Tatton, W G; Bedingham, W; Verrier, M C; Blair, R D
The amplitude and temporal modulation of the segmented EMG activity in flexor carpi radialis, evoked by imposed angular wrist extension, was studied with respect to the level of pre-existing background activity in rigid parkinsonian (PK) and dystonia musculorum deformans (DMD) patients. The interdependence of the evoked M1 and M2-3 segments on pre-existing background EMG activity and initial velocity of imposed displacement was established previously for a normal population. Individual responses of 21 parkinsonian and 12 dystonic patients were compared to the established normal "response volume". The augmented magnitude of the M2-3 segment in rigid PK patients, which correlates to the measure of rigidity, could not be accounted for by the low level of pre-existing EMG activity. Therefore, increased descending facilitation does not impinge directly on alpha motoneurons. Paradoxical excitation in the shortened muscle and resetting of tonic tremor of the stretched muscle by the imposed wrist extension are two other demonstrated abnormalities which may also contribute to PK rigidity. In contrast, DMD patients demonstrated normal amplitude modulation of the M1 and M2-3 segments, but exhibited a disturbance of normal temporal mechanisms that result in constant duration of the M1 and M2-3 responses with imposed force step loads.
Background Dystonia musculorum (dt) is an autosomal recessive hereditary neuropathy with a characteristic uncoordinated movement and is caused by a defect in the bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BPAG1) gene. The neural isoform of BPAG1 is expressed in various neurons, including those in the central and peripheral nerve systems of mice. However, most previous studies on neuronal degeneration in BPAG1-deficient mice focused on peripheral sensory neurons and only limited investigation of the autonomic system has been conducted. Methods In this study, patterns of nerve innervation in cutaneous and iridial tissues were examined using general neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 via immunohistochemistry. To perform quantitative analysis of the autonomic neuronal number, neurons within the lumbar sympathetic and parasympathetic ciliary ganglia were calculated. In addition, autonomic neurons were cultured from embryonic dt/dt mutants to elucidate degenerative patterns in vitro. Distribution patterns of neuronal intermediate filaments in cultured autonomic neurons were thoroughly studied under immunocytochemistry and conventional electron microscopy. Results Our immunohistochemistry results indicate that peripheral sensory nerves and autonomic innervation of sweat glands and irises dominated degeneration in dt/dt mice. Quantitative results confirmed that the number of neurons was significantly decreased in the lumbar sympathetic ganglia as well as in the parasympathetic ciliary ganglia of dt/dt mice compared with those of wild-type mice. We also observed that the neuronal intermediate filaments were aggregated abnormally in cultured autonomic neurons from dt/dt embryos. Conclusions These results suggest that a deficiency in the cytoskeletal linker BPAG1 is responsible for dominant sensory nerve degeneration and severe autonomic degeneration in dt/dt mice. Additionally, abnormally aggregated neuronal intermediate filaments may participate in neuronal death of cultured
Clément, C; Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C
The dystonia musculorum (Dst(dt-J)) mutant mouse suffers from severe motor coordination deficits, characterized, among various symptoms, by a spastic ataxia and dystonic movements, indicating central defects in motor structures in addition to dystrophy of peripheral sensory tracts and partial degeneration of spinocerebellar tracts. Neurochemical alterations, notably in dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems, were previously observed in basal ganglia and cerebellum. A quantitative histochemical cartography of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in Dst(dt-J) mutants, in comparison with controls, revealed increases in the neostriatum, the habenula-interpeduncular pathway, the cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus and its target structures, the thalamus, major regions of the basal ganglia, such as substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, globus pallidum, and subthalamic nucleus, as well as in associated extrapyramidal regions, such as red nucleus, brainstem reticular formation, and superior colliculus. These acetylcholinesterase changes may play a role in motor deficits, particularly the dystonic symptomatology observed in the mutation.
Horie, Masao; Watanabe, Keisuke; Bepari, Asim K; Nashimoto, Jun-Ichiro; Araki, Kimi; Sano, Hiromi; Chiken, Satomi; Nambu, Atsushi; Ono, Katsuhiko; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Takebayashi, Hirohide
The Dystonin gene (Dst) is responsible for dystonia musculorum (dt), an inherited mouse model of hereditary neuropathy accompanied by progressive motor symptoms such as dystonia and cerebellar ataxia. Dst-a isoforms, which contain actin-binding domains, are predominantly expressed in the nervous system. Although sensory neuron degeneration in the peripheral nervous system during the early postnatal stage is a well-recognised phenotype in dt, the histological characteristics and neuronal circuits in the central nervous system responsible for motor symptoms remain unclear. To analyse the causative neuronal networks and roles of Dst isoforms, we generated novel multipurpose Dst gene trap mice, in which actin-binding domain-containing isoforms are disrupted. Homozygous mice showed typical dt phenotypes with sensory degeneration and progressive motor symptoms. The gene trap allele (Dst(Gt) ) encodes a mutant Dystonin-LacZ fusion protein, which is detectable by X-gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactoside) staining. We observed wide expression of the actin-binding domain-containing Dystonin isoforms in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system. This raised the possibility that not only secondary neuronal defects in the CNS subsequent to peripheral sensory degeneration but also cell-autonomous defects in the CNS contribute to the motor symptoms. Expression analysis of immediate early genes revealed decreased neuronal activity in the cerebellar-thalamo-striatal pathway in the homozygous brain, implying the involvement of this pathway in the dt phenotype. These novel Dst(Gt) mice showed that a loss-of-function mutation in the actin-binding domain-containing Dystonin isoforms led to typical dt phenotypes. Furthermore, this novel multipurpose Dst(Gt) allele offers a unique tool for analysing the causative neuronal networks involved in the dt phenotype.
Horie, Masao; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Sano, Hiromi; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki; Chiken, Satomi; Someya, Takuro; Saito, Keisuke; Hossain, M Ibrahim; Nameta, Masaaki; Abe, Kuniya; Sakimura, Kenji; Ono, Katsuhiko; Nambu, Atsushi; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Takebayashi, Hirohide
We identified a novel spontaneous mutant mouse showing motor symptoms that are similar to those of the dystonia musculorum (dt) mouse. The observations suggested that the mutant mice inherited the mild dt phenotype as an autosomal recessive trait. Linkage analysis showed that the causative gene was located near D1Mit373 and D1Mit410 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1, which are close to the dystonin (Dst) gene locus. To investigate whether Dst is the causative gene of the novel mutant phenotype, we crossed the mutant with Dst gene trap (Dst(Gt)) mice. Compound heterozygotes showed a typical dt phenotype with sensory degeneration and progressive motor symptoms. DNA sequencing analysis identified a nonsense mutation within the spectrin repeats of the plakin domain. The novel mutant allele was named dt(23Rbrc). Motor abnormalities in homozygous dt(23Rbrc)/dt(23Rbrc) mice are not as severe as homozygous Dst(Gt)/Dst(Gt) mice. Histological analyses showed abnormal neurofilament (NF) accumulation in the nervous system of homozygous dt(23Rbrc)/dt(23Rbrc) mice, which is characteristic of the dt phenotype. We mapped the distribution of abnormal NF-accumulated neurons in the brain and found that they were located specifically in the brainstem, spinal cord, and in regions such as the vestibular nucleus, reticular nucleus, and red nucleus, which are implicated in posture and motor coordination pathways. The quantification of abnormal NF accumulation in the cytoplasm and spheroids (axons) of neurons showed that abnormal NF immunoreactivity was lower in homozygous dt(23Rbrc)/dt(23Rbrc) mice than in homozygous Dst(Gt)/Dst(Gt) mice. Therefore, we have identified a novel hypomorphic allele of dt, which causes histological abnormalities in the central nervous system that may account for the abnormal motor phenotype. This novel spontaneously occurring mutant may become a good model of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 6, which is caused by mutations in the human DST
Ferrier, Andrew; De Repentigny, Yves; Lynch-Godrei, Anisha; Gibeault, Sabrina; Eid, Walaa; Kuo, Daniel; Zha, Xiaohui; Kothary, Rashmi
A homozygous mutation in the DST (dystonin) gene causes a newly identified lethal form of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy in humans (HSAN-VI). DST loss of function similarly leads to sensory neuron degeneration and severe ataxia in dystonia musculorum (Dst(dt)) mice. DST is involved in maintaining cytoskeletal integrity and intracellular transport. As autophagy is highly reliant upon stable microtubules and motor proteins, we assessed the influence of DST loss of function on autophagy using the Dst(dt-Tg4) mouse model. Electron microscopy (EM) revealed an accumulation of autophagosomes in sensory neurons from these mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the autophagic flux was impaired. Levels of LC3-II, a marker of autophagosomes, were elevated. Consequently, Dst(dt-Tg4) sensory neurons displayed impaired protein turnover of autophagosome substrate SQTSM1/p62 and of polyubiquitinated proteins. Interestingly, in a previously described Dst(dt-Tg4) mouse model that is partially rescued by neuronal specific expression of the DST-A2 isoform, autophagosomes, autolysosomes, and damaged organelles were reduced when compared to Dst(dt-Tg4) mutant mice. LC3-II, SQTSM1, polyubiquitinated proteins and autophagic flux were also restored to wild-type levels in the rescued mice. Finally, a significant decrease in DNAIC1 (dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1; the mouse ortholog of human DNAI1), a member of the DMC (dynein/dynactin motor complex), was noted in Dst(dt-Tg4) dorsal root ganglia and sensory neurons. Thus, DST-A2 loss of function perturbs late stages of autophagy, and dysfunctional autophagy at least partially underlies Dst(dt) pathogenesis. We therefore conclude that the DST-A2 isoform normally facilitates autophagy within sensory neurons to maintain cellular homeostasis.
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Introduction Dystonia is usually a lifelong condition with persistent pain and disability. Focal dystonia affects a single part of the body; generalised dystonia can affect most or all of the body. It is more common in women, and some types of dystonia are more common in people of European Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, surgical treatments, and physical treatments for focal, and for generalised dystonia? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 13 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acetylcholine receptor inhibitors, acupuncture, anticholinergic drugs, anticonvulsants, atypical antipsychotic drugs, benzodiazepines, biofeedback, botulinum toxin, chiropractic manipulation, deep brain stimulation of thalamus and globus pallidus, dopaminergic agonists and antagonists, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitors, microvascular decompression, myectomy, occupational therapy, osteopathy, pallidotomy, physiotherapy, selective peripheral denervation, serotonergic agonists and antagonists, speech therapy, and thalamotomy. PMID:19445800
Introduction Dystonia is usually a lifelong condition with persistent pain and disability. Focal dystonia affects a single part of the body; generalised dystonia can affect most or all of the body. It is more common in women, and some types of dystonia are more common in people of European Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, surgical treatments, and physical treatments for focal, and for generalised dystonia? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acetylcholine release inhibitors (botulinum toxin), acupuncture, anticholinergic/antihistaminic drugs, anticonvulsants, atypical antipsychotic drugs, benzodiazepines, biofeedback, chiropractic manipulation, deep brain stimulation of thalamus and globus pallidus, dopaminergic agonists and antagonists, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues, microvascular decompression, muscle relaxants, myectomy, occupational therapy, osteopathy, pallidotomy, physiotherapy, selective peripheral denervation, serotonergic agonists and antagonists, speech therapy, and thalamotomy. PMID:21663705
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LeDoux, Mark S.
SUMMARY In 1984, dystonia was defined by an ad hoc committee of the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation as a syndrome of involuntary, sustained muscle contractions affecting one or more sites of the body, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures. In 2011, dystonia remains a purely clinical diagnosis. Primary dystonia includes syndromes in which dystonia is the sole phenotypic manifestation with the exception that tremor can be present as well. Primary dystonias are typically mobile and may show task specificity. Fixed dystonias are often psychogenic or associated with complex regional pain syndrome. Fixed dystonia may also be the terminal consequence of long-standing, inadequately-treated, severe appendicular or cervical dystonia. The vast majority of primary dystonias have their onset in adults. Late-onset, primary, focal dystonia, particularly blepharospasm, may spread to affect other anatomical segments. Patients with focal dystonia may also exhibit spontaneous remissions that last for years. Although sensory tricks are commonly reported by patients with primary dystonia, they have also been described in subjects with secondary dystonia. Another important sensory aspect of dystonia is pain which is relatively common in cervical dystonia but also reported by many patients with masticatory dystonia, hand–forearm dystonia and blepharospasm. In conclusion, “dystonia” can be used to delimit a clinical sign or loosely define a neuropsychiatric sensorimotor syndrome. PMID:22166421
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Pringsheim, T; Lang, A E
Psychogenic dystonia has been a controversial diagnosis over the past century. While this entity does exist, it makes up the minority of cases of dystonia seen at specialized centres. The diagnosis of psychogenic dystonia must only be undertaken by a neurologist with considerable experience in the assessment and treatment of organic dystonia. Features in the history and physical examination will reveal both clinical inconsistencies and incongruities with organic dystonia that support a psychogenic cause for the patient's symptoms. Patients with psychogenic dystonia suffer from motor conversion disorder, and co-morbid depression, anxiety and disorders of personality are frequent. While there have been no neuroimaging studies to date in patients with psychogenic dystonia, imaging studies in patients with organic dystonia offer insights on how one might assess this problem using functional neuroimaging. Neurophysiologic studies in patients with organic forms of dystonia may also be employed to further distinguish psychogenic from organic dystonia when doubt exists. The prognosis of psychogenic dystonia is disappointing, with the majority of patients suffering significant long-term disability. Recommendations are given regarding disclosure of the diagnosis of psychogenic dystonia to the patient as well as appropriate treatment.
van Harten, P N; Kamphuis, D J; Matroos, G E
Two patients with tardive dystonia are presented. Tardive dystonia is a late-onset side effect of dopamine antagonist, which occurs in approximately 2% of the patients in the course of treatment with neuroleptic medication. The dystonia usually starts by affecting the musculature of face and (or) neck and is often progressive to a segmental localization. Of differential diagnostic importance are: conversion disorder, acute dystonia, Wilson's disease, idiopathic dystonia and dystonia triggered by other agents. Treatment starts with reevaluation of the need for ongoing neuroleptic treatment. Investigation of the pharmacotherapy of the dystonia concerns mostly treatment with dopamine depletors or with high doses of anticholinergic agents. Improvement of 50% of the patients is reported, although total recovery is rare. Many other substances and also some physical methods (ECT and surgery) have been used with varying results.
LeDoux, Mark S.
Dystonia has been defined as a syndrome of involuntary, sustained muscle contractions affecting one or more sites of the body, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. Dystonia is also a clinical sign that can be the presenting or prominent manifestation of many neurodegenerative and neuro-metabolic disorders. Etiological categories include primary dystonia, secondary dystonia, heredodegenerative diseases with dystonia, and dystonia plus. Primary dystonia includes syndromes in which dystonia is the sole phenotypic manifestation with the exception that tremor can be present as well. Most primary dystonia begins in adults, and approximately 10% of probands report one or more affected family members. Many cases of childhood- and adolescent-onset dystonia are due to mutations in TOR1A and THAP1. Mutations in THAP1 and CIZ1 have been associated with sporadic and familial adult-onset dystonia. Although significant recent progress had been made in defining the genetic basis for most of the dystonia-plus and heredodegenerative diseases with dystonia, a major gap remains in understanding the genetic etiologies for most cases of adult-onset primary dystonia. Common themes in the cellular biology of dystonia include G1/S cell cycle control, monoaminergic neurotransmission, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the neuronal stress response. PMID:22989765
Cervical dystonia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Cervical dystonia, also called spasmodic torticollis, is a painful condition in which your neck muscles contract involuntarily, causing your head to twist or turn ...
Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro J; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Sitek, Emilia J; Martinez Castrillo, Juan Carlos
Dystonia has a recent history in medicine. Focal dystonia was described in the 19th century by classic authors including Gowers, whilst generalized dystonia was described at the turn of the century. However, it is possible to find precise descriptions of dystonia in art, centuries before the medical definition. We have reviewed several pieces of art (sculpture, painting and literature) across the history that might represent descriptions of dystonia, from ancient period to nowadays. In classic times, the first reference to abnormal postures can be tracked back to the new Empire of Egypt (equinus foot), not to mention some recently described examples of dystonia from the Moche sculptures in Peru or Veracruz culture from Mexico. In Middle Ages it is possible to find many examples of sculptures in European cathedrals representing peasants with dramatic, presumably dystonic postures that coexist with amputation of limbs. This unique combination of dystonia and limb amputation probably represents ergotism. The painters Brueghel, Ribera and Velazquez also represented figures with postures likely to be dystonic. Literature is also a source of precise pre-neurological descriptions, especially during the 19th century. In David Copperfield, Dickens depicts characters with generalized dystonia (Uriah Heep), cervical dystonia (Mr. Sharp) and spasmodic dysphonia (Mr Creakle). Finally, even in modern Art (19th and 20th centuries), there are dramatic descriptions of abnormal postures that are likely to be dystonic, such as painful cervical dystonia (Brancusi), cervical dystonia with sensory trick (Modigliani) and upper limb dystonia (Wyspianski). However some postures presented in works of art may simply be a form of artistic expression and only bear unintentional resemblance to the dystonic postures. Art may be a source of neurological information, and that includes primary and secondary dystonia.
Batla, Amit; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P
Dystonia is characterized by repetitive twisting movements or abnormal postures due to involuntary muscle activity. When limited to a single body region it is called focal dystonia. Examples of focal dystonia include cervical dystonia (neck), blepharospasm (eyes), oromandibular dystonia, focal limb dystonia, and spasmodic dysphonia, which are discussed here. Once the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic plan is discussed with the patients. They are informed that there is no cure for dystonia and treatment is symptomatic. The main therapeutic option for treating focal dystonias is botulinum toxin (BoNT). There have been several attempts to characterize the procedure, the type of toxin, dosage, techniques, and combination with physical measures in each of the focal dystonia forms. The general treatment principles are similar. The affected muscles are injected at muscle sites based on evidence and experience using standard dosages based on the type of toxin used. The injections are repeated after 3 to 6 months based on the individual response duration. In the uncommon event of nonresponse with BoNT, the dose and site are reassessed. Oral drug treatment could be considered as an additional option. Once the condition is thought to be medically refractory, the opinion from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) team for the suitability of the patient for DBS is taken. The successful use of DBS in cervical dystonia has led to increased acceptance for trial in other forms of focal dystonias. DBS surgery in focal dystonias other than cervical is, however, still experimental. The patients may be offered the surgery with adequate explanation of the risks and benefits. Patient education and directing the patients towards dystonia support groups and relevant websites that provide scientific information may be useful for long-term compliance and benefit.
Atai, Nadia A.; Ryan, Scott D.; Kothary, Rashmi; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Nery, Flávia C.
Most cases of early onset DYT1 dystonia in humans are caused by a GAG deletion in the TOR1A gene leading to loss of a glutamic acid (ΔE) in the torsinA protein, which underlies a movement disorder associated with neuronal dysfunction without apparent neurodegeneration. Mutation/deletion of the gene (Dst) encoding dystonin in mice results in a dystonic movement disorder termed dystonia musculorum, which resembles aspects of dystonia in humans. While torsinA and dystonin proteins do not share modular domain architecture, they participate in a similar function by modulating a structural link between the nuclear envelope and the cytoskeleton in neuronal cells. We suggest that through a shared interaction with the nuclear envelope protein nesprin-3α, torsinA and the neuronal dystonin-a2 isoform comprise a bridge complex between the outer nuclear membrane and the cytoskeleton, which is critical for some aspects of neuronal development and function. Elucidation of the overlapping roles of torsinA and dystonin-a2 in nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum dynamics should provide insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying the dystonic phenotype. PMID:22611399
Gandhi, Yazad R
Dystonia is an involuntary, repetitive, sustained (tonic), or spasmodic (rapid or clonic) muscle contraction. The spectrum of dystonias can involve various regions of the body. Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) can involve the masticatory, lower facial and the tongue muscles which may results in trismus, bruxism, involuntary jaw opening or closure and involuntary tongue movement. Here, we report a case of OMD in a 68 year old man.
Edwards, Mark J
Dystonia is a common movement disorder characterised by abnormal postures of the affected body part. It has a very varied presentation and numerous causes, and this can create difficulties with diagnosis and appropriate investigation. This article aims to provide a clinical approach to patients with dystonia, focussing on how to create a differential diagnosis and to plan rational testing.
Giorelli, Maurizio; Zimatore, Giovanni Bosco
Background Adult-onset focal dystonias (AOFDs) are non-task-specific or task-specific and may spread to other body segments of affected patients. Case report We report the case of a barber with non-task-specific craniocervical dystonia and a new occupational focal hand dystonia (while using scissors). Discussion Different AOFDs may develop and coexist in the same “vulnerable” patient. Hairdresser’s dystonia is a rare task-specific dystonia. PMID:24386610
Literary reports on dystonia date back to post-Medieval times. Medical reports are instead more recent. We review here the early descriptions and the historical establishment of a consensus on the clinical phenomenology and the diagnostic features of dystonia syndromes. Lumping and splitting exercises have characterized this area of knowledge, and it remains largely unclear how many dystonia types we are to count. This review describes the history leading to recognize that focal dystonia syndromes are a coherent clinical set encompassing cranial dystonia (including blepharospasm), oromandibular dystonia, spasmodic torticollis, truncal dystonia, writer’s cramp, and other occupational dystonias. Papers describing features of dystonia and diagnostic criteria are critically analyzed and put into historical perspective. Issues and inconsistencies in this lumping effort are discussed, and the currently unmet needs are critically reviewed. PMID:28217105
Literary reports on dystonia date back to post-Medieval times. Medical reports are instead more recent. We review here the early descriptions and the historical establishment of a consensus on the clinical phenomenology and the diagnostic features of dystonia syndromes. Lumping and splitting exercises have characterized this area of knowledge, and it remains largely unclear how many dystonia types we are to count. This review describes the history leading to recognize that focal dystonia syndromes are a coherent clinical set encompassing cranial dystonia (including blepharospasm), oromandibular dystonia, spasmodic torticollis, truncal dystonia, writer's cramp, and other occupational dystonias. Papers describing features of dystonia and diagnostic criteria are critically analyzed and put into historical perspective. Issues and inconsistencies in this lumping effort are discussed, and the currently unmet needs are critically reviewed.
Early onset torsion dystonia (EOTD) is a rare movement disorder characterized by involuntary, repetitive, sustained muscle contractions or postures involving one or more sites of the body. A US study estimated the prevalence at approximately 1 in 30,000. The estimated prevalence in the general population of Europe seems to be lower, ranging from 1 in 330,000 to 1 in 200,000, although precise numbers are currently not available. The estimated prevalence in the Ashkenazi Jewish population is approximately five to ten times higher, due to a founder mutation. Symptoms of EOTD typically develop first in an arm or leg in middle to late childhood and progress in approximately 30% of patients to other body regions (generalized dystonia) within about five years. Distribution and severity of symptoms vary widely between affected individuals. The majority of cases from various ethnic groups are caused by an autosomal dominantly inherited deletion of 3 bp (GAG) in the DYT1 gene on chromosome 9q34. This gene encodes a protein named torsinA, which is presumed to act as a chaperone protein associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. It may interact with the dopamine transporter and participate in intracellular trafficking, although its precise function within the cell remains to be determined. Molecular genetic diagnostic and genetic counseling is recommended for individuals with age of onset below 26 years, and may also be considered in those with onset after 26 years having a relative with typical early onset dystonia. Treatment options include botulinum toxin injections for focal symptoms, pharmacological therapy such as anticholinergics (most commonly trihexiphenydil) for generalized dystonia and surgical approaches such as deep brain stimulation of the internal globus pallidus or intrathecal baclofen application in severe cases. All patients have normal cognitive function, and despite a high rate of generalization of dystonia, 75% of those patients
... the symptoms, and associated features such as additional movement disorders or neurological symptoms, and 2. Cause (which includes ... prominent myoclonus symptoms. Paroxysmal dystonias and dyskinesias : Episodic movement disorders in which abnormal movements occur only during attacks. ...
... pack vacuums Grasping cuffs Speech: Augmentative and alternative communication devices Voice amplifiers Vision: Task lighting Dark glasses Anti-glare monitor filters for the computer Situations and Solutions: A student who has dystonia ...
Le Floch, Anne; Vidailhet, Marie; Flamand-Rouvière, Constance; Grabli, David; Mayer, Jean-Michel; Gonce, Michel; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Roze, Emmanuel
Focal task-specific dystonia (FTSD) occurs exclusively during a specific activity that usually involves a highly skilled movement. Classical FTSD dystonias include writer's cramp and musician's dystonia. Few cases of sport-related dystonia have been reported. We describe the first four cases of FTSD related to table tennis (TT), two involving professional international competitors. We also systematically analyzed the literature for reports of sport-related dystonia including detailed clinical descriptions. We collected a total of 13 cases of sport-related dystonia, including our four TT players. Before onset, all the patients had trained for many years, for a large number of hours per week. Practice time had frequently increased significantly in the year preceding onset. As TT is characterized by highly skilled hand/forearm movements acquired through repetitive exercises, it may carry a higher risk of FTSD than other sports. Intensive training may result in maladaptive responses and overwhelm homeostatic mechanisms that regulate cortical plasticity in vulnerable individuals. Our findings support the importance of environmental risk factors in sport-related FTSD, as also suggested in classical FTSD, and have important implications for clinical practice. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.
Preziosi, Rosario; Diana, Alessia; Florio, Daniela; Gustinelli, Andrea; Nardini, Giordano
Osteitis deformans (Paget's disease of bone) is a chronic focal disorder of bone remodelling characterized by an initial increase in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, with subsequent compensatory increase in new bone formation, resulting in a disorganized mosaic of woven and lamellar bone. In the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) of this report, multifocal gross swellings involving the proximal third of the vertebral spine were observed and associated with anorexia, a relative inability to move or to fully extend the body, and to strike at prey. Serum biochemistry revealed elevated alkaline-phosphatase activity. Radiographic changes (irregular bone proliferation along the vertebral margins), computed tomography scan results (abnormal mineral density), and histopathological features (generalized thickening of the bony trabeculae at the expense of the intertrabecular spaces and irregular patches of lamellar bone with a characteristic "mosaic" pattern) indicated osteitis deformans.
... Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (4 links) Dystonia Medical Research Foundation: How Is Dystonia Diagnosed? Dystonia Medical Research Foundation: Treatments GeneReview: Dystonia Overview Merck Manual Home ...
Cissé, Ousmane H.; Almeida, João M. G. C. F.; Fonseca, Álvaro; Kumar, Ajay Anand; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Overmyer, Kirk; Hauser, Philippe M.; Pagni, Marco
ABSTRACT Taphrina deformans is a fungus responsible for peach leaf curl, an important plant disease. It is phylogenetically assigned to the Taphrinomycotina subphylum, which includes the fission yeast and the mammalian pathogens of the genus Pneumocystis. We describe here the genome of T. deformans in the light of its dual plant-saprophytic/plant-parasitic lifestyle. The 13.3-Mb genome contains few identifiable repeated elements (ca. 1.5%) and a relatively high GC content (49.5%). A total of 5,735 protein-coding genes were identified, among which 83% share similarities with other fungi. Adaptation to the plant host seems reflected in the genome, since the genome carries genes involved in plant cell wall degradation (e.g., cellulases and cutinases), secondary metabolism, the hallmark glyoxylate cycle, detoxification, and sterol biosynthesis, as well as genes involved in the biosynthesis of plant hormones. Genes involved in lipid metabolism may play a role in its virulence. Several locus candidates for putative MAT cassettes and sex-related genes akin to those of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were identified. A mating-type-switching mechanism similar to that found in ascomycetous yeasts could be in effect. Taken together, the findings are consistent with the alternate saprophytic and parasitic-pathogenic lifestyles of T. deformans. PMID:23631913
... Symptoms of dystonia associated with TBI may be chronic or occur in episodes. Dystonia symptoms associated with ... a multi- disciplinary team with experience treating traumatic brain injury and/or movement disorders. • Learn as much as ...
Cloud, Leslie J; Jinnah, HA
Importance of the field Dystonia is a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary twisting movements and unnatural postures. It has many different manifestations and causes, and many different treatment options are available. These options include physical and occupational therapy, oral medications, intramuscular injection of botulinum toxins, and neurosurgical interventions. Areas covered in this review In this review, we first summarize the treatment options available, then we provide suggestions from our own experience for how these can be applied in different types of dystonia. In preparing this review article, an extensive literature search was undertaken using PubMed. Only selected references from 1970 to 2008 are cited. What the reader will gain This review is intended to provide the clinician with a practical guide to the treatment of dystonia. Take home message Treatment of dystonia begins with proper diagnosis and classification, followed by an appropriate search for underlying etiology, and an assessment of the functional impairment associated with the dystonia. The therapeutic approach, which is usually limited to symptomatic therapy, must then be tailored to the individual needs of the patient. PMID:20001425
Lozano, A; Linazasoro, G
Dystonia is a neurological syndrome which is often progressive and disabling. The pathophysiological basis is only partly understood. Medical treatment often fails. Peripheral surgical techniques can alleviate the symptoms of many patients with diverse forms of focal dystonia. In patients with generalized dystonia, central surgical techniques are preferable. Thalamotomy is the best known technique, although the target is not fully defined. Experience with surgery of the pallidum and subthalamus is very limited, but results are promising. More studies are necessary to discover the precise potential benefit of these techniques and define the ideal candidates. It is important that such studies should be done using rigorous methodology and be similar for all groups working on this.
Sankhla, C.; Lai, E.; Jankovic, J.
OBJECTIVES—Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia manifested by involuntary muscle contractions producing repetitive, patterned mouth, jaw, and tongue movements. Dystonia is usually idiopathic (primary), but in some cases it follows peripheral injury. Peripherally induced cervical and limb dystonia is well recognised, and the aim of this study was to characterise peripherally induced OMD. METHODS—The following inclusion criteria were used for peripherally induced OMD: (1) the onset of the dystonia was within a few days or months (up to 1 year) after the injury; (2) the trauma was well documented by the patient's history or a review of their medical and dental records; and (3) the onset of dystonia was anatomically related to the site of injury (facial and oral). RESULTS—Twenty seven patients were identified in the database with OMD, temporally and anatomically related to prior injury or surgery. No additional precipitant other than trauma could be detected. None of the patients had any litigation pending. The mean age at onset was 50.11 (SD 14.15) (range 23-74) years and there was a 2:1 female preponderance. Mean latency between the initial trauma and the onset of OMD was 65 days (range 1 day-1 year). Ten (37%) patients had some evidence of predisposing factors such as family history of movement disorders, prior exposure to neuroleptic drugs, and associated dystonia affecting other regions or essential tremor. When compared with 21 patients with primary OMD, there was no difference for age at onset, female preponderance, and phenomenology. The frequency of dystonic writer's cramp, spasmodic dysphonia, bruxism, essential tremor, and family history of movement disorder, however, was lower in the post-traumatic group (p<0.05). In both groups the response to botulinum toxin treatment was superior to medical therapy (p<0.005). Surgical intervention for temporomandibular disorders was more frequent in the post-traumatic group and was associated with
Aránguiz, R; Chana-Cuevas, P; Alburquerque, D; León, M
A special group of focal dystonia is that known as occupational, which include dystonic disorders triggered by repetitive motor activity, closely associated with the professional activity of a specific task that the affected person performs. In this sense, musicians are a population particularly vulnerable to this disorder, which is presented during the execution of highly trained movements. This article reviews the pathophysiology of focal dystonia and its therapeutic implications. The pathophysiological basis of focal dystonia in the musician is still not well established. However, due to the contribution of neurophysiological studies and functional neuroimaging, there is growing evidence of anomalies in the processing of sensory information, sensory-motor integration, cortical and subcortical inhibitory processes, which underline this disease. Clinically, it is characterised by the appearance of involuntary muscle contractions, and is associated with loss of motor control while practicing music. It is a gradual appearance and sometimes there may be a history of musculoskeletal injuries or non-physiological postures preceding the appearance of the symptoms. The neurological examination is usually normal, although subtle dystonic postures can develop spontaneously or with movements that involve the affected segments. The dystonia remains focal and is not generalised. Treatment is based on using multiple strategies for the management of the dystonia, with variable results. Although a specific therapy has not been defined, there are general principles that are combined in each situation looking for results. This includes, among others, pharmacological interventions, management with botulinum toxin, and sensory re-training techniques. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Roubertie, A; Mariani, L L; Fernandez-Alvarez, E; Doummar, D; Roze, E
Management of childhood dystonia differs in certain respects from that of adult dystonia: (i) childhood dystonia is more often secondary than primary; (ii) mixed motor disorders are frequent; (iii) in children, the course of dystonia may be influenced by ongoing brain maturation and by the remarkable plasticity of the young brain; (iv) drug tolerability and effectiveness can be different in children; (v) the therapeutic strategy must be discussed with both the patient and his or her parents; and (vi) the child's education must be taken into account. Based on a systematic review of the literature through June 2011 and on our personal experience, we propose a therapeutic approach to childhood dystonia. After a detailed clinical evaluation and a comprehensive work-up to rule out a treatable cause of dystonia, symptomatic treatment may include various drugs, local botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation, in addition to rehabilitation.
Lim, Erle Chuen-Hian; Seet, Raymond Chee-Seong; Wilder-Smith, Einar P V; Ong, Benjamin Kian-Chung
We describe cervical dystonia occurring in a 31-year-old, previously well, primigravid, primiparous Chinese woman at 4 weeks' amenorrhea, which was ameliorated with low-dose clonazepam and disappeared completely by the end of the second trimester without recurring despite her being tapered off benzodiazepine therapy. Investigations were unremarkable for structural and biochemical causes of dystonia. Chorea, paraballismus, and restless legs syndrome are known to occur during pregnancy, attributable to high estrogen levels. Dystonia, on the other hand, has not been described to occur de novo in pregnancy. This association should be considered in women of reproductive age who present with cervical dystonia. Copyright (c) 2005 Movement Disorder Society.
Caldwell, Kim A; Shu, Yilong; Roberts, Nathan B; Caldwell, Guy A; O’Donnell, Janis M
The neurological movement disorder dystonia is an umbrella term for a heterogeneous group of related conditions where at least 20 monogenic forms have been identified. Despite the substantial advances resulting from the identification of these loci, the function of many DYT gene products remains unclear. Comparative genomics using simple animal models to examine the evolutionarily conserved functional relationships with monogenic dystonias represents a rapid route toward a comprehensive understanding of these movement disorders. Current studies using the invertebrate animal models Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster are uncovering cellular functions and mechanisms associated with mutant forms of the well-conserved gene products corresponding to DYT1, DYT5a, DYT5b, and DYT12 dystonias. Here we review recent findings from the invertebrate literature pertaining to molecular mechanisms of these gene products, torsinA, GTP cyclohydrolase I, tyrosine hydroxylase, and the alpha subunit of Na+/K ATPase, respectively. In each study, the application of powerful genetic tools developed over decades of intensive work with both of these invertebrate systems has led to mechanistic insights into these human disorders. These models are particularly amenable to large-scale genetic screens for modifiers or additional alleles, which are bolstering our understanding of the molecular functions associated with these gene products. Moreover, the use of invertebrate models for the evaluation of DYT genetic loci and their genetic interaction networks has predictive value and can provide a path forward for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23814534
Crowell, Jason L; Shah, Binit B
Surgical procedures for dystonia and tremor have evolved over the past few decades, and our understanding of risk, benefit, and predictive factors has increased substantially in that time. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most utilized surgical treatment for dystonia and tremor, though lesioning remains an effective option in appropriate patients. Dystonic syndromes that have shown a substantial reduction in severity secondary to DBS are isolated dystonia, including generalized, cervical, and segmental, as well as acquired dystonia such as tardive dystonia. Essential tremor is quite amenable to DBS, though the response of other forms of postural and kinetic tremor is not nearly as robust or consistent based on available evidence. Regarding targeting, DBS lead placement in the globus pallidus internus has shown marked efficacy in dystonia reduction. The subthalamic nucleus is an emerging target, and increasing evidence suggests that this may be a viable target in dystonia as well. The ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus is the preferred target for essential tremor, though targeting the subthalamic zone/caudal zona incerta has shown promise and may emerge as another option in essential tremor and possibly other tremor disorders. In the carefully selected patient, DBS and lesioning procedures are relatively safe and effective for the management of dystonia and tremor.
Vidailhet, Marie; Jutras, Marie-France; Grabli, David; Roze, Emmanuel
The few controlled studies that have been carried out have shown that bilateral internal globus pallidum stimulation is a safe and long-term effective treatment for hyperkinetic disorders. However, most recent published data on deep brain stimulation (DBS) for dystonia, applied to different targets and patients, are still mainly from uncontrolled case reports (especially for secondary dystonia). This precludes clear determination of the efficacy of this procedure and the choice of the 'good' target for the 'good' patient. We performed a literature analysis on DBS for dystonia according to the expected outcome. We separated those with good evidence of favourable outcome from those with less predictable outcome. In the former group, we review the main results for primary dystonia (generalised/focal) and highlight recent data on myoclonus-dystonia and tardive dystonia (as they share, with primary dystonia, a marked beneficial effect from pallidal stimulation with good risk/benefit ratio). In the latter group, poor or variable results have been obtained for secondary dystonia (with a focus on heredodegenerative and metabolic disorders). From this overview, the main results and limits for each subgroup of patients that may help in the selection of dystonic patients who will benefit from DBS are discussed.
Micheli, Federico; Uribe-Roca, Claudia; Saenz-Farret, Michel
We report the case of a 29-year-old male patient with a generalized and progressive dystonia that led him unable to stand. Multiple antidystonic treatments were tried without benefit. Alcohol test was positive with a dramatic improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of generalized dystonia without other clinical manifestations sensitive to alcohol.
Erbguth, Frank J
Egon Schiele was a leading Austrian Expressionist painter who, after the era of Gustav Klimt, strongly influenced the artistic scene in Vienna in the early 20th century. Schiele's depiction of his body in his self-portraits in a twisted, contorted, dystonia-like pose raised questions about the possibility of his suffering from dystonia. However, there are no grounds whatsoever for such a hypothesis. Schiele's conception of distorted, at times bizarre, body postures reflects a concourse of the Expressionist formal style of displaying extroverted emotions and psychic confl icts with the emerging perception of photographs of patients with movement disorders in Vienna's art scene and intellectual circles. There are reliable indications that Schiele knew the images of diseases published in the 'Iconographie Photographique de la Salpetriere' and the later 'Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpetriere' including hysterical and dystonic postures. The brevity of Schiele's life adds to the popular fantasy of the outlaw who lived fast and died young. In fact, however, his drawings sold well to discerning collectors, and his exhibitions were a financial success, so the myth of Schiele as a sacrificial outcast does not tell the whole story. It may be speculated that the figuration of the pathological body in Schiele's self-portraiture was part of modernist strategizing.
... grieving a loss, such as a death or divorce. Common phases of dealing with dystonia include denial, ... only controlling muscle movement, but also mood and behaviors, so it is not surprising that there is ...
Fuchs, Tania; Ozelius, Laurie J.
The past year has been extremely successful with regards to the genetics of dystonia with the identification of four new dystonia genes (CIZ1, ANO3, GNAL and TUBB4A). This progress was primarily achieved because of the application of a new technology, next generation DNA sequencing, which allows rapid and comprehensive assessment of patient’s genomes. In addition, a combination of next generation and traditional Sanger sequencing has expanded the phenotypic spectrum associated with some of the dystonia plus (ATP1A3) and paroxysmal loci (PRRT2). This article reviews the newly identified genes and phenotypes and discusses the future applications of next generation sequencing to dystonia research. PMID:24136457
... Disorders Dystonia can occur in combination with other movement disorders and/or symptoms may resmble other conditions. ... Essential tremor is one of the most common movement disorders. It is usually inherited. The tremor is ...
Duckler, G L
The skeleton of a wild coyote (Canis latrans), collected in Alturas, California (USA), in 1940 and reported to have died of a blowfly infection, was analyzed. The axial components, primarily a series of fused and deformed vertebrae, had classic osteological indications of spondylosis deformans, a trauma-induced disorder. Severe crippling due to a crushing-type strain was identified as the primary pathological condition to which the coyote succumbed, with death hastened by vertebral degeneration and the complicating infection.
Jinnah, H. A.
Synopsis The dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions leading to abnormal postures and/or repetitive movements. There are many different clinical manifestations and many different causes. A careful assessment of the clinical manifestations is helpful for identifying syndromic patterns that focus diagnostic testing on potential causes. If a cause can be identified, specific etiology-based treatments may be available. However, in the majority of cases, a specific cause cannot be identified, and treatments are based on symptoms. Treatment options include counseling and education, oral medications, botulinum toxin injections, and several surgical procedures. A substantial reduction in symptoms and improved quality of life can be achieved in the majority of patients by combining these various options. PMID:25432724
Gordon, B A; Gordon, K E; Seo, H C; Yang, M; DiCioccio, R A; O'Brien, J S
Fucosidosis, a progressive neurodegenerative disease, evident in early childhood, is associated with progressive loss of mental and motor function and increasing spasticity and hyperreflexia. We report a Canadian male, with clinical features similar to previously reported fucosidosis patients, however, since age 5 he has exhibited progressive dystonic posturing, initially unilateral, but recently involving both lower limbs. Extensive study of his cultured lymphoblasts demonstrated that alpha-fucosidase activity and immunoreactive alpha-fucosidase protein were absent. He is homozygous for the Q422X mutation, a C to T transition within exon 8 of the alpha-fucosidase gene which results in loss of an EcoR1 restriction enzyme cut site. Even among the 4 other reported fucosidosis families having one or more individuals homozygous for this same (Q422X) mutation there was no previous report of dystonia.
Casper, Catharina; Kalliolia, Eirini; Warner, Thomas T
The majority of studies investigating the molecular pathogenesis and cell biology underlying dystonia have been performed in individuals with primary dystonia. This includes monogenic forms such as DYT1and DYT6 dystonia, and primary focal dystonia which is likely to be multifactorial in origin. In recent years there has been renewed interest in non-primary forms of dystonia including the dystonia-plus syndromes and heredodegenerative disorders. These are caused by a variety of genetic mutations and their study has contributed to our understanding of the neuronal dysfunction that leads to dystonia These findings have reinforced themes identified from study of primary dystonia including abnormal dopaminergic signalling, cellular trafficking and mitochondrial function. In this review we highlight recent advances in the understanding of the dystonia-plus syndromes and heredodegenerative dystonias. PMID:23814535
Phukan, Julie; Albanese, Alberto; Gasser, Thomas; Warner, Thomas
The dystonias are a heterogeneous group of hyperkinetic movement disorders characterised by involuntary sustained muscle contractions that lead to abnormal postures and repetitive movements. Dystonia syndromes represent common movement disorders and yet are often misdiagnosed or unrecognised. In recent years, there have been substantial advances in the understanding of the spectrum of clinical features that encompass dystonia syndromes, from severe generalised childhood dystonia that is often genetic in origin, to adult-onset focal dystonias and rarer forms of secondary dystonias, to dystonia as a feature of other types of CNS dysfunction. There has also been a rationalisation of the classification of dystonia and a greater understanding of the causes of dystonic movements from the study of genetics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging in the most prevalent form of dystonia syndrome, primary dystonia.
Martikainen, Kirsti K; Luukkaala, Tiina H; Marttila, Reijo J
The objective of this questionnaire study was to assess the effect of cervical dystonia on patients' working capacity. Of the 303 working-aged members of the Finnish Dystonia Association (N = 433) who participated in the study 247 (82%) had cervical dystonia. Their median age was 50 years, the median duration of CD symptoms was 12.3 years. Most (78%) subjects were on botulinum toxin treatment. Ninety-seven (39%) had retired because of CD at a median age of 48 years; 96 (39%) of the subjects were working: 87 full-time and 9 part-time. The remaining participants were on sick leave, unemployed, studying or retired of other reasons. Retirement occurred more than ten years earlier compared with the general Finnish population. All possibilities to help CD patients to continue longer in work should be considered early.
Aravamuthan, Bhooma R; Waugh, Jeff L; Stone, Scellig S
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has recently emerged as an important management option in children with medically refractory dystonia. DBS is most commonly used, best studied, and thought to be most efficacious for a select group of childhood or adolescent onset monogenic dystonias (designated with a standard 'DYT' prefix). We review how to clinically recognize these types of dystonia and the relative efficacy of DBS for key monogenic dystonias. Though used for dystonia in adults for several years, DBS has only lately been used in children. Recent evidence shows that patients with shorter duration of dystonia often experience greater benefit following DBS. This suggests that early recognition of the appropriate dystonic phenotypes and consideration of DBS in these patients may improve the management of dystonia. DBS should be considered early in patients who have medically refractory dystonia, especially for the monogenic dystonias that have a high response rate to DBS. It is important to differentiate between these monogenic dystonias and dystonias of other causes to properly prognosticate for these patients and to determine whether DBS is an appropriate management option.
Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del; Comella, Cynthia; Jinnah, H A; Mink, Jonathan W; Post, Bart; Vidailhet, Marie; Volkmann, Jens; Warner, Thomas T; Leentjens, Albert F G; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G; Schrag, Anette
Many rating scales have been applied to the evaluation of dystonia, but only few have been assessed for clinimetric properties. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned this task force to critique existing dystonia rating scales and place them in the clinical and clinimetric context. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify rating scales that have either been validated or used in dystonia. Thirty-six potential scales were identified. Eight were excluded because they did not meet review criteria, leaving 28 scales that were critiqued and rated by the task force. Seven scales were found to meet criteria to be "recommended": the Blepharospasm Disability Index is recommended for rating blepharospasm; the Cervical Dystonia Impact Scale and the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale for rating cervical dystonia; the Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia; the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Vocal Performance Questionnaire (VPQ) for laryngeal dystonia; and the Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale for rating generalized dystonia. Two "recommended" scales (VHI and VPQ) are generic scales validated on few patients with laryngeal dystonia, whereas the others are disease-specific scales. Twelve scales met criteria for "suggested" and 7 scales met criteria for "listed." All the scales are individually reviewed in the online information. The task force recommends 5 specific dystonia scales and suggests to further validate 2 recommended generic voice-disorder scales in dystonia. Existing scales for oromandibular, arm, and task-specific dystonia should be refined and fully assessed. Scales should be developed for body regions for which no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.
Perley, James E.; Stowe, Bruce B.
The metabolism of tryptophan by Taphrina deformans has been studied to confirm the reported ability of this organism to produce tryptamine. Such amine production was not observed, despite use of amine oxidase inhibitors at levels which should have resulted in the accumulation of tryptamine in the medium. It has been shown that the metabolites of tryptophan include indolepyruvic acid, indolelactic acid, tryptophol, and indoleacetic acid, and that the original report of tryptamine production must be reevaluated in light of the extraction procedures employed. PMID:5908633
Galiová, M; Kaiser, J; Novotný, K; Ivanov, M; Nývltová Fisáková, M; Mancini, L; Tromba, G; Vaculovic, T; Liska, M; Kanický, V
Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) was optimized for microspatial analyses of fossil and recent snake vertebrae. As complimentary techniques, solution analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography was utilized in order to determine the overall concentration of the selected elements in the samples and to visualize nondestructively the fossil sample microstructure, respectively. Elemental mapping of pathological bony tissue by DP-LIBS has been proven as a powerful tool for considering the osteitis deformans phases in fossil vertebrae.
El Otmani, H; Benmansour, Y; Araqi-Houssaini, A; Benkirane, N; Dany, F; Abdoh Rafai, M; El Moutawakil, B; Slassi, I
Movement disorders are uncommon in multiple sclerosis, except for tremor. Patients rarely have paroxysmal dystonia (or tonic spasm), which can be the presenting manifestation of the disease. Two videotaped observations are presented. The first patient was a 27-year-old woman, treated for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, who presented daily several short (<1minute) paroxysms of right hemibody dystonia. Brain MRI revealed several areas of cerebral demyelination, including the posterior limb of the left internal capsule with gadolinium enhancement. These events disappeared 7 days after corticosteroid infusion. The second patient was a 62-year-old man who presented brief episodes (<1minute) of daily painful left hemibody dystonia. Three months later, similar paroxysms affecting the right hemibody including the face occurred. At times, the two hemibodies were affected simultaneously. The brain MRI showed multiple areas of white matter hyperintensity, including two symmetrical areas in the posterior limb of the internal capsules. Multiple sclerosis was diagnosed on clinical, MRI and biological data. Four days after starting corticosteroids, these paroxysmal phenomena disappeared totally. Dystonia is an under-recognized aspect of paroxysmal events during multiple sclerosis. It might involve ephaptic transmission among abnormal demyelinated neurons; this ectopic excitation can arise at variable levels of the corticospinal tract, but the analysis of reported cases and those described in this study shows that impairment of the posterior limb of the internal capsule seems to be a prevalent topography. Inflammation is likely to play a role because steroids often improve these phenomena. In this article, we review the clinical aspects, pathophysiology and outcome of paroxysmal dystonia in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lohmann, Katja; Klein, Christine
Mainly due to the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), the field of genetics of dystonia has rapidly grown in recent years, which led to the discovery of a number of novel dystonia genes and the development of a new classification and nomenclature for inherited dystonias. In addition, new findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies have been published on the role of previously known dystonia genes, extending our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia. We here review the current knowledge and recent findings in the known genes for isolated dystonia TOR1A, THAP1, and GNAL as well as for the combined dystonias due to mutations in GCH1, ATP1A3, and SGCE. We present confirmatory evidence for a role of dystonia genes that had not yet been unequivocally established including PRKRA, TUBB4A, ANO3, and TAF1. We finally discuss selected novel genes for dystonia such as KMT2B and VAC14 along with the challenges for gene identification in the NGS era and the translational importance of dystonia genetics in clinical practice.
Malone, Ailish; Manto, Mario; Hass, Chris
Dystonia is a common movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions. These contractions generate twisting and repetitive movements or typical abnormal postures, often exacerbated by voluntary movement. Dystonia can affect almost all the voluntary muscles. For several decades, the discussion on the pathogenesis has been focused on basal ganglia circuits, especially striatal networks. So far, although dystonia has been observed in some forms of ataxia such as dominant ataxias, the link between the cerebellum and dystonia has remained unclear. Recent human studies and experimental data mainly in rodents show that the cerebellum circuitry could also be a key player in the pathogenesis of some forms of dystonia. In particular, studies based on behavioral adaptation paradigm shed light on the links between dystonia and cerebellum. The spectrum of movement disorders in which the cerebellum is implicated is continuously expanding, and manipulation of cerebellar circuits might even emerge as a candidate therapy in the coming years.
Olthoff, Arno; Grosheva, Maria; Reichel, Gerhard; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Laskawi, Rainer
The treatment of laryngeal dystonias with botulinum toxin is successful. Every patient suffering from a laryngeal dystonia should be assured of high quality therapeutic intervention. Therefore it is important to establish general standards by experts in this field. In this connection, we want to focus here on different relevant aspects of laryngeal dystonias. This includes new aspects in etiology, anatomical landmarks for the injection, standards in diagnostics and therapy and finally open issues needing discussion. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Kojovic, Maja; Pareés, Isabel; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Palomar, Francisco J; Mir, Pablo; Teo, James T; Cordivari, Carla; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J
Primary dystonia is thought to be a disorder of the basal ganglia because the symptoms resemble those of patients who have anatomical lesions in the same regions of the brain (secondary dystonia). However, these two groups of patients respond differently to therapy suggesting differences in pathophysiological mechanisms. Pathophysiological deficits in primary dystonia are well characterized and include reduced inhibition at many levels of the motor system and increased plasticity, while emerging evidence suggests additional cerebellar deficits. We compared electrophysiological features of primary and secondary dystonia, using transcranial magnetic stimulation of motor cortex and eye blink classical conditioning paradigm, to test whether dystonia symptoms share the same underlying mechanism. Eleven patients with hemidystonia caused by basal ganglia or thalamic lesions were tested over both hemispheres, corresponding to affected and non-affected side and compared with 10 patients with primary segmental dystonia with arm involvement and 10 healthy participants of similar age. We measured resting motor threshold, active motor threshold, input/output curve, short interval intracortical inhibition and cortical silent period. Plasticity was probed using an excitatory paired associative stimulation protocol. In secondary dystonia cerebellar-dependent conditioning was measured using delayed eye blink classical conditioning paradigm and results were compared with the data of patients with primary dystonia obtained previously. We found no difference in motor thresholds, input/output curves or cortical silent period between patients with secondary and primary dystonia or healthy controls. In secondary dystonia short interval intracortical inhibition was reduced on the affected side, whereas it was normal on the non-affected side. Patients with secondary dystonia had a normal response to the plasticity protocol on both the affected and non-affected side and normal eye blink
Darras, B T; Ampola, M G; Dietz, W H; Gilmore, H E
A 6-month-old girl developed intermittent dystonic posture of the legs and eczematous dermatitis without ataxia. Qualitative and quantitative urine amino acid testing confirmed the diagnosis of Hartnup disease. Cranial computed tomography, electroencephalogram, electromyogram/nerve conduction study, posterior tibial somatosensory evoked potentials, 24-hour electroencephalographic telemetry, and metrizamide myelogram were normal. Spinal fluid hydroxy-indoleacetic acid concentration was less than or equal to 2 S.D. of normal; oral tryptophan loading (70 mg/kg) resulted in a two-fold rise in cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid concentration. Tryptophan administered alone or with nicotinic acid failed to improve the dystonia; however, trihexyphenidyl (1-2 mg/kg/day) dramatically improved it. Hartnup disease should be considered in children with unexplained dystonia.
Tomic, Svetlana; Petkovic, Ivana; Pucic, Tomislav; Resan, Bojan; Juric, Stjepan; Rotim, Tatjana
Cervical dystonia is focal dystonia characterized by involuntary movement of the neck muscle, which leads to abnormal head posture. It can be accompanied with pain and tremor. In this study, we evaluated the presence of depression and anxiety in patients with cervical dystonia and the influence of dystonia symptoms on the quality of life. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated by use of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) was used to evaluate the cervical dystonia symptoms. Quality of life was assessed by the craniocervical dystonia questionnaire (CDQ-24) and short form 36 health survey (SF-36). Nineteen patients were analyzed. Most of the patients had mild cervical dystonia (mean TWSTRS 23.89). Depression was present in 42.1 % and anxiety in 57.9 % of the patients. Disability due to cervical dystonia correlated with the occurrence of depression (ρ = 0.534) and anxiety (r = 0.652). Disability was found to significantly influence the stigma, emotional state, pain, daily activity, social life, physical function, and physical and mental disability. Pain influenced some aspects of body pain, physical function, and physical and mental disability. Being associated with disability and pain, cervical dystonia decreases the quality of life in many aspects. Disability also influenced depression and anxiety, which were present in half of study patients. In addition to follow up for cervical dystonia symptoms, patients with cervical dystonia should also be assessed for psychiatric symptoms on routine clinical check-ups. In addition to botulinum toxin, psychopharmaceuticals should be considered as a treatment option in these patients.
Micheli, F; Torres, L; Diaz, M; Scorticati, M C; Diaz, S
It has been recognized that head trauma can induce movement disorders including tremor, dystonia, parkinsonism and tics. Likewise, lesions involving the peripheral nervous system have been held responsible for such extrapyramidal manifestations, However, involuntary movements secondary to electric injury have seldom been described. Here we report a patient who developed limb dystonia 6 years after receiving an electric discharge in the ipsilateral limb. Although imaging and laboratory studies failed to ascribe the lesion either to the central or peripheral nervous system, initial symptoms such as local bruises, edema and pain would favor peripheral damage. Botulinum toxin injections markedly improved dystonia. Analysis of cases of dystonia following electric injury reported to date suggest that: (a) dystonia may be expected to develop immediately or even years after the electric insult; (b) dystonia usually develops in or adjacent to the area initially injured; (c) dystonia remains limited to a distinct body segment; (d) severity of dystonia as well as the interval between injury and the onset of the movement disorder fails to correlate with trauma severity; (e) no evidence supports the hypothesis that previous history of movement disorders or neuroleptic exposure are predisposing factors; and (f) botulinum toxic provides symptomatic relief.
Uvais, N. A.; Sreeraj, V. S.; Sathish Kumar, S. V.
Specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been associated with the occurrence of drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, and akathisia. Here, we describe a young female patient with a diagnosis of the moderate depressive episode who developed mandibular dystonia and bruxism with sertraline in the absence of concurrent prescription of medications, which have potential action on the dopaminergic system. PMID:28349014
Xiao, Jianfeng; Vemula, Satya R.
Dystonia, a common and genetically heterogeneous neurological disorder, was recently defined as “a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both.” Via the application of whole-exome sequencing, the genetic landscape of dystonia and closely related movement disorders is becoming exposed. In particular, several “novel” genetic causes have been causally associated with dystonia or dystonia-related disorders over the past 2 years. These genes include PRRT2 (DYT10), CIZ1 (DYT23), ANO3 (DYT24), GNAL (DYT25), and TUBB4A (DYT4). Despite these advances, major gaps remain in identifying the genetic origins for most cases of adult-onset isolated dystonia. Furthermore, model systems are needed to study the biology of PRRT2, CIZ1, ANO3, Gαolf, and TUBB4A in the context of dystonia. This review focuses on these recent additions to the family of dystonia genes, genotype-phenotype correlations, and possible cellular contributions of the encoded proteins to the development of dystonia. PMID:24952478
Standaert, David G.
Dystonia is a clinical syndrome with sustained muscle contraction, twisting, and abnormal postures. A number of different genetic forms have been defined, but most cases are sporadic in nature and of uncertain cause. Relatively few cases of dystonia have been studied pathologically. In primary dystonias, where dystonia is the main symptom, most reports describe little or no detectable neuropathology, although changes in brainstem neurons have been described in some cases. Secondary dystonias are associated with degenerative or destructive diseases of the nervous system; the pathology may be located in the basal ganglia, but in some cases the primary pathological changes are found in the cerebellum or cerebellar outflow pathways, suggesting both regions may be involved in the pathogenesis of dystonic symptoms. Overall the number of well-documented pathological cases available for study are few, and there is an urgent need for additional postmortem studies. PMID:21220015
Grau-López, Lara; Daigre, Constanza; Mercado, Nestor; Casas, Miquel; Roncero, Carlos
Few studies have described movement disorders as withdrawal symptoms during psychostimulant detoxification. Although dystonia has been reported as an uncommon adverse effect of methylphenidate treatment, it has not been described in the context of methylphenidate withdrawal. We report a case of dystonia as the main withdrawal symptom in a methylphenidate-dependent adult participating in an inpatient methylphenidate detoxification program. Although movement disorders such as dystonia are very rare adverse effects of methylphenidate withdrawal, practitioners need to be alert to this risk in order to initiate appropriate treatment.
Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Nageshwaran, Saiji; Edwards, Mark J; Morcos, Michael
A 30-year-old woman with generalised DYT1 dystonia, controlled with medication, presented at 9 weeks gestation with an unplanned pregnancy. A number of learning points were highlighted in management of the patient’s dystonia alongside pregnancy including avoidance of excessive medication exposure to the fetus, while maintaining symptom control to a level acceptable and safe for the patient and prenatal diagnostic testing. In our case there was no overt ill effect to the newborn. This is a common worry among pregnant women with dystonia and as such the authors felt it important to report. PMID:22679185
Svetaz, Laura A; Bustamante, Claudia A; Goldy, Camila; Rivero, Nery; Müller, Gabriela L; Valentini, Gabriel H; Fernie, Alisdair R; Drincovich, María F; Lara, María V
Leaf peach curl is a devastating disease affecting leaves, flowers and fruits, caused by the dimorphic fungus Taphrina deformans. To gain insight into the mechanisms of fungus pathogenesis and plant responses, leaves of a resistant and two susceptible Prunus persica genotypes were inoculated with blastospores (yeast), and the infection was monitored during 120 h post inoculation (h.p.i.). Fungal dimorphism to the filamentous form and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose synthesis, cell death and defence compound production were observed independently of the genotype. Fungal load significantly decreased after 120 h.p.i. in the resistant genotype, while the pathogen tended to grow in the susceptible genotypes. Metabolic profiling revealed a biphasic re-programming of plant tissue in susceptible genotypes, with an initial stage co-incident with the yeast form of the fungus and a second when the hypha is developed. Transcriptional analysis of PRs and plant hormone-related genes indicated that pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are involved in P. persica defence responses against T. deformans and that salicylic acid is induced in the resistant genotype. Conducted experiments allowed the elucidation of common and differential responses in susceptible versus resistant genotypes and thus allow us to construct a picture of early events during T. deformans infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... that cause myoclonus-dystonia syndrome impair epsilon-sarcoglycan trafficking to the plasma membrane: modulation by ubiquitination and ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...
Abstract Background DYT1 dystonia is a heritable, early-onset generalized movement disorder caused by a GAG deletion (ΔGAG) in the DYT1 gene...Introduction Dystonia is the third most common movement disorder after essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease. It is a neurological disorder...characterized by involuntary muscle contractions with de- bilitating, painful, twisting movements and contorted postures . Although the vast majority of
Ramos, Vesper Fe Marie L; Pillai, Ajay S; Lungu, Codrin; Ostrem, Jill; Starr, Philip; Hallett, Mark
Psychogenic dystonia is a challenging entity to diagnose and treat because little is known about its pathophysiology. We describe two cases of psychogenic dystonia who underwent deep brain stimulation when thought to have organic dystonia. The intraoperative microelectrode recordings in globus pallidus internus were retrospectively compared with those of five patients with known DYT1 dystonia using spontaneous discharge parameters of rate and bursting, as well as movement-related discharges. Our data suggest that simple intraoperative neurophysiology measures in single subjects do not differentiate psychogenic dystonia from DYT1 dystonia. PMID:26125045
Pavone, Larissa; Burton, Justin; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah
Dystonia is a complex movement disorder that is challenging to identify and quantify. The aim of this article is to review the clinical scales, kinematic measures, and functional implications of dystonia. Clinical measures include the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale, the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale, the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale, the Global Dystonia Rating Scale, and the Movement Disorder-Childhood Rating Scale. The evidence, reliability, and validity of each scale will be outlined. The Hypertonia Assessment Tool will be discussed emphasizing the importance of discriminating hypertonia. The role of kinematic measures in analyzing dystonia will be explored, as well as the potential for its future clinical applications.
