 33 countries. Respondents included individuals with dysphagia; their caregivers; organizations supporting individuals with dysphagia; healthcare professionals; food service providers; researchers; and industry. The results revealed common use of 3–4 levels of food texture (54 different names) and ≥3 levels of liquid thickness (27 different names). Substantial support was expressed for international standardization. Next, a systematic review regarding the impact of food texture and liquid consistency on swallowing was completed. A meeting was then convened to review data from previous phases, and develop a draft framework. A further international stakeholder survey sought feedback to guide framework refinement; 3190 responses were received from 57 countries. The IDDSI Framework (released in November, 2015) involves a continuum of 8 levels (0–7) identified by numbers, text labels, color codes, definitions, and measurement methods. The IDDSI Framework is recommended for implementation throughout the world. PMID:27913916

  3. An appraisal of current dysphagia diagnosis and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Kaindlstorfer, Adolf; Pointner, Rudolph

    2016-08-01

    Dysphagia is a common, serious health problem with a wide variety of etiologies and manifestations. This review gives a general overview of diagnostic and therapeutic options for oropharyngeal as well as esophageal swallowing disorders respecting the considerable progress made over recent years. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires expertise in interpretation of symptoms and patient history. Endoscopy, barium radiography and manometry are still the diagnostic mainstays. Classification of esophageal motor-disorders has been revolutionized with the introduction of high-resolution esophageal pressure topography and a new standardized classification algorithm. Automated integrated impedance manometry is a promising upcoming tool for objective evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia, in non-obstructive esophageal dysphagia and prediction of post fundoplication dysphagia risk. Impedance planimetry provides new diagnostic information on esophageal and LES-distensibility and allows controlled therapeutic dilatation without the need for radiation. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is a promising therapeutic approach for achalasia and spastic motility disorders.

  4. IMRT for head and neck cancer: reducing xerostomia and dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XiaoShen; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia and xerostomia are the main sequellae of chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and the main factors in reducing long-term patient quality of life. IMRT uses advanced technology to focus the high radiation doses on the targets and avoid irradiation of non-involved tissues. The decisions about sparing organs and tissues whose damage causes xerostomia and dysphagia depends on the evidence for dose–response relationships for the organs causing these sequellae. This paper discusses the evidence for the contribution of radiotherapy to xerostomia via damage of the major salivary glands (parotid and submandibular) and minor salivary glands within the oral cavity, and the contribution of radiotherapy-related effect on important swallowing structures causing dysphagia. Recommendations for dose limits to these organs, based on measurements of xerostomia and dysphagia following radiotherapy, are provided here. PMID:27538846

  5. Persistent post-stroke dysphagia treated with cricopharyngeal myotomy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sruthi S.; Surendaran, Arathy Jalaja; Menon, Jayakumar R.; Sreedharan, Sapna Erat; Sylaja, Padmavathy N.

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke dysphagia is a common problem after stroke. About 8-13% patients have persistent dysphagia and are unable to return to pre-stroke diet even after 6 months of stroke. Use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) may be required in these patients, which may be psychologically unacceptable and impair the quality of life. In those with cricopharyngeal dysfunction leading on to refractory post-stroke dysphagia, cricopharyngeal myotomy and injection of botulinum toxin are the treatment options. We present a case of vertebrobasilar stroke who had persistent dysphagia due to cricopharyngeal dysfunction with good recovery of swallowing function following cricopharyngeal myotomy 1.5 years after the stroke. PMID:27293339

  6. Sensory ataxic neuropathy with dysarthria/dysphagia and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Gáti, István; Danielsson, Olof; Jonasson, Jon; Landtblom, Anne-Marie

    2011-12-01

    Case histories of two unrelated patients suffering from sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria/dysphagia and external ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) are reported. Both patients showed compound heterozygosity for POLG1 gene mutations, and presented with symptom of the clinical characteristics of SANDO. A patient with a p.A467T and p.W748S, well-known mutations showed a progressive course with early onset and multisystem involvement, including symptoms characteristics for mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). The second patient showed a less well-known p.T251I and p.G848S mutations with late onset and dysphagia/dysarthria dominated, moderate symptoms. This later is the second published case history, when these POLG1 gene mutations are the possible background of late onset SANDO, dominantly presenting with bulbar symptoms.

  7. [Oropharyngeal dysphagia as a first manifestation of dermatomyositis associated with colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Cobos, J C; Pérez-Figueroa, J; Zúñiga-Ahuet, G; Dorantes, M A; Grube-Pagola, P; Ruíz-Juárez, I; Remes-Troche, J M

    2010-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy associated with characteristic skin manifestations. In 15-20% of patients present with dysphagia, it is associated with nutritional deficiency, predisposition to aspiration pneumonia, decreased quality of life and a poor prognosis. There is a well-recognized association between DM and malignancies, including ovarian, breast, lung, and colon cancer. We report a case of a male patient aged 85 with DM associated with colon adenocarcinoma; progressive dysphagia was the first manifestation, and subsequently proximal muscle weakness and typical skin lesions were present. Given the clinical suspicion of DM as a paraneoplastic syndrome, tumor markers were order and a high carcinoembryonic antigen was found. A colonoscopy study and histopathologic examination revealed the presence of adenocarcinoma of the colon.

  8. Palliation of malignant dysphagia by ethanol induced tumour necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Nwokolo, C U; Payne-James, J J; Silk, D B; Misiewicz, J J; Loft, D E

    1994-01-01

    Thirty two patients (74 (43-93) years; median, (range)) with dysphagia because of inoperable, unresectable or recurrent oesophagogastric carcinoma were treated by ethanol induced tumour necrosis (ETN). Endoscopic injection of absolute alcohol was performed using a variceal injector needle, with 0.5-1 ml aliquots injected retrogradely from distal to proximal tumour margin. Dilatation to 12 mm was used only if the endoscope would not traverse the stricture. In patients with total occlusion, injection into the proximal tumour was followed by a repeat endoscopy 3-7 days later. Dysphagia was graded from 0 = no dysphagia to 4 = total dysphagia. The significance of changes in the dysphagia grade after ETN were assessed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results (median (range)) were as follows: stricture length = 5.0 cm (1-15). Dysphagia grade before treatment was 3 (2-4) improving after first treatment to 1 (0-3), p < 0.003. Best dysphagia grade achieved was 1 (0-3) and interval between treatments was 28.5 days (4-170). The volume of ethanol injected = 10 ml (1.5-29) and survival after first treatment was 93 days (6-660). The number of treatment sessions required to achieve best grade = 1 (1-3). There were no treatment complications. ETN significantly improves dysphagia. Results of palliation are similar to those of laser therapy, but can be achieved quickly and safely on a day case basis in most patients and at a small proportion of the cost. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7512062

  9. Dysphagia in multiple sclerosis: from pathogenesis to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tassorelli, Cristina; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Buscone, Simona; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Furnari, Anna; Crivelli, Paola; Alfonsi, Enrico; Alberici, Elisa; Bertino, Giulia; Sandrini, Giorgio; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    Abnormalities of swallowing are commonly encountered in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), especially in the most disabled patients. The disturbances usually involve oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing, although upper oesophageal sphincter dysfunction has also been detected. MS patients need to be effectively evaluated and managed in order to recognize dysphagia before any medical complications such as aspiration pneumonia appear. An integrated approach is proposed to define the severity of dysphagia and to devise the most appropriate therapeutic/rehabilitative methodology.

  10. Gastrostomy Tube Placement Without Nasogastric Tube: A Retrospective Evaluation in 85 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Wolf E. Goodwin, Whitney J.; Wood, Clint E.; Yousaf, Muhammad; Culp, William C.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Our study evaluated techniques for percutaneous gastrostomy (G)-tube placement without the use of a nasogastric (NG) tube. Instead, direct puncture of a physiologic air bubble or effervescent-enhanced gastric bubble distention was performed in patients with upper digestive tract obstruction (UDTO) or psychological objections to NG tubes. Materials and Methods: A total of 886 patients underwent G-tube placement in our department during a period of 7 years. We present our series of 85 (9.6%) consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous G-tube placement without use of an NG tube. Results: Of these 85 patients, fluoroscopic guided access was attempted by direct puncture of a physiologically present gastric air bubble in 24 (28%) cases. Puncture of an effervescent-induced large gastric air bubble was performed in 61 (72%) patients. Altogether, 82 (97%) of 85 G tubes were successfully placed in this fashion. The three failures comprised refusal of effervescent, vomiting of effervescent, and one initial tube misplacement when a deviation from our standard technique occurred. Conclusion: The described techniques compare favorably with published large series on G-tube placement with an NG tube in place. The techniques are especially suited for patients with UDTO due to head, neck, or esophageal malignancies, but they should be considered as an alternative in all patients. Direct puncture of effervescent-enhanced gastric bubble distention is a safe, patient-friendly and effective technique.

  11. Gastrostomy tube placement without nasogastric tube: a retrospective evaluation in 85 patients.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Wolf E; Goodwin, Whitney J; Wood, Clint E; Yousaf, Muhammad; Culp, William C

    2012-12-01

    Our study evaluated techniques for percutaneous gastrostomy (G)-tube placement without the use of a nasogastric (NG) tube. Instead, direct puncture of a physiologic air bubble or effervescent-enhanced gastric bubble distention was performed in patients with upper digestive tract obstruction (UDTO) or psychological objections to NG tubes. A total of 886 patients underwent G-tube placement in our department during a period of 7 years. We present our series of 85 (9.6%) consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous G-tube placement without use of an NG tube. Of these 85 patients, fluoroscopic guided access was attempted by direct puncture of a physiologically present gastric air bubble in 24 (28%) cases. Puncture of an effervescent-induced large gastric air bubble was performed in 61 (72%) patients. Altogether, 82 (97%) of 85 G tubes were successfully placed in this fashion. The three failures comprised refusal of effervescent, vomiting of effervescent, and one initial tube misplacement when a deviation from our standard technique occurred. The described techniques compare favorably with published large series on G-tube placement with an NG tube in place. The techniques are especially suited for patients with UDTO due to head, neck, or esophageal malignancies, but they should be considered as an alternative in all patients. Direct puncture of effervescent-enhanced gastric bubble distention is a safe, patient-friendly and effective technique.

  12. Gastrostomy tube migration complicated with acute pancreatitis: Two case reports with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hawatmeh, Amer; Alkhateeb, Anas; Arqoub, Ahmad Abu; Jumean, Khalid; Shaaban, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is an important method of providing enteral nutrition to patients with swallowing disorders and those who need long-term enteral nutritional support. The association between PEG tube migration and acute pancreatitis is rare and was previously described in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, only 11 cases have been reported in the literature. In this article, we are describing two cases of acute pancreatitis secondary to PEG tube balloon migration to the duodenum. These two case reports exemplify that PEG tube migration to the duodenum is not uncommon, and it may lead to disturbance of the biliary flow, obstruction of the ampulla of vater, and acute pancreatitis.

  13. A novel approach for augmenting percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement training.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Mayank K; Kreitz, Keith A; Resnick, Andrew S; Morris, Jon B; Williams, Noel N; Dumon, Kristoffel R

    2010-12-01

    Surgical trainees routinely participate in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement. Although simulation has gained widespread acceptance, novice trainees continue learning this procedure on real patients. We designed a novel hands-on training model for practicing PEG tube placement with minimal monetary investment (cost<$10). Our portable low-fidelity bench model has a simulated upper gastrointestinal construct made of foam. Seventeen trainees used our model to acquire and practice skills necessary to perform PEG tube placement, for setting up and troubleshooting upper gastrointestinal endoscope, and for using endoscopic instruments in the state-of-the-art simulated operative room. Thirteen trainees completed the course evaluation, using a 5-point Likert scale (5=strongly agree). The training resulted in a self-reported increase in equipment familiarity (4.23±0.73) and troubleshooting real endoscope (4.69±0.48), and trainees felt better prepared (4.23±0.93) for performing PEG tube placement on real patients. Trainees agreed that this exercise has more educational value than using virtual reality simulator alone (4.38±0.52). Procedural training for PEG tube placement using a simple bench training model is perceived as valuable by trainees. Cost and commercial availability can be overcome by innovation in surgical simulation.

  14. The practice of gastrostomy tube placement across a Canadian regional health authority.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Deepak; Duerksen, Donald R; Singh, Harminder

    2010-07-01

    We sought to conduct an assessment of the practice of gastrostomy (G) tube placement across an entire city, which would reflect usual clinical care as compared with referral center practice. We reviewed and retrospectively extracted data from patient records for all percutaneous endoscopic G (PEG) and radiological percutaneous G (RPG) tube placements at six Winnipeg hospitals between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2007. A total of 418 patients had G tubes (376 PEG, 42 RPG) inserted during the study period. The most common indications were cerebrovascular accidents (25%), head and neck cancer (23%), and head trauma (10%). The position of the external bolster was not documented in 38% of patients. The median time to the first complication was 10 days, initiation of feeding was 48 hours, and tube removal was 40 days. Complications developed in 102 (24%) patients. Patients with RPG tubes had more infections and were less likely to receive prophylactic antibiotics (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, complications were more likely to occur in patients with RPG tubes and after insertions by lowest procedure volume physicians. Overall mortality was 12% within 30 days of G-tube placement. Death of one patient was directly related to peritonitis after G-tube insertion. In usual clinical practice, there is an underuse of prophylactic antibiotics and a delay in the institution of nutritional support after G-tube placement. A small but significant proportion of patients may develop major complications, with associated risk of mortality. The higher complication rate after procedures performed by lowest volume physicians needs further evaluation.

  15. Outcomes of Infants With Home Tube Feeding: Comparing Nasogastric vs Gastrostomy Tubes.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Syed Tariq; Uhing, Michael R; Duesing, Lori; Visotcky, Alexis; Tarima, Sergey; Nghiem-Rao, T Hang

    2016-09-19

    The aim of this study was to determine the tube-related complications and feeding outcomes of infants discharged home from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with nasogastric (NG) tube feeding or gastrostomy (G-tube) feeding. We performed a chart review of 335 infants discharged from our NICU with home NG tube or G-tube feeding between January 2009 and December 2013. The primary outcome was the incidence of feeding tube-related complications requiring emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, or deaths. Secondary outcome was feeding status at 6 months postdischarge. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. There were 322 infants discharged with home enteral tube feeding (NG tube, n = 84; G-tube, n = 238), with available outpatient data for the 6-month postdischarge period. A total of 115 ED visits, 28 hospitalizations, and 2 deaths were due to a tube-related complication. The incidence of tube-related complications requiring an ED visit was significantly higher in the G-tube group compared with the NG tube group (33.6% vs 9.5%, P < .001). Two patients died due to a G-tube-related complication. By 6 months postdischarge, full oral feeding was achieved in 71.4% of infants in the NG tube group compared with 19.3% in the G-tube group (P < .001). Type of feeding tube and percentage of oral feeding at discharge were significantly associated with continued tube feeding at 6 months postdischarge. Home NG tube feeding is associated with fewer ED visits for tube-related complications compared with home G-tube feeding. Some infants could benefit from a trial home NG tube feeding. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Insertion in Neurodegenerative Disease: A Retrospective Study and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Pamela; Cole, Alice; Scolding, Neil J; Rice, Claire M

    2017-05-01

    With the notable exceptions of dementia, stroke, and motor neuron disease, relatively little is known about the safety and utility of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to determine the safety and utility of PEG feeding in the context of neurodegenerative disease and to complete a literature review in order to identify whether particular factors need to be considered to improve safety and outcome. A retrospective case note review of patients referred for PEG insertion by neurologists in a single neuroscience center was conducted according to a pre-determined set of standards. For the literature review, we identified references from searches of PubMed, mainly with the search items "percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy" and "neurology" or "neurodegenerative disease." Short-term mortality and morbidity associated with PEG in patients with neurological disease were significant. Age greater than 75 years was associated with poor outcome, and a trend toward adverse outcome was observed in patients with low serum albumin. This study highlights the relatively high risk of PEG in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We present points for consideration to improve outcome in this particularly vulnerable group of patients.