Lee, L V; Pascasio, F M; Fuentes, F D; Viterbo, G H
There is an unusually high frequency of torsion dystonia in Panay. Of the 28 Filipino cases, 23 (82%) are from the island of Panay and 19 of the 23 (82%) are from the province of Capiz. The 28 cases belong to 25 families Six sets of brothers are noted. All are males. Pedigree analysis reveals six families with several members affected. Two families show features suggesting possible sex-linked recessive transmission, a mode of inheritance previously undescribed in the literature. The clinical features of the cases seen in this series differ from previously described cases in the literature in several aspects: (a) sex preponderance--all males; (b) age at onset--older age of onset, mean of 31; (c) hereditary--possible sex-linked recessive transmission; (d) spasmodic eye blinking as first symptom in four patients.
Defazio, Giovanni; Jankovic, Joseph; Giel, Jennifer L.; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon
Background Cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of adult-onset focal dystonia, has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with variable clinical features, leading to difficulties and delays in diagnosis. Owing to the lack of reviews specifically focusing on the frequency of primary CD in the general population, we performed a systematic literature search to examine its prevalence/incidence and analyze methodological differences among studies. Methods We performed a systematic literature search to examine the prevalence data of primary focal CD. Sixteen articles met our methodological criteria. Because the reported prevalence estimates were found to vary widely across studies, we analyzed methodological differences and other factors to determine whether true differences exist in prevalence rates among geographic areas (and by gender and age distributions), as well as to facilitate recommendations for future studies. Results Prevalence estimates ranged from 20–4,100 cases/million. Generally, studies that relied on service-based and record-linkage system data likely underestimated the prevalence of CD, whereas population-based studies suffered from over-ascertainment. The more methodologically robust studies yielded a range of estimates of 28–183 cases/million. Despite the varying prevalence estimates, an approximate 2:1 female:male ratio was consistent among many studies. Three studies estimated incidence, ranging from 8–12 cases/million person-years. Discussion Although several studies have attempted to estimate the prevalence and incidence of CD, there is a need for additional well-designed epidemiological studies on primary CD that include large populations; use defined CD diagnostic criteria; and stratify for factors such as age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:24255801
... Strategy Current Research Research Funded by NINDS Basic Neuroscience Clinical Research Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus ... Information Current Research Research Funded by NINDS Basic Neuroscience Clinical Research Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus ...
... due to a problem in the part of the brain that handles messages about muscle contractions. There is no cure. Doctors use medicines, Botox injections, surgery, physical therapy, and other treatments to reduce or eliminate muscle ...
... clinical studies. Contact: NINDS Brain Resource and Information Network, PO Box 5801 Bethesda, MD 20824, (800) 352-9424 National Institute of ... of Science Policy Analysis | Office of Science Policy | Office of Extramural Research | ...
Bartolomé, F M; Fanjul, S; Cantarero, S; Hernández, J; García Ruiz, P J
To describe the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of different types of focal dystonia. A total of 205 patients with primary focal dystonia were studied retrospectively and the following variables were analyzed: gender, age of onset, age at examination, evolution time, history of trauma, association with other movement disorders, fluctuations of dystonic symptoms as well as a family history of dystonia, Parkinson's disease, tremor, and lefthandedness or stuttering. We compared these variables among the different clinical categories of focal dystonia. Those patients with cranial and laryngeal dystonia were significantly older at the onset of symptoms compared with patients with writer's cramp. Males were more prevalent than females in all categories of focal dystonia except for cranial dystonia. Prior history of trauma and association with tremor were more frequent in patients with cervical dystonia than in those with others dystonic categories. Most patients with cranial, cervical and laryngeal dystonia had fluctuations in the intensity of dystonic symptoms, unlike the patients with writer's cramp. There is a caudo-cranial gradient in age of onset and the age of onset increases as the cranial presentation becomes greater. Females are more prevalent in cranial dystonia and there is a preponderance of males in the dystonias with a lower location. The dystonias with cranial distribution frequently present fluctuations of symptoms during the day. Association with other movement disorders, such as tremor, and prior history of trauma, is common in patients with cervical dystonia.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0282 TITLE: Developing Gene Silencing for the Study and Treatment of Dystonia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Pedro Gonzalez...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Developing Gene Silencing for the Study and Treatment of Dystonia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0282 5c...cause abnormal twisting postures. DYT1 dystonia is an autosomal dominant disease with onset of dystonia during childhood . The most common early onset
Bezerra, Marcos Eugenio Ramalho; Rocha-Filho, Pedro Augusto Sampaio
Craniocervical dystonia is a focal or segmental dystonia in its distribution, classically known as spasmodic torticollis when in its pure cervical presentation. Although craniocervical dystonia has been recognized as a possible cause of headache since the publication of the second version of International Classification of Headache Disorders, there are few studies about this entity. This was a narrative review. Craniocervical dystonia was associated with muscle pain in 67-89% of the cases. Headaches of any kind affected approximately 60% of patients with craniocervical dystonia, and were located mainly in the occipital and cervical regions. Headache attributed to craniocervical dystonia specifically was rarely found, and it was described in only one patient out of 80 in one study. Treatment with botulinum neurotoxin is considered to be the first-line treatment for focal dystonias, including craniocervical dystonia, and besides reducing clinical severity, impairment, and pain scores among the patients with craniocervical dystonia, there were also descriptions of improvements in headaches attributed to craniocervical dystonia and other headaches associated with this dystonia. Headache attributed to craniocervical dystonia has been poorly studied. There is a need for more studies to evaluate its characteristics and treatment. © 2016 American Headache Society.
Avanzino, Laura; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiorio, Mirta
Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration - the process through which sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements - is impaired in focal dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new rehabilitation strategies.
Petrucci, Simona; Valente, Enza Maria
Dystonias are heterogeneous hyperkinetic movement disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions which result in twisting and repetitive movements and abnormal postures. Several causative genes have been identified, but their genetic bases still remain elusive. Primary Torsion Dystonias (PTDs), in which dystonia is the only clinical sign, can be inherited in a monogenic fashion, and many genes and loci have been identified for autosomal dominant (DYT1/TOR1A; DYT6/THAP1; DYT4/TUBB4a; DYT7; DYT13; DYT21; DYT23/CIZ1; DYT24/ANO3; DYT25/GNAL) and recessive (DYT2; DYT17) forms. However most sporadic cases, especially those with late-onset, are likely multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors interplaying to reach a threshold of disease. At present, genetic counseling of dystonia patients remains a difficult task. Recently non-motor clinical findings in dystonias, new highlights in the pathophysiology of the disease, and the availability of high-throughput genome-wide techniques are proving useful tools to better understand the complexity of PTD genetics. We briefly review the genetic basis of the most common forms of hereditary PTDs, and discuss relevant issues related to molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling. PMID:23596437
Petrucci, Simona; Valente, Enza Maria
Dystonias are heterogeneous hyperkinetic movement disorders characterized by involuntary muscle contractions which result in twisting and repetitive movements and abnormal postures. Several causative genes have been identified, but their genetic bases still remain elusive. Primary Torsion Dystonias (PTDs), in which dystonia is the only clinical sign, can be inherited in a monogenic fashion, and many genes and loci have been identified for autosomal dominant (DYT1/TOR1A; DYT6/THAP1; DYT4/TUBB4a; DYT7; DYT13; DYT21; DYT23/CIZ1; DYT24/ANO3; DYT25/GNAL) and recessive (DYT2; DYT17) forms. However most sporadic cases, especially those with late-onset, are likely multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors interplaying to reach a threshold of disease. At present, genetic counseling of dystonia patients remains a difficult task. Recently non-motor clinical findings in dystonias, new highlights in the pathophysiology of the disease, and the availability of high-throughput genome-wide techniques are proving useful tools to better understand the complexity of PTD genetics. We briefly review the genetic basis of the most common forms of hereditary PTDs, and discuss relevant issues related to molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling.
Jankovic, J; Schwartz, K; Donovan, D T
In the past five years, 477 patients with various focal dystonias and hemifacial spasm received 3,806 injections of botulinum A toxin for relief of involuntary spasms. A definite improvement with a global rating greater than or equal to 2 on a 0-4 scale, was obtained in all 13 patients with spasmodic dysphonia, 94% of 70 patients with blepharospasm, 92% of 13 patients with hemifacial spasm, 90% of 195 patients with cervical dystonia, 77% of 22 patients with hand dystonia, 73% of 45 patients with oromandibular dystonia, and in 90% of 21 patients with other focal dystonia who had adequate follow up. While the average duration of maximum improvement lasted about 11 weeks after an injection (range seven weeks in patients with hand dystonia to 15 weeks in patients with hemifacial spasm), some patients benefited for over a year. Only 16% of the 941 treatment visits with follow up were not successful. Except for transient focal weakness, there were very few complications or systemic effects attributed to the injections. This study supports the conclusion that botulinum toxin injections are a safe and effective therapy for patients with focal dystonia and hemifacial spasm. Images PMID:2213039
Moghimi, Narges; Jabbari, Bahman; Szekely, Anna M
Dystonia is probably the most common form of movement disorder encountered in the clinical practice. It is characterized by sustained muscle contractions, usually producing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures or positions. Dystonias can be classified in several ways, including primarily by the clinical phenomenology or by the underlining etiology, in particular to understand if the presentation is genetically determined. By advances of genetics, including contemporary genomic technologies, there is a growing understanding of the molecular underpinnings of genetically determined dystonias. The intricacy of information requires a user friendly, novel database that may efficiently serve clinicians to inform of advances of the field and to diagnose and manage these often complex cases. Here we present an up to date, comprehensive review - in tabulated formats - of genetically determined primary dystonias and complex Mendelian disorders with dystonia as central feature. The detailed search up to December 24, 2012, identified 24 hereditary primary dystonias (DYT1 to DYT 25) that are mostly monogenic disorders, and a larger group (>70) of genetic syndromes in which dystonia is one of the characteristic clinical features. We organized the findings not only by individual information (name of the conditions, pattern of inheritance, chromosome and gene abnormality, clinical features, relevant ancillary tests and key references), but also provide symptom-oriented organization of the clinical entities for efficient inquiries.
Verbeek, Dineke S.; Gasser, Thomas
Genetic findings of the past years have provided ample evidence for a substantial etiologic heterogeneity of dystonic syndromes. While an increasing number of genes are being identified for Mendelian forms of isolated and combined dystonias using classical genetic mapping and whole-exome sequencing techniques, their precise role in the molecular pathogenesis is still largely unknown. Also, the role of genetic risk factors in the etiology of sporadic dystonias is still enigmatic. Only the systematic ascertainment and precise clinical characterization of very large cohorts with dystonia, combined with systematic genetic studies, will be able to unravel the complex network of factors that determine disease risk and phenotypic expression. PMID:28138320
Sunga, Mary Anne P; Rosales, Raymond L
With the increasing understanding of the involvement of basal ganglia circuits in the functions of movement, cognition, emotion and motivation, the network model of dystonia posits a plausible mechanism for the co-occurrence of mental dysfunctions in dystonia-plus syndromes. Genetic mutations that alter the production of neurotransmitters and receptors can potentially affect the function of these interconnecting circuits and yield non-motor symptoms as well. This article reviews the psychiatric findings in dystonia-plus syndromes reported thus far in the literature, both in animal models and human subjects. Based on this innovative understanding of the pathophysiology, implications to treatment of combined motor and non-motor symptoms (i.e. mental dysfunctions) are also briefly discussed.
Imai, Noboru; Ikawa, Masako
Tardive dystonia is a side effect of dopamine receptor-blocking agents, which are mainly used as antipsychotic drugs. The treatment of tardive dystonia is difficult and often unsuccessful. An 82-year-old woman experienced mandibular deviation to the left due to spasm of the masticatory muscles with involuntary chewing movement and Parkinsonism. She had been treated with sulpiride for motility disorder for 5 years. Parkinsonism almost disappeared after the withdrawal of sulpiride, but tardive oromandibular dystonia showed no improvement. Aripiprazole treatment at 3 mg/day improved tardive oromandibular dystonia without worsening Parkinsonism. Low-dosage aripiprazole may be effective for tardive oromandibular dystonia in patients with no other psychiatric disorder.
Karp, Barbara Illowsky
The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.
Silver, Michael R; Hanfelt, John; Factor, Stewart A
The diagnosis of cervical dystonia (CD) is clinical. We describe a physical examination observation that has been noted in CD patients. There is a tendency for their shirt collars to be shifted to one side. We validated this apparently consistent finding by having blinded evaluators rating the symmetry of the shirt collars in CD and non-cervical dystonia control subjects. A high correlation was found between the physical finding which we call "shirt collar sign" and the diagnosis. "Shirt collar sign" may be a helpful sign in diagnosing CD.
LeDoux, Mark S
Dystonia is a motor sign characterized by involuntary muscle contractions which produce abnormal postures. Genetic factors contribute significantly to primary dystonia. In comparison, secondary dystonia can be caused by a wide variety of metabolic, structural, infectious, toxic and inflammatory insults to the nervous system. Although classically ascribed to dysfunction of the basal ganglia, studies of diverse animal models have pointed out that dystonia is a network disorder with important contributions from abnormal olivocerebellar signaling. In particular, work with the dystonic (dt) rat has engendered dramatic paradigm shifts in dystonia research. The dt rat manifests generalized dystonia caused by deficiency of the neuronally restricted protein caytaxin. Electrophysiological and biochemical studies have shown that defects at the climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapse in the dt rat lead to abnormal bursting firing patterns in the cerebellar nuclei, which increases linearly with postnatal age. In a general sense, the dt rat has shown the scientific and clinical communities that dystonia can arise from dysfunctional cerebellar cortex. Furthermore, work with the dt rat has provided evidence that dystonia (1) is a neurodevelopmental network disorder and (2) can be driven by abnormal cerebellar output. In large part, work with other animal models has expanded upon studies in the dt rat and shown that primary dystonia is a multi-nodal network disorder associated with defective sensorimotor integration. In addition, experiments in genetically engineered models have been used to examine the underlying cellular pathologies that drive primary dystonia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Advances in dystonia".
Conte, Antonella; Berardelli, Isabella; Ferrazzano, Gina; Pasquini, Massimo; Berardelli, Alfredo; Fabbrini, Giovanni
Dystonia is characterized by the presence of involuntary muscle contractions that cause abnormal movements and posture. Adult onset focal dystonia include cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, arm dystonia and laryngeal dystonia. Besides motor manifestations, patients with focal dystonia frequently also display non-motor signs and symptoms. In this paper, we review the evidence of sensory and psychiatric disturbances in adult patients with focal dystonia. Clinical studies and neurophysiological investigations consistently show that the sensory system is involved in dystonia. Several studies have also demonstrated that neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, are more frequent in patients with focal dystonia, whereas data on obsessive compulsive disorders are more contrasting.
Skogseid, I M
Dystonia is a heterogeneous movement disorder and has been defined as 'a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisted and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures'. The classification of dystonia has developed along with increasing knowledge, and different schemes have been suggested, including age at onset, body distribution, and etiology as the main differentiating factors. A revised definition and a new classification of dystonia have now been proposed by a group of leading dystonia experts and will be referred here. The discovery of the first two gene mutations causing primary generalized dystonia (DYT1-TOR1A and DYT6-THAP1) has facilitated studies on pathogenesis and pathophysiology of primary dystonias, by comparing neurophysiology between manifesting and non-manifesting carriers, and by studying the molecular biology of the mutant gene products. During recent years, several other gene mutations causing primary dystonia, dystonia-plus, and paroxysmal dystonia disorders have been discovered. Only during the last year, by the use of whole-exome sequencing techniques, mutations in three different genes in families with predominantly cervical dystonia were found, which may lead to improved insight into the pathogenesis also of the more frequent focal dystonias. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) have revolutionized the symptomatic treatment for dystonia during the last two decades and continue to be refined to improve efficacy and expand their indications. Unfortunately, no progress has been made in the oral medication of dystonia. Current and future new insights into pathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of dystonia will hopefully lead to improvement also in this area soon.
Elyasi, Forouzan; Mahtiyan, Elham
Bupropion is an antidepressant that is effective in the treatment of major depressive disorders, smoking cessation, and sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Acute dystonia is characterized by prolonged muscle contraction often represented by spasms of the head and neck muscles as well as occasional jaw clenching and temporomandibular joint syndrome. Although it is believed that dystonia is the result of an abnormality of the basal ganglia, its pathophysiology is still unclear. A few cases of dystonia resulting from bupropion have been reported in prior research papers. This case report discusses a patient who had a neck spasm painful enough to wake him up and dystonic distortion after taking only one dose of 75 mg bupropion. The patient was a young 34-year-old man with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with 60 mg fluoxetine. Bupropion was added to his medications because of sexual side effects caused by the fluoxetine. It seems that we must be careful to watch for dystonic symptoms when bupropion is mixed with other drugs that affect serotonin reuptake. Although dystonia is a rare side effect of bupropion, physicians should be aware of it and manage it if it occurs.
Elyasi, Forouzan; Mahtiyan, Elham
Bupropion is an antidepressant that is effective in the treatment of major depressive disorders, smoking cessation, and sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Acute dystonia is characterized by prolonged muscle contraction often represented by spasms of the head and neck muscles as well as occasional jaw clenching and temporomandibular joint syndrome. Although it is believed that dystonia is the result of an abnormality of the basal ganglia, its pathophysiology is still unclear. A few cases of dystonia resulting from bupropion have been reported in prior research papers. This case report discusses a patient who had a neck spasm painful enough to wake him up and dystonic distortion after taking only one dose of 75 mg bupropion. The patient was a young 34-year-old man with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with 60 mg fluoxetine. Bupropion was added to his medications because of sexual side effects caused by the fluoxetine. It seems that we must be careful to watch for dystonic symptoms when bupropion is mixed with other drugs that affect serotonin reuptake. Although dystonia is a rare side effect of bupropion, physicians should be aware of it and manage it if it occurs. PMID:27833231
Richter, Angelika; Hamann, Melanie; Wissel, Jörg; Volk, Holger A
Dystonia is defined as a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing twisting, often repetitive movements, and postures. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders encompassing dystonia, chorea, athetosis, and ballism in conscious individuals. Several decades of research have enhanced the understanding of the etiology of human dystonia and dyskinesias that are associated with dystonia, but the pathophysiology remains largely unknown. The spontaneous occurrence of hereditary dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesia is well documented in rodents used as animal models in basic dystonia research. Several hyperkinetic movement disorders, described in dogs, horses and cattle, show similarities to these human movement disorders. Although dystonia is regarded as the third most common movement disorder in humans, it is often misdiagnosed because of the heterogeneity of etiology and clinical presentation. Since these conditions are poorly known in veterinary practice, their prevalence may be underestimated in veterinary medicine. In order to attract attention to these movement disorders, i.e., dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesias associated with dystonia, and to enhance interest in translational research, this review gives a brief overview of the current literature regarding dystonia/paroxysmal dyskinesia in humans and summarizes similar hereditary movement disorders reported in domestic animals.
Richter, Angelika; Hamann, Melanie; Wissel, Jörg; Volk, Holger A.
Dystonia is defined as a neurological syndrome characterized by involuntary sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing twisting, often repetitive movements, and postures. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are episodic movement disorders encompassing dystonia, chorea, athetosis, and ballism in conscious individuals. Several decades of research have enhanced the understanding of the etiology of human dystonia and dyskinesias that are associated with dystonia, but the pathophysiology remains largely unknown. The spontaneous occurrence of hereditary dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesia is well documented in rodents used as animal models in basic dystonia research. Several hyperkinetic movement disorders, described in dogs, horses and cattle, show similarities to these human movement disorders. Although dystonia is regarded as the third most common movement disorder in humans, it is often misdiagnosed because of the heterogeneity of etiology and clinical presentation. Since these conditions are poorly known in veterinary practice, their prevalence may be underestimated in veterinary medicine. In order to attract attention to these movement disorders, i.e., dystonia and paroxysmal dyskinesias associated with dystonia, and to enhance interest in translational research, this review gives a brief overview of the current literature regarding dystonia/paroxysmal dyskinesia in humans and summarizes similar hereditary movement disorders reported in domestic animals. PMID:26664992
Pirio Richardson, Sarah; Altenmüller, Eckart; Alter, Katharine; Alterman, Ron L.; Chen, Robert; Frucht, Steven; Furuya, Shinichi; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, H. A.; Kimberley, Teresa J.; Lungu, Codrin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Prudente, Cecília N.; Hallett, Mark
Dystonia, which causes intermittent or sustained abnormal postures and movements, can present in a focal or a generalized manner. In the limbs, focal dystonia can occur in either the upper or lower limbs and may be task-specific causing abnormal motor performance for only a specific task, such as in writer’s cramp, runner’s dystonia, or musician’s dystonia. Focal limb dystonia can be non-task-specific and may, in some circumstances, be associated with parkinsonian disorders. The true prevalence of focal limb dystonia is not known and is likely currently underestimated, leaving a knowledge gap and an opportunity for future research. The pathophysiology of focal limb dystonia shares some commonalities with other dystonias with a loss of inhibition in the central nervous system and a loss of the normal regulation of plasticity, called homeostatic plasticity. Functional imaging studies revealed abnormalities in several anatomical networks that involve the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Further studies should focus on distinguishing cause from effect in both physiology and imaging studies to permit focus on most relevant biological correlates of dystonia. There is no specific therapy for the treatment of limb dystonia given the variability in presentation, but off-label botulinum toxin therapy is often applied to focal limb and task-specific dystonia. Various rehabilitation techniques have been applied and rehabilitation interventions may improve outcomes, but small sample size and lack of direct comparisons between methods to evaluate comparative efficacy limit conclusions. Finally, non-invasive and invasive therapeutic modalities have been explored in small studies with design limitations that do not yet clearly provide direction for larger clinical trials that could support new clinical therapies. Given these gaps in our clinical, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic knowledge, we have identified priorities for future research including: the development of
Defazio, Giovanni; Esposito, M; Abbruzzese, G; Scaglione, C L; Fabbrini, G; Ferrazzano, G; Peluso, S; Pellicciari, R; Gigante, A F; Cossu, G; Arca, R; Avanzino, L; Bono, F; Mazza, M R; Bertolasi, L; Bacchin, R; Eleopra, R; Lettieri, C; Morgante, F; Altavista, M C; Polidori, L; Liguori, R; Misceo, S; Squintani, G; Tinazzi, M; Ceravolo, R; Unti, E; Magistrelli, L; Coletti Moja, M; Modugno, N; Petracca, M; Tambasco, N; Cotelli, M S; Aguggia, M; Pisani, A; Romano, M; Zibetti, M; Bentivoglio, A R; Albanese, A; Girlanda, P; Berardelli, A
The Italian Dystonia Registry is a multicenter data collection system that will prospectively assess the phenomenology and natural history of adult-onset dystonia and will serve as a basis for future etiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic studies. In the first 6 months of activity, 20 movement disorders Italian centres have adhered to the registry and 664 patients have been recruited. Baseline historical information from this cohort provides the first general overview of adult-onset dystonia in Italy. The cohort was characterized by a lower education level than the Italian population, and most patients were employed as artisans, builders, farmers, or unskilled workers. The clinical features of our sample confirmed the peculiar characteristics of adult-onset dystonia, i.e. gender preference, peak age at onset in the sixth decade, predominance of cervical dystonia and blepharospasm over the other focal dystonias, and a tendency to spread to adjacent body parts, The sample also confirmed the association between eye symptoms and blepharospasm, whereas no clear association emerged between extracranial injury and dystonia in a body site. Adult-onset dystonia patients and the Italian population shared similar burden of arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, dyslipidemia, and hypothyroidism, while hyperthyroidism was more frequent in the dystonia population. Geographic stratification of the study population yielded no major difference in the most clinical and phenomenological features of dystonia. Analysis of baseline information from recruited patients indicates that the Italian Dystonia Registry may be a useful tool to capture the real world clinical practice of physicians that visit dystonia patients.
Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Derinoz, Oksan; Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Havali, Cengiz
Most cases of acute dystonia are mild and easy to manage; nevertheless, some of them can be fatal because of the involvement of certain muscle groups such as the laryngeal muscles, thus requiring urgent intervention. In the literature, approach to life-threatening acute dystonia has not been investigated thoroughly, although the diagnosis is a challenge, and treatment should be offered immediately. Herein the management of life-threatening acute dystonia is discussed via 2 case reports.
Kojovic, Maja; Pareés, Isabel; Lampreia, Tania; Pienczk-Reclawowicz, Karolina; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Kramberger, Milica; Carecchio, Miryam; Alazami, Anas M; Brancati, Francesco; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Pirtosek, Zvezdan; Valente, Enza Maria; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P
The syndrome of deafness-dystonia is rare and refers to the association of hearing impairment and dystonia when these are dominant features of a disease. Known genetic causes include Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome, Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome, and mitochondrial disorders, but the cause frequently remains unidentified. The aim of the current study was to better characterize etiological and clinical aspects of deafness-dystonia syndrome. We evaluated 20 patients with deafness-dystonia syndrome who were seen during the period between 1994 and 2011. The cause was identified in only 7 patients and included methylmalonic aciduria, meningoencephalitis, perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury, large genomic deletion on chromosome 7q21, translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8 homolog A (TIMM8A) mutation (Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome), and chromosome 2 open reading frame 37 (C2orf37) mutation (Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome). The age of onset and clinical characteristics in these patients varied, depending on the etiology. In 13 patients, the cause remained unexplained despite extensive work-up. In the group of patients who had unknown etiology, a family history for deafness and/or dystonia was present the majority of patients, suggesting a strong genetic component. Sensory-neural deafness always preceded dystonia. Two clinical patterns of deafness-dystonia syndrome were observed: patients who had an onset in childhood had generalized dystonia (10 of 13 patients) with frequent bulbar involvement, whereas patients who had a dystonia onset in adulthood had segmental dystonia (3 of 13 patients) with the invariable presence of laryngeal dystonia. Deafness-dystonia syndrome is etiologically and clinically heterogeneous, and most patients have an unknown cause. The different age at onset and variable family history suggest a heterogeneous genetic background, possibly including currently unidentified genetic conditions.
Almeida, Leonardo; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Ahmed, Bilal; Deeb, Wissam; Jesus, Sol De; Skinner, Jared; Terza, Matthew J; Akbar, Umer; Raike, Robert S; Hass, Chris J; Okun, Michael S
Dystonia often has inconsistent benefits and requires more energy-demanding DBS settings. Studies suggest that squared biphasic pulses could provide significant clinical benefit; however, dystonia patients have not been explored. To assess safety and tolerability of square biphasic DBS in dystonia patients. This study included primary generalized or cervical dystonia patients with bilateral GPi DBS. Square biphasic pulses were implemented and patients were assessed at baseline, immediately postwashout, post-30-minute washout, 1 hour post- and 2 hours postinitiation of investigational settings. Ten participants completed the study. There were no patient-reported or clinician-observed side effects. There was improvement across time on the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (χ(2) = 10.7; P = 0.031). Similar improvement was detected in objective gait measurements. Square biphasic stimulation appears safe and feasible in dystonia patients with GPi DBS. Further studies are needed to evaluate possible effectiveness particularly in cervical and gait features. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Kupke, K G; Lee, L V; Viterbo, G H; Arancillo, J; Donlon, T; Müller, U
The occurrence of an X-linked form of torsion dystonia in the Philippines was demonstrated by the genetic and biochemical analysis of affected males and their relatives. Thirty-six affected males were ascertained in 21 families by clinical neurologic evaluation. The mean age-of-onset of dystonia was 37.9 years with a range from 12 to 52 years. Neurologic symptoms began focally and progressed to either segmental or generalized involvement in all cases. Generalized dystonia developed in 78% of the patients after a mean duration of 6.8 years from the onset of symptoms. A family history of dystonia was elicited in 17 of the 21 kindreds, accounting for a total of 64 males and one possibly affected female, distributed among 224 individuals in 33 sibships. In 18 of the 33 sibships, 2 or more brothers reportedly had dystonia. There were 12 kindreds with a history of multigenerational dystonia. In those, only males of maternal ancestry were affected, and in 7 of these families, maternal grandfathers reportedly had dystonia. There were no instances of male-to-male transmission. Cytogenetic analysis did not show any X chromosome abnormalities in 4 affected propositi. Several secondary causes of torsion dystonia were excluded, including Wilson disease, aminoacidopathies, organic acidurias, oligosaccharidoses, and chronic hexosaminidase A and B deficiency. These findings substantiate the existence of an X-linked recessive form of primary torsion dystonia.
Albanese, Alberto; Sorbo, Francesca Del
Background Dystonia and tremor share many commonalities. Isolated tremor is part of the phenomenological spectrum of isolated dystonia and of essential tremor. The occurrence of subtle features of dystonia may allow one to differentiate dystonic tremor from essential tremor. Diagnostic uncertainty is enhanced when no features of dystonia are found in patients with a tremor syndrome, raising the question whether the observed phenomenology is an incomplete form of dystonia. Methods Known forms of syndromes with isolated tremor are reviewed. Diagnostic uncertainties between tremor and dystonia are put into perspective. Results The following isolated tremor syndromes are reviewed: essential tremor, head tremor, voice tremor, jaw tremor, and upper-limb tremor. Their varied phenomenology is analyzed and appraised in the light of a possible relationship with dystonia. Discussion Clinicians making a diagnosis of isolated tremor should remain vigilant for the detection of features of dystonia. This is in keeping with the recent view that isolated tremor may be an incomplete phenomenology of dystonia. PMID:27152246
Krauss, J K
Pallidal deep brain stimulation is an efficient treatment option in those patients with cervical dystonia who do not benefit from conservative treatment including local botulinum toxin injections. Given the fact that other surgical treatment options such as selective peripheral denervation are available, it may be considered third-line treatment in most instances. Chronic bilateral pallidal stimulation improves dystonic posture and movements, pain caused by dystonia and disability related to dystonia. Preliminary data on longterm follow-up confirm its beneficial effect in the majority of patients. Given the frequency of cervical dystonia, pallidal deep brain stimulation will play a major role in the future.
Kühn, Andrea A; Krause, Patricia; Lauritsch, Katharina; Zentner, Christian; Brücke, Christof; Schneider, Gerd-Helge
Myoclonus dystonia syndrome is often misdiagnosed in young children and appropriate treatment is delayed, which has a negative impact on motor development, participation, and emotional well-being. In severely affected patients, deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus has been used successfully to treat both dystonia and myoclonus. Here, the authors present a case of early successful treatment of myoclonus dystonia syndrome by pallidal deep brain stimulation in a patient at the age of 17 years leading to 83% reduction in dystonia score and 89% reduction in myoclonus. The patient gained significant improvement in motor function as well as increased participation and reduced stigma.
Ramos, Vesper Fe Marie Llaneza; Karp, Barbara I.; Hallett, Mark
Sensory tricks are various maneuvers that can ameliorate dystonia. Common characteristics are well known, but their variety is wide, sensory stimulation is not necessarily the critical feature, and their physiology is unknown. To enumerate the various forms of sensory tricks and describe their nature, research findings and theories that may elucidate their neurophysiologic mechanism, we reviewed the literature pertaining to sensory tricks, including variants like motor tricks, imaginary tricks, forcible tricks and reverse sensory tricks. On the basis of this information, we propose a new classification of sensory tricks to include its variants. We highlight neurophysiologic evidence suggesting that sensory tricks work by decreasing abnormal facilitation. We tie this with established dystonia pathogenesis and postulate that sensory tricks decrease abnormally increased facilitation-to-inhibition ratios in the dystonic brain. It appears worthwhile for patients to search for possible sensory tricks. PMID:24487380
Chang, Florence C F; Frucht, Steven J
Musicians' dystonia is a task-specific and painless loss of motor control in a previously well-executed task. It is increasingly recognized in the medical and musical community. Recent advances in neuroimaging, transcranial magnetic stimulation and novel techniques in electroencephalography have shed light on its underlying pathophysiology. To date, a deranged cortical plasticity leading to abnormal sensorimotor integration, combined with reduced inhibition across several levels of the motor pathway are likely mechanisms.This paper reviews the various phenomenology of musician's dystonia across keyboard, string, brass, flute and drum players. Treatment is often challenging. Medical therapies like botulinum toxin injection and rehabilitation method with sensorimotor training offer symptomatic relief and return to baseline performance to some musicians.
Grañana, N; Ferrea, M; Scorticati, M C; Díaz, S; Arrebola, M; Torres, L; Micheli, F
The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) in dystonic patients. In 1995, Truong et al reported encouraging results in five patients with idiopathic torsion dystonia (ITD) treated with DPH, an H1 antagonist with sedative and anticholinergic properties. Five patients with generalized ITD, one with secondary generalized dystonia and one with idiopathic segmental dystonia were included in the prospective study. Initially the response to intravenous administration of DPH versus placebo in two sessions a week apart was evaluated. Two weeks later all patients started oral DPH in increasing doses (range 100-300 mg, mean 164 mg). The degree of dystonia was determined by a modified University of Columbia Scale evaluating the baseline score, after placebo and DPH I.V. administration then at one and six months after starting oral treatment. The results were analyzed by Friedman's test for repeated measurements. On comparing scores for baseline severity, I.V. placebo and I.V. DPH presented a highly significant correlation (12.09; p = 0.00) as well as comparing baseline score with oral DPH at one and 6 months, treatment (12.78; p = 0.00). Functional score results were 9.5 p = 0.01 and 8.4 p = 0.02 at one and 6 months respectively. The most common side effects were somnolence and dizziness. It can be concluded that DPH proved effective in our patients with mild to moderate adverse effects not requiring drug withdrawal in any case. However, I.V. challenge was unable to predict the long-term response to oral medication perhaps due to the limited number of cases.
Chillemi, Gaetana; Formica, Caterina; Salatino, Adriana; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Girlanda, Paolo; Morgante, Francesca; Milardi, Demetrio; Terranova, Carmen; Cacciola, Alberto; Quartarone, Angelo; Ricci, Raffaella
There is increasing evidence of non-motor, sensory symptoms, mainly involving the spatial domain, in cervical dystonia (CD). These manifestations are likely driven by dysfunctional overactivity of the parietal cortex during the execution of a sensory task. Few studies also suggest the possibility that visuospatial attention might be specifically affected in patients with CD. Therefore, we asked whether non-motor manifestations in CD might also comprise impairment of higher level visuospatial processing. To this end, we investigated visuospatial attention in 23 CD patients and 12 matched healthy controls (for age, gender, education, and ocular dominance). The patients were identified according to the dystonia pattern type (laterocollis vs. torticollis). Overall, participants were right-handers, and the majority of them was right-eye dominant. Visuospatial attention was assessed using a line bisection task. Participants were asked to bisect horizontal lines, using their right or left hand. Participants bisected more to the left of true center when using their left hand to perform the task than when using their right hand. However, overall, torticollis patients produced a significantly greater leftward deviation than controls. These data are consistent with preliminary findings suggesting the presence of biased spatial attention in patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia. The presence of an attentional bias in patients with torticollis seem to indicate that alterations of attentional circuits might be implicated in the pathophysiology of this type of CD. (JINS, 2017, 23, 1-11).
Patel, Sejal; Martino, Davide
Background: Dystonia is a chronic disorder characterised by an aberration in the control of movement. Sustained co-contraction of opposing agonist and antagonist muscles can cause repetitive and twisting movements, or abnormal postures. Cervical dystonia (CD), often referred to as spasmodic torticollis, is a type of focal dystonia involving the muscles of the neck and sometimes the shoulders. Methods: This systematic review collates the available evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of a range of treatments for CD, focusing on their effectiveness as shown by double-blinded, randomised controlled trials. Results: Our review suggests that botulinum toxin type A (BTA), botulinum toxin type B (BTB) and trihexyphenidyl are safe and efficacious treatments for CD. Evidence shows that botulinum toxin therapies are more reliable for symptomatic relief and have fewer adverse effects than trihexyphenidyl. When comparing BTA to BTB, both are found to have similar clinical benefits, with BTA possibly having a longer duration of action and a marginally better side effect profile. BTB is also safe and probably just as efficacious a treatment in those patients who are unresponsive or have become resistant to BTA. Discussion: The current evidence shows that the pharmacological management of CD relies on BTA and BTB, two agents with established efficacy and tolerability profiles. PMID:22713419
Fuertinger, Stefan; Simonyan, Kristina
Isolated focal dystonia is a debilitating movement disorder of unknown pathophysiology. Early studies in focal dystonias have pointed to segregated changes in brain activity and connectivity. Only recently has the notion that dystonia pathophysiology may lie in abnormalities of large-scale brain networks appeared in the literature. Here, we outline a novel concept of functional connectome-wide alterations that are linked to dystonia phenotype and genotype. Using a neural community detection strategy and graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data in human patients with the laryngeal form of dystonia (LD) and healthy controls (both males and females), we identified an abnormally widespread hub formation in LD, which particularly affected the primary sensorimotor and parietal cortices and thalamus. Left thalamic regions formed a delineated functional community that highlighted differences in network topology between LD patients with and without family history of dystonia. Conversely, marked differences in the topological organization of parietal regions were found between phenotypically different forms of LD. The interface between sporadic genotype and adductor phenotype of LD yielded four functional communities that were primarily governed by intramodular hub regions. Conversely, the interface between familial genotype and abductor phenotype was associated with numerous long-range hub nodes and an abnormal integration of left thalamus and basal ganglia. Our findings provide the first comprehensive atlas of functional topology across different phenotypes and genotypes of focal dystonia. As such, this study constitutes an important step toward defining dystonia as a large-scale network disorder, understanding its causative pathophysiology, and identifying disorder-specific markers.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The architecture of the functional connectome in focal dystonia was analyzed in a large population of patients with laryngeal dystonia. Breaking with the
Monbaliu, E.; Ortibus, E.; Roelens, F.; Desloovere, K.; Deklerck, J.; Prinzie, P.; De Cock, P.; Feys, H.
Aim: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females;…
Monbaliu, E.; Ortibus, E.; Roelens, F.; Desloovere, K.; Deklerck, J.; Prinzie, P.; De Cock, P.; Feys, H.
Aim: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females;…
Yılmaz-Topa, Özge; Tuygun, Nilden; Akça, Halise; Polat, Emine; Karacan, Can Demir
Drug-induced dystonic reactions are a common presentation to the Pediatric Emergency Department frequently with antiemetics, antidepressants, dopamineblocking agents and antipyschotics. We report a case of generalized form of dystonia after taking albendazole and cetirizine. There is only one case with albendazole induced and two cases with cetirizine induced dystonia in the literature.
Wagle Shukla, A; Brown, R; Heese, K; Jones, J; Rodriguez, R L; Malaty, I M; Okun, M S; Kluger, B M
Nonmotor symptoms in dystonia are increasingly recognized to impair the quality of life. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of fatigue and sleep disturbances in dystonia and to ascertain their impact on quality of life using standardized questionnaires. Dystonia patients presenting to a Botulinum toxin clinic were prospectively administered Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS) for assessment of fatigue and sleep disturbances. Health-related Quality of life (HRQOL) was determined using MOS SF-36 scale and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Ninety-one patients with dystonia participated (66 women, 25 men, mean age 60 ± 17 years). Nine subjects had generalized dystonia, 18 segmental dystonia and 64 had focal dystonia. Moderate to severe fatigue was present in 43% of the cohort (FSS), excessive daytime somnolence in 27% (ESS) and other sleep disturbances in 26% (PDSS). FSS and MFI scores correlated significantly with HRQOL even when controlled for depression and sleep disturbances. Excessive daytime somnolence and nocturnal sleep disturbances correlated significantly with the HRQOL; however, these effects were not seen for daytime somnolence when controlled for depression. Psychometric testing found adequate reliabilities and convergent validities for both fatigue and sleep scales. Fatigue and sleep disturbances revealed high prevalence rates in this large, first of its dystonia study. They negatively impacted the quality of life even when controlled for comorbid depression.
Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor
Paroxysmal dystonias are a group of relatively benign hyperkinetic childhood movement disorders of varied etiology. Mitochondrial diseases are well known to produce persistent dystonias as sequelae, but paroxysmal exertion induced dystonia has been reported in only one case to the best of our knowledge. Two siblings born to consanguineous parents presented with early-onset exertion induced dystonia, which was unresponsive to diphenylhydantoin and carbamazepine. A trial with valproate in one of the siblings turned fatal within 24 h. Based on this clue, the second child was investigated and found to suffer from complex I deficiency with a paternally inherited dominant nuclear DNA mutation, which is responsive to the mitochondrial cocktail. Exertion induced dystonia can be a rare manifestation of complex I deficiency. PMID:26557169
Ferrè, Elisa R; Ganos, Christos; Bhatia, Kailash P; Haggard, Patrick
Insufficient cortical inhibition is a key pathophysiological finding in dystonia. Subliminal sensory stimuli were reported to transiently inhibit somatosensory processing. Here we investigated whether such subliminal feedforward inhibition is reduced in patients with cervical dystonia. Sixteen cervical dystonia patients and 16 matched healthy controls performed a somatosensory detection task. We measured the drop in sensitivity to detect a threshold-level digital nerve shock when it was preceded by a subliminal conditioning shock, compared to when it was not. Subliminal conditioning shocks reduced sensitivity to threshold stimuli to a similar extent in both patients and controls, suggesting that somatosensory subliminal feedforward inhibition is normal in cervical dystonia. Somatosensory feedforward inhibition was normal in this group of cervical dystonia patients. Our results qualify previous concepts of a general dystonic deficit in sensorimotor inhibitory processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Camargo, Carlos Henrique F; Camargos, Sarah Teixeira; Becker, Nilson; Munhoz, Renato Puppi; Raskin, Salmo; Cardoso, Francisco Eduardo C; Teive, Hélio Afonso G
Cervical dystonia (CD) affects the musculature of the neck in a focal way or associated to other parts of the body. The aim of this study was to identify clinical differences between patients with dystonia patients without family history and with family history (sporadic). Eighty-eight patients with CD were recruited in a Movement Disorders Clinic between June of 2008 and June of 2009. Only patients with no etiological diagnosis were accepted for analysis. The age of onset of symptoms was later in patients with focal and segmental dystonia than in patients with generalized dystonia (p<0.001). The severity of symptoms was higher in patients with sporadic dystonia than in familial patients (p<0.01). Generalized cases were more severe in patients with a family history (p<0.01). Sporadic patients had higher levels of pain than familial cases (p<0.05). We expect soon to present the results of genetic analyzes of these patients.
Waugh, Jeff L; Kuster, John K; Levenstein, Jacob M; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J; Sudarsky, Lewis R; Breiter, Hans C; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J
Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.
Waugh, Jeff L.; Kuster, John K.; Levenstein, Jacob M.; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Breiter, Hans C.; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J.
Background Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. Methods We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Results Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Conclusions Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches. PMID:27171035
Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard
Dystonia is a functionally disabling movement disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures. Although substantial recent progress has been made in identifying genetic factors, the pathophysiology of the disease remains a mystery. A provocative suggestion gaining broader acceptance is that some aspect of neural plasticity may be abnormal. There is also evidence that, at least in some forms of dystonia, sensorimotor “use” may be a contributing factor. Most empirical evidence of abnormal plasticity in dystonia comes from measures of sensorimotor cortical organization and physiology. However, the basal ganglia also play a critical role in sensorimotor function. Furthermore, the basal ganglia are prominently implicated in traditional models of dystonia, are the primary targets of stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, and provide a neural substrate for sensorimotor learning influenced by neuromodulators. Our working hypothesis is that abnormal plasticity in the basal ganglia is a critical link between the etiology and pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review we set up the background for this hypothesis by integrating a large body of disparate indirect evidence that dystonia may involve abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the striatum. After reviewing evidence implicating the striatum in dystonia, we focus on the influence of two neuromodulatory systems: dopamine and acetylcholine. For both of these neuromodulators, we first describe the evidence for abnormalities in dystonia and then the means by which it may influence striatal synaptic plasticity. Collectively, the evidence suggests that many different forms of dystonia may involve abnormal plasticity in the striatum. An improved understanding of these altered plastic processes would help inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, and, given the role of the striatum in sensorimotor learning, provide a principled basis for designing therapies aimed at the dynamic processes
Sattler, Virginie; Dickler, Maya; Michaud, Martin; Meunier, Sabine; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion
The presence of mirror dystonia (dystonic movement induced by a specific task performed by the unaffected hand) in the dominant hand of writer's cramp patients when the nondominant hand is moved suggests an abnormal interaction between the 2 hemispheres. In this study we compare the level of interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) in 2 groups of patients with writer's cramp, one with the presence of a mirror dystonia and the other without as well as a control group. The level of bidirectional IHI was measured in wrist muscles with dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation with a 10-millisecond (short IHI) and a 40-millisecond (long IHI) interstimulus interval during rest and while holding a pen in 9 patients with mirror dystonia 7 without mirror dystonia, and 13 controls. The group of patients without mirror dystonia did not differ from the controls in their IHI level. In contrast, IHI was significantly decreased in the group of patients with mirror dystonia in comparison with the group without mirror dystonia and the controls in both wrist muscles of both the dystonic and unaffected hand whatever the resting or active condition (P = 0.001). The decrease of IHI level in the group of patients with mirror dystonia was negatively correlated with the severity and the duration of the disease: the weaker the level of IHI, the more severe was the disease and the longer its duration. Interhemispheric inhibition disturbances are most likely involved in the occurrence of mirror dystonia. This bilateral deficient inhibition further suggests the involvement of the unaffected hemisphere in the pathophysiology of unilateral dystonia.
Borges, Letizia Goncalves; Bonakdarpour, Borna
Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist and probably also has an indirect dopaminergic action at high concentrations. We describe a person with Alzheimer's disease who developed chorea and dystonia after inadvertently doubling of her daily dose by taking extended-release (XR) memantine twice daily, rather than once daily (planned dose memantine XR, 21 mg once daily), after the drug was switched from immediate release (IR, 10 mg twice daily). Memantine is rarely associated with movement disorders, but this case emphasises the need for awareness of potential problems when switching from memantine IR to XR.
Albanese, Alberto; Bhatia, Kailash; Bressman, Susan B.; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Fahn, Stanley; Fung, Victor S.C.; Hallett, Mark; Jankovic, Joseph; Jinnah, H.A.; Klein, Christine; Lang, Anthony E.; Mink, Jonathan W.; Teller, Jan K.
This report describes the consensus outcome of an international panel consisting of investigators with years of experience in this field that reviewed the definition and classification of dystonia. Agreement was obtained based on a consensus development methodology during three in-person meetings and manuscript review by mail. Dystonia is defined as a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonic movements are typically patterned and twisting, and may be tremulous. Dystonia is often initiated or worsened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation. Dystonia is classified along two axes: clinical characteristics, including age at onset, body distribution, temporal pattern and associated features (additional movement disorders or neurological features), and etiology, which includes nervous system pathology and inheritance. The clinical characteristics fall into several specific dystonia syndromes that help to guide diagnosis and treatment. We provide here a new general definition of dystonia and propose a new classification. We encourage clinicians and researchers to use these innovative definition and classification and test them in the clinical setting on a variety of patients with dystonia. PMID:23649720
Charlesworth, Gavin; Bhatia, Kailash P.
Dystonia is a common movement disorder seen by neurologists in clinic. Genetic forms of the disease are important to recognize clinically and also provide valuable information about possible pathogenic mechanisms within the wider disorder. In the past few years, with the advent of new sequencing technologies, there has been a step change in the pace of discovery in the field of dystonia genetics. In just over a year, four new genes have been shown to cause primary dystonia (CIZ1, ANO3, TUBB4A and GNAL), PRRT2 has been identified as the cause of paroxysmal kinesigenic dystonia and other genes, such as SLC30A10 and ATP1A3, have been linked to more complicated forms of dystonia or new phenotypes. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding genetic forms of dystonia—related to both new and well-known genes alike—and incorporating genetic, clinical and molecular information. We discuss the mechanistic insights provided by the study of the genetic causes of dystonia and provide a helpful clinical algorithm to aid clinicians in correctly predicting the genetic basis of various forms of dystonia. PMID:23775978
Hagenacker, Tim; Gerwig, Marcus; Gasser, Thomas; Miller, Dorothea; Kastrup, Oliver; Jokisch, Daniel; Sure, Ulrich; Frings, Markus
Camptocormia, characterised by a forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine may occur in various movement disorders, mainly in Parkinson's disease or in primary dystonia. In severe cases, patients with camptocormia are unable to walk. While treatment options are limited, deep brain stimulation (DBS) with bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus internus (GPi) has been proposed as a therapeutic option in refractory cases of Parkinson's disease. Here we present two patients with severe camptocormia as an isolated form of dystonia and as part of generalised dystonia, respectively, which were both treated with bilateral stimulation of the GPi. Symptoms of dystonia were assessed using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale (BFM) before and during deep brain stimulation. In both patients there was a significant functional improvement following long-term bilateral GPi stimulation and both patients gained ability to walk. In the first patient with an isolated dystonic camptocormia the BFM motor subscore for the truncal flexion improved by 75 %. The total BFM motor score in the second patient with a camptocormia in generalised dystonia improved by 45 %, while the BFM score for truncal flexion improved by 87 %. In both patients the effect of the bilateral GPi stimulation on camptocormia was substantial, independent of generalisation of dystonia. Therefore, GPi DBS is a possible treatment option for this rare disease.
Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J
Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van de Zande, N A; Massey, T H; McLauchlan, D; Pryce Roberts, A; Zutt, R; Wardle, M; Payne, G C; Clenaghan, C; Tijssen, M A J; Rosser, A E; Peall, K J
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative movement disorder, typically characterized by chorea. Dystonia is also recognized as part of the HD motor phenotype, although little work detailing its prevalence, distribution, severity and impact on functional capacity has been published to date. Patients (>18 years of age) were recruited from the Cardiff (UK) HD clinic, each undergoing a standardized videotaped clinical examination and series of functional assessment questionnaires (Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and modified version of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale). The presence and severity of dystonia were scored by four independent neurologists using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale. Statistical analysis included Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon test, anova and calculation of correlation coefficients where appropriate. Forty-eight patients [91% (48/53)] demonstrated evidence of dystonia, with the highest prevalence in the left upper limb (n = 44, 83%), right upper limb most severely affected and eyes least affected. Statistically significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) were observed between dystonia severity and increasing HD disease stage and motor disease duration. Deterioration in functional capacity also correlated with increasing dystonia severity. No significant relationship was observed with age at motor symptom onset or CAG repeat length. We report a high prevalence of dystonia in adult patients with HD, with worsening dystonia severity with increasing HD disease stage and motor disease duration. The recognition and management of dystonic symptoms in routine clinical practice will aid overall symptomatic treatment and functional improvement. © 2017 EAN.
Sadnicka, Anna; Hamada, Masashi; Bhatia, Kailash P; Rothwell, John C; Edwards, Mark J
Much attention has focused on the hypothesis that there is enhanced plasticity of sensorimotor circuits in patients with dystonia. A common experimental method to assess plasticity in dystonia research is paired associative stimulation (PAS). Excessive, nonfocal effects of PAS were observed in early studies of dystonia; however, these large effects have not been uniformly replicated. In this viewpoint, data from 15 patients with writing dystonia are presented. We suggest that, as in healthy individuals, the effects of PAS are highly variable. A review of previous studies examining PAS in writing dystonia highlights the range of results that have been observed. We conclude that current experimental evidence cannot be fully explained by the notion that PAS responses in writing dystonia are consistently excessive or nonspecific. The variability of PAS responses is such that enhanced plasticity should not be considered a dystonic fingerprint, because the direction of response can vary, and there is overlap between patient and healthy data. We also discuss evidence questioning the assumption that PAS responses are a clear correlate to levels of synaptic plasticity; we need to define more specifically what PAS responses signify in the dystonic brain. Our conclusions are limited to PAS in writing dystonia; however, much variation exists with other plasticity protocols. Large multicenter studies of both focal and generalized forms of dystonia, probing variability of individual neurophysiological profiles, are encouraged. This will reveal the true role of plasticity in the pathophysiology of dystonia and may expose subject-specific therapeutic interventions that are currently concealed. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Lee, A; Eich, C; Ioannou, C I; Altenmüller, E
Little is known about the effects of musicians' dystonia (MD) on patients' life satisfaction. To assess general life satisfaction in patients with MD with regard to their health and jobs, in relation to the duration and course of the condition. We asked patients with MD and a group of healthy musicians (controls) to complete a life satisfaction questionnaire. We analysed responses from those who had to change their profession and those who did not, and we assessed life satisfaction scores in relation to the duration and the course of the condition. Of the 642 patients contacted, 295 responded (46%). We excluded 52 amateur musicians and analysed a sample of 243 patients with MD. We contacted an unknown number of healthy musicians and 57 responded. We found no differences in life satisfaction between patients and controls or between patients who had to change their profession and those who did not and no correlations between life satisfaction and the duration or the course of the disease. Musicians find a way to cope with dystonia, irrespective of the course of the disease or a change of profession. Patients should be made aware of self-regulatory mechanisms and the probability of being able to cope and be supported in selecting their goals and achieving them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Horwitz, E H; van Harten, P N
A 25-year-old mildly retarded black cocaine user was hospitalized 15 times in 10 years for recurrent maniform psychosis. During the last intake he developed severe dystonia following zuclopenthixol 50 mg and droperidol 10 mg i.m. In view of current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of acute neuroleptic induced dystonias, this suggests that cocaine may be a risk factor for development of acute dystonia. However, only a few studies with small numbers of patients and/or poor design have been reported. Therefore the conclusion cannot be drawn that an anticholinergic should be added to neuroleptics in patients with cocaine abuse.
Fabbri, Margherita; Superbo, Maria; Defazio, Giovanni; Scaglione, Cesa Lorella Maria; Antelmi, Elena; Basini, Giacomo; Nassetti, Stefania; Pizza, Fabio; Plasmati, Rosaria; Liguori, Rocco
Dystonia is a disabling and disfiguring disorder that can often affect many aspects of patients' daily lives, and lower their self-esteem. To date, quality of life (QoL) has been assessed in dystonic patients using generic measures that do not address the specific problems of this diagnostic group. Recently, two disease-specific scales "The Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58)" and the "Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24)" were validated for measuring QoL in craniocervical dystonia patients. No disease-specific scales for QoL for dystonic patients are currently available in Italian. The aim of our study was to produce and validate the Italian version of the CDIP-58 and CDQ-24. We obtained the Italian version of CDQ-24 and CDIP-58 with a back-translation design. Both scales were applied to a population of 94 craniocervical dystonia patients along with the Short Form 36 health-survey questionnaire (SF-36), both before and 4 weeks after botulinum toxin therapy. A group of 65 controls matched for sex, age and comorbidity underwent the SF-36. Internal consistency was satisfactory for all subscales. Both the CDIP-58 and CDQ-24 showed moderate to high correlations with similar items of the SF-36. Sensitivity to change was confirmed by highly significant improvements in all CDQ-24 subscales and by moderate improvements in three out of eight CDIP-58 subscales and total score. This is the first Italian study on QoL in dystonia patients. We validated the Italian version of two disease-specific questionnaires to evaluate QoL in craniocervical dystonia patients. These scales could be useful for both clinical practice and clinical trials.
Purriños, Laura; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M
The volatile profile of dry-cured "lacón" that has been inoculated with three different yeasts were determined and compared with a non-inoculated dry-cured "lacón". Yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida deformans and Candida zeylanoides) that were used as starter cultures in the present study were selected among yeasts that were isolated from native dry-cured "lacón" at different stages of ripening process. These starters were spread on dry-cured "lacón" surface in order to test their capacity to contribute on the generation of volatile compounds. A total of forty two volatile compounds were detected by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Significant differences (P<0.001) on the volatile profiles of different batches were found in comparison with non-inoculated samples, showing the highest total area values for the inoculated ones. Esters were the most abundant chemical family in all batches studied except for C. zeylanoides batch, which showed greater amount of hydrocarbons than esters. The second more abundant family was hydrocarbons for control and C. deformans batches (147.6 and 445.24 × 10(6) area units, respectively), alcohols for D. hansenii (363.77 × 10(6) area units) and esters for C. zeylanoides (248.33 × 10(6) area units). However, the aldehyde compound group in control batch samples was found to be significantly higher than in the inoculated ones (P<0.001). Among inoculated batches, D. hansenii batch showed the lowest hexanal content (14.42 × 10(6) area units) in comparison with non-inoculated batch (105.99 × 10(6) area units). Among all batches studied, D. hansenii batch presented the highest area values for esters, alcohols, linear hydrocarbons, ketones, acids and furans; control batch for aldehydes and C. zeylanoides batch for branched hydrocarbons. Therefore, the study showed that every yeast strain produced a specific volatile profile which was also different from that of the control dry
Matsumoto, Shinichi; Murakami, Nagahisa; Koizumi, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji
Objective To examine whether or not an edrophonium challenge test is useful for diagnosing cervical dystonia. Patients We evaluated 10 patients with cervical dystonia and 10 with hemifacial spasms (disease controls). We administered edrophonium and saline in this double-blinded study. Before and after the injection, we recorded the participants' clinical signs using a video camera to assess the objective symptoms every two minutes. Ten minutes after the saline and edrophonium injections, participants evaluated their subjective clinical signs using a visual analog scale. The objective signs on the video recordings were scored by specialists who were blinded to the treatment. The mean visual analog scale scores were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for paired continuous variables. Results The clinical signs of participants with cervical dystonia were amplified by edrophonium. In contrast, the clinical signs in participants with hemifacial spasms were not affected by the edrophonium challenge test. Conclusion The edrophonium challenge test may be useful for diagnosing cervical dystonia.
Eftekhari, Kian; Choe, Christina H; Vagefi, M Reza; Gausas, Roberta E; Eckstein, Lauren A
Oral methylphenidate (Ritalin, Novartis) has been reported to alleviate symptoms of benign essential blepharospasm in an off-label application. This series presents 3 patients with refractory periorbital and facial dystonias, including blepharospasm, apraxia of eyelid opening, and oromandibular dystonia unresponsive to standard treatments who experienced a response to oral methylphenidate therapy. While the mechanisms for facial dystonias have not been elucidated, there is evidence to suggest that they are on the spectrum with Parkinson disease. Given the role of dopamine loss in the pathogenesis of Parkinson, the authors' speculate that methylphenidate may be acting on the pathway directly involved in facial dystonias. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a case of successful treatment of blepharospasm refractory to upper eyelid myectomy with methylphenidate monotherapy.
Chanson, J-B; Anheim, M; Lagha-Boukbiza, O; Fleury, M; Sellal, F; Tranchant, C
Cerebral calcifications are a cause of secondary dystonia and may be an uncommon complication of radiotherapy. We report a very severe case of generalized dystonia due to postradiotherapy basal ganglia calcifications. An 8-year-old girl received 53 grays radiotherapy after surgery for craniopharyngioma. One year later she developed generalized dystonia. Computed tomography showed bilateral basal ganglia calcifications, especially of the lenticular nuclei. Pharmacological treatment with tetrabenazine, clonazepam and trihexiphenydile allowed a very limited improvement of dystonia; the course was complicated by dystonic storms and decompensations resulting from the iatrogenous panhypopituitarism. This case illustrates a severe complication of cranial irradiation which should be considered in the indications of this treatment, especially for children.
Mackey, Helen Elizabeth; Hawksley, Oliver
A 27-year-old man presented to hospital after smoking a legal high named 'Clockwork Orange'. He suffered dystonia, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis and a troponin rise. He was treated with procyclidine and intravenous fluids.
Buccoliero, Rosaria; Palmeri, Silvia; Malandrini, Alessandro; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Federico, Antonio
We report the clinical and therapeutic approach of a case of 'dystonia gravidarum'. The patient came to our observation with neck and bilateral feet dystonia, appearing after the onset of pregnancy. She was treated with clonazepam, 0.5 mg three times a day, during the pregnancy. After delivery of a healthy full-term child by caesarean section, she was completely able to turn her neck to either side.
Cif, Laura; Valente, Enza Maria; Hemm, Simone; Coubes, Christine; Vayssiere, Nathalie; Serrat, Stéphanie; Di Giorgio, Annalisa; Coubes, Philippe
Myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (MDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by bilateral myoclonic jerks. An 8-year-old boy presenting with early onset, medically intractable, MDS due to a mutation in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene (SGCE) underwent chronic bilateral stimulation of the globus pallidus internus, which eliminates both myoclonus and dystonia. We conclude that deep brain stimulation can be an effective and safe treatment for MDS. Copyright 2004 Movement Disorder Society
Ozelius, Laurie J.; Bressman, Susan B.
Primary torsion dystonia (PTD) is defined as a syndrome in which dystonia is the only clinical sign (except for tremor), and there is no evidence of neuronal degeneration or an acquired cause by history or routine laboratory assessment. Seven different loci have been recognized for PTD but only two of the genes have been identified. In this review we will described the phenotypes associated with these loci and discuss the responsible gene. PMID:21168499
van Rijn, M A; Munts, A G; Marinus, J; Voormolen, J H C; de Boer, K S; Teepe-Twiss, I M; van Dasselaar, N T; Delhaas, E M; van Hilten, J J
Dystonia in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) responds poorly to treatment. Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) may improve this type of dystonia, but information on its efficacy and safety is limited. A single-blind, placebo-run-in, dose-escalation study was carried out in 42 CRPS patients to evaluate whether dystonia responds to ITB. Thirty-six of the 38 patients, who met the responder criteria received a pump for continuous ITB administration, and were followed up for 12 months to assess long-term efficacy and safety (open-label study). Primary outcome measures were global dystonia severity (both studies) and dystonia-related functional limitations (open-label study). The dose-escalation study showed a dose-effect of baclofen on dystonia severity in 31 patients in doses up to 450 microg/day. One patient did not respond to treatment in the dose-escalation study and three patients dropped out. Thirty-six patients entered the open-label study. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed a substantial improvement in patient and assessor-rated dystonia scores, pain, disability and quality-of-life (Qol) at 12 months. The response in the dose-escalation study did not predict the response to ITB in the open-label study. Eighty-nine adverse events occurred in 26 patients and were related to baclofen (n=19), pump/catheter system defects (n=52), or could not be specified (n=18). The pump was explanted in six patients during the follow-up phase. Dystonia, pain, disability and Qol all improved on ITB and remained efficacious over a period of one year. However, ITB is associated with a high complication rate in this patient group, and methods to improve patient selection and catheter-pump integrity are warranted.
Blumkin, Lubov; Mandel, Hanna; Anca-Herschkovitsch, Marieta; Kivity, Sara; Lev, Dorit; Lerman-Sagie, Tally
We describe two siblings with childhood onset, slowly progressive generalized dystonia and cerebellar signs. Brain neuroimaging revealed white matter abnormalities compatible with a neuronal degenerative disorder. An extensive evaluation for mitochondrial, metabolic, autoimmune or other known neurodegenerative disorders did not reveal the etiology of the disease. During a three-year follow-up other neurological signs appeared, but progression was very slow. We believe that our patients have a new type of a leukoencephalopathy with slowly progressive dystonia and cerebellar signs.
King, Nicolas K. K.; Tam, Joseph; Fasano, Alfonso; Lozano, Andres M
Background The study of the most cited works in a particular field gives an indication of the important advances, developments, and discoveries that have had the highest impact in that discipline. Our aim was to identify the most cited works in essential tremor (ET) and dystonia. Methods A bibliometric search was performed using the ISI Web of Science database using selected search terms for ET and dystonia for articles published from 1900 to 2015. The resulting citation counts were analyzed to identify the most cited works, and the studies were categorized. Results Using the criterion of more than 400 citations, there were four citation classics for ET and six for dystonia. The most cited studies were those on pathophysiology followed by medical treatments, clinical classification, genetic studies, surgical treatments, review articles, and epidemiology studies. A comparison of the most cited articles for ET and dystonia showed that there was a divergence, with ET and dystonia having a higher number of epidemiologic and genetic studies, respectively. Whereas the peak period for the number of publications was 2000–2004 for ET, it was 1995–1999 for dystonia. Discussion Given the large number of patients with these disorders, there appears to be an unmet need for further research advances in both areas, but particularly for ET as the most common movement disorder. PMID:27119049
Comella, Cynthia L; Fox, Susan H; Bhatia, Kailash P; Perlmutter, Joel S; Jinnah, Hyder A; Zurowski, Mateusz; McDonald, William M; Marsh, Laura; Rosen, Ami R; Waliczek, Tracy; Wright, Laura J; Galpern, Wendy R; Stebbins, Glenn T
We present the methodology utilized for development and clinimetric testing of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia (CD) Rating scale, or CCDRS. The CCDRS includes a revision of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-2), a newly developed psychiatric screening tool (TWSTRS-PSYCH), and the previously validated Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58). For the revision of the TWSTRS, the original TWSTRS was examined by a committee of dystonia experts at a dystonia rating scales workshop organized by the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. During this workshop, deficiencies in the standard TWSTRS were identified and recommendations for revision of the severity and pain subscales were incorporated into the TWSTRS-2. Given that no scale currently evaluates the psychiatric features of cervical dystonia (CD), we used a modified Delphi methodology and a reiterative process of item selection to develop the TWSTRS-PSYCH. We also included the CDIP-58 to capture the impact of CD on quality of life. The three scales (TWSTRS2, TWSTRS-PSYCH, and CDIP-58) were combined to construct the CCDRS. Clinimetric testing of reliability and validity of the CCDRS are described. The CCDRS was designed to be used in a modular fashion that can measure the full spectrum of CD. This scale will provide rigorous assessment for studies of natural history as well as novel symptom-based or disease-modifying therapies.
van der Steen, M. C.; van Vugt, Floris T.; Keller, Peter E.; Altenmüller, Eckart
Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15) and a matched control group (N = 15) on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo). In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument. PMID:24667273
Erro, Roberto; Hirschbichler, Stephanie T; Ricciardi, Lucia; Ryterska, Agata; Antelmi, Elena; Ganos, Christos; Cordivari, Carla; Tinazzi, Michele; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P
Mental rotation of body parts engages cortical-subcortical areas that are actually involved in the execution of a movement. Musicians' dystonia is a type of focal hand dystonia that is grouped together with writer's cramp under the rubric of "occupational dystonia", but it is unclear to which extent these two disorders share common pathophysiological mechanisms. Previous research has demonstrated patients with writer's cramp to have deficits in mental rotation of body parts. It is unknown whether patients with musicians' dystonia would display similar deficits, reinforcing the concept of shared pathophysiology. Eight patients with musicians' dystonia and eight healthy musicians matched for age, gender and musical education, performed a number of tasks assessing mental rotation of body parts and objects as well as verbal and spatial working memories abilities. There were no differences between patients and healthy musicians as to accuracy and reaction times in any of the tasks. Patients with musicians' dystonia have intact abilities in mentally rotating body parts, suggesting that this disorder relies on a highly selective disruption of movement planning and execution that manifests only upon playing a specific instrument. We further demonstrated that mental rotation of body parts and objects engages, at least partially, different cognitive networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van der Steen, M C; van Vugt, Floris T; Keller, Peter E; Altenmüller, Eckart
Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by the loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. Musician's dystonia is a type of task-specific dystonia that is elicited in professional musicians during instrumental playing. The disorder has been associated with deficits in timing. In order to test the hypothesis that basic timing abilities are affected by musician's dystonia, we investigated a group of patients (N = 15) and a matched control group (N = 15) on a battery of sensory and sensorimotor synchronization tasks. Results did not show any deficits in auditory-motor processing for patients relative to controls. Both groups benefited from a pacing sequence that adapted to their timing (in a sensorimotor synchronization task at a stable tempo). In a purely perceptual task, both groups were able to detect a misaligned metronome when it was late rather than early relative to a musical beat. Overall, the results suggest that basic timing abilities stay intact in patients with musician's dystonia. This supports the idea that musician's dystonia is a highly task-specific movement disorder in which patients are mostly impaired in tasks closely related to the demands of actually playing their instrument.
Bentivoglio, A R; Del Grosso, N; Albanese, A; Cassetta, E; Tonali, P; Frontali, M
A large non-Jewish Italian family affected by idiopathic torsion dystonia with autosomal dominant transmission and almost complete penetrance is reported. The prevalent phenotype was characterised by early onset with cranial-cervical involvement and progression to a segmental distribution; progression to generalisation was also found. Among 45 people examined, 14 were considered definitely or probably affected by idiopathic torsion dystonia. Eight definitely affected members had mean age (SD) at onset of 15.6 (12.5); idiopathic torsion dystonia started in the cranial-cervical region in six of them, in the upper limbs in two; in four cases dystonia progressed to other body regions, in two cases a generalisation was seen. Linkage analysis with 9q34 markers excluded the region containing the DYT1 locus in this family; linkage to the dopa-responsive dystonia markers was also excluded. A comparison of the phenotype in the present family and other non-DYT1 families shows striking overlapping features differing from those of DYT1 idiopathic torsion dystonia. PMID:9120448
Comella, Cynthia L.; Fox, Susan H.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Jinnah, Hyder A.; Zurowski, Mateusz; McDonald, William M.; Marsh, Laura; Rosen, Ami R.; Waliczek, Tracy; Wright, Laura J.; Galpern, Wendy R.; Stebbins, Glenn T.
We present the methodology utilized for development and clinimetric testing of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia (CD) Rating scale, or CCDRS. The CCDRS includes a revision of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-2), a newly developed psychiatric screening tool (TWSTRS-PSYCH), and the previously validated Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58). For the revision of the TWSTRS, the original TWSTRS was examined by a committee of dystonia experts at a dystonia rating scales workshop organized by the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. During this workshop, deficiencies in the standard TWSTRS were identified and recommendations for revision of the severity and pain subscales were incorporated into the TWSTRS-2. Given that no scale currently evaluates the psychiatric features of cervical dystonia (CD), we used a modified Delphi methodology and a reiterative process of item selection to develop the TWSTRS-PSYCH. We also included the CDIP-58 to capture the impact of CD on quality of life. The three scales (TWSTRS2, TWSTRS-PSYCH, and CDIP-58) were combined to construct the CCDRS. Clinimetric testing of reliability and validity of the CCDRS are described. The CCDRS was designed to be used in a modular fashion that can measure the full spectrum of CD. This scale will provide rigorous assessment for studies of natural history as well as novel symptom-based or disease-modifying therapies. PMID:27088112
Quartarone, Angelo; Hallett, Mark
Work over the past 2 decades has led to substantial changes in our understanding of dystonia pathophysiology. Three general abnormalities appear to underlie the pathophysiological substrate. The first is a loss of inhibition. This makes sense considering that it may be responsible for the excess of movement and for the overflow phenomena seen in dystonia. A second abnormality is sensory dysfunction which is related to the mild sensory complaints in patients with focal dystonias and may be responsible for some of the motor dysfunction. Third, evidence from animal models of dystonia as well as from patients with primary dystonia has revealed significant alterations of synaptic plasticity characterized by a disruption of homeostatic plasticity, with a prevailing facilitation of synaptic potentiation, together with the loss of synaptic inhibitory processes. We speculate that during motor learning this abnormal plasticity may lead to an abnormal sensorimotor integration, leading to consolidation of abnormal motor engrams. If so, then removing this abnormal plasticity might have little immediate effect on dystonic movements because bad motor memories have already been ''learned'' and are difficult to erase. These considerations might explain the delayed clinical effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with generalized dystonia. Current lines of research will be discussed from a network perspective. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.
Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Perlmutter, Joel S; Racette, Brad A; Tabbal, Samer D; Karimi, Morvarid; Paniello, Randal C; Blitzer, Andrew; Batish, Sat Dev; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Uitti, Ryan J; Hedera, Peter; Simon, David K; Tarsy, Daniel; Truong, Daniel D; Frei, Karen P; Pfeiffer, Ronald F; Gong, Suzhen; Zhao, Yu; LeDoux, Mark S
Background Although the c.904_906delGAG mutation in Exon 5 of TOR1A typically manifests as early-onset generalized dystonia, DYT1 dystonia is genetically and clinically heterogeneous. Recently, another Exon 5 mutation (c.863G>A) has been associated with early-onset generalized dystonia and some ΔGAG mutation carriers present with late-onset focal dystonia. The aim of this study was to identify TOR1A Exon 5 mutations in a large cohort of subjects with mainly non-generalized primary dystonia. Methods High resolution melting (HRM) was used to examine the entire TOR1A Exon 5 coding sequence in 1014 subjects with primary dystonia (422 spasmodic dysphonia, 285 cervical dystonia, 67 blepharospasm, 41 writer's cramp, 16 oromandibular dystonia, 38 other primary focal dystonia, 112 segmental dystonia, 16 multifocal dystonia, and 17 generalized dystonia) and 250 controls (150 neurologically normal and 100 with other movement disorders). Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were evaluated in an additional 8 subjects with known ΔGAG DYT1 dystonia and 88 subjects with ΔGAG-negative dystonia. Results HRM of TOR1A Exon 5 showed high (100%) diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. HRM was rapid and economical. HRM reliably differentiated the TOR1A ΔGAG and c.863G>A mutations. Melting curves were normal in 250/250 controls and 1012/1014 subjects with primary dystonia. The two subjects with shifted melting curves were found to harbor the classic ΔGAG deletion: 1) a non-Jewish Caucasian female with childhood-onset multifocal dystonia and 2) an Ashkenazi Jewish female with adolescent-onset spasmodic dysphonia. Conclusion First, HRM is an inexpensive, diagnostically sensitive and specific, high-throughput method for mutation discovery. Second, Exon 5 mutations in TOR1A are rarely associated with non-generalized primary dystonia. PMID:19284587
Dystonia is defined as a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures. Although this definition comprises an essential feature of dystonia, the clinical observation indicates that there is an additional aspect of dystonia; failure to adequately activate muscles required for specific movement, exemplified by the lack of contractions of the levator palpebrae superioris muscles in apraxia of lid opening, as well as by inability to activate appropriate muscles in cervical dystonia or in the paretic form of writer's cramp, and possibly by dropped head syndrome or camptocormia seen in parkinsonian patients without apparent truncal dystonia or rigidity. Taking this "negative dystonia" into consideration, the author proposes a revised definition of dystonia as a symptom characterized by the central non-paretic loss of voluntary control of muscle activities, which may result in either excessive or deficient contractions of muscles, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, limitation of movements, or abnormal postures.
Kimmich, Okka; Molloy, Anna; Whelan, Robert; Williams, Laura; Bradley, David; Balsters, Joshua; Molloy, Fiona; Lynch, Tim; Healy, Daniel G; Walsh, Cathal; O'Riordan, Seán; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael
The pathogenesis of adult-onset primary dystonia remains poorly understood. There is variable age-related and gender-related expression of the phenotype, the commonest of which is cervical dystonia. Endophenotypes may provide insight into underlying genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of dystonia. The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT)-the shortest time interval at which two separate stimuli can be detected as being asynchronous-is abnormal both in patients with cervical dystonia and in their unaffected first-degree relatives. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that putaminal activation positively correlates with the ease of temporal discrimination between two stimuli in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination would exhibit similar age-related and gender-related penetrance as cervical dystonia and that unaffected relatives with an abnormal TDT would have reduced putaminal activation during a temporal discrimination task. TDTs were examined in a group of 192 healthy controls and in 158 unaffected first-degree relatives of 84 patients with cervical dystonia. In 24 unaffected first-degree relatives, fMRI scanning was performed during a temporal discrimination task. The prevalence of abnormal TDTs in unaffected female relatives reached 50% after age 48 years; whereas, in male relatives, penetrance of the endophenotype was reduced. By fMRI, relatives who had abnormal TDTs, compared with relatives who had normal TDTs, had significantly less activation in the putamina and in the middle frontal and precentral gyri. Only the degree of reduction of putaminal activity correlated significantly with worsening of temporal discrimination. These findings further support abnormal temporal discrimination as an endophenotype of cervical dystonia involving disordered basal ganglia circuits.
Comella, Cynthia L; Perlmutter, Joel S; Jinnah, Hyder A; Waliczek, Tracy A; Rosen, Ami R; Galpern, Wendy R; Adler, Charles A; Barbano, Richard L; Factor, Stewart A; Goetz, Christopher G; Jankovic, Joseph; Reich, Stephen G; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Severt, William L; Zurowski, Mateusz; Fox, Susan H; Stebbins, Glenn T
The aim of this study was to test the clinimetric properties of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale. This is a modular scale with modifications of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (composed of three subscales assessing motor severity, disability, and pain) now referred to as the revised Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Scale-2; a newly developed psychiatric screening instrument; and the Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile-58 as a quality of life measure. Ten dystonia experts rated subjects with cervical dystonia using the comprehensive scale. Clinimetric techniques assessed each module of the scale for reliability, item correlation, and factor structure. There were 208 cervical dystonia patients (73% women; age, 59 ± 10 years; duration, 15 ± 12 years). Internal consistency of the motor severity subscale was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.57). Item to total correlations showed that elimination of items with low correlations (<0.20) increased alpha to 0.71. Internal consistency estimates for the subscales for disability and pain were 0.88 and 0.95, respectively. The psychiatric screening scale had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.84 and satisfactory item to total correlations. When the subscales of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Scale-2 were combined with the psychiatric screening scale, Cronbach's alpha was 0.88, and construct validity assessment demonstrated four rational factors: motor; disability; pain; and psychiatric disorders. The Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile-58 had an alpha of 0.98 and its construction was validated through a confirmatory factor analysis. The modules of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale are internally consistent with a logical factor structure. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Dystonia is an involuntary movement involving twisting and turning of agonist and antagonist muscles. Cervical dystonia is isolated to neck musculature. Botulinum toxin type A is a safe and effective treatment of this disabling and often painful syndrome. Three forms of botulinum toxin type A are available worldwide to treat patients with cervical dystonia. This is a review of the studies of botulinum toxin type A to treat cervical dystonia. PMID:19707390
Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John
Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…
Hwynn, Nelson; Tagliati, Michele; Alterman, Ron L; Limotai, Natlada; Zeilman, Pamela; Malaty, Irene A; Foote, Kelly D; Morishita, Takashi; Okun, Michael S
Deep brain stimulation has been utilized in both dystonia and in medication refractory Tourette syndrome. We present an interesting case of a patient with a mixture of disabling dystonia and Tourette syndrome whose coexistent dystonia and tics were successfully treated with 60 Hz-stimulation of the globus pallidus region.
Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John
Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…
Luciano, Angelo Y.; Jinnah, H. A.; Pfeiffer, Ronald F.; Truong, Daniel D.; Nance, Martha A.; LeDoux, Mark S.
Background Many cases of myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) are due to mutations in SGCE (DYT11). For the majority of patients, myoclonus is relatively more severe than dystonia and can lead to significant functional disability. Deep brain stimulation has been chosen as a treatment option in some patients given that M-D often responds poorly to oral pharmacotherapy. Methods Two siblings with M-D due to the same SGCE deletion mutation were evaluated with the Global Dystonia Rating Scale (GDRS), Fahn-Marsden Rating Scale (FM) and Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale (UMRS) on and off tetrabenazine. Results Both subjects showed marked improvement in myoclonus and mild-to-moderate improvement in dystonia with tetrabenazine. In addition, the response to tetrabenazine has been sustained for years. Conclusions A therapeutic trial of tetrabenazine should be considered in patients with M-D, especially before consideration of deep brain stimulation. An adequately powered multi-center, double-blind study of tetrabenazine will be required to determine the relative contributions of tetrabenazine therapy to myoclonus, dystonia, quality of life, and activities of daily living in patients with M-D. PMID:25406829
Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Cattai, Lígia; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni
Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by intermittent or sustained muscle contractions that cause abnormal, usually repetitive, movements and postures. Dystonic movements can be tremulous and twisting and often follow a pattern. They are frequently associated with overflow muscle activation and may be triggered or worsened by voluntary action. Most voluntary muscles can be affected and, in the case of the neck muscles, the condition is referred to as cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of dystonia. The high incidence of pain distinguishes CD from other focal dystonias and contributes significantly to patient disability and low quality of life. Different degrees of pain in the cervical region are reported by more than 60% of patients, and pain intensity is directly related to disease severity. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is currently considered the treatment of choice for CD and can lead to an improvement in pain and dystonic symptoms in up to 90% of patients. The results for BoNT/A and BoNT/B are similar. The complex relationship between pain and dystonia has resulted in a large number of studies and more comprehensive assessments of dystonic patients. When planning the application of BoNT, pain should be a key factor in the choice of muscles and doses. In conclusion, BoNT is highly effective in controlling pain, and its analgesic effect is sustained for a long time in most CD patients. PMID:26110508
Bronte-Stewart, Helen; Taira, Takaomi; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Merello, Marcello; Marks, William J; Albanese, Alberto; Bressman, Susan; Moro, Elena
When considering a patient with dystonia for deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery several factors need to be considered. Level B evidence has shown that all motor features and associated pain in primary generalized and segmental dystonia are potentially responsive to globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS. However, improvements in clinical series of ≥ 90% may reflect methods that need improvement, and larger prospective studies are needed to address these factors. Nevertheless, to date the selection criteria for DBS-specifically in terms of patient features (severity and nature of symptoms, age, time of evolution, or any other demographic or disease aspects)--have not been assessed in a systematic fashion. In general, dystonia patients are not considered for DBS unless medical therapies have been previously and extensively tested. The vast majority of reported patients have had DBS surgery when the disease was provoking important disability, with loss of independence and impaired quality of life. There does not appear to be an upper age limit or a minimum age limit, although there are no published data regarding the outcome of GPi DBS for dystonia in children younger than 7 years of age. There is currently no enough evidence to prove that subjects with primary--generalized dystonia who undergo DBS at an early age and sooner rather than later after disease onset may gain more benefit from DBS than those undergoing DBS after the development of fixed skeletal deformities. There is no enough evidence to refuse or support consideration of DBS in patients with previous ablative procedures.
Schuele, Stephan; Lederman, Richard J
This study describes the clinical characteristics and long-term outcome in string instrumentalists with focal task-specific dystonia. We present the results of a follow-up telephone survey of 21 violin and viola players with focal dystonia. Eighteen musicians responded to the questionnaire. Information on long-term outcome was available on average 13.8 years after onset of symptoms. Main complaints were playing-related loss of control and involuntary movements affecting the fingering hand in 16 and the bow arm in 5 patients. In 18 patients (86%), signs of abnormal posture could be detected by watching them play their instrument. Treatment attempts included nerve decompression, physical therapy, retraining, and anticholinergic medication. In selected patients, botulinum toxin injections or splint devices were offered. Only 38% of the performing artists were able to maintain their professional careers, among them none with bow arm dystonia. Focal dystonia may affect the fingering hand or bow arm in violin and viola instrumentalists. Treatment benefit is limited and in more than half of the patients, dystonia leads to the end of their musical career.
Mayer, F; Topka, H; Boose, A; Horstmann, T; Dickhuth, H H
Dystonias occur frequently as repetitive movements, persistent elevations of muscle tone, or tonic contortions, whereby the cause is assumed to be an impairment of basal ganglia function. Focal dystonias are especially known in musicians, although little is reported on focal dystonias in athletic stress. The present case report describes the case of a 34-yr-old professional tennis player with bilateral segmental dystonia. The symptoms were expressed in involuntary movements when he intended to hit the ball and in a progredient tremor, initially in one hand, later in both, making him unable to write. The altered mobility during athletic stress was confirmed by video analysis, the altered innervation with excessive, uncoordinated impulse influx by means of electromyography during sport-type specific stress, and writing incapacity during a writing test. The symptoms abated under therapy with trihexyphenidyl-HCL, so that the patient has been able to work as a tennis coach with improved athletic performance for the past 3 yr. It is concluded that the various forms of dystonia should be included in the differential diagnosis of impaired coordinative movements under athletic exercise, especially of the upper extremities.
McNaught, Kevin St P; Kapustin, Alexander; Jackson, Tehone; Jengelley, Toni-Ann; Jnobaptiste, Ruth; Shashidharan, Pullanipally; Perl, Daniel P; Pasik, Pedro; Olanow, C Warren
DYT1 dystonia is a severe form of young-onset dystonia caused by a mutation in the gene that encodes for the protein torsinA, which is thought to play a role in protein transport and degradation. We describe, for the first time to our knowledge, perinuclear inclusion bodies in the midbrain reticular formation and periaqueductal gray in four clinically documented and genetically confirmed DYT1 patients but not in controls. The inclusions were located within cholinergic and other neurons in the pedunculopontine nucleus, cuneiform nucleus, and griseum centrale mesencephali and stained positively for ubiquitin, torsinA, and the nuclear envelope protein lamin A/C. No evidence of inclusion body formation was detected in the substantia nigra pars compacta, striatum, hippocampus, or selected regions of the cerebral cortex. We also noted tau/ubiquitin-immunoreactive aggregates in pigmented neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and locus coeruleus in all four DYT1 dystonia cases, but not in controls. This study supports the notion that DYT1 dystonia is associated with impaired protein handling and the nuclear envelope. The role of the pedunculopontine and cuneiform nuclei, and related brainstem brainstem structures, in mediating motor activity and controlling muscle tone suggests that alterations in these structures could underlie the pathophysiology of DYT1 dystonia [corrected
Quartarone, Angelo; Pisani, Antonio
Work over the past two decades lead to substantial changes in our understanding of dystonia, which was, until recently, considered an exclusively sporadic movement disorder. The discovery of several gene mutations responsible for many inherited forms of dystonia has prompted much effort in the generation of transgenic mouse models bearing mutations found in patients. The large majority of these rodent models do not exhibit overt phenotypic abnormalities, or neuronal loss in specific brain areas. Nevertheless, both subtle motor abnormalities and significant alterations of synaptic plasticity have been recorded in mice, suggestive of an altered basal ganglia circuitry. In addition, robust evidence from experimental and clinical work supports the assumption that dystonia may indeed be considered a disorder linked to the disruption of synaptic "scaling", with a prevailing facilitation of synaptic potentiation, together with the loss of synaptic inhibitory processes. Notably, neurophysiological studies from patients carrying gene mutations as well as from non-manifesting carriers have shown the presence of synaptic plasticity abnormalities, indicating the presence of specific endophenotypic traits in carriers of the gene mutation. In this survey, we review findings from a broad range of data, obtained both from animal models and human research, and propose that the abnormalities of synaptic plasticity described in mice and humans may be considered an endophenotype to dystonia, and a valid and powerful tool to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this movement disorder. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Advances in dystonia".
Bertram, Kelly L; Williams, David R
The diagnosis of cervical dystonia (CD) is based on physical examination and is therefore reliant on clinician experience. Due to variability of presenting symptoms it may be misdiagnosed, thus delaying the provision of effective treatment. We sought to determine the average time taken to make a diagnosis of CD in our clinical cohort and explore contributing factors to diagnostic delay. Forty-nine patients with a diagnosis of CD attending a movement disorder specialist for treatment completed a questionnaire regarding symptoms and clinical interactions at onset and diagnosis. The mean time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 6.8 years (range 0-53 years). More than 50% of patients sought physical therapies initially, prior to consulting their general practitioner. Only 40% of patients sought medical advice within the first 6 months of symptom onset and only 10% were given an initial diagnosis of CD. The first referral from the general practitioner was to a specialist other than a neurologist in 31% of patients. Patients were seen by a mean of three doctors (range one to nine) before being given the correct diagnosis of CD. Delay to diagnosis of CD may in part be due to lack of awareness of the condition amongst health care professionals. Improved diagnostic skill appears likely to have had a substantial impact on the delivery of appropriate treatment in this population.
Czekóová, Kristína; Zemánková, Petra; Shaw, Daniel J; Bareš, Martin
For a long time, cervical dystonia (CD) has been characterised only by disturbances in motor functioning. Despite accumulating evidence for symptomatology in various non-motor domains, to date no study has investigated social cognition in CD. The aim of this study was to compare performance of CD patients and healthy controls in neurocognitive and socio-cognitive domain. Twenty-five non-depressed patients with CD and 26 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological testing. This involved assessment of cognitive status (general intellect, verbal memory, and executive function), and socio-cognitive functions using a Theory of mind task and self-report on empathy and emotion regulation. In comparison to controls, CD patients displayed significantly decreased cognitive abilities, particularly in executive function and verbal memory tasks. Difficulties in inferring mental states on both cognitive and affective levels were also observed. The largest discrepancies were detected in understanding intentionality in others. Poorer performance in cognitive and socio-cognitive tasks was unrelated to severity of the disease. This is the first evidence of compromised socio-cognitive functions in CD patients, highlighting this domain as another facet of non-motor symptoms of this disease. Future studies should advance our understanding of the extent, nature, and time course of these deficits in other aspects of social cognition in this patient population.
Zilber, N; Korczyn, A D; Kahana, E; Fried, K; Alter, M
Idiopathic torsion dystonia (ITD) has long been considered to be genetically determined, but the pattern of inheritance has been unclear. It has been suggested that inheritance may differ in Jews and non-Jews. In the present study, data gathered in a nationwide survey of ITD in Israel were analysed. Between 1969 and 1980, 47 patients were collected, of whom 40 were of European origin. In these European Jews, the ITD frequency was about 1:23 000 live births, which was five-fold greater than in Jews of Afro-Asian origin. Assuming that all cases fit the same genetic model, an X linked or a simple autosomal recessive model of inheritance did not agree well with our data. An autosomal dominant model with low penetrance could have accounted for our observations and would yield an ITD gene frequency in European Jews of 3 to 4:100 000. In view of the increased ages of their fathers, the isolated cases may have included some new mutations. Multifactorial inheritance was also possible. However, it may be inappropriate to assume that all cases have the same genetic basis, or even that all are inherited. PMID:6694180
Balint, B; Bhatia, K P
Recent consensus on the definition, phenomenology and classification of dystonia centres around phenomenology and guides our diagnostic approach for the heterogeneous group of dystonias. Current terminology classifies conditions where dystonia is the sole motor feature (apart from tremor) as 'isolated dystonia', while 'combined dystonia' refers to dystonias with other accompanying movement disorders. This review highlights recent advances in the genetics of some isolated and combined dystonic syndromes. Some genes, such as ANO3, GNAL and CIZ1, have been discovered for isolated dystonia, but they are probably not a common cause of classic cervical dystonia. Conversely, the phenotype associated with TUBB4A mutations expanded from that of isolated dystonia to a syndrome of hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC syndrome). Similarly, ATP1A3 mutations cause a wide phenotypic spectrum ranging from rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism to alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Other entities entailing dystonia-parkinsonism include dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome (SLC63 mutations); dopa-responsive dystonias; young-onset parkinsonism (PARKIN, PINK1 and DJ-1 mutations); PRKRA mutations; and X-linked TAF1 mutations, which rarely can also manifest in women. Clinical and genetic heterogeneity also characterizes myoclonus-dystonia, which includes not only the classical phenotype associated with epsilon-sarcoglycan mutations but rarely also presentation of ANO3 gene mutations, TITF1 gene mutations typically underlying benign hereditary chorea, and some dopamine synthesis pathway conditions due to GCH1 and TH mutations. Thus, new genes are being recognized for isolated dystonia, and the phenotype of known genes is broadening and now involves different combined dystonia syndromes.
Blood, Anne J.; Tuch, David S.; Makris, Nikos; Makhlouf, Miriam L.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Sharma, Nutan
The pathophysiology of dystonia is still poorly understood. We used diffusion tensor imaging to screen for white matter abnormalities in regions between the basal ganglia and the thalamus in cervical and hand dystonia patients. All patients exhibited an abnormal hemispheric asymmetry in a focal region between the pallidum and the thalamus. This asymmetry was absent 4 weeks after the same patients were treated with intramuscular botulinum toxin injections. These findings represent a new systems-level abnormality in dystonia, which may lead to new insights about the pathophysiology of movement disorders. More generally, these findings demonstrate central nervous system changes following peripheral reductions in muscle activity. This raises the possibility that we have observed activity-dependent white matter plasticity in the adult human brain. PMID:16951564
Blood, Anne J; Tuch, David S; Makris, Nikos; Makhlouf, Miriam L; Sudarsky, Lewis R; Sharma, Nutan
The pathophysiology of dystonia is still poorly understood. We used diffusion tensor imaging to screen for white matter abnormalities in regions between the basal ganglia and the thalamus in cervical and hand dystonia patients. All patients exhibited an abnormal hemispheric asymmetry in a focal region between the pallidum and the thalamus. This asymmetry was absent 4 weeks after the same patients were treated with intramuscular botulinum toxin injections. These findings represent a new systems-level abnormality in dystonia, which may lead to new insights about the pathophysiology of movement disorders. More generally, these findings demonstrate central nervous system changes following peripheral reductions in muscle activity. This raises the possibility that we have observed activity-dependent white matter plasticity in the adult human brain.
Narbona, J; Obeso, J A; Tuñon, T; Martinez-Lage, J M; Marsden, C D
An 8-year-old boy with an 18 month history of left limb hemi-dystonia due to a right lenticular nucleus astrocytoma originating in the putamen is reported. Subsequent neuropathological study demonstrated that the tumour was mainly localised to the right lenticular nucleus, with cystic necrosis in the infero-lateral putamen. Solid tumour also infiltrated the right hypothalamus, the anterior commisure and the optic chiasm, and there was perivascular spread into the globus pallidus, internal capsule and roof of the right lateral ventricle. This case, and the few other published reports of symptomatic dystonia due to focal brain lesions verified pathologically, indicate that damage to the lenticular nucleus, and to the putamen in particular, can cause limb dystonia in man. Images PMID:6747646
Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Shahidi, Gholamali; Naghdi, Reza
Inherited homocystinuria is a rare autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy which through early diagnosis can prevent its severe neurologic and vascular complications. Here we report a 9-year-old girl with homocystinuria, presenting with sequential symptoms of bilateral lens dislocation, skeletal complication, and eventually dystonia from the age of 4 years. Laboratory evaluation revealed severe high serum homocysteine level. Although pathophysiologically unexplained, evidence of deep white matter watershed infarct along with remarkable ipsilateral carotid stenosis was detected on the contralateral side of the dystonia in the neuroimaging. Treatment with high dose of pyridoxine relieved limb and gait dystonia significantly, while carotid stenosis remained unchanged. Therefore, homocysteine might have both structural and irreversible effect and functional and reversible impact that could be overcome even in late stages.
Oveisgharan, Shahram; Shahidi, Gholamali; Naghdi, Reza
Inherited homocystinuria is a rare autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy which through early diagnosis can prevent its severe neurologic and vascular complications. Here we report a 9-year-old girl with homocystinuria, presenting with sequential symptoms of bilateral lens dislocation, skeletal complication, and eventually dystonia from the age of 4 years. Laboratory evaluation revealed severe high serum homocysteine level. Although pathophysiologically unexplained, evidence of deep white matter watershed infarct along with remarkable ipsilateral carotid stenosis was detected on the contralateral side of the dystonia in the neuroimaging. Treatment with high dose of pyridoxine relieved limb and gait dystonia significantly, while carotid stenosis remained unchanged. Therefore, homocysteine might have both structural and irreversible effect and functional and reversible impact that could be overcome even in late stages. PMID:28503581
Linazasoro, Gurutz; Indakoetxea, Begoña; Ruiz, Javier; Van Blercom, Nadege; Lasa, Asier
Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism is a hereditary disease characterized by a combination of dystonic and parkinsonian symptoms. Bulbar musculature is predominantly affected by dystonia. The onset is usually abrupt and the progression of the disease over years is minimal or absent. Homovanillic acid levels in cerebrospinal fluid can be diminished, suggesting that the pathogenesis of the disease is related to some dysfunction in dopaminergic neurotransmission. However, no abnormality has been found in positron emission tomography studies and levodopa does not improve symptoms. The genetic abnormality is not known, but evidence for linkage to markers on chromosome 19q13 has been reported. We describe the case of a woman with a clinical picture highly suggestive of rapid onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) and no family history of the disease. Copyright 2002 Movement Disorder Society.
Soma, Venkatesh; Mohammed, Hussain Sadiq; Riyas, Ebrahim; Murugesan, Karuppasamy
Children with recent onset dystonia and gait abnormalities may pose a diagnostic challenge. A ten-year-old, developmentally normal girl, presented with a six-month history of gait abnormality and dystonia. Her complaint worsened as the day progressed. In view of typical diurnal variation of dystonia, a therapeutic challenge with levodopa/carbidopa was given and there was a dramatic response. Hence, a diagnosis of dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) was made. DRD is an inherited disorder characterized by dystonia with diurnal variation and favorable response to levodopa/carbidopa. The inheritance is usually autosomal dominant, however, in some cases, autosomal-recessive inheritance is also seen. PMID:24479026
Rosenkranz, Karin; Butler, Katherine; Williamon, Aaron; Rothwell, John C
Professional musicians are an excellent model of long-term motor learning effects on structure and function of the sensorimotor system. However, intensive motor skill training has been associated with task-specific deficiency in hand motor control, which has a higher prevalence among musicians (musician's dystonia) than in the general population. Using a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm, we previously found an expanded spatial integration of proprioceptive input into the hand motor cortex [sensorimotor organization (SMO)] in healthy musicians. In musician's dystonia, however, this expansion was even larger. Whereas motor skills of musicians are likely to be supported by a spatially expanded SMO, we hypothesized that in musician's dystonia this might have developed too far and now disrupts rather than assists task-specific motor control. If so, motor control should be regained by reversing the excessive reorganization in musician's dystonia. Here, we test this hypothesis and show that a 15 min intervention with proprioceptive input (proprioceptive training) restored SMO in pianists with musician's dystonia to the pattern seen in healthy pianists. Crucially, task-specific motor control improved significantly and objectively as measured with a MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) piano, and the amount of behavioral improvement was significantly correlated to the degree of sensorimotor reorganization. In healthy pianists and nonmusicians, the SMO and motor performance remained essentially unchanged. These findings suggest that the differentiation of SMO in the hand motor cortex and the degree of motor control of intensively practiced tasks are significantly linked and finely balanced. Proprioceptive training restored this balance in musician's dystonia to the behaviorally beneficial level of healthy musicians.
Fiorio, Mirta; Weise, David; Önal-Hartmann, Cigdem; Zeller, Daniel; Tinazzi, Michele; Classen, Joseph
Patients with dystonia display a number of disturbances in the cognitive processing of movements, such as movement simulation and prediction, but whether these deficits point to a deeper rooted disturbance of perceptual bodily representations remains unknown. A useful way to investigate the sense of body ownership is the rubber hand paradigm, in which an illusion of ownership is established by synchronous stroking of the participants' real unseen hand and a visible fake hand, whereas similar asynchronous stroking does not bring about the illusion. This paradigm allows testing of both the subjective experience of feeling ownership over the rubber hand and the proprioceptive relocation of the real unseen hand towards the viewed rubber hand. Previous studies have mapped these different aspects onto two anatomically distinct neuronal substrates, with the ventral premotor cortex processing the illusory feeling of ownership and the inferior parietal lobule and cerebellum processing proprioceptive drift. We applied the rubber hand illusion task to healthy subjects and to patients affected by two different types of focal dystonia-one specifically affecting the hand (focal hand dystonia) and one not affecting the hand (torticollis and blepharospasm). Results showed that in patients with focal hand dystonia, the proprioceptive drift was selectively disrupted on the dystonic hand while the subjective experience of the illusion was retained. In the non-dystonic hand and in the other two groups (non-hand dystonia and healthy subjects), the rubber hand illusion resembled the typical pattern with synchronous stroking eliciting the illusion. These findings provide support for the contention that the mechanisms underlying the presence of the illusory feeling of ownership and the proprioceptive drift are different. Selective impairment of the limb recalibration on the dystonic hand points to underlying deficits in integrating the visual-tactile input with the proprioceptive
Harwood, G; Hierons, R; Fletcher, N A; Marsden, C D
A family is described in which dopa-responsive dystonia affected six members and segregated in an autosomal dominant fashion. Patients either presented in childhood with dystonia of the legs, going to develop parkinsonism and pseudo-pyramidal deficits, or in adult life with parkinsonian tremor and rigidity, with pseudo-pyramidal signs. Remarkably, in the three cases with childhood onset the symptoms and signs of the condition were abolished 36 to 52 years later by small doses of levodopa. No long term side effects of levodopa have appeared after 15 years of treatment. PMID:8163996
Marsden, C D; Lang, A E; Quinn, N P; McDonald, W I; Abdallat, A; Nimri, S
A unique disorder is described in seven members of two families in whom dystonia was variably associated with subacute visual loss or asymptomatic optic atrophy, and striking bilateral symmetrical lucencies on CT scan, especially involving the putamen. It is possible that this is a variant of Leigh's disease. However, there were considerable differences between these patients and those with pathologically proven Leigh's disease. This condition must be excluded in all patients thought to have idiopathic dystonia, subacute visual failure similar to Leber's optic neuropathy, or a combination of these disorders. Images PMID:3711913
Shavlovskaia, O A; Orlova, O R; Golubev, V L
Paradoxical kinesis (PK) phenomenon and its variants, exerting a beneficial influence on dystonia dynamics, are described using self clinical examination of 57 writer's cramp patients. PK was found in all the patients independently of writer's cramp variant, duration and severity. The most frequent writing maneuvers were as follows: hand printed (100%), proximal arm muscles writing (82.5%), individually selected writing instrument (67.5-80%), unusual means (67.5-75%), writing imitation with unlike-pen object (70%), marked papers (52.5%). The beneficial influence of PK phenomenon on dystonia expression may be considered as one of the directions of writer's cramp rehabilitation.
Hogg, Elliot; Tagliati, Michele
Background Overuse or task-specific dystonia has been described in a number of professions characterized by repetitive actions, typically affecting the upper extremities. Cervical dystonia (CD), however, has rarely been associated with overuse. Case Report We present a case report of typical CD that developed in the context of chronic repetitive movements associated with the patient’s professional occupation as an office manager who spent many hours per day holding a phone to his ear. Discussion Overuse CD should be suspected when typical symptoms and signs of CD develop in the context of chronic repetitive use or overuse of cervical muscles, especially where exacerbating tasks involve asymmetric postures. PMID:27708983
Forbes, Patrick A; de Bruijn, Edo; Nijmeijer, Sebastiaan W R; Koelman, Johannes H T M; van der Helm, Frans C T; Schouten, Alfred C; Tijssen, Marina A J; Happee, Riender
Effective sensorimotor integration is essential to modulate (adapt) neck stabilization strategies in response to varying tasks and disturbances. This study evaluates the hypothesis that relative to healthy controls cervical dystonia patients have an impaired ability to modulate afferent feedback for neck stabilization with changes in the frequency content of mechanical perturbations. We applied anterior-posterior displacement perturbations (110s) on the torso of seated subjects, while recording head-neck kinematics and muscular activity. We compared low bandwidth (0.2-1.2Hz) and high bandwidth (0.2-8Hz) perturbations where our previous research showed a profound modulation of stabilization strategies in healthy subjects. Cervical dystonia patients and age matched controls performed two tasks: (1) maintain head forward posture and (2) allow dystonia to dictate head posture. Patients and controls demonstrated similar kinematic and muscular responses. Patient modulation was similar to that of healthy controls (P>0.05); neck stiffness and afferent feedback decreased with high bandwidth perturbations. During the head forward task patients had an increased neck stiffness relative to controls (P<0.05), due to increased afferent feedback. The unaffected modulation of head-neck stabilization (both kinematic and muscular) in patients with cervical dystonia does not support the hypothesis of impaired afferent feedback modulation for neck stabilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Charlesworth, Gavin; Mohire, Mahavir D; Schneider, Susanne A; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W; Bhatia, Kailash P
To identify the cause of cervical dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) in a Muslim Indian family inherited in an apparently autosomal recessive fashion, as previously described in this journal. Previous testing for mutations in the genes known to cause DRD (GCH1, TH, and SPR) had been negative. Whole exome sequencing was performed on all 3 affected individuals for whom DNA was available to identify potentially pathogenic shared variants. Genotyping data obtained for all 3 affected individuals using the OmniExpress single nucleotide polymorphism chip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) were used to perform linkage analysis, autozygosity mapping, and copy number variation analysis. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm all variants. After filtering of the variants, exome sequencing revealed 2 genes harboring potentially pathogenic compound heterozygous variants (ATM and LRRC16A). Of these, the variants in ATM segregated perfectly with the cervical DRD. Both mutations detected in ATM have been shown to be pathogenic, and α-fetoprotein, a marker of ataxia telangiectasia, was increased in all affected individuals. Biallelic mutations in ATM can cause DRD, and mutations in this gene should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained DRD, particularly if the dystonia is cervical and if there is a recessive family history. ATM has previously been reported to cause isolated cervical dystonia, but never, to our knowledge, DRD. Individuals with dystonia related to ataxia telangiectasia may benefit from a trial of levodopa.
Di Martino, Siria; Dalise, Stefania; Lamola, Giuseppe; Venturi, Martina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo
Treatment options for dystonia are not curative but symptomatic; the treatment of choice for focal dystonias is repeated botulinum toxin injections. Here, we present the case of a 46-year-old beautician with focal dystonia in her left hand that affected her ability to work. Pharmacological treatment with clonazepam and gabapentin failed to resolve her symptoms and was discontinued due to side effects (sleepiness, gastrointestinal disorders). Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (incobotulinumtoxinA, Xeomin) into the extensor digitorum communis (35 U), flexor carpi radialis (35 U), and flexor digitorum superficialis (30 U) muscles resulted in complete resolution of symptoms at clinical assessments at 1, 3, 6, and 10 months after the injections, confirmed by the results of surface electromyography 10 months after treatment. The patient was able to work again 1 month after treatment. No reinjection has been necessary at the last evaluation (12 months after treatment). In conclusion, botulinum toxin is an effective treatment for focal dystonia that can have long-lasting effects and can improve patients' ability to work and quality of life. PMID:25143844
Rosales, Raymond L
The clinical phenotype of X-Linked Dystonia Parkinsonism (XDP) is typically one that involves a Filipino adult male whose ancestry is mostly traced in the Philippine island of Panay. Dystonia usually starts focally in the lower limbs or oromandibular regions, then spreads to become generalized eventually. Parkinsonism sets in later into the disease and usually in combination with dystonia. /DYT3/ and /TAF1/ are the two genes associated with XDP. An SVA retrotransposon insertion in an intron of /TAF1/ may reduce neuron-specific expression of the /TAF1/ isoform in the caudate nucleus, and subsequently interfere with the transcription of many neuronal genes. Polypharmacy with oral benzodiazepines, anticholinergic agents and muscle relaxants leaves much to be desired in terms of efficacy. The medications to date that may appear beneficial, especially in disabling dystonias, are zolpidem, muscle afferent block with lidocaine-ethanol and botulinum toxin type A. Despite the few cases undergoing deep brain stimulation, this functional surgery has shown the greatest promise in XDP. An illustrative case of XDP in a family depicts the variable course of illness, including a bout of "status dystonicus," challenges in therapy, reckoning with the social impact of the disease, and eventual patient demise. Indeed, there remains some gaps in understanding some phenomenological, genetic and treatment aspects of XDP, the areas upon which future research directions may be worthwhile.
Waissman, Flavia; Pereira, João Santos; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M
The development of focal hand dystonia through repetitive tasks is a result of degradation of cortical somatosensory representation due to repetitive fast stimuli sufficient to alter the sensory-motor stimulus, harming the motor control. A sensory-motor training program can modify this disorder. A behavioural intervention focusing on movement could help reduce or eliminate these conditions.
... body and move downward, first affecting the facial muscles, then the arms, and finally the legs. The signs and symptoms of rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism most commonly appear in adolescence or young adulthood. In some affected individuals, signs and symptoms ...
Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning
Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610
Fremont, Rachel; Tewari, Ambika; Angueyra, Chantal; Khodakhah, Kamran
DYT1 is a debilitating movement disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in torsinA. How these mutations cause dystonia remains unknown. Mouse models which have embryonically targeted torsinA have failed to recapitulate the dystonia seen in patients, possibly due to differential developmental compensation between rodents and humans. To address this issue, torsinA was acutely knocked down in select brain regions of adult mice using shRNAs. TorsinA knockdown in the cerebellum, but not in the basal ganglia, was sufficient to induce dystonia. In agreement with a potential developmental compensation for loss of torsinA in rodents, torsinA knockdown in the immature cerebellum failed to produce dystonia. Abnormal motor symptoms in knockdown animals were associated with irregular cerebellar output caused by changes in the intrinsic activity of both Purkinje cells and neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei. These data identify the cerebellum as the main site of dysfunction in DYT1, and offer new therapeutic targets. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22775.001 PMID:28198698
Isaac, C; Wright, I; Bhattacharyya, D; Baxter, P; Rowe, J
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration is associated with generalised dystonia and cognitive deterioration. Limited evidence suggests that pallidal deep brain stimulation improves physical functioning. This is a report of the assessment and treatment of a severely affected patient in whom pallidal deep brain stimulation improved both physical and psychosocial functioning. Implications for treatment are briefly discussed.
Newman, Jeremy R B; Boyle, Richard S; O'Sullivan, John D; Silburn, Peter A; Mellick, George D
It is currently hypothesised that a combination of genetic and environmental factors underlies the development of idiopathic isolated dystonia (IID). In this study, we examined several possible environmental or other non-genetic factors that may influence the risk for IID in Queensland, Australia. We surveyed several environmental exposures, lifestyle factors, medical and family histories to investigate potential risk factors for IID. Associations between putative risk factors and IID were assessed using a total of 184 dystonia patients and 1048 neurologically-normal control subjects sampled from Queensland between 2005 and 2012. Our analyses revealed that anxiety disorders, depression, tremor, cigarette smoking and head injuries with a loss of consciousness were associated with increased risk for IID (p<0.05), all of which remained statistically significant following an adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing except for depression. We also observed that the risk for dystonia increased with higher cigarette smoking pack-year quartiles in our analyses. Our results suggest possible environmental factors that influence the development of IID and complement the findings of similar dystonia risk factor studies. Further investigation defining the environmental and other non-genetic risk factors for IID may provide insight into the development of the disorder in genetically-susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Naryshkin, A G; Preobrazhenskaia, I G; Timofeev, I S; Filimonov, V N; Sheliakin, A M
The paper presents data obtained from studies of the impact of the otolithic apparatus of the inner ear on the degree of symptoms of cervical dystonia. The findings make it possible to substantiate a pathogenetic treatment of this disease, which involves intratimpanal unilateral injection of the vestibulotoxic antibiotic streptomycin. The results achieved and the mechanisms of the therapeutical effect observed are discussed.
Aránguiz, R; Chana-Cuevas, P; Alburquerque, D; Curinao, X
Dystonias are defined as a joint sustained and involuntary contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles, which can cause torsion, repetitive abnormal involuntary movements, and/or abnormal postures. One special group of dystonias are those known as occupational, which include dystonia disorders triggered by a repetitive motor activity associated with a specific professional activity or task. Musicians are a population particularly vulnerable to these types of dystonia, which are presented as a loss of coordination and voluntary motor control movements highly trained in musical interpretation. Our aim is to describe a clinical series of focal dystonias in musicians evaluated and treated in our centre. Data is presented on a clinical series of 12 musicians with occupational dystonia. Their history and phenomenology are described, as well as well as their outcome after therapy. Demographic details: Mean age 34.8 ± 11.8 years, 10 males (83.3%) and 2 females (16.7%). History of trauma in dystonic segment, 6 patients (50%); family history of neurological diseases in first-degree relatives, 6 patients (50%); occupational history according to music category, 8 patients (66.6%) were classical musicians and 4 patients (33.3%) were popular musicians. The dystonia syndrome was characterised by having a mean age of onset of 28.2 ± 11.3 years (range 18-57 years). The segment affected was the hand (91.7%) in 11 patients. Of all the musicians seen in the clinic, 9 of them (75%) received therapy. The majority of patients appeared to have triggering factors specific to musical execution and linked to the requirement of fine motor control. It should be mentioned that 50% of the musicians treated maintained their professional activity or position in the orchestra to which they belonged. The majority of our phenomenological findings are consistent with those reported in the current literature. However, it is worth mentioning the presence of triggering factors attributed to the
Sedov, Alexey; Popov, Valentin; Shabalov, Vladimir; Raeva, Svetlana; Jinnah, H A; Shaikh, Aasef G
Early theories for cervical dystonia, as promoted by Hassler, emphasized the role of the midbrain interstitial nucleus of Cajal. Focus then shifted to the basal ganglia, and it was further supported with the success of deep brain stimulation. Contemporary theories suggested the role of the cerebellum, but even more recent hypotheses renewed interest in the midbrain. Although the pretectum was visited on several occasions, we still do not know about the physiology of midbrain neurons in cervical dystonia. We analyzed the unique database of pretectal neurons collected in the 1970s and 1980s during historic stereotactic surgeries aimed to treat cervical dystonia. This database is valuable because such recordings could otherwise never be obtained from humans. We found the following 3 types of eye or neck movement sensitivity: eye-only neurons responded to pure vertical eye movements, neck-only neurons were sensitive to pure neck movements, and the combined eye-neck neurons responded to eye and neck movements. There were the 2 neuronal subtypes: burst-tonic and tonic. The eye-neck or eye-only neurons sustained their activity during eccentric gaze holding. In contrast, the response of neck-only and eye-neck neurons exponentially decayed during neck movements. Modern quantitative analysis of a historic database of midbrain single units from patients with cervical dystonia might support novel hypotheses for normal and abnormal head movements. This data, collected almost 4 decades ago, must be carefully viewed, especially because it was acquired using a less sophisticated technology available at that time and the aim was not to address specific hypothesis, but to make an accurate lesion providing optimal relief from dystonia. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Jha, Ashwani; Bock, Antje; Huebl, Julius; Horn, Andreas; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Sander, Tillmann H; Litvak, Vladimir; Kühn, Andrea A
Primary dystonia has been associated with an underlying dysfunction of a wide network of brain regions including the motor cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord. Dystonia can be effectively treated by pallidal deep brain stimulation although the mechanism of this effect is not well understood. Here, we sought to characterize cortico-basal ganglia functional connectivity using a frequency-specific measure of connectivity-coherence. We recorded direct local field potentials from the human pallidum simultaneously with whole head magnetoencephalography to characterize functional connectivity in the cortico-pallidal oscillatory network in nine patients with idiopathic dystonia. Three-dimensional cortico-pallidal coherence images were compared to surrogate images of phase shuffled data across patients to reveal clusters of significant coherence (family-wise error P < 0.01, voxel extent 1000). Three frequency-specific, spatially-distinct cortico-pallidal networks have been identified: a pallido-temporal source of theta band (4-8 Hz) coherence, a pallido-cerebellar source of alpha band (7-13 Hz) coherence and a cortico-pallidal source of beta band (13-30 Hz) coherence over sensorimotor areas. Granger-based directionality analysis revealed directional coupling with the pallidal local field potentials leading in the theta and alpha band and the magnetoencephalographic cortical source leading in the beta band. The degree of pallido-cerebellar coupling showed an inverse correlation with dystonic symptom severity. Our data extend previous findings in patients with Parkinson's disease describing motor cortex-basal ganglia oscillatory connectivity in the beta band to patients with dystonia. Source coherence analysis revealed two additional frequency-specific networks involving the temporal cortex and the cerebellum. Pallido-cerebellar oscillatory connectivity and its association with dystonic symptoms provides further confirmation of cerebellar involvement
Pacchetti, C; Albani, G; Martignoni, E; Godi, L; Alfonsi, E; Nappi, G
The "off" painful dystonia (OPD), usually concerning the feet, is a type of abnormal involuntary movement, induced by the chronic use of levodopa. It is mostly observed in the advanced stage of Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in the early morning, in the evening, and late at night. Indeed, some patients have experienced OPD also during "on" periods when dystonic posture of the foot alternates with dyskinesia. The pain probably is due to sustained muscle contraction, which causes prolonged muscle spasm, as in primary dystonia or torticollis. Dopaminergic drugs like bromocriptine, pergolide, and especially apomorphine (s.c. infusions, or bolus), can dramatically improve the OPD. Anticholinergics baclofen and lithium are alos used in the management of OPD with some benefit. On the other hand, clinical experience shows that in many cases, these therapeutic procedures are not always enough to produce the expected results. Thirty PD patients (22 men and eight women) with OPD of the foot were treated with botulinum toxin (Botox, Btx) using electromyograms to guide injections. Dystonia was evaluated using a quantitative rating scale. The selection of the muscles for Btx treatment was carried out on the basis of foot posture. We injected Btx into tibialis posterior, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, flexor digitorum longus, and extensores hallucis longus with a median dose 40 IU for each muscle, distributed in two sites. In all patients, the pain improved within 10 days, whereas in 21 patients, the pain disappeared completely for 4 months (range, 3-7 months); a concomitant improvement in intensity of the dystonic spasm was also observed. No side effects were reported. Seven patients with associated "on" foot dystonia described an improvement of foot posture on walking. In conclusion, in this uncontrolled study, the use of Btx in OPD seemed a promising tool to improve pain linked to foot dystonia; however, because of the well-known underlying dopaminergic defect in
Nunes, Marcelo B; Martinez, Alberto Rolim M; Rezende, Thiago Junqueira R; Friedman, Joseph H; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; D'Abreu, Anelyssa; França, Marcondes C
Dystonia is frequent in Machado-Joseph disease, but several important aspects are not yet defined, such as the detailed clinical profile, response to treatment and anatomical substrate. We screened 75 consecutive patients and identified those with dystonia. The Burke-Marsden-Fahn Dystonia Rating Scale was employed to quantify dystonia severity. Patients with dystonia received levodopa 600 mg/day for 2 months and were videotaped before and after treatment. A blinded evaluator rated dystonia in the videos. Patients with disabling dystonia who failed to respond to levodopa treatment received botulinum toxin. Finally, volumetric T1 and diffusion tensor imaging sequences were obtained in the dystonic group using a 3T-MRI scanner to identify areas of gray and white matter that were selectively damaged. There were 21 patients with dystonia (28%): 9 classified as generalized and 12 as focal/segmental. Patients with dystonia had earlier onset and larger (CAG) expansions (28.9 ± 11.7 vs 40.6 ± 11.4; p < 0.001 and 75 vs 70; p < 0.001, respectively). Although group analyses failed to show benefit on levodopa (p = 0.07), some patients had objective improvement. In addition, ten patients received botulinum toxin resulting in a significant change in dystonia scores after 4 weeks (p = 0.03). Patients with dystonia had atrophy at pre- and paracentral cortices; whereas, non-dystonic patients had occipital atrophy. Basal ganglia volume was reduced in both groups, but atrophy at the thalami, cerebellar white matter and ventral diencephali was disproportionately higher in the dystonic group. Dystonia in Machado-Joseph disease is frequent and often disabling, but may respond to levodopa. It is associated predominantly with structural abnormalities around the motor cortices and in the thalami. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Halstead, Lucinda A; McBroom, Deanna M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw
Singer's dystonia is a rare variation of focal laryngeal dystonia presenting only during specific tasks in the singing voice. It is underdiagnosed since it is commonly attributed to technique problems including increased muscle tension, register transition, or wobble. Singer's dystonia differs from technique-related issues in that it is task- and/or pitch-specific, reproducible and occurs independently from the previously mentioned technical issues.This case series compares and contrasts profiles of four patients with singer's dystonia to increase our knowledge of this disorder. This retrospective case series includes a detailed case history, results of singing evaluations from individual voice teachers, review of singing voice samples by a singing voice specialist, evaluation by a laryngologist with endoscopy and laryngeal electromyography (LEMG), and spectral analysis of the voice samples by a speech-language pathologist. Results demonstrate the similarities and unique differences of individuals with singer's dystonia. Response to treatment and singing status varied from nearly complete relief of symptoms with botulinum toxin injections to minor relief of symptoms and discontinuation of singing. The following are the conclusions from this case series: (1) singer's dystonia exists as a separate entity from technique issues, (2) singer's dystonia is consistent with other focal task-specific dystonias found in musicians, (3) correctly diagnosing singer's dystonia allows singer's access to medical treatment of dystonia and an opportunity to modify their singing repertoire to continue singing with the voice they have, and (4) diagnosis of singer's dystonia requires careful sequential multidisciplinary evaluation to isolate the instability and confirm dystonia by LEMG and spectral voice analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raymond, D.; Stoessl, A.J.; Hobson, D.; Nakamura, T.; Pullman, S.; Lefton, D.; Okun, M.S.; Uitti, R.; Sachdev, R.; Stanley, K.; San Luciano, M.; Hagenah, J.; Gatti, R.; Ozelius, L.J.; Bressman, S.B.
Objective: To compare the phenotype of primary-appearing dystonia due to variant ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) with that of other dystonia ascertained for genetics research. Methods: Movement disorder specialists examined 20 Canadian Mennonite adult probands with primary-appearing dystonia, as well as relatives in 4 families with parent-child transmission of dystonia. We screened for the exon 43 c.6200 C>A (p. A2067D) ATM mutation and mutations in DYT1 and DYT6. Clinical features of the individuals with dystonia who were harboring ATM mutations were compared with those of individuals without mutations. Result: Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous founder mutation in ATM in 13 members from 3 of the families, and no one harbored DYT6 or DYT1 mutations. Dystonia in ATM families mimicked other forms of early-onset primary torsion dystonia, especially DYT6, with prominent cervical, cranial, and brachial involvement. Mean age at onset was markedly younger in the patients with variant A-T (n = 12) than in patients with other dystonia (n = 23), (12 years vs 40 years, p < 0.05). The patients with A-T were remarkable for the absence of notable cerebellar atrophy on MRI, lack of frank ataxia on examination, and absence of ocular telangiectasias at original presentation, as well as the presence of prominent myoclonus-dystonia in 2 patients. Many also developed malignancies. Conclusion: Ataxia and telangiectasias may not be prominent features of patients with variant A-T treated for dystonia in adulthood, and variant A-T may mimic primary torsion dystonia and myoclonus-dystonia. PMID:22345219
1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0345 TITLE: A Novel Animal Model for Investigating the Neural Basis of Focal Dystonia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Sep 2015 – 31 Aug 2016 A Novel Animal Model for Investigating the Neural Basis of Focal Dystonia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1...of the project was to develop an animal model of the focal dystonia benign essential blepharospasm. Consistent with the widely held view that
Black, Kevin J; Snyder, Abraham Z; Mink, Jonathan W; Tolia, Veeral N; Revilla, Fredy J; Moerlein, Stephen M; Perlmutter, Joel S
The putamen has a somatotopic organization of neurons identified by correspondence of firing rates with selected body part movements, as well as by complex, but organized, differential cortical projections onto putamen. In isolated focal dystonia, whole putaminal binding of dopamine D2-like receptor radioligands is quantitatively decreased, but it has not been known whether selected parts of the putamen are differentially affected depending upon the body part affected by dystonia. The radioligand [(18)F]spiperone binds predominantly to D2-like receptors in striatum. We hypothesized that the spatial location of [(18)F]spiperone binding within the putamen would differ in patients with dystonia limited to the hand versus the face, and we tested that hypothesis using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. To address statistical and methodological concerns, we chose a straightforward but robust image analysis method. An automated algorithm located the peak location of [(18)F]spiperone binding within the striatum, relative to a brain atlas, in each of 14 patients with cranial dystonia and 8 patients with hand dystonia. The mean (left and right) |x|, y, and z coordinates of peak striatal binding for each patient were compared between groups by t test. The location of peak [(18)F]spiperone binding within the putamen differed significantly between groups (cranial dystonia z
Jiang, Yin; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Green, Alexander; Aziz, Tipu; Brown, Peter; Wang, Shouyan
Objectives Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been successfully used to treat both Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia. Local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the STN of PD patients demonstrate prominent beta frequency band activity. It is unclear whether such activity occurs in the STN in dystonia, and, if not, whether dystonia has another distinctive neural population activity in the STN. Methods Twelve patients with PD, and eight patients with dystonia underwent DBS electrode implantation targeting the STN. Seven dystonia patients were off medication and one was on aripiprazole and clonazepam. LFPs were recorded from the DBS electrodes in PD in the on/off medication states and in dystonia. Power spectra and temporal dynamics measured by the with Lempel-Ziv complexity of the LFPs were compared among these states. Results Normalised power spectra and Lempel-Ziv complexity of subthalamic LFPs differed between dystonia off and PD on/off, and between PD off and on over the low frequency, beta and high gamma bands. Patients with dystonia and off medication had lower beta power but higher low frequency and high gamma power than PD. Spectral power in the low beta frequency (11–20 Hz) range was attenuated in medicated PD. Conclusion The results suggest that dystonia and PD are characterized by different patterns of oscillatory activities even within the same nucleus, and exaggerated beta activity may relate to hypo-dopaminergic status. PMID:27940307
Mink, Jonathan W.