  17. Application of noninvasive brain stimulation for post-stroke dysphagia rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Song, Wei-Qun; Wang, Liang

    2017-02-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), commonly consisting of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS), as well as paired associative stimulation (PAS), has attracted increased interest and been applied experimentally in the treatment of post-stroke dysphagia (PSD). This review presented a synopsis of the current research for the application of NIBS on PSD. The intention here was to understand the current research progress and limitations in this field and to stimulate potential research questions not yet investigated for the application of NIBS on patients with PSD. Here we successively reviewed advances of repetitive TMS (rTMS), tDCS, and PAS techniques on both healthy participants and PSD patients in three aspects, including scientific researches about dysphagia mechanism, applied studies about stimulation parameters, and clinical trials about their therapeutic effects. The techniques of NIBS, especially rTMS, have been used by the researchers to explore the different mechanisms between swallowing recovery and extremity rehabilitation. The key findings included the important role of intact hemisphere reorganization for PSD recovery, and the use of NIBS on the contra-lesional side as a therapeutic potential for dysphagia rehabilitation. Though significant results were achieved in most studies by using NIBS on swallowing rehabilitation, it is still difficult to draw conclusions for the efficacy of these neurostimulation techniques, considering the great disparities between studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  18. Further delineation of the G syndrome: a manageable genetic cause of infantile dysphagia.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G N; Oliver, W J

    1988-01-01

    Three families including five subjects with the G or Opitz-Frias syndrome are added to 23 published cases who had dysphagia; characteristics of the two affected relatives were added to 19 well documented published reports. The data from index cases support the concept of the G syndrome as a constellation of midline defects, which include hypertelorism or telecanthus (89%), oesophageal dysmotility (69%), laryngotracheal clefts (44%), cleft palate or bifid uvula (34%), heart defects (29%), hypospadias (100% of males), renal or ureteral anomalies (42%), and mental retardation (38%). Affected relatives, often identified by hypertelorism, dysphagia, or hypospadias, had a much lower incidence of associated defects and mental retardation. They provide a more rounded but still biased view of a syndrome compatible with normal intelligence and life span. The data do not support a highly characteristic face in the G syndrome, which discriminates it from the phenotypically similar BBB syndrome. The variable expressivity and five cases of male to male transmission observed in 18 families are consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. Vigilance for the morphological characteristics of G syndrome in patients with dysphagia is underscored by the potential for normal development with appropriate intervention. Images PMID:3351901

  19. Oropharyngeal dysphagia: surveying practice patterns of the speech-language pathologist.

    PubMed

    Martino, Rosemary; Pron, Gaylene; Diamant, Nicholas E

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to obtain a comprehensive view of the dysphagia assessment practice patterns of speech-language pathologists and their opinion on the importance of these practices using survey methods and taking into consideration clinician, patient, and practice-setting variables. A self-administered mail questionnaire was developed following established methodology to maximize response rates. Eight dysphagia experts independently rated the new survey for content validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed with a random sample of 23 participants. The survey was sent to 50 speech-language pathologists randomly selected from the Canadian professional association database of members who practice in dysphagia. Surveys were mailed according to the Dillman Total Design Method and included an incentive offer. High survey (64%) and item response (95%) rates were achieved and clinicians were reliable reporters of their practice behaviors (ICC>0.60). Of all the clinical assessment items, 36% were reported with high (>80%) utilization and 24% with low (<20%) utilization, the former pertaining to tongue motion and vocal quality after food/fluid intake and the latter to testing of oral sensation without food. One-third (33%) of instrumental assessment items were highly utilized and included assessment of bolus movement and laryngeal response to bolus misdirection. Overall, clinician experience and teaching institutions influenced greater utilization. Opinions of importance were similar to utilization behaviors (r = 0.947, p = 0.01). Of all patients referred for dysphagia assessment, full clinical assessments were administered to 71% of patients but instrumental assessments to only 36%. A hierarchical model of practice behavior is proposed to explain this pattern of progressively decreasing item utilization.

  20. A Targeted Swallow Screen for the Detection of Postoperative Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Gee, Erica; Lancaster, Elizabeth; Meltzer, Jospeh; Mendelsohn, Abie H; Benharash, Peyman

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, prolonged hospital stay, and is associated with increased mortality. A simple and sensitive screening test to identify patients requiring objective dysphagia evaluation is presently lacking. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel targeted swallow screen evaluation. This was a prospective trial involving all adult patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at our institution over an 8-week period. Within 24 hours of extubation and before the initiation of oral intake, all postsurgical patients were evaluated using the targeted swallow screen. A fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was requested for failed screenings. During the study, 50 postcardiac surgery patients were screened. Fifteen (30%) failed the targeted swallow screen, and ten of the fifteen (66%) failed the subsequent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing exam and were confirmed to have dysphagia. The screening test had 100 per cent sensitivity for detecting dysphagia in our patient population, and a specificity of 87.5 per cent. The overall incidence of dysphagia was 20 per cent. We have shown that a targeted swallow evaluation can efficiently screen patients during the postcardiac surgery period. Furthermore, we have shown that the true incidence of dysphagia after cardiac surgery is significantly higher than previously recognized in literature.

  1. Development of the Arabic Version of Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI).

    PubMed

    Farahat, Mohamed; Malki, Khalid H; Mesallam, Tamer A; Bukhari, Manal; Alharethy, Sami

    2014-08-01

    The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a 25-item self-administered questionnaire. It is a noninvasive tool for measuring the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of people's lives. The purposes of the present study were to develop an Arabic version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the normal Arabic population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. This was a prospective study that was carried out at the Communication and Swallowing Disorders Unit, King Saud University. The generated Arabic DHI was administered to 94 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 98 control subjects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Arabic DHI showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.95). Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Arabic DHI (r = 0.9, p = 0.001). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (p < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the Arabic DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patients and can be used by Arabic language speakers.

  2. The challenges of managing dysphagia in brain-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Victoria

    2004-02-01

    Dysphagia, or the inability to swallow normally, is a feature of a number of neurological conditions. It is found in both paediatric and adult populations, but the scope of this article is limited to the adult neurogenic population. The normal swallow is a complex and highly coordinated activity, any part of which may be disturbed by neurological illness or injury. Assessment of dysphagia is normally undertaken by speech and language therapists in conjunction with the multidisciplinary team. A bedside screening assessment may be augmented by instrumental assessment, such as videofluoroscopy, in cases where silent aspiration of food or liquid into the lungs is suspected. Dysphagia is treated using a variety of strategies, depending on the presenting symptoms. Individuals with dysphagia following traumatic brain injury present with particular difficulties, relating to impairments of cognition, communication and behavioural control. A description of the normal swallow is presented below with a review of dysphagic disorders, assessment methods and management. This is followed by a case account of a young man with dysphagia subsequent to traumatic brain injury to highlight some of the difficulties which can be encountered in the management of dysphagia.

  3. Electrophysiological Evaluation of Dysphagia in the Mild or Moderate Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Concept of Subclinical Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Yesim; Gürgör, Nevin; Çakır, Ahmet; Arıcı, Şehnaz; İncesu, Tülay Kurt; Seçil, Yaprak; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2015-06-01

    Swallowing mechanism and neurogenic dysphagia in MS have been rarely studied by electromyographical (EMG) methods. This study aims to evaluate the presence of subclinical dysphagia in patients with mild multiple sclerosis (MS) using electrophysiological methods. A prospective study of 51 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis and 18 age-matched healthy adults was investigated. We used electromyography to measure the activity of the submental muscles during swallowing. Electrophysiological recordings of patients were obtained during relapse, after relapse, and at any time in remission period. Clinical dysphagia was found in 12% of MS patients, while electrophysiological swallowing abnormalities were encountered in 33% of patients. Subclinical dysphagia was determined in 35% of patients during an MS relapse, in 20% of patients after a relapse, and in 25% of all 51 patients in the remission period based on EMG findings. Duration of swallowing signal of submental muscles in all MS patients was found to be longer than in normal subjects (p = 0.001). During swallowing of 50 ml of sequential water, the compensatory respiratory cycles occurred more often in MS patients than normal subjects, especially during a relapse (p = 0.005). This is the first study investigating swallowing abnormalities and subclinical dysphagia from the electrophysiological aspect in MS patients with mild disability. The electrophysiological tests described in this study are useful to uncover subclinical dysphagia since they have the advantage of being rapid, easy to apply, non-invasive, and without risk for the patients.

  4. Effects of electrical stimulation combined with dysphagia therapy in elderly individual with oropharyngeal dysphagia: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doo-Ho; Park, Ji-Su; Lee, Seung-Woong; Choi, Jong-Bae

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of dysphagia therapy in an old man with difficulty swallowing in the oral and pharyngeal phases. [Subjects and Methods] The subject was a 72-year-old man with no history of neurological disorders. He was admitted to local hospital because of the complaint of swallowing difficulty. The interventions performed were electrical stimulation and conventional dysphagia therapy. We assessed the tongue and lip muscle strengths. Swallowing function was evaluated by using the videofluoroscopic dysphagia and penetration-aspiration scales. [Results] After the intervention, the tongue and lip muscle strengths increased from 35 to 39 kPa and from 18 to 23 kPa, respectively. Moreover, the oral and pharyngeal phases of the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale were improved. Furthermore, aspiration decreased from 4 to 2 points in the penetration-aspiration scale. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that electrical stimulation and conventional dysphagia therapy were effective in improving the swallowing function in an elderly individual with dysphagia. PMID:28356653

  5. Swallowing Kinematics and Factors Associated with Laryngeal Penetration and Aspiration in Stroke Survivors with Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Han, Tai Ryoon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate swallowing kinematics and explore kinematic factors related with penetration-aspiration in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. Videofluoroscopic images of 68 patients with post-stroke dysphagia and 34 sex- and age-matched healthy controls swallowing a thin liquid were quantitatively analyzed using two-dimensional motion digitization. The measurements included the movement distances and velocities of the hyoid and larynx, and the maximal tilt angles and angular velocities of the epiglottis. All velocity variables were significantly decreased in the stroke patients compared to the controls. There was a significant difference in the maximal horizontal displacement of the larynx, but there were no significant differences in other displacements of the larynx, the maximal displacements of the hyoid bone, and the maximum tilt angle of the epiglottis between the two groups. The maximal tilt angle of the epiglottis was lower in the aspiration subgroup than in the no penetration/aspiration and penetration subgroups as well as the controls. The maximal tilt angle from the y axis showed a dichotomous pattern at 90° of the angle, and all 11 patients with an angle <90° showed either penetration or aspiration. In the ROC curve of the angle for prediction of aspiration, the area under the curve was 0.725 (95 % CI 0.557-0.892, P = 0.008). This study suggested that sluggish rather than decreased hyolaryngeal movements during swallowing are a remarkable feature of post-stroke dysphagia. The association of reduced epiglottic movement with the risk of aspiration in patients with post-stroke dysphagia was supported by the quantitative analysis.

  6. The value of scintigraphy in the evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Argon, Murat; Secil, Yaprak; Duygun, Ulkem; Aydogdu, Ibrahim; Kocacelebi, Kenan; Ozkilic, Hayal; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2004-01-01

    Healthy adults can swallow boluses of 20 ml water in a single swallow. Individuals with impaired swallowing, however, may be unable to do so, instead requiring two or more swallows; this phenomenon is called "piecemeal deglutition". The term "dysphagia limit" refers to the volume at which piecemeal deglutition occurs. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential value of scintigraphic evaluation of piecemeal deglutition and dysphagia limit in patients with dysphagia, based on correlation with the results of submental electromyography (SM-EMG) and laryngeal sensor monitoring (LS). The study population comprised 24 patients with dysphagia secondary to neurological disorders and ten normal adults, who formed a control group. In the scintigraphic evaluation, subjects underwent four separate dynamic studies using 5, 10, 15 and 20 ml of water containing 0.5 mCi technetium-99m labelled sulphur colloid, and time-activity curves (TACs) were created for each study. Static thoracic images were also recorded in order to detect airway aspiration Observation of two or more peaks on TACs within the 10-s acquisition period was considered a sign of piecemeal deglutition. If piecemeal deglutition occurred at or below 20 ml, this volume was regarded as the dysphagia limit. Piecemeal deglutition was not found in any normal subjects; by contrast, it was observed in 14 of the 24 (58%) patients on scintigraphy and in 17 (71%) patients on EMG and LS. In three patients, signs of the airway aspiration were observed on static thoracic images. Scintigraphic and electrophysiological findings were in agreement in 19 patients (79%), and the correlation between scintigraphy and the electrophysiological methods for the evaluation of dysphagia was statistically significant (r=0.57, P=0.003). The novel finding of this study is the demonstration of piecemeal deglutition and dysphagia limit on scintigraphic studies in patients with neurogenic dysphagia. Based on this finding we consider that

  7. Effects of therapy in oropharyngeal dysphagia by speech and language therapists: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Renée; Baijens, Laura; Heijnen, Mariëlle; Zwijnenberg, Iris

    2010-03-01

    Medical and paramedical treatments should be evaluated according to current standards of evidence-based medicine. Evaluation of therapy in oropharyngeal dysphagia fits into this growing interest. A systematic review is given of the literature on the effects of therapy in oropharyngeal dysphagia carried out by speech therapists. Thus, the review excludes reports of surgical or pharmacological treatments. The literature search was performed using the electronic databases PubMed and Embase. All available inclusion dates up to November 2008 were used. The search was limited to English, German, French, Spanish, and Dutch publications. MESH terms were supplemented by using free-text words (for the period after January 2005). Fifty-nine studies were included. In general, statistically significant positive therapy effects were found. However, the number of papers was rather small. Moreover, diverse methodological problems were found in many of these studies. For most studies, the conclusions could not be generalized; comparison was hindered by the range of diagnoses, types of therapies, and evaluation techniques. Many questions remain about the effects of therapy in oropharyngeal dysphagia as performed by speech and language therapists. Although some positive significant outcome studies have been published, further research based on randomized controlled trials is needed.

  8. Clinical application of ICF key codes to evaluate patients with dysphagia following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Zhang, Chang-Jie; Shi, Jie; Deng, Jinggui; Lan, Chun-Na

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was aimed to identify and evaluate the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) key codes for dysphagia in stroke patients. Thirty patients with dysphagia after stroke were enrolled in our study. To evaluate the ICF dysphagia scale, 6 scales were used as comparisons, namely the Barthel Index (BI), Repetitive Saliva Swallowing Test (RSST), Kubota Water Swallowing Test (KWST), Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple regression analysis was performed to quantitate the relationship between the ICF scale and the other 7 scales. In addition, 60 ICF scales were analyzed by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. A total of 21 ICF codes were identified, which were closely related with the other scales. These included 13 codes from Body Function, 1 from Body Structure, 3 from Activities and Participation, and 4 from Environmental Factors. A topographic network map with 30 ICF key codes was also generated to visualize their relationships. The number of ICF codes identified is in line with other well-established evaluation methods. The network topographic map generated here could be used as an instruction tool in future evaluations. We also found that attention functions and biting were critical codes of these scales, and could be used as treatment targets. PMID:27661012

  9. Dysphagia after arteria lusoria dextra surgery: Anatomical considerations before redo-surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Judith; van der Werf-Grohmann, Natascha; Kroll, Johannes; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Stiller, Brigitte; Grohmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria) is the most common congenital root anomaly, remaining asymptomatic in most cases. Nevertheless, some of the 20%-40% of those affected present tracheo-esophageal symptoms. We report on a 6-year-old previously healthy girl presenting with progressive dysphagia over 4 wk. Diagnostics including barium swallow, echocardiography and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed a retro-esophageal compression by an aberrant right subclavian artery. Despite the successful, uneventful transposition of this arteria lusoria to the right common carotid via right-sided thoracotomy, the girl was suffering from persisting dysphagia. Another barium swallow showed the persistent compression of the esophagus on the level where the arteria lusoria had originated. As MRA showed no evidence of a significant re-obstruction by the transected vascular stump, we suspected a persisting ligamentum arteriosum. After a second surgical intervention via left-sided thoracotomy consisting of transecting the obviously persisting ligamentum and shortening the remaining arterial stump of the aberrant right subclavian artery, the patient recovered fully. In this case report we discuss the potential relevance of a persisting ligamentum arteriosum for patients with left aortic arch suffering from dysphagia lusoria and rational means of diagnosing, as well as the surgical options to prevent re-do surgery. PMID:28289534

  10. Clinical application of ICF key codes to evaluate patients with dysphagia following stroke.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yi; Zhang, Chang-Jie; Shi, Jie; Deng, Jinggui; Lan, Chun-Na

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to identify and evaluate the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) key codes for dysphagia in stroke patients. Thirty patients with dysphagia after stroke were enrolled in our study. To evaluate the ICF dysphagia scale, 6 scales were used as comparisons, namely the Barthel Index (BI), Repetitive Saliva Swallowing Test (RSST), Kubota Water Swallowing Test (KWST), Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple regression analysis was performed to quantitate the relationship between the ICF scale and the other 7 scales. In addition, 60 ICF scales were analyzed by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. A total of 21 ICF codes were identified, which were closely related with the other scales. These included 13 codes from Body Function, 1 from Body Structure, 3 from Activities and Participation, and 4 from Environmental Factors. A topographic network map with 30 ICF key codes was also generated to visualize their relationships. The number of ICF codes identified is in line with other well-established evaluation methods. The network topographic map generated here could be used as an instruction tool in future evaluations. We also found that attention functions and biting were critical codes of these scales, and could be used as treatment targets.