Dystonia is movement disorder with many diverse underlying etiologies. Some of those etiologies manifest at specific stages of development or at specific ages. Others may present early in life and evolve as the individual develops. Appearance of symptoms during a time of nervous system development poses special challenges to the neurology. Normal functions change appearance, dysfunction may manifest in an age-dependent manner, and age-dependent differences in beneficial and toxic effects of treatments all introduce complexities to the process of diagnosis, functional assessment, and therapeutics. Consideration of these developmental differences is essential in assuring a universal definition of dystonia, valid and reliable assessment tools that can be compared across the lifespan, and more effective therapeutics. PMID:23893449
Lee, Woong-Woo; Jeon, Beom Seok
Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) has a classic presentation of childhood or adolescent-onset dystonia, mild parkinsonism, marked diurnal fluctuations, improvement with sleep or rest, and a dramatic and sustained response to low doses of L-dopa without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias. However, there have been many papers on patients with a wide range of features, which report them as DRD mainly because they had dystonic syndromes with L-dopa responsiveness. Many mutations in the dopaminergic system have been found as molecular genetic defects. Therefore, the clinical and genetic spectra of DRD are unclear, which lead to difficulties in diagnostic work-ups and planning treatments. We propose the concept of DRD and DRD-plus to clarify the confusion in this area and to help understand the pathophysiology and clinical features, which will help in guiding diagnostic investigations and planning treatments. We critically reviewed the literature on atypical cases and discussed the limitations of the gene study.
Schwenkreis, P; Vorgerd, M; Malin, J P; Tegenthoff, M
The aim of our present study was to detect whether a generalized disturbance of intracortical inhibitory mechanisms as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be observed in a movement disorder with localized clinical expression, that is, in focal cervical dystonia. We measured motor threshold intensity, central motor conduction time and the duration of postexcitatory inhibition evoked by single and paired stimuli TMS from a small hand muscle in 20 patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia, and 21 healthy volunteers. A significant difference could not be found in any of the neurophysiological parameters between patients and controls. These findings are unlike the observations made in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, where significant changes of postexcitatory inhibition after TMS can be observed. This suggests a lack of widespread change in activity of underlying cortical inhibitory mechanisms, as seen in other diseases of the extrapyramidal system with more generalized clinical involvement.
Demierre, B; Rondot, P
Three cases of unilateral dystonia of vascular origin are presented and compared with those in the literature. Damage in the region of the lenticulostriate arteries accounted for ischaemic lesions of the putamino-capsulo-caudate region, the external pallidum probably also being involved. This syndrome appears if the ischaemic accident took place during childhood. The functions of each of these structures and the possible role of the anterior limb of the internal capsule are discussed. Images PMID:6101175
this mutation makes the mammalian brain more Figure 6. Generation of AAV1 expressing miRNAs targeting human torsinA(E). AAV1 were generating...DYT1 dystonia. By doing this in the appropriate brain region, w e should be able to reverse the symptoms of the disease. We have already demonstrated...ic questions: Is this treatment approach helpful and safe? What is the area of the brain in which we should inject this RNA interference vector to
Jamora, Roland Dominic G; Umapathi, T; Tan, Louis C S
We describe a patient with a 5-month history of gradually progressive painless flexion of the left ring finger associated with cramps in both thighs. She has severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and was on salbutamol. Serum anti-voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies was positive. Electromyography showed generalized neuromyotonia and myokymic discharges. The cramps were partially relieved by phenytoin. We would like to highlight that finger flexion resembling dystonia can be a presenting sign of Isaacs' syndrome.
Sharma, Dinesh Dutt; Aggarwal, Ashish; Sharma, Ravi C; Kumar, Ramesh
Gemifloxacin is a recently introduced fluoroquinolone antibiotic frequently used for its broad spectrum and once-daily dosing. Fluoroquinolones are associated with various neuropsychiatric side effects, such as seizures, insomnia, confusion, lightheadedness, psychosis, paranoia and hallucinations. We report a case of a 36-year-old woman given gemifloxacin for an upper respiratory tract infection who developed acute dystonia on the third day following therapy initiation. The clinical implications are discussed.
Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Smit, Marenka; van den Dool, Joost; Volkmann, Jens; Tijssen, Marina A. J.
Cervical dystonia (CD) is a movement disorder which affects daily living of many patients. In clinical practice, several unmet treatment needs remain open. This article focuses on the four main aspects of treatment. We describe existing and emerging treatment approaches for CD, including botulinum toxin injections, surgical therapy, management of non-motor symptoms, and rehabilitation strategies. The unsolved issues regarding each of these treatments are identified and discussed, and possible future approaches and research lines are proposed. PMID:27733842
Pritchard, Michael H
Often considered no more than an historical curiosity, writer’s cramp remains an important disability in the workplace and the mechanism, which has puzzled the best medical minds for generations, remains contentious. A remarkable range of hypotheses has been put forward to try and explain a disability which periodically reached epidemic and economically worrying levels, but in the end medical opinion has accepted the explanation put forward by neurologists Sheehy and Marsden in 1983 that this was caused by a form of focal dystonia. However, the majority of the historical descriptions of writer’s cramp do not fit the classical parameters of focal dystonia and are more accurately described as a progressive forearm muscle fatigue. Today’s keyboard operators continue to complain of symptoms identical to their clerical forebears demonstrating that this is a problem which has evolved but not disappeared; this has the paradoxical advantage that modern research techniques enable this complaint to be revisited. The result shows that two varieties of writer’s cramp have always existed and while focal dystonia remains a valid explanation for a minority of cases, the much more common fatigue-based complaint is better explained by chronic compartment syndrome of the forearm. PMID:23885297
Koppel, Barbara S
Cannabis has been used for many medicinal purposes, including management of spasms, dystonia, and dyskinesias, with variable success. Its use for tetanus was described in the second century BCE, but the literature continues to include more case reports and surveys of its beneficial effects in managing symptoms of hyperkinetic movement disorders than randomized controlled trials, making evidence-based recommendations difficult. This paper reviews clinical research using various formulations of cannabis (botanical products, oral preparations containing ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and/or cannabidiol) and currently available preparations in the USA (nabilone and dronabinol). This has been expanded from a recent systematic review of cannabis use in several neurologic conditions to include case reports and case series and results of anonymous surveys of patients using cannabis outside of medical settings, with the original evidence classifications marked for those papers that followed research protocols. Despite overlap in some patients, dyskinesias will be treated separately from dystonia and chorea; benefit was not established beyond individual patients for these conditions. Tics, usually due to Tourettes, did respond to cannabis preparations. Side effects reported in the trials will be reviewed but those due to recreational use, including the dystonia that can be secondary to synthetic marijuana preparations, are outside the scope of this paper.
Termsarasab, Pichet; Ramdhani, Ritesh A; Battistella, Giovanni; Rubien-Thomas, Estee; Choy, Melissa; Farwell, Ian M; Velickovic, Miodrag; Blitzer, Andrew; Frucht, Steven J; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael; Ozelius, Laurie J; Simonyan, Kristina
Aberrant sensory processing plays a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of dystonia; however, its underpinning neural mechanisms in relation to dystonia phenotype and genotype remain unclear. We examined temporal and spatial discrimination thresholds in patients with isolated laryngeal form of dystonia (LD), who exhibited different clinical phenotypes (adductor vs. abductor forms) and potentially different genotypes (sporadic vs. familial forms). We correlated our behavioral findings with the brain gray matter volume and functional activity during resting and symptomatic speech production. We found that temporal but not spatial discrimination was significantly altered across all forms of LD, with higher frequency of abnormalities seen in familial than sporadic patients. Common neural correlates of abnormal temporal discrimination across all forms were found with structural and functional changes in the middle frontal and primary somatosensory cortices. In addition, patients with familial LD had greater cerebellar involvement in processing of altered temporal discrimination, whereas sporadic LD patients had greater recruitment of the putamen and sensorimotor cortex. Based on the clinical phenotype, adductor form-specific correlations between abnormal discrimination and brain changes were found in the frontal cortex, whereas abductor form-specific correlations were observed in the cerebellum and putamen. Our behavioral and neuroimaging findings outline the relationship of abnormal sensory discrimination with the phenotype and genotype of isolated LD, suggesting the presence of potentially divergent pathophysiological pathways underlying different manifestations of this disorder.
Serrano, Mercedes; Rebollo, Mónica; Depienne, Christel; Rastetter, Agnès; Fernández-Álvarez, Emilio; Muchart, Jordi; Martorell, Loreto; Artuch, Rafael; Obeso, José A; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén
Thiamine transporter-2 deficiency, a condition resulting from mutations in the SLC19A3 gene, has been described in patients with subacute dystonia and striatal necrosis. The condition responds extremely well to treatment with biotin and has thus been named biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease. Recently, this deficiency has also been related to Wernicke's-like encephalopathy and atypical infantile spasms, showing heterogeneous responses to biotin and/or thiamine. Two Spanish siblings with a biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease phenotype and mutations in SLC19A3 presented with acute episodes of generalized dystonia, rigidity, and symmetrical lesions involving the striatum, midline nuclei of the thalami, and the cortex of cerebral hemispheres as shown by magnetic resonance imaging. The clinical features resolved rapidly after thiamine administration. Despite the rarity of thiamine transporter-2 deficiency, it should be suspected in patients with acute dystonia and basal ganglia injury, as thiamine can halt disease evolution and prevent further episodes. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.
Sobstyl, Michał; Ząbek, Mirosław
Tardive dystonia (TD) represents a side effect of prolonged intake of dopamine receptor blocking compounds. TD can be a disabling movement disorder persisting despite available medical treatment. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported successful in this condition although the number of treated patients with TD is still limited to small clinical studies or case reports. The aim of this study was to present the systematical overview of the existing literature regarding DBS for intractable TD. A literature search was carried out in PudMed. Clinical case series or case reports describing the patients with TD after DBS treatment were included in the present overview. Literature search revealed 19 articles reporting 59 individuals operated for TD. GPi was the target in 55 patients, while subthalamic nucleus (STN) was the target in the remaining 4. In most studies the motor part of Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS) was improved by more than 80% when compared to preoperative BFMDRS scores. The performed literature analysis indicates that bilateral GPi DBS is an effective treatment for disabling TD. The response of TD to bilateral GPi DBS may be very rapid and occurs within days/weeks after the procedure. The efficacy of bilateral GPi DBS in TD patients is comparable to results achieved in patients with primary generalized dystonia. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Szyszko, Teresa A; Dunn, Joel T; O'Doherty, Michael J; Reed, Laurence; Lin, Jean-Pierre
No current neuroimaging modality offers mechanistic or prognostic information to guide management in paediatric dystonia. We assessed F-fluorodeoxyglucose (¹⁸F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) brain imaging in childhood primary dystonia (PDS) and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) to determine whether it would identify altered metabolism and hence constitute a potentially useful 'biomarker' indicating functional disturbances associated with dystonia and severity of the disease. A total of 27 children (15 PDS and 12 NBIA) underwent brain ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT imaging under anaesthesia during acquisition. The images were assessed visually and the two groups were compared quantitatively with statistical parametric mapping. PET/CT images were spatially transformed to Montreal Neurological Institute standard space. Voxelwise ¹⁸F-FDG uptake was normalized to whole-brain uptake. Data of both groups were correlated separately with duration and severity of dystonia as assessed using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). Visual inspection did not identify any abnormalities in ¹⁸F-FDG uptake within the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, or thalami in either group. Quantitative analysis identified higher uptake in the posterior cingulate and bilateral posterior putamina but decreased uptake in the occipital cortex and cerebellum in NBIA compared with PDS. The NBIA group had more severe dystonia scores compared with the PDS group. BFMDRS was negatively correlated with age but not with duration of dystonia. Compared with PDS, NBIA is dominated by relative overactivity in the putamen and by cerebellar underactivity, patterns that may reflect the increased severity of dystonia in NBIA cases. Hence, there is a potential role for ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT imaging in paediatric dystonia, particularly in the NBIA group.
Pauls, K. A. M.; Wieland, K.; Jech, R.; Kurlemann, G.; Sharma, N.; Gill, S. S.; Haenggeli, C. A.; Hayflick, S. J.; Hogarth, P.; Leenders, K. L.; Limousin, P.; Malanga, C. J.; Moro, E.; Ostrem, J. L.; Revilla, F. J.; Santens, P.; Schnitzler, A.; Tisch, S.; Valldeoriola, F.; Vesper, J.; Volkmann, J.; Woitalla,, D.; Peker, S.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation encompasses a heterogeneous group of rare neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by iron accumulation in the brain. Severe generalized dystonia is frequently a prominent symptom and can be very disabling, causing gait impairment, difficulty with speech and swallowing, pain and respiratory distress. Several case reports and one case series have been published concerning therapeutic outcome of pallidal deep brain stimulation in dystonia caused by neurodegeneration with brain iron degeneration, reporting mostly favourable outcomes. However, with case studies, there may be a reporting bias towards favourable outcome. Thus, we undertook this multi-centre retrospective study to gather worldwide experiences with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. A total of 16 centres contributed 23 patients with confirmed neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation and bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation. Patient details including gender, age at onset, age at operation, genetic status, magnetic resonance imaging status, history and clinical findings were requested. Data on severity of dystonia (Burke Fahn Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale—Motor Scale, Barry Albright Dystonia Scale), disability (Burke Fahn Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale—Disability Scale), quality of life (subjective global rating from 1 to 10 obtained retrospectively from patient and caregiver) as well as data on supportive therapy, concurrent pharmacotherapy, stimulation settings, adverse events and side effects were collected. Data were collected once preoperatively and at 2–6 and 9–15 months postoperatively. The primary outcome measure was change in severity of dystonia. The mean improvement in severity of dystonia was 28.5% at 2–6 months and 25.7% at 9–15 months. At 9–15 months postoperatively, 66.7% of patients showed an improvement of 20% or more in severity of dystonia
Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Tang, Nicole K Y; Bernstein, Celia J; Nissen, Christoph; Underwood, Martin R; Sandhu, Harbinder K
Patients with primary dystonia, the third most prevalent movement disorder, suffer from a markedly reduced quality of life. This might, at least in part, be mediated by non-motor symptoms, including sleep disturbances. Characterising and treating sleep disturbances might provide new inroads to improve relevant patient-centred outcomes. This review evaluates the state of research on sleep in patients with dystonia and outlines an agenda for future research. A literature search was performed in July 2014 using PubMed, Medline via Ovid, PsycInfo, PsycArticles via Proquest and Embase via Ovid. Search results were screened for eligibility by two independent raters. Peer-reviewed publications reporting on sleep in patients with primary dystonia were included. Of 1445 studies identified through the search strategy, 18 met the inclusion criteria. In total, the included studies reported on 708 patients diagnosed with focal dystonia (cervical dystonia or blepharospasm), torsion dystonia, and dopa-responsive dystonia. The results indicate that at least half of the patients with focal cranial dystonia suffer from sleep disturbances, but excessive daytime sleepiness is uncommon. Sleep disturbance is associated with depressive symptoms. The frequency and duration of dystonic movements is markedly reduced during sleep. Reduced sleep quality appears to persist after treatment with botulinum toxin that successfully reduces motor symptoms. The findings are limited by a high clinical and methodological heterogeneity. Future research is needed to i) further characterize subjective and PSG sleep in patients with different types of dystonia, ii) determine the aetiology of sleep disturbances (e.g., abnormal brain function associated with dystonia, side effects of medication, psychological reasons), and iii) test whether targeted sleep interventions improve sleep and quality of life in patients with primary dystonia.
McClelland, Verity; Mills, Kerry; Siddiqui, Ata; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre
Aim: Dystonia in childhood has many causes. Imaging may suggest corticospinal tract dysfunction with or without coexistent basal ganglia damage. There are very few published neurophysiological studies on children with dystonia; one previous study has focused on primary dystonia. We investigated central motor conduction in 62 children (34 males, 28…
McClelland, Verity; Mills, Kerry; Siddiqui, Ata; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre
Aim: Dystonia in childhood has many causes. Imaging may suggest corticospinal tract dysfunction with or without coexistent basal ganglia damage. There are very few published neurophysiological studies on children with dystonia; one previous study has focused on primary dystonia. We investigated central motor conduction in 62 children (34 males, 28…
Shaikh, Aasef G.; Mewes, Klaus; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Gross, Robert E.; Triche, Shirley D.; Jinnah, H.A.; Boulis, Nicholas; Willie, Jon T.; Freeman, Alan; Alexander, Garrett E.; Aia, Pratibha; Butefisch, Cathrine M.; Esper, Christine D.; Factor, Stewart A.
Background Several case reports and small series have indicated that tardive dystonia is responsive to globus pallidus deep brain stimulation. Whether different subtypes or distributions of tardive dystonia are associated with different outcomes remains unknown. Methods We assessed the outcomes and temporal profile of improvement of eight tardive dystonia patients who underwent globus pallidus deep brain stimulation over the past six years through record review. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, it was not blinded or placebo controlled. Results: Consistent with previous studies, deep brain stimulation improved the overall the Burkee–Fahn–Marsden motor scores by 85.1 ± 13.5%. The distributions with best responses in descending order were upper face, lower face, larynx/pharynx, limbs, trunk, and neck. Patients with prominent cervical dystonia demonstrated improvement in the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale but improvements took several months. In four patients the effects of deep brain stimulation on improvement in Burke Fahn Marsden score was rapid, while in four cases there was partial rapid response of neck and trunk dystonia followed by was gradual resolution of residual symptoms over 48 months. Conclusion Our retrospective analysis shows excellent resolution of tardive dystonia after globus pallidus deep brain stimulation. We found instantaneous response, except with neck and trunk dystonia where partial recovery was followed by further resolution at slower rate. Such outcome is encouraging for using deep brain stimulation in treatment of tardive dystonia. PMID:25465373
Clot, Fabienne; Grabli, David; Cazeneuve, Cecile; Roze, Emmanuel; Castelnau, Pierre; Chabrol, Brigitte; Landrieu, Pierre; Nguyen, Karine; Ponsot, Gerard; Abada, Myriem; Doummar, Diane; Damier, Philippe; Gil, Roger; Thobois, Stephane; Ward, Alana J.; Hutchinson, Michael; Toutain, Annick; Picard, Fabienne; Camuzat, Agnes; Fedirko, Estelle; San, Chankannira; Bouteiller, Delphine; LeGuern, Eric; Durr, Alexandra; Vidailhet, Marie; Brice, Alexis
Dopa-responsive dystonia is a childhood-onset dystonic disorder, characterized by a dramatic response to low dose of L-Dopa. Dopa-responsive dystonia is mostly caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the "GCH1" gene (GTP cyclohydrolase1) and more rarely by autosomal recessive mutations in the "TH" (tyrosine hydroxylase) or "SPR" (sepiapterin…
Filip, Pavel; Lungu, Ovidiu V; Bareš, Martin
Although dystonia has traditionally been regarded as a basal ganglia dysfunction, recent provocative evidence has emerged of cerebellar involvement in the pathophysiology of this enigmatic disease. This review synthesizes the data suggesting that the cerebellum plays an important role in dystonia etiology, from neuroanatomical research of complex networks showing that the cerebellum is connected to a wide range of other central nervous system structures involved in movement control to animal models indicating that signs of dystonia are due to cerebellum dysfunction and completely disappear after cerebellectomy, and finally to clinical observations in secondary dystonia patients with various types of cerebellar lesions. We propose that dystonia is a large-scale dysfunction, involving not only cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical pathways, but the cortico-ponto-cerebello-thalamo-cortical loop as well. Even in the absence of traditional "cerebellar signs" in most dystonia patients, there are more subtle indications of cerebellar dysfunction. It is clear that as long as the cerebellum's role in dystonia genesis remains unexamined, it will be difficult to significantly improve the current standards of dystonia treatment or to provide curative treatment. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clot, Fabienne; Grabli, David; Cazeneuve, Cecile; Roze, Emmanuel; Castelnau, Pierre; Chabrol, Brigitte; Landrieu, Pierre; Nguyen, Karine; Ponsot, Gerard; Abada, Myriem; Doummar, Diane; Damier, Philippe; Gil, Roger; Thobois, Stephane; Ward, Alana J.; Hutchinson, Michael; Toutain, Annick; Picard, Fabienne; Camuzat, Agnes; Fedirko, Estelle; San, Chankannira; Bouteiller, Delphine; LeGuern, Eric; Durr, Alexandra; Vidailhet, Marie; Brice, Alexis
Dopa-responsive dystonia is a childhood-onset dystonic disorder, characterized by a dramatic response to low dose of L-Dopa. Dopa-responsive dystonia is mostly caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the "GCH1" gene (GTP cyclohydrolase1) and more rarely by autosomal recessive mutations in the "TH" (tyrosine hydroxylase) or "SPR" (sepiapterin…
Mugge, Winfred; van der Helm, Frans C T; Schouten, Alfred C
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. The origin of this movement disorder is poorly understood, although recent insights suggest involvement of disturbed force feedback. Assessment of sensorimotor integration may provide insight into the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia. Sensory weighting is the process of integrating and weighting sensory feedback channels in the central nervous system to improve the state estimate. It was hypothesized that patients with CRPS-related dystonia bias sensory weighting of force and position toward position due to the unreliability of force feedback. The current study provides experimental evidence for dysfunctional sensory integration in fixed dystonia, showing that CRPS-patients with fixed dystonia weight force and position feedback differently than controls do. The study shows reduced force feedback weights in CRPS-patients with fixed dystonia, making it the first to demonstrate disturbed integration of force feedback in fixed dystonia, an important step towards understanding the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia.
Vemula, Satya R; Xiao, Jianfeng; Zhao, Yu; Bastian, Robert W; Perlmutter, Joel S; Racette, Brad A; Paniello, Randal C; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Uitti, Ryan J; Van Gerpen, Jay A; Hedera, Peter; Truong, Daniel D; Blitzer, Andrew; Rudzińska, Monika; Momčilović, Dragana; Jinnah, Hyder A; Frei, Karen; Pfeiffer, Ronald F; LeDoux, Mark S
Although coding variants in THAP1 have been causally associated with primary dystonia, the contribution of noncoding variants remains uncertain. Herein, we examine a previously identified Intron 1 variant (c.71+9C>A, rs200209986). Among 1672 subjects with mainly adult-onset primary dystonia, 12 harbored the variant in contrast to 1/1574 controls (P < 0.01). Dystonia classification included cervical dystonia (N = 3), laryngeal dystonia (adductor subtype, N = 3), jaw-opening oromandibular dystonia (N = 1), blepharospasm (N = 2), and unclassified (N = 3). Age of dystonia onset ranged from 25 to 69 years (mean = 54 years). In comparison to controls with no identified THAP1 sequence variants, the c.71+9C>A variant was associated with an elevated ratio of Isoform 1 (NM_018105) to Isoform 2 (NM_199003) in leukocytes. In silico and minigene analyses indicated that c.71+9C>A alters THAP1 splicing. Lymphoblastoid cells harboring the c.71+9C>A variant showed extensive apoptosis with relatively fewer cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Differentially expressed genes from lymphoblastoid cells revealed that the c.71+9C>A variant exerts effects on DNA synthesis, cell growth and proliferation, cell survival, and cytotoxicity. In aggregate, these data indicate that THAP1 c.71+9C>A is a risk factor for adult-onset primary dystonia. PMID:24936516
Jaunarajs, K.L. Eskow; Bonsi, P.; Chesselet, M.F.; Standaert, D.G.; Pisani, A.
Dystonia is a movement disorder of both genetic and non-genetic causes, which typically results in twisted posturing due to abnormal muscle contraction. Evidence from dystonia patients and animal models of dystonia indicate a crucial role for the striatal cholinergic system in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review, we focus on striatal circuitry and the centrality of the acetylcholine system in the function of the basal ganglia in the control of voluntary movement and ultimately clinical manifestion of movement disorders. We consider the impact of cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) on dopamine-acetylcholine interactions and examine new evidence for impairment of ChIs in dysfunction of the motor systems producing dystonic movements, particularly in animal models. We have observed paradoxical excitation of ChIs in the presence of dopamine D2 receptor agonists and impairment of striatal synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of DYT1 dystonia, which are improved by administration of recently developed M1 receptor antagonists. These findings have been confirmed across multiple animal models of DYT1 dystonia and may represent a common endophenotype by which to investigate dystonia induced by other types of genetic and non-genetic causes and to investigate the potential effectiveness of pharmacotherapeutics and other strategies to improve dystonia. PMID:25697043
Cramer, Steven C.; Sampat, Ajay; Haske-Palomino, Maureen; Nguyen, Shawn; Procaccio, Vincent; Hermanowicz, Neal
Abnormalities of cortical representational maps and their plasticity have been described in dystonia. A common polymorphism for BDNF has been associated with abnormal cortical plasticity, and thus might contribute to pathogenesis of dystonia in some subjects. As a first step towards this suggestion, the current study examined the prevalence of this polymorphism. BDNF genotype was examined in 34 subjects with cervical dystonia, 54 age-matched healthy controls, and 53 subjects with a different movement disorder, Parkinson's disease. ApoE genotype, known to influence neurological outcome in some conditions, was also examined as a control. In subjects with cervical dystonia, the val66met polymorphism was approximately twice as prevalent when compared to either control group. This was not true of ApoE genotype, which was similarly distributed across subject groups. The current findings suggest that the BDNF val66met polymorphism might play a role in the pathogenesis of cervical dystonia in some subjects. PMID:19857550
Mills, Reversa R; Pagan, Fernando L
Cervical dystonia is the most common form of focal dystonia characterized by involuntary muscle contractions causing abnormal movements and posturing of the head and neck and is associated with significant pain. Botulinum toxin is considered first-line therapy in the treatment of pain and abnormal head posturing associated with cervical dystonia. There are currently three botulinum toxin type A neurotoxins and one botulinum type B neurotoxin commercially available and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeled for the treatment of cervical dystonia. This review will focus on the efficacy, safety, and therapeutic use of botulinum type A neurotoxins in the treatment of cervical dystonia. We conclude with a discussion of factors influencing toxin selection including therapeutic effect, duration of effect, side effect profile, cost, and physician preference. PMID:26082621
Williams, L; McGovern, E; Kimmich, O; Molloy, A; Beiser, I; Butler, J S; Molloy, F; Logan, P; Healy, D G; Lynch, T; Walsh, R; Cassidy, L; Moriarty, P; Moore, H; McSwiney, T; Walsh, C; O'Riordan, S; Hutchinson, M
Adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia presents with a number of phenotypes. Reported prevalence rates vary considerably; well-characterized cohorts are important to our understanding of this disorder. To perform a nationwide epidemiological study of adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia in the Republic of Ireland. Patients with adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia were recruited from multiple sources. Diagnosis was based on assessment by a neurologist with an expertise in movement disorders. When consent was obtained, a number of clinical features including family history were assessed. On the prevalence date there were 592 individuals in Ireland with adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia, a point prevalence of 17.8 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval 16.4-19.2). Phenotype numbers were cervical dystonia 410 (69.2%), blepharospasm 102 (17.2%), focal hand dystonia 39 (6.6%), spasmodic dysphonia 18 (3.0%), musician's dystonia 17 (2.9%) and oromandibular dystonia six (1.0%). Sixty-two (16.5%) of 375 consenting index cases had a relative with clinically confirmed adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia (18 multiplex and 24 duplex families). Marked variations in the proportions of patients with tremor, segmental spread, sensory tricks, pain and psychiatric symptoms by phenotype were documented. The prevalence of adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia in Ireland is higher than that recorded in many similar service-based epidemiological studies but is still likely to be an underestimate. The low proportion of individuals with blepharospasm may reflect reduced environmental exposure to sunlight in Ireland. This study will serve as a resource for international comparative studies of environmental and genetic factors in the pathogenesis of the disorder. © 2016 EAN.
Lee, André; Altenmüller, Eckart
Task-specific musician's dystonia is highly disabling and mostly affects the upper limb or the embouchure. In a recent paper, lower limb dystonia was reported in a drummer, although no details were given as to its phenomenology and electromyography (EMG). In this paper, we report on the case of a 28-year-old drummer with a task-specific dystonia of the right thigh and describe the phenomenology of the dystonia, the EMG recording, and treatment. Furthermore, we discuss stiff leg syndrome and paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia as two important differential diagnoses.
Djarmati, Ana; Schneider, Susanne A; Lohmann, Katja; Winkler, Susen; Pawlack, Heike; Hagenah, Johann; Brüggemann, Norbert; Zittel, Simone; Fuchs, Tania; Raković, Aleksandar; Schmidt, Alexander; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Wilcox, Robert; Kostić, Vladimir S; Siebner, Hartwig; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münchau, Alexander; Ozelius, Laurie J; Klein, Christine
DYT6 is a primary, early-onset torsion dystonia; however, unlike in DYT1 dystonia, the symptoms of DYT6 dystonia frequently involve the craniocervical region. Recently, two mutations in THAP1, the gene that encodes THAP (thanatos-associated protein) domain-containing apoptosis-associated protein 1 (THAP1), have been identified as a cause of DYT6 dystonia. We screened THAP1 by sequence analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 160 white patients of European ancestry who had dystonia with an early age at onset (n=64), generalised dystonia (n=35), a positive family history of dystonia (n=56), or facial or laryngeal dystonia. Another 160 patients with dystonia were screened for reported and novel variants in THAP1. 280 neurologically healthy controls were screened for the newly identified and previously reported changes in THAP1 and these and an additional 75 controls were screened for a rare non-coding mutation. We identified two mutations in THAP1 (388_389delTC and 474delA), respectively, in two (1%) German patients from the 160 patients with dystonia. Both mutation carriers had laryngeal dystonia that started in childhood and both went on to develop generalised dystonia. Thus, two of three patients with early-onset generalised dystonia with orobulbar involvement had mutations in THAP1. One of the identified patients with DYT6 dystonia had two family members with subtle motor signs who also carried the same mutation. A rare substitution in the 5'untranslated region (-236_235GA-->TT) was found in 20 of 320 patients and in seven of 355 controls (p=0.0054). Although mutations in THAP1 might have only a minor role in patients with different, but mainly focal, forms of dystonia, they do seem to be associated with early-onset generalised dystonia with spasmodic dysphonia. This combination of symptoms might be a characteristic feature of DYT6 dystonia and could be useful in the differential diagnosis of DYT1, DYT4, DYT12, and DYT17 dystonia. In
Zauber, S Elizabeth; Watson, Nidhi; Comella, Cynthia L; Bakay, Roy A E; Metman, Leo Verhagen
The authors report on a patient with craniocervical dystonia who was treated with bilateral GPi stimulation, with excellent improvement in dystonia but at the cost of stimulation-induced, reversible parkinsonism. Stimulation through ventral contacts resulted in maximal relief of craniocervical dystonia but induced considerable hypophonia, bradykinesia, rigidity, freezing, and impaired postural reflexes. Stimulation through dorsal contacts alleviated parkinsonism, but resulted in the return of dystonia. No stimulation parameters could alleviate the dystonia without inducing parkinsonism over the course of his 4-year follow-up.
Kirke, Diana N.; Frucht, Steven J.; Simonyan, Kristina
Laryngeal dystonia (LD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of unknown pathophysiology affecting speech production. We examined the demographics of anecdotally reported alcohol use and its effects on LD symptoms using an online survey based on Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap™) and National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association’s patient registry. From 641 participants, 531 were selected for data analysis, and 110 were excluded because of unconfirmed diagnosis. A total of 406 patients (76.5%) had LD and 125 (23.5%) had LD and voice tremor (LD/VT). The consumption of alcohol was reported by 374 LD (92.1%) and 109 LD/VT (87.2%) patients. Improvement of voice symptoms after alcohol ingestion was noted by 227 LD (55.9% of all patients) and 73 LD/VT (58.4%), which paralleled the improvement observed by patient’s family and/or friends in 214 LD (57.2%) and 69 LD/VT (63.3%) patients. The benefits lasted 1–3 hours in both groups with the maximum effect after 2 drinks in LD patients (p = 0.002), whereas LD/VT symptoms improved independent of the consumed amount (p = 0.48). Our data suggest that isolated dystonic symptoms, such as in LD, are responsive to alcohol intake and this responsiveness is not attributed to the presence of VT, which is known to have significant benefits from alcohol ingestion. Alcohol may modulate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying abnormal neurotransmission of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in dystonia and as such provide new avenues for novel therapeutic options in these patients. PMID:25929664
Monbaliu, E; Ortibus, E; Roelens, F; Desloovere, K; Deklerck, J; Prinzie, P; de Cock, P; Feys, H
This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females; mean age 13 y 3 mo, SD 5 y 2 mo, range 5-22 y). One patient each was classified at levels I-IV in the Gross Motor Function Classification System and six patients were classified at level V. Reliability was measured by (1) intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for interrater reliability, (2) standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable difference (SDD), and (3) Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. Validity was assessed by Pearson's correlations among the three scales used and by content analysis. Moderate to good interrater reliability was found for total scores of the three scales (ICC: BADS=0.87; BFMMS=0.86; UDRS=0.79). However, many subitems showed low reliability, in particular for the UDRS. SEM and SDD were respectively 6.36% and 17.72% for the BADS, 9.88% and 27.39% for the BFMMS, and 8.89% and 24.63% for the UDRS. High internal consistency was found. Pearson's correlations were high. Content validity showed insufficient accordance with the new CP definition and classification. Our results support the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scales; however, taking into consideration the limitations in reliability, including the large SDD values and the content validity, further research on methods of assessment of dystonia is warranted.
Tijssen, Marina A J; Münchau, Alex; Marsden, John F; Lees, Andrew; Bhatia, Kailash P; Brown, Peter
It was reported recently that specific features in the frequency analysis of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and splenius (SPL) muscles were able to distinguish between rotational idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) and voluntary torticollis in individual subjects. Those with CD showed an abnormal drive to muscles at 5 to 7 Hz and an absence of the normal 10 to 12 Hz peak in the autospectrum of SPL. We sought to determine whether the same abnormalities in the frequency domain are found in complex CD, in which the head is displaced in more than two planes. EMG activity was recorded in the SCM, SPL, trapezius, and levator scapulae muscles bilaterally in 10 patients with complex CD. Frequency analysis of EMG was compared with conventional clinical and polymyographic assessment. The autospectrum of SPL during free dystonic contraction showed an absence of a significant peak at 10 to 12 Hz in 8 of the 10 patients. The presence of a 5 to 7 Hz frequency drive showed a significant association with muscle pairs determined as dystonic by means of polymyography (P < 0.005). The neck posture predicted blindly, based on the low-frequency drive, correlated significantly with the clinical assessment of posture (P < 0.01). Conventional assessment and the results of frequency analysis correlated, suggesting that a low-frequency drive to neck muscle may be a general feature of simple rotational and more complex cervical dystonia. The pattern of coherence between the EMG in different neck muscles may provide a means of identifying leading dystonic muscles, especially in patients with complex cervical dystonia.
Wilson, F R; Wagner, C; Hömberg, V
Occupational factors and peripheral injuries are frequently implicated in the development of hand cramps and the syndrome of persistent manual incoordination among musicians and others most commonly given a diagnosis of focal limb dystonia. In an attempt to gain insight into the character and influence of risk factors in the evolution of this disorder, the authors conducted detailed evaluations of 33 individuals who responded to a questionnaire sent to university- and conservatory-level music schools in Germany in September 1989. Response was invited from any musician with complaints of impaired hand control. Of the 33 individuals accepted for evaluation, 18 were musicians who met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of occupational cramp/focal dystonia (OC/FD). Nineteen of the original 33 subjects underwent a quantitative biochemical assessment, comparing active and passive ranges of motion at all joints below the shoulder with those for cohorts of unimpaired musicians, matched for gender and musical instrument. Of the 19 tested biomechanically, 14 had OC/FD and the remaining five had either persistent pain or nonspecific movement idiosyncracies interfering with playing. Compared with the matched groups of normals, no consistent biomechanical abnormality was found in the non-OC/FD group; in the OC/FD group two thirds had marked limitation of passive and/or active abduction range between the central digits of both hands. Based on detailed training and performance histories in these subjects, the authors conclude that a specific biomechanical condition in the hand can interfere with certain high-speed digital movements required in musical instrument performance. Unintended muscle synergies, postures, and movement patterns can develop as attempts are made to increase the speed and fluency of such movements. As rehearsal is intensified, degraded movements are stabilized ("programmed"). In this situation, OC/FD appears to represent an aberrant outcome of normal motor
Voos, Mariana Callil; Oliveira, Tatiana de Paula; Piemonte, Maria Elisa Pimentel; Barbosa, Egberto Reis
Few studies have described physical therapy approaches to provide functional independence and reduce pain in individuals with dystonia. This report describes the physical therapy treatment of a 46-year-old woman diagnosed with idiopathic segmental axial dystonia. For two years, the patient was treated with kinesiotherapy (active and resisted movements and stretching of neck and trunk muscles), abdominal taping (kinesiotaping techniques), functional training, and sensory tricks. She was assessed with parts I, II and III of Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-I, TWSTRS-II and TWSTRS-III), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Six-Minute Walk Test (6-MWT), and the motor domain of Functional Independence Measure (FIM-motor) before and after the two-year treatment and after the one year follow-up. Postural control and symmetry improved (TWSTRS-I: from 30 to 18), functional independence increased (TWSTRS-II: from 27 to 15; BBS: from 36 to 46; 6-MWT: from 0 to 480 meters (m); FIM-motor: from 59 to 81), and the pain diminished (TWSTRS-III: from 12 to 5). The functional improvement was retained after one year (TWSTRS-I: 14/35; TWRTRS-II: 12/30; TWRTRS-III: 5/20; BBS: 48/56; 6-MWT: 450 m; FIM-motor: 81/91). This program showed efficacy on providing a better control of the dystonic muscles and thus the doses of botulinum toxin needed to treat them could be reduced. Outcomes support the therapeutic strategies used to deal with this type of dystonia.
Kapoor, Dheeraj; Singla, Deepak; Singh, Jasveer; Jindal, Rohit
Paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia (PAID) appears to be a unique syndrome following brain injury. It can echo many life-threatening conditions, making its early recognition and management a challenge for intensivists. A delay in early recognition and subsequent management may result in increased morbidity, which is preventable in affected patients. Herein, we report the case of a patient who was diagnosed with PAID syndrome following prolonged cardiac arrest, and discuss the pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management of this rare and under-recognised clinical entity. PMID:25189311
Joe, Soohyun; Park, Jangho; Lim, Jongseok; Park, Choongman; Ahn, Joonho
Aripiprazole can cause irreversible tardive dystonia in some individuals, and additional intervention is sometimes needed. Here, we report the first case of aripiprazole-induced irreversible tardive dystonia in which complete recovery of motor function was achieved using the antipsychotic drug clozapine. A 24-year-old man with bipolar disorder was treated with aripiprazole and gradually developed tardive dystonia. Thorough medical and neurological examinations were performed to rule out other possible causes of tardive dystonia. Clozapine was administered when the patient did not improve following long-term withdrawal of aripiprazole or adjuvant medications. Before administration of clozapine, the patient was experiencing severe dystonia as assessed by the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale. Dystonic symptoms began to improve about 1 month after starting administration of clozapine and were completely resolved 3 months after clozapine administration. Clinicians should note the risk of aripiprazole-induced tardive dystonia and consider clozapine as an alternative and effective treatment modality in cases of irreversible tardive dystonia, particularly when concomitant treatment of psychotic symptoms is required.
Sanger, T D
Clinical experience suggests an important role of the indirect basal ganglia pathway in the genesis of childhood onset generalised dystonia, but it has been difficult to reconcile the increased muscle activity in dystonia with the current model of basal ganglia function in which the indirect pathway is considered primarily inhibitory. The aim of this study was to present a modification of the direct-indirect pathway model, in which the indirect pathway is inverting rather than purely inhibitory, so that while high signals are inhibited, low signals are amplified. As the basal ganglia may be a feedback loop that modifies cortical activity, instability from excessive gain in this feedback loop could explain features of dystonia. A detailed mathematical model is provided, together with simulations of cortical cell population spiking behaviour when connected through a basal ganglia loop. The simulations show that increased gain in the indirect pathway relative to the direct pathway can lead to unstable uncontrolled synchronous oscillations in cortex and basal ganglia. This behaviour could result in dystonia. The model provides a consistent explanation for the association of dystonia with parkinsonism and disorders characterised by dopamine depletion, the ability to treat some dystonias with dopamine, the ability of neuroleptic drug treatment to cause an acute dystonic reaction treatable with anticholinergic drugs, and the ability of pallidotomy or deep brain stimulation of the internal pallidum to alleviate symptoms of generalised dystonia.
Kägi, Georg; Katschnig, Petra; Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele; Ruge, Diane; Rothwell, John; Bhatia, Kailash P
A characteristic feature of primary cervical dystonia is the presence of "sensory tricks" as well as the impairment of temporal and spatial sensory discrimination on formal testing. The aim of the present study was to test whether the amount of improvement of abnormal head deviation due to a sensory trick is associated with different performance of temporal sensory discrimination in patients with cervical dystonia. We recruited 32 patients with cervical dystonia. Dystonia severity was assessed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale. Patients were rated according to clinical improvement to a sensory trick and assigned to 1 of the following groups: (1) no improvement (n = 6), (2) partial improvement (n = 17), (3) complete improvement (n = 9). Temporal discrimination thresholds were assessed for visual, tactile, and visuotactile modalities. Disease duration was shorter (P = .026) and dystonia severity lower (P = .033) in the group with complete improvement to sensory tricks compared with the group with partial improvement to sensory tricks. A significant effect for group and modality and a significant interaction between group × modality were found, with lower visuotactile discrimination thresholds in the group with complete improvement to sensory tricks compared with the other groups. In primary cervical dystonia, a complete resolution of dystonia during a sensory trick is associated with better visuotactile discrimination and shorter disease duration compared with patients with less effective sensory tricks, which may reflect progressive loss of adaptive mechanisms to basal ganglia dysfunction.
Saeedi Borujeni, Mohammad Javad; Esfandiary, Ebrahim; Almasi-Dooghaee, Mostafa
Introduction: Dystonia is a disorder of movement caused by various etiologies. Laryngeal dystonia is caused by the spasm of laryngeal muscles. It is a disorder caused by vocal fold movement in which excessive adduction or abduction of the vocal folds occurs during speech. The pathophysiology of this type of dystonia is not fully known. Some researchers have suggested that basal ganglia structures and their connections with cortical areas have been involved in the pathogenesis of dystonia. Case Report: In this paper a 7.5-year-old boy suffering from laryngeal dystonia with bilateral lesions in Globus Pallidus is presented. The patient also suffered from swallowing problems, monotone voice, vocal tremor, hypersensitivity of gag reflex, and stuttering. Drug treatment failed to cure him; therefore, he was referred to rehabilitation therapy. Conclusion: In conclusion, special attention should be brought upon laryngeal dystonia, especially in patients showing Extra-pyramidal symptoms and/or abnormalities of the basal ganglia. In children, laryngeal dystonia may be potentially fatal. Lack of consideration for this condition during rehabilitation therapy can lead to serious consequences for a child. PMID:28229063
Song, Chang-Hyun; Fan, Xueliang; Exeter, Cicely J.; Hess, Ellen J.; Jinnah, H. A.
The dystonias are a group of disorders characterized by involuntary twisting movements and abnormal posturing. The most common of the inherited dystonias is DYT1 dystonia, which is due to deletion of a single GAG codon (ΔE) in the TOR1A gene that encodes torsinA. Since some forms of dystonia have been linked with dysfunction of brain dopamine pathways, the integrity of these pathways was explored in a knock-in mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. In DYT1(ΔE) knock-in mice, neurochemical measures revealed only small changes in the content of dopamine or its metabolites in tissue homogenates from caudoputamen or midbrain, but microdialysis studies revealed robust decreases in baseline and amphetamine-stimulated extracellular dopamine in the caudoputamen. Quantitative stereological methods revealed no evidence for striatal or midbrain atrophy, but substantia nigra neurons immunopositive for tyrosine hydroxylase were slightly reduced in numbers and enlarged in size. Behavioral studies revealed subtle abnormalities in gross motor activity and motor coordination without overt dystonia. Neuropharmacological challenges of dopamine systems revealed normal behavioral responses to amphetamine and a minor increase in sensitivity to haloperidol. These results demonstrate that this DYT1(ΔE) knock-in mouse model of dystonia harbors neurochemical and structural changes of the dopamine pathways, as well as motor abnormalities. PMID:22659308
Rostasy, Kevin; Augood, Sarah J; Hewett, Jeffrey W; Leung, Joanne Chung-on; Sasaki, Hikaru; Ozelius, Laurie J; Ramesh, Vijaya; Standaert, David G; Breakefield, Xandra O; Hedreen, John C
Familial, early onset, generalized torsion dystonia is the most common and severe primary dystonia. Most cases are caused by a 3-bp deletion (GAG) in the coding region of the TOR1A (DYT1) gene, which is widely expressed in human brain and encodes the protein torsinA. This study compares neuropathology and torsinA expression in the normal human brain with that in dystonia cases with and without the GAG deletion. TorsinA-like protein was expressed in neuronal cytoplasm throughout the human brain, including cerebellum, substantia nigra, hippocampus, and neostriatum, with higher levels in specific neurons. This immunostaining pattern was not discernibly different in dystonia and normal brains in midbrain and neostriatal regions. However, nigral dopaminergic neurons appeared to be larger in both GAG-deletion and non-GAG-deletion dystonia brains compared to normal, and may be more closely spaced in GAG-deletion brains. Beyond these apparent changes in neuronal size and spacing in dystonia brains, there was no indication of neuron loss, inflammation, DNA strand breaks, or altered distribution of torsin-like immunoreactivity, supporting a functional rather than degenerative etiology of early onset torsion dystonia.
Bradnam, Lynley; Barry, Christine
Isolated focal dystonia is a neurological disorder that manifests as repetitive involuntary spasms and/or aberrant postures of the affected body part. Craniocervical dystonia involves muscles of the eye, jaw, larynx, or neck. The pathophysiology is unclear, and effective therapies are limited. One mechanism for increased muscle activity in craniocervical dystonia is loss of inhibition involving the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC). The TSNC is tightly integrated into functionally connected regions subserving sensorimotor control of the neck and face. It mediates both excitatory and inhibitory reflexes of the jaw, face, and neck. These reflexes are often aberrant in craniocervical dystonia, leading to our hypothesis that the TSNC may play a central role in these particular focal dystonias. In this review, we present a hypothetical extended brain network model that includes the TSNC in describing the pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia. Our model suggests the TSNC may become hyperexcitable due to loss of tonic inhibition by functionally connected motor nuclei such as the motor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Disordered sensory input from trigeminal nerve afferents, such as aberrant feedback from dystonic muscles, may continue to potentiate brainstem circuits subserving craniocervical muscle control. We suggest that potentiation of the TSNC may also contribute to disordered sensorimotor control of face and neck muscles via ascending and cortical descending projections. Better understanding of the role of the TSNC within the extended neural network contributing to the pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia may facilitate the development of new therapies such as noninvasive brain stimulation.
Sadnicka, Anna; Patani, Bansi; Saifee, Tabish A; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Pareés, Isabel; Korlipara, Prasad; Bhatia, Kailash P; Rothwell, John C; Galea, Joseph M; Edwards, Mark J
The potential role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of dystonia has become a focus of recent research. However, direct evidence for a cerebellar contribution in humans with dystonia is difficult to obtain. We examined motor adaptation, a test of cerebellar function, in 20 subjects with primary cervical dystonia and an equal number of aged matched controls. Adaptation to both visuomotor (distorting visual feedback by 30°) and forcefield (applying a velocity-dependent force) conditions were tested. Our hypothesis was that cerebellar abnormalities observed in dystonia research would translate into deficits of cerebellar adaptation. We also examined the relationship between adaptation and dystonic head tremor as many primary tremor models implicate the cerebellothalamocortical network which is specifically tested by this motor paradigm. Rates of adaptation (learning) in cervical dystonia were identical to healthy controls in both visuomotor and forcefield tasks. Furthermore, the ability to adapt was not clearly related to clinical features of dystonic head tremor. We have shown that a key motor control function of the cerebellum is intact in the most common form of primary dystonia. These results have important implications for current anatomical models of the pathophysiology of dystonia. It is important to attempt to progress from general statements that implicate the cerebellum to a more specific evidence-based model. The role of the cerebellum in this enigmatic disease perhaps remains to be proven.
Timerbaeva, Sofia L; Abramycheva, Natalia Yu; Rebrova, Olga Yu; Illarioshkin, Sergey N
To analyze contribution of rs3842225 and rs1182 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in TOR1A gene, the causative gene for the DYT1 form of hereditary early-onset generalized dystonia, to the development of focal and segmental dystonia in Russian patients. We analyzed associations between rs3842225 and rs1182 polymorphisms in TOR1A and focal/segmental dystonia in 254 patients from Russian population, including 218 Slavic patients and 36 patients of mixed ethnic background. Stratification of patients based on age at the disease onset (≤ 30 years and > 30 years) showed statistically significant prevalence of the del-allele at the rs3842225 locus in Slavic patients with earlier age of onset of dystonia (36.96% vs. 21.39% in patients with late age of onset, p = 0.002) and an overrepresentation of the T-allele at the rs1182 locus (36.96% vs. 21.69%, p = 0.003). In Slavs, we also observed an overrepresentation of the homozygous genotypes, T/T (general sample of dystonia, 9.17% and focal dystonia, 10.28%) or G/G (general sample of dystonia, 60.55% and focal dystonia, 58.86%), compared to controls (T/T, 4.27% and G/G, 55.49%). In non-Slavic patients, we revealed neither significant associations, nor statistical tendencies regarding any of the clinical features. Our data in an Eastern Slavic (Russian) population correspond well to results of other studies from different countries and confirm that certain TOR1A genotypes may be regarded as factors predisposing to focal and segmental dystonia.
Hoffland, B S; Veugen, L C; Janssen, M M H P; Pasman, J W; Weerdesteyn, V; van de Warrenburg, B P
Accumulating evidence points to a role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of primary dystonia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the abnormalities of cerebellar motor learning in primary dystonia are solely detectable in more pure forms of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning paradigms, or whether these are also present in other motor learning paradigms that rely heavily on the cerebellum but in addition require a more widespread sensorimotor network. Twenty-six patients with various forms of focal dystonia and 10 age-matched healthy controls participated in a motor learning paradigm on a split-belt treadmill. By using reflective markers, three-dimensional kinematics were recorded using a 6-camera motion analysis system. Adaptation walking parameters were analyzed offline, comparing the different dystonia groups and healthy controls. Patients with blepharospasm and writer's cramp were significantly impaired on various adaptation walking parameters. Whereas results of cervical dystonia patients did not differ from healthy controls in terms of adaptation walking parameters, differences in parameters of normal gait were found. We have here demonstrated abnormal sensorimotor adaptation with the split-belt paradigm in patients with blepharospasm and writer's cramp. This reinforces the current concept of cerebellar dysfunction in primary dystonia, and that this extends beyond more pure forms of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning paradigms. However, the finding of normal adaptation in cervical dystonia patients indicates that the pattern of cerebellar dysfunction may be slightly different for the various forms of primary focal dystonia, suggesting that actual cerebellar pathology may not be a primary driving force in dystonia.
Katschnig, Petra; Edwards, Mark J; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Aguirregomozcorta, Maria; Kägi, Georg; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P
Fixed dystonia is an uncommon but severely disabling condition typically affecting young women following a minor peripheral injury. There is no evidence of any structural lesions of the central nervous system nor any clear peripheral nerve or root damage. Electrophysiological techniques such as short intracortical inhibition, cortical silent period and a plasticity inducing protocol have revealed similarities but also differences compared to classical mobile dystonia. To further explore the pathophysiology of fixed dystonia we compared mental rotation of body parts and sensory temporal discrimination in 11 patients with fixed dystonia, 11 patients with classical mobile dystonia and 10 healthy controls. In the mental rotation task subjects were presented with realistic photos of left or right hands, feet and the head of a young women with a black patch covering the left or the right eye in six different orientations. Subjects had to verbally report the laterality of the presented stimuli. To assess sensory temporal discrimination subjects were asked to discriminate whether pairs of visual, tactile (electrical), or visuo-tactile stimuli were simultaneous or sequential (temporal discrimination threshold) and in the latter case which stimulus preceded the other (temporal order judgement). In accordance with previous studies patients with mobile dystonia were abnormal in mental rotation and temporal discrimination, whereas patients with fixed dystonia were only impaired in mental rotation. Possible explanations for this deficit may include the influence of the abnormal body posture itself, a shared predisposing pathophysiology for mobile and fixed dystonia, or a body image disturbance. These findings add information to the developing pathophysiological picture of fixed dystonia.
Liuzzi, Daniele; Gigante, Angelo Fabio; Leo, Antonio; Defazio, Giovanni
Upper limb dystonia is a focal dystonia that may affect muscles in the arm, forearm and hand. The neuroanatomical substrates involved in upper limb dystonia are not fully understood. Traditionally, dysfunction of the basal ganglia is presumed to be the main cause of dystonia but a growing body of evidence suggests that a network of additional cortical and subcortical structures may be involved. To identify the brain regions that are affected in secondary upper limb dystonia may help to better understand the neuroanatomical basis of the condition. We considered only patients with focal upper limb dystonia associated with a single localized brain lesion. To identify these patients, we conducted a systematic review of the published literature as well as the medical records of 350 patients with adult-onset dystonia seen over past 15 years at our movement disorder clinic. The literature review revealed 36 articles describing 72 cases of focal upper limb dystonia associated with focal lesions. Among patients at our clinic, four had focal lesions on imaging studies. Lesions were found in multiple regions including thalamus (n = 39), basal ganglia (n = 17), cortex (n = 4), brainstem (n = 4), cerebellum (n = 1), and cervical spine (n = 7). Dystonic tremor was not associated with any particular site of lesion, whereas there was a trend for an inverse association between task specificity and thalamic involvement. These data in combination with functional imaging studies of idiopathic upper limb dystonia support a model in which a network of different regions plays a role in pathogenesis.
Wu, Allan D; Fregni, Felipe; Simon, David K; Deblieck, Choi; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are promising noninvasive cortical stimulation methods for adjunctive treatment of movement disorders. They avoid surgical risks and provide theoretical advantages of specific neural circuit neuromodulation. Neuromodulatory effects depend on extrinsic stimulation factors (cortical target, frequency, intensity, duration, number of sessions), intrinsic patient factors (disease process, individual variability and symptoms, state of medication treatment), and outcome measures. Most studies to date have shown beneficial effects of rTMS or tDCS on clinical symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) and support the notion of spatial specificity to the effects on motor and nonmotor symptoms. Stimulation parameters have varied widely, however, and some studies are poorly controlled. Studies of rTMS or tDCS in dystonia have provided abundant data on physiology, but few on clinical effects. Multiple mechanisms likely contribute to the clinical effects of rTMS and tDCS in movement disorders, including normalization of cortical excitability, rebalancing of distributed neural network activity, and induction of dopamine release. It remains unclear how to individually adjust rTMS or tDCS factors for the most beneficial effects on symptoms of PD or dystonia. Nonetheless, the noninvasive nature, minimal side effects, positive effects in preliminary clinical studies, and increasing evidence for rational mechanisms make rTMS and tDCS attractive for ongoing investigation.
Quartarone, A; Girlanda, P; Risitano, G; Picciolo, G; Sinicropi, S; Nicolosi, C; Macaione, V; Messina, C
A patient affected by thoracic outlet syndrome, with an involvement of the left lower primary trunk due to a rudimentary cervical rib, developed a severe hand dystonia on the same side. The dystonic posture was characterised by a flexion of the wrist with the fingers curled into the palm. Polygraphic recordings performed on the left flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS4) and extensor digitorum superficialis (EDC4) muscles, during a repetitive tapping task of the fourth digit, showed a loss of well formed bursts without a clear silent period along with long duration bursts of cocontraction in antagonistic muscles. The study of reciprocal inhibition between forearm flexor and extensor muscles showed a reduced amount of inhibition in both the disynaptic and the later presynaptic phase of inhibition. The patient underwent an operation with resection of the cervical rib. Twelve hours after the operation the patient experienced a significant improvement of the hand dystonia; the distonia had disappeared completely by two months with a progressive normalisation of reciprocal inhibition. PMID:9703190
Quartarone, A; Girlanda, P; Risitano, G; Picciolo, G; Sinicropi, S; Nicolosi, C; Macaione, V; Messina, C
A patient affected by thoracic outlet syndrome, with an involvement of the left lower primary trunk due to a rudimentary cervical rib, developed a severe hand dystonia on the same side. The dystonic posture was characterised by a flexion of the wrist with the fingers curled into the palm. Polygraphic recordings performed on the left flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS4) and extensor digitorum superficialis (EDC4) muscles, during a repetitive tapping task of the fourth digit, showed a loss of well formed bursts without a clear silent period along with long duration bursts of cocontraction in antagonistic muscles. The study of reciprocal inhibition between forearm flexor and extensor muscles showed a reduced amount of inhibition in both the disynaptic and the later presynaptic phase of inhibition. The patient underwent an operation with resection of the cervical rib. Twelve hours after the operation the patient experienced a significant improvement of the hand dystonia; the distonia had disappeared completely by two months with a progressive normalisation of reciprocal inhibition.
Konczak, Jürgen; Abbruzzese, Giovanni
Musician's dystonia (MD) is a neurological motor disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of those muscles involved in the play of a musical instrument. It is task-specific and initially only impairs the voluntary control of highly practiced musical motor skills. MD can lead to a severe decrement in a musician's ability to perform. While the etiology and the neurological pathomechanism of the disease remain unknown, it is known that MD like others forms of focal dystonia is associated with somatosensory deficits, specifically a decreased precision of tactile and proprioceptive perception. The sensory component of the disease becomes also evident by the patients' use of "sensory tricks" such as touching dystonic muscles to alleviate motor symptoms. The central premise of this paper is that the motor symptoms of MD have a somatosensory origin and are not fully explained as a problem of motor execution. We outline how altered proprioceptive feedback ultimately leads to a loss of voluntary motor control and propose two scenarios that explain why sensory tricks are effective. They are effective, because the sensorimotor system either recruits neural resources normally involved in tactile-proprioceptive (sensory) integration, or utilizes a fully functioning motor efference copy mechanism to align experienced with expected sensory feedback. We argue that an enhanced understanding of how a primary sensory deficit interacts with mechanisms of sensorimotor integration in MD provides helpful insights for the design of more effective behavioral therapies.
Schabrun, Siobhan M; Stinear, Cathy M; Byblow, Winston D; Ridding, Michael C
Task-specific focal dystonia is thought to have a neurological basis where stereotypical synchronous inputs and maladaptive plasticity play a role. As afferent input is a powerful driver of cortical reorganization, we propose that a period of asynchronous afferent stimulation may reverse maladaptive cortical changes and alleviate symptoms. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 3 hand muscles were mapped in 10 dystonics and 10 healthy controls. Mapping occurred before and after 1 h of nonassociative stimulation (NAS) to first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB). Participants performed grip lift, handwriting, and cyclic drawing before and after NAS. Prior to NAS, dystonics had larger maps, and the centers of gravity (CoGs) of the FDI and APB maps were closer together. Dystonics demonstrated impairments in grip-lift, handwriting, and cyclic drawing tasks. Following NAS, map size was reduced in all muscles in dystonic participants and FDI and APB CoGs moved further apart. Among dystonics, NAS produced a reduction in movement variability during cyclic drawing. Thus, 1 h of NAS can reduce the magnitude, and increase the separation, of TMS representational maps. We suggest that these changes reflect some normalization of the representational abnormalities seen in focal dystonia and provide initial, limited evidence that such changes are associated with improvements in circle drawing.
Blomstedt, Patric; Taira, Takaomi; Hariz, Marwan
Background: Some patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS), where removal of implants is indicated due to hardware related infections, are not candidates for later re-implantation. In these patients a rescue lesion through the DBS electrode has been suggested as an option. In this case report we present a patient where a pallidotomy was performed using the DBS electrode. Case Description: An elderly woman with bilateral Gpi DBS suffered an infection around the left burr hole involving the DBS electrode. A unilateral lesion was performed through the DBS electrode before it was removed. No side effects were encountered. Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM) dystonia movement scale score was 39 before DBS. With DBS before lesioning BFM score was 2.5 points. The replacement of the left sided stimulation with a pallidotomy resulted in only a minor deterioration of the score to 5 points. Conclusions: In the case presented here a small pallidotomy performed with the DBS electrode provided a satisfactory effect on the patient's dystonic symptoms. Thus, rescue lesions through the DBS electrodes, although off-label, might be considered in patients with Gpi DBS for dystonia when indicated. PMID:27990311
Porcacchia, Paolo; Palomar, Francisco J; Cáceres-Redondo, María T; Huertas-Fernández, Ismael; Martín-Rodríguez, Juan F; Carrillo, Fátima; Koch, Giacomo; Mir, Pablo
Dystonia is considered as a motor network disorder involving the dysfunction of the posterior parietal cortex, a region involved in preparing and executing reaching movements. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to test the hypothesis that cervical dystonic patients may have a disrupted parieto-motor connectivity. We enrolled 14 patients with primary cervical dystonia and 14 controls. A paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol was applied over the right posterior parietal cortex and the right primary motor area. Changes in the amplitudes of motor evoked potential were analyzed as an index of parieto-motor effective connectivity. Patients and healthy subjects were also evaluated with a reaching task. Reaction and movement times were measured. In healthy subjects, but not in dystonic patients, there was a facilitation of motor evoked potential amplitudes when the conditioning parietal stimulus preceded the test stimulus applied over the primary motor area by 4 ms. Reaction and movement times were significantly slower in patients than in controls. In dystonic patients, the relative strength of parieto-motor connectivity correlated with movement times. Parieto-motor cortical connectivity is impaired in cervical dystonic patients. This neurophysiological trait is associated with slower reaching movements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Konczak, Jürgen; Abbruzzese, Giovanni
Musician's dystonia (MD) is a neurological motor disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of those muscles involved in the play of a musical instrument. It is task-specific and initially only impairs the voluntary control of highly practiced musical motor skills. MD can lead to a severe decrement in a musician's ability to perform. While the etiology and the neurological pathomechanism of the disease remain unknown, it is known that MD like others forms of focal dystonia is associated with somatosensory deficits, specifically a decreased precision of tactile and proprioceptive perception. The sensory component of the disease becomes also evident by the patients' use of “sensory tricks” such as touching dystonic muscles to alleviate motor symptoms. The central premise of this paper is that the motor symptoms of MD have a somatosensory origin and are not fully explained as a problem of motor execution. We outline how altered proprioceptive feedback ultimately leads to a loss of voluntary motor control and propose two scenarios that explain why sensory tricks are effective. They are effective, because the sensorimotor system either recruits neural resources normally involved in tactile-proprioceptive (sensory) integration, or utilizes a fully functioning motor efference copy mechanism to align experienced with expected sensory feedback. We argue that an enhanced understanding of how a primary sensory deficit interacts with mechanisms of sensorimotor integration in MD provides helpful insights for the design of more effective behavioral therapies. PMID:23805090
Lee, L V; Munoz, E L; Tan, K T; Reyes, M T
Sex linked dystonia parkinsonism (XDP), also referred to as “lubag” in American literature, was described in 1975 occurring endemically in Panay, Philippines. It is an adult onset, sex linked, predominantly male, severe, progressive movement disorder with high penetrance and a high frequency of generalisation. The movement disorder is characterised by dystonic movements, usually starting in the 3rd or 4th decade, spreading to generalisation within two to five years. The dystonia coexists or is replaced by parkinsonism usually beyond the 10th year of illness. No treatment has been found to be effective. Neuroimaging shows caudate and putamenal atrophy in patients reaching the parkinsonian stage. Neuropathology reveals pronounced atrophy of the caudate and putamen, mostly in the cases with long standing illness. The sex linked pattern of inheritance has been established. Genetic studies have located the affected gene (DYT3) to Xq13.1, with one group mapping the XDP gene to a < 350 kb locus in the DXS 7117–DXS 559 region. PMID:11724910
Miyagi, Yasushi; Koike, Yu
The authors report on 2 cases of pediatric generalized dystonia with a DYT1 mutation; the patients, an 11-year-old girl and a 9-year-old boy, underwent chronic, pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi). The dystonic postures in both cases showed dramatic improvements with pallidal DBS, but each patient's symptoms gradually recurred within a year, irrespective of exhaustive readjustments of the stimulation settings. After the recurrence of the dystonic symptoms, the DBS leads were replaced within the GPi in one patient (Case 1) and additional DBS leads were implanted into the bilateral subthalamic nuclei in the other patient (Case 2). Neither measure produced any further clinical benefit, and the patient in Case 2 died of status dystonicus 2 days after reoperation. These findings suggest that early pallidal DBS for pediatric dystonia is indeed effective, although there are some cases in which its therapeutic effect is lost. One possible reason may be the ability of the preadolescent brain to tolerate chronic electrical stimuli during the active maturation process.
Wijemanne, Subhashie; Jankovic, Joseph
Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) encompasses a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders that typically manifest as limb-onset, diurnally fluctuating dystonia and exhibit a robust and sustained response to levodopa treatment. Autosomal dominant GTP cyclohydrolase 1 deficiency, also known as Segawa disease, is the most common and best-characterized condition that manifests as DRD, but a similar presentation can be seen with genetic abnormalities that lead to deficiencies in tyrosine hydroxylase, sepiapterin reductase or other enzymes that are involved in the biosynthesis of dopamine. In rare cases, DRD can result from conditions that do not affect the biosynthesis of dopamine; single case reports have shown that DRD can be a manifestation of hereditary spastic paraplegia type 11, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 and ataxia telangiectasia. This heterogeneity of conditions that underlie DRD frequently leads to misdiagnosis, which delays the appropriate treatment with levodopa. Correct diagnosis at an early stage requires use of the appropriate diagnostic tests, which include a levodopa trial, genetic testing (including whole-exome sequencing), cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitter analysis, the phenylalanine loading test, and enzyme activity measurements. The selection of tests for use depends on the clinical presentation and level of complexity. This Review presents the common and rarer causes of DRD and their clinical features, and considers the most appropriate approaches to ensure early diagnosis and treatment.
Budak, F; Aydın, E; Koçkaya, A; Ilbay, G
Primary lingual dystonia is a rare condition, especially when it is only induced by speaking. Trihexyphenidyl failed to improve the symptoms. Several case series have demonstrated the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection for the management of focal lingual movement disorders. Only 1 case of botulinum toxin injection for primary lingual dystonia induced by speaking has been reported, but this treatment has limited effectiveness. Our patient was treated with botulinum toxin using a superficial approach for injection into the tongue with continuing excellent results. Lingual botulinum toxin injection is a fairly simple, safe and viable treatment option for lingual dystonia induced by speaking.
Başay, Ömer; Basay, Burge Kabukcu; Öztürk, Önder; Yüncü, Zeki
The present report describes the cases of a 17-year-old male patient and a 13-year-old female patient who developed acute dystonia following the administration of low-dose aripiprazole (5 mg/day) after the cessation of atomoxetine treatment. Although aripiprazole-induced dystonia has been previously reported in the literature, it is rare, and most of these cases were associated with doses higher than 5 mg/day. Furthermore, both of the patients in the present study discontinued atomoxetine prior to the initiation of aripiprazole treatment; thus, this report also discussed the possible mechanisms underlying the manifestation of dystonia from the perspective of neurotransmitter activity. PMID:27121436
Lee, André; Jahnke, Andreas K.; Altenmüller, Eckart
Background Fixed dystonia leads to an immobile abnormal posturing of the affected limb. There is an ongoing debate whether this condition is psychogenic in origin. Case report We present a 21-year-old violinist with fixed dystonia after an acute overuse injury with a transient cyanosis but no signs for psychological trauma. After Incobotulinumtoxin injection, symptoms subsided within 8 hours. Discussion Our case corroborates the notion that fixed dystonias after minor injuries are functional disorders. It underlines the necessity of a biopsychosocial approach to functional disorders, considering the possibility of an overlay between organic and non-organic disorders. PMID:24032089
Wöhrle, Johannes C; Blahak, Christian; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Fogel, Wolfgang; Bäzner, Hansjoerg; Krauss, Joachim K
Multifocal deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a new technique that has been introduced recently. A 39-year-old man with dystonia-parkinsonism underwent the simultaneous implantation of subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS electrodes. While bilateral STN DBS controlled the parkinsonian symptoms well and allowed for a reduction in levodopa, the improvement of dystonia was only temporary. Additional GPi DBS also alleviated dystonic symptoms. Formal assessment at the 1-year follow-up showed that both the parkinsonian symptoms and the dystonia were markedly improved via continuous bilateral combined STN and GPi stimulation. Sustained benefit was achieved at 3 years postoperatively.
Yapici, Zuhal; Akcakaya, Nihan Hande; Tekturk, Pinar; Iseri, Sibel Aylin Ugur; Ozbek, Ugur
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare neurodegenerative condition. Major clinical features include progressive dystonia, pigmentary retinopathy, spasticity, and cognitive decline. The typical MRI sign of the disease, known as "eye-of-the-tiger", is what makes differential diagnosis possible. We here describe a 16-year-old male patient with PKAN presenting with severe and sustained jaw-opening dystonia which may be due to heterogeneous etiologies showing poor response to treatment. Herein, long-term follow-up and genetic results of a PKAN case who experienced severe jaw-opening dystonia are presented and discussed.
Lin, Jean-Pierre; Nardocci, Nardo
Dystonia in childhood may be severely disabling and often unremitting and unrecognized. Considered a rare disorder, dystonic symptoms in childhood are pervasive in many conditions including disorders of developmental delay, cerebral palsy (CP), autism, neurometabolic, neuroinflammatory, and neurogenetic disorders. Collectively, there is a need to recognize the role of early postures and movements which characterize phases of normal fetal, infant, and child development as a backdrop to the many facets of dystonia in early childhood neurological disorders and to be aware of the developmental context of dystonic symptoms. The role of cocontraction is explored throughout infancy, childhood, young adulthood, and in the elderly. Under-recognition of pervasive dystonic disorders of childhood, including within CP is reviewed. Original descriptions of CP by Gowers are reviewed and contemporary physiological demonstrations are used to illustrate support for an interpretation of the tonic labyrinthine response as a manifestation of dystonia. Early recognition and molecular diagnosis of childhood dystonia where possible are desirable for appropriate clinical stratification and future precision medicine and functional neurosurgery where appropriate. A developmental neurobiological perspective could also be useful in exploring new clinical strategies for adult-onset dystonia disorders focusing on environmental and molecular interactions and systems behaviors. PMID:28066314
Halimi, Miriam; Leder, Adena; Mancini, Jayme D.
Background Cervical dystonia, also known as spasmodic torticollis, is a chronic disorder in which patients exhibit involuntary repetitive contractions of neck muscles resulting in abnormal postures or movements. Occasionally, there is also a dystonic head tremor. The underlying mechanisms for cervical dystonia and dystonic tremor are not clear, and treatments are limited. Case Report In the present cases, two females with head tremor starting in adolescence developed worsening symptoms of cervical dystonia with dystonic tremor in their 60s. On osteopathic physical examination, both had a vertical type strain to the sphenobasilar synchondrosis. Discussion Vertical strains are more frequently found in patients after head trauma, congenital or later in life, than in healthy patients, and head trauma may have been a precipitating factor in these patients. There were improvements in cervical dystonia symptoms, including tremor, in both patients after osteopathic manual treatment. PMID:28119789
Astudillo, Leonardo; Hollington, L; Game, X; Benyoucef, A; Boladeras, A M; Delisle, M B; Simonetta-Moreau, M
We report a case of cervical dystonia mimicking dropped-head syndrome (DHS) in a 57-year-old man treated for laryngeal carcinoma by radiotherapy (74.4 Gy) 3 months before. Cervical computerized tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not find any muscle fat changes but found a high-intensity signal on T2 weighted images in the cervical spinal cord. Clinical and electromyographic findings were consistent with cervical dystonia. A trapezius biopsy was normal. Spontaneous remission of the dystonia was observed for 1 month whereas the laryngeal carcinoma progressed. The link between cervical dystonia and radiotherapy might be acute radiation-induced damage to the cervical spinal cord.
Konaka, Kuni; Mochizuki, Hideki
Musician's dystonia is known as a task specific dystonia. Though it is thought to occur during a long course of repetitive performance, the actual circumstances that precipitate this condition are not clear. According to factual reports this disease is not commonly known, probably because many of these patients may not have been visiting a hospital. We prepared a questionnaire and did a survey among the students of a music college. This is the first questionnaire survey aimed at finding out the prevalence of musician's dystonia among the students of music. Among the 480 participants of this survey, 29% of the students had knowledge of this disorder and 1.25% of the students had dystonia while performing music.
Grips, E; Blahak, C; Capelle, H H; Bäzner, H; Weigel, R; Sedlaczek, O; Krauss, J K; Wöhrle, J C
The pattern of reoccurrence of symptoms after discontinuation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) has not been systematically studied in dystonia. Eight patients (mean age (SD) 53.8 (14.4) years) with segmental dystonia at a mean follow‐up of 11.3 (4.2) months were studied after implantation of bilateral DBS electrodes in the internal globus pallidus using a standard video protocol and clinical rating scales, immediately and at 2 and 4 h after switching off DBS. Dystonic signs returned sequentially, with a rapid worsening of phasic and a slower worsening of tonic dystonic components. In all patients, phasic dystonic features appeared within a few minutes, whereas the tonic elements of dystonia reoccurred with a more variable delay. Differential clinical effects when withdrawing DBS might reflect its influence on different pathophysiological mechanisms in dystonia. PMID:17030588
Asahi, Takashi; Taira, Takaomi; Ikeda, Kiyonobu; Yamamoto, Jiro; Sato, Shuji
Task-specific focal dystonia, such as writer's cramp and musician's cramp, is a type of dystonia that affects performance of particular tasks. Such movement disorders have been treated with stereotactic ventro-oral (Vo) thalamotomy with excellent outcomes. However, there has been no previous report of treatment of sport-related or athlete's dystonia by means of stereotactic surgery. We treated a patient with table tennis-related dystonia with Vo thalamotomy, and evaluated the outcome. A 20-year-old, female, left-handed table tennis player complained of difficulty hitting a ping-pong ball. She started playing table tennis at 8 years of age, practiced for more than 4 hours every day, and participated in national tournaments. Abnormal flexion of the left wrist when hitting a ball became apparent when she was 19 years old. The abnormal movement emerged on the forehand stroke and, subsequently, on the backhand, until finally she could not continue playing. The diagnosis was task-specific focal dystonia that did not recover with medication. She visited our hospital and underwent right Vo thalamotomy. The surgery was performed using local anesthesia, with the patient swinging a paddle during stimulation and coagulation of the thalamus. Her symptoms had improved completely the day after surgery, such that she was able to participate in tournaments again. We applied Vo thalamotomy for the successful treatment of athlete's dystonia, suggesting that this condition has an underlying mechanism similar to that of other task-specific focal dystonias. This provides new hope to patients with athlete's dystonia refractive to other therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Siokas, Vasileios; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Tsironi, Evangelia E.; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Rikos, Dimitrios; Sokratous, Maria; Koutsias, Stylianos; Paterakis, Konstantinos; Deretzi, Georgia; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.
Importance A number of genetic loci were found to be associated with dystonia. Quite a few studies have been contacted to examine possible contribution of TOR1A variants to the risk of dystonia, but their results remain conflicting. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the effect of TOR1A gene SNPs on dystonia and its phenotypic subtypes regarding the body distribution. Methods We performed a systematic review of Pubmed database to identify all available studies that reported genotype frequencies of TOR1A SNPs in dystonia. In total 16 studies were included in the quantitative analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated in each study to estimate the influence of TOR1A SNPs genotypes on the risk of dystonia. The fixed-effects model and the random effects model, in case of high heterogeneity, for recessive and dominant mode of inheritance as well as the free generalized odds ratio (ORG) model were used to calculate both the pooled point estimate in each study and the overall estimates. Results Rs1182 was found to be associated with focal dystonia in recessive mode of inheritance [Odds Ratio, OR (95% confidence interval, C.I.): 1.83 (1.14–2.93), Pz = 0.01]. In addition, rs1801968 was associated with writer’s cramp in both recessive and dominant modes [OR (95%C.I.): 5.99 (2.08–17.21), Pz = 0.00009] and [2.48 (1.36–4.51), Pz = 0.003) respectively and in model free-approach [ORG (95%C.I.): 2.58 (1.45–4.58)]. Conclusions Our meta-analysis revealed a significant implication of rs1182 and rs1801968 TOR1A variants in the development of focal dystonia and writer’s cramp respectively. TOR1A gene variants seem to be implicated in dystonia phenotype. PMID:28081261
Bradnam, Lynley V.; McDonnell, Michelle N.; Ridding, Michael C.
Background: There is emerging evidence that cervical dystonia is a neural network disorder with the cerebellum as a key node. The cerebellum may provide a target for neuromodulation as a therapeutic intervention in cervical dystonia. Objective: This study aimed to assess effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation of the cerebellum on dystonia symptoms, quality of life, hand motor dexterity and cortical neurophysiology using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Methods: Sixteen participants with cervical dystonia were randomised into real or sham stimulation groups. Cerebellar neuromodulation was combined with motor training for the neck and an implicit learning task. The intervention was delivered over 10 working days. Outcome measures included dystonia severity and pain, quality of life, hand dexterity, and motor-evoked potentials and cortical silent periods recorded from upper trapezius muscles. Assessments were taken at baseline and after 5 and 10 days, with quality of life also measured 4 and 12 weeks later. Results: Intermittent theta-burst stimulation improved dystonia severity (Day 5, −5.44 points; p = 0.012; Day 10, −4.6 points; p = 0.025), however, effect sizes were small. Quality of life also improved (Day 5, −10.6 points, p = 0.012; Day 10, −8.6 points, p = 0.036; Week 4, −12.5 points, p = 0.036; Week 12, −12.4 points, p = 0.025), with medium or large effect sizes. There was a reduction in time to complete the pegboard task pre to post intervention (both p < 0.008). Cortical neurophysiology was unchanged by cerebellar neuromodulation. Conclusion: Intermittent theta-burst stimulation of the cerebellum may improve cervical dystonia symptoms, upper limb motor control and quality of life. The mechanism likely involves promoting neuroplasticity in the cerebellum although the neurophysiology remains to be elucidated. Cerebellar neuromodulation may have potential as a novel treatment intervention for cervical dystonia, although larger
Park, Hye Ran; Lee, Jae Meen; Ehm, Gwanhee; Yang, Hui-Jun; Song, In Ho; Lim, Yong Hoon; Kim, Mi-Ryoung; Kim, Keyoung Ran; Lee, Woong-Woo; Kim, Young Eun; Hwang, Jae Ha; Shin, Chae Won; Park, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Han-Joon; Kim, Cheolyoung; Kim, Dong Gyu; Jeon, Beom Seok; Paek, Sun Ha
Background GPi (Internal globus pallidus) DBS (deep brain stimulation) is recognized as a safe, reliable, reversible and adjustable treatment in patients with medically refractory dystonia. Objectives This report describes the long-term clinical outcome of 36 patients implanted with GPi DBS at the Neurosurgery Department of Seoul National University Hospital. Methods Nine patients with a known genetic cause, 12 patients with acquired dystonia, and 15 patients with isolated dystonia without a known genetic cause were included. When categorized by phenomenology, 29 patients had generalized, 5 patients had segmental, and 2 patients had multifocal dystonia. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at defined follow-up examinations postoperatively, using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale (BFMDRS) for movement and functional disability assessment. The mean follow-up duration was 47 months (range, 12–84) Results The mean movement scores significantly decreased from 44.88 points preoperatively to 26.45 points at 60-month follow up (N = 19, P = 0.006). The mean disability score was also decreased over time, from 11.54 points preoperatively to 8.26 points at 60-month follow up, despite no statistical significance (N = 19, P = 0.073). When analyzed the movement and disability improvement rates at 12-month follow up point, no significant difference was noted according to etiology, disease duration, age at surgery, age of onset, and phenomenology. However, the patients with DYT-1 dystonia and isolated dystonia without a known genetic cause showed marked improvement. Conclusions GPi DBS is a safe and efficient therapeutic method for treatment of dystonia patients to improve both movement and disability. However, this study has some limitations caused by the retrospective design with small sample size in a single-center. PMID:26745717
Thompson, P D; Obeso, J A; Delgado, G; Gallego, J; Marsden, C D
The clinical features, differential diagnosis and treatment of unilateral spasms of the jaw and masticatory muscles are discussed and illustrated by eight cases of unilateral jaw spasms of various aetiologies. These include focal dystonia of the jaw, hemimasticatory spasm with and without facial hemiatrophy, paroxysmal events in multiple sclerosis and tetany. Attention is particularly drawn to four cases of unilateral dystonia of the jaw which has not been described before. Images PMID:3734821
Karp, Barbara Illowsky; Alter, Katharine
Blepharospasm is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary, repetitive eye closure. Orofacial and oromandibular dystonia describe involuntary dystonic movements of orofacial and oromandibular musculature. Hemifacial spasm is characterized by repetitive synchronous contraction of facial nerve innervated muscles on one side of the face. In this article, the clinical presentation, epidemiology, and approaches to treatment are reviewed. Technical aspects of using botulinum toxin for treatment and reported outcomes are discussed.
Linazasoro, G; Garmendia, M T; Lizaso, X
Acute dystonic reactions are usually observed after exposure to drugs with antidopaminergic actions. We report on one patient with acute dystonia associated with ingestion of a cloperastine containing syrup, who suffered from schizophrenia but had been neuroleptic-free for 6months. Cloperastine has antihistaminic properties. We suggest that antihistaminic agents may induce acute dystonia by altering the balance between dopamine and acetylcholine in the striatum.
Anzellotti, Francesca; Capasso, Margherita; Frazzini, Valerio; Onofrj, Marco
Olanzapine-related seizures have rarely been reported despite associated proconvulsant risk factors described in the literature: myoclonic status, increased frequency of seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, as well as fatal status epilepticus. We present a psychiatric patient who developed repetitive focal motor seizures and lingual dystonia when olanzapine was added for psychomotor agitation and aggressiveness. Olanzapine was immediately suspended and the seizures progressively disappeared. A control EEG showed no paroxysmal discharges. Olanzapine shares some pharmacological similarities with clozapine, a neuroleptic with a high risk of dose-dependent seizures. This adverse effect should be taken into account, and olanzapine should be used with caution if concomitant circumstances decrease the seizure threshold. [Published with video sequence online].
Lunardini, Francesca; Casellato, Claudia; Bertucco, Matteo; Sanger, Terence D; Pedrocchi, Alessandra
Childhood dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by muscle overflow and variability. This is the first study that investigates upper limb muscle synergies in childhood dystonia with the twofold aim of deepening the understanding of neuromotor dysfunctions and paving the way to possible synergy-based myocontrol interfaces suitable for this neurological population. Nonnegative matrix factorization was applied to the activity of upper-limb muscles recorded during the execution of writing tasks in children with dystonia and age-matched controls. Despite children with dystonia presented compromised kinematics of the writing outcome, a strikingly similarity emerged in the number and structure of the synergy vectors extracted from children in the two groups. The analysis also revealed that the timing of activation of the synergy coefficients did not significantly differ, while the amplitude of the peaks presented a slight reduction. These results suggest that the synergy analysis has the ability of capturing the uncorrupted part of the electromyographic signal in dystonia. Such an ability supports a possible future use of muscle synergies in the design of myocontrol interfaces for children with dystonia.
Forty-seven railroad workers who were exposed to polychlorinated phenols, including dioxin (TCDD), during 1979 while cleaning up the chemical spillage following damage to a tank car filled with these chemicals were followed medically for the subsequent 6 years. Two committed suicide. The initial neurological complaints included a sense of fatigue and muscle aching, both of which have been reported in other individuals following dioxin exposure. On detailed neurological examination in December, 1985, 24 of 45 had dystonic writer's cramp and/or other action dystonias of the hands. None of the involved individuals had a family history of dystonia, and all 24 dated the onset of the dystonia to the first 2 to 3 years subsequent to their toxic exposure. The dystonias varied in severity but were usually mild. No other types of dystonic involvement were recognized. Thirty-five of the 45 individuals also manifested postural and terminal intention tremor which resembled benign essential tremor. None of the involved individuals had a family history of tremor, and all 35 of those affected dated the onset of the tremor to some time subsequent to their toxic exposure. Forty-three of 45 patients had histories and findings suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. This is the first report relating any type of dystonia to prior dioxin exposure and the first report relating action dystonia, such as dystonic writer's cramp, and postural/terminal intention tremor, to toxic exposure of any type.
Filip, Pavel; Gallea, Cécile; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Bertasi, Eric; Popa, Traian; Mareček, Radek; Lungu, Ovidiu V; Kašpárek, Tomáš; Vaníček, Jiří; Bareš, Martin
Although dystonia is traditionally conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, increasing interest has been directed at a different neural network node, the cerebellum, which may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. Abnormal sensorimotor processing and disturbed motor schemes, possibly attributable to cerebellar changes, remain unclear. We sought to characterize the extent of cerebellar dysfunction within the motor network using functional MRI activation analysis, connectivity analysis, and voxel-based morphometry in cervical dystonia patients (n = 25, 15 women, mean age 45.8 years) and healthy volunteers (n = 25, 15 women, mean age 44.7 years) in a visuospatial task requiring predictive motor timing. Cervical dystonia patients showed decreased activation in the posterior cerebellar lobules as well as in the premotor areas, the associative parietal cortex, and visual regions. Patients also had decreased cerebellar connectivity with bilateral basal ganglia structures and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This promotes the view that dystonia results from miscommunication between the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops, thus providing new insights into the brain regions essential for the development of cervical dystonia. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
van Rijn, Monique A; van Hilten, Jacobus J; van Dijk, J Gert
The aetiology of dystonia in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS-I) is incompletely understood. In primary dystonia, somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP) after spatially or temporally separated stimulation revealed impaired central sensory integration. Information on somatosensory processing in dystonia in CRPS-I patients may provide better insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. We studied SSEPs in 33 patients with CRPS-I and dystonia and 19 healthy controls. N9, N14, N20 and N35 amplitudes were recorded after paired stimulation of median and ulnar nerves ("spatial") and after stimulation of both nerves with single stimuli and with interstimulus intervals of 20 and 40 ms ("temporal" stimulation). Finally, both methods were integrated resulting in spatiotemporal stimulation. Statistical testing was performed using linear mixed model analysis of variance. SSEP amplitudes were significantly suppressed after spatial and temporal stimulation. No difference was observed between patients and healthy controls. Spatiotemporal stimulation did not show an additional suppressive effect in any group. Central sensory integration of proprioceptive afferent input is normal in patients with CPRS-related dystonia. Other mechanisms may underlie the development of dystonia in this disorder.
Krystkowiak, P; Martinat, P; Defebvre, L; Pruvo, J; Leys, D; Destee, A
OBJECTIVE—To establish the pathophysiological mechanisms of striatopallidal and thalamic dystonia. METHODS—Five patients from among 26 who presented (between March 1987 and July 1996) with focal dystonia, segmental dystonia, or hemidystonia caused by a single localised vascular lesion, were selected. Patients with lesions with indefinite boundaries, and diffuse, or multiple, or large brain lesions were excluded. Three dimensional T1 weighted MRI (1.5 tesla) was performed to determine the topography of the lesions. The atlas of Hassler allowed the stereotactic localisation of the lesions to be specified exactly. RESULTS—Three patients had dystonic spasms associated with striatopallidal lesions and one with a thalamic and striatopallidal lesion. One other patient presented with a myoclonic dystonia related to a thalamic lesion. The striatopallidal lesions were located in the sensorimotor area with a somatotopical distribution. The pure thalamic lesion involved the centromedian nucleus, the sensory nuclei, and the pulvinar whereas the thalamic and striatopallidal lesion was located in the pallidonigral thalamic territory, which receives pallidonigral inputs. CONCLUSION—The striatopallidal dystonia might be the consequence of the interruption of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical loop induced by lesions located within the sensorimotor part of the striatopallidal complex. By contrast, it is suggested that thalamic dystonia might be caused by lesions located in the centromedian or the ventral intermediate nuclei, outside the pallidonigral territory, but leading also to a dysfunction of the cort ico -striat o - pallido - thalamo - cort ica l loop. PMID:9810942
Yoshida, K; Takahashi, H; Sato, K; Higuchi, H; Shimizu, T
It has been reported that the imbalance of anticholinergic and antidopaminergic activity of each neuroleptic drug correlates with the capacity to produce neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia (NAD) and the major focus of NAD is thought to be the striatum. Anticholinergic drugs are highly effective on NAD, but they are partially effective on neuroleptic-induced tardive dystonia and their effect on idiopathic dystonia is disappointing. Recently, it has been reported that the unilateral microinjection of sigma (sigma) ligands into the red nucleus induces torticollis of rats. This animal model appears to be a model of dystonia, but it is not clear whether it is suitable for NAD in man. To clarify this issue, we investigated the effect of an anticholinergic drug, biperiden hydrochlorate (BH), on this animal model. This study revealed that BH dose-dependently ameliorated dystonia of rats induced by two sigma ligands, whether each sigma ligand had dopaminergic affinity or not. This animal model of dystonia appears to be a model of NAD in man from the viewpoint of treatment-response. The results also suggest that not only dopaminergic and cholinergic systems but also sigma system, and not only the striatum but also the red nucleus, may play an important role in the pathophysiology of NAD.
Sako, Wataru; Murakami, Nagahisa; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji
The Val66Met (G196A; rs6265) single nucleotide polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) affects morphology and neuronal activity, and is expected to be associated with central nervous system disorders. However, it remains controversial whether Val66Met polymorphism is a risk factor for idiopathic dystonia. We aimed to clarify the impact of BDNF polymorphism on idiopathic dystonia. A literature search of PubMed was carried out. A random-effects model was employed for the meta-analysis. A pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated along with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to reflect the risk of idiopathic dystonia in each genotype (GG, AG, AA) or minor allele. The proportion of variation due to heterogeneity was computed and expressed as I(2). Five case-control studies, comprising a total sample size of 1804 subjects (784 idiopathic dystonia patients, 1020 normal controls), were included in this meta-analysis. AA genotype was significantly more frequent in patients with idiopathic dystonia (OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.09-1.99, p=0.01, four studies, n=1716). This finding was derived from homogeneous studies (p=0.97, I(2)=0%). Our meta-analysis has revealed a significant overall effect of the AA genotype on the development of idiopathic dystonia.
Majumdar, Anirban; López-Casas, Jesús; Poo, Pilar; Colomer, Jaume; Galvan, Marta; Lingappa, Lokesh; Short, Clare; Jardine, Philip E; Fernández-Alvarez, Emilio
We describe the clinical features, investigations and outcome of 4 adolescents aged 13, 16, 17 and 19 years, with fixed dystonia. The diagnosis was made within 6 months of the onset of symptoms. One patient had an identifiable traumatic precipitant. All the affected extremities had pain, sudomotor and vascular changes which were consistent with complex regional pain syndrome. The extremities affected by dystonia were the foot and the hand. The dystonia spread to affect other extremities in one patient. One patient had hemifacial spasm. Examination of the central and peripheral nervous system and allied investigations failed to reveal an organic cause. Common genetic causes for dystonia were excluded. The response to physical treatments for the affected extremities, such as Botulinum Toxin and surgery was poor. In all our cases there were significant psychological and psychiatric factors. Three patients fully met the criteria for psychogenic dystonia and responded well to psychological intervention. Fixed dystonia in adolescents is an uncommon disorder of unknown aetiology, usually presenting in girls, which can be very disabling and difficult to treat. The affected parts of the body are usually painful and show vascular changes. The condition is allied to CRPS. Treatment with multidisciplinary approach including psychological measures and physiotherapy is more likely to be successful and may prevent unnecessary physical measures.
Shakkottai, Vikram G; Batla, Amit; Bhatia, Kailash; Dauer, William T; Dresel, Christian; Niethammer, Martin; Eidelberg, David; Raike, Robert S; Smith, Yoland; Jinnah, H A; Hess, Ellen J; Meunier, Sabine; Hallett, Mark; Fremont, Rachel; Khodakhah, Kamran; LeDoux, Mark S; Popa, Traian; Gallea, Cécile; Lehericy, Stéphane; Bostan, Andreea C; Strick, Peter L
A role for the cerebellum in causing ataxia, a disorder characterized by uncoordinated movement, is widely accepted. Recent work has suggested that alterations in activity, connectivity, and structure of the cerebellum are also associated with dystonia, a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal and sustained muscle contractions often leading to abnormal maintained postures. In this manuscript, the authors discuss their views on how the cerebellum may play a role in dystonia. The following topics are discussed: The relationships between neuronal/network dysfunctions and motor abnormalities in rodent models of dystonia. Data about brain structure, cerebellar metabolism, cerebellar connections, and noninvasive cerebellar stimulation that support (or not) a role for the cerebellum in human dystonia. Connections between the cerebellum and motor cortical and sub-cortical structures that could support a role for the cerebellum in dystonia. Overall points of consensus include: Neuronal dysfunction originating in the cerebellum can drive dystonic movements in rodent model systems. Imaging and neurophysiological studies in humans suggest that the cerebellum plays a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia, but do not provide conclusive evidence that the cerebellum is the primary or sole neuroanatomical site of origin.
Khan, Tanya T; Donaldson, Joseph; Hesse, Richard J
Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) belong to a spectrum of focal movement disorders that cause involuntary, spasmodic contractions of the eyelid and facial muscles. In our clinical experience, we have observed an increased prevalence of rosacea in patients who present with BEB and HFS. We investigate our clinical findings with a review of disease pathophysiology and treatment. Retrospective study approved by the Ochsner Institutional Review Board and literature review. A total of 140 charts dated from 1990 to 2013 were reviewed, including 87 patients with BEB and 53 patients with HFS. Rosacea, BEB, and HFS were defined by standard diagnostic criteria. Within our BEB and HFS patient cohort, approximately 15% of patients presented with rosacea, compared to the general American population prevalence rate of 1.34% (p < 0.001). Of the 140 patients reviewed, a total of 21 patients (13 with BEB and 8 with HFS) exhibited rosacea (p = 0.995). Dry eye and tear instability often co-exist in patients with facial dystonias and rosacea, which may provide the initial drive towards tonic eyelid contractions and simultaneously exacerbate rosacea. Studies suggest that neurogenic inflammation and altered vasoregulation jointly contribute to the pathogenesis of rosacea. From our preliminary observations, we suggest the possibility of shared immune-inflammatory pathways involved in both facial dystonias and rosacea. Identification of common inflammatory mediators involved in both disease processes may facilitate a more targeted approach in drug treatment. Further biochemical analysis will likely be necessary to elucidate this potential association.
Brookes, James T; Kanis, Adam B; Tan, Lih Yeen; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Vore, Abram; Smith, Richard J H
To report the results of the first known cochlear implantation in a patient with deafness-dystonia-optic neuronopathy (DDON) syndrome (Mohr-Tranebaerg syndrome, DFN-1). DDON syndrome is an X-linked condition characterized by postlingual sensorineural hearing loss in early childhood followed by dystonia, psychosis, and optic atrophy in adolescence and adulthood. The gene responsible for the condition maps to Xq22 adjacent to the gene causally related to X-linked agammaglobulinemia. The audiometric characteristics of DDON syndrome are typical of auditory neuropathy, with spiral ganglion cells being the suspected site of pathology. Performance following cochlear implantation in auditory neuropathy patients is variable and has yet to be reported in any patients with DDON syndrome. The reported case describes a male initially diagnosed with X-linked agammaglobulinemia due to recurrent infections. Speech, language and hearing were typical of a child in the first year of life; however profound hearing loss developed and cochlear implantation was performed at age 4. Following implantation, further genetic workup determined that the patient carries a deletion that includes BTK and DDP1/TIMM8a, consistent with the diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia and DDON syndrome. The patient's performance with the cochlear implant was marginal even after 2 years of use, with continued poor scores in standardized speech, language and audiometric tests. Additionally, his most-comfortable-level implant setting requires higher-than-normal current applied to the electrode array. This case report supports other studies showing that DDON syndrome results in an auditory neuropathy. Further investigation is required to determine the efficacy of cochlear implantation in this patient population. DDON syndrome should be considered in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and hearing loss.
Del Sorbo, Francesca; Albanese, Alberto
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are used to achieve therapeutic benefit in focal dystonia. An expert panel recently reviewed published evidence on the efficacy of BoNTs for the treatment of focal dystonias and produced recommendations for clinical practice. Another panel reviewed the clinimetric properties of rating scales for dystonia and produced recommendations for current usage and future directions. Considering that the strength of evidence derives not only from the quality of the study design, but also from usage of validated outcome measures, we combined the information provided by these two recent reviews and assessed the appropriateness of the rating instruments used in clinical trials on BoNT treatment in focal dystonia. Data sources included all the publications on BoNT treatment for focal dystonias reviewed by the recent evidence-based analysis. We reviewed all rating instruments used to assess primary and secondary outcome following BoNT treatment. The publications were allocated into five topics according to the focal dystonia type reviewed in the meta-analysis: blepharospasm, oromandibular dystonia, cervical dystonia, upper limb dystonia, and laryngeal dystonia. For each topic, papers were divided, according to the terminology used in the meta-analysis, into placebo-controlled, active comparator and methodological or uncontrolled. For each topic we identified the rating tools used in each study class and annotated which were the mostly used in each focal dystonia type. Outcome measures included tools related to motor and non-motor features, such as pain and depression, and functional as well as health-related quality of life features. Patient- and investigator-reported outcomes were also included. Rating instruments were classified as recommended, suggested, listed or not included, based on recommendations produced by the rating scale task force. Both primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed. As a final step we compared current practice, as
Clot, Fabienne; Grabli, David; Cazeneuve, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel; Castelnau, Pierre; Chabrol, Brigitte; Landrieu, Pierre; Nguyen, Karine; Ponsot, Gérard; Abada, Myriem; Doummar, Diane; Damier, Philippe; Gil, Roger; Thobois, Stéphane; Ward, Alana J; Hutchinson, Michael; Toutain, Annick; Picard, Fabienne; Camuzat, Agnès; Fedirko, Estelle; Sân, Chankannira; Bouteiller, Delphine; LeGuern, Eric; Durr, Alexandra; Vidailhet, Marie; Brice, Alexis
Dopa-responsive dystonia is a childhood-onset dystonic disorder, characterized by a dramatic response to low dose of L-Dopa. Dopa-responsive dystonia is mostly caused by autosomal dominant mutations in the GCH1 gene (GTP cyclohydrolase1) and more rarely by autosomal recessive mutations in the TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) or SPR (sepiapterin reductase) genes. In addition, mutations in the PARK2 gene (parkin) which causes autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism may present as Dopa-responsive dystonia. In order to evaluate the relative frequency of the mutations in these genes, but also in the genes involved in the biosynthesis and recycling of BH4, and to evaluate the associated clinical spectrum, we have studied a large series of index patients (n = 64) with Dopa-responsive dystonia, in whom dystonia improved by at least 50% after L-Dopa treatment. Fifty seven of these patients were classified as pure Dopa-responsive dystonia and seven as Dopa-responsive dystonia-plus syndromes. All patients were screened for point mutations and large rearrangements in the GCH1 gene, followed by sequencing of the TH and SPR genes, then PTS (pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase), PCBD (pterin-4a-carbinolamine dehydratase), QDPR (dihydropteridin reductase) and PARK2 (parkin) genes. We identified 34 different heterozygous point mutations in 40 patients, and six different large deletions in seven patients in the GCH1 gene. Except for one patient with mental retardation and a large deletion of 2.3 Mb encompassing 10 genes, all patients had stereotyped clinical features, characterized by pure Dopa-responsive dystonia with onset in the lower limbs and an excellent response to low doses of L-Dopa. Dystonia started in the first decade of life in 40 patients (85%) and before the age of 1 year in one patient (2.2%). Three of the 17 negative GCH1 patients had mutations in the TH gene, two in the SPR gene and one in the PARK2 gene. No mutations in the three genes involved in the biosynthesis and
Wolf, Marc E; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Lütjens, Götz; Ebert, Anne D; Hennerici, Michael G; Krauss, Joachim K; Blahak, Christian
In patients with Parkinson's disease, significant weight gain following chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported. Recently, relevant weight gain could be demonstrated also following subthalamic nucleus DBS in patients with primary cervical dystonia. Prospective analyses of body weight changes following DBS in patients with dystonia, however, have not been published so far. We aimed to analyse the changes of body weight following DBS in patients with dystonia. The body mass index (BMI) of 17 consecutive patients with segmental or generalised dystonia (mean age 54.6 ± 16.1 years) treated with bilateral DBS of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) (n = 14) or the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (n = 3) was measured preoperatively (pre-OP) and at three follow-up (FU) time points post-DBS surgery (FU1 = 7 months, FU2 = 17 months, FU3 = 72 months). All patients benefited from marked improvement in their dystonia. The mean BMI pre-OP (SD) was 22.5 (±3.7) kg/m(2) and increased stepwise to 24.0 (±3.3) kg/m(2) at FU1, 24.4 (±3.7) kg/m(2) at FU2 and 24.9 (±3.7) kg/m(2) at FU3 (p < 0.05 at all three FUs compared to pre-OP). Relative BMI increase and improvement of dystonia were correlated (p = 0.025). Chronic bilateral GPi DBS in patients with dystonia is associated with significant body weight gain, in particular during the first 6 months post-OP. This probably is a result of improvement of dystonic motor symptoms and recovery of eating dysfunction rather than a target-specific phenomenon.
Guo, Yixin; Park, Choongseok; Worth, Robert M.; Rubchinsky, Leonid L.
Basal ganglia dysfunction has being implied in both Parkinson's disease and dystonia. While these disorders probably involve different cellular and circuit pathologies within and beyond basal ganglia, there may be some shared neurophysiological pathways. For example, pallidotomy and pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are used in symptomatic treatment of both disorders. Both conditions are marked by alterations of rhythmicity of neural activity throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Increased synchronized oscillatory activity in beta band is characteristic of Parkinson's disease, while different frequency bands, theta and alpha, are involved in dystonia. We compare the effect of the activity of GPi, the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, on information processing in the downstream neural circuits of thalamus in Parkinson's disease and dystonia. We use a data-driven computational approach, a computational model of the thalamocortical (TC) cell modulated by experimentally recorded data, to study the differences and similarities of thalamic dynamics in dystonia and Parkinson's disease. Our analysis shows no substantial differences in TC relay between the two conditions. Our results suggest that, similar to Parkinson's disease, a disruption of thalamic processing could also be involved in dystonia. Moreover, the degree to which TC relay fidelity is impaired is approximately the same in both conditions. While Parkinson's disease and dystonia may have different pathologies and differ in the oscillatory content of neural discharge, our results suggest that the effect of patterning of pallidal discharge is similar in both conditions. Furthermore, these results suggest that the mechanisms of GPi DBS in dystonia may involve improvement of TC relay fidelity. PMID:24046745
Guo, Yixin; Park, Choongseok; Worth, Robert M; Rubchinsky, Leonid L
Basal ganglia dysfunction has being implied in both Parkinson's disease and dystonia. While these disorders probably involve different cellular and circuit pathologies within and beyond basal ganglia, there may be some shared neurophysiological pathways. For example, pallidotomy and pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are used in symptomatic treatment of both disorders. Both conditions are marked by alterations of rhythmicity of neural activity throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Increased synchronized oscillatory activity in beta band is characteristic of Parkinson's disease, while different frequency bands, theta and alpha, are involved in dystonia. We compare the effect of the activity of GPi, the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, on information processing in the downstream neural circuits of thalamus in Parkinson's disease and dystonia. We use a data-driven computational approach, a computational model of the thalamocortical (TC) cell modulated by experimentally recorded data, to study the differences and similarities of thalamic dynamics in dystonia and Parkinson's disease. Our analysis shows no substantial differences in TC relay between the two conditions. Our results suggest that, similar to Parkinson's disease, a disruption of thalamic processing could also be involved in dystonia. Moreover, the degree to which TC relay fidelity is impaired is approximately the same in both conditions. While Parkinson's disease and dystonia may have different pathologies and differ in the oscillatory content of neural discharge, our results suggest that the effect of patterning of pallidal discharge is similar in both conditions. Furthermore, these results suggest that the mechanisms of GPi DBS in dystonia may involve improvement of TC relay fidelity.
Løkkegaard, Annemette; Herz, Damian M; Haagensen, Brian N; Lorentzen, Anne K; Eickhoff, Simon B; Siebner, Hartwig R
Dystonia is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements or postures. Functional neuroimaging studies have yielded abnormal task-related sensorimotor activation in dystonia, but the results appear to be rather variable across studies. Further, study size was usually small including different types of dystonia. Here we performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies in patients with primary dystonia to test for convergence of dystonia-related alterations in task-related activity across studies. Activation likelihood estimates were based on previously reported regional maxima of task-related increases or decreases in dystonia patients compared to healthy controls. The meta-analyses encompassed data from 179 patients with dystonia reported in 18 functional neuroimaging studies using a range of sensorimotor tasks. Patients with dystonia showed bilateral increases in task-related activation in the parietal operculum and ventral postcentral gyrus as well as right middle temporal gyrus. Decreases in task-related activation converged in left supplementary motor area and left postcentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus and dorsal midbrain. Apart from the midbrain cluster, all between-group differences in task-related activity were retrieved in a sub-analysis including only the 14 studies on patients with focal dystonia. For focal dystonia, an additional cluster of increased sensorimotor activation emerged in the caudal cingulate motor zone. The results show that dystonia is consistently associated with abnormal somatosensory processing in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex along with abnormal sensorimotor activation of mesial premotor and right lateral temporal cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 37:547-557, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bhagat, Srishti L; Qiu, Sunny; Caffall, Zachary F; Wan, Yehong; Pan, Yuanji; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Badea, Alexandra; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Calakos, Nicole
Rare de novo mutations in genes associated with inherited Mendelian disorders are potential contributors to sporadic disease. DYT1 dystonia is an autosomal dominant, early-onset, generalized dystonia associated with an in-frame, trinucleotide deletion (n. delGAG, p. ΔE 302/303) in the Tor1a gene. Here we examine the significance of a rare missense variant in the Tor1a gene (c. 613T>A, p. F205I), previously identified in a patient with sporadic late-onset focal dystonia, by modeling it in mice. Homozygous F205I mice have motor impairment, reduced steady-state levels of TorsinA, altered corticostriatal synaptic plasticity, and prominent brain imaging abnormalities in areas associated with motor function. Thus, the F205I variant causes abnormalities in domains affected in people and/or mouse models with the DYT1 Tor1a mutation (ΔE). Our findings establish the pathological significance of the F205I Tor1a variant and provide a model with both etiological and phenotypic relevance to further investigate dystonia mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rose, Samuel J.; Yu, Xin Y.; Heinzer, Ann K.; Harrast, Porter; Fan, Xueliang; Raike, Robert S.; Thompson, Valerie B.; Pare, Jean-Francois; Weinshenker, David; Smith, Yoland; Jinnah, Hyder A.
Abnormal dopamine neurotransmission is associated with many different genetic and acquired dystonic disorders. For instance, mutations in genes critical for the synthesis of dopamine, including GCH1 and TH cause l-DOPA-responsive dystonia. Despite evidence that implicates abnormal dopamine neurotransmission in dystonia, the precise nature of the pre- and postsynaptic defects that result in dystonia are not known. To better understand these defects, we generated a knock-in mouse model of l-DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD) mice that recapitulates the human p.381Q>K TH mutation (c.1141C>A). Mice homozygous for this mutation displayed the core features of the human disorder, including reduced TH activity, dystonia that worsened throughout the course of the active phase, and improvement in the dystonia in response to both l-DOPA and trihexyphenidyl. Although the gross anatomy of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons was normal in DRD mice, the microstructure of striatal synapses was affected whereby the ratio of axo-spinous to axo-dendritic corticostriatal synaptic contacts was reduced. Microinjection of l-DOPA directly into the striatum ameliorated the dystonic movements but cerebellar microinjections of l-DOPA had no effect. Surprisingly, the striatal dopamine concentration was reduced to ∼1% of normal, a concentration more typically associated with akinesia, suggesting that (mal)adaptive postsynaptic responses may also play a role in the development of dystonia. Administration of D1- or D2-like dopamine receptor agonists to enhance dopamine signalling reduced the dystonic movements, whereas administration of D1- or D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists to further reduce dopamine signalling worsened the dystonia, suggesting that both receptors mediate the abnormal movements. Further, D1-dopamine receptors were supersensitive; adenylate cyclase activity, locomotor activity and stereotypy were exaggerated in DRD mice in response to the D1-dopamine receptor agonist SKF
Pelosi, Assunta; Menardy, Fabien; Popa, Daniela; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Hervé, Denis
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions and its pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Dominant mutations of the GNAL gene are a cause of isolated dystonia (DYT25) in patients. Some mutations result in a complete loss of function of the encoded protein, Gαolf, an adenylyl-cyclase-stimulatory G-protein highly enriched in striatal projection neurons, where it mediates the actions of dopamine and adenosine. We used male and female heterozygous Gnal knock-out mice (Gnal(+/-)) to study how GNAL haplodeficiency is implicated in dystonia. In basal conditions, no overt dystonic movements or postures or change in locomotor activity were observed. However, Gnal haploinsufficiency altered self-grooming, motor coordination, and apparent motivation in operant conditioning, as well as spine morphology and phospho-CaMKIIβ in the striatum. After systemic administration of oxotremorine, an unselective cholinergic agonist, Gnal(+/-) mice developed more abnormal postures and movements than WT mice. These effects were not caused by seizures as indicated by EEG recordings. They were prevented by the M1-preferring muscarinic antagonists, telenzepine, pirenzepine, and trihexyphenidyl, which alleviate dystonic symptoms in patients. The motor defects were worsened by mecamylamine, a selective nicotinic antagonist. These oxotremorine-induced abnormalities in Gnal(+/-) mice were replicated by oxotremorine infusion into the striatum, but not into the cerebellum, indicating that defects in striatal neurons favor the appearance of dystonia-like movement alterations after oxotremorine. Untreated and oxotremorine-treated Gnal(+/-) mice provide a model of presymptomic and symptomatic stages of DYT25-associated dystonia, respectively, and clues about the mechanisms underlying dystonia pathogenesis.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Adult-onset dystonia DYT25 is caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations of GNAL, a gene encoding the
Sako, Wataru; Fujita, Koji; Vo, An; Rucker, Janet C; Rizzo, John-Ross; Niethammer, Martin; Carbon, Maren; Bressman, Susan B; Uluğ, Aziz M; Eidelberg, David
Although primary dystonia is defined by its characteristic motor manifestations, non-motor signs and symptoms have increasingly been recognized in this disorder. Recent neuroimaging studies have related the motor features of primary dystonia to connectivity changes in cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathways. It is not known, however, whether the non-motor manifestations of the disorder are associated with similar circuit abnormalities. To explore this possibility, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study primary dystonia and healthy volunteer subjects while they performed a motion perception task in which elliptical target trajectories were visually tracked on a computer screen. Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of healthy subjects performing this task have revealed selective activation of motor regions during the perception of 'natural' versus 'unnatural' motion (defined respectively as trajectories with kinematic properties that either comply with or violate the two-thirds power law of motion). Several regions with significant connectivity changes in primary dystonia were situated in proximity to normal motion perception pathways, suggesting that abnormalities of these circuits may also be present in this disorder. To determine whether activation responses to natural versus unnatural motion in primary dystonia differ from normal, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study 10 DYT1 dystonia and 10 healthy control subjects at rest and during the perception of 'natural' and 'unnatural' motion. Both groups exhibited significant activation changes across perceptual conditions in the cerebellum, pons, and subthalamic nucleus. The two groups differed, however, in their responses to 'natural' versus 'unnatural' motion in these regions. In healthy subjects, regional activation was greater during the perception of natural (versus unnatural) motion (P < 0.05). By contrast, in DYT1 dystonia subjects, activation was relatively greater
Furuya, S; Altenmüller, E
The loss of independent control of finger movements impairs the dexterous use of the hand. Focal hand dystonia is characterised by abnormal structural and functional changes at the cortical and subcortical regions responsible for individuated finger movements and by the loss of surround inhibition in the finger muscles. However, little is known about the pathophysiological impact of focal dystonia on the independent control of finger movements. Here we addressed this issue by asking pianists with and without focal dystonia to repetitively strike a piano key with one of the four fingers as fast as possible while the remaining digits kept the adjacent keys depressed. Using principal component analysis and cluster analysis to the derived keystroke data, we successfully classified pianists according to the presence or absence of dystonic symptoms with classification rates and cross-validation scores of approximately 90%. This confirmed the effects of focal dystonia on the individuated finger movements. Interestingly, the movement features that contributed to successful classification differed across fingers. Compared to healthy pianists, pianists with an affected index finger were characterised predominantly by stronger keystrokes, whereas pianists with affected middle or ring fingers exhibited abnormal temporal control of the keystrokes, such as slowness and rhythmic inconsistency. The selective alternation of the movement features indicates a finger-specific loss of the independent control of finger movements in focal dystonia of musicians.
Wang, Tsui-chin; Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich
Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements. The exaggerated movements have been studied and have implicated basal ganglia as the point of origin. In more recent studies, the cerebellum has also been identified as the possible target of dystonia, in the search for alternative treatments. Tiagabine is a selective GABA transporter inhibitor, which blocks the reuptake and recycling of GABA. The study of GABAergic drugs as an alternative treatment for cerebellar induced dystonia has not been reported. In our study, tiagabine was i.p. injected into kainic acid induced, cerebellar dystonic adult rats, and the effects were compared with non-tiagabine injected and sham-operated groups. Beam walking apparatus, telemetric electromyography (EMG) recording, and histological verification were performed to confirm dystonic symptoms in the rats on post-surgery treatment. Involuntary dystonic spasm was observed with repetitive rigidity, and twisting movements in the rats were also confirmed by a high score on the dystonic scoring and a high amplitude on the EMG data. The rats with tiagabine treatment were scored based on motor amelioration assessed via beam walking. The result of this study suggests and confirms that low dose of kainic acid microinjection is sufficient to induce dystonia from the cerebellar vermis. In addition, from the results of the EMG recording and the behavioral assessment through beam walking, tiagabine is demonstrated as being effective in reducing dystonic spasm and may be a possible alternative therapeutic drug in the treatment of dystonia. PMID:28337103
Blood, Anne J.; Kuster, John K.; Woodman, Sandra C.; Kirlic, Namik; Makhlouf, Miriam L.; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J.; Makris, Nikos; Parent, Martin; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Sjalander, Greta; Breiter, Henry
Background There has been increasing interest in the interaction of the basal ganglia with the cerebellum and the brainstem in motor control and movement disorders. In addition, it has been suggested that these subcortical connections with the basal ganglia may help to coordinate a network of regions involved in mediating posture and stabilization. While studies in animal models support a role for this circuitry in the pathophysiology of the movement disorder dystonia, thus far, there is only indirect evidence for this in humans with dystonia. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study we investigated probabilistic diffusion tractography in DYT1-negative patients with cervical dystonia and matched healthy control subjects, with the goal of showing that patients exhibit altered microstructure in the connectivity between the pallidum and brainstem. The brainstem regions investigated included nuclei that are known to exhibit strong connections with the cerebellum. We observed large clusters of tractography differences in patients relative to healthy controls, between the pallidum and the brainstem. Tractography was decreased in the left hemisphere and increased in the right hemisphere in patients, suggesting a potential basis for the left/right white matter asymmetry we previously observed in focal dystonia patients. Conclusions/Significance These findings support the hypothesis that connections between the basal ganglia and brainstem play a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia. PMID:22384048
Blood, Anne J; Kuster, John K; Woodman, Sandra C; Kirlic, Namik; Makhlouf, Miriam L; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J; Makris, Nikos; Parent, Martin; Sudarsky, Lewis R; Sjalander, Greta; Breiter, Henry; Breiter, Hans C; Sharma, Nutan
There has been increasing interest in the interaction of the basal ganglia with the cerebellum and the brainstem in motor control and movement disorders. In addition, it has been suggested that these subcortical connections with the basal ganglia may help to coordinate a network of regions involved in mediating posture and stabilization. While studies in animal models support a role for this circuitry in the pathophysiology of the movement disorder dystonia, thus far, there is only indirect evidence for this in humans with dystonia. In the current study we investigated probabilistic diffusion tractography in DYT1-negative patients with cervical dystonia and matched healthy control subjects, with the goal of showing that patients exhibit altered microstructure in the connectivity between the pallidum and brainstem. The brainstem regions investigated included nuclei that are known to exhibit strong connections with the cerebellum. We observed large clusters of tractography differences in patients relative to healthy controls, between the pallidum and the brainstem. Tractography was decreased in the left hemisphere and increased in the right hemisphere in patients, suggesting a potential basis for the left/right white matter asymmetry we previously observed in focal dystonia patients. These findings support the hypothesis that connections between the basal ganglia and brainstem play a role in the pathophysiology of dystonia.
Lungu, Ovidiu V.; Shaw, Daniel J.; Kasparek, Tomas; Bareš, Martin
Traditionally, the pathophysiology of cervical dystonia has been regarded mainly in relation to neurochemical abnormities in the basal ganglia. Recently, however, substantial evidence has emerged for cerebellar involvement. While the absence of neurological “cerebellar signs” in most dystonia patients may be considered at least provoking, there are more subtle indications of cerebellar dysfunction in complex, demanding tasks. Specifically, given the role of the cerebellum in the neural representation of time, in the millisecond range, dysfunction to this structure is considered to be of greater importance than dysfunction of the basal ganglia. In the current study, we investigated the performance of cervical dystonia patients on a computer task known to engage the cerebellum, namely, the interception of a moving target with changing parameters (speed, acceleration, and angle) with a simple response (pushing a button). The cervical dystonia patients achieved significantly worse results than a sample of healthy controls. Our results suggest that the cervical dystonia patients are impaired at integrating incoming visual information with motor responses during the prediction of upcoming actions, an impairment we interpret as evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:24198973
Vemula, Satya R.; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W.; Momčilović, Dragana; Blitzer, Andrew
Objective: To determine the contribution of TUBB4A, recently associated with DYT4 dystonia in a pedigree with “whispering dysphonia” from Norfolk, United Kingdom, to the etiopathogenesis of primary dystonia. Methods: High-resolution melting and Sanger sequencing were used to inspect the entire coding region of TUBB4A in 575 subjects with primary laryngeal, segmental, or generalized dystonia. Results: No pathogenic variants, including the exon 1 variant (c.4C>G) identified in the DYT4 whispering dysphonia kindred, were found in this study. Conclusion: The c.4C>G DYT4 mutation appears to be private, and clinical testing for TUBB4A mutations is not justified in spasmodic dysphonia or other forms of primary dystonia. Moreover, given its allelic association with leukoencephalopathy hypomyelination with atrophy of basal ganglia and cerebellum and protean clinical manifestations (chorea, ataxia, dysarthria, intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and psychiatric disorders), DYT4 should not be categorized as a primary dystonia. PMID:24598712
Kiziltan, Meral E; Gunduz, Aysegul; Apaydın, Hulya; Ertan, Sibel; Kiziltan, Gunes
Startle reflex is a generalized defense reaction after unexpected auditory, visual, or tactile stimuli. Auditory startle reflex (ASR) and startle reflex to somatosensory inputs (SSS) have never been studied in generalized dystonia. Here, we aimed to study the characteristics and changes of ASR and SSS in this group. We have examined ASR and SSS in patients with generalized dystonia (n=11) and healthy subjects (n=25) under the same conditions. ASRs and SSSs were recorded over the orbicularis oculi (O.oc), sternocleidomastoid, biceps brachii (BB), and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles after bilateral auditory stimulation and unilateral median nerve electrical stimulation at the wrist, respectively. Both ASR and SSS showed the same sequence of muscle activation in both groups. However, the presence rates over the APB and BB muscles after both modalities of stimuli were significantly higher in the generalized dystonia group. ASR did not habituate in the dystonia group. Both ASR and SSS are disinhibited, and both show a similar sequence of muscle recruitment in generalized dystonia. Higher probabilities over caudal muscles probably depend on the higher excitability of motor neurons secondary to central modulation. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kojovic, Maja; Caronni, Antonio; Bologna, Matteo; Rothwell, John C.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Edwards, Mark J.
Botulinum toxin injections ameliorate dystonic symptoms by blocking the neuromuscular junction and weakening dystonic contractions. We asked if botulinum toxin injections in dystonia patients might also affect the integrity of sensorimotor cortical plasticity, one of the key pathophysiological features of dystonia. We applied a paired associative stimulation protocol, known to induce long-term potentiation–like changes in the primary motor cortex hand area to 12 patients with cervical dystonia before and 1 and 3 months after botulinum toxin injections to the neck muscles. Primary motor cortex excitability was probed by measuring transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked motor evoked potentials before and after paired associative stimulation. We also measured the input–output curve, short-interval intracortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation, short afferent inhibition, and long afferent inhibition in hand muscles and the clinical severity of dystonia. Before botulinum toxin injections, paired associative stimulation significantly facilitated motor evoked potentials in hand muscles. One month after injections, this effect was abolished, with partial recovery after 3 months. There were significant positive correlations between the facilitation produced by paired associative stimulation and (1) the time elapsed since botulinum toxin injections and (2) the clinical dystonia score. One effect of botulinum toxin injection treatment is to modulate afferent input from the neck. We propose that subsequent reorganization of the motor cortex representation of hand muscles may explain the effect of botulinum toxin on motor cortical plasticity. PMID:21469207
Lumsden, Daniel E; Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Kaminska, Margaret; Lin, Jean-Pierre
This study aimed to determine the main concerns/priorities of the parents and carers of children with dystonia referred to our service and whether medical interventional studies addressed these concerns. Records of children assessed by our service from June 2005-December 2012 were reviewed and expressed parental/carer concerns at initial assessment categorized using the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) Framework. Medline, CINAHL and Embase databases were searched for outcome measures of medical and surgical interventional studies in childhood dystonia. Data was collected from 273 children and young people with dystonia. The most commonly expressed concerns were: pain (104/273, 38.1%); difficulties in delivering activities of daily-living (66/273, 24.2%), difficulties with hand-use (59/273, 21.6%) and seating (41/273, 15.0%). Literature review identified 70 interventional studies, 46 neurosurgical and 24 pharmacological. The majority of neurosurgical studies (34/46) used impairment scales to measure change, with pharmacological studies typically reporting more subjective changes in motor symptoms. Only a minority of studies used assessments or scales capable of objectively addressing the concerns reported by our cohort. Existing interventional studies in childhood dystonia poorly address the main concerns of children with dystonia and their carers, limiting the conclusions which may be drawn as to true impact of these interventions in childhood. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Filip, Pavel; Lungu, Ovidiu V; Shaw, Daniel J; Kasparek, Tomas; Bareš, Martin
Traditionally, the pathophysiology of cervical dystonia has been regarded mainly in relation to neurochemical abnormities in the basal ganglia. Recently, however, substantial evidence has emerged for cerebellar involvement. While the absence of neurological "cerebellar signs" in most dystonia patients may be considered at least provoking, there are more subtle indications of cerebellar dysfunction in complex, demanding tasks. Specifically, given the role of the cerebellum in the neural representation of time, in the millisecond range, dysfunction to this structure is considered to be of greater importance than dysfunction of the basal ganglia. In the current study, we investigated the performance of cervical dystonia patients on a computer task known to engage the cerebellum, namely, the interception of a moving target with changing parameters (speed, acceleration, and angle) with a simple response (pushing a button). The cervical dystonia patients achieved significantly worse results than a sample of healthy controls. Our results suggest that the cervical dystonia patients are impaired at integrating incoming visual information with motor responses during the prediction of upcoming actions, an impairment we interpret as evidence of cerebellar dysfunction.
Sensi, Mariachiara; Cavallo, Michele A; Quatrale, Rocco; Sarubbo, Silvio; Biguzzi, Sara; Lettieri, Cristian; Capone, Jay G; Tugnoli, Valeria; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Eleopra, Roberto
Pallidal stimulation is a convincing and valid alternative for primary generalized dystonia refractory to medical therapy or botulinum toxin. However, the clinical outcome reported in literature is variable most likely because of heterogeneity DBS techniques employed and /or to clinical dystonic pattern of the patients who undergo surgery. In this study, we report the long term follow up of a homogeneous group of eleven subjects affected by segmental dystonia who were treated with bilateral stimulation of the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi) from the years 2000 to 2008. All the patients were evaluated, before surgery and at 6-12-24-36 months after the treatment, in accordance with the Burke Fahn Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). Our study indicates that DBS promotes an early and significant improvement at 6 months with an even and a better outcome later on. The analysis of specific sub items of the BFMDRS revealed an earlier and striking benefit not only as far as segmental motor function of the limbs but also for the complex cranial functions like face, (eyes and mouth), speech and swallowing, differently from results reported in primary generalized dystonia. Deep Brain Stimulation of GPi should be considered a valid indication for both generalized and segmental dystonia when other therapies appear ineffective.