  11. Novel Bedside Phonetic Evaluation to Identify Dysphagia and Aspiration Risk.

    PubMed

    Festic, Emir; Soto, Jose Soto; Pitre, Lisa A; Leveton, Marilu; Ramsey, Danielle M; Freeman, William D; Heckman, Michael G; Lee, Augustine S

    2016-03-01

    There is a need for improved clinical identification of hospitalized patients at risk of aspiration. We evaluated our novel phonetic test in a broad spectrum of patients at risk of aspiration in the ICU or intermediate care unit. We prospectively enrolled 60 hospitalized patients with aspiration risk, between December 2009 and September 2011, who subsequently underwent audio-recorded three-component phonetic bedside evaluation. The recordings were scored by two blinded speech-language pathologists. The institutional dysphagia admission screening test was performed by a bedside nurse. The primary outcomes, dysphagia and aspiration, were assessed by a videofluoroscopic swallowing study, fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, or both. We assessed the short- and long-term clinical outcomes (length of stay, subsequent aspiration pneumonia and respiratory failure, survival) and how these were associated with the phonetic and swallow assessments. Statistically significant linear associations with dysphagia were noted for all three individual phonetic components. Also, there were statistically significant linear associations with aspiration for diadochokinesis (P = .050) and consensus auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice (P = .025). Diadochokinesis alone predicted dysphagia (area under the curve [AUC], 0.74; P = .001) and aspiration (AUC, 0.67; P = .012). Its predictive ability improved when combined with normalized dysphagia admission screening test results (AUC, 0.79; P = .001). The short- and long-term clinical outcomes were adversely affected by the worse phonetic/swallowing scores, although they were not statistically different. Abnormal phonation among ICU and intermediate care unit patients is associated with dysphagia and aspiration. Future investigative efforts should uncover the most effective combination of evaluations for accurate bedside detection of dysphagia and aspiration risk in a broad spectrum of patients. Copyright © 2016 American College

  12. Repeated adjustment of new dentures for dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Hiromi; Kanai, Yuki; Yamashita, Shuichiro

    2012-01-01

    When multiple tooth loss causes loss of occlusal-masticatory function, functional recovery is normally obtained with the help of removable dentures. After resection of the jawbone or tongue because of tumors, the movement of the tongue and its surrounding tissues is limited, and patients exhibit a more pronounced loss of chewing and swallowing than that observed in other cases of multiple tooth loss. In such cases, it is necessary to take extra care in determining the position of the mandible, arrangement of artificial teeth, and morphology of the palate. In the present case, the left lower jawbone was resected because of a gingival tumor, and when the new denture was manufactured, the intercuspal position was based on the resting position of the mandible. The stability of the lower complete denture was a priority and the artificial teeth were partially arranged on the lingual side. The new denture, however, caused insufficient closing of the mouth aperture and insufficient impact between tongue and palate, resulting in dysphagia. Therefore, the vertical dimension of occlusion was reduced multiple times to improve chewing and swallowing function.

  13. Economic analysis of esophageal stenting for management of malignant dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Rao, C; Haycock, A; Zacharakis, E; Krasopoulos, G; Yakoub, D; Protopapas, A; Darzi, A; Hanna, G B; Athanasiou, T

    2009-01-01

    Over half of patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer are unsuitable for curative resection. A significant proportion of these patients will subsequently require palliative stenting to alleviate dysphagia. There is growing consensus in the literature that the deployment of a Self-Expanding Metal Stent is the optimum stenting strategy; however, it remains unclear whether covered or uncovered metal stents are more cost-effective. In order to determine which type of prosthesis is more cost-effective, we compared the different stenting strategies in terms of 1-year stent-related mortality, health-related quality of life, and cost. A decision analytical model was constructed to compare the 1-year stent-related mortality, health-related quality of life, and cost between covered and uncovered stents. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the uncertainty associated with our results. Value of Information analysis was performed to assess the value of further research. In order to fully characterize the uncertainty associated with this decision, plastic stents were included in our analysis. Stent-related mortality was slightly lower following covered stent deployment compared with uncovered stent deployment (1.00% vs. 1.26%). Covered stents were more effective by 0.0013 Quality-Adjusted Life Years (Standard Deviation [SD] 0.0013 Quality-Adjusted Life Years). They were also less expensive by $729.58 (SD $390.63). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that these results were not sensitive to model parameter uncertainty. Plastic stents deployment was $2832.64 (SD $1182.72) more expensive than uncovered metal stent deployment. Value of Information analysis suggests that the maximum value of further research in the UK is $61,124.30. The results of this study represent strong evidence for the cost-effectiveness of covered compared with uncovered self-expanding metal stents for the palliation of patients with malignant dysphagia. The findings support

  14. Rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review of the speech therapy approach

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Gisela Carmona; Santos, Rosane Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: There are an estimated 30,000–40,000 new cases of cerebral palsy per year in Brazil. Motor disorders caused by cerebral palsy can lead to dysphagia as they may alter the preparatory, oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases. Aim: To identify existing rehabilitation methods of swallowing disorders in cerebral palsy, with emphasis on the pursuit of research using the Bobath concept, the Castillo Morales concept, oral sensorimotor therapy, and continuing education. Summary of the findings: We performed a systematic review of the medical and speech therapy literature on the rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy spanning 1977–2010 and from all languages and nations. Among the 310 articles retrieved, only 22 (7.09%) addressed therapeutic rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy. Of the 22 reports, 12 (54.5%) were from Canada, 3 (13.6%) were from Japan, 2 (9%) were from Brazil, 2 (9%) were from Germany, 1 (4.5%) was from the USA, 1 (4.5%) was from the United Kingdom, and 1 (4.5%) was from Poland. Of these reports, 63.6% used oral sensorimotor therapy as a therapeutic method, 36.3% reported continuing education as a therapeutic approach, and only 18.1% and 9% used the Bobath concept and Castillo Morales concept, respectively. Conclusion: Even with a constantly increasing cerebral palsy population, few studies include (re)habilitation in the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia in these children. PMID:25991964

  15. The Ability of the 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) to Predict Aspiration Risk in Persons With Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Diane M; Siddiqui, M Tausif; Litts, Juliana K; Kuhn, Maggie A; Belafsky, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Dysphagia is common and costly. The ability of patient symptoms to predict objective swallowing dysfunction is uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) to screen for aspiration risk in patients with dysphagia. Data from individuals with dysphagia undergoing a videofluoroscopic swallow study between January 2012 and July 2013 were abstracted from a clinical database. Data included the EAT-10, Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS), total pharyngeal transit (TPT) time, and underlying diagnoses. Bivariate linear correlation analysis, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated. The mean age of the entire cohort (N=360) was 64.40 (±14.75) years. Forty-six percent were female. The mean EAT-10 was 16.08 (±10.25) for nonaspirators and 23.16 (±10.88) for aspirators (P<.0001). There was a linear correlation between the total EAT-10 score and the PAS (r=0.273, P<.001). Sensitivity and specificity of an EAT-10>15 in predicting aspiration were 71% and 53%, respectively. Subjective dysphagia symptoms as documented with the EAT-10 can predict aspiration risk. A linear correlation exists between the EAT-10 and aspiration events (PAS) and aspiration risk (TPT time). Persons with an EAT-10>15 are 2.2 times more likely to aspirate (95% confidence interval, 1.3907-3.6245). The sensitivity of an EAT-10>15 is 71%. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Pretreatment Evaluation, Predictive Factors, and Assessment during Radio-Chemotherapy, Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Denaro, Nerina; Merlano, Marco C; Russi, Elvio G

    2013-09-01

    Progress in head and neck cancer (HNC) therapies has improved tumor response, loco-regional control, and survival. However, treatment intensification also increases early and late toxicities. Dysphagia is an underestimated symptom in HNC patients. Impairment of swallowing process could cause malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration, and pneumonia. A comprehensive literature review finalized in May 2012 included searches of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and CAB abstracts) and scientific societies meetings materials (American Society of Clinical Oncology, Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica, Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Cervico-Cefalica, American Head and Neck Society, and European Society for Medical Oncology). Hand-searches of HNC journals and reference lists were carried out. Approximately one-third of dysphagia patients developed pneumonia requiring treatment. Aspiration pneumonia associated mortality ranged from 20% to 65%. Unidentified dysphagia caused significant morbidity, increased mortality, and decreased the quality of life. In this review we underline definition, causes, predictive factors of dysphagia and report on pretreatment and on-treatment evaluation, suggesting some key points to avoid underestimation. A multi-parameter assessment of swallowing problems may allow an earlier diagnosis. An appropriate evaluation might lead to a better treatment of both symptoms and cancer.

  17. Rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy: A systematic review of the speech therapy approach.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Gisela Carmona; Santos, Rosane Sampaio

    2012-07-01

     There are an estimated 30,000-40,000 new cases of cerebral palsy per year in Brazil. Motor disorders caused by cerebral palsy can lead to dysphagia as they may alter the preparatory, oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases. To identify existing rehabilitation methods of swallowing disorders in cerebral palsy, with emphasis on the pursuit of research using the Bobath concept, the Castillo Morales concept, oral sensorimotor therapy, and continuing education. We performed a systematic review of the medical and speech therapy literature on the rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy spanning 1977-2010 and from all languages and nations. Among the 310 articles retrieved, only 22 (7.09%) addressed therapeutic rehabilitation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy. Of the 22 reports, 12 (54.5%) were from Canada, 3 (13.6%) were from Japan, 2 (9%) were from Brazil, 2 (9%) were from Germany, 1 (4.5%) was from the USA, 1 (4.5%) was from the United Kingdom, and 1 (4.5%) was from Poland. Of these reports, 63.6% used oral sensorimotor therapy as a therapeutic method, 36.3% reported continuing education as a therapeutic approach, and only 18.1% and 9% used the Bobath concept and Castillo Morales concept, respectively. Even with a constantly increasing cerebral palsy population, few studies include (re)habilitation in the treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia in these children.

  18. Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Pretreatment Evaluation, Predictive Factors, and Assessment during Radio-Chemotherapy, Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Merlano, Marco C.; Russi, Elvio G.

    2013-01-01

    Progress in head and neck cancer (HNC) therapies has improved tumor response, loco-regional control, and survival. However, treatment intensification also increases early and late toxicities. Dysphagia is an underestimated symptom in HNC patients. Impairment of swallowing process could cause malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration, and pneumonia. A comprehensive literature review finalized in May 2012 included searches of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and CAB abstracts) and scientific societies meetings materials (American Society of Clinical Oncology, Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica, Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Cervico-Cefalica, American Head and Neck Society, and European Society for Medical Oncology). Hand-searches of HNC journals and reference lists were carried out. Approximately one-third of dysphagia patients developed pneumonia requiring treatment. Aspiration pneumonia associated mortality ranged from 20% to 65%. Unidentified dysphagia caused significant morbidity, increased mortality, and decreased the quality of life. In this review we underline definition, causes, predictive factors of dysphagia and report on pretreatment and on-treatment evaluation, suggesting some key points to avoid underestimation. A multi-parameter assessment of swallowing problems may allow an earlier diagnosis. An appropriate evaluation might lead to a better treatment of both symptoms and cancer. PMID:24069513

  19. Dysphagia After Chemoradiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Dose-Effect Relationships for the Swallowing Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet Abbeel, Sarah; Vanstraelen, Bianca; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate late dysphagia after chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma, and to examine its correlation with clinical and dosimetric parameters. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients, treated with radiotherapy (70-72 Gy) and concomitant chemotherapy (cisplatinum 100 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks) between 2004 and 2007, were examined. Swallowing was evaluated by four quality-of-life questionnaires: EORTC C30 and H and N35, the Performance Status Scale of List, and the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory. Clinical and dosimetric parameters were correlated with late dysphagia. Results: A total of 53 disease-free patients were evaluated; mean follow-up was 20.4 months (range, 6-45 months). The volume of the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle receiving {>=}50 Gy (p = 0.04), the mean dose to this structure (p = 0.02) and to the supraglottic larynx (p = 0.04) were significantly associated with late swallowing problems at univariate analysis, along with tumor localization (p = 0.008), T-classification (p = 0.02), and pretreatment swallowing problems (p = 0.01). Only this last factor significantly correlated with late dysphagia at multivariate analysis. Conclusion: These findings motivate further efforts to reduce the dose to the swallowing structures, especially to the pharyngeal constrictor muscles and the larynx. However, clinical parameters are also important and should be included in future prospective trials.

  20. Cryostimulation improves recovery from oropharyngeal dysphagia after stroke.

    PubMed

    Zart, Patrícia; Levy, Deborah Salle; Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Mancopes, Renata; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo

    2013-01-01

     Stroke is considered one of the most frequent neurological causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia.  To determine the effect of cryostimulation on oropharyngeal sensitivity and, subsequently, on the swallowing reaction and premature escape of food in patients with neurogenic dysphagia after stroke.  Clinical and experimental study. The study enrolled 7 adult subjects, 6 men and 1 woman ranging from 28 to 64 years of age, with a diagnosis of stroke and current oropharyngeal dysphagia without any other underlying disease. The selected subjects underwent speech-language pathology evaluation and videofluoroscopic assessment of the dysphagia. The subjects were then treated with cryostimulation consisting of 10 applications to each structure (anterior faucial pillar, posterior oropharyngeal wall, soft palate, and back tongue) 3 times a day (for a total of 30 daily applications per structure) for 4 consecutive days. The patients were then re-evaluated based on the same criteria. The pre- and post-cryostimulation results of the clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluations were analyzed descriptively and statistically using Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test.  Cryostimulation had beneficial effects on oropharyngeal sensitivity in 6 of the 7 subjects. There was also a significant improvement in swallowing and in the premature escape in six subjects.  Cryostimulation increased sensitivity and subsequently improved the swallowing reaction and premature escape of food in patients with neurogenic dysphagia after stroke. These effects were evident by both speech-language pathology and videofluoroscopic evaluation.

  1. Metastatic Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer Presenting Clinically with Esophageal Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Cuison, Reuben

    2017-01-01

    Background. Intra-abdominal metastases of invasive lobular breast cancer (ILBC) may be insidious. We report a case of metastatic ILBC that presented with dysphagia within weeks of a negative mammogram and before the development of intra-abdominal symptoms. Case. A 70-year-old female developed esophageal dysphagia. She underwent EGD which showed a short segment of stricture of the distal esophagus without significant mucosal changes. Biopsy was unremarkable and patient underwent lower esophageal sphincter (LES) dilation. Severe progressive dysphagia led to esophageal impaction and three LES dilatations. CT scan showed bilateral pleural effusions, more prominent on right side, and ascites. The pleural effusions were transudative. Repeat EGD with biopsy showed lymphocytic esophagitis, and she was started on swallowed fluticasone. Abdominal ultrasound with Doppler showed that the main portal vein had atypical turbulent flow that was felt to possibly be due to retroperitoneal process. The patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy which revealed diffuse punctate lesions on the peritoneum. Pathology was consistent with metastatic ILBC. Conclusion. Dysphagia in the setting of peritoneal carcinomatosis from metastatic ILBC is a rare finding. The case highlights the importance of metastatic ILBC as a differential diagnosis for female patients with progressive dysphagia and associated ascites or pleural effusions. PMID:28191357

  2. Cryostimulation improves recovery from oropharyngeal dysphagia after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zart, Patrícia; Levy, Deborah Salle; Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Mancopes, Renata; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Stroke is considered one of the most frequent neurological causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Aim: To determine the effect of cryostimulation on oropharyngeal sensitivity and, subsequently, on the swallowing reaction and premature escape of food in patients with neurogenic dysphagia after stroke. Methods: Clinical and experimental study. The study enrolled 7 adult subjects, 6 men and 1 woman ranging from 28 to 64 years of age, with a diagnosis of stroke and current oropharyngeal dysphagia without any other underlying disease. The selected subjects underwent speech-language pathology evaluation and videofluoroscopic assessment of the dysphagia. The subjects were then treated with cryostimulation consisting of 10 applications to each structure (anterior faucial pillar, posterior oropharyngeal wall, soft palate, and back tongue) 3 times a day (for a total of 30 daily applications per structure) for 4 consecutive days. The patients were then re-evaluated based on the same criteria. The pre- and post-cryostimulation results of the clinical and videofluoroscopic evaluations were analyzed descriptively and statistically using Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Cryostimulation had beneficial effects on oropharyngeal sensitivity in 6 of the 7 subjects. There was also a significant improvement in swallowing and in the premature escape in six subjects. Conclusion: Cryostimulation increased sensitivity and subsequently improved the swallowing reaction and premature escape of food in patients with neurogenic dysphagia after stroke. These effects were evident by both speech-language pathology and videofluoroscopic evaluation. PMID:25991991

  3. Dysphagia after antireflux fundoplication: endoscopic, radiological and manometric evaluation

    PubMed Central

    MORAIS, Drausio Jeferson; LOPES, Luiz Roberto; ANDREOLLO, Nelson Adami

    2014-01-01

    Background The transient dysphagia after fundoplication is common and most often disappears until six weeks postoperatively. Aim Analyze a group of patients who presented late and persistent dysphagia postoperatively. Methods Forty-one patients after Nissen fundoplication, 14 male and 27 female, mean age 48 year, were evaluated based on medical history, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, contrast radiographic examination and esophageal manometry. The results were compared with another 19 asymptomatic individuals. Results Contrast radiographic examination of the esophagus revealed in six cases delayed emptying, characterizing that four patients had achalasia and two diffuse spasm of the esophagus. Esophageal manometry showed that maximal expiratory pressure of the lower sphincter ranged from 10 to 38 mmHg and mean respiratory pressure from 14 to 47 mmHg, values similar to controls. Residual pressure ranged from 5 to 31 mmHg, and 17 patients had the same values as the control group. Conclusion The residual pressure of the lower sphincter was higher and statistically significant in patients with dysphagia compared with those operated without dysphagia. Future studies individualizing and categorizing each motility disorder, employing other techniques of manometry, and the analysis of the residual pressure may contribute to understand of persistent dysphagia in the postoperative fundoplication. PMID:25626933

  4. Food Culture, Preferences and Ethics in Dysphagia Management.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Belinda

    2015-11-01

    Adults with dysphagia experience difficulties swallowing food and fluids with potentially harmful health and psychosocial consequences. Speech pathologists who manage patients with dysphagia are frequently required to address ethical issues when patients' food culture and/ or preferences are inconsistent with recommended diets. These issues incorporate complex links between food, identity and social participation. A composite case has been developed to reflect ethical issues identified by practising speech pathologists for the purposes of illustrating ethical concerns in dysphagia management. The case examines a speech pathologist's role in supporting patient autonomy when patients and carers express different goals and values. The case presents a 68-year-old man of Australian/Italian heritage with severe swallowing impairment and strong values attached to food preferences. The case is examined through application of the dysphagia algorithm, a tool for shared decision-making when patients refuse dietary modifications. Case analysis revealed the benefits and challenges of shared decision-making processes in dysphagia management. Four health professional skills and attributes were identified as synonymous with shared decision making: communication, imagination, courage and reflection.

  5. Evaluation of dysphagia risk, nutritional status and caloric intake in elderly patients with Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    Goes, Vanessa Fernanda; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela Billig; de Oliveira, Lilian Oliveira; Hack, Jaqueline; Magro, Marcela; Bonini, Juliana Sartori

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate the risk of dysphagia and its relationship with the stage of Alzheimer's Disease, as well as the relationship between the risk of dysphagia and nutritional status and caloric intake in elderly people with Alzheimer's disease. the sample consisted of 30 subjects of both genders with probable Alzheimer's disease. The stage of the disease, nutritional status, energy intake, and risk of dysphagia were assessed. it was found that increased risk of dysphagia is associated with the advance in the stages of Alzheimer's disease and that even patients in the early stages of disease have a slight risk of developing dysphagia. No association was found between nutritional status and the risk of dysphagia. High levels of inadequate intake of micronutrients were also verified in the patients. an association between dysphagia and the development of Alzheimer's disease was found. The results indicate the need to monitor the presence of dysphagia and the micronutrient intake in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Dysphagia as a risk factor for mortality in Niemann-Pick disease type C: systematic literature review and evidence from studies with miglustat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare neurovisceral disease characterised by progressive neurological deterioration and premature death, and has an estimated birth incidence of 1:120,000. Mutations in the NPC1 gene (in 95% of cases) and the NPC2 gene (in approximately 4% of cases) give rise to impaired intracellular lipid metabolism in a number of tissues, including the brain. Typical neurological manifestations include vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, saccadic eye movement abnormalities, cerebellar ataxia, dystonia, dysmetria, dysphagia and dysarthria. Oropharyngeal dysphagia can be particularly problematic as it can often lead to food or fluid aspiration and subsequent pneumonia. Epidemiological data suggest that bronchopneumonia subsequent to food or fluid aspiration is a major cause of mortality in NP-C and other neurodegenerative disorders. These findings indicate that a therapy capable of improving or stabilising swallowing function might reduce the risk of aspiration pneumonia, and could have a positive impact on patient survival. Miglustat, currently the only approved disease-specific therapy for NP-C in children and adults, has been shown to stabilise key neurological manifestations in NP-C, including dysphagia. In this article we present findings from a systematic literature review of published data on bronchopneumonia/aspiration pneumonia as a cause of death, and on the occurrence of dysphagia in NP-C and other neurodegenerative diseases. We then examine the potential links between dysphagia, aspiration, pneumonia and mortality with a view to assessing the possible effect of miglustat on patient lifespan. PMID:23039766

  7. Combined neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and traditional swallowing rehabilitation in the treatment of stroke-related dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Chien-Wei; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Sun, Hsien-Pin; Chang, Ping-Hsin; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Wang, Jue-Long

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is common after stroke. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) for the treatment of dysphagia have gained in popularity, but the combined application of these promising modalities has rarely been studied. We aimed to evaluate whether combined NMES, FEES, and traditional swallowing rehabilitation can improve swallowing functions in stroke patients with moderate to severe dysphagia. Thirty-two patients with moderate to severe dysphagia poststroke (≥3 weeks) were recruited. Patients received 12 sessions of NMES for 1 h/day, 5 days/week within a period of 2-3 weeks. FEES was done before and after NMES for evaluation and to guide dysphagic therapy. All patients subsequently received 12 sessions of traditional swallowing rehabilitation (50 min/day, 3 days/week) for 4 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). Secondary outcome measures included clinical degree of dysphagia, the patient's self-perception of swallowing ability, and the patient's global satisfaction with therapy. Patients were assessed at baseline, after NMES, at 6-month follow-up, and at 2-year follow-up. Twenty-nine patients completed the study. FOIS, degree of dysphagia, and patient's self-perception of swallowing improved significantly after NMES, at the 6-month follow-up, and at the 2-year follow-up (p < 0.001, each compared with baseline). Most patients reported considerable satisfaction with no serious adverse events. Twenty-three of the 29 (79.3 %) patients maintained oral diet with no pulmonary complications at 2-year follow-up. This preliminary case series demonstrated that combined NMES, FEES, and traditional swallowing rehabilitation showed promise for improving swallowing functions in stroke patients with moderate-to-severe dysphagia. The benefits were maintained for up to 2 years. The results are promising enough to justify further studies.

  8. Severe dysphagia secondary to posterior C1-C3 instrumentation in a patient with atlantoaxial traumatic injury: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bekelis, Kimon; Gottfried, Oren N; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Omeis, Ibrahim

    2010-06-01

    There are only a few reports of dysphagia cases in patients who underwent surgery for posterior cervical fusion, but none provides an explanation for the occurrence of dysphagia. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report showing evidence of severe neurogenic dysphagia, possibly secondary to vagal nerve praxia, in a patient who underwent posterior fusion. A 61-year-old man presented with severe neck pain after he sustained a fall. Imaging studies in the emergency department showed a C2 fracture associated with anterior subluxation of C2 on C3. Given the instability of the injury, a C1-C3 posterior cervical fusion was performed. The surgery was uneventful. The patient's postoperative course was complicated by severe dysphagia. Fluoroscopic and endoscopic assessments of the patient's pharynx and larynx showed significantly decreased epiglottic inversion, hypokinesis of his pharyngeal wall, and decreased hyolaryngeal elevation. There was also mild vocal cord paresis bilaterally, with incomplete approximation of the glottis. He demonstrated intra- and post-deglutitive aspiration. The patient coughed (both immediate and delayed) in response to the aspiration but was not able to clear aspirated material completely from the airway. The patient had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placed to provide him with nutrition. He was then discharged home. On postoperative follow-up visit 1 month later, the patient's swallowing function improved and he could tolerate pureed consistencies and thin liquids with tube feed supplement. The patient could swallow without coughing. Possible causes of dysphagia in this case include traumatized airways from anesthesia, mechanical compromise of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and neurogenic dysphagia. After excluding the other possibilities, we concluded that our patient was suffering from neurogenic dysphagia associated with vagal nerve dysfunction.

  9. Comprehensive swallowing exercises to treat complicated dysphagia caused by esophageal replacement with colon

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Wang, Yujue; Li, Na; Qiu, Weihong; Wu, Huixiang; Huo, Jianshan; Dai, Meng; Yu, Yong; Wan, Guifang; Dou, Zulin; Guo, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Surgical procedures for colonic replacement of the esophagus are most commonly associated with anastomotic stricture which cause dysphagia. In this report, we describe a rare case of a patient who demonstrated dysphagia resulting from an anastomotic stricture following esophageal replacement with the colon. All the treatments to dilate the anastomotic stricture were ineffective. To investigate the new treatment strategy for a case with complicated dysphagia, clinical dysphagia evaluations, functional oral intake scale (FOIS), videofluoroscopic swallowing study as well as high-resolution manometry were used to evaluate the swallowing function of the patient before and after treatments. Interventions: Comprehensive swallowing exercises included the protective airway maneuver, tongue pressure resistance feedback exercise, Masako Maneuver swallowing exercise, and the effortful swallowing exercise. Outcomes: Comprehensive swallowing exercises showed good effect in the patient. The FOIS score increased from level 1 to level 7. The videofluoroscopy digital analysis showed that the pharynx constriction rate was 23% and 50%, before and after treatment, respectively. The data from the high-resolution manometry displayed that: the value of the velopharyngeal pressure peak was 82.8 mmHg before treatment and 156.9 mmHg after treatment; the velopharyngeal contraction duration time was 310 milliseconds before treatment and 525 milliseconds after treatment; the value of the hypopharynx pressure peak was 53.7 mmHg before treatment and 103.2 mmHg after treatment; and the hypopharynx contraction duration time was 390 milliseconds before treatment and 1030 milliseconds after treatment. The swallowing visualization illustrated that a bolus could normally pass through the anastomotic stoma, and the bolus leakage was no longer present. The patient was able to eat various consistencies of food independently, and we were able to remove the jejunum nutrient

  10. Dysphagia Rehabilitation: Similarities and Differences in Three Areas of the World

    PubMed Central

    González-Fernández, Marlís; Huckabee, Maggi-Lee; Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Inamoto, Yoko; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Eichii

    2013-01-01

    Although the goal of dysphagia rehabilitation is the same, population needs, clinical practice patterns, availability of resources, and dysphagia research varies greatly around the world. The goal of this review is to introduce the reader to the context in which dysphagia rehabilitation is practiced, to describe practice patterns, and to highlight the dysphagia research being performed in three distinct regions of the world: North America, New Zealand and Australia, and Japan. PMID:24977110

  11. Post-stroke dysphagia: progress at last.

    PubMed

    Rofes, L; Vilardell, N; Clavé, P

    2013-04-01

    Oropharyngeal Dysphagia (OD) is both underestimated and underdiagnosed as a cause of malnutrition and respiratory complications following stroke. OD occurs in more than 50% of stroke patients. Aspiration pneumonia (AP) occurs in up to 20% of acute stroke patients and is a major cause of mortality after discharge. Systematic screening for OD should be performed on every patient with stroke before starting oral feeding, followed, if appropriate by clinical and instrumental (videofluroscopy and/or fiberoptic endoscopy) assessment. Bolus modification with adaptation of texture and viscosity of solids and fluids and postural adjustments should be part of the minimal treatment protocol, but they do not change the impaired swallow physiology nor promote recovery of damaged neural swallow networks in stroke patients. To this purpose, two new neurostimulation approaches are being developed to stimulate cortical neuroplasticity to recover swallowing function: (i) those aimed at stimulating the peripheral oropharyngeal sensory system by chemical, physical or electrical stimulus; and (ii) those aimed at directly stimulating the pharyngeal motor cortex, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The study of Park et al. in this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility evaluated the effect of rTMS in dysphagic stroke patients and showed a marked improvement in swallow physiology. Other studies also using rTMS showed plastic changes in pharyngeal motor cortical areas relevant to swallowing function. If further randomized controlled trials confirm these initial results, the neurorehabilitation strategies will be introduced to clinical practice sooner rather than later, improving the recovery of dysphagic stroke patients. Progress at last. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A very unusual cause of dysphagia: mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Zullo, Angelo; Cerro, Paola; Chios, Anastassios; Andriani, Alessandro; Balsamo, Giuseppina; Francesco, Vincenzo De; Bruzzese, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is an alarm symptom requiring a prompt investigation. Different benign and malignant diseases may present such a symptom. We describe a case of a 79-year-old patient who complained of fluctuating dysphagia episodes following solid food ingestion in the previous 5 months with mild weight loss. No other gastrointestinal symptoms were present. The patient was referred by the General Practitioner for a videofluoroscopic swallow examination which revealed nodularity of mucosa surface in the oropharynx, esophagus, fundus, and gastric body. Upper endoscopy confirmed the feature, also showing a normal mucosa of the antrum and duodenum. The histological examination revealed a mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). A stage III, MCL involving the esophagus and proximal stomach was eventually diagnosed. Esophageal MCL localization is extremely rare, and this is the first report showing a clinical onset with dysphagia. PMID:27366047

  13. Neural Mechanisms Contributing to Dysphagia in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Hinkel, Cameron J; Sharma, Rishi; Thakkar, Mahesh M; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Hopewell, Bridget L; Lever, Teresa E

    2016-08-01

    Investigative research into curative treatments for dysphagia is hindered by our incomplete understanding of the neural mechanisms of swallowing in health and disease. Development of translational research models is essential to bridge this knowledge gap by fostering innovative methodology. Toward this goal, our laboratory has developed a translational research assessment tool to investigate the neural mechanistic control of swallowing in unrestrained, self-feeding mice. Here we describe our initial development of synchronous brainstem neural recordings with a videofluoroscopic swallow study assay in healthy mice across the life span. Refinement of this combined methodology is currently underway. Ultimately, we envision that this assessment tool will permit systematic analysis of therapeutic interventions for dysphagia in preclinical trials with numerous mouse models of human conditions that cause dysphagia, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke, and advanced aging.

  14. Serving Students with Dysphagia in the Schools? Educational Preparation Is Essential!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power-deFur, Lissa

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the rise of students with dysphagia in schools and addresses issues associated with serving students with dysphagia in the public education setting. The role and preparation of the speech-language pathologist is serving children with dysphagia, and the accompanying continuing education and ethical requirements, are outlined.…

  15. Family Perceptions of Facilitators and Inhibitors of Effective School-Based Dysphagia Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Maureen E.; Bailey, Rita L.; Stoner, Julia B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This qualitative study focused on the perceptions of family members of children with dysphagia by asking what the family-identified factors are that facilitate or inhibit effective school-based management of pediatric dysphagia. Method: Semistructured interviews of 7 family members of 6 children with dysphagia, ages 2 through 11 years,…

  16. Dysphagia in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy and intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Calis, Elsbeth Ac; Veugelers, Rebekka; Sheppard, Justine J; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Penning, Corine

    2008-08-01

    This study assessed the clinical indicators and severity of dysphagia in a representative sample of children with severe generalized cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. A total of 166 children (85 males, 81 females) with Gross Motor Function Classification System Level IV or V and IQ<55 were recruited from 54 daycare centres. Mean age was 9 years 4 months (range 2 y 1 mo-19 y 1 mo). Clinically apparent presence and severity of dysphagia were assessed with a standardized mealtime observation, the Dysphagia Disorders Survey (DDS), and a dysphagia severity scale. Additional measures were parental report on feeding problems and mealtime duration. Of all 166 participating children, 1% had no dysphagia, 8% mild dysphagia, 76% moderate to severe dysphagia, and 15% profound dysphagia (receiving nil by mouth), resulting in a prevalence of dysphagia of 99%. Dysphagia was positively related to severity of motor impairment, and, surprisingly, to a higher weight for height. Low frequency of parent-reported feeding problems indicated that actual severity of dysphagia tended to be underestimated by parents. Proactive identification of dysphagia is warranted in this population, and feasible using a structured mealtime observation. Children with problems in the pharyngeal and esophageal phases, apparent on the DDS, should be referred for appropriate clinical evaluation of swallowing function.