Zimprich, A; Grabowski, M; Asmus, F; Naumann, M; Berg, D; Bertram, M; Scheidtmann, K; Kern, P; Winkelmann, J; Müller-Myhsok, B; Riedel, L; Bauer, M; Müller, T; Castro, M; Meitinger, T; Strom, T M; Gasser, T
The dystonias are a common clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of movement disorders. More than ten loci for inherited forms of dystonia have been mapped, but only three mutated genes have been identified so far. These are DYT1, encoding torsin A and mutant in the early-onset generalized form, GCH1 (formerly known as DYT5), encoding GTP-cyclohydrolase I and mutant in dominant dopa-responsive dystonia, and TH, encoding tyrosine hydroxylase and mutant in the recessive form of the disease. Myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (MDS; DYT11) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by bilateral, alcohol-sensitive myoclonic jerks involving mainly the arms and axial muscles. Dystonia, usually torticollis and/or writer's cramp, occurs in most but not all affected patients and may occasionally be the only symptom of the disease. In addition, patients often show prominent psychiatric abnormalities, including panic attacks and obsessive-compulsive behavior. In most MDS families, the disease is linked to a locus on chromosome 7q21 (refs. 11-13). Using a positional cloning approach, we have identified five different heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene for epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE), which we mapped to a refined critical region of about 3.2 Mb. SGCE is expressed in all brain regions examined. Pedigree analysis shows a marked difference in penetrance depending on the parental origin of the disease allele. This is indicative of a maternal imprinting mechanism, which has been demonstrated in the mouse epsilon-sarcoglycan gene.
Zittel, S; Helmich, R C; Demiralay, C; Münchau, A; Bäumer, T
Previous studies indicated that sensorimotor integration and plasticity of the sensorimotor system are impaired in dystonia patients. We investigated motor evoked potential amplitudes and short latency afferent inhibition to examine corticospinal excitability and cortical sensorimotor integration, before and after inhibitory 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary sensory and primary motor cortex in patients with cervical dystonia (n = 12). Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle after application of unconditioned transcranial magnetic test stimuli and after previous conditioning electrical stimulation of the right index finger at short interstimulus intervals of 25, 30 and 40 ms. Results were compared to a group of healthy age-matched controls. At baseline, motor evoked potential amplitudes did not differ between groups. Short latency afferent inhibition was reduced in cervical dystonia patients compared to healthy controls. Inhibitory 1 Hz sensory cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation but not motor cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increased motor evoked potential amplitudes in cervical dystonia patients. Additionally, both 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary sensory and primary motor cortex normalized short latency afferent inhibition in these patients. In healthy subjects, sensory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation had no influence on motor evoked potential amplitudes and short latency afferent inhibition. Plasticity of sensorimotor circuits is altered in cervical dystonia patients.
Hoffland, Britt Sofie; Snik, Dorinda; Bhatia, Kailash P; Baratelli, Elena; Katschnig, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Crutch, Sebastian; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Edwards, Mark J
Functional imaging and electrophysiological data from patients with primary dystonia reveal widespread abnormalities in brain areas associated with higher motor functions but to date there has been little investigation of the functional consequences of these abnormalities. The aim of this study was to use a battery of tests of praxis, based on those tests used in routine clinical examination, to uncover evidence of higher motor dysfunction in patients with primary cervical dystonia. Praxis was assessed in 13 patients with primary cervical dystonia without hand involvement and in 29 age and sex matched controls. A semiquantitative praxis assessment was used which combined timed tests of meaningful and meaningless movements with copying of transitive and intratransitive hand movements and pantomime of tool use. Control tasks consisted of evaluation of motor speed, strength and a number of additional cognitive tasks. Patients made significantly more errors in copying meaningless gestures and were slow in the performance of meaningless sequences of hand movements. Copying meaningful gestures and performance of meaningful sequences of hand movements were normal. This study has identified a discrete deficit in praxis in dystonia patients and suggests additional functional consequences from the widespread pathophysiological abnormalities seen in primary dystonia.
Koch, Giacomo; Porcacchia, Paolo; Ponzo, Viviana; Carrillo, Fatima; Cáceres-Redondo, María Teresa; Brusa, Livia; Desiato, Maria Teresa; Arciprete, Flavio; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Pisani, Antonio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Palomar, Francisco J; Mir, Pablo
Dystonia is generally regarded as a disorder of the basal ganglia and their efferent connections to the thalamus and brainstem, but an important role of cerebellar-thalamo-cortical (CTC) circuits in the pathophysiology of dystonia has been invoked. Here in a sham controlled trial, we tested the effects of two-weeks of cerebellar continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) in a sample of cervical dystonia (CD) patients. Clinical evaluations were performed by administering the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) and the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). We used TMS to measure the inhibitory connectivity between the cerebellum and the contralateral motor cortex (cerebellar brain inhibition [CBI]), and the excitability of the contralateral primary motor cortex assessing intracortical inhibition (SICI), intracortical facilitation (ICF) and cortical silent period (CSP). Paired associative stimulation (PAS) was tested to evaluate the level and the topographical specificity of cortical plasticity, which is abnormally enhanced and non-focal in CD patients. Two weeks of cerebellar stimulation resulted in a small but significant clinical improvement as measured by the TWSTRS of approximately 15%. Cerebellar stimulation modified the CBI circuits and reduced the heterotopic PAS potentiation, leading to a normal pattern of topographic specific induced plasticity. These data provide novel evidence CTC circuits could be a potential target to partially control some dystonic symptoms in patients with cervical dystonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hutchinson, Michael; Isa, Tadashi; Molloy, Anna; Kimmich, Okka; Williams, Laura; Molloy, Fiona; Moore, Helena; Healy, Daniel G.; Lynch, Tim; Walsh, Cathal; Butler, John; Reilly, Richard B.; Walsh, Richard; O’Riordan, Sean
While the pathogenesis of cervical dystonia remains unknown, recent animal and clinical experimental studies have indicated its probable mechanisms. Abnormal temporal discrimination is a mediational endophenotype of cervical dystonia and informs new concepts of disease pathogenesis. Our hypothesis is that both abnormal temporal discrimination and cervical dystonia are due to a disorder of the midbrain network for covert attentional orienting caused by reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition, resulting, in turn, from as yet undetermined, genetic mutations. Such disinhibition is (a) subclinically manifested by abnormal temporal discrimination due to prolonged duration firing of the visual sensory neurons in the superficial laminae of the superior colliculus and (b) clinically manifested by cervical dystonia due to disinhibited burst activity of the cephalomotor neurons of the intermediate and deep laminae of the superior colliculus. Abnormal temporal discrimination in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with cervical dystonia represents a subclinical manifestation of defective GABA activity both within the superior colliculus and from the substantia nigra pars reticulata. A number of experiments are required to prove or disprove this hypothesis. PMID:24803911
Marks, Warren; Bailey, Laurie; Reed, Maryann; Pomykal, Angela; Mercer, Mary; Macomber, David; Acosta, Fernando; Honeycutt, John
The authors compared the outcomes of 17 children aged 7 to 15 years with DYT1 dystonia or cerebral palsy following deep brain stimulation. While patients with cerebral palsy presented with significantly greater motor disability than the DYT1 cohort at baseline, both groups demonstrated improvement at 1 year (cerebral palsy = 24%; DYT1 = 6%). The group as a whole demonstrated significant improvement on the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale across time. Gains in motor function were apparent in both axial and appendicular distributions involving both upper and lower extremities. Gains achieved by 6 months were sustained in the cerebral palsy group, whereas the DYT1 group demonstrated continued improvement with ongoing pallidal stimulation beyond 18 months. Young patients with dystonia due to cerebral palsy responded comparably to patients with DYT1 dystonia. The severity of motor impairment in patients with cerebral palsy at baseline and follow-up raises the issue of even earlier intervention with neuromodulation in this population to limit long-term motor impairments due to dystonia.
Delorme, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel; Grabli, David; Mayer, Jean-Michel; Degos, Bertrand; Vidailhet, Marie; Worbe, Yulia
Abnormalities in the cognitive processing of movement have been demonstrated in patients with dystonia. The sense of agency, which is the experience of initiating and controlling one's own actions, has never before been studied in these patients. We investigated whether the sense of agency is altered in patients with cervical dystonia. We used an explicit metacognitive agency task in which participants had to catch targets with a cursor by moving a computer's mouse. The task included several conditions in which the control over the cursor could be disrupted by adding a spatial or a temporal discrepancy between the mouse and the cursor's movements. Participants had to acknowledge these discrepancies and reflect them in metacognitive judgements of agency. Twenty cervical dystonia patients and 20 matched controls were included in the study. Despite performing equally well as the matched controls, cervical dystonia patients did not fully recognize alterations of agency when a temporal lag was added between their movement and the visual feedback. Moreover, they relied predominantly on their perceived performance to provide judgements of agency and less on their objective degree of controls. There was no correlation between agency scores and clinical severity of dystonia measured by the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale. We demonstrated an abnormal processing of agency in cervical dystonia patients, even for motor actions not affected by dystonia. The exact contribution of abnormal agency to dystonia pathophysiology remains to be clarified.
Delorme, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel; Grabli, David; Mayer, Jean-Michel; Degos, Bertrand; Vidailhet, Marie; Worbe, Yulia
Background Abnormalities in the cognitive processing of movement have been demonstrated in patients with dystonia. The sense of agency, which is the experience of initiating and controlling one’s own actions, has never before been studied in these patients. Objectives We investigated whether the sense of agency is altered in patients with cervical dystonia. Methods We used an explicit metacognitive agency task in which participants had to catch targets with a cursor by moving a computer’s mouse. The task included several conditions in which the control over the cursor could be disrupted by adding a spatial or a temporal discrepancy between the mouse and the cursor’s movements. Participants had to acknowledge these discrepancies and reflect them in metacognitive judgements of agency. Results Twenty cervical dystonia patients and 20 matched controls were included in the study. Despite performing equally well as the matched controls, cervical dystonia patients did not fully recognize alterations of agency when a temporal lag was added between their movement and the visual feedback. Moreover, they relied predominantly on their perceived performance to provide judgements of agency and less on their objective degree of controls. There was no correlation between agency scores and clinical severity of dystonia measured by the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale. Conclusion We demonstrated an abnormal processing of agency in cervical dystonia patients, even for motor actions not affected by dystonia. The exact contribution of abnormal agency to dystonia pathophysiology remains to be clarified. PMID:27575487
Riley, D E
A 67-year-old man experienced the abrupt onset of intermittent spasms of tightening of his throat muscles and elevation of his tongue to the roof of his mouth. These were precipitated by initiating movements, either of his mouth (eating, drinking, speaking, yawning) or of his whole body (arising from bed or a chair, lifting heavy weights). Episodes occurred six to 20 times per day, lasted 10-30 s, then resolved spontaneously. Two years later, results of his general neurological examination, including speech, were normal. Several spasms were provoked by arising from a seated or supine position or by drinking. Objectively, there was a strained dysphonia accompanied by palpable hardening of the supralaryngeal muscles. Each episode resolved within 15 s. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed evidence of a remote hemorrhage in the medulla. No abnormal blood vessels were seen. Phenytoin 300 mg/day abolished the spasms within days. Decreasing the dose to 200 mg/day months later led to a partial return of symptoms. Relief has persisted for 3 years. This patient has paroxysmal kinesigenic dystonia (PKD) of structures (pharynx, larynx, tongue) innervated by lower cranial motor nerves and a medullary lesion on MRI. PKD has been associated with focal lesions at all levels of the central nervous system (CNS), although never before in the medulla. PKD seems to be a nonspecific phenomenon of the CNS in reaction to injury.
Thomas, James P; Siupsinskiene, Nora
To compare the efficacy and side effects of frozen versus fresh reconstituted botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) in the treatment of laryngeal dystonia. Prospective open-label crossover study; 43 adult patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia were randomly treated with fresh or refrozen reconstituted BTX-A at a private voice center. Treatment outcomes were assessed by duration of action and self-rated satisfaction (7 point Likert scale). Side effects of breathiness and dysphagia for liquids were assessed as well. There was no statistically significant difference in the duration of action (mean, 16.2 +/- 8.5 vs 16.0 +/- 7.6 weeks) and self-rated satisfaction of the treatment (median, 6.0 vs 6.0 points). The side effects were similar for both BTX-A injection types. In addition, there were no instances of infection for refrozen injections. BTX-A may be safely used after being reconstituted and frozen or refrozen without a significant loss of effectiveness or additional side effects. In our experience, the period of freezing was on 2 occasions for up to 8 weeks. Refrozen BTX-A may be a cost-effective use of an expensive drug. B-2b.
Moberg-Wolff, E A
A 15-year-old boy presented with a severe fluctuating foot and ankle dystonia resulting from a basal ganglia insult at the age of 4. This followed an embolic event related to an undiagnosed prolapsed mitral valve. Functionally, the patient was ambulatory with rocker bottom crutches and an ankle-foot orthosis, but there were periods of up to a year when pain and increased dystonic deformity required him to use a wheelchair. A new orthotic was made nearly every month because the orthotist could find no material that would withstand his tone without breaking, yet he could not ambulate without one. Multiple interventions, including biofeedback, contrast baths, stretching and strengthening, oral lioresal (Baclofen), diazepam (Valium), benztropine mesylate (Cogentin), carbidopa-levodopa (Sinemet), carbamazepine (Tegretol), and injections of botulism toxin (BOTOX) were tried, all with minimal effects. Amputation was recommended, based on anatomic and functional considerations. The patient and his family adjusted well to this decision, although not all orthopedists and therapists adjusted easily to the choice. The patient is now functionally independent with a prosthesis and has a normal teenage lifestyle for the first time.
Dale, Russell C; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S C; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John
Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced after many minutes of exercise, and was never present at rest, or on initiation of movements. In addition, family members suffered restless legs syndrome (RLS), depression, and adult-onset Parkinsonism. The index case had low cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters and pterins. The PED and RLS stopped on initiation of L-Dopa therapy. Both live family members were found to have a nonsense mutation (p.E84X) in exon 1 of the GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH-1) gene. We propose that GCH-1 mutations should be considered a genetic cause of familial PED, especially if additional clinical features of monoaminergic deficiency are present in affected individuals.
Sudarsky, L; Plotkin, G M; Logigian, E L; Johns, D R
A variety of neurologic phenotypes have been described in patients with mitochondrial disorders. We report a 32-year-old man in whom dystonia was the salient and presenting feature of a mitochondrial DNA mutation. He presented at age 23 with writer's cramp and progressed over 5 years to exhibit dystonia in facial muscles and lower limbs. He also has exercise intolerance, mild, bilateral ptosis, proximal muscle weakness, and sensorineural hearing loss. Molecular genetic analysis of blood, urine, and muscle biopsy demonstrated the presence of a heteroplasmic point mutation at nucleotide position 3243. The 3243 mtDNA mutation has pleomorphic manifestations, and dystonia should be added to the list of associated clinical features.
Meyer, Esther; Carss, Keren J; Rankin, Julia; Nichols, John M E; Grozeva, Detelina; Joseph, Agnel P; Mencacci, Niccolo E; Papandreou, Apostolos; Ng, Joanne; Barral, Serena; Ngoh, Adeline; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Willemsen, Michel A; Arkadir, David; Barnicoat, Angela; Bergman, Hagai; Bhate, Sanjay; Boys, Amber; Darin, Niklas; Foulds, Nicola; Gutowski, Nicholas; Hills, Alison; Houlden, Henry; Hurst, Jane A; Israel, Zvi; Kaminska, Margaret; Limousin, Patricia; Lumsden, Daniel; McKee, Shane; Misra, Shibalik; Mohammed, Shekeeb S; Nakou, Vasiliki; Nicolai, Joost; Nilsson, Magnus; Pall, Hardev; Peall, Kathryn J; Peters, Gregory B; Prabhakar, Prab; Reuter, Miriam S; Rump, Patrick; Segel, Reeval; Sinnema, Margje; Smith, Martin; Turnpenny, Peter; White, Susan M; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Wiethoff, Sarah; Wilson, Brian T; Winter, Gidon; Wragg, Christopher; Pope, Simon; Heales, Simon J H; Morrogh, Deborah; Pittman, Alan; Carr, Lucinda J; Perez-Dueñas, Belen; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Reis, Andre; Gahl, William A; Toro, Camilo; Bhatia, Kailash P; Wood, Nicholas W; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Chong, Wui K; Gissen, Paul; Topf, Maya; Dale, Russell C; Chubb, Jonathan R; Raymond, F Lucy; Kurian, Manju A
Histone lysine methylation, mediated by mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) proteins, is now known to be critical in the regulation of gene expression, genomic stability, cell cycle and nuclear architecture. Despite MLL proteins being postulated as essential for normal development, little is known about the specific functions of the different MLL lysine methyltransferases. Here we report heterozygous variants in the gene KMT2B (also known as MLL4) in 27 unrelated individuals with a complex progressive childhood-onset dystonia, often associated with a typical facial appearance and characteristic brain magnetic resonance imaging findings. Over time, the majority of affected individuals developed prominent cervical, cranial and laryngeal dystonia. Marked clinical benefit, including the restoration of independent ambulation in some cases, was observed following deep brain stimulation (DBS). These findings highlight a clinically recognizable and potentially treatable form of genetic dystonia, demonstrating the crucial role of KMT2B in the physiological control of voluntary movement.
Munhoz, Renato P; Picillo, Marina; Fox, Susan H; Bruno, Veronica; Panisset, Michel; Honey, Christopher R; Fasano, Alfonso
In this review, the available evidence to guide clinicians regarding eligibility for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the main conditions in which these forms of therapy are generally indicated-Parkinson's disease (PD), tremor, and dystonia-is presented. In general, the literature shows that DBS is effective for PD, essential tremor, and idiopathic dystonia. In these cases, key points in patient selection must include the level of disability and inability to manage symptoms using the best available medical therapy. Results are, however, still not optimal when dealing with other aetiologies, such as secondary tremors and symptomatic dystonia. Also, in PD, issues such as age and neuropsychiatric profile are still debatable parameters. Overall, currently available literature is able to guide physicians on basic aspects of patient selection and indications for DBS; however, a few points are still debatable and controversial. These issues should be refined and clarified in future studies.
Picillo, Marina; Lozano, Andres M; Kou, Nancy; Munhoz, Renato Puppi; Fasano, Alfonso
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for essential tremor (ET) and dystonia. After surgery, a number of extensive programming sessions are performed, mainly relying on neurologist's personal experience as no programming guidelines have been provided so far, with the exception of recommendations provided by groups of experts. Finally, fewer information is available for the management of DBS in ET and dystonia compared with Parkinson's disease. Our aim is to review the literature on initial and follow-up DBS programming procedures for ET and dystonia and integrate the results with our current practice at Toronto Western Hospital (TWH) to develop standardized DBS programming protocols. We conducted a literature search of PubMed from inception to July 2014 with the keywords "balance", "bradykinesia", "deep brain stimulation", "dysarthria", "dystonia", "gait disturbances", "initial programming", "loss of benefit", "micrographia", "speech", "speech difficulties" and "tremor". Seventy-six papers were considered for this review. Based on the literature review and our experience at TWH, we refined three algorithms for management of ET, including: (1) initial programming, (2) management of balance and speech issues and (3) loss of stimulation benefit. We also depicted algorithms for the management of dystonia, including: (1) initial programming and (2) management of stimulation-induced hypokinesia (shuffling gait, micrographia and speech impairment). We propose five algorithms tailored to an individualized approach to managing ET and dystonia patients with DBS. We encourage the application of these algorithms to supplement current standards of care in established as well as new DBS centers to test the clinical usefulness of these algorithms in supplementing the current standards of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Doris D; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Qasim, Salman E; Miller, Andrew M; Ostrem, Jill L; Galifianakis, Nicholas B; San Luciano, Marta; Starr, Philip A
Local field potentials (LFP) recorded from the subthalamic nucleus in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) demonstrate prominent oscillations in the beta (13-30 Hz) frequency range, and reduction of beta band spectral power by levodopa and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is correlated with motor symptom improvement. Several features of beta activity have been theorized to be specific biomarkers of the parkinsonian state, though these have rarely been studied in non-parkinsonian conditions. To compare resting state LFP features in PD and isolated dystonia and evaluate disease-specific biomarkers, we recorded subthalamic LFPs from 28 akinetic-rigid PD and 12 isolated dystonia patients during awake DBS implantation. Spectral power and phase-amplitude coupling characteristics were analyzed. In 26/28 PD and 11/12 isolated dystonia patients, the LFP power spectrum had a peak in the beta frequency range, with similar amplitudes between groups. Resting state power did not differ between groups in the theta (5-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz), broadband gamma (50-200 Hz), or high frequency oscillation (HFO, 250-350 Hz) bands. Analysis of phase-amplitude coupling between low frequency phase and HFO amplitude revealed significant interactions in 19/28 PD and 6/12 dystonia recordings without significant differences in maximal coupling or preferred phase. Two features of subthalamic LFPs that have been proposed as specific parkinsonian biomarkers, beta power and coupling of beta phase to HFO amplitude, were also present in isolated dystonia, including focal dystonias. This casts doubt on the utility of these metrics as disease-specific diagnostic biomarkers.
Monbaliu, Elegast; Ortibus, Els; De Cat, Jos; Dan, Bernard; Heyrman, Lieve; Prinzie, Peter; De Cock, Paul; Feys, Hilde
The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Dyskinesia Impairment Scale (DIS). The DIS consists of two subscales: dystonia and choreoathetosis. It measures both phenomena in dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-five participants with dyskinetic CP (17 males; eight females; age range 5–22y; mean age 13y 6mo; SD 5y 4mo), recruited from special schools for children with motor disorders, were included. Exclusion criteria were changes in muscle relaxant medication within the previous 3 months, orthopaedic or neurosurgical interventions within the previous year, and spinal fusion. Interrater reliability was verified by two independent raters. For interrater reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients were assessed. Standard error of measurement, the minimal detectable difference, and Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency were determined. For concurrent validity of the DIS dystonia subscale, the Barry–Albright Dystonia Scale was administered. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the total DIS score and the two subscales ranged between 0.91 and 0.98 for interrater reliability. The reliability of the choreoathetosis subscale was found to be higher than that of the dystonia subscale. The standard error of the measurement and minimal detectable difference values were adequate. Cronbach’s alpha values ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. Pearson’s correlation between the dystonia subscale and Barry–Albright Dystonia Scale was 0.84 (p<0.001). Good to excellent reliability and validity were found for the DIS. The DIS may be promising for increasing insights into the natural history of dyskinetic CP and evaluating interventions. Future research on the responsiveness of the DIS is warranted.
Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Maillis, Antonis; Maltezou, Maria; Tsiori, Sofia; Papageorgiou, Charalambos C.
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (di George syndrome) is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders. The clinical features of the syndrome are distinct facial appearance, velopharyngeal insufficiency, conotruncal heart disease, parathyroid and immune dysfunction; however, little is known about possible neurodegenerative diseases. We describe the case of an 18-year old patient suffering from 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Since adolescence, he presented with behavioral disorders, recommended treatment with 2 mg aloperidin and he presented cervical dystonia and emergence of torticollis and trunk dystonia. Antipsychotic medications either accelerate or reveal dystonic symptoms. PMID:26605035
Álvarez, Mario; Quintanal, Nelson; Díaz, Amado; Prince, José; García, Ivan; Carballo, Maylen; Rodríguez, Rafael; Maragoto, Carlos; Pedroso, Ivonne; Macías, Raul
Focal thalamic lesions have been associated with a variety of involuntary movements such as tremor, dystonia, and chorea-ballism. We describe a patient with severe hyperkinesias of the right arm secondary to a thalamic infarction in the left postero-ventral region of the thalamus. The dystonia and tremor of the right upper limb were subsequently controlled with another surgical lesion of the ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus. This observation suggests that ablative surgery might be applied to treat a movement disorder induced by the lesion of the same nucleus, which in addition lead to interesting pathophysiological conjectures. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Caputo, Mariela; Irisarri, Maximiliano; Perandones, Claudia; Alechine, Evguenia; Pellene, Luis Alejandro; Roca, Claudia Uribe; Micheli, Federico E; Corach, Daniel
The D216H polymorphism (rs1801968) in TOR1A has been suggested as a risk factor for developing primary dystonia in German subjects not carrying the deletion c.904-906delGAG (∆GAG). However, this association could not be confirmed in other populations with different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the D216H polymorphism in an Argentinean cohort of 40 patients with primary dystonia and 200 unrelated control subjects. The authors could observe a significantly higher frequency of the H216 variant in dystonic patients lacking ∆GAG as compared with controls.
Ozawa, H; Takeda, M; Sasaki, M; Sugai, K; Hashimoto, T; Honma, T
We reported a 13-year-old boy with juvenile Huntington disease diagnosed by DNA analysis. Symptoms started with dysarthria at 6 years of age, which was followed by progressive dysgraphia and gait disturbance due to dystonia from 7 years, and by epileptic seizures from 12 years. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed atrophy of the bilateral caudate nuclei and T2- and proton-weighted high intensity area in both putamina. The CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine) trinucleotide repeat on chromosome 4 p16 was markedly expanded to 81. For a child with dystonia with mental deterioration, juvenile Huntington disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
Zeuner, Kirsten E; Hallett, Mark
In a prior study, 10 patients with focal hand dystonia learned braille reading as sensory training for 8 weeks. Practice time was 30 to 60 minutes daily. They improved both their spatial acuity using the Grating Orientation Discrimination Task (GOT) and their dystonia using the Fahn scale. Three patients continued training for 1 year. Patients showed further improvement in the GOT, writing a standard paragraph, and self-rating scales. Sensory training lasting longer than 8 weeks may lead to continued improvement. Copyright 2003 Movement Disorder Society
Logan, Loretta; Resseque, Barbara; Dontamsetti, Monica Sakshi
A 54-year-old woman presented to a foot centre with a chief symptom of cramping in her toes, which, she believed, was of a secondary cause originating from a bunion. She was treated conservatively; however, she returned a month later as the symptoms had progressed to painful cramping of toes, toe-curling and instability while walking, due to involuntary movement of her toes. It was believed that the patient presented with a rare case of primary adult onset focal foot dystonia. This case report explains dystonia further in detail and delves into the different treatment and management options available today, including the unique orthopaedic intervention provided for this patient.
Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Athar, Aysha
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained muscle contractions, causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures of affected body parts. Here, we present a novel case of focal dystonia of a 51 years old right-handed woman who had developed difficulty in writing and performing fine motor tasks. Due to a discomfort in her right hand at use, she started using her left hand instead and noticed inconsistent mirror movements in her right hand upon use of left hand. She was treated with trihexyphenidyl which allowed her right hand to function better, though writing still remained a problem.
Stinear, Cathy M; Byblow, Winston D
Previous studies have shown that intracortical inhibition (ICI) plays an important role in shaping the output from primary motor cortex, and that ICI may be impaired in people with Focal Hand Dystonia (FHD). This study explored the muscle-specificity and temporal modulation of ICI during the performance of a phasic index finger flexion task. Eight control subjects and seven with FHD were asked to rest their dominant hand upon a computer mouse, and depress the mouse button using their index finger in time with a 1 Hz auditory metronome, while keeping the rest of their hand as relaxed as possible. Responses to single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles while subjects were at rest and during 'on' and 'off' phases of the task. For control subjects during the movement (i). FDI motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and pretrigger EMG increased, and ICI decreased, as expected, and (ii). there was no significant facilitation of MEP amplitude or pretrigger EMG for APB, which was associated with a significant increase in ICI during the movement. This may have helped prevent the unwanted activation of this muscle. While FHD subjects demonstrated the same patterns of modulation of both MEP amplitude and pretrigger EMG for both FDI and APB, their levels of ICI were not modulated by task performance. This was despite no difference between subject groups in the level of ICI observed at rest. These findings suggest that FHD is associated with impaired modulation of ICI during performance of a precise manual task, which may contribute to a lack of specificity in the output from M1 and the development of dystonic symptoms.
Lin, Yu; Wang, Dan-Ni; Chen, Wan-Jin; Lin, Xiang; Lin, Min-Ting; Wang, Ning
Dopa-responsive dystonia is a rare hereditary movement disorder caused by mutations in the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) gene. This disease typically manifests in dystonia, with marked diurnal fluctuation and a dramatic response to levodopa. However, growth retardation in dopa-responsive dystonia has rarely been reported, and the etiology of short stature is not clarified. Here, we report a 14-year-old patient with extremities dystonia and short stature. Treatment with levodopa relieved his symptoms and resulted in a height increase. We also investigated the mutation in GCH1 and the etiology of short stature in this case. Sequence analysis of GCH1 revealed a novel mutation (c.695G>T). Laboratory examinations and imaging confirmed the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency. We conclude that our case reveals a rare feature for dopa-responsive dystonia and suggests a possible pathogenic link between growth hormone deficiency and dopa-responsive dystonia. We recommend levodopa as the first choice for treating dopa-responsive dystonia in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Zech, Michael; Lam, Daniel D; Francescatto, Ludmila; Schormair, Barbara; Salminen, Aaro V; Jochim, Angela; Wieland, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Lochmüller, Hanns; Strom, Tim M; Haslinger, Bernhard; Katsanis, Nicholas; Winkelmann, Juliane
Isolated dystonia is a disorder characterized by involuntary twisting postures arising from sustained muscle contractions. Although autosomal-dominant mutations in TOR1A, THAP1, and GNAL have been found in some cases, the molecular mechanisms underlying isolated dystonia are largely unknown. In addition, although emphasis has been placed on dominant isolated dystonia, the disorder is also transmitted as a recessive trait, for which no mutations have been defined. Using whole-exome sequencing in a recessive isolated dystonia-affected kindred, we identified disease-segregating compound heterozygous mutations in COL6A3, a collagen VI gene associated previously with muscular dystrophy. Genetic screening of a further 367 isolated dystonia subjects revealed two additional recessive pedigrees harboring compound heterozygous mutations in COL6A3. Strikingly, all affected individuals had at least one pathogenic allele in exon 41, including an exon-skipping mutation that induced an in-frame deletion. We tested the hypothesis that disruption of this exon is pathognomonic for isolated dystonia by inducing a series of in-frame deletions in zebrafish embryos. Consistent with our human genetics data, suppression of the exon 41 ortholog caused deficits in axonal outgrowth, whereas suppression of other exons phenocopied collagen deposition mutants. All recessive mutation carriers demonstrated early-onset segmental isolated dystonia without muscular disease. Finally, we show that Col6a3 is expressed in neurons, with relevant mRNA levels detectable throughout the adult mouse brain. Taken together, our data indicate that loss-of-function mutations affecting a specific region of COL6A3 cause recessive isolated dystonia with underlying neurodevelopmental deficits and highlight the brain extracellular matrix as a contributor to dystonia pathogenesis.
Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkhel, Sujit; Akhtar, Sayeed
Oculogyric crisis (OGC) is an acute dystonia which can occur after initiation of antipsychotic treatment. Stereotypic paroxysmal psychiatric symptoms have been described along with OGC that resolve spontaneously when the later remits. We report a case of tardive OGC associated with zuclopenthixol in which there were associated paroxysmal auditory pseudohallucinations.
Jahanshahi, Marjan; Torkamani, Mariam; Beigi, Mazda; Wilkinson, Leonora; Page, Donna; Madeley, Laura; Bhatia, Kailash; Hariz, Marwan; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Limousin, Patricia; Ruge, Diane; Tisch, Stephen
We investigated the effect of pallidal deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) in dystonia on cognition, mood, and quality of life and also assessed if DYT1 gene status influenced cognitive outcome following GPi-DBS. Fourteen patients with primary generalized dystonia (PGD) were assessed, measuring their estimated premorbid and current IQ, memory for words and faces, and working memory, language, executive function, and sustained attention, one month before and one year or more after surgery. Changes in mood and behaviour and quality of life were also assessed. There was a significant improvement of dystonia with GPi-DBS (69 % improvement in Burke-Fahn-Marsden score, p < 0.0001). Performance on five cognitive tests either improved or declined at post-surgical follow-up. Calculation of a reliable change index suggested that deterioration in sustained attention on the PASAT was the only reliable change (worse after surgery) in cognition with GPi-DBS. DYT1 gene status did not influence cognitive outcome following GPi-DBS. Depression, anxiety and apathy were not significantly altered, and ratings of health status on the EQ5D remained unchanged. In our sample, GPi-DBS was only associated with an isolated deficit on a test of sustained attention, confirming that GPi-DBS in PGD is clinically effective and safe, without adverse effects on the main domains of cognitive function. The dissociation between GPi-DBS improving dystonia, but not having a significant positive impact on the patients' QoL, warrants further investigation.
Keam, Susan J; Muir, Victoria J; Deeks, Emma D
Dysport®, a formulation of botulinum toxin A, blocks acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions causing denervation and temporary muscle paralysis. It is used to treat several medical conditions, including dystonias and focal spasticity. Subcutaneous Dysport® was effective in improving functional disability in adults with blepharospasm in a placebo-controlled trial with 16 weeks' follow-up, and in adults with hemifacial spasm in case series. Similarly, intramuscular Dysport® was effective in improving symptoms of cervical dystonia in adults, focal spasticity in adults with post-stroke upper limb spasticity and dynamic equinus spasticity in paediatric patients with cerebral palsy in placebo-controlled trials with up to 20 weeks' follow-up. However, in two 12-week, placebo-controlled trials in adults with focal lower limb spasticity (spastic equinovarus deformity after stroke and hip adductor spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis) intramuscular Dysport® had limited efficacy. Available longer-term data indicated that Dysport® treatment was effective over several treatment cycles in patients with cervical dystonia or upper limb spasticity. Dysport® was generally well tolerated in patients with dystonias or focal spasticity. Most adverse events were mild to moderate and transient.
Neymotin, Samuel A.; Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Lakatos, Peter; Sanger, Terence D.; Lytton, William W.
A large number of physiomic pathologies can produce hyperexcitability in cortex. Depending on severity, cortical hyperexcitability may manifest clinically as a hyperkinetic movement disorder or as epilpesy. We focus here on dystonia, a movement disorder that produces involuntary muscle contractions and involves pathology in multiple brain areas including basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, and sensory and motor cortices. Most research in dystonia has focused on basal ganglia, while much pharmacological treatment is provided directly at muscles to prevent contraction. Motor cortex is another potential target for therapy that exhibits pathological dynamics in dystonia, including heightened activity and altered beta oscillations. We developed a multiscale model of primary motor cortex, ranging from molecular, up to cellular, and network levels, containing 1715 compartmental model neurons with multiple ion channels and intracellular molecular dynamics. We wired the model based on electrophysiological data obtained from mouse motor cortex circuit mapping experiments. We used the model to reproduce patterns of heightened activity seen in dystonia by applying independent random variations in parameters to identify pathological parameter sets. These models demonstrated degeneracy, meaning that there were many ways of obtaining the pathological syndrome. There was no single parameter alteration which would consistently distinguish pathological from physiological dynamics. At higher dimensions in parameter space, we were able to use support vector machines to distinguish the two patterns in different regions of space and thereby trace multitarget routes from dystonic to physiological dynamics. These results suggest the use of in silico models for discovery of multitarget drug cocktails. PMID:27378922
Jin, Seung-Hyun; Lin, Peter; Auh, Sungyoung; Hallett, Mark
The aim of the present study was to investigate functional connectivity in focal hand dystonia patients to understand the pathophysiology underlying their abnormality in movement. We recorded EEGs from 58 electrodes in 15 focal hand dystonia patients and 15 healthy volunteers during rest and a simple finger-tapping task that did not induce any dystonic symptoms. We investigated mutual information, which provides a quantitative measure of linear and nonlinear coupling, in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands. Mean mutual information of all 58 channels and mean of the channels of interest representative of regional functional connectivity over sensorimotor areas (C3, CP3, C4, CP4, FCz, and Cz) were evaluated. For both groups, we found enhanced mutual information during the task compared with the rest condition, specifically in the beta and gamma bands for mean mutual information of all channels, and in all bands for mean mutual information of channels of interest. Comparing the focal hand dystonia patients with the healthy volunteers for both rest and task, there was reduced mutual information in the beta band for both mean mutual information of all channels and mean mutual information of channels of interest. Regarding the properties of the connectivity in the beta band, we found that the majority of the mutual information differences were from linear connectivity. The abnormal beta-band functional connectivity in focal hand dystonia patients suggests deficient brain connectivity.
Waissman, Flavia; Pereira, João Santos; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M
The development of focal hand dystonia through repetitive tasks is a result of degradation of cortical somatosensory representation due to repetitive fast stimuli sufficient to alter the sensory-motor stimulus, harming the motor control. A sensory-motor training program can modify this disorder. A behavioural intervention focusing on movement could help reduce or eliminate these conditions. PMID:21686815
Parr, Jeremy R; Green, Alex L; Joint, Carole; Andrew, Morag; Gregory, Ralph P; Scott, Richard B; McShane, Michael A; Aziz, Tipu Z
Background Early onset idiopathic generalised dystonia is a progressive and profoundly disabling condition. Medical treatment may ameliorate symptoms. However, many children have profound, intractable disability including the loss of ambulation and speech, and difficulties with feeding. Following the failure of medical management, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) has emerged as an alternative treatment for the disorder. Methods We describe four children who presented with dystonia. Results Following the failure of a range of medical therapies, DBS systems were implanted in the GPi in an attempt to ameliorate the children's disabilities. All children found dystonic movements to be less disabling following surgery. Compared with preoperative Burke, Fahn and Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale scores, postoperative scores at 6 months were improved. Conclusions DBS is effective in improving symptoms and function in children with idiopathic dystonia refractory to medical treatment. Whilst surgery is complex and can be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications, this intervention should be considered following the failure of medical therapy. PMID:17460025
Ganos, Christos; Biskup, Saskia; Krüger, Stefanie; Meyer-Osores, Aracelli; Hodecker, Sibylle; Hagel, Christian; Schöls, Ludger; Bhatia, Kailash P; Münchau, Alexander
Dystonia with anarthria and/or aphonia is a rare syndromic association. Here we present two cases with slowly progressive, severe generalized dystonia and aphonia, slow horizontal saccades, epilepsy and photic myoclonus. Detailed clinical data were collected over two decades in the female (index) patient and for nine years in her similarly affected son. Sanger sequencing followed by exome sequencing was performed. Both patients had leg onset generalized dystonia with gradual rostral spread including prominent facial and oro-mandibular involvement. The index patient was anarthric, her son aphonic. Both had saccadic slowing, more marked for the horizontal plane, and subclinical epileptic activity. The index patient also had photic myoclonus and a combined axonal and demyelinating neuropathy. Known genetic causes of similar syndromes were not identified. These cases with caudo-rostrally spreading generalized dystonia with prominent facial and oro-mandibular involvement, severe speech impairment, marked slowing of horizontal saccades, and photic myoclonus likely represent a novel entity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Umeh, Chizoba C; Kalakoti, Piyush; Greenberg, Michael K; Notari, Silvio; Cohen, Yvonne; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Oblak, Adrian L; Ghetti, Bernardino; Mari, Zoltan
Parkinsonism-dystonia is rare in carriers of PRNP P102L mutation. Severity and distribution of prion protein (PrP) deposition may influence the clinical presentation. We present such clinic-pathological correlation in a 56-year-old male with a PRNP P102L mutation associated with a phenotype characterized by rapidly progressing parkinsonism-dystonia. The patient was studied clinically (videotaped exams, brain MRIs); molecular genetically (gene sequence analysis); and neuropathologically (histology, immunohistochemistry) during his 7-month disease course. The patient had parkinsonism, apraxia, aphasia, and dystonia, which progressed rapidly. Molecular genetic analysis revealed PRNP P102L mutation carrier status. Brain MRIs revealed progressive global volume loss and T2/FLAIR hyperintensity in neocortex and basal ganglia. Postmortem examination showed neuronal loss, gliosis, spongiform changes, and PrP deposition in the striatum. PrP immunohistochemistry revealed widespread severe PrP deposition in the thalamus and cerebellar cortex. Based on the neuropathological and molecular-genetic analysis, the rapidly progressing parkinsonism-dystonia correlated with nigrostriatal, thalamic, and cerebellar pathology.
Neymotin, Samuel A; Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Lakatos, Peter; Sanger, Terence D; Lytton, William W
A large number of physiomic pathologies can produce hyperexcitability in cortex. Depending on severity, cortical hyperexcitability may manifest clinically as a hyperkinetic movement disorder or as epilpesy. We focus here on dystonia, a movement disorder that produces involuntary muscle contractions and involves pathology in multiple brain areas including basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, and sensory and motor cortices. Most research in dystonia has focused on basal ganglia, while much pharmacological treatment is provided directly at muscles to prevent contraction. Motor cortex is another potential target for therapy that exhibits pathological dynamics in dystonia, including heightened activity and altered beta oscillations. We developed a multiscale model of primary motor cortex, ranging from molecular, up to cellular, and network levels, containing 1715 compartmental model neurons with multiple ion channels and intracellular molecular dynamics. We wired the model based on electrophysiological data obtained from mouse motor cortex circuit mapping experiments. We used the model to reproduce patterns of heightened activity seen in dystonia by applying independent random variations in parameters to identify pathological parameter sets. These models demonstrated degeneracy, meaning that there were many ways of obtaining the pathological syndrome. There was no single parameter alteration which would consistently distinguish pathological from physiological dynamics. At higher dimensions in parameter space, we were able to use support vector machines to distinguish the two patterns in different regions of space and thereby trace multitarget routes from dystonic to physiological dynamics. These results suggest the use of in silico models for discovery of multitarget drug cocktails.
Calheiros-Trigo, Francisca; Linhares, Paulo
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is a promising therapeutic option for patients with medically refractory dystonia. We present the results after 1 year of DBS of the GPi in 4 patients with cervical dystonia. Four patients with medically refractory cervical dystonia who underwent stereotactic pallidal DBS surgery between June 2010 and November 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Preoperative and postoperative evaluations at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery were performed using the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS). The 4 patients experienced a sustained improvement, with a mean TWSTRS reduction of 74.25%, at 12 months follow-up. Disability improved by 80.5% (mean) at 1 year follow-up. No stimulation-related side effects were reported. Pallidal DBS is a valid and effective second-line treatment for patients with cervical focal dystonia. Our results support its use in patients with an insufficient response to medical treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Kim, Joo Pyung; Chang, Won Seok; Chang, Jin Woo
There is some debate about the effects of pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) or lesioning on secondary dystonia. We applied a multimodal method to maximize the treatment effects of deep brain stimulation in patients with secondary dystonia. Between March 2003 and January 2009, four patients underwent bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS and six patients underwent bilateral GPi DBS plus unilateral thalamotomy for treatment of cerebral palsy (CP). Among the patients with secondary dystonia without CP, five were also treated by DBS. We classified patients with generalized secondary dystonia with cerebral palsy into group I and patients with focal dystonia without CP into group II. Clinical outcome assessments were based on Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale movement and disability scores. Heath-related quality of life was assessed with a 36-item short-form general health survey questionnaire preoperatively and at the last follow-up. The movement and disability scores of group I-A had improved by 32.0% (P = 0.285) and 14.3% (P = 0.593), respectively, at the last follow-up compared with baseline. The movement and disability scores of group I-B had improved by 31.5% and 0.18% at the last follow-up compared with baseline, respectively. In comparison with patients in group I-A, patients in group I-B showed a significant improvement in movement scores for the contralateral arm (P = 0.042). Group II patients showed a marked improvement in movement and disability scores of 77.7% (P = 0.039) and 80.0% (P = 0.041), respectively. We demonstrated that DBS plus unilateral ventralis oralis thalamotomy for CP patients with fixed states in the upper extremities is useful not only to treat secondary dystonic movement but also to improve quality of life. In group II patients with post-traumatic dystonia and tardive dyskinesia, we achieved excellent clinical outcomes using a stereotactic procedure.
Background Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may occur after trauma, usually to one limb, and is characterized by pain and disturbed blood flow, temperature regulation and motor control. Approximately 25% of cases develop fixed dystonia. Involvement of dysfunctional GABAergic interneurons has been suggested, however the mechanisms that underpin fixed dystonia are still unknown. We hypothesized that dystonia could be the result of aberrant proprioceptive reflex strengths of position, velocity or force feedback. Methods We systematically characterized the pattern of dystonia in 85 CRPS-patients with dystonia according to the posture held at each joint of the affected limb. We compared the patterns with a neuromuscular computer model simulating aberrations of proprioceptive reflexes. The computer model consists of an antagonistic muscle pair with explicit contributions of the musculotendinous system and reflex pathways originating from muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs, with time delays reflective of neural latencies. Three scenarios were simulated with the model: (i) increased reflex sensitivity (increased sensitivity of the agonistic and antagonistic reflex loops); (ii) imbalanced reflex sensitivity (increased sensitivity of the agonistic reflex loop); (iii) imbalanced reflex offset (an offset to the reflex output of the agonistic proprioceptors). Results For the arm, fixed postures were present in 123 arms of 77 patients. The dominant pattern involved flexion of the fingers (116/123), the wrists (41/123) and elbows (38/123). For the leg, fixed postures were present in 114 legs of 77 patients. The dominant pattern was plantar flexion of the toes (55/114 legs), plantar flexion and inversion of the ankle (73/114) and flexion of the knee (55/114). Only the computer simulations of imbalanced reflex sensitivity to muscle force from Golgi tendon organs caused patterns that closely resembled the observed patient characteristics. In parallel experiments using
Golanska, Ewa; Gajos, Agata; Sieruta, Monika; Szybka, Malgorzata; Rudzinska, Monika; Ochudlo, Stanislaw; Kmiec, Tomasz; Liberski, Pawel P; Bogucki, Andrzej
The aim of this study was to assess the presence of DYT6 mutations in Polish patients with isolated dystonia and to characterize their phenotype. We sequenced THAP1 exons 1, 2 and 3 including exon-intron boundaries and 5'UTR fragment in 96 non-DYT1 dystonia patients. In four individuals single nucleotide variations were identified. The coding substitutions were: c. 238A>G (p.Ile80Val), found in two patients, and c.167A>G (p.Glu56Gly), found in one patient. The same variations were present also in the patients' symptomatic as well as asymptomatic relatives. Mutation penetration in the analyzed families was 50-66.7%. In the fourth patient, a novel c.-249C>A substitution in the promoter region was identified. The patient, initially suspected of idiopathic isolated dystonia, finally presented with pantothenate kinase 2-associated neurodegeneration phenotype and was a carrier of two PANK2 mutations. This is the first identified NBIA1 case carrying mutations in both PANK2 and THAP1 genes. In all symptomatic THAP1 mutation carriers (four probands and their three affected relatives) the first signs of dystonia occurred before the age of 23. A primary localization typical for DYT6 dystonia was observed in six individuals. Five subjects developed the first signs of dystonia in the upper limb. In one patient the disease began from laryngeal involvement. An uncommon primary involvement of lower limb was noted in the THAP1 and PANK2 mutations carrier. Neither of these THAP1 substitutions were found in 150 unrelated healthy controls. To the contrary, we identified a heterozygous C/T genotype of c.57C>T single nucleotide variation (p.Pro19Pro, rs146087734) in one healthy control, but in none of the patients. Therefore, a previously proposed association between this substitution and DYT6 dystonia seems unlikely. We found also no significant difference between cases and controls in genotypes distribution of the two-nucleotide -237-236 GA>TT (rs370983900 & rs1844977763) polymorphism.
Golanska, Ewa; Gajos, Agata; Sieruta, Monika; Szybka, Malgorzata; Rudzinska, Monika; Ochudlo, Stanislaw; Kmiec, Tomasz; Liberski, Pawel P.; Bogucki, Andrzej
The aim of this study was to assess the presence of DYT6 mutations in Polish patients with isolated dystonia and to characterize their phenotype. We sequenced THAP1 exons 1, 2 and 3 including exon-intron boundaries and 5’UTR fragment in 96 non-DYT1 dystonia patients. In four individuals single nucleotide variations were identified. The coding substitutions were: c. 238A>G (p.Ile80Val), found in two patients, and c.167A>G (p.Glu56Gly), found in one patient. The same variations were present also in the patients’ symptomatic as well as asymptomatic relatives. Mutation penetration in the analyzed families was 50-66.7%. In the fourth patient, a novel c.-249C>A substitution in the promoter region was identified. The patient, initially suspected of idiopathic isolated dystonia, finally presented with pantothenate kinase 2-associated neurodegeneration phenotype and was a carrier of two PANK2 mutations. This is the first identified NBIA1 case carrying mutations in both PANK2 and THAP1 genes. In all symptomatic THAP1 mutation carriers (four probands and their three affected relatives) the first signs of dystonia occurred before the age of 23. A primary localization typical for DYT6 dystonia was observed in six individuals. Five subjects developed the first signs of dystonia in the upper limb. In one patient the disease began from laryngeal involvement. An uncommon primary involvement of lower limb was noted in the THAP1 and PANK2 mutations carrier. Neither of these THAP1 substitutions were found in 150 unrelated healthy controls. To the contrary, we identified a heterozygous C/T genotype of c.57C>T single nucleotide variation (p.Pro19Pro, rs146087734) in one healthy control, but in none of the patients. Therefore, a previously proposed association between this substitution and DYT6 dystonia seems unlikely. We found also no significant difference between cases and controls in genotypes distribution of the two-nucleotide -237-236 GA>TT (rs370983900 & rs1844977763
LeDoux, Mark S.; Xiao, Jianfeng; Rudzińska, Monika; Bastian, Robert W.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Van Gerpen, Jay A.; Puschmann, Andreas; Momčilović, Dragana; Vemula, Satya R.; Zhao, Yu
An extensive variety of THAP1 sequence variants have been associated with focal, segmental and generalized dystonia with age of onset ranging from 3 to over 60 years. In previous work, we screened 1,114 subjects with mainly adult-onset primary dystonia (Neurology 2010;74:229-238) and identified 6 missense mutations in THAP1. For this report, we screened 750 additional subjects for mutations in coding regions of THAP1 and interrogated all published descriptions of THAP1 phenotypes (gender, age of onset, anatomical distribution of dystonia, family history and site of onset) to explore the possibility of THAP1 genotype-phenotype correlations and facilitate a deeper understanding of THAP1 pathobiology. We identified 5 additional missense mutations in THAP1 (p.A7D, p.K16E, p.S21C, p.R29Q, and p.I80V). Three of these variants are associated with appendicular tremors, which were an isolated or presenting sign in some of the affected subjects. Abductor laryngeal dystonia and mild blepharospasm can be manifestations of THAP1 mutations in some individuals. Overall, mean age of onset for THAP1 dystonia is 16.8 years and the most common sites of onset are the arm and neck, and the most frequently affected anatomical site is the neck. In addition, over half of patients exhibit either cranial or laryngeal involvement. Protein truncating mutations and missense mutations within the THAP domain of THAP1 tend to manifest at an earlier age and exhibit more extensive anatomical distributions than mutations localized to other regions of THAP1. PMID:22377579
Moro, E; LeReun, C; Krauss, J K; Albanese, A; Lin, J-P; Walleser Autiero, S; Brionne, T C; Vidailhet, M
The aim of this review was to provide strong clinical evidence of the efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) in isolated inherited or idiopathic dystonia. Eligible studies were identified after a systematic literature review of the effects of bilateral GPi-DBS in isolated dystonia. Absolute and percentage changes from baseline in the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS) motor and disability scores were pooled, and associations between treatment effect and patient characteristics were explored using meta-regression. In total, 24 studies were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 523 patients. The mean absolute and percentage improvements in BFMDRS motor score at the last follow-up (mean 32.5 months; 24 studies) were 26.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI), 22.4-30.8] and 65.2% (95% CI, 59.6-70.7), respectively. The corresponding changes in disability score at the last follow-up (mean 32.9 months; 14 studies) were 6.4 points (95% CI, 5.0-7.8) and 58.6% (95% CI, 50.3-66.9). Multivariate meta-regression of absolute scores indicated that higher BFMDRS motor and disability scores before surgery, together with younger age at time of surgery, were the main factors associated with significantly better DBS outcomes at the latest follow-up. Reporting of safety data was frequently inconsistent and could not be included in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, patients with isolated inherited or idiopathic dystonia significantly improved after GPi-DBS. Better outcomes were associated with greater dystonia severity at baseline. These findings should be taken into consideration for improving patient selection for DBS.
Peall, Kathryn J; Kurian, Manju A; Wardle, Mark; Waite, Adrian J; Hedderly, Tammy; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Smith, Martin; Whone, Alan; Pall, Hardev; White, Cathy; Lux, Andrew; Jardine, Philip E; Lynch, Bryan; Kirov, George; O'Riordan, Sean; Samuel, Michael; Lynch, Timothy; King, Mary D; Chinnery, Patrick F; Warner, Thomas T; Blake, Derek J; Owen, Michael J; Morris, Huw R
Myoclonus dystonia syndrome (MDS) is a young-onset movement disorder. A proportion of cases are due to mutations in the maternally imprinted SGCE gene. We assembled the largest cohort of MDS patients to date, and determined the frequency and type of SGCE mutations. The aim was to establish the motor phenotype in mutation carriers and utility of current diagnostic criteria. Eighty-nine probands with clinical features compatible with MDS were recruited from the UK and Ireland. Patients were phenotypically classified as "definite", "probable" or "possible" MDS according to previous guidelines. SGCE was analyzed using direct sequencing and copy number variant analysis. In those where no mutation was found, DYT1 (GAG deletion), GCH1, THAP1 and NKX2.1 genes were also sequenced. Nineteen (21.3%) probands had an SGCE mutation. Three patterns of motor symptoms emerged: (1) early childhood onset upper body myoclonus and dystonia, (2) early childhood onset lower limb dystonia, progressing later to more pronounced myoclonus and upper body involvement, and (3) later childhood onset upper body myoclonus and dystonia with evident cervical involvement. Five probands had large contiguous gene deletions ranging from 0.7 to 2.3 Mb in size with distinctive clinical features, including short stature, joint laxity and microcephaly. Our data confirms that SGCE mutations are most commonly identified in MDS patients with (1) age at onset ≤10 years and (2) predominant upper body involvement of a pure myoclonus-dystonia. Cases with whole SGCE gene deletions had additional clinical characteristics, which are not always predicted by deletion size or gene involvement.
Ruiz, Marta; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Ortiz-Virumbrales, Maitane; Méneret, Aurelie; Morant, Andrika; Kottwitz, Jessica; Fuchs, Tania; Bonet, Justine; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Hof, Patrick R.; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Ehrlich, Michelle E.
DYT6 dystonia is caused by mutations in THAP1 [Thanatos-associated (THAP) domain-containing apoptosis-associated protein] and is autosomal dominant and partially penetrant. Like other genetic primary dystonias, DYT6 patients have no characteristic neuropathology, and mechanisms by which mutations in THAP1 cause dystonia are unknown. Thap1 is a zinc-finger transcription factor, and most pathogenic THAP1 mutations are missense and are located in the DNA-binding domain. There are also nonsense mutations, which act as the equivalent of a null allele because they result in the generation of small mRNA species that are likely rapidly degraded via nonsense-mediated decay. The function of Thap1 in neurons is unknown, but there is a unique, neuronal 50-kDa Thap1 species, and Thap1 levels are auto-regulated on the mRNA level. Herein, we present the first characterization of two mouse models of DYT6, including a pathogenic knockin mutation, C54Y and a null mutation. Alterations in motor behaviors, transcription and brain structure are demonstrated. The projection neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei are especially altered. Abnormalities vary according to genotype, sex, age and/or brain region, but importantly, overlap with those of other dystonia mouse models. These data highlight the similarities and differences in age- and cell-specific effects of a Thap1 mutation, indicating that the pathophysiology of THAP1 mutations should be assayed at multiple ages and neuronal types and support the notion of final common pathways in the pathophysiology of dystonia arising from disparate mutations. PMID:26376866
Mantel, Tobias; Dresel, Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart; Zimmer, Claus; Noe, Jonas; Haslinger, Bernhard
Embouchure dystonia is a highly disabling focal task-specific dystonia affecting professional brass players. This study was designed to analyze activity changes along with topographic representations in primary and nonprimary centers for somatosensory processing in patients with embouchure dystonia. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging with automized tactile stimulation of dystonic (upper lip) and nondystonic (forehead and dorsal hand) body regions in 15 professional brass players with and without embouchure dystonia. Statistical analyses included whole-brain between-group comparisons of stimulation-induced activation and region-of-interest-based single patient analyses of topographic activation characteristics. Affected musicians revealed increased stimulation-induced activity in contralateral primary and bilateral secondary somatosensory representations of dystonic and nondystonic body regions as well as in the cerebellum ipsilateral to the left dystonic upper lip. Changes of somatotopic organization with altered intracortical distances and between-group differences of the centers of representations were found in the right primary and the bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex and in the left cerebellum. Positional variability of dystonic and nondystonic body regions was reduced with an emphasis on face representations. The present findings are supportive of the concept of an abnormal processing of somatosensory information in embouchure dystonia affecting multiple domains. The underlying neurophysiological mechanisms (eg, changes in inhibition, maladaptive plasticity, changes in baseline activity) remain unclear. The involvement of nondystonic body areas can be viewed in the context of possible compensation or an endophenotypic predisposition. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Byl, Nancy N.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Merzenich, Michael M.; Roberts, Tim; McKenzie, Alison
Focal hand dystonia (FHd) is a recalcitrant, disabling movement disorder, characterized by involuntary co-contractions of agonists and antagonists, that can develop in patients who overuse or misuse their hands. The aim of this study was to document clinical neuromusculoskeletal performance and somatosensory responses (magnetoencephalography) in healthy controls and in FHd subjects with mild versus severe hand dystonia. The performance of healthy subjects (n = 17) was significantly better than that of FHd subjects (n = 17) on all clinical parameters. Those with mild dystonia (n = 10) demonstrated better musculoskeletal skills, task-specific motor performance, and sensory discrimination, but the performance of sensory and fine motor tasks was slower than that of patients with severe dystonia. In terms of somatosensory evoked field responses (SEFs), FHd subjects demonstrated a significant difference in the location of the hand representation on the x and y axes, lower amplitude of SEFs integrated across latency, and a higher ratio of mean SEF amplitude to latency than the controls. Bilaterally,. those with FHd (mild and severe) lacked progressive sequencing of the digits from inferior to superior. On the affected digits, subjects with severe dystonia had a significantly higher ratio of SEF amplitude to latency and a significantly smaller mean volume of the cortical hand representation than those with mild dystonia. Severity of dystonia positively correlated with the ratio of SEF mean amplitude to latency (0.9029 affected, 0.8477 unaffected; p<0.01). The results of the present study strengthen the evidence that patients with FHd demonstrate signs of somatosensory degradation of the hand that correlates with clinical sensorimotor dysfunction, with characteristics of the dedifferentiation varying by the severity of hand dystonia. If these findings represent aberrant learning, then effective rehabilitation must incorporate the principles of neuroplasticity. Training must
Zoons, E; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Dijk, J M; van Schaik, I N; Tijssen, M A
Focal dystonia is a common, invalidating neurologic condition characterized by involuntary, sustained muscle contractions causing twisting movements and abnormal postures in one body part. Currently, botulinum toxin is the treatment of first choice. We performed a systematic review towards the pharmaco-therapeutic and pharmaco-economic value of botulinum toxin as treatment for focal dystonia, which yielded the following results. Botulinum toxin is the most effective treatment for reducing dystonic symptoms measured with dystonia-specific and general questionnaires, and pain in patients with focal dystonia. Seventy-one percent of patients with cervical dystonia had a reduction in neck pain compared to 12 % in placebo groups. Adverse events occur in 58 % of patients during treatment with botulinum toxin compared to 46 % treated with placebo. Especially dry mouth, neck weakness, dysphagia, and voice changes are common. Adverse events are usually mild and self-limiting. Health-related quality of life, measured with the SF-36 is 20-50 points lower in patients with focal dystonia compared to controls and the effect of botulinum toxin on health-related quality of life is unclear. Botulinum toxin treatment is expensive because the drug itself is expensive. Yearly costs for treating a patient with focal dystonia with botulinum toxin range from EUR 347 to EUR 3,633 and the gain in QALYs with BTX treatment is small. Focal dystonia impairs the productivity and the ability to work. At start of botulinum toxin treatment only 47-50 % was working. Botulinum toxin partly improves this. Overall, we conclude that botulinum toxin is an expensive drug with good effects. From a societal perspective, the costs may well weigh up to the regained quality of life. However, the available literature concerning costs, health-related quality of life and labor participation is very limited. An extensive cost-effectiveness study should be performed incorporating all these aspects.
Kukke, Sahana N.; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Damiano, Diane; Alter, Katharine E.; Patronas, Nicholas; Hallett, Mark
Objective Dystonia is a disabling motor disorder often without effective therapies. To better understand the genesis of dystonia after childhood stroke, we analyzed electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in this population. Methods Resting spectral power of EEG signals over bilateral sensorimotor cortices (Powrest), resting inter-hemispheric sensorimotor coherence (Cohrest), and task-related changes in power (TRPow) and coherence (TRCoh) during wrist extension were analyzed in individuals with dystonia (age 20±3 years) and healthy volunteers (age 17±5 years). Results Ipsilesional TRPow decrease was significantly lower in patients than controls during the more affected wrist task. Force deficits of the affected wrist correlated with reduced alpha TRPow decrease on the ipsilesional and not the contralesional hemisphere. Cohrest was significantly lower in patients than controls, and correlated with more severe dystonia and poorer hand function. Powrest and TRCoh were similar between groups. Conclusions The association between weakness and cortical activation during wrist extension highlights the importance of ipsilesional sensorimotor activation on function. Reduction of Cohrest in patients reflects a loss of inter-hemispheric connectivity that may result from structural changes and neuroplasticity, potentially contributing to the development of dystonia. Significance Cortical and motor dysfunction are correlated in patients with childhood stroke and may in part explain the genesis of dystonia. PMID:25499610
Meissner, Axel; van der Plas, Anton A; van Dasselaar, Nick T; Deelder, André M; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Mayboroda, Oleg A
In complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)-related dystonia, compelling evidence points to the involvement of the central nervous system, but the underpinning pathobiology is still unclear. Thus, to enable a hypothesis-free, unbiased view of the problem and to obtain new insight into the pathobiology of dystonia in CRPS, we applied an exploratory metabolomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with CRPS-related dystonia. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate modeling were used to investigate metabolic profiles of a total of 105 CSF samples collected from patients with CRPS-related dystonia and controls. We found a significantly different metabolic profile of CSF in CRPS patients compared to controls. The differences were already reflected in the first two principal components of the principal component analysis model, which is an indication that the variance associated with CRPS is stronger than variance caused by such classical confounders as gender, age, or individual differences. A supervised analysis generated a strong model pinpointing the most important metabolites contributed to the metabolic signature of patients with CRPS-related dystonia. From the set of identified discriminators, the most relevant metabolites were 2-keto-isovalerate, glucose, glutamine, and lactate, which all showed increased concentrations, and urea, which showed decreased concentration in CRPS subjects. Our findings point at a catabolic state in chronic CRPS patients with dystonia that is likely associated with inflammation.