  17. Family Perceptions of Facilitators and Inhibitors of Effective School-Based Dysphagia Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Maureen E.; Bailey, Rita L.; Stoner, Julia B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This qualitative study focused on the perceptions of family members of children with dysphagia by asking what the family-identified factors are that facilitate or inhibit effective school-based management of pediatric dysphagia. Method: Semistructured interviews of 7 family members of 6 children with dysphagia, ages 2 through 11 years,…

  18. Serving Students with Dysphagia in the Schools? Educational Preparation Is Essential!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power-deFur, Lissa

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the rise of students with dysphagia in schools and addresses issues associated with serving students with dysphagia in the public education setting. The role and preparation of the speech-language pathologist is serving children with dysphagia, and the accompanying continuing education and ethical requirements, are outlined.…

  19. The effect of pneumatic dilation in management of postfundoplication dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Sunjaya, D; Podboy, A; Blackmon, S H; Katzka, D; Halland, M

    2017-06-01

    Fundoplication surgery is a commonly performed procedure for gastro-esophageal reflux disease or hiatal hernia repair. Up to 10% of patients develop persistent postoperative dysphagia after surgery. Data on the effectiveness of pneumatic dilation for treatment are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and identify clinical factors associated with successful response to pneumatic dilation among patients with persistent postfundoplication dysphagia (PPFD). We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone pneumatic dilation for PPFD between 1999 and 2016. Patients with dysphagia or achalasia prior to fundoplication were excluded. Demographic information, surgical history, severity of dysphagia, and clinical outcomes were collected. Data pertaining to esophagram, manometry, endoscopy, and pneumatic dilation were also collected. We identified 38 patients (82% female, 95% Caucasian, and median age 59 years) with PPFD who completed pneumatic dilation. The median postfundoplication dysphagia score was 2. Eleven patients had abnormal peristalsis on manometry. Seventeen patients reported response (seven complete) with an average decrease of 1 in their dysphagia score. Fifteen patients underwent reoperation due to PPFD. Hiatal hernia repair was the only factor that predicts a higher response rate to pneumatic dilation. Only one patient in our study developed complication (pneumoperitoneum) from pneumatic dilation. We found that pneumatic dilation to be a safe treatment option for PPFD with moderate efficacy. Patients who developed PPFD after a hiatal hernia repair may gain the greatest benefit after pneumatic dilation. We were not able to identify additional clinical, radiological, endoscopic, or manometric parameters that were predictive of response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Analysis of Dysphagia Patterns Using a Modified Barium Swallowing Test Following Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Yoon; Kim, Bo Hwan; Park, Young Hak

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate specific dysphagia patterns and to identify the factors affecting dysphagia, especially aspiration, following treatment of head and neck cancer. A retrospective analysis of 57 patients was performed. Dysphagia was evaluated using a modified barium swallow (MBS) test. The MBS results were rated on the 8-point penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) and swallowing performance status (SPS) score. Reduced base of the tongue (BOT) retraction (64.9%), reduced laryngeal elevation (57.9%), and cricopharyngeus (CP) dysfunction (47.4%) were found. Reduced BOT retraction was correlated with clinical stage (p=0.011) and treatment modality (p=0.001). Aspiration in 42.1% and penetration in 33.3% of patients were observed. Twenty-four patients had PAS values over 6, implying aspiration. Forty-one patients had a SPS score of more than 3, 25 patients had a score greater than 5, and 13 patients had a SPS score of more than 7. Aspiration was found more often in patients with penetration (p=0.002) and in older patients (p=0.026). In older patients, abnormal swallowing caused aspiration even in those with a SPS score of more than 3, irrespective of stage or treatment, contrary to younger patients. Tube feeders (n=20) exhibited older age (65.0%), dysphagia/aspiration related structures (DARS) primaries (75.0%), higher stage disease (66.7%), and a history of radiotherapy (68.8%). Reduced BOT retraction was the most common dysphagia pattern and was correlated with clinical stage and treatment regimens including radiotherapy. Aspiration was more frequent in patients who had penetration and in older patients. In contrast to younger patients, older patients showed greater risk of aspiration even with a single abnormal swallowing irrespective of stage or treatment.

  1. Adaptation and Assessment of Reliability and Validity of the Greek Version of the Ohkuma Questionnaire for Dysphagia Screening

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, Soultana L.; Exarchakos, Georgios; Christodoulou, Dimitrios; Theodorou, Stavroula; Beris, Alexandre; Ploumis, Avraam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Ohkuma questionnaire is a validated screening tool originally used to detect dysphagia among patients hospitalized in Japanese nursing facilities. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of the Ohkuma questionnaire. Methods Following the steps for cross-cultural adaptation, we delivered the validated Ohkuma questionnaire to 70 patients (53 men, 17 women) who were either suffering from dysphagia or not. All of them completed the questionnaire a second time within a month. For all of them, we performed a bedside and VFSS study of dysphagia and asked participants to undergo a second VFSS screening, with the exception of nine individuals. Statistical analysis included measurement of internal consistency with Cronbach's α coefficient, reliability with Cohen's Kappa, Pearson's correlation coefficient and construct validity with categorical components, and One-Way Anova test. Results According to Cronbach's α coefficient (0.976) for total score, there was high internal consistency for the Ohkuma Dysphagia questionnaire. Test-retest reliability (Cohen's Kappa) ranged from 0.586 to 1.00, exhibiting acceptable stability. We also estimated the Pearson's correlation coefficient for the test-retest total score, which reached high levels (0.952; p = 0.000). The One-Way Anova test in the two measurement times showed statistically significant correlation in both measurements (p = 0.02 and p = 0.016). Conclusion The adapted Greek version of the questionnaire is valid and reliable and can be used for the screening of dysphagia in the Greek-speaking patients. PMID:28050209

  2. Effects of aural stimulation with capsaicin ointment on swallowing function in elderly patients with non-obstructive dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Eiji; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Ohnishi, Hiroki; Kawata, Ikuji; Nakano, Seiichi; Goda, Masakazu; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Abe, Koji; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Hidehiko; Takeda, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to examine the effects of aural stimulation with ointment containing capsaicin on swallowing function in order to develop a novel and safe treatment for non-obstructive dysphagia in elderly patients. A prospective pilot, non-blinded, non-controlled study with case series evaluating a new treatment. Secondary hospitals. The present study included 26 elderly patients with non-obstructive dysphagia. Ointment containing 0.025% capsaicin (0.5 g) was applied to the external auditory canal with a cotton swab under otoscope only once or once a day for 7 days before swallowing of a bolus of colored water (3 mL), which was recorded by transnasal videoendoscopy and evaluated according to the endoscopic swallowing score. After a single application of 0.025% capsaicin ointment to the right external auditory canal, the endoscopic swallowing score was significantly decreased, and this effect lasted for 60 minutes. After repeated applications of the ointment to each external auditory canal alternatively once a day for 7 days, the endoscopic swallowing score decreased significantly in patients with more severe non-obstructive dysphagia. Of the eight tube-fed patients of this group, three began direct swallowing exercises using jelly, which subsequently restored their oral food intake. These findings suggest that stimulation of the external auditory canal with ointment containing capsaicin improves swallowing function in elderly patients with non-obstructive dysphagia. By the same mechanism used by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors to induce cough reflex, which has been shown to prevent aspiration pneumonia, aural stimulation with capsaicin may reduce the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in dysphagia patients via Arnold's ear-cough reflex stimulation.

  3. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis alters quality of life.

    PubMed

    Paris, G; Martinaud, O; Petit, A; Cuvelier, A; Hannequin, D; Roppeneck, P; Verin, E

    2013-03-01

    Dysphagia is one of the most important complications encountered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our aim was to determine whether oropharyngeal dysphagia impacted the quality of life (QoL) of patients with ALS. Thirty consecutive patients were recruited (31-82 years, 18 men). Swallowing function was evaluated using a standardised videofluoroscopic barium swallow. All the patients completed a specific questionnaire on quality of life in dysphagia (SWAL-QoL) immediately after the videofluoroscopy. The results of dysphagia outcome severity scale separated 14 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 16 with normal swallowing function. There was no difference in the average age, weight and body mass index of the two groups (dysphagic patients: 68 ± 11 kg versus non-dysphagic patients: 69 ± 14 kg). Most of the dysphagic patients had a bulbar affection based on their Norris scores which determine the importance of cranial nerves illness (20 ± 8), significantly lower than those of the non-dysphagic patients (35 ± 5) (P < 0·0001). There was no difference in the neurological peripheral symptoms evaluated by Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale scores (dysphagic patients: 26 ± 7 versus non-dysphagic patients: 27 ± 8) (ns). The swallowing quality of life questionnaire revealed that the dysphagic patients had significant burden (P < 0·001). They were affected by the necessity to applied a food selection (P < 0·01), by the increase in eating duration (P < 0·05) and described a decrease in eating desire (P < 0·05). They complained of fear regarding the risk of dysphagia (P < 0·05). They also described difficulties with oral communication (P < 0·001). All of those complained about dysphagia which impacted directly mental health (P < 0·05) and social life (P < 0·05). In conclusion, oropharyngeal dysphagia is a common symptom accompanying ALS, which alters the patient's QoL, especially social health. © 2012

  4. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presenting with dysphagia: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fazal; Hamid, Arsalan; Fatima, Benish; Hashmi, Shiraz; Fatimi, Saulat

    2017-01-01

    A 25-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of dysphagia and past history of pulmonary and intestinal tuberculosis. A barium swallow showed a point of constriction 42 mm above the gastroesophageal junction. Computed tomography revealed large opacities in bilateral lung fields, encroaching more on the esophagus. The lesion progressively compressed the esophagus as it moved inferiorly. A right posterolateral thoracotomy was performed for sub-anatomical resection of the mass. A biopsy revealed homogenous whirling hyalinized collagen fibers, highly suggestive of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma, with no evidence of malignancy. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of longstanding dysphagia.

  5. Tubular duplication of the oesophagus presenting with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Saha, A K; Kundu, A K

    2014-06-01

    Duplications of the alimentary tract are rare congenital malformations, with the ileum being the most commonly affected site, followed by the oesophagus. Among oesophageal duplications, cystic duplication is the most common and the tubular variety, the rarest. Herein, we report a rare case of tubular oesophageal duplication, complicated by adenosquamous carcinoma at the lower end of the oesophagus, in a 32-year-old man who presented with progressive dysphagia. Although proton pump inhibitors may relieve dysphagia, oesophagectomy and gastric interpositioning should be the first-line treatment for patients with tubular oesophageal duplication, in order to reduce the risk of malignant transformation at the lower end of the oesophagus.

  6. Dysphagia after radiotherapy: state of the art and prevention.

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Ali, D; Roubieu, C; Durdux, C; Laccourreye, O; Giraud, P

    2015-02-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy after surgery or exclusive radiotherapy, with or without concurrent chemotherapy is a valuable treatment option in the great majority of patients with head and neck cancer. Recent technical progress in radiotherapy has resulted in a decreased incidence of xerostomia. Another common toxicity of radiotherapy is dysphagia, which alters the nutritional status and quality of life of patients in remission. The objective of this review is to describe the physiology of swallowing function, the pathophysiology of radiation-induced dysphagia and the various strategies currently available to prevent this complication.

  7. Central cholinergic dysfunction could be associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Duck; Koo, Jung Hoi; Song, Sun Hong; Jo, Kwang Deog; Lee, Moon Kyu; Jang, Wooyoung

    2015-11-01

    Dysphagia is an important issue in the prognosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several studies have reported that oropharyngeal dysphagia may be associated with cognitive dysfunction, the exact relationship between cortical function and swallowing function in PD patients is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between an electrophysiological marker of central cholinergic function, which reflected cognitive function, and swallowing function, as measured by videofluoroscopic studies (VFSS). We enrolled 29 early PD patients. Using the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ), we divided the enrolled patients into two groups: PD with dysphagia and PD without dysphagia. The videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) was applied to explore the nature of the dysphagia. To assess central cholinergic dysfunction, short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) was evaluated. We analyzed the relationship between central cholinergic dysfunction and oropharyngeal dysphagia and investigated the characteristics of the dysphagia. The SAI values were significantly different between the two groups. The comparison of each VFSS component between the PD with dysphagia group and the PD without dysphagia group showed statistical significance for most of the oral phase components and for a single pharyngeal phase component. The total score on the VDS was higher in the PD with dysphagia group than in the PD without dysphagia group. The Mini-Mental State Examination and SAI values showed significant correlations with the total score of the oral phase components. According to binary logistic regression analysis, SAI value independently contributed to the presence of dysphagia in PD patients. Our findings suggest that cholinergic dysfunction is associated with dysphagia in early PD and that an abnormal SAI value is a good biomarker for predicting the risk of dysphagia in PD patients.

  8. Causes of dysphagia among different age groups: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roden, Dylan F; Altman, Kenneth W

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem that has the potential to result in severe complications such as malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Based on the complexity of swallowing, there may be many different causes. This article presents a systematic literature review to assess different comorbid disease associations with dysphagia based on age. The causes of dysphagia are different depending on age, affecting between 1.7% and 11.3% of the general population. Dysphagia can be a symptom representing disorders pertinent to any specialty of medicine. This review can be used to aid in the diagnosis of patients presenting with the complaint of dysphagia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitivity and Specificity of a Nurse Dysphagia Screen in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jo; Soomans, Donovan; O'Laughlin, Jennifer; Snapp, Valerie; Jodoin, Amy; Proco, Heather; Archer, Mindy; Rood, Donna

    2015-01-01

    To determine how well an institutionally developed nurse dysphagia screening tool correctly identified the presence (sensitivity) or absence (specificity) of dysphagia in patients following acute stroke. A method-comparison design was used to compare results of the Nurse Dysphagia Screen to the dysphagia evaluation by a speech and language pathologist (SLP). Each newly diagnosed participant served as his or her control, with both dysphagia evaluations (nurse, SLP) occurring within 2 hours of each other. Sensitivity and specificity of the Nurse Dysphagia Screen was calculated using standard formulas. For 49 patients evaluated following stroke, average age was 71.7 (SD +/- 13.5). Twenty-five subjects were female and 24 were male. The majority of the participants had strokes identified as ischemic in origin (n=35). The SLP found 18 (37%) participants had a positive dysphagia assessment. The Nurse Dysphagia Screen was positive in 16 of 18 participants screened positive by SLP, resulting in some type of dietary restriction. The Nurse Dysphagia Screen was negative in 28 of the 31 patients screened as negative by SLP. Sensitivity and specificity of the Nurse Dysphagia Screen were 89% and 90%, respectively. An easy-to-use, institutionally developed nurse dysphagia screening tool successfully identified patients with swallowing difficulties after stroke later diagnosed by SLP.

  10. Carers' experiences of dysphagia in people treated for head and neck cancer: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Nund, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Scarinci, Nerina A; Cartmill, Bena; Kuipers, Pim; Porceddu, Sandro V

    2014-08-01

    The implication of dysphagia for people treated nonsurgically for head and neck cancer (HNC) and its detrimental effects on functioning and quality of life has been well documented. To date, however, there has been a paucity of research on the effects of dysphagia following HNC on carers, independent of the consequences of a gastrostomy. The objective of this qualitative study was to report on the experiences of carers of people with dysphagia (non-gastrostomy dependent) following nonsurgical treatment for HNC and to identify the support needs of this group. A purposive, maximum-variation sampling technique was adopted to recruit 12 carers of people treated curatively for HNC since 2007. Each participated in an in-depth interview, detailing their experience of caring for someone with dysphagia and the associated impact on their life. Thematic analysis was adopted to search the transcripts for key phases and themes that emerged from the discussions. Analysis of the transcripts revealed four themes: (1) dysphagia disrupts daily life, (2) carers make adjustments to adapt to their partner's dysphagia, (3) the disconnect between carers' expectations and the reality of dysphagia, and (4) experiences of dysphagia-related services and informal supports. Carers generally felt ill-prepared for their role in dysphagia management. The qualitative methodology successfully described the impact of dysphagia on the everyday lives of carers, particularly in regard to meal preparation, social events, and family lifestyle. Clinicians should provide adequate and timely training and support to carers and view carers as copartners in dysphagia management.

  11. Diagnosis and Management of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Its Nutritional and Respiratory Complications in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rofes, Laia; Arreola, Viridiana; Almirall, Jordi; Cabré, Mateu; Campins, Lluís; García-Peris, Pilar; Speyer, Renée; Clavé, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a major complaint among older people. Dysphagia may cause two types of complications in these patients: (a) a decrease in the efficacy of deglutition leading to malnutrition and dehydration, (b) a decrease in deglutition safety, leading to tracheobronchial aspiration which results in aspiration pneumonia and can lead to death. Clinical screening methods should be used to identify older people with oropharyngeal dysphagia and to identify those patients who are at risk of aspiration. Videofluoroscopy (VFS) is the gold standard to study the oral and pharyngeal mechanisms of dysphagia in older patients. Up to 30% of older patients with dysphagia present aspiration—half of them without cough, and 45%, oropharyngeal residue; and 55% older patients with dysphagia are at risk of malnutrition. Treatment with dietetic changes in bolus volume and viscosity, as well as rehabilitation procedures can improve deglutition and prevent nutritional and respiratory complications in older patients. Diagnosis and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia need a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:20811545

  12. Identification and Management of Dysphagia in the Public Schools: Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logemann, Jeri A.; O'Toole, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    This epilogue to a series of articles on the management of dysphagia in students and the role of speech-pathologists emphasizes the need for a team approach to the management of children with swallowing disorders and the importance of interaction between clinicians in the school setting and clinicians in medical environments. (CR)

  13. Development of an Interdisciplinary Dysphagia Team in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Emily M.; Bickerton, Cheryl; Hill, Sherry; Parham, Lisa; Taylor, Darlene

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the development of a school-based dysphagia team (swallowing action team (SWAT)) in Louisiana. It addresses how the team was initially formed, the process of identifying students who were exhibiting a swallowing disorder, steps taken for staff development, and problems encountered in seeking administrative approval.…

  14. Identification and Management of Dysphagia in the Public Schools: Prologue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logemann, Jeri A.; O'Toole, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    This introductory article describes following articles (EC 625 128-134) that address processes and issues related to offering care for children with swallowing disorders in the public school. Procedures for screening, assessing, and treatment, issues involved in establishing a dysphagia program in a school system, and legal and ethical issues are…

  15. Effectiveness of Dysphagia Training for Adult Learning Disabilities Support Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…

  16. A Descriptive Investigation of Dysphagia in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Jolliffe, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia has rarely been investigated in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) despite being a serious condition affecting health and quality of life. Method: This study collected information about 101 adults with ID, living in community settings, referred for an assessment of their eating and drinking. Ninety-nine people were…

  17. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in dermatomyosites: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Elza Maria; Santoro, Patricia Paula; Tavares, Raquel Aguiar; Garcia, Roberta Ismael Dias; Furia, Cristina Lemos Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    We present a rare case of dermatomyosites associated with severe oropharyngeal dysphagia. A 13 year old female patient, being followed at the Rheumatologic Department, was referred to the Otolaryngology Department of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital. She complained of swallowing problems, especially with solids. Following our dysphagia study protocol, we employed a speech pathologist and otolaryngology evaluation, mainly for clinical history, examination of anatomical structures involved with swallowing events, cranium nerves integrity and videoendoscopic swallowing study. We diagnosed severe oropharyngeal dysphagia, with aspiration of saliva and food of all consistencies. We advised against oral feeding and recommended a diet through a gastric tube. She started with therapy and xerostomia medication, together with the treatment of the base disease. The patient showed a significant improvement, noticed by the clinical evaluation and the control videoendoscopic swallowing study, with the possibility of returning to oral feeding. The authors stress the incidence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in dermatomyosites and suggest the videoendoscopic swallowing study as a good exam for diagnosis and follow-up of these patients.