Irwin, D; Revuelta, G; Lippa, C F
Dystonia associated with neurodegenerative disease has minimal effective treatment options and can be devastating to a patient's ability to perform tasks of daily living. We present a case of a 55 year-old man who had progressive symptoms of an atypical asymmetric parkinsonian neurodegenerative disease. This patient presented with a dystonic left upper extremity that was refractory to treatment. In an attempt to treat worsening pain associated with the dystonia, he was given a five-day lidocaine infusion for associated pain and within 24 h had improvement in mobility of his dystonic extremity. Dystonia was measured by the Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM) dystonia rating and disability scales on hospital day five and at an eight week follow up visit. These scores were compared with scores derived from his previous pre-treatment neurologic examination. The BFM dystonia scale score was initially 16 and improved to 12 on both immediate post-treatment and eight-week follow-up. The BFM disability score improved from 16 to 6 post treatment and to 8 on follow-up appointment. Most importantly, the patient could feed and dress himself for the first time in several years. No adverse events of treatment were encountered. Treatment effect lasted three months with a slow return to baseline motor function. This case report raises interesting questions regarding the mechanism of dystonia in neurodegenerative disease and suggests the afferent sensory system as a potential target for therapeutics.
Miocinovic, Svjetlana; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Qasim, Salman; Ostrem, Jill L.; Starr, Philip A.
IMPORTANCE Isolated dystonia and Parkinson disease (PD) are disorders of the basal gangliothalamocortical network. They have largely distinct clinical profiles, but both disorders respond to deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the same subcortical targets using similar stimulation paradigms, suggesting pathophysiologic overlap. We hypothesized that, similar to PD, isolated dystonia is associated with elevated cortical neuronal synchronization. OBJECTIVE To investigate the electrophysiologic characteristics of the sensorimotor cortex arm-related area using a temporary subdural electrode strip in patients with isolated dystonia and PD undergoing DBS implantation in the awake state. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An observational study recruited patients scheduled for DBS at the University of California, San Francisco and the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Data were collected from May 1, 2008, through April 1, 2015. Findings are reported for 22 patients with isolated cervical or segmental dystonia (8 with [DYST-ARM] and 14 without [DYST] arm symptoms] and 14 patients with akinetic rigid PD. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2014, through May 1, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cortical local field potentials, power spectral density, and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). RESULTS Among our 3 groups that together included 36 patients, cortical PAC was present in primary motor and premotor arm-related areas for all groups, but the DYST group was less likely to exhibit increased PAC (P = .008). Similar to what has been shown for patients with PD, subthalamic DBS reversibly decreased PAC in a subset of patients with dystonia who were studied before and during intraoperative test stimulation (n = 4). At rest, broadband gamma (50–200 Hz) power in the primary motor cortex was greater in the DYST-ARM and PD groups compared with the DYST group, whereas alpha (8–13 Hz) and beta (13–30 Hz) power was comparable in all 3 groups. During movement, the DYST
Tinazzi, Michele; Marotta, Angela; Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Squintani, Giovanna; Pozzer, Lara; Fiorio, Mirta
In focal hand dystonia, the cortical somatosensory representation of the fingers is abnormal, with overlapping receptive fields and reduced interdigit separation. These abnormalities are associated with deficits in sensory perception, as previously demonstrated by applying tactile stimuli to one finger at a time. What is still unknown is whether the sensory deficits can be observed when tactile perception involves more than one finger. To address this issue, we applied 'Aristotle's illusion' to 15 patients with focal hand dystonia, 15 patients with dystonia not affecting the hand (blepharospasm and cervical dystonia) and 15 healthy control subjects. In this illusion, one object touching the contact point of two crossed fingertips is perceived as two objects by a blindfolded subject. The same object placed between two parallel fingertips is correctly perceived as one. The illusory doubling sensation is because of the fact that the contact point between the crossed fingers consists of non-adjacent and functionally unrelated skin regions, which usually send sensory signals to separate spots in the somatosensory cortex. In our study, participants were touched by one sphere between the second-third digits, the second-fourth digits and the fourth-fifth digits of both hands, either in crossed or in parallel position, and had to refer whether they felt one or two stimuli. The percentage of 'two stimuli' responses was an index of the illusory doubling. Both healthy control subjects and dystonic patients presented Aristotle's illusion when the fingers were crossed. However, patients with focal hand dystonia presented a significant reduction of the illusion when the sphere was placed between the crossed fourth and fifth digits of the affected hand. This reduction correlated with the severity of motor disease at the fingers. Similar findings were not observed in non-hand dystonia and control groups. The reduction of Aristotle's illusion in non-affected fingers and its
Ankrom, M A; Shapiro, J R
Paget's disease of bone is important in geriatric populations because it is the second most common bone disorder after osteoporosis. In older people, it may be responsible for chronic back pain and joint pain, skeletal deformities, hearing loss, and cranial nerve compression. Paget's disease can reduce both function and mobility in the older people. In addition to newer tests for assessing the activity of Paget's disease, effective therapy is available in the form of salmon calcitonin for nasal administration and new third generation bisphosphonates. Frequently, treatment can reverse the course of the disease. For these reasons, it is feasible for the physician to adopt an aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment. The objective should be to relieve pain, improve mobility, and forestall debilitating complications. This review will focus on the manifestations and clinical management of Paget's disease. Two cases are presented that illustrate common management problems in older patients.
Fremont, Rachel; Tewari, Ambika; Khodakhah, Kamran
Loss-of-function mutations in the α3 isoform of the sodium pump are responsible for Rapid Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP). A pharmacologic model of RDP replicates the most salient features of RDP, and implicates both the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the disorder; dystonia is associated with aberrant cerebellar output, and the parkinsonism-like features are attributable to the basal ganglia. The pharmacologic agent used to generate the model, ouabain, is selective for sodium pumps. However, close to the infusion sites in vivo it likely affects all sodium pump isoforms. Therefore, it remains to be established whether selective loss of α3-containing sodium pumps replicates the pharmacologic model. Moreover, while the pharmacologic model suggested that aberrant firing of Purkinje cells was the main cause of abnormal cerebellar output, it did not allow the scrutiny of this hypothesis. To address these questions RNA interference using small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) delivered via adeno-associated viruses (AAV) was used to specifically knockdown α3-containing sodium pumps in different regions of the adult mouse brain. Knockdown of the α3-containing sodium pumps mimicked both the behavioral and electrophysiological changes seen in the pharmacologic model of RDP, recapitulating key aspects of the human disorder. Further, we found that knockdown of the α3 isoform altered the intrinsic pacemaking of Purkinje cells, but not the neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei. Therefore, acute knockdown of proteins associated with inherited dystonias may be a good strategy for developing phenotypic genetic mouse models where traditional transgenic models have failed to produce symptomatic mice.
McClelland, V M; Valentin, A; Rey, H G; Lumsden, D E; Elze, M C; Selway, R; Alarcon, G; Lin, J-P
Background The pathophysiology underlying different types of dystonia is not yet understood. We report microelectrode data from the globus pallidus interna (GPi) and globus pallidus externa (GPe) in children undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) for dystonia and investigate whether GPi and GPe firing rates differ between dystonia types. Methods Single pass microelectrode data were obtained to guide electrode position in 44 children (3.3–18.1 years, median 10.7) with the following dystonia types: 14 primary, 22 secondary Static and 8 progressive secondary to neuronal brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Preoperative stereotactic MRI determined coordinates for the GPi target. Digitised spike trains were analysed offline, blind to clinical data. Electrode placement was confirmed by a postoperative stereotactic CT scan. Findings We identified 263 GPi and 87 GPe cells. Both GPi and GPe firing frequencies differed significantly with dystonia aetiology. The median GPi firing frequency was higher in the primary group than in the secondary static group (13.5 Hz vs 9.6 Hz; p=0.002) and higher in the NBIA group than in either the primary (25 Hz vs 13.5 Hz; p=0.006) or the secondary static group (25 Hz vs 9.6 Hz; p=0.00004). The median GPe firing frequency was higher in the NBIA group than in the secondary static group (15.9 Hz vs 7 Hz; p=0.013). The NBIA group also showed a higher proportion of regularly firing GPi cells compared with the other groups (p<0.001). A higher proportion of regular GPi cells was also seen in patients with fixed/tonic dystonia compared with a phasic/dynamic dystonia phenotype (p<0.001). The GPi firing frequency showed a positive correlation with 1-year outcome from DBS measured by improvement in the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS-m) score (p=0.030). This association was stronger for the non-progressive patients (p=0.006). Interpretation Pallidal firing rates and patterns differ significantly with dystonia aetiology
Lozeron, Pierre; Poujois, Aurélia; Richard, Alexandra; Masmoudi, Sana; Meppiel, Elodie; Woimant, France; Kubis, Nathalie
Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug’s side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop. However, basal ganglia lesions do not consistently produce dystonia and lesions outside basal ganglia can lead to dystonia; mild sensory abnormalities have been reported in the dystonic limb and imaging studies have shown involvement of multiple other brain regions including the cerebellum and the cerebral motor, premotor and sensorimotor cortices. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique of brain stimulation with a magnetic field applied over the cortex allowing investigation of cortical excitability. Hyperexcitability of contralateral motor cortex has been suggested to be the trigger of focal dystonia. High or low frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) can induce excitatory or inhibitory lasting effects beyond the time of stimulation and protocols have been developed having either a positive or a negative effect on cortical excitability and associated with prevention of cell death, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons mediated inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation. rTMS studies as a therapeutic strategy of dystonia have been conducted to modulate the cerebral areas involved in the disease. Especially, when applied on the contralateral (pre)-motor cortex or supplementary motor area of brains of small cohorts of dystonic patients, rTMS has shown a beneficial transient clinical effect in association with restrained motor cortex excitability. TMS is currently a valuable tool to
Cohen, L G; Hallett, M; Geller, B D; Hochberg, F
The effects of botulinum toxin injections have been studied on 19 patients with hand dystonia. The dystonic muscles were identified by clinical examination and EMG findings of localised bursts of muscle activation with fine wire electrodes during the tasks that precipitated the dystonia. Injections into the most active muscles were given to each patient every 2 weeks in increasing doses (up to 20 U the first week, up to 40 U the second week, and up to 80 U the third week) until performance improvement was achieved. Subjective improvement of cramping, pain and/or tension was associated with temporary weakness in injected muscles. Benefit was seen in 16 patients, lasted between 1 and 6 months, and was reproducible. PMID:2926421
Devadathan, Kalpana; Sreedharan, Mini; Sarasam, Sanuja; Colah, Roshan B; Kunju, P A Mohammed
Many neurodegenerative diseases can be misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy. The correct diagnosis is reached when the condition recurs in families or when there are specific clinical signs. The clinical and imaging features of 3 children, from 2 unrelated families, presenting with global developmental delay and dystonia are described, in whom the presence of cyanosis and methemoglobinemia confirmed the diagnosis of recessive hereditary methemoglobinemia type 2. Magnetic resonance imaging showed significant cerebellar atrophy in 2 of the 3 babies. In dark-skinned children, this condition is underdiagnosed, as mild cyanosis is difficult to detect. Screening for methemoglobinemia in children with dystonia, microcephaly, and progressive cerebellar atrophy can be helpful in identifying more cases. As there is no curative treatment for this autosomal recessive condition, the exact diagnosis offers the best chance for prenatal screening, by detecting deficient NADH--cytochrome b5 reductase enzyme activity or by identifying the specific mutation in cultured amniotic fluid cells. © The Author(s) 2014.
Rowley, H; Lynch, T; Keogh, I; Russell, J
We describe a case of a quadriplegic brain-damaged man with severe upper airway obstruction. A diagnosis of tardive dystonia affecting the vocal folds was made and confirmed by flexible nasopharyngoscopy. Emergency tracheotomy was required. The tardive movement disorder resolved with discontinuation of thioridazine. This case serves to heighten awareness of potentially serious airway complications associated with the use of anti-psychotics and anti-emetics particularly in those with organic brain disease.
Karimi, Morvarid; Perlmutter, Joel S.
Background Dystonia constitutes a heterogeneous group of movement abnormalities, characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal postures. Overwhelming data suggest involvement of basal ganglia and dopaminergic pathways in dystonia. In this review, we critically evaluate recent neuroimaging studies that investigate dopamine receptors, endogenous dopamine release, morphology of striatum, and structural or functional connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical and related cerebellar circuits in dystonia. Method A PubMed search was conducted in August 2014. Results Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging offers strong evidence for altered D2/D3 receptor binding and dopaminergic release in many forms of idiopathic dystonia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data reveal likely involvement of related cerebello-thalamo-cortical and sensory-motor networks in addition to basal ganglia. Discussion PET imaging of dopamine receptors or transmitter release remains an effective means to investigate dopaminergic pathways, yet may miss factors affecting dopamine homeostasis and related subcellular signaling cascades that could alter the function of these pathways. fMRI and DTI methods may reveal functional or anatomical changes associated with dysfunction of dopamine-mediated pathways. Each of these methods can be used to monitor target engagement for potential new treatments. PET imaging of striatal phosphodiesterase and development of new selective PET radiotracers for dopamine D3-specific receptors and Mechanistic target of rampamycin (mTOR) are crucial to further investigate dopaminergic pathways. A multimodal approach may have the greatest potential, using PET to identify the sites of molecular pathology and magnetic resonance methods to determine their downstream effects. PMID:25713747
Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Hollis, Robert; Ball, Chelsea; Martella, Giuseppina; Tassone, Annalisa; Marshall, Andrea; Parsons, Dee; Li, Xinru; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Zhang, Lin; Li, Yuqing; Pisani, Antonio; Standaert, David G
DYT1 dystonia, a common and severe primary dystonia, is caused by a 3-bp deletion in TOR1A which encodes torsinA, a protein found in the endoplasmic reticulum. Several cellular functions are altered by the mutant protein, but at a systems level the link between these and the symptoms of the disease is unclear. The most effective known therapy for DYT1 dystonia is the use of anticholinergic drugs. Previous studies have revealed that in mice, transgenic expression of human mutant torsinA under a non-selective promoter leads to abnormal function of striatal cholinergic neurons. To investigate what pathological role torsinA plays in cholinergic neurons, we created a mouse model in which the Dyt1 gene, the mouse homolog of TOR1A, is selectively deleted in cholinergic neurons (ChKO animals). These animals do not have overt dystonia, but do have subtle motor abnormalities. There is no change in the number or size of striatal cholinergic cells or striatal acetylcholine content, uptake, synthesis, or release in ChKO mice. There are, however, striking functional abnormalities of striatal cholinergic cells, with paradoxical excitation in response to D2 receptor activation and loss of muscarinic M2/M4 receptor inhibitory function. These effects are specific for cholinergic interneurons, as recordings from nigral dopaminergic neurons revealed normal responses. Amphetamine stimulated dopamine release was also unaltered. These results demonstrate a cell-autonomous effect of Dyt1 deletion on striatal cholinergic function. Therapies directed at modifying the function of cholinergic neurons may prove useful in the treatment of the human disorder.
Sadleir, Lynette G; Paterson, Sarah; Smith, Katherine R; Redshaw, Natalie; Ranta, Annemarei; Kalnins, Renate; Berkovic, Samuel F; Bahlo, Melanie; Hildebrand, Michael S; Scheffer, Ingrid E
To describe clinical and EEG phenotypes of a family with an unusual familial epilepsy syndrome characterized by myoclonus and dystonia. Family members underwent electroclinical phenotyping including review of EEGs and MRI. DNA from family members was genotyped using Illumina OmniExpress genotyping arrays. Parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses were performed using MERLIN. The disorder followed autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance and affected seven individuals over two generations. Seizures began at a mean of 14.5 years. Six individuals had spontaneous myoclonic seizures, of which five also had photic-induced myoclonus and four had photic-induced occipital seizures. Six individuals had convulsive seizures; generalized in two and focal in four. Photosensitivity was prominent with generalized spike wave and polyspike wave in four individuals of which two also had occipital spikes. MRI scans were normal in the four individuals tested. Extensive metabolic investigation was normal. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) occurred in two; and JME overlapping with idiopathic photosensitive epilepsy (IPOE) in four individuals. All three affected males had a more severe disorder than the four affected females. Two males had a progressive neurological disorder with progressive myoclonus epilepsy and deterioration in their early 30s. They developed episodes of paroxysmal cervical dystonia with cognitive decline during periods of poor seizure control. One plateaued after years of poor seizure control but remained intractable with periods of deterioration. The other deteriorated with episodes of status dystonicus and status epilepticus, ataxia and a progressive ophthalmoplegia before succumbing at 38 years. Parametric linkage analysis identified three peaks achieving a maximum LOD score of 1.21. Nonparametric analysis identified eight peaks achieving LOD scores above 0.80. These were not statistically significant. This is a novel autosomal dominant familial epilepsy syndrome
Bode, Christoph; Richter, Franziska; Spröte, Christine; Brigadski, Tanja; Bauer, Anne; Fietz, Simone; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Richter, Angelika
GABAergic disinhibition has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of several basal ganglia disorders, including dystonia, a common movement disorder. Previous studies have shown a deficit of striatal GABAergic interneurons (IN) in the dt(sz) mutant hamster, one of the few phenotypic animal models of dystonia. However, mechanisms underlying this deficit are largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the migration and maturation of striatal IN during postnatal development (18days of age) and at age of highest severity of dystonia (33days of age) in this hamster model. In line with previous findings, the density of GAD67-positive IN and the level of parvalbumin mRNA, a marker for fast spiking GABAergic IN, were lower in the dt(sz) mutant than in control hamsters. However, an unaltered density of Nkx2.1 labeled cells and Nkx2.1 mRNA level suggested that the migration of GABAergic IN into the striatum was not retarded. Therefore, different factors that indicate maturation of GABAergic IN were determined. While mRNA of the KCC2 cation/chloride transporters and the cytosolic carboanhydrase VII, used as markers for the so called GABA switch, as well as BDNF were unaltered, we found a reduced number of IN expressing the alpha1 subunit of the GABAA-receptor (37.5%) in dt(sz) hamsters at an age of 33days, but not after spontaneous remission of dystonia at an age of 90days. Since IN shift expression from alpha2 to alpha1 subunits during postnatal maturation, this result together with a decreased parvalbumin mRNA expression suggest a delayed maturation of striatal GABAergic IN in this animal model, which might underlie abnormal neuronal activity and striatal plasticity.
Mencacci, Niccolo E; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Zdebik, Anselm; Asmus, Friedrich; Ludtmann, Marthe H R; Ryten, Mina; Plagnol, Vincent; Hauser, Ann-Kathrin; Bandres-Ciga, Sara; Bettencourt, Conceição; Forabosco, Paola; Hughes, Deborah; Soutar, Marc M P; Peall, Kathryn; Morris, Huw R; Trabzuni, Daniah; Tekman, Mehmet; Stanescu, Horia C; Kleta, Robert; Carecchio, Miryam; Zorzi, Giovanna; Nardocci, Nardo; Garavaglia, Barbara; Lohmann, Ebba; Weissbach, Anne; Klein, Christine; Hardy, John; Pittman, Alan M; Foltynie, Thomas; Abramov, Andrey Y; Gasser, Thomas; Bhatia, Kailash P; Wood, Nicholas W
Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a rare movement disorder characterized by a combination of non-epileptic myoclonic jerks and dystonia. SGCE mutations represent a major cause for familial M-D being responsible for 30%-50% of cases. After excluding SGCE mutations, we identified through a combination of linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing KCTD17 c.434 G>A p.(Arg145His) as the only segregating variant in a dominant British pedigree with seven subjects affected by M-D. A subsequent screening in a cohort of M-D cases without mutations in SGCE revealed the same KCTD17 variant in a German family. The clinical presentation of the KCTD17-mutated cases was distinct from the phenotype usually observed in M-D due to SGCE mutations. All cases initially presented with mild myoclonus affecting the upper limbs. Dystonia showed a progressive course, with increasing severity of symptoms and spreading from the cranio-cervical region to other sites. KCTD17 is abundantly expressed in all brain regions with the highest expression in the putamen. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis, based on mRNA expression profile of brain samples from neuropathologically healthy individuals, showed that KCTD17 is part of a putamen gene network, which is significantly enriched for dystonia genes. Functional annotation of the network showed an over-representation of genes involved in post-synaptic dopaminergic transmission. Functional studies in mutation bearing fibroblasts demonstrated abnormalities in endoplasmic reticulum-dependent calcium signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the KCTD17 c.434 G>A p.(Arg145His) mutation causes autosomal dominant M-D. Further functional studies are warranted to further characterize the nature of KCTD17 contribution to the molecular pathogenesis of M-D. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Useros-Olmo, Ana Isabel; Collado-Vázquez, Susana
Cervical dystonia may also cause limitation in articulation mobility and alteration of the balance, both accompanied with pain. AIM. To evaluate if hydrotherapy produces decrease of pain, increase in mobility and balance in patients diagnosed with cervical dystonia. A pre-post treatment pilot study was carried out without group control, with a sample of 16 patients (13 female and 3 male) diagnosed with cervical dystonia. The patients received an hydrotherapy treatment consisted of three individual sessions and three grupal sessions of aquatic exercises. In the pre-treatment phase the disability, severity and pain were evaluated by means of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS); the balance was evaluated by means of the Get up and Go and Tinetti tests. In addition, the range of active mobility of the neck was measured with tape. The test were measured pre and post-treatment. The Student t showed a significant difference (p < 0, 01) in all the values. The range of active mobility of the neck improved in all movements: flexion (1.3 ± 1.0 cm), right lateralization (3.4 ± 1.7 cm) and left (4.0 ± 3.0 cm) and right rotation (1.6 ± 2.5 cm) and left (2.2 ± 1.5 cm). At the same time, all test improved too: Tinetti (3.0 ± 2.2), Get up and Go (2.3 ± 1.6) and TWSTRS (8.4 ± 5.4). The outcomes of this pilot study show that hydrotherapy can be related a positive influence in cervical dystonia, producing neck mobility and balance improvements and pain decrease. Future studies are necessary.
Mencacci, Niccolo E.; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Zdebik, Anselm; Asmus, Friedrich; Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Ryten, Mina; Plagnol, Vincent; Hauser, Ann-Kathrin; Bandres-Ciga, Sara; Bettencourt, Conceição; Forabosco, Paola; Hughes, Deborah; Soutar, Marc M.P.; Peall, Kathryn; Morris, Huw R.; Trabzuni, Daniah; Tekman, Mehmet; Stanescu, Horia C.; Kleta, Robert; Carecchio, Miryam; Zorzi, Giovanna; Nardocci, Nardo; Garavaglia, Barbara; Lohmann, Ebba; Weissbach, Anne; Klein, Christine; Hardy, John; Pittman, Alan M.; Foltynie, Thomas; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Gasser, Thomas; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Wood, Nicholas W.
Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a rare movement disorder characterized by a combination of non-epileptic myoclonic jerks and dystonia. SGCE mutations represent a major cause for familial M-D being responsible for 30%–50% of cases. After excluding SGCE mutations, we identified through a combination of linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing KCTD17 c.434 G>A p.(Arg145His) as the only segregating variant in a dominant British pedigree with seven subjects affected by M-D. A subsequent screening in a cohort of M-D cases without mutations in SGCE revealed the same KCTD17 variant in a German family. The clinical presentation of the KCTD17-mutated cases was distinct from the phenotype usually observed in M-D due to SGCE mutations. All cases initially presented with mild myoclonus affecting the upper limbs. Dystonia showed a progressive course, with increasing severity of symptoms and spreading from the cranio-cervical region to other sites. KCTD17 is abundantly expressed in all brain regions with the highest expression in the putamen. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis, based on mRNA expression profile of brain samples from neuropathologically healthy individuals, showed that KCTD17 is part of a putamen gene network, which is significantly enriched for dystonia genes. Functional annotation of the network showed an over-representation of genes involved in post-synaptic dopaminergic transmission. Functional studies in mutation bearing fibroblasts demonstrated abnormalities in endoplasmic reticulum-dependent calcium signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the KCTD17 c.434 G>A p.(Arg145His) mutation causes autosomal dominant M-D. Further functional studies are warranted to further characterize the nature of KCTD17 contribution to the molecular pathogenesis of M-D. PMID:25983243
Deng, Hao; Le, Wei-Dong; Jankovic, Joseph
X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP, DYT3), endemic in the Philippine island of Panay, is characterized by the clinical onset with dystonia followed by parkinsonism. We found a 35-year-old American male patient, originally from Panay with typical XDP, has a 2-year history of parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor. Ancestral DYT3 haplotype and disease-specific SVA (short interspersed nuclear element, variable number of tandem repeats, and Alu composite) retrotransposon insertion were identified in the DYT3 proband and two female unaffected family members. No mutation(s) and expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes were observed in the TATA-binding protein-associated factor 1 gene (TAF1) or the chemokine CXC motif receptor 3 gene (CXCR3) of the proband or other DYT3 carriers. These findings indicate blood DNA test has a diagnostic utility and implications for genetic counseling in families with DYT3. In contrast, TAF1 and CXCR3 gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes is not a suitable surrogate disease marker for DYT3.
Rusz, Jan; Megrelishvili, Marika; Bonnet, Cecilia; Okujava, Michael; Brožová, Hana; Khatiashvili, Irine; Sekhniashvili, Madona; Janelidze, Marina; Tolosa, Eduardo; Růžička, Evžen
A distinctive alteration of speech has been reported in patients suffering from ephedrone-induced parkinsonism. However, an objective assessment of dysarthria has not been performed in ephedrone users. We studied 28 young Caucasian men from Georgia with a previous history of ephedrone abuse and compared them to 25 age-matched healthy controls. Speech examination, brain MRI, and NNIPPS-Parkinson plus scale were performed in all patients. The accurate differential diagnosis of dysarthria subtypes was based on the quantitative acoustic analyses of 15 speech dimensions. We revealed a distinct variant of mixed dysarthria with a combination of hyperkinetic and hypokinetic components representing the altered motor programming of dystonia and bradykinesia in ephedrone-induced parkinsonism. According to acoustic analyses, all patients presented at least one affected speech dimension, whereas dysarthria was moderate in 43% and severe in 36% of patients. Further findings indicated relationships between motor subscores of dystonia and bradykinesia and speech components of loudness (r = -0.54, p < 0.01), articulation (r = 0.40, p < 0.05), and timing (r = -0.53, p < 0.01). In ephedrone-induced parkinsonism a prominent mixed hyperkinetic-hypokinetic dysarthria occurs that appears related to marked dystonia and bradykinesia and probably reflects manganese induced toxic and neurodegenerative damage to the globus pallidus internus and substantia nigra.
Butterworth, Stephen; Francis, Sue; Kelly, Edward; McGlone, Francis; Bowtell, Richard; Sawle, Guy V
Despite the obvious motor manifestations of focal dystonia, it is recognised that the sensory system plays an important role in this condition. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examines the sensory representations of individual digits both within the subregions of the primary sensory cortex (SI) and in other nonprimary sensory areas. Patients with focal dystonia and controls were scanned during vibrotactile stimulation of both the index (digit 2) and little (digit 5) fingers of their dominant hand (which was the affected hand in all the dystonic subjects). The activation maps obtained were analysed for location, size, and magnitude of activation and three-dimensional (3-D) orientation of digit representations. Data from both groups were compared. There were significant differences in the average 3-D separation between the two digit representations in area 1 of SI between subject groups (9.6 +/- 1.2 mm for controls and 4.1 +/- 0.2 mm for dystonic subjects). There were also strong trends for reversed ordering of the representation of the two digits in both the secondary sensory cortex and posterior parietal area between the two groups. In addition, in dystonic subjects, there was significant under activation in the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII/area 40) for both digits and in the posterior parietal area for digit 5. These results indicate the presence of widespread activation abnormalities in the cortical sensory system in dystonia.
Filip, Pavel; Šumec, Rastislav; Baláž, Marek; Bareš, Martin
Sensory trick is an unusual clinical feature in cervical dystonia that attenuates disease symptoms by slight touch to a specific area of the face or head. Using a semi-quantitative questionnaire-based study of 197 patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia, we sought to determine probable pathophysiologic correlates, with the wider aim of examining its eventual clinical significance. The typical sensory trick, i.e., light touch, not necessitating the use of force leading to simple overpowering of dystonic activity, was present in 83 (42.1 %) patients. The vast majority of the patients required a specific sequence of sensorimotor inputs, including touch sensation on the face or different areas of the head, and also sensory and motor input of the hand itself. Deviations often led to a significant decrease in effectiveness and lack of expected benefit. Moreover, patients able to perform the maneuver reported compellingly higher subjective effect of botulinum toxin treatment (median 7 vs. 5 on a scale of 0-10; p < 0.0001) and lower depression score (median 10 vs. 14 on the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating scale; p < 0.001). Overall, the results point to marked disruption of sensorimotor networks in cervical dystonia. The mechanism of the sensory trick action may be associated with balancing the abnormal activation patterns by specific sensorimotor inputs. Its presence may be considered a positive predictive factor for responsiveness to botulinum toxin treatment.
Sun, Zhan-fang; Zhang, Yu-han; Guo, Ji-feng; Sun, Qi-ying; Mei, Jun-pu; Zhou, Han-lin; Guan, Li-ping; Tian, Jin-yong; Hu, Zheng-mao; Li, Jia-da; Xia, Kun; Yan, Xin-xiang; Tang, Bei-sha
Dopa-responsive dystonia, a rare disorder typically presenting in early childhood with lower limb dystonia and gait abnormality, responds well to levodopa. However, it is often misdiagnosed with the wide spectrum of phenotypes. By exome sequencing, we make a rapid genetic diagnosis for two atypical dopa-responsive dystonia pedigrees. One pedigree, presented with prominent parkinsonism, was misdiagnosed as Parkinson's disease until a known mutation in GCH1 (GTP cyclohydrolase 1) gene (NM_000161.2: c.631_632delAT, p.Met211ValfsX38) was found. The other pedigree was detected with a new compound heterozygous mutation in TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) gene [(NM_000360.3: c.911C>T, p.Ala304Val) and (NM_000360.3: c.1358G>A, p.Arg453His)], whose proband, a pregnant woman, required a rapid and less-biased genetic diagnosis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that exome sequencing could provide a precise and rapid genetic testing in the diagnosis of Mendelian diseases, especially for diseases with wide phenotypes. PMID:25181484
Munts, Alexander G; van der Plas, Anton A; Voormolen, Joan H; Marinus, Johan; Teepe-Twiss, Irene M; Onkenhout, Willem; van Gerven, Joop M; van Hilten, Jacobus J
Since glycinergic neurotransmission plays an important inhibitory role in the processing of sensory and motor information, intrathecal glycine (ITG) administration may be a potential therapy for both pain and movement disorders in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Aims of the current study, which is the first report on ITG in humans, were to evaluate its safety and efficacy. ITG treatment during 4 weeks was studied in CRPS patients with dystonia in the period before they received intrathecal baclofen treatment. Twenty patients were assessed and after exclusion of one patient, the remaining 19 patients were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Safety was assessed by clinical evaluation, blood examinations and electrocardiograms. Efficacy measures involved pain (numeric rating scale, McGill pain questionnaire), movement disorders (Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale, unified myoclonus rating scale, tremor research group rating scale), activity (Radboud skills questionnaire, walking ability questionnaire), and a clinical global impression (CGI) and patient's global impression score (PGI). Treatment-emergent adverse events were generally mild to moderate and not different from placebo treatment. During ITG treatment growth hormone levels were slightly increased. Although there was a trend to worsening on the CGI and PGI during ITG treatment, there were no significant differences between ITG and placebo treatment in any of the outcomes. ITG given over 4 weeks was ineffective for pain or dystonia in CRPS. Although no serious adverse events occurred, further studies are required to rule out potential neurotoxicity of ITG.
Buttkus, Franziska; Weidenmüller, Matthias; Schneider, Sabine; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Nitsche, Michael A; Paulus, Walter; Altenmüller, Eckart
Musician's dystonia (MD) is a task-specific movement disorder with a loss of voluntary motor control in highly trained movements. Defective inhibition on different levels of the central nervous system is involved in its pathophysiology. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) diminishes excitability of the motor cortex and improves performance in overlearned tasks in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ctDCS improves fine motor control in MD. Professional guitarists (n = 10) with MD played exercises before, directly after ctDCS, and 60 min after ctDCS. ctDCS (2 mA, 20 min) was applied on the primary motor cortex contralateral to the affected hand. Guitar exercises were video-documented and symptoms were evaluated by three independent experts. No beneficial effect of ctDCS on fine motor control was found for the entire group. However, motor control of one guitarist improved after stimulation. This patient suffered from arm dystonia, whereas the other guitarists suffered from hand dystonia.
De Pauw, Joke; Van der Velden, Kevin; Meirte, Jill; Van Daele, Ulrike; Truijen, Steven; Cras, Patrick; Mercelis, Rudy; De Hertogh, Willem
Cervical dystonia is a form of adult-onset, focal dystonia characterized by involuntary contractions of the neck muscles, leading to a disabling, abnormal head posture. CD has a great impact on the activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life. Currently, the most widely used and recommended first line treatment is botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) injections. Physiotherapy is a potentially useful adjuvant, but little is known about its effectiveness. Consequently, our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of physiotherapy alone or as an adjuvant treatment to BoNT/A injections in cervical dystonia (CD) by means of a systematic literature review. Two online databases, PubMed and Web of Science, were searched for articles describing the effectiveness of physiotherapy treatment for CD. After screening, based on predefined in- and exclusion criteria, 16 studies were retained. Their methodological quality was assessed according to Cochrane guidelines. The methodological quality of most studies was low. Examples of shortcomings are small sample sizes, lack of randomization or blinding, and diversity in therapeutic techniques and outcome measures. Only seven studies were clinical trials; the remaining were either case reports or case series. The reported physiotherapy treatments included EMG biofeedback training, muscular elongation, postural exercises and electrotherapy. Improvements in head position, pain, cervical range of motion, quality of life and ADL have been reported, which is promising. Cautious interpretation on the effectiveness of physiotherapy as an adjuvant therapy is required. Before firm conclusions can be drawn, additional high quality trials are needed.
Lohmann, Ebba; Gasser, Thomas; Grundmann, Kathrin
Dystonia belongs to a group of rare diseases (RDs) characterized by etiologic heterogeneity, affection often in childhood, severe and variable clinical manifestation. The burden of this disease is aggravated by the lack of effective and specific treatment. In the field of dystonia as in other RDs the number of available biospecimens is, in general, limited. Here, we report a new approach to collect clinical and genetic data in biospecimens maintained collaboratively by researchers and their associated institutions in a decentralized system. Allowing researchers to have access to significant numbers of samples and corresponding clinical data, biobanking in dystonia might not only provide a powerful tool in the identification of disease genes but also the classification of variants detected in known genes with respect to their clinical relevance. Growing data in genetics due to the technical progress demand for well-annotated and well-managed biobanks, which in near future hold even the potential for biomarker research and generating medical treatment based on clinical and genetic data currently summarized as “personalized medicine.” PMID:28194131
Taira, T; Hori, T
Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) administration is a fully established treatment for severe spasticity. However, it is not widely known that baclofen, an agonist of the GABA-B receptor, has additional beneficial effects in other conditions such as chronic pain, coma, dystonia, tetanus, and hyypothalamic storm. Sporadic cases of dramatic recovery from persistent vegetative state after intrathecal administration of baclofen have been reported. There have been also reports on the use of baclofen for control of dystonia due to cerebral palsy, neuropathic central pain syndrome or reflex sympathetic dystrophy. On the other hand, epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used in the management not only of pain but also of spasticity, dystonia, and in order to improve deteriorated consciousness, but the effects so far have been modest and variable. Similarities between ITB and SCS are interesting as both involve the spinal GABAergic system. Based on a 15-year personal experience of intrathecal baclofen, I would stress the importance of this treatment not only for spasticity but also for other difficult neurological disorders.
Bhanpuri, Nasir H; Bertucco, Matteo; Young, Scott J; Lee, Annie A; Sanger, Terence D
Abnormal motor cortex activity is common in dystonia. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation may alter cortical activity by decreasing excitability while anodal stimulation may increase motor learning. Previous results showed that a single session of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation can improve symptoms in childhood dystonia. Here we performed a 5-day, sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, where we measured tracking and muscle overflow in a myocontrol-based task. We applied cathodal and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (2 mA, 9 minutes per day). For cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (7 participants), 3 subjects showed improvements whereas 2 showed worsening in overflow or tracking error. The effect size was small (about 1% of maximum voluntary contraction) and not clinically meaningful. For anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (6 participants), none showed improvement, whereas 5 showed worsening. Thus, multiday cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduced symptoms in some children but not to a clinically meaningful extent, whereas anodal transcranial direct current stimulation worsened symptoms. Our results do not support transcranial direct current stimulation as clinically viable for treating childhood dystonia. © The Author(s) 2015.
Avchalumov, Y; Volkmann, C E; Rückborn, K; Hamann, M; Kirschstein, T; Richter, A; Köhling, R
Abnormal plasticity in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop has been suggested to represent a key factor in the pathophysiology of dystonia. In a model of primary paroxysmal dystonia, the dt(sz) mutant hamster, previous experiments have shown a strongly increased long-term potentiation (LTP) in comparison to non-dystonic control hamsters. These basal changes, i.e. in the absence of dystonia, were found in young animals at an age of 5 weeks, when the age-dependent dystonia in dt(sz) mutant reaches highest severity. In the present study we examined in corticostriatal slices (1) whether the increases in synaptic plasticity can be modulated by stressful stimuli which induce dystonic episodes in young mutant hamsters, and (2) whether increases of LTP persist after spontaneous remission of dystonia in animals older than 10 weeks. The present data show that in slices of young mutant hamsters the extent of LTP was not influenced by the presence of dystonia: In comparison to age-matched control hamsters, LTP was increased in mutant hamsters independent of preceding stressful stimulation. After remission of dystonia, i.e., in older dt(sz) mutant hamsters >10 weeks, only LTP could be elicited, while in preparations from age-matched control hamsters, either LTP or long-term depression developed, depending on previous behavioral challenge. We conclude that in mature brain, corticostriatal connections have the potential for changes in metaplasticity, while in dt(sz) mutant hamsters this metaplasticity is persistently infringed even though stress-inducible dystonic symptoms are lost. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loher, T; Burgunder, J; Weber, S; Sommerhalder, R; Krauss, J
Objective: To investigate the efficacy of chronic pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) on off period dystonia, cramps, and sensory symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: 16 patients (6 women, 10 men; mean age at surgery 65 years) suffering from advanced PD were followed up prospectively for one year after implantation of a monopolar electrode in the posteroventral lateral globus pallidus internus. Unilateral DBS was performed in 9 patients. 10 patients had bilateral procedures (contemporaneous bilateral surgery in 7 and staged bilateral surgery in 3 instances). The decision whether to perform unilateral or bilateral surgery depended on the clinical presentation of the patient. Patients were formally assessed preoperatively, at 3–5 days, 3 months, and 12 months after surgery. Results: In patients who underwent unilateral surgery, pain was present in 7 (78%), off dystonia in 5 (56%), cramps in 6 (67%), and dysaesthesia in 4 (44%). In patients who underwent bilateral surgery, pain was present in 7 (70%), off dystonia in 6 (60%), cramps in 7 (70%), and dysaesthesia in 4 (40%). With unilateral DBS, contralateral off period dystonia was improved by 100% at 1 year postoperatively, pain by 74%, cramps by 88%, and dysaesthesia by 100%. There was less pronounced amelioration of ipsilateral off period dystonia and sensory symptoms. With bilateral DBS, total scores for dystonia were improved by 86%, for pain by 90%, for cramps by 90%, and for dysaesthesia by 88%. The benefit appeared early at the first evaluation 3–5 days after surgery and was stable throughout the follow up period. Conclusions: Pallidal DBS yields major improvement of off period dystonia, cramps, and sensory symptoms in patients with advanced PD. PMID:12235307
Cif, Laura; Ruge, Diane; Gonzalez, Victoria; Limousin, Patricia; Vasques, Xavier; Hariz, Marwan I; Rothwell, John; Coubes, Philippe
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) is an established therapy for primary generalized dystonia. However, the evolution of dystonia symptoms after DBS discontinuation after years of therapy has only rarely been reported. We therefore longitudinally studied the main physiological measurements known to be impaired in dystonia, with DBS ON and then again after termination of DBS, after at least five years of continuous DBS. We studied whether dystonia evolution after DBS discontinuation in patients benefiting from long-term GPi DBS is different from that observed in earlier stages of the therapy. In eleven DYT1 patients treated with bilateral GPi DBS for at least 5 years, dystonia was assessed ON-DBS, immediately after switch-off (OFF-DBS1) and 48 h after DBS termination (OFF-DBS2). We studied the influence of DBS intensity on dystonia when DBS was discontinued. On average a significant difference in symptoms was measured only between ON-DBS and OFF-DBS1 conditions. Importantly, none of the patients returned to their preoperative dystonia severity, even 48 h after discontinuation. The amount of clinical deterioration in the OFF conditions positively correlated with higher stimulation current in the chronic ON-DBS condition. The duration of DBS application influences symptom evolution after DBS termination. DBS intensity seems to have a prominent role on evolution of dystonic symptoms when DBS is discontinued. In conclusion, DBS induces changing modulation of the motor network with less worsening of symptoms after long term stimulation, when DBS is stopped. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Balcioglu, Aygul; Kim, Mee-Ohk; Sharma, Nutan; Cha, Jang-Ho; Breakefield, Xandra O; Standaert, David G
Early onset torsion dystonia, the most common form of hereditary primary dystonia, is caused by a mutation in the TOR1A gene, which codes for the protein torsinA. This form of dystonia is referred to as DYT1. We have used a transgenic mouse model of DYT1 dystonia [human mutant-type (hMT)1 mice] to examine the effect of the mutant human torsinA protein on striatal dopaminergic function. Analysis of striatal tissue dopamine (DA) and metabolites using HPLC revealed no difference between hMT1 mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Pre-synaptic DA transporters were studied using in vitro autoradiography with [(3)H]mazindol, a ligand for the membrane DA transporter, and [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine, a ligand for the vesicular monoamine transporter. No difference in the density of striatal DA transporter or vesicular monoamine transporter binding sites was observed. Post-synaptic receptors were studied using [(3)H]SCH-23390, a ligand for D(1) class receptors, [(3)H]YM-09151-2 and a ligand for D(2) class receptors. There were again no differences in the density of striatal binding sites for these ligands. Using in vivo microdialysis in awake animals, we studied basal as well as amphetamine-stimulated striatal extracellular DA levels. Basal extracellular DA levels were similar, but the response to amphetamine was markedly attenuated in the hMT1 mice compared with their non-transgenic littermates (253 +/- 71% vs. 561 +/- 132%, p < 0.05, two-way anova). These observations suggest that the mutation in the torsinA protein responsible for DYT1 dystonia may interfere with transport or release of DA, but does not alter pre-synaptic transporters or post-synaptic DA receptors. The defect in DA release as observed may contribute to the abnormalities in motor learning as previously documented in this transgenic mouse model, and may contribute to the clinical symptoms of the human disorder.
Kruer, Michael C.; Paudel, Reema; Wagoner, Wendy; Sanford, Lynn; Kara, Eleanna; Gregory, Allison; Foltynie, Tom; Lees, Andrew; Bhatia, Kailash; Hardy, John; Hayflick, Susan J.; Houlden, Henry
Several causative genes have been identified for both dystonia-parkinsonism and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), yet many patients do not have mutations in any of the known genes. Mutations in the ATP13A2 lead to Kufor Rakeb disease, a form of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism that also features oromandibular dystonia. More recently, evidence of iron deposition in the caudate and putamen have been reported in patients with ATP13A2 mutations. We set out to determine the frequency of ATP13A2 mutations in cohorts of idiopathic NBIA and dystonia-parkinsonism. We screened for large deletions using whole genome arrays, and sequenced the entire coding region in 92 cases of NBIA and 76 cases of dystonia-parkinsonism. A number of coding and non-coding sequence variants were identified in a heterozygous state, but none were predicted to be pathogenic based on in silico analyses. Our results indicate that ATP13A2 mutations are a rare cause of both NBIA and dystonia-parkinsonism. PMID:22743658
Blood, Anne J.
This paper postulates that all forms of the neurological movement disorder, dystonia, can be argued to reflect excessive function of one or more components of the brain postural system. This is based on four central arguments. First, because some forms of postural control are already known to be dynamic, rather than static, it is suggested that hyperkinetic dystonias reflect excessive function of dynamic postures, rather than abnormal movements. Second, the range of functional roles served by the postural system is hypothesized to include direct control of movement, suggesting a postural basis for task-specific dystonias. Third, by defining posture as a neural system that maintains body stabilization, it can be shown that the range of mechanical means of implementing stabilization, including co-contraction of antagonistic muscles, matches the range of presentations of dystonia. Fourth, it is shown that the above premises are able to account for previously unexplained observations in dystonia. Based on the inhibitory influence that stabilizing mechanisms exert on movement, it is suggested that the broad functional role that is here referred to as posture may be the function served by the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. Specifically, it is proposed that this pathway centrally coordinates function of the distributed network of brain regions controlling posture and, in conjunction with the direct pathway, coordinates posture and movement. PMID:19180244
Lunardini, Francesca; Bertucco, Matteo; Casellato, Claudia; Bhanpuri, Nasir; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Sanger, Terence D
Motor speed and accuracy are both affected in childhood dystonia. Thus, deriving a speed-accuracy function is an important metric for assessing motor impairments in dystonia. Previous work in dystonia studied the speed-accuracy trade-off during point-to-point tasks. To achieve a more relevant measurement of functional abilities in dystonia, the present study investigates upper-limb kinematics and electromyographic activity of 8 children with dystonia and 8 healthy children during a trajectory-constrained child-relevant task that emulates self-feeding with a spoon and requires continuous monitoring of accuracy. The speed-accuracy trade-off is examined by changing the spoon size to create different accuracy demands. Results demonstrate that the trajectory-constrained speed-accuracy relation is present in both groups, but it is altered in dystonia in terms of increased slope and offset toward longer movement times. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis of increased signal-dependent noise in dystonia, which may partially explain the slow and variable movements observed in dystonia.
Winner, Paul K; Sadowsky, Carl H; Martinez, Walter C; Zuniga, Jose A; Poulette, Ashley
The objective of this study was to assess the clinical benefits of onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®) treatment on the symptoms of cervical dystonia and the frequency, severity, and associated symptoms of migraine in patients with cervical dystonia and concurrent migraine. Botulinum toxin is established as first-line treatment of cervical dystonia. Recent clinical trials have shown onabotulinumtoxinA to be an effective prophylactic therapy for patients with chronic migraine, and onabotulinumtoxinA has been approved for use in this patient population by the Food and Drug Administration. Patients with headache associated with cervical dystonia have been identified as a specific subpopulation of patients in whom botulinum toxin treatment may be effective for controlling the symptoms of both conditions. An open-label pilot study was conducted for 7.5 months in patients at least 18 years old with primary cervical dystonia of moderate severity (baseline rating of at least 20 on the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale) complicated by migraine headache meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria for migraines with or without aura. Each patient received 2 cycles of treatment at Visit 3 (baseline) and Visit 6 (Day 90). For cervical dystonia, each patient was injected with a maximum of 175 units. At the same visit, a maximum of 125 units was also injected for migraine using a fixed-site, fixed-dose injection paradigm, with additional cervical dystonia injection-site treatment to a maximum dose of 300 units. Patients were assessed following onabotulinumtoxinA injection and at follow-up on Visit 4 (Day 30), Visit 5 (Day 60), Visit 6 (Day 90), and at Visits 7, 8, and 9 (Days 120, 150, and 180). The primary outcome measures for this study were change in Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale total score for cervical dystonia and frequency of headache episodes per 28-day period. Migraine episodes were defined as at least 4 hours
Andrews, C J
The gait of normal subjects was examined electromyographically and the pattern was altered during preferential blockade of large nerve fibres to alternating activity in flexor and extensor muscles.The EMG activity was disrupted more in flexor than extensor muscles by preferential ischaemic blockade. Normal gait was associated with flexor contraction only when the foot was lifted and placed on the ground, whereas during ischaemic blockade flexor contraction continued during the interval between foot lifting and foot placement.The `freezing' or `blocking' gait in Parkinson's disease was found to be associated with coactivation of flexor and extensor muscles and this phenomenon occurred only in patients with features of flexion dystonia in the electromyographic recordings of their tonic stretch reflexes. Eight of nine patients with evidence of flexion dystonia showed a deterioration in their response to l-dopa therapy over a two year period, whereas four patients without flexion dystonia maintained their clinical improvement.
Boelman, Cyrus; Lagman-Bartolome, Ana Marissa; MacGregor, Daune L; McCabe, Jane; Logan, Willam J; Minassian, Berge A
Alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism are two separate movement disorders with different dominant mutations in the same sodium-potassium transporter ATPase subunit gene, ATP1A3. We present a child with topiramate-responsive alternating hemiplegia of childhood who was tested for an ATP1A3 gene mutation. Gene sequencing revealed an identical ATP1A3 mutation as in three typical adult-onset rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism cases but never previously described in an alternating hemiplegia of childhood case. The discordance of these phenotypes suggests that there are other undiscovered environmental, genetic, or epigenetic factors influencing the development of alternating hemiplegia of childhood or rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cai, Xiaodong; Chen, Xin; Wu, Song; Liu, Wenlan; Zhang, Xiejun; Zhang, Doudou; He, Sijie; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Mali; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Zongyang; Luo, Kun; Cai, Zhiming; Li, Weiping
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder that is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Herein, we report the identification a novel homozygous missense mutation, c.156 C > A in VPS16, co-segregating with disease status in a Chinese consanguineous family with adolescent-onset primary dystonia by whole exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping. To assess the biological role of c.156 C > A homozygous mutation of VPS16, we generated mice with targeted mutation site of Vps16 through CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing approach. Vps16 c.156 C > A homozygous mutant mice exhibited significantly impaired motor function, suggesting that VPS16 is a new causative gene for adolescent-onset primary dystonia. PMID:27174565
Sanger, Terence D; Bastian, Amy; Brunstrom, Jan; Damiano, Diane; Delgado, Mauricio; Dure, Leon; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Hoon, Alec; Mink, Jonathan W; Sherman-Levine, Sara; Welty, Leah J
Although trihexyphenidyl is used clinically to treat both primary and secondary dystonia in children, limited evidence exists to support its effectiveness, particularly in dystonia secondary to disorders such as cerebral palsy. A prospective, open-label, multicenter pilot trial of high-dose trihexyphenidyl was conducted in 23 children aged 4 to 15 years with cerebral palsy judged to have secondary dystonia impairing function in the dominant upper extremity. All children were given trihexyphenidyl at increasing doses over a 9-week period up to a maximum of 0.75 mg/kg/d. Trihexyphenidyl was subsequently tapered off over the next 5 weeks. Objective motor assessments were performed at baseline, 9 weeks, and 15 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function, tested in the dominant arm. Tolerability and safety were monitored closely throughout the trial. Of the 31 children who agreed to participate in the study, 5 failed to meet entry criteria and 3 withdrew due to nonserious adverse events (chorea, drug rash, and hyperactivity). Three children required a dosage reduction because of nonserious adverse events but continued to participate. The 23 children who completed the study showed a significant improvement in arm function at 15 weeks (P = .045) but not at 9 weeks (P = .985). Post hoc analysis showed that a subgroup (n = 10) with hyperkinetic dystonia (excess involuntary movements) worsened at 9 weeks (P = .04) but subsequently returned to baseline following taper of the medicine. The authors conclude that scientific evidence for the clinical use of trihexyphenidyl in cerebral palsy remains equivocal. Trihexyphenidyl may be a safe and effective for treatment for arm dystonia in some children with cerebral palsy if given sufficient time to respond to the medication. Post hoc analyses based on the type of movement disorder suggested that children with hyperkinetic forms of dystonia may worsen. A larger, randomized
Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Fuchs, Tania; San Luciano, Marta; Raymond, Deborah; Brashear, Alison; Ortega, Robert; Deik, Andres; Ozelius, Laurie J; Bressman, Susan B
A founder mutation in the Thanatos-associated (THAP) domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) gene causing primary dystonia was originally described in the Amish-Mennonites. However, there may be both genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity of dystonia in this population that may also inform studies in other ethnic groups. Genotyping for THAP1 and for guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), α-activating activity polypeptide, olfactory type (GNAL) mutations and genotype-phenotype comparisons were performed for 76 individuals of Amish-Mennonites heritage with primary dystonia. Twenty-seven individuals had mutations in THAP1-most with the founder indel mutation-but two had different THAP1 mutations, 8 had mutations in GNAL, and 1 had a de novo GAG deletion in torsin 1A (TOR1A) (dystonia 1 [DYT1]). In the primary analysis comparing THAP1 carriers versus all non-THAP1, non-GNAL, non-TOR1A individuals, age at onset was lower in THAP1 carriers (mean age ± standard deviation, 15.5 ± 9.2 years [range, 5-38 years] vs. 39.2 ± 17.7 years [range, 1-70 years]; P < 0.001), and THAP1 carriers were more likely to have onset of dystonia in an arm (44.4% vs. 15.0%; P = 0.02) and to have arm involvement (88.9% vs. 22.5%; P < 0.01), leg involvement (51.9% vs. 10.0%; P = 0.01), and jaw/tongue involvement (33.3% vs. 7.5%; P = 0.02) involvement at their final examination. Carriers were less likely to have dystonia restricted to a single site (11.11% in carriers vs. 65.9% in noncarriers; P < 0.01) and were less likely to have dystonia onset in cervical regions (25.9% of THAP1 carriers vs. 52.5% of noncarriers; P = 0.04). Primary dystonia in the Amish-Mennonites is genetically diverse and includes not only the THAP1 indel founder mutation but also different mutations in THAP1 and GNAL as well as the TOR1A GAG deletion. Phenotype, particularly age at onset combined with final distribution, may be highly specific for the genetic etiology. © 2014 International
Sohn, Won Joon; Niu, Chuanxin M.; Sanger, Terence D.
Objective. Motor overflow is a common and frustrating symptom of dystonia, manifested as unintentional muscle contraction that occurs during an intended voluntary movement. Although it is suspected that motor overflow is due to cortical disorganization in some types of dystonia (e.g. focal hand dystonia), it remains elusive which mechanisms could initiate and, more importantly, perpetuate motor overflow. We hypothesize that distinct motor elements have low risk of motor overflow if their sensory inputs remain statistically independent. But when provided with correlated sensory inputs, pre-existing crosstalk among sensory projections will grow under spike-timing-dependent-plasticity (STDP) and eventually produce irreversible motor overflow. Approach. We emulated a simplified neuromuscular system comprising two anatomically distinct digital muscles innervated by two layers of spiking neurons with STDP. The synaptic connections between layers included crosstalk connections. The input neurons received either independent or correlated sensory drive during 4 days of continuous excitation. The emulation is critically enabled and accelerated by our neuromorphic hardware created in previous work. Main results. When driven by correlated sensory inputs, the crosstalk synapses gained weight and produced prominent motor overflow; the growth of crosstalk synapses resulted in enlarged sensory representation reflecting cortical reorganization. The overflow failed to recede when the inputs resumed their original uncorrelated statistics. In the control group, no motor overflow was observed. Significance. Although our model is a highly simplified and limited representation of the human sensorimotor system, it allows us to explain how correlated sensory input to anatomically distinct muscles is by itself sufficient to cause persistent and irreversible motor overflow. Further studies are needed to locate the source of correlation in sensory input.
Casellato, Claudia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Zorzi, Giovanna; Rizzi, Giorgio; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Nardocci, Nardo
Robot-generated deviating forces during multijoint reaching movements have been applied to investigate motor control and to tune neuromotor adaptation. Can the application of force to limbs improve motor learning? In this framework, the response to altered dynamic environments of children affected by primary dystonia has never been studied. As preliminary pilot study, eleven children with primary dystonia and eleven age-matched healthy control subjects were asked to perform upper limb movements, triangle-reaching (three directions) and circle-writing, using a haptic robot interacting with ad-hoc developed task-specific visual interfaces. Three dynamic conditions were provided, null additive external force (A), constant disturbing force (B) and deactivation of the additive external force again (C). The path length for each trial was computed, from the recorded position data and interaction events. The results show that the disturbing force affects significantly the movement outcomes in healthy but not in dystonic subjects, already compromised in the reference condition: the external alteration uncalibrates the healthy sensorimotor system, while the dystonic one is already strongly uncalibrated. The lack of systematic compensation for perturbation effects during B condition is reflected into the absence of after-effects in C condition, which would be the evidence that CNS generates a prediction of the perturbing forces using an internal model of the environment.The most promising finding is that in dystonic population the altered dynamic exposure seems to induce a subsequent improvement, i.e. a beneficial after-effect in terms of optimal path control, compared with the correspondent reference movement outcome. The short-time error-enhancing training in dystonia could represent an effective approach for motor performance improvement, since the exposure to controlled dynamic alterations induces a refining of the existing but strongly imprecise motor scheme and
Lee, André; Furuya, Shinichi; Karst, Matthias; Altenmüller, Eckart
Focal hand dystonia in musicians is a movement disorder affecting highly trained movements. Rather than being a pure motor disorder related to movement execution only, movement planning, error prediction, and sensorimotor integration are also impaired. Internal models (IMs), of which two types, forward and inverse models have been described and most likely processed in the cerebellum, are known to be involved in these tasks. Recent results indicate that the cerebellum may be involved in the pathophysiology of focal dystonia (FD). Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate whether an IM deficit plays a role in FD. We focused on the forward model (FM), which predicts sensory consequences of motor commands and allows the discrimination between external sensory input and input deriving from motor action. We investigated 19 patients, aged 19–59 and 19 healthy musicians aged 19–36 as controls. Tactile stimuli were applied to fingers II–V of both hands by the experimenter or the patient. After each stimulus the participant rated the stimulus intensity on a scale between 0 (no sensation) and 1 (maximal intensity). The difference of perceived intensity between self- and externally applied (EA) stimuli was then calculated for each finger. For assessing differences between patients and controls we performed a cluster analysis of the affected hand and the corresponding hand of the controls using the fingers II–V as variables in a 4-dimensional hyperspace (chance level = 0.5). Using a cluster analysis, we found a correct classification of the affected finger in 78.9–94.7%. There was no difference between patients and healthy controls of the absolute value of the perceived stimulus intensity. Our results suggest an altered FM function in focal hand dystonia. It has the potential of suggesting a neural correlate within the cerebellum and of helping integrate findings with regard to altered sensorimotor processing and altered prediction in FD in a single framework
Ruge, Diane; Tisch, Stephen; Hariz, Marwan I; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Bhatia, Kailash P; Quinn, Niall P; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Limousin, Patricia; Rothwell, John C
Deep brain stimulation to the internal globus pallidus is an effective treatment for primary dystonia. The optimal clinical effect often occurs only weeks to months after starting stimulation. To better understand the underlying electrophysiological changes in this period, we assessed longitudinally 2 pathophysiological markers of dystonia in patients prior to and in the early treatment period (1, 3, 6 months) after deep brain stimulation surgery. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to track changes in short-latency intracortical inhibition, a measure of excitability of GABA(A) -ergic corticocortical connections and long-term potentiation-like synaptic plasticity (as a response to paired associative stimulation). Deep brain stimulation remained on for the duration of the study. Prior to surgery, inhibition was reduced and plasticity increased in patients compared with healthy controls. Following surgery and commencement of deep brain stimulation, short-latency intracortical inhibition increased toward normal levels over the following months with the same monotonic time course as the patients' clinical benefit. In contrast, synaptic plasticity changed rapidly, following a nonmonotonic time course: it was absent early (1 month) after surgery, and then over the following months increased toward levels observed in healthy individuals. We postulate that before surgery preexisting high levels of plasticity form strong memories of dystonic movement patterns. When deep brain stimulation is turned on, it disrupts abnormal basal ganglia signals, resulting in the absent response to paired associative stimulation at 1 month. Clinical benefit is delayed because engrams of abnormal movement persist and take time to normalize. Our observations suggest that plasticity may be a driver of long-term therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation in dystonia.
Rocha, Helena; Linhares, Paulo; Chamadoira, Clara; Rosas, Maria José; Vaz, Rui
Myoclonus-dystonia (MD) is a rare movement disorder which is disabling and frequently refractory to medical treatment. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) has been used to treat some patients. Although there is significant motor improvement with DBS, the impact on disability and on quality of life has been infrequently reported. Also, the benefit of the procedure is not established in patients without ε-sarcoglycan gene (SGCE) mutations. We present two patients with severe MD treated with GPi-DBS, one of the patients without a SGCE mutation. Motor improvements (rest/action/total subscores of the Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale and movement subscore of the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale [BFMRS]) and disability (BFMRS disability subscore) were carefully evaluated preoperatively and at 6 and 12months after surgery. Quality of life (addressed using the Portuguese version of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form General Health Survey, version 2.0 [SF-36v2]) was tested preoperatively and 12months after DBS. At 12-month follow-up, myoclonus improved 78.6% in Patient 1 and 80.7% in Patient 2, while dystonia improved 37% and 86.7%, respectively. Improvements in disability ranged from 71.4% to 75%. With regard to quality of life, all parameters addressed by the SF-36v2 improved or stabilized in both patients. No major adverse effects were noticed. Improvements in motor symptoms are consistent with reports in the literature and were obtained regardless of the identification of a SGCE gene mutation. There were also significant benefits on disability and quality of life. DBS should be considered for MD.
Isaacs, David A.; Hedera, Peter
Background Acquired neurogenic stuttering has been considered a fairly uncommon clinical occurrence; speech-activated myoclonus is a rare entity that can mimic stuttering and is caused by a wide array of etiologies. Case Report Here we report a patient with myoclonus–dystonia syndrome (MDS), due to an identified disease-causing mutation, who displayed speech-activated myoclonus mimicking stuttering. Discussion In MDS, myoclonus has only infrequently been reported to affect speech. This case further expands the spectrum of conditions causing the rare clinical phenomenon of speech-activated myoclonus. PMID:27441098
Irmady, Krithi; Jabbari, Bahman; Louis, Elan D
Post-stroke movement disorders occur in up to 4% of stroke patients. The movements can be complex and difficult to classify, which presents challenges when attempting to understand the clinical phenomenology and provide appropriate treatment. We present a 64-year-old male with an unusual movement in the arm contralateral to his ischemic stroke. The primary feature of the movement was an involuntary elevation of the arm, occurring only when he was walking. The differential diagnosis includes dystonia, spontaneous arm levitation, synkinesis, and spasticity. We discuss each of these diagnostic possibilities in detail.