  18. Dysphagia in Children with Esophageal Atresia: Current Diagnostic Options.

    PubMed

    Rayyan, Maissa; Allegaert, Karel; Omari, Taher; Rommel, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    Dysphagia or swallowing disorder is very common (range, 15-52%) in patients with esophageal atresia. Children present with a wide range of symptoms. The most common diagnostic tools to evaluate esophageal dysphagia, such as upper barium study and manometry, aim to characterize anatomy and function of the esophageal body and the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). Using these technologies, a variety of pathological motor patterns have been identified in children with esophageal atresia. However, the most challenging part of diagnosing patients with esophageal dysphagia lies in the fact that these methods fail to link functional symptoms such as dysphagia with the esophageal motor disorders observed. A recent method, called pressure-flow analysis (PFA), uses simultaneously acquired impedance and manometry measurements, and applies an integrated analysis of these recordings to derive quantitative pressure-flow metrics. These pressure-flow metrics allow detection of the interplay between bolus flow, motor patterns, and symptomatology by combining data on bolus transit and bolus flow resistance. Based on a dichotomous categorization, flow resistance at the EGJ and ineffective esophageal bolus transit can be determined. This method has the potential to guide therapeutic decisions for esophageal dysmotility in pediatric patients with esophageal atresia.

  19. Radiotherapy enhances laser palliation of malignant dysphagia: a randomised study.

    PubMed Central

    Sargeant, I R; Tobias, J S; Blackman, G; Thorpe, S; Glover, J R; Bown, S G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: A major drawback of laser endoscopy in the palliation of malignant dysphagia is the need for repeated treatments. This study was designed to test whether external beam radiotherapy would reduce the necessity for repeated laser therapy. PATIENTS/METHODS: Sixty seven patients with inoperable oesophageal or gastric cardia cancers and satisfactory swallowing after initial laser recanalisation were randomised to palliative external beam radiotherapy (30 Gy in 10 fractions) or no radiotherapy. All patients underwent a 'check' endoscopy five weeks after initial recanalisation and were subsequently reendoscoped only for recurrent dysphagia, which occurred in 59 patients. RESULTS: Dysphagia was relieved equally well in both groups and the improvement was maintained with further endoscopic treatment. The initial dysphagia controlled interval and the duration between procedures required to maintain lifelong palliation (treatment interval) increased from five to nine weeks (median) in the radiotherapy group (p < 0.01 both parameters). Radiotherapy was well tolerated in all but three patients. One perforation occurred and two fistulae opened after dilatation in patients who received radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Additional radiotherapy reduces the necessity for therapeutic endoscopy for a patient's remaining life. It has an important role in relatively well patients who are likely to survive long enough to benefit. PMID:9135526

  20. Oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Lefton-Greif, M A; Crawford, T O; Winkelstein, J A; Loughlin, G M; Koerner, C B; Zahurak, M; Lederman, H M

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether patients with ataxia-telangiectasia exhibit oropharyngeal dysphagia with concomitant aspiration and to examine the relationships among swallowing function, age, and nutritional status. Seventy patients (mean age, 10.7 years; range, 1.8 to 30 years) had feeding/swallowing and nutritional evaluations. Fifty-one patients, in whom there were concerns about swallowing safety, were examined with a standardized videofluoroscopic swallow study. Fourteen of the 51 patients (27%) with histories suggestive of dysphagia demonstrated aspiration. Of these, silent aspiration (aspiration without a cough) occurred in 10 (71%) patients. Aspirators were significantly older than non-aspirators (mean age, 16.9 vs 10.8 years; P =.002). Advancing age was the strongest factor associated with aspiration during continuous drinking (P =.01). In patients with ataxia-telangiectasia, weight and weight/height were abnormally low at all ages and most compromised in older patients. Patients who aspirated had significantly lower mean weight (P <.002) and weight/height z scores (P <.001) than did patients who did not aspirate. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is common and appears to be progressive in patients with ataxia-telangiectasia. Older patients also have a higher incidence of poorer nutritional status. The relationship between dysphagia and nutritional status deserves further investigation.

  1. Consistently inconsistent: commercially available starch-based dysphagia products.

    PubMed

    Payne, Clare; Methven, Lisa; Fairfield, Carol; Bell, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Individuals with dysphagia may be prescribed thickened fluids to promote a safer and more successful swallow. Starch-based thickening agents are often employed; however, these exhibit great variation in consistency. The aim of this study was to compare viscosity and the rheological profile parameters complex (G*), viscous (G″), and elastic modulus (G') over a range of physiological shear rates. UK commercially available dysphagia products at "custard" consistency were examined. Commercially available starch-based dysphagia products were prepared according to manufacturers' instructions; the viscosity and rheological parameters were tested on a CVOR Rheometer. At a measured shear rate of 50 s(-1), all products fell within the viscosity limits defined according to the National Dysphagia Diet Task Force guidelines. However, at lower shear rates, large variations in viscosity were observed. Rheological parameters G*, G', and G″ also demonstrated considerable differences in both overall strength and rheological behavior between different batches of the same product and different product types. The large range in consistency and changes in the overall structure of the starch-based products over a range of physiological shear rates show that patients could be receiving fluids with very different characteristics from that advised. This could have detrimental effects on their ability to swallow.

  2. A Descriptive Investigation of Dysphagia in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Jolliffe, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia has rarely been investigated in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) despite being a serious condition affecting health and quality of life. Method: This study collected information about 101 adults with ID, living in community settings, referred for an assessment of their eating and drinking. Ninety-nine people were…

  3. Identification and Management of Dysphagia in the Public Schools: Prologue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logemann, Jeri A.; O'Toole, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    This introductory article describes following articles (EC 625 128-134) that address processes and issues related to offering care for children with swallowing disorders in the public school. Procedures for screening, assessing, and treatment, issues involved in establishing a dysphagia program in a school system, and legal and ethical issues are…

  4. Effectiveness of Dysphagia Training for Adult Learning Disabilities Support Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…

  5. Identification and Management of Dysphagia in the Public Schools: Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logemann, Jeri A.; O'Toole, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    This epilogue to a series of articles on the management of dysphagia in students and the role of speech-pathologists emphasizes the need for a team approach to the management of children with swallowing disorders and the importance of interaction between clinicians in the school setting and clinicians in medical environments. (CR)

  6. Development of an Interdisciplinary Dysphagia Team in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homer, Emily M.; Bickerton, Cheryl; Hill, Sherry; Parham, Lisa; Taylor, Darlene

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the development of a school-based dysphagia team (swallowing action team (SWAT)) in Louisiana. It addresses how the team was initially formed, the process of identifying students who were exhibiting a swallowing disorder, steps taken for staff development, and problems encountered in seeking administrative approval.…

  7. Evaluation of neurogenic dysphagia in Iraqi patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Zeki N; Al-Shimmery, Ehsan K; Taha, Mufeed A

    2010-04-01

    To clinically assess neurogenic dysphagia, and to correlate its presence with demographic features, different stroke risk factors, anatomical arterial territorial stroke types, and pathological stroke types. Seventy-two stroke inpatients were studied between July 2007 and February 2008, at the Departments of Medicine and Neurology at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, and Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iraq. All patients were assessed using the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability score (MASA), Modified Rankin Scale, and the Stroke Risk Scorecard. All patients were reassessed after one month. There were 40 males and 32 females. Sixty-eight patients had ischemic stroke, and 4 had primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). According to the MASA score, 55% of anterior circulation stroke (ACS) cases were associated with dysphasia, and 91% of lateral medullary syndrome cases were associated with dysphagia. Fifty-six percent of ACS dysphagic cases improved within the first month. Forty percent of dysphagic patients died in the one month follow up period, and in most, death was caused by aspiration pneumonia. We observed no significant differences regarding demographic features of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be an indicator of the severity of stroke causing higher mortality and morbidity in affected patients. It was not related to the stroke risk factors and the type of stroke. It is essential from a prognostic point of view to assess swallowing, and to treat its complications early.

  8. Chronic dysphagia and trigeminal anesthesia after trichloroethylene exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, W.H.; Partyka, E.K.

    1981-12-01

    A patient is described who inhaled trichloroethylene fumes while working in a closed underground pit. At the time of exposure he developed dysphagia, dysarthria and dyspnea. Assessment of his condition 11 years after the incident indicated major damage of cranial nerves, particularly the trigeminal, chronic involvement of the bulbar cranial nerves, and resultant esophageal and pharnygeal motility impairment. (JMT)

  9. Effects of a feeding intervention in patients with Alzheimer's disease and dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Li; Li, Hong; Lin, Rong; Zheng, Jian-Huang; Wei, Yan-Ping; Li, Jing; Chen, Ping; Chen, Hui-Ying

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a feeding intervention in patients with Alzheimer's disease with dysphagia. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, inadequate food and fluid intake can result in malnutrition, dehydration and increased morbidity and mortality. Patients may lose self-care abilities such as self-feeding. A prospective cohort study. A three-month self-control feeding intervention was conducted prospectively in 30 nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease with dysphagia. Pre- and post-intervention measures included the Kubota water swallow test, type and amount of food intake and assessment of nutritional status by triceps skinfold thickness, upper arm circumference, serum albumin and haemoglobin. We used the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia scale to evaluate eating compliance and the Mini- Mental State Examination to evaluate cognitive function. Pre- and post-intervention results were compared to evaluate the effects of nursing intervention. Patients' eating/feeding abilities improved overall, including significantly increased food intake (p < 0·001), decreased levels on the Kubota water swallow test (p < 0·001) and significant differences in skinfold thickness, arm circumference, serum albumin and haemoglobin (all p < 0·01), indicating improved nutritional status. Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia scale scores decreased significantly, showing improved eating compliance. No changes were noted in cognition post-intervention. Among 22 patients who initially required feeding, five patients resumed self-feeding after the intervention (p = 0·06). Results of this study show that a feeding intervention can improve food intake, eating compliance and nutritional status in patients with Alzheimer's disease with dysphagia and prevent further decline in swallowing function. The significant improvement in eating/feeding measures suggest that this feeding intervention model could be developed as a feeding skills programme to

  10. Cricopharyngeal dilatation for the long-term treatment of dysphagia in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Manjaly, Joseph G; Vaughan-Shaw, Peter G; Dale, Oliver T; Tyler, Susan; Corlett, Jonathan C R; Frost, Roger A

    2012-06-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a rare autosomal dominant, progressive degenerative muscle disorder featuring dysphagia with limited therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of repeated endoscopic dilatation for OPMD over a 15-year period. All patients seen at our Regional Swallowing Clinic with OPMD confirmed by genetic analysis were included. Cricopharyngeal dilatation was performed as an outpatient procedure using a wire-guided 18-mm (54 Fr) Savary-Gilliard bougie with the patient under sedation. Patients were offered repeat endoscopic dilatation when symptoms recurred. Symptom severity prior to initial dilatation and at follow-up was evaluated using the Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ). Nine patients (7 female, 2 male) were included for analysis. Median total treatment period was 13 years (range = 3-15), median number of dilatations per patient was 7.2 (range = 1-16), and median interval between treatments was 15 months (range = 4.5-45). All patients recorded sustained symptom improvement. Mean SSQ score (out of 1,700) was 1,108.11 (SD ± 272.85) prior to first dilatation and 297.78 (SD ± 189.14) at last follow-up, representing a 73% decrease (95% CI = 52-94) in degree of dysphagia symptoms (paired t-test, P = 0.0001). All mean scores for individual questions also showed significant improvement (P < 0.05). No adverse events were reported with all patients maintaining oral feeding at last follow-up. Repeated cricopharyngeal dilatation is a safe, effective, well-tolerated, and long-lasting treatment for dysphagia in OPMD.

  11. Validated swallowing and nutrition guidelines for patients with head and neck cancer: identification of high-risk patients for proactive gastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Teresa E; Spurgin, Ann-Louise; Ross, Lynda; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Hughes, Brett G M; Hodge, Rob; Walker, Quenten; Banks, Merrilyn; Kenny, Lizbeth Moira; Crombie, Jane

    2013-10-01

    The "Swallowing and Nutrition Guidelines for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer" were developed to guide early identification and management of dysphagia and nutritional risk before, during, and after cancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to validate these guidelines. Patients attending a Combined Head and Neck Clinic at a major tertiary hospital in 2007 to 2008 were assessed using the guidelines, with high-risk category patients recommended for proactive gastrostomy. Data were collected on guideline adherence, gastrostomy tube insertion, and weight. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were calculated for validation. Proactive gastrostomy tubes were inserted in 173 of 501 patients (25%). Overall guideline adherence was 87%. High-risk category adherence was 75%. Validation outcomes were sensitivity 54%, specificity 93%, and positive predictive value 82%. The risk categories in the guidelines are valid to assist early identification of swallowing and nutritional risk and guide decision-making on proactive gastrostomy tube insertion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Exploring scale-up, spread, and sustainability: an instrumental case study tracing an innovation to enhance dysphagia care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adoption, adaptation, scale-up, spread, and sustainability are ill-defined, undertheorised, and little-researched implementation science concepts. An instrumental case study will track the adoption and adaptation, or not, of a locally developed innovation about dysphagia as a patient safety issue. The case study will examine a conceptual framework with a continuum of spread comprising hierarchical control or ‘making it happen’, participatory adaptation or ‘help it happen’, and facilitated evolution or ‘let it happen’. Methods This case study is a prospective, longitudinal design using mixed methods. The fifteen-month (October 2012 to December 2013) instrumental case study is set in large, healthcare organisation in England. The innovation refers to introducing a nationally recognised, inter-disciplinary dysphagia competency framework to guide workforce development about fundamental aspects of care. Adoption and adaptation will be examined at an organisational level and along two, contrasting care pathways: stroke and fractured neck of femur. A number of educational interventions will be deployed, including training a cadre of trainers to cascade the essentials of dysphagia management and developing a Dysphagia Toolkit as a learning resource. Mixed methods will be used to investigate scale-up, spread, and sustainability in acute and community settings. A purposive sample of senior managers and clinical leaders will be interviewed to identify path dependency or the context specific particularities of implementation. A pre- and post-evaluation, using mealtime observations and a survey, will investigate the learning effect on staff adherence to patient specific dysphagia recommendations and attitudes towards dysphagia, respectively. Official documents and an ethnographic field journal allow critical junctures, temporal aspects and confounding factors to be explored. Discussion Researching spread and sustainability presents methodological and

  13. Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy assessed objectively by surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Archer, Sally K; Garrod, Rachel; Hart, Nicholas; Miller, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Objective swallowing assessment is indicated in the management of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Surface electromyography (sEMG) provides a non-invasive, objective method of quantifying muscle activity. It was hypothesised that the measurement of sEMG activity during swallowing would distinguish between preserved and disordered swallow function in DMD. This comparative study investigated the peak, duration, and relative timing of muscle activity during swallowing of four muscle groups: orbicularis oris, masseter, submental, and infrahyoid. The study included three groups of participants: Nine DMD patients with dysphagia (mean age = 21.7 ± 4.2 years), six DMD patients with preserved swallow function (21.0 ± 3.0 years), and 12 healthy controls (24.8 ± 3.1 years). Dysphagic DMD participants produced significantly higher normalised peak amplitude measurements than the healthy control group for masseter (61.77 vs. 5.07; p ≤ 0.01) and orbicularis oris muscles (71.87 vs. 26.22; p ≤ 0.05). Intrasubject variability for masseter peak amplitude was significantly greater for dysphagic DMD participants than the other groups (16.01 vs. 5.86 vs. 2.18; p ≤ 0.05). There were no differences in timing measurements between groups. Different characteristic sEMG waveforms were observed for the three groups. sEMG provides useful physiological information for the evaluation of swallowing in DMD patients, justifying further study.

  14. Jaw-opening force test to screen for Dysphagia: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Hara, Koji; Tohara, Haruka; Wada, Satoko; Iida, Takatoshi; Ueda, Koichiro; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2014-05-01

    To assess the jaw-opening force test (JOFT) for dysphagia screening. Criterion standard. University dental hospital. Patients complaining of dysphagia (N=95) and with symptoms of dysphagia with chronic underlying causes (mean age ± SD, 79.3±9.61y; range, 50-94y; men: n=49; mean age ± SD, 77.03±9.81y; range, 50-94y; women: n=46; mean age ± SD, 75.42±9.73y; range, 51-93y) admitted for treatment between May 2011 and December 2012 were included. None. All patients were administered the JOFT and underwent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The mean jaw-opening strength was compared with aspiration (ASP) and pharyngeal residue observations of the FEES, which was used as the criterion standard. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Forces of ≤3.2kg for men and ≤4kg for women were appropriate cutoff values for predicting ASP with a sensitivity and specificity of .57 and .79 for men and .93 and .52 for women, respectively. Based on the ROC analyses for predicting pharyngeal residue, forces of ≤5.3kg in men and ≤3.9kg in women were appropriate cutoff values, with a sensitivity and specificity of .80 and .88 for men and .83 and .81 for women, respectively. The JOFT could be a useful screening tool for predicting pharyngeal residue and could provide useful information to aid in the referral of patients for further diagnostic imaging testing. However, given its low sensitivity to ASP the JOFT should be paired with other screening tests that predict ASP. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of chin tuck against resistance exercise versus Shaker exercise on dysphagia and psychological state after cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Jun

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of stroke is high in China. The dysphagia caused by cerebral infarction (CI), seriously affects patients' life quality, and even endangers patients' lives. It is necessary to explore how to improve dysphagia caused by CI. To compare the effects of rehabilitation training on dysphagia and psychological state after CI between Shaker exercise and chin tuck against resistance (CTAR) exercise. Control study. Blind. Inpatients. A total of 90 patients with dysphagia after CI were divided into CTAR group, Shaker group and control group by random digit table (each group with 30 patients). Video fluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were performed on all patients before intervention. VFSS was evaluated based on Penetration-Aspiration Scale. All patients received routine treatments including internal medicine, traditional rehabilitation training and routine nursing. The patients in control group only receive the routine treatments. Besides the routine treatments, the patients in CTAR group also received CTAR exercise, and the patients in Shaker group also received Shaker exercise. VFSS was performed again on all patients, respectively, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after exercise. SDS was performed again on all patients 6 weeks after exercise. There were no statistical differences amongst the three groups in VFSS and SDS before intervention (P>0.05). After intervention, all patients had various degrees of improvement for dysphagia in the three groups, especially between 2 and 4 weeks in CTAR and Shaker groups. The total effective rate was significantly higher in CTAR group (86.67%) and Shaker group (76.67%) than in control group (43.33%) (all P<0.05). The scores of SDS was significantly lower in CTAR group than in Shaker group and control group 6 weeks after intervention (all P<0.05). For the patients with dysphagia after CI, CTAR exercise can significantly relieve depression and has the similar effect on improving swallowing function

  16. Prolonged impairment of deglutition in supratentorial ischaemic stroke: the predictive value of Parramatta Hospitals' Assessment of Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Kägi, Georg; Leisi, Natascha; Galovic, Marian; Müller-Baumberger, Marlise; Krammer, Werner; Weder, Bruno

    Up to 50% of ischaemic stroke patients show initial dysphagia, which may persist for months. Guidelines recommend switching nasogastric (NG) to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube feeding at the second week after the stroke if impaired deglutition is expected for another 4 weeks. Precise prognostic criteria are lacking. We hypothesised that the Parramatta Hospitals' Assessment of Dysphagia (PAHD) performed 8 to 10 days after the stroke predicts impaired deglutition for another 4 weeks. After a first dysphagia assessment (buccolingual motor function, liquid and semisolid swallow tests, "two-out-of-six" scale) within 48 hours of onset, patients with a first hemispheric stroke and risk of aspiration, defined as a two-out-of-six scale score of ≥2 (dysphonia, dysarthria, abnormal gag reflex, abnormal volitional cough, cough / voice change after swallowing) were included and were assessed by a blinded rater using the PHAD. The same dysphagia assessments were repeated 8 to 10 days after the stroke (second assessment) and patients remained in the study if the two-out-of-six scale score remained ≥2. At a final evaluation by telephone after 4 weeks, impaired deglutition was assessed with the Bogenhausen dysphagia score (BODS-2). Exclusion criteria were infratentorial or recurrent stroke and pre-existing dysphagia. The primary objective was to define a threshold score and value of the PHAD at second assessment that predicted impaired deglutition as assessed with the BODS-2 (score ≥4) at the final evaluation. The secondary objective was to explore the value of the PHAD assessed within 48 hours to predict impaired deglutition (BODS-2 ≥4) at final evaluation. To evaluate the predictive value of the PHAD score assessed 8 to 10 days after stroke onset for impaired deglutition for another 4 weeks, we determined the area under the receiver operating curve (ROC AUC). Over a 1-year period, 29 out of 252 assessed patients remained at risk of aspiration after the

  17. Dysphagia management: a survey of school-based speech-language pathologists in Vermont.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Tiffany L; Gerety, Katherine W; Mulligan, Moira

    2011-04-01

    This study (a) gathered information about the kinds of dysphagia management services school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide, (b) examined the attitudes of SLPs related to dysphagia management, (c) compared the responses of SLPs on the basis of their experience working in a medical setting, and (d) investigated the relationship between SLPs' training and their confidence to provide dysphagia services. Fifty-two school-based SLPs practicing in Vermont responded to a survey designed to gather information on the variables of interest. Respondents reported a low incidence of students requiring dysphagia services and SLPs providing a wide range of dysphagia services. Results indicated variability in attitudes related to dysphagia management, but trends were also evident. Chief among them were SLPs' low levels of confidence to provide dysphagia services and the need for additional training in dysphagia management. SLPs who had experience in a medical setting reported greater confidence to evaluate and treat students with dysphagia compared to those without experience in a medical setting. Relationships between a variety of previous training experiences and confidence to treat dysphagia were also revealed. This study expanded previous research in this area. Factors accounting for our results, limitations, directions for future research, and implications for practice are discussed.

  18. Spontaneous Swallowing Frequency [Has Potential to] Identify Dysphagia in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. Methods In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute: SPM) were compared to stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with vs. without clinically significant dysphagia. ROC analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM which was compared to a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was employed to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. Results SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. ROC analysis yielded a threshold of SPM ≤ 0.40 which identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5 to 10 minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Conclusions Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel. PMID:24149008

  19. Spontaneous swallowing frequency has potential to identify dysphagia in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases, swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute [SPM]) were compared with stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with versus without clinically significant dysphagia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM, which was compared with a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was used to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded a threshold of SPM≤0.40 that identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5- to 10-minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel.

  20. The value of adding transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (VitalStim) to traditional therapy for post-stroke dysphagia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Li, Y; Huang, R; Yin, J; Shen, Y; Shi, J

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia is not uncommon after stroke. Dysphagia may delay the functional recovery and substantially affects the quality of life after stroke, mainly if lest untreated. To detect and treat dysphagia as early as possible is critical for patients' recovery after stroke. Electrical stimulation has been reported as a treatment for pharyngeal dysphagia in recent studies, but the therapeutic effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (VitalStim®) therapy lacks convincing supporting evidence, needs further clinical investigation. To investigate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (VitalStim®) and traditional swallowing therapy on recovery of swallowing difficulties after stroke. Randomized controlled trial. University hospital. 135 stroke patients who had a diagnosis of dysphagia at the age between 50-80. 135 subjects were randomly divided into three groups: traditional swallowing therapy (N. = 45), VitalStim® therapy (N. = 45), and VitalStim® therapy plus traditional swallowing therapy (N. = 45). The traditional swallowing therapy included basic training and direct food intake training. Electrical stimulation was applied by an occupational therapist, using a modified hand-held battery-powered electrical stimulator (VitalStim® Dual Channel Unit and electrodes, Chattanooga Group, Hixson, TN, USA). Surface electromyography (sEMG), the Standardized Swallowing Assessment (SSA), Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS) and visual analog scale (VAS) were used to assess swallowing function before and 4 weeks after the treatment. The study included 118 subjects with dysphagia, 40 in the traditional swallowing therapy group and VitalStim® therapy group, 38 in the VitalStim and traditional swallowing therapy group. There were significant differences in sEMG value, SSA and VFSS scores in each group after the treatment (P < 0.001). After 4-week treatment, sEMG value (917.1 ± 91.2), SSA value (21.8 ± 3.5), oral transit time (0.4 ± 0.1) and pharyngeal

  1. Exploring factors that influence the spread and sustainability of a dysphagia innovation: an instrumental case study.

    PubMed

    Ilott, Irene; Gerrish, Kate; Eltringham, Sabrina A; Taylor, Carolyn; Pownall, Sue

    2016-08-18

    Swallowing difficulties challenge patient safety due to the increased risk of malnutrition, dehydration and aspiration pneumonia. A theoretically driven study was undertaken to examine the spread and sustainability of a locally developed innovation that involved using the Inter-Professional Dysphagia Framework to structure education for the workforce. A conceptual framework with 3 spread strategies (hierarchical control, participatory adaptation and facilitated evolution) was blended with a processual approach to sustaining organisational change. The aim was to understand the processes, mechanism and outcomes associated with the spread and sustainability of this safety initiative. An instrumental case study, prospectively tracked a dysphagia innovation for 34 months (April 2011 to January 2014) in a large health care organisation in England. A train-the-trainer intervention (as participatory adaptation) was deployed on care pathways for stroke and fractured neck of femur. Data were collected at the organisational and clinical level through interviews (n = 30) and document review. The coding frame combined the processual approach with the spread mechanisms. Pre-determined outcomes included the number of staff trained about dysphagia and impact related to changes in practice. The features and processes associated with hierarchical control and participatory adaptation were identified. Leadership, critical junctures, temporality and making the innovation routine were aspects of hierarchical control. Participatory adaptation was evident on the care pathways through stakeholder responses, workload and resource pressures. Six of the 25 ward based trainers cascaded the dysphagia training. The expected outcomes were achieved when the top-down mandate (hierarchical control) was supplemented by local engagement and support (participatory adaptation). Frameworks for spread and sustainability were combined to create a 'small theory' that described the interventions, the

  2. Efficacy of a novel swallowing exercise program for chronic dysphagia in long-term head and neck cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kraaijenga, Sophie A C; Molen, Lisette van der; Stuiver, Martijn M; Takes, Robert P; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Brekel, Michiel W M van den; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2017-10-01

    The efficacy of rehabilitative exercises for chronic dysphagia treatment in head and neck cancer survivors has not been studied extensively and is ambiguous. A prospective clinical phase II study using an intensive strength training program was carried out in 17 head and neck cancer survivors with chronic dysphagia. Both swallow and nonswallow exercises were performed for 6-8 weeks with a newly developed tool allowing for progressive muscle overload, including chin tuck, jaw opening, and effortful swallow exercises. Outcome parameters were feasibility, compliance, and parameters for effect. Feasibility in terms of the program completion rate was 88%. Compliance with the exercises was 97%. After the training period, chin tuck, jaw opening, and anterior tongue strength had substantially improved. All but 1 patient reported to benefit from the exercises. Feasibility and compliance were high. Some objective and subjective effects of progressive load on muscle strength and swallowing function could be demonstrated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Difficulties in diagnosing an intermittent mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, David J.; D'Alessio, Matthew; Pan, Andrew S.; Jaffe, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteroaxial volvulus is a form of gastric volvulus that rotates around the short axis of the stomach. Mesenteroaxial volvulus typically presents secondary to an anatomical defect with symptoms that include epigastric pain, retching, dysphagia and early satiety. Our patient presented with episodic abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting for 2 years. Previous imaging was unremarkable but an esophagogastroduodenoscopy done when the patient most recently presented with abdominal pain revealed a mesenteroaxial volvulus. He underwent a laparoscopic gastrostomy-tube gastropexy and has not had any recurrence of his symptoms to date. This case illustrates the difficulties in diagnosing an intermittent volvulus as untimely imaging of a temporarily unfolded volvulus can delay diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24964322

  4. Effect of IQoro® training on impaired postural control and oropharyngeal motor function in patients with dysphagia after stroke.

    PubMed

    Hägg, Mary; Tibbling, Lita

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion All patients with dysphagia after stroke have impaired postural control. IQoro® screen (IQS) training gives a significant and lasting improvement of postural control running parallel with significant improvement of oropharyngeal motor dysfunction (OPMD). Objectives The present investigation aimed at studying the frequency of impaired postural control in patients with stroke-related dysphagia and if IQS training has any effect on impaired postural control in parallel with effect on OPMD. Method A prospective clinical study was carried out with 26 adult patients with stroke-related dysphagia. The training effect was compared between patients consecutively investigated at two different time periods, the first period with 15 patients included in the study more than half a year after stroke, the second period with 11 patients included within 1 month after stroke. Postural control tests and different oropharyngeal motor tests were performed before and after 3 months of oropharyngeal sensorimotor training with an IQS, and at a late follow-up (median 59 weeks after end of training). Result All patients had impaired postural control at baseline. Significant improvement in postural control and OPMD was observed after the completion of IQS training in both intervention groups. The improvements were still present at the late follow-up.

  5. Implementing the Free Water Protocol does not Result in Aspiration Pneumonia in Carefully Selected Patients with Dysphagia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Anna; Winkler, Renata; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2016-11-23

    The Frazier Free Water Protocol was developed with the aim of providing patients with dysphagia an option to consume thin (i.e. unthickened) water in-between mealtimes. A systematic review was conducted of research published in peer-reviewed journals. An electronic search of the EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases was completed up to July 2016. A total of 8 studies were identified for inclusion: 5 randomised controlled trials, 2 cohort studies with matched cases and 1 single group pre-post intervention prospective study. A total of 215 rehabilitation inpatients and 30 acute patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia who required thickened fluids or were to remain 'nil by mouth', as determined by bedside swallow assessment and/or videofluoroscopy/fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, were included. Meta-analyses of the data from the rehabilitation studies revealed (1) low-quality evidence that implementing the protocol did not result in increased odds of having lung complications and (2) low-quality evidence that fluid intake may increase. Patients' perceptions of swallow-related quality of life appeared to improve. This review has found that when the protocol is closely adhered to and patients are carefully selected using strict exclusion criteria, including an evaluation of their cognition and mobility, adult rehabilitation inpatients with dysphagia to thin fluids can be offered the choice of implementing the Free Water Protocol. Further research is required to determine if the Free Water Protocol can be implemented in settings other than inpatient rehabilitation.

  6. Therapeutic effect of acupuncture combining standard swallowing training for post-stroke dysphagia: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mao, Li-Ya; Li, Li-Li; Mao, Zhong-Nan; Han, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Yao, Jun-Xiao; Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    To assess the therapeutic effect of acupuncture combining standard swallowing training for patients with dysphagia after stroke. A total of 105 consecutively admitted patients with post-stroke dysphagia in the Affiliated Hospital of Gansu University of Chinese Medicine were included: 50 patients from the Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation received standard swallowing training and acupuncture treatment (acupuncture group); 55 patients from the Department of Neurology received standard swallowing training only (control group). Participants in both groups received 5-day therapy per week for a 4-week period. The primary outcome measures included the scores of Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study (VFSS) and the Standardized Swallowing Assessment (SSA); the secondary outcome measure was the Royal Brisbane Hospital Outcome Measure for Swallowing (RBHOMS), all of which were assessed before and after the 4-week treatment. A total of 98 subjects completed the study (45 in the acupuncture group and 53 in the control group). Significant differences were seen in VFSS, SSA and RBHOMS scores in each group after 4-week treatment as compared with before treatment (P<0.01). Comparison between the groups after 4-week treatment showed that the VFSS P=0.007) and SSA scores (P=0.000) were more significantly improved in the acupuncture group than the control group. However, there was no statistical difference (P=0.710) between the acupuncture and the control groups in RBHOMS scores. Acupuncture combined with the standard swallowing training was an effective therapy for post-stroke dysphagia, and acupuncture therapy is worth further investigation in the treatment of post-stroke dysphagia.

  7. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Dysphagia Caused by Wilson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Yang, Hee Seung; Lee, Seung Hwa; Jeung, Hae Won; Park, Young Ok

    2012-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of abnormal copper metabolism. Although dysphagia is a common complaint of patients with Wilson's disease and pneumonia is an important cause of death in these patients, management of swallowing function has rarely been reported in the context of Wilson's disease. Hence, we report a case of Wilson's disease presenting with dysphagia. A 33-year-old man visited our hospital with a complaint of difficulty in swallowing, since about last 7 years and which had worsened since the last 2-3 months. He was diagnosed with Wilson's disease about 13 years ago. On the initial VFSS, reduced hyoid bone movement, impaired epiglottic movement and moderate amount of residue in the valleculae during the pharyngeal phase were noted. After 10 sessions of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for 1 hour per day, decreased amount of residue was observed in the valleculae during the pharyngeal phase on the follow-up VFSS. PMID:22837979

  8. Castleman disease as a giant parapharyngeal mass presenting with dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Karakoc, Omer; Kilic, Erbil; Ilica, Turan; Tosun, Fuat; Hidir, Yusuf

    2011-11-01

    A giant unilateral parapharyngeal mass from the skull base to the vocal folds is presented in this case. A 20-year-old man experiencing dysphagia for 4 years was admitted, and his magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scans showed a giant parapharyngeal ellipsoid mass from the left jugular foramen to the vocal folds. Its craniocaudal length was 9 cm. The left internal carotid artery was lateralized, and posterior glottic airway was narrowed by the mass. In digital subtraction angiography, 2 aberrant branches of the internal carotid artery were going inside the mass. After the excision, histopathologic evaluation showed the diagnosis, Castleman disease. This is the first case in literature presenting with the only symptom of dysphagia.

  9. The physiology of deglutition and the pathophysiology and complications of oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Steele, Catriona M

    2012-01-01

    The opening session of the 2nd International Conference on Oropharyngeal Dysphagia featured a series of invited talks reviewing the definition of dysphagia, its prevalence and its pathophysiology. The discussion arising from these talks focused heavily on the current underrecognition of dysphagia as a significant concern for older adults, particularly those over 75. The burdens associated with dysphagia in this sector of the population were recognized to be substantial, both in social/psychological terms and in terms of economic consequences for the healthcare system. The importance of developing swallow screening protocols as a routine method for the early identification of dysphagia and aspiration was explored. The idea of launching political initiatives aimed at increasing awareness and the utilization of appropriate dysphagia healthcare codes was also discussed. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Impact of dysphagia severity on clinical decision making via telerehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ward, Elizabeth C; Burns, Clare L; Theodoros, Deborah G; Russell, Trevor G

    2014-04-01

    Recent research supports the proposal that valid and reliable clinical swallow examinations (CSEs) can be conducted via telerehabilitation. However, no studies have explored whether dysphagia severity has an impact on the success of the session or its outcomes. The current study examined how dysphagia severity impacted on either (a) clinical decision making for safety of oral intake or (b) clinician perceptions of CSEs conducted via telerehabilitation. One hundred patients (25 nondysphagics and 25 mild, 25 moderate, and 25 severe dysphagics) were assessed using a telehealth system and methodology reported in prior research. For each assessment, the online and face-to-face (FTF) clinicians simultaneously completed a structured CSE. On session completion, the online clinician indicated level of agreement with two statements regarding the level of rapport and ability to competently assess the patient. In each of the four groups, acceptable levels of agreement were observed between raters for the three primary outcomes (decisions regarding oral/nonoral intake and safe food and fluids) as well as over 90% of the CSE items. Clinicians agreed they could develop good rapport with the majority of patients in all groups. However, for a small but significant (p<0.5) proportion of patents in the severe dysphagic group, clinicians disagreed they were able to satisfactorily and competently assess to the best of their abilities using the telerehabilitation system. Clinical decisions made during and as an outcome of the total CSE were found to be comparable to those made in the FTF environment regardless of dysphagia severity. Clinicians noted some difficulty assessing patients with greater complexity, which occurred in greater numbers in the group with severe dysphagia.

  11. Dysphagia and dysphonia in a patient with cancer.

    PubMed

    Schattner, Ami; Mate, Andras; Lahav, Gil; Adi, Meital

    2009-09-01

    A patient with cancer undergoing chemotherapy via Portacath presented with severe progressive dysphagia and dysphonia. Unilateral paresis of the 9, 10, 11, and 12th cranial nerves was found (Collet-Sicard's syndrome or Villaret's syndrome), associated with ipsilateral jugular vein thrombosis identified by imaging. The use of central venous catheters is increasing, and even rare, hitherto unreported, complications need to be recognized. After catheter removal, the patient slowly improved with low-molecular weight heparin treatment and time.

  12. [Update oropharyngeal dysphagia part 1: Physiology, pathology and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Reiter, R; Brosch, S

    2012-04-01

    Swallowing is a complex mechanism with many muscles and nerves needed. If this is disturbed, oropharyngeal dysphagia may be caused, especially in the elderly. There is a wide range of causes. Where oral feeding is sufficiently impaired then this route may have to be bypassed by percutaneous enteral gastostomy. Evaluation of swallowing is usually done with a fiberoptic or 90-degree optic. Individual needs must be addressed, usually, and best, by a multidisciplinary team. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE. PMID:25548504

  14. Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with esophageal atresia and chronic dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Kassabian, Sirvart; Baez-Socorro, Virginia; Sferra, Thomas; Garcia, Reinaldo

    2014-12-21

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is defined as a discontinuity of the lumen of the esophagus repaired soon after birth. Dysphagia is a common symptom in these patients, usually related to stricture, dysmotility or peptic esophagitis. We present 4 cases of patients with EA who complained of dysphagia and the diagnosis of Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was made, ages ranging from 9 to 16 years. Although our patients were on acid suppression years after their EA repair, they presented with acute worsening of dysphagia. Esophogastroduodenoscopy and/or barium swallow did not show stricture and biopsies revealed elevated eosinophil counts consistent with EoE. Two of 4 patients improved symptomatically with the topical steroids. It is important to note that all our patients have asthma and 3 out of 4 have tested positive for food allergies. One of our patients developed recurrent anastomotic strictures that improved with the treatment of the EoE. A previous case report linked the recurrence of esophageal strictures in patients with EA repair with EoE. Once the EoE was treated the strictures resolved. On the other hand, based on our observation, EoE could be present in patients without recurrent anastomotic strictures. There appears to be a spectrum in the disease process. We are suggesting that EoE is a frequent concomitant problem in patients with history of congenital esophageal deformities, and for this reason any of these patients with refractory reflux symptoms or dysphagia (with or without anastomotic stricture) may benefit from an endoscopic evaluation with biopsies to rule out EoE.

  15. A review of diet standardization and bolus rheology in the management of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Ben

    2016-06-01

    Texture modification is a widespread practice as a strategy for the management of dysphagia and can be very effective in individual cases. However, it is often performed in a qualitative, subjective manner and practices vary internationally according to multiple sets of national guidelines. This article aims to identify best practice by reviewing the theory and practice of texture modification, focussing on recent advances. Instrumental assessment of texture modification in vivo is challenging, and studies including rheology and perception have indicated that fluid viscosity is only one of many factors affecting texture modification in practice. Systematic reviews have identified a historical lack of high-quality clinical evidence, but recent controlled studies are beginning to identify positive and negative aspects of thickened fluids. Research and practice to date have been limited by the lack of control and standardization of foods and drinks. However in 2015 a not-for-profit organization, the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative, has published a framework for texture modification from thin liquids to solid foods based on all the existing documentation and guidance, and the - limited - available clinical evidence. Rheology exists in the lab; however, normal practice is often subjective or lacking control and standardization. In the near future, cohesion of practice and the availability of practical standardization tools may increase awareness and use of rheology.

  16. Psychometric properties of questionnaires on functional health status in oropharyngeal dysphagia: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature.

  17. Psychometric Properties of Questionnaires on Functional Health Status in Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Results. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. Conclusions. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature. PMID:24877095

  18. Analysis of carbonated thin liquids in pediatric neurogenic dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Lundine, Jennifer P.; Bates, David G.; Yin, Han

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspiration of liquids is a serious complication of neurological impairments such as traumatic brain injury or stroke. Carbonated liquids have been examined as a possible alternative to thickened liquids to help reduce aspiration in cases of dysphagia in adults, but no published literature to the best of our knowledge has evaluated this technique in children. If carbonated liquids result in safer swallowing in children, they could provide a preferred alternative to thickened liquids. Objective This pilot study examined whether carbonated thin liquids (CARB) improved swallowing compared to noncarbonated thin liquids (NOCARB) for children with neurogenic dysphagia. Materials and methods Twenty-four children admitted to a level I trauma center for acute neurological injury/disease were evaluated via videofluoroscopic swallow studies. Four descriptive outcome measures were contrasted. Results CARB significantly decreased pooling (P=0.0006), laryngeal penetration/aspiration (P=0.0044) and Penetration-Aspiration Scale scores (P=0.0127) when compared to NOCARB. On average, CARB improved scores on the Penetration-Aspiration Scale by 3.7 points for participants who aspirated NOCARB. There was no significant difference in pharyngeal residue noted between CARB and NOCARB (P=0.0625). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that carbonated thin liquids may provide an alternative to thickened liquids for children with neurogenic dysphagia. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25758792

  19. Analysis of carbonated thin liquids in pediatric neurogenic dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Lundine, Jennifer P; Bates, D Gregory; Bates, David G; Yin, Han

    2015-08-01

    Aspiration of liquids is a serious complication of neurological impairments such as traumatic brain injury or stroke. Carbonated liquids have been examined as a possible alternative to thickened liquids to help reduce aspiration in cases of dysphagia in adults, but no published literature to the best of our knowledge has evaluated this technique in children. If carbonated liquids result in safer swallowing in children, they could provide a preferred alternative to thickened liquids. This pilot study examined whether carbonated thin liquids (CARB) improved swallowing compared to non-carbonated thin liquids (NOCARB) for children with neurogenic dysphagia. Twenty-four children admitted to a level I trauma center for acute neurological injury/disease were evaluated via videofluoroscopic swallow studies. Four descriptive outcome measures were contrasted. CARB significantly decreased pooling (P = 0.0006), laryngeal penetration/aspiration (P = 0.0044) and Penetration-Aspiration Scale scores (P = 0.0127) when compared to NOCARB. On average, CARB improved scores on the Penetration-Aspiration Scale by 3.7 points for participants who aspirated NOCARB. There was no significant difference in pharyngeal residue noted between CARB and NOCARB (P = 0.0625). These findings support the hypothesis that carbonated thin liquids may provide an alternative to thickened liquids for children with neurogenic dysphagia. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  20. Tongguan Liqiao acupuncture therapy improves dysphagia after brainstem stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-hong; Bian, Jin-ling; Meng, Zhi-hong; Meng, Li-na; Ren, Xue-song; Wang, Zhi-lin; Guo, Xiao-yan; Shi, Xue-min

    2016-01-01

    Tongguan Liqiao acupuncture therapy has been shown to effectively treat dysphagia after stroke-based pseudobulbar paralysis. We presumed that this therapy would be effective for dysphagia after bulbar paralysis in patients with brainstem infarction. Sixty-four patients with dysphagia following brainstem infarction were recruited and divided into a medulla oblongata infarction group (n = 22), a midbrain and pons infarction group (n = 16), and a multiple cerebral infarction group (n = 26) according to their magnetic resonance imaging results. All patients received Tongguan Liqiao acupuncture for 28 days. The main acupoints were Neiguan (PC6), Renzhong (DU26), Sanyinjiao (SP6), Fengchi (GB20), Wangu (GB12), and Yifeng (SJ17). Furthermore, the posterior pharyngeal wall was pricked. Before and after treatment, patient swallowing functions were evaluated with the Kubota Water Test, Fujishima Ichiro Rating Scale, and the Standard Swallowing Assessment. The Barthel Index was also used to evaluate their quality of life. Results showed that after 28 days of treatment, scores on the Kubota Water Test and Standard Swallowing Assessment had decreased, but scores on the Fujishima Ichiro Rating Scale and Barthel Index had increased in each group. The total efficacy rate was 92.2% after treatment, and was most obvious in patients with medulla oblongata infarction (95.9%). These findings suggest that Tongguan Liqiao acupuncture therapy can repair the connection of upper motor neurons to the medulla oblongata motor nucleus, promote the recovery of brainstem infarction, and improve patient's swallowing ability and quality of life. PMID:27073382

  1. Effects of Cervical Kyphosis on Recovery From Dysphagia After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of cervical kyphosis on the recovery of swallowing function in subacute stroke patients. Methods Baseline and 1-month follow-up videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSSs) of 51 stroke patients were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the cervical kyphosis (Cobb's angle <20°, n=27) and control (n=24) groups. The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcomes Measurement System swallowing scale (ASHA NOMS), and videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) were used to determine the severity of dysphagia. Finally, the prevalence of abnormal VFSS findings was compared between the two groups. Results There were no significant differences in baseline PAS, ASHA NOMS, and VDS scores between the two groups. However, the follow-up VDS scores in the cervical kyphosis group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p=0.04), and a follow-up study showed a tendency towards worse ASHA NOMS scores (p=0.07) in the cervical kyphosis group. In addition, the cervical kyphosis group had a higher occurrence of pharyngeal wall coating in both baseline and follow-up studies, as well as increased aspiration in follow-up studies (p<0.05). Conclusion This study showed that stroke patients who had cervical kyphosis at the time of stroke might have impaired recovery from dysphagia after stroke. PMID:27847711

  2. Dysphagia in Acute Stroke: Incidence, Burden and Impact on Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Broeg-Morvay, Anne; Meisterernst, Julia; Schlager, Markus; Mono, Marie-Luise; El-Koussy, Marwan; Kägi, Georg; Jung, Simon; Sarikaya, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported frequency of post-stroke dysphagia in the literature is highly variable. In view of progress in stroke management, we aimed to assess the current burden of dysphagia in acute ischemic stroke. Methods We studied 570 consecutive patients treated in a tertiary stroke center. Dysphagia was evaluated by using the Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS). We investigated the relationship of dysphagia with pneumonia, length of hospital stay and discharge destination and compared rates of favourable clinical outcome and mortality at 3 months between dysphagic patients and those without dysphagia. Results Dysphagia was diagnosed in 118 of 570 (20.7%) patients and persisted in 60 (50.9%) at hospital discharge. Thirty-six (30.5%) patients needed nasogastric tube because of severe dysphagia. Stroke severity rather than infarct location was associated with dysphagia. Dysphagic patients suffered more frequently from pneumonia (23.1% vs. 1.1%, p<0.001), stayed longer at monitored stroke unit beds (4.4±2.8 vs. 2.7±2.4 days; p<0.001) and were less often discharged to home (19.5% vs. 63.7%, p = 0.001) as compared to those without dysphagia. At 3 months, dysphagic patients less often had a favourable outcome (35.7% vs. 69.7%; p<0.001), less often lived at home (38.8% vs. 76.5%; p<0.001), and more often had died (13.6% vs. 1.6%; p<0.001). Multivariate analyses identified dysphagia to be an independent predictor of discharge destination and institutionalization at 3 months, while severe dysphagia requiring tube placement was strongly associated with mortality. Conclusion Dysphagia still affects a substantial portion of stroke patients and may have a large impact on clinical outcome, mortality and institutionalization. PMID:26863627

  3. Head lifting strength is associated with dysphagia and malnutrition in frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sashika, Hironobu; Matsushima, Masato

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the association between head lifting strength, dysphagia and malnutrition in frail older adults. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 386 frail older adults aged 65 years and older with dysphagia or suspected dysphagia. Head lifting strength was assessed by the Medical Research Council score. The severity of swallowing and nutritional status was evaluated using the Dysphagia Severity Scale and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short Form, respectively. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between head lifting strength, dysphagia and malnutrition. There were 129 men and 257 women. The mean age was 83 years. The median Barthel Index score was 30 (interquartile range 5-65). A total of 189 (49%) older adults could independently lift their head. Based on the Dysphagia Severity Scale, 79 participants had no dysphagia, 138 had dysphagia without aspiration and 169 had dysphagia with aspiration. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short Form showed that 175 older adults were malnourished, 171 were at risk for malnutrition and 40 had a normal nutritional status. The Medical Research Council score in men was higher compared with women. Head lifting strength was significantly correlated with age (r = -0.256), the Barthel Index (r = 0.540), the Dysphagia Severity Scale (r = 0.458) and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short Form (r = 0.331). In logistic regression analysis, the Medical Research Council score was independently associated with both dysphagia with aspiration and malnutrition. Head lifting strength is associated with dysphagia with aspiration and malnutrition in frail older adults. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Pretreatment Dysphagia in Esophageal Cancer Patients May Eliminate the Need for Staging by Endoscopic Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Ripley, R Taylor; Sarkaria, Inderpal S; Grosser, Rachel; Sima, Camelia S; Bains, Manjit S; Jones, David R; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Huang, James; Finley, David J; Rusch, Valerie W; Rizk, Nabil P

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy is commonly administered to patients with localized disease who have T3-4 esophageal disease as staged by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Previously, we noted that patients who present with dysphagia have a higher EUS T stage. We hypothesized that the presence of dysphagia is predictive of EUS T3-4 disease and that staging EUS could be forgone for esophageal cancer p