Irmady, Krithi; Jabbari, Bahman; Louis, Elan D.
Background Post-stroke movement disorders occur in up to 4% of stroke patients. The movements can be complex and difficult to classify, which presents challenges when attempting to understand the clinical phenomenology and provide appropriate treatment. Case Report We present a 64-year-old male with an unusual movement in the arm contralateral to his ischemic stroke. The primary feature of the movement was an involuntary elevation of the arm, occurring only when he was walking. Discussion The differential diagnosis includes dystonia, spontaneous arm levitation, synkinesis, and spasticity. We discuss each of these diagnostic possibilities in detail. PMID:26682091
Mice with mutations in genes known to cause dystonia in humans are so far virtually asymptomatic. Only mild motor deficiencies have been seen, such...identified the gene for one of the subunits of Na,K- ATPase, ATP1A3, as the site of mutations in RDP (de Carvalho Aguiar et al. 2004). Our prior work in...first paper, and to be able to give the mouse line an official name based on the mutated gene . Funding has been applied for from the following
Ioannou, Christos I; Furuya, Shinichi; Altenmüller, Eckart
Five musicians suffering from focal dystonia participated in a pilot study that examined the feasibility of an experimental protocol designed to assess musicians' motor performance under stress. Electrocardiography, free cortisol levels, and subjective assessments were used to monitor alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. As measures of motor outcome, temporal variability of finger movements and muscular cocontraction of the wrist flexor and extensor were assessed. Findings suggest that the specific experimental design could be successfully applied. Several methodological issues such as carryover effects, the use of free cortisol, the inclusion of a double baseline, and the classification of dystonic patients into stress responders and nonresponders are analyzed and discussed.
Feinberg, T E; Shapiro, A K; Shapiro, E
From among 1377 patients with movement disorders, four patients had an unusual movement disorder characterised by paroxysmal bursts of involuntary, regular, repetitive, rhythmic, bilateral, coordinated, simultaneous, stereotypic myoclonus and vocalisations, often associated with tonic symptoms, interference with voluntary functioning, presence of hyperactivity, attention and learning disabilities, and resistance to treatment with haloperidol and other drugs. This symptom complex may represent a new disease entity, referred to here as paroxysmal myoclonic dystonia with vocalisations or a variant or combination of other movement disorders such as Gilles de la Tourette, myoclonic, or dystonic syndromes. PMID:3457101
De Riu, G; Sanna, M P; De Riu, P L
Tardive oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is iatrogenic in origin and is characterised by orofacial and lingual stereotypes more frequently than the idiopathic form of OMD Tardive OMD is often associated with anti-dopaminergic treatment involving drugs such as anti-psychotics, anti-emetics, and anti-vertigo agents, although the syndrome can also be triggered by anti-epileptic or anti-depressant drugs that do not have anti-dopaminergic properties. We report an elderly female patient with OMD after prolonged, self-administered treatment with betahistine dihydrochloride, a histamine analogue.
Isaacs, David A; Hedera, Peter
Acquired neurogenic stuttering has been considered a fairly uncommon clinical occurrence; speech-activated myoclonus is a rare entity that can mimic stuttering and is caused by a wide array of etiologies. Here we report a patient with myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (MDS), due to an identified disease-causing mutation, who displayed speech-activated myoclonus mimicking stuttering. In MDS, myoclonus has only infrequently been reported to affect speech. This case further expands the spectrum of conditions causing the rare clinical phenomenon of speech-activated myoclonus.
Austin, Allana; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Selway, Richard; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Owen, Tamsin
Dystonia is characterised by involuntary movements and postures. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is effective in reducing dystonic symptoms in primary dystonia in childhood and to lesser extent in secondary dystonia. How families and children decide to choose DBS surgery has never been explored. To explore parental decision-making for DBS in paediatric secondary dystonia. Data was gathered using semi-structured interviews with eight parents of children with secondary dystonia who had undergone DBS. Interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. For all parents the decision was viewed as significant, with life altering consequences for the child. These results suggested that parents were motivated by a hope for a better life and parental duty. This was weighed against consideration of risks, what the child had to lose, and uncertainty of DBS outcome. Decisions were also influenced by the perspectives of their child and professionals. The decision to undergo DBS was an ongoing process for parents, who ultimately were struggling in the face of uncertainty whilst trying to do their best as parents for their children. These findings have important clinical implications given the growing referrals for consideration of DBS childhood dystonia, and highlights the importance of further quantitative research to fully establish the efficacy of DBS in secondary dystonia to enhance informed decision-making. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Van Den Dool, Joost; Balash, Yacov; Bhatia, Kailash; Giladi, Nir; Koelman, Johannes H; Lokkegaard, Annemette; Marti, Maria J; Postma, Miranda; Relja, Maja; Skorvanek, Matej; Speelman, Johannes D; Zoons, Evelien; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Vidailhet, Marie; Albanese, Alberto; Tijssen, Marina A J
Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most frequent form of focal dystonia. Symptoms often result in pain and functional disability. Local injections of botulinum neurotoxin are currently the treatment of choice for CD. Although this treatment has proven effective and is widely applied worldwide, many issues still remain open in the clinical practice. We performed a systematic review of the literature on botulinum toxin treatment for CD based on a question-oriented approach, with the aim to provide practical recommendations for the treating clinicians. Key questions from the clinical practice were explored. Results suggest that while the beneficial effect of botulinum toxin treatment on different aspects of CD is well established, robust evidence is still missing concerning some practical aspects, such as dose equivalence between different formulations, optimal treatment intervals, treatment approaches, and the use of supportive techniques including electromyography or ultrasounds. Established strategies to prevent or manage common side effects (including excessive muscle weakness, pain at injection site, dysphagia) and potential contraindications to this treatment (pregnancy and lactation, use of anticoagulants, neurological comorbidities) should also be further explored.
Kimberley, Teresa J.; Schmidt, Rebekah L. S.; Chen, Mo; Dykstra, Dennis D.; Buetefisch, Cathrin M.
Though the pathophysiology of dystonia remains uncertain, two primary factors implicated in the development of dystonic symptoms are excessive cortical excitability and impaired sensorimotor processing. The aim of this study was to determine the functional efficacy of an intervention combining repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and sensorimotor retraining. A randomized, single-subject, multiple baseline design with crossover was used to examine participants with focal hand dystonia (FHD) (n = 9). Intervention: 5 days rTMS + sensorimotor retraining (SMR) vs. Five days rTMS + control therapy (CTL) (which included stretching and massage). The rTMS was applied to the premotor cortex at 1 Hz at 80% resting motor threshold for 1200 pulses. For sensorimotor retraining, a subset of the Learning-based Sensorimotor Training program was followed. Each session in both groups consisted of rTMS followed immediately by 30 min of the therapy intervention (SMR or CTL). Contrary to our hypothesis, group analyses revealed no additional benefit from the SMR training vs. CTL. When analyzed across group however, there was significant improvement from the first baseline assessment in several measures, including tests of sensory ability and self-rated changes. The patient rated improvements were accompanied by a moderate effect size suggesting clinical meaningfulness. These results provide encouragement for further investigation of rTMS in FHD with a need to optimize a secondary intervention and determine likely responders vs. non-responders. PMID:26217209
Pujol, J; Roset-Llobet, J; Rosinés-Cubells, D; Deus, J; Narberhaus, B; Valls-Solé, J; Capdevila, A; Pascual-Leone, A
Focal hand dystonia in musicians is a strongly task-related movement disorder. Typically, symptoms become apparent only when players execute specific overpracticed skilled exercises on their instrument. We therefore examined five guitarists with functional MRI during dystonic symptom provocation by means of an adapted guitar inside the magnet. The activation patterns obtained in comparable nondystonic guitarists and in the study patients when performing normal-hand exercise served as references. A 1.5-T system equipped with echo-speed gradients and single-shot echoplanar imaging software was used. Data acquisition was centered on the cortical motor system encompassed in eight contiguous slices. Dystonic musicians compared with both control situations showed a significantly larger activation of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex that contrasted with a conspicuous bilateral underactivation of premotor areas. Our results coincide with studies of other dystonia types in that they show an abnormal recruitment of cortical areas involved in the control of voluntary movement. However, they do suggest that the primary sensorimotor cortex, rather than being underactive in idiopathic dystonic patients, may be overactive when tested during full expression of the task-induced movement disorder.
Pedersen, Mette; Eeg, Martin
This study examined efficacy of the innate immune defence via the mannose binding lectin (MBL) in a cohort of 55 dystonic patients prospectively referred to the clinic with laryngeal mucosal complaints, who were placed on local steroids (budesonid inhaler, 400 μg 2 times daily) and antihistamines (fexofenadin 180 mg mostly 3 times daily) with adjuvant lifestyle corrections. Treatment efficacy of the larynx was assessed based on mucosal findings of the vocal folds examined with High speed mucosa studies comprising simultaneous high speed digital imagines (HSDI), kymography, electroglottography (EGG) and voice acoustics combined with a visual score of arytenoids oedema, as these measures are indicative of the magnitude of laryngitis. Lactose and gluten intolerance and immunological analyses of the innate system were made systematically. Results showed that the genetic aspects of immunology did not reveal a role for the innate immune system, represented by the mannose binding lectin (MBL). An unexpected positive effect of the larynx treatment on dystonia symptoms was found evidenced by reduction of dystonic complaints and more normative results of High speed mucosa, and a reduction of oedema of the inter arytenoids region. Symptoms relieve and better quality of life was observed on follow up for the dystonia complaints.
Perez, Jerome; Gonzalez, Victoria; Cif, Laura; Cyprien, Fabienne; Chan-Seng, Emilie; Coubes, Philippe
Deep brain stimulation of the internal Globus Pallidus (GPi DBS) delivered by an implantable neurostimulator (INS) is an established, effective, and safe treatment option for patients with medically refractory primary dystonia. Compared to other DBS targets, the battery life of the INS is substantially shorter due to the higher energy demands required to penetrate the GPi resulting in faster battery depletion and more frequent hospitalizations for INS replacement. We, therefore, performed a cost analysis to compare a rechargeable DBS system, Activa®RC, with nonrechargeable systems, from the perspective of the French public health insurer. To estimate the cost of INS replacement in the nonrechargeable cohort, and costs potentially avoided in the hypothetical Activa(®) RC cohort, the medical records of patients who had undergone GPi DBS with a nonrechargeable INS between 1996 and 2010 at a center in France were accessed. Replacement rates were estimated for up to nine years. With Activa(®) RC, a total of 315 hospitalizations for replacement procedures would have been avoided over nine years compared with a nonrechargeable INS, resulting in a discounted mean direct medical cost per patient over nine years of €50,119 with a nonrechargeable INS and €33,306 with Activa(®) RC, a reduction of 34%. The adoption of a rechargeable instead of a nonrechargeable INS for eligible patients with dystonia may provide substantial savings to the public health insurer in France. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.
Vasques, Xavier; Cif, Laura; Gonzalez, Victoria; Nicholson, Claire; Coubes, Philippe
Despite the beneficial effects of Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with primary generalized dystonia (PGD), the degree of improvement varies from one patient to another. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of clinical, anatomical (volume of the GPi), and electrical variables on the postoperative Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia rating scale (BFMDRS) motor score to identify which factors may be predictive of the degree of improvement. We reviewed retrospectively the clinical records of 40 steady-state patients with PGD who had been treated by bilateral GPi lead implantation. The follow-up period was 2 to 8 years. The correlation between the electrical parameters (voltage, impedance, and current) and the clinical outcome was studied. An analysis of covariance was performed to identify factors predictive of the magnitude of improvement. The most influential factors according to the model are as follows: the preoperative BFMDRS score (P < 0.0001); age at surgery (P < 0.0001); the right GPi volume (P = 0.002); the left stimulated GPi volume (P = 0.005). No significant correlation was found between the electrical parameters used and the mean motor scores in steady state. (c) 2009 Movement Disorder Society.
Shiota, Naoki; Shimono, Masayuki; Tomioka, Shiho; Takano, Kenichi; Kato, Ayako; Kawakami, Akihiro; Ishizuka, Takehiro
We herein report the findings of a 2-year-6-month-old boy, who had been experiencing monocular pendular nystagmus, strabismus, and episodic eye deviation nystagmus, intractable dystonia and apneic attack which all began when he was 2 days of age. He underwent a complete blood count test, blood chemistry test, analysis of amino acids in the blood and urine, analysis of pyruvate/lactate in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and no abnormal results were identified. His attacks were resistant to multiple antiepileptic and dopaminergic drugs. He showed transient left and/or right hemiplegia after nystagmus, dystonia and/or apneic attacks at 8-months of age with retardation in intelligence. We diagnosed him to have alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC). We were unsure how to deal with his attacks after he was discharged from the hospital, however, resuscitation with the ambu bag by his mother at home and the intravenous infusion of diazepam or thiamylal at the hospital together was proven to be an effective method for treating his severe apneic attacks. The effect of diazepam and amantadine on these attacks was transient, however, the administration of flunarizine with amantadine resulted in an improvement in his attacks. We therefore consider the administration of flunarizine to be essential for the effective treatment of AHC in this case.
Haselden, Karen; Powell, Theresa; Drinnan, Mike; Carding, Paul
Locus of Control (LoC) refers to an individuals' perception of whether they are in control of life events. Health Locus of Control refers to whether someone feels they have influence over their health. Health Locus of Control has not been studied in any depth in voice-disordered patients. The objective of this study was to examine Health Locus of Control in three patient groups: (1) Spasmodic Dysphonia, (2) Functional Dysphonia and (3) a nondysphonic group with Nonlaryngeal Dystonia. LoC was measured and compared in a total of 57 patients using the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales (diagnostic specific) Form C. Internal, Chance, and Powerful others LoC were measured and comparisons were made using one-way analysis of variance. Contrary to expectations Internal LoC was found to be significantly higher in the Functional Dysphonia group when compared to the other two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in Chance or Powerful others LoC. The two organic groups, Spasmodic Dysphonia and Nonlaryngeal Dystonia, were more alike in Internal Health Locus of Control than the Functional Dysphonia group. The diagnostic nature of the groups was reflected in their LoC scores rather than their voice loss. These results contribute to the debate about the etiology of Spasmodic Dysphonia and will be of interest to those involved in the psychology of voice and those managing voice-disordered patients.
Opladen, Thomas; Hoffmann, Georg F; Kühn, Andrea A; Blau, Nenad
Phenylalanine (Phe) loading test is a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of dopa-responsive dystonia due to autosomal dominant or recessive GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) deficiency or autosomal recessive sepiapterin reductase (SR) deficiency. In these patients hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase system is compromised due to subnormal tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) levels and hydroxylation of phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine (Tyr) is reduced with elevated Phe/Tyr ratio 1-2 h after oral Phe administration (100 mg/kg bw) administration. In healthy persons there is only a modest increase in Tyr production and blood Phe normalizes after 4 h. We report on a challenge with Phe (100 mg/kg bw) in a patient with dopa-responsive dystonia while on therapy with BH(4) and l-dopa. During Phe challenge Phe concentration remained below the normal range while a transient mild hypertyrosinemia was observed, leading to an extremely low Phe/Tyr ratio. A repeated test, after BH(4) withdrawal, reversed the findings and resulted normal. These data suggest activation of hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase by BH(4). Thus, the Phe loading test should not be performed during substitution with BH(4).
Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Van Den Dool, Joost; Balash, Yacov; Bhatia, Kailash; Giladi, Nir; Koelman, Johannes H.; Lokkegaard, Annemette; Marti, Maria J.; Postma, Miranda; Relja, Maja; Skorvanek, Matej; Speelman, Johannes D.; Zoons, Evelien; Ferreira, Joaquim J.; Vidailhet, Marie; Albanese, Alberto; Tijssen, Marina A. J.
Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most frequent form of focal dystonia. Symptoms often result in pain and functional disability. Local injections of botulinum neurotoxin are currently the treatment of choice for CD. Although this treatment has proven effective and is widely applied worldwide, many issues still remain open in the clinical practice. We performed a systematic review of the literature on botulinum toxin treatment for CD based on a question-oriented approach, with the aim to provide practical recommendations for the treating clinicians. Key questions from the clinical practice were explored. Results suggest that while the beneficial effect of botulinum toxin treatment on different aspects of CD is well established, robust evidence is still missing concerning some practical aspects, such as dose equivalence between different formulations, optimal treatment intervals, treatment approaches, and the use of supportive techniques including electromyography or ultrasounds. Established strategies to prevent or manage common side effects (including excessive muscle weakness, pain at injection site, dysphagia) and potential contraindications to this treatment (pregnancy and lactation, use of anticoagulants, neurological comorbidities) should also be further explored. PMID:28286494
Kukke, Sahana N.; Curatalo, Lindsey A.; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Hallett, Mark; Alter, Katharine E.; Damiano, Diane L.
Functional reaching is impaired in dystonia. Here, we analyze upper extremity kinematics to quantify timing and coordination abnormalities during unimanual reach-to-grasp movements in individuals with childhood-onset unilateral wrist dystonia. Kinematics were measured during movements of both upper limbs in a patient group (n = 11, age = 17.5 ± 5 years), and a typically developing control group (n = 9, age = 16.6 ± 5 years). Hand aperture was computed to study the coordination of reach and grasp. Time-varying joint synergies within one upper limb were calculated using a novel technique based on principal component analysis to study intra-limb coordination. In the non-dominant arm, results indicate reduced coordination between reach and grasp in patients who could not lift the grasped object compared to those who could lift it. Lifters exhibit incoordination in distal upper extremity joints later in the movement and non-lifters lacked coordination throughout the movement and in the whole upper limb. The amount of atypical coordination correlates with dystonia severity in patients. Reduced coordination during movement may reflect deficits in the execution of simultaneous movements, motor planning, or muscle activation. Rehabilitation efforts can focus on particular time points when kinematic patterns deviate abnormally to improve functional reaching in individuals with childhood-onset dystonia. PMID:26208359
Chung, Jong Chul; Kim, Joo Pyung; Chang, Won Seok; Kim, Hae Yu; Chang, Jin Woo
Tongue protrusion dystonia can cause difficulty with speech, mastication, breathing, and swallowing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is a widespread therapeutic alternative for treating medically refractory dystonia. To our knowledge, detailed reports regarding DBS for tongue protrusion dystonia are rare. In this report, we describe two patients with "sticking out" tongue protrusion who had undergone bilateral GPi DBS. Operations were performed with surface electromyographic (EMG) monitoring, microelectrode recording, and macrostimulation to identify the point at which tongue kinetic cells respond most effectively. The most effective location for active contacts was identified according to burst EMG response in the posteroventral GPi. Two years after DBS, total Burke, Fahn, and Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale scores of two patients were improved from 12.5 to 1 (92.0%) and from 13 to 1 (92.3%), respectively. One 58-year-old woman who lost 7 kg weight from not eating well improved enough to eat solid food and became free from choking. Another 54-year-old woman who had dysarthria and mumbled could speak more fluently and would not have complained difficulty in reading any more. Stimulation on posteroventral GPi for patients with idiopathic "sticking-out" tongue movement changes EMG pattern in orofacial muscles. This fact supports a reason for modulation of unknown circuit connecting tongue-specific area in motor cortex, and basal ganglia. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.
Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Kaszuba, Brian; Gee, Lucy; Prusik, Julia; Molho, Eric; Wilock, Meghan; Shin, Damian; Pilitsis, Julie G
Dystonic tremor (DT) is defined as a postural/kinetic tremor occurring in the body region affected by dystonia. DT is typically characterized by focal tremors with irregular amplitudes and variable frequencies typically below 7Hz. Pharmacological treatment is generally unsuccessful and guidelines for deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting and indications are scarce. In this article, we present the outcome and neurophysiologic data of two patients with refractory, focal limb DT treated with Globus Pallidus interna (Gpi) DBS and critically review the current literature regarding surgical treatment of DT discussing stereotactic targets and treatment considerations. A search of literature concerning treatment of DT was conducted. Additionally, Gpi DBS was performed in two patients with DT and microelectrode recordings for multi unit analysis (MUAs) and local field potentials (LFPs) were obtained. The mean percentage improvement in tremor severity was 80.5% at 3 years follow up. MUAs and LFPs did not show significant differences in DT patients compared with other forms of dystonia or PD except for higher interspikes bursting indices. LFP recordings in DT demonstrated high power at low frequencies with action (<3.5Hz). Gpi DBS is an effective treatment in patients with focal limb DT without associated generalized dystonia. Intraoperative neurophysiologic findings suggest that DT is part of phenotypic motor manifestations in dystonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nada, Mohamed; Mahran, Mahmoud A.; Aboud, Ahmed; Mahran, Moustafa G.; Nasef, Marwa A.A.; Gaber, Mohamed; Sabry, Tamer; Ibrahim, Mohamed H.; Taha, Mohamed H.
BACKGROUND: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) can present with severe secondary dystonia with or without associated spasticity of their extremities. OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcomes of combined anterior and posterior lumbar rhizotomy for the treatment of mixed hypertonia in the lower extremities of children with CP. METHODS: Fifty children with CP were subjected to combined anterior and posterior lumbar rhizotomies in a prospective study. Clinical outcome measurements were recorded preoperatively and were evaluated at 2, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The operative techniques were performed by laminotomy from L1-S1, and intraoperative monitoring was used in all cases. All patients underwent intensive postoperative physiotherapy programs. RESULTS: Changes in muscle tone, joint range of motion, and dystonia were significant (P = .000) at postoperative assessment visits. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the potential of combined anterior and posterior lumbar rhizotomies to improve activities of daily living in children with CP and with mixed spasticity and dystonia. ABBREVIATIONS: BAD, Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale CAPR, combined anterior and posterior lumbar rhizotomy CP, cerebral palsy ITB, intrathecal baclofen MAS, modified Ashworth Scale ROM, range of motion SDR, selective dorsal rhizotomy PMID:27244465
Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Fuchs, Tania; San Luciano, Marta; Raymond, Deborah; Brashear, Alison; Ortega, Robert; Deik, Andres; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Bressman, Susan B.
Background A founder mutation in the THAP1 gene causing primary dystonia was originally described in the Amish-Mennonites. However there may be both genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity of dystonia in this population that may also inform studies in other ethnic groups. Methods Genotyping for THAP1, and GNAL mutations and genotype-phenotype comparisons were performed for 76 individuals of Amish-Mennonites heritage with primary dystonia. Results 27 had mutations in THAP1—most with the founder indel mutation, but two had different THAP1 mutations; 8 had mutations in GNAL; and 1 had a de novo GAG deletion in TOR1A. In the primary analysis comparing THAP1 carriers to all non-THAP1, non-GNAL, non-TOR1A individuals, age at onset was lower in THAP1 carriers (15.46±9.20, range 5–38 vs. 39.18±17.65, range 1–70, p<0.001), carriers were more likely to have onset of dystonia in an arm (44.4% vs. 15%, p=0.02), and to have arm (88.9% vs. 22.5%, p<0.01), leg (51.9% vs. 10% p=0.01), and jaw/tongue (33.3% vs. 7.5%, p=0.02) involvement at final examination. Carriers were less likely to have dystonia restricted to a single site (11.11% in carriers vs. 65.85% (p<0.01)), and less likely to have dystonia onset in cervical regions (25.9% THAP1 vs. 52.5% in non-carriers, p=0.04). Conclusions Primary dystonia in the Amish-Mennonites is genetically diverse, and includes not only the THAP1 indel founder mutation but also different mutations in THAP1 and GNAL as well as the TOR1A GAG deletion. Phenotype, particularly age at onset combined with final distribution, may be highly specific for the genetic etiology. PMID:24500857
Sohn, Won J.; Niu, Chuanxin M.; Sanger, Terence D.
Objective. Childhood dystonia is a movement disorder that interferes with daily movements and can have a devastating effect on quality of life for children and their families. Although injury to basal ganglia is associated with dystonia, the neurophysiological mechanisms leading to the clinical manifestations of dystonia are not understood. Previous work suggested that long-latency stretch reflex (LLSR) is hyperactive in children with hypertonia due to secondary dystonia. We hypothesize that abnormal activity in motor cortices may cause an increase in the LLSR leading to hypertonia. Approach. We modeled two possibilities of hyperactive LLSR by either creating a tonic involuntary drive to cortex, or increasing the synaptic gain in cortical neurons. Both models are emulated using programmable very-large-scale-integrated-circuit hardware to test their sufficiency for producing dystonic symptoms. The emulation includes a joint with two Hill-type muscles, realistic muscle spindles, and 2,304 Izhikevich-type spiking neurons. The muscles are regulated by a monosynaptic spinal pathway with 32 ms delay and a long-latency pathway with 64 ms loop-delay representing transcortical/supra-spinal connections. Main results. When the limb is passively stretched, both models produce involuntary resistance with increased antagonist EMG responses similar to human data; also the muscle relaxation is delayed similar to human data. Both models predict reduced range of motion in voluntary movements. Significance. Although our model is a highly simplified and limited representation of reflex pathways, it shows that increased activity of the LLSR is by itself sufficient to cause many of the features of hypertonic dystonia.
Beste, Christian; Mückschel, Moritz; Rosales, Raymond; Domingo, Aloysius; Lee, Lillian; Ng, Arlene; Klein, Christine; Münchau, Alexander
Executive functions including behavioral adaptation and impulse control are commonly impaired in movement disorders caused by striatal pathology. However, as yet it is unclear what aspects of behavioral abnormalities are related to pathology in which striatal subcomponent, that is, the matrix and the striosomes. We therefore studied cognitive control in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism, a model disease of striosomal degeneration, using behavioral paradigms and EEG. We studied genetically confirmed X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism patients (N = 21) in their early disease stages and healthy matched controls. Error-related behavioral adaptation was tested in a flanker task and response inhibition in a Go/Nogo paradigm during EEG. We focused on error-related negativity during error processing and the Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 in the response inhibition task. Source localization analyses were calculated. In addition, total wavelet power and phase-locking factor reflecting neural synchronization processes in time and frequency across trials were calculated. Error processing and behavioral adaptation predominantly engaging the anterior cingulate cortex was markedly impaired in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. This was reflected in abnormal reaction times correlating with error-related negativity amplitudes, error related theta band activity, and the phase-locking factor. Also, abnormal error processing correlated with dystonia severity but not with parkinsonism. Response inhibition and corresponding EEG activity were normal. This dissociable pattern of cognitive deficits most likely reflects predominant dysfunction of the striosomal compartment and its connections to the anterior cingulate cortex in X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism. The results underscore the importance of striosomes for cognitive function in humans and suggest that striosomes are relays of error-related behavioral adaptation but not inhibitory control. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
Sandhu, H; Bernstein, C J; Davies, G; Tang, N K Y; Belhag, M; Tingle, A; Field, M; Foss, J; Lindahl, A; Underwood, M; Ellard, D R
Objectives To design and test the delivery of an intervention targeting the non-motor symptoms of dystonia and pilot key health and well-being questionnaires in this population. Design A proof-of-concept study to test the delivery, acceptability, relevance, structure and content for a 3-day group residential programme for the management of dystonia. Setting Participants were recruited from a single botulinum toxin clinic. The intervention was delivered in the community. Participants 14 participants consented to take part (2 withdrew prior to the starting of intervention). The average age was 60 years (range 44–77), 8 of whom were female. After drop-out, 9 participants completed the 3-day programme. Intervention A 3-day group residential programme. Primary and secondary outcome measures Process evaluation and interviews were carried out before and after the intervention to explore participant's views and expectations, as well as experiences of the intervention. Select questionnaires were completed at baseline, 1-month and 3-month follow-up. Results Although participants were not sure what to expect from the programme, they found it informative and for many this together with being in a group with other people with dystonia legitimised their condition. Mindfulness was accepted and adopted as a coping strategy. This was reflected in the 1-month follow-up. Conclusions We successfully delivered a 3-day residential programme to help those living with dystonia manage their condition. Further improvements are suggested. The quantitative outcome measures were acceptable to this group of patients with dystonia. PMID:27496234
Okazaki, Tetsuya; Saito, Yoshiaki; Ueda, Riyo; Sugihara, Susumu; Tamasaki, Akiko; Nishimura, Yoko; Ohno, Koyo; Togawa, Masami; Ohno, Takako; Horie, Akiyoshi; Honda, Masashi; Takenaka, Atsushi; Nagashima, Hideki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro
Dystonia due to spinal lesions in adult patients is characterized by the provocation and/or amelioration of the spasm by somatosensory stimulation with a sensory trick. An infant with brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata developed flaccid tetraplegia due to cervical cord compression resulting from congenital atlantoaxial dislocation. Episodic, tonic extension of the extremities, neck, and trunk had appeared daily since age two years and was often provoked by tactile stimulation. Although decompression surgery was performed at age three years, progressive spinal deformity resulted in the aggravation of episodic dystonia thereafter, lasting for hours. Foot dorsiflexion and wearing a truncal brace for scoliosis inhibited these spasms. Intrathecal baclofen bolus injection transiently ameliorated the paroxysmal dystonia and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia in the lower urinary tract. Paroxysmal dystonia is unusual in children with spinal cord lesions; however, it should be recognized for appropriate individualized clinical management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nitschke, M; Steinberger, D; Heberlein, I; Otto, V; Muller, U; Vieregge, P
A 26 year old woman with dopa responsive dystonia and cytogenetically confirmed Turner's syndrome had bilateral globus pallidus hypointensity on brain MRI. Among the living members of a five generation pedigree the patient's mother and the mother's sister also had dopa responsive dystonia; a maternal grandfather had senile parkinsonism, his niece isolated postural tremor. No other family member had Turner's syndrome. A new missense mutation in exon I of the gene of GTP-cyclohydrolase I was found in the three family members with dopa responsive dystonia. With levodopa substitution the patients with dopa responsive dystonia improved clinically as well as in quantitative tests on hand tapping, verbal and performance IQ, concept formation, and set shifting abilities. PMID:9647318
Brashear, Allison; Mink, Jonathan W.; Hill, Deborah F.; Boggs, Niki; McCall, W. Vaughn; Stacy, Mark A.; Snively, Beverly; Light, Laney S.; Sweadner, Kathleen J.; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Morrison, Leslie
We report new clinical features of delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia in two young children with mutations (R756H and D923N) in the "ATP1A3" gene. In adults, mutations in "ATP1A3" cause rapid-onset dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP, DYT12) with abrupt onset of fixed dystonia. The parents and children were examined and videotaped, and…
Brashear, Allison; Mink, Jonathan W.; Hill, Deborah F.; Boggs, Niki; McCall, W. Vaughn; Stacy, Mark A.; Snively, Beverly; Light, Laney S.; Sweadner, Kathleen J.; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Morrison, Leslie
We report new clinical features of delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia in two young children with mutations (R756H and D923N) in the "ATP1A3" gene. In adults, mutations in "ATP1A3" cause rapid-onset dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP, DYT12) with abrupt onset of fixed dystonia. The parents and children were examined and videotaped, and…
Uluer, Mehmet C; Bojovic, Branko
Neglected or undiagnosed congenital muscular torticollis in adults is quite rare, although it is the third most common congenital deformity in the newborn (1). When left untreated at an early age, deficits in lateral and rotational range of motion can occur along with irreversible facial and skeletal deformities that develop over time. Subtle cases can go unnoticed until early adulthood, with predominant fibrotic replacement in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) making physical therapy and chemodenervation mostly ineffective. Surgical intervention, in these cases, can prove effective in alleviating pain, improving function and cosmesis (2). We report an update on a previously reported case, misdiagnosed as cervical dystonia, which had undergone partial myectomy of the anterior belly of the SCM with some relief of symptoms but without total resolution after the correct diagnosis of fibromatosis colli (3).
Uluer, Mehmet C.; Bojovic, Branko
Neglected or undiagnosed congenital muscular torticollis in adults is quite rare, although it is the third most common congenital deformity in the newborn (1). When left untreated at an early age, deficits in lateral and rotational range of motion can occur along with irreversible facial and skeletal deformities that develop over time. Subtle cases can go unnoticed until early adulthood, with predominant fibrotic replacement in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) making physical therapy and chemodenervation mostly ineffective. Surgical intervention, in these cases, can prove effective in alleviating pain, improving function and cosmesis (2). We report an update on a previously reported case, misdiagnosed as cervical dystonia, which had undergone partial myectomy of the anterior belly of the SCM with some relief of symptoms but without total resolution after the correct diagnosis of fibromatosis colli (3). PMID:26869987
Aguirregomozcorta, M; Ramió-Torrentà, Ll; Gich, J; Quiles, A; Genís, D
Paroxysmal dystonia is an uncommon but well-established feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Attacks can occur in established MS and may even occasionally be the initial symptom of this disorder. Pathological laughter is usually seen as a pseudobulbar palsy in some diffuse neurological diseases, but cases have been described, mostly in ischaemic attacks or tumours, where it is presented as bursts of laughter of variable duration. The pathogenesis of neither of the two phenomena has been fully established but both have been reported as being positive phenomena resulting from ectopic activation with ephaptic spread. We describe the first reported case of a paroxysmal hemidystonia together with bursts of pathological laughter as the first manifestation of MS.
Scontrini, Alessandra; Conte, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Colosimo, Carlo; Di Stasio, Flavio; Ferrazzano, Gina; Berardelli, Alfredo
We designed this study to find out more about the relationship between the sensory effects of Botulinum toxin type A (BTX) and the clinical benefits of BTX therapy in patients with cervical dystonia (CD). In 24 patients with CD, we tested sensory temporal discrimination (STD) in the affected and two unaffected body regions (neck, hand, and eye) before and 1 month after BTX injection. In 8 out of the 24 patients with CD, STDT values were tested bilaterally in the three body regions before, 1 and 2 months after BTX injection. As expected, STD testing disclosed altered STD threshold values in all three body regions tested (affected and unaffected by dystonic spasms) in patients with CD. STD threshold values remained unchanged at all time points of the follow-up in all CD patients. The lack of BTX-induced effects on STD thresholds suggests that STD recruits neural structures uninvolved in muscle spindle afferent activation.
Young, Scott J; Bertucco, Matteo; Sheehan-Stross, Rebecca; Sanger, Terence D
Studies suggest that dystonia is associated with increased motor cortex excitability. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation can temporarily reduce motor cortex excitability. To test whether stimulation of the motor cortex can reduce dystonic symptoms in children, we measured tracking performance and muscle overflow using an electromyogram tracking task before and after stimulation. Of 10 participants, 3 showed a significant reduction in overflow, and a fourth showed a significant reduction in tracking error. Overflow decreased more when the hand contralateral to the cathode performed the task than when the hand ipsilateral to the cathode performed the task. Averaged over all participants, the results did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that cathodal stimulation may allow a subset of children to control muscles or reduce involuntary overflow activity. Further testing is needed to confirm these results in a blinded trial and identify the subset of children who are likely to respond.
Chandra, Nilanjan C.; Sheth, Shabina A.; Mehta, Ritambhara Y.; Dave, Kamlesh R.
Tardive dystonia (TD) is a serious side effect of antipsychotic medications, more with typical antipsychotics, that is potentially irreversible in affected patients. Studies show that newer atypical antipsychotics have a lower risk of TD. As a result, many clinicians may have developed a false sense of security when prescribing these medications. We report a case of 20-year-old male with hyperthymic temperament and borderline intellectual functioning, who developed severe TD after low dose short duration exposure to atypical antipsychotic risperidone and then olanzapine. The goal of this paper is to alert the reader to be judicious and cautious before using casual low dose second generation antipsychotics in patient with no core psychotic features, hyperthymic temperament, or borderline intellectual functioning suggestive of organic brain damage, who are more prone to develop adverse effects such as TD and monitor the onset of TD in patients taking atypical antipsychotics. PMID:28250568
Godani, Massimiliano; Canavese, Francesca; Migliorini, Sonia; Del Sette, Massimo
The practice of inhaling liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to commit suicide is uncommon and almost exclusively a prerogative of the prison population. Numerous cases of sudden deaths caused by intentional propane and/or butane inhalation have been described, but these cases survived and a description of the consequences is very rare. We describe a prisoner who survived after voluntary inhalation of LPG, and who developed ataxia, Parkinsonism, and dystonia. Brain MRI showed bilateral hyperintensity in the basal ganglia and in the cerebellar hemispheres. The clinical evolution and the MRI abnormalities are similar to those described in cases of poisoning by CO where the mechanism of brain injury is related to histotoxic hypoxia. We believe that LPG, considered until now a mixture of gas with low neurotoxic power, may have caused direct toxic damage to the brain, mediated by a mechanism of hypoxia, such as in CO intoxication. PMID:26005350
Alam, M; Sanghera, M K; Schwabe, K; Lütjens, G; Jin, X; Song, J; von Wrangel, C; Stewart, R M; Jankovic, J; Grossman, R G; Darbin, O; Krauss, Joachim K
Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia are associated with alterations of basal ganglia motor circuits and abnormal neuronal activity in the output nucleus, the globus pallidus internus (GPi). This study aims to compare the electrophysiological hallmarks for PD and dystonia in the linear and non-linear time stamp domains in patients who underwent microelectrode recordings during functional stereotactic surgery for deep brain stimulation (DBS) or pallidotomy. We analyzed single-unit neuronal activity in the posteroventral lateral region of the GPi in awake patients prior to pallidotomy or the implantation of DBS electrodes in 29 patients with PD (N = 83 neurons) and 13 patients with dystonia (N = 41 neurons) under comparable conditions. The discharge rate and the instantaneous frequency of the GPi in dystonia patients were significantly lower than in PD patients (P < 0.001), while the total number of bursts, the percentage of spikes in bursts and the mean duration of bursts were higher (P < 0.001). Further, non-linear analysis revealed higher irregularity or entropy in the data streams of GPi neurons of PD patients compared to the dystonia patients group (P < 0.001). This study indicates that both linear and non-linear features of neuronal activity in the human GPi differ between PD and dystonia. Our results may serve as the basis for future studies on linear and non-linear analysis of neuronal firing patterns in various movement disorders.
Owen, Tamsin; Adegboye, Dolapo; Gimeno, Hortensia; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre
Dystonia is characterised by involuntary movements (twisting, writhing and jerking) and postures. Secondary dystonias are described as a heterogeneous group of disorders with both exogenous and endogenous causes. There is a growing body of literature on the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery on the motor function in childhood secondary dystonias, however research on cognitive function after DBS is scarce. Cognitive function was measured in a cohort of 40 children with secondary dystonia following DBS surgery using a retrospective repeated measures design. Baseline pre-DBS neuropsychological measures were compared to scores obtained at least one year following DBS. Cognitive function was assessed using standardised measures of intellectual ability and memory. There was no significant change in the assessed domains of cognitive function following DBS surgery. A significant improvement across the group was found on the Picture Completion subtest, measuring perceptual reasoning ability, following DBS. Cognition remained stable in children with secondary dystonia following DBS surgery, with some improvements noted in a domain of perceptual reasoning. Further research with a larger sample is necessary to further explore this, in particular to further subdivide this group to account for its heterogeneity. This preliminary data has potentially positive implications for the impact of DBS on cognitive functioning within the childhood secondary dystonia population. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Macerollo, A; Chen, J C; Parees, I; Sadnicka, A; Kassavetis, P; Bhatia, K P; Kilner, J M; Rothwell, J C; Edwards, M J
Gating of sensory evoked potentials (SEPs) around the onset of a voluntary movement is a physiological phenomenon with centripetal and central components, and may reflect sensorimotor integration required for normal movement control. Our objective was the investigation of SEP suppression at the onset of movement and the interaction between SEP suppression and vibration of the limb. Fourteen patients with primary focal/segmental dystonia and 17 age-matched healthy volunteers were studied. SEPs were elicited after electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded over the scalp at three sites according to the International 10-20 System (F3, C3 and P3). SEPs were recorded in four conditions: at rest, at the onset of movement (a self-paced abduction movement of the right thumb), both in the absence and in the presence of vibration of the limb. Repeated measures anova revealed that there was a significant main effect of group [F(1, 11.1) = 0.471, P = 0.002]. Post hoc exploration of this effect revealed it to be due to an absence of SEP suppression at movement onset in patients (mean ratio SEP movement onset/rest 1.15 at F3, 1.13 at C3, 1.01 at P3) compared to controls, who had SEP suppression at movement onset (mean ratio SEP movement onset/rest 0.79 at F3, 0.78 at C3, 0.77 at P3). With vibration, SEP suppression reduced in both patients and controls to a similar extent. These results demonstrate abnormal SEP suppression at the onset of movement in patients with primary dystonia, and in addition that vibration of the limb reduces SEP suppression in patients and controls. © 2016 EAN.
Carment, Loïc; Maier, Marc A.; Sangla, Sophie; Guiraud, Vincent; Mesure, Serge; Vidailhet, Marie
Background Focal dystonia has been associated with deficient processing of sense of effort cues. However, corresponding studies are lacking in cervical dystonia (CD). We hypothesized that dystonic muscle activity would perturb neck force control based on sense of effort cues. Methods Neck extension force control was investigated in 18 CD patients with different clinical features (7 with and 11 without retrocollis) and in 19 control subjects. Subjects performed force-matching and force-maintaining tasks at 5% and 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Three task conditions were tested: i) with visual force feedback, ii) without visual feedback (requiring use of sense of effort), iii) without visual feedback, but with neck extensor muscle vibration (modifying muscle afferent cues). Trapezius muscle activity was recorded using electromyography (EMG). Results CD patients did not differ in task performance from healthy subjects when using visual feedback (ANOVA, p>0.7). In contrast, when relying on sense of effort cues (without visual feedback, 5% MVC), force control was impaired in patients without retrocollis (p = 0.006), but not in patients with retrocollis (p>0.2). Compared to controls, muscle vibration without visual feedback significantly affected performance in patients with retrocollis (p<0.001), but not in patients without retrocollis. Extensor EMG during rest, included as covariate in ANOVA, explained these group differences. Conclusion This study shows that muscle afferent feedback biases sense of effort cues when controlling neck forces in patients with CD. The bias acts on peripheral or central sense of effort cues depending on whether the task involves dystonic muscles. This may explain why patients with retrocollis more accurately matched isometric neck extension forces. This highlights the need to consider clinical features (pattern of dystonic muscles) when evaluating sensorimotor integration in CD. PMID:28192488
Sinclair, Catherine F.; Simonyan, Kristina; Brin, Mitchell F.; Blitzer, Andrew
Objective To present the first documented series of patients with negative dystonia (ND) of the palate, including clinical symptoms, functional MRI findings, and management options. Study Design Case series ascertained from clinical research centers that evaluated patients with both hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders. Methods Between July 1983 and March 2013, data was collected on patient demographics, disease characteristics, functional MRI findings, long-term management options, and outcomes. We sought patients whose clinical examination demonstrated absent palatal movement on speaking, despite normal palatal activity on other activities. Results Five patients (2 males, 3 females) met clinical criteria. All patients presented with hypernasal speech without associated dysphagia. Clinical examination revealed absent palatal movement on speaking despite intact gag reflexes, normal palate elevation on swallowing, and normal cranial nerve examinations. Other cranial and/or limb dystonias were present in four patients (80.0%). Three patients (60.0%) had previously failed oral pharmacologic therapy. Two patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, which demonstrated an overall decrease of cortical and subcortical activation during production of symptomatic syllables and asymptomatic coughing. Management included speech therapy (all patients) and palatal lift (2 patients) with limited improvement. Calcium hydroxyapatite injection (1 patient) into the soft palate and Passavants’ ridge was beneficial. Conclusions This is the first report of ND of the palate. Characteristic findings were task-specific absent palatal movement with speech, despite normal movement on swallowing, coughing, and an intact gag reflex, as well as disorder-specific decreased brain activation on functional MRI. A diagnosis of ND of the palate should be considered for patients who present with hypernasal speech. Level of Evidence 4. PMID:25646795
Counsell, Carl; Sinclair, Hazel; Fowlie, Jillian; Tyrrell, Elaine; Derry, Natalie; Meager, Peter; Norrie, John; Grosset, Donald
Anecdotal reports suggested that a specialized physiotherapy technique developed in France (the Bleton technique) improved primary cervical dystonia. We evaluated the technique in a randomized trial. A parallel-group, single-blind, two-centre randomized trial compared the specialized outpatient physiotherapy programme given by trained physiotherapists up to once a week for 24 weeks with standard physiotherapy advice for neck problems. Randomization was by a central telephone service. The primary outcome was the change in the total Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating (TWSTR) scale, measured before any botulinum injections that were due, between baseline and 24 weeks evaluated by a clinician masked to treatment. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. 110 patients were randomized (55 in each group) with 24 week outcomes available for 84. Most (92%) were receiving botulinum toxin injections. Physiotherapy adherence was good. There was no difference between the groups in the change in TWSTR score over 24 weeks (mean adjusted difference 1.44 [95% CI -3.63, 6.51]) or 52 weeks (mean adjusted difference 2.47 [-2.72, 7.65]) nor in any of the secondary outcome measures (Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile-58, clinician and patient-rated global impression of change, mean botulinum toxin dose). Both groups showed large sustained improvements compared to baseline in the TWSTR, most of which occurred in the first four weeks. There were no major adverse events. Subgroup analysis suggested a centre effect. There was no statistically or clinically significant benefit from the specialized physiotherapy compared to standard neck physiotherapy advice but further trials are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tormos, José María; Barrios, Carlos; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro
The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) remains unknown; however, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the spine deformity could be the expression of a subclinical nervous system disorder. A defective sensory input or an anomalous sensorimotor integration may lead to an abnormal postural tone and therefore the development of a spine deformity. Inhibition of the motor cortico-cortical excitability is abnormal in dystonia. Therefore, the study of cortico-cortical inhibition may shed some insight into the dystonia hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of IS. Paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to study cortico-cortical inhibition and facilitation in nine adolescents with IS, five teenagers with congenital scoliosis (CS) and eight healthy age-matched controls. The effect of a previous conditioning stimulus (80% intensity of resting motor threshold) on the amplitude of the motor-evoked potential induced by the test stimulus (120% of resting motor threshold) was examined at various interstimulus intervals (ISIs) in both abductor pollicis brevis muscles. The results of healthy adolescents and those with CS showed a marked inhibitory effect of the conditioning stimulus on the response to the test stimulus at interstimulus intervals shorter than 6 ms. These findings do not differ from those reported for normal adults. However, children with IS revealed an abnormally reduced cortico-cortical inhibition at the short ISIs. Cortico-cortical inhibition was practically normal on the side of the scoliotic convexity while it was significantly reduced on the side of the scoliotic concavity. In conclusion, these findings support the hypothesis that a dystonic dysfunction underlies in IS. Asymmetrical cortical hyperexcitability may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IS and represents an objective neurophysiological finding that could be used clinically. PMID:20033462
Doménech, Julio; Tormos, José María; Barrios, Carlos; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro
The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) remains unknown; however, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the spine deformity could be the expression of a subclinical nervous system disorder. A defective sensory input or an anomalous sensorimotor integration may lead to an abnormal postural tone and therefore the development of a spine deformity. Inhibition of the motor cortico-cortical excitability is abnormal in dystonia. Therefore, the study of cortico-cortical inhibition may shed some insight into the dystonia hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of IS. Paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to study cortico-cortical inhibition and facilitation in nine adolescents with IS, five teenagers with congenital scoliosis (CS) and eight healthy age-matched controls. The effect of a previous conditioning stimulus (80% intensity of resting motor threshold) on the amplitude of the motor-evoked potential induced by the test stimulus (120% of resting motor threshold) was examined at various interstimulus intervals (ISIs) in both abductor pollicis brevis muscles. The results of healthy adolescents and those with CS showed a marked inhibitory effect of the conditioning stimulus on the response to the test stimulus at interstimulus intervals shorter than 6 ms. These findings do not differ from those reported for normal adults. However, children with IS revealed an abnormally reduced cortico-cortical inhibition at the short ISIs. Cortico-cortical inhibition was practically normal on the side of the scoliotic convexity while it was significantly reduced on the side of the scoliotic concavity. In conclusion, these findings support the hypothesis that a dystonic dysfunction underlies in IS. Asymmetrical cortical hyperexcitability may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IS and represents an objective neurophysiological finding that could be used clinically.
Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Fraix, Valerie; Castrioto, Anna; Pérez Fernández, Maricely Ambar; Krack, Paul; Chabardes, Stephan; Seigneuret, Eric; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopes; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Moro, Elena
To report on the long-term outcomes of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) in Parkinson disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), and dystonic tremor. One hundred fifty-nine patients with PD, ET, and dystonia underwent VIM DBS due to refractory tremor at the Grenoble University Hospital. The primary outcome was a change in the tremor scores at 1 year after surgery and at the latest follow-up (21 years). Secondary outcomes included the relationship between tremor score reduction over time and the active contact position. Tremor scores (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III, items 20 and 21; Fahn, Tolosa, Marin Tremor Rating Scale) and the coordinates of the active contacts were recorded. Ninety-eight patients were included. Patients with PD and ET had sustained improvement in tremor with VIM stimulation (mean improvement, 70% and 66% at 1 year; 63% and 48% beyond 10 years, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no significant loss of stimulation benefit over time (p > 0.05). Patients with dystonia exhibited a moderate response at 1-year follow-up (41% tremor improvement, p = 0.027), which was not sustained after 5 years (30% improvement, p = 0.109). The more dorsal active contacts' coordinates in the right lead were related to a better outcome 1 year after surgery (p = 0.029). During the whole follow-up, forty-eight patients (49%) experienced minor side effects, whereas 2 (2.0%) had serious events (brain hemorrhage and infection). VIM DBS is an effective long-term (beyond 10 years) treatment for tremor in PD and ET. Effects on dystonic tremor were modest and transient. This provides Class IV evidence. It is an observational study. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson; Borich, Michael R.; Schmidt, Rebekah; Carey, James R.; Gillick, Bernadette
Objective Examine for individual factors that may predict response to inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in focal hand dystonia (FHD); present method for determining the optimal stimulation to increase inhibition in a given patient; and examine individual responses to prolonged intervention. Design A single-subject design to determine optimal parameters to increase inhibition for a given subject and to employ the selected parameters 1/wk for 6 weeks, with 1 wk follow up, to determine response. Setting Clinical research laboratory Participants A volunteer sample of 2 subjects with FHD. One participant had TMS responses indicating impaired inhibition, the other had responses within normal limits. Interventions 1200 pulses of 1 Hz rTMS delivered using 4 different stimulation site/intensity combinations: primary motor cortex (M1) at 90% or 110% resting motor threshold (RMT); dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) at 90% or 110% of RMT. The parameters producing the greatest within-session increase in cortical silent period (CSP) duration were then used as intervention. Main outcome measures Response variables included handwriting pressure and velocity, subjective symptom rating, CSP, and short-latency intracortical inhibition and facilitation. Results The individual with baseline TMS responses indicating impaired inhibition responded favorably to the repeated intervention, with reduced handwriting force, increase in CSP and subjective report of “moderate” symptom improvement at 1-wk follow-up. The individual with normal baseline responses failed to respond to the intervention. In both subjects, 90% RMT to PMd produced greatest lengthening of CSP and was used as intervention. Conclusions An individualized understanding of neurophysiologic measures may be indicators of responsiveness to inhibitory rTMS in focal dystonia, with further work needed to determine 3 likely responders vs. non-responders. PMID:25256555
Smith, Aynsley M; Adler, Charles H; Crews, Debbie; Wharen, Robert E; Laskowski, Edward R; Barnes, Kelly; Valone Bell, Carolyn; Pelz, Dave; Brennan, Ruth D; Smith, Jay; Sorenson, Matthew C; Kaufman, Kenton R
The definition of the 'yips' has evolved over time. It is defined as a motor phenomenon of involuntary movements affecting golfers. In this paper, we have extended the definition to encompass a continuum from the neurologic disorder of dystonia to the psychologic disorder of choking. In many golfers, the pathophysiology of the 'yips' is believed to be an acquired deterioration in the function of motor pathways (e.g. those involving the basal ganglia) which are exacerbated when a threshold of high stress and physiologic arousal is exceeded. In other golfers, the 'yips' seems to result from severe performance anxiety. Physically, the 'yips' is manifested by symptoms of jerks, tremors or freezing in the hands and forearms. These symptoms can result in: (i) a poor quality of golf performance (adds 4.9 strokes per 18 holes); (ii) prompt use of alcohol and beta-blockers; and (iii) contribute to attrition in golf. Golfers with the 'yips' average 75 rounds per year, although many 'yips'-affected golfers decrease their playing time or quit to avoid exposure to this embarrassing problem. While more investigation is needed to determine the cause of the 'yips', this review article summarises and organises the available research. A small study included in this paper describes the 'yips' phenomenon from the subjective experience of 'yips'-affected golfers. The subjective experience (n = 72) provides preliminary support for the hypothesis suggesting that the 'yips' is on a continuum. Based on the subjective definitions of 72 'yips'-affected golfers, the 'yips' was differentiated into type I (dystonia) and type II (choking). A theoretical model provides a guide for future research on golfers with either type I or type II 'yips'.
Huang, Ying-Zu; Rothwell, John C; Lu, Chin-Song; Wang, JiunJie; Chen, Rou-Shayn
To clarify the rationale for using rTMS of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) to treat dystonia, we examined how the motor system reacts to an inhibitory form of rTMS applied to the PMd in healthy subjects and in a group of patients with focal hand dystonia and DYT1 gene carriers. Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) with 300 and 600 pulses (cTBS300 and cTBS600) was applied to PMd and its after-effects were quantified by measuring the amplitude of MEPs evoked by single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1), short interval intracortical inhibition/facilitation (SICI/ICF) within M1, the third phase of spinal reciprocal inhibition (RI) and writing tests. In addition, in DYT1 gene carriers, the effects of cTBS300 over M1 and PMd on MEPs were studied in separate experiments. In healthy subjects cTBS300 and cTBS600 over PMd suppressed MEPs for 30min or more and cTBS600 decreased SICI and RI. In contrast, neither form of cTBS over PMd had any significant effect on MEPs, while cTBS600 increased effectiveness of SICI and RI and improved writing in patients with writer's cramp. NMDYT1 had a normal response to cTBS300 over left PMd. We suggest that the reduced PMd to M1 interaction in dystonic patients is likely to be due to reduced excitability of PMd-M1 connections. The possible therapeutic effects of premotor rTMS may therefore involve indirect effects of PMd on SICI and RI, which this study has shown can be normalised by cTBS. PMID:20309999
Sinclair, Catherine F; Simonyan, Kristina; Brin, Mitchell F; Blitzer, Andrew
To present the first documented series of patients with negative dystonia (ND) of the palate, including clinical symptoms, functional MRI findings, and management options. Case series ascertained from clinical research centers that evaluated patients with both hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movement disorders. Between July 1983 and March 2013, data was collected on patient demographics, disease characteristics, functional MRI findings, long-term management options, and outcomes. We sought patients whose clinical examination demonstrated absent palatal movement on speaking, despite normal palatal activity on other activities. Five patients (2 males, 3 females) met clinical criteria. All patients presented with hypernasal speech without associated dysphagia. Clinical examination revealed absent palatal movement on speaking despite intact gag reflexes, normal palate elevation on swallowing, and normal cranial nerve examinations. Other cranial and/or limb dystonias were present in four patients (80.0%). Three patients (60.0%) had previously failed oral pharmacologic therapy. Two patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, which demonstrated an overall decrease of cortical and subcortical activation during production of symptomatic syllables and asymptomatic coughing. Management included speech therapy (all patients) and palatal lift (2 patients) with limited improvement. Calcium hydroxyapatite injection (1 patient) into the soft palate and Passavants' ridge was beneficial. This is the first report of ND of the palate. Characteristic findings were task-specific absent palatal movement with speech, despite normal movement on swallowing, coughing, and an intact gag reflex, as well as disorder-specific decreased brain activation on functional MRI. A diagnosis of ND of the palate should be considered for patients who present with hypernasal speech. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Patterson, Addie; Almeida, Leonardo; Hess, Christopher W.; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Okun, Michael S.; Rodriguez, Ramon L.; Rundle-Gonzalez, Valerie; Shukla, Aparna Wagle; Malaty, Irene A.
Background The aim was to compare the occurrence of post-injection dysphagia in parkinsonism-related cervical dystonia (PRCD) versus cervical dystonia (CD) of other etiologies (non-PRCD). A secondary objective was to explore potential clinical differences between PRCD and non-PRCD and their respective responses to botulinum toxin (BoNT). Methods A cross-sectional chart review was carried out of patients treated for CD with Onabotulinumtoxin A at the University of Florida. We collected demographic information, dose of BoNT injected, patient-reported presence of dysphagia as a side effect, patient-perceived duration of benefit and efficacy according to the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGIS). Results Of the 144 patients included, 24 patients were diagnosed with PRCD and 120 were diagnosed as non-PRCD. Data analysis showed no significant differences in number of weeks of benefit from BoNT (PRCD 9.1±3.7 versus non-PRCD 9.4±3.7 weeks, p = 0.830), BoNT dosage (PRCD 235.0±95.6 versus non-PRCD 263.7±101.3 units, p = 0.181), median CGIS score (median = 2 or “much improved” for both groups, p = 0.88), or the presence of dysphagia after BoNT (PRCD 17% versus non-PRCD 19 %, p = 0.753, n = 132). In a subgroup analysis of the non-PRCD group, patients who experienced dysphagia were older than those who did not (63.9±8.9 years versus 58.1±14.4 years, p = 0.02). Discussion Despite an increased baseline risk of dysphagia in patients with PRCD, BoNT appears to be equally safe and equally beneficial in PRCD and non-PRCD patients. PMID:27830106
Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiaschi, Antonio; Moretto, Giuseppe; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P; Aglioti, Salvatore M
Mental rotation of body parts is performed through inner simulation of actual movements, and is likely to rely upon cortical and subcortical systems (e.g. motor and premotor areas and basal ganglia) involved in motor planning and execution. Studies indicate that sensory and motor deficits, such as for example pain, limb amputation or focal hand dystonia, bring about a specific impairment in mental rotation of the affected body parts. Here we explored the ability of patients affected by idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) to mentally rotate affected (neck) and unaffected (hands and feet) body districts. The experimental stimuli consisted of realistic photos of left or right hands or feet and the head of a young men with a black patch on the left or the right eye. As non-corporeal stimulus the front view of a car with a black patch on the left or the right headlight was used. The stimuli were presented at six different degrees of orientations. Twelve CD patients and 12 healthy participants were asked to verbally report whether the hands or feet were left or right, or whether the patch was on the left or the right eye or headlight. Reaction times and accuracy in performing the laterality tasks on the four stimuli were collected. Results showed that CD patients are slow in mental rotation of stimuli representing body parts, namely hand, foot and head. This abnormality was not due to a general impairment in mental rotation per se, since patients' ability to rotate a non-corporeal object (a car) was not significantly different from that of healthy participants. We posit that the deficit in mental rotation of body parts in CD patients may derive from a defective integration of body- and world-related knowledge, a process that is likely to allow a general representation of "me in the external world".
Martella, Giuseppina; Tassone, Annalisa; Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Platania, Paola; Cuomo, Dario; Viscomi, Maria Teresa; Bonsi, Paola; Cacci, Emanuele; Biagioni, Stefano; Usiello, Alessandro; Bernardi, Giorgio; Sharma, Nutan
DYT1 dystonia is a severe form of inherited dystonia, characterized by involuntary twisting movements and abnormal postures. It is linked to a deletion in the dyt1 gene, resulting in a mutated form of the protein torsinA. The penetrance for dystonia is incomplete, but both clinically affected and non-manifesting carriers of the DYT1 mutation exhibit impaired motor learning and evidence of altered motor plasticity. Here, we characterized striatal glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in transgenic mice expressing either the normal human torsinA or its mutant form, in comparison to non-transgenic (NT) control mice. Medium spiny neurons recorded from both NT and normal human torsinA mice exhibited normal long-term depression (LTD), whereas in mutant human torsinA littermates LTD could not be elicited. In addition, although long-term potentiation (LTP) could be induced in all the mice, it was greater in magnitude in mutant human torsinA mice. Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) can revert potentiated synapses to resting levels, a phenomenon termed synaptic depotentiation. LFS induced synaptic depotentiation (SD) both in NT and normal human torsinA mice, but not in mutant human torsinA mice. Since anti-cholinergic drugs are an effective medical therapeutic option for the treatment of human dystonia, we reasoned that an excess in endogenous acetylcholine could underlie the synaptic plasticity impairment. Indeed, both LTD and SD were rescued in mutant human torsinA mice either by lowering endogenous acetylcholine levels or by antagonizing muscarinic M1 receptors. The presence of an enhanced acetylcholine tone was confirmed by the observation that acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly increased in the striatum of mutant human torsinA mice, as compared with both normal human torsinA and NT littermates. Moreover, we found similar alterations of synaptic plasticity in muscarinic M2/M4 receptor knockout mice, in which an increased striatal acetylcholine level has been
Buerger, Kelly J; Salazar, Richard
A 20-year-old man presented to the neurotrauma intensive care unit following blunt head injury. MRI revealed subarachnoid haemorrhage and multiple intraparenchymal haemorrhages suggesting severe brain injury. During recovery, the patient displayed intermittent episodes of alternating hemibody spasms with decerebrate/decorticate dystonic posturing. Episodes presented with autonomic dysregulation including hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tachypnoea, tachycardia and hypertension. Concern for seizure activity prompted simultaneous video monitoring and EEG testing. Results were without epileptiform activity suggesting against seizure as cause for alternating hemibody spasms. Paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia (PAID) was considered despite the unusual presentation. Intravenous hydromorphone was used for treatment, which relieved symptoms of autonomic dysregulation and dystonic posturing. PAID syndrome was diagnosed based on presentation with intermittent episodes of dystonia, autonomic dysregulation, absence of epileptiform activity and rapid response to opioid treatment. This case illustrates the clinical variability of this uncommon syndrome because alternating hemidystonia as main manifestation has not been previously described. PMID:25414239
Hyam, Jonathan A; de Pennington, Nicholas; Joint, Carole; Green, Alexander L; Owen, Sarah L F; Pereira, Erlick A C; Aziz, Tipu Z
Infection in the context of implant surgery is a dreaded complication, usually necessitating the removal of all affected hardware. Severe dystonia is a debilitating condition that can present as an emergency and can occasionally be life threatening. The authors present 2 cases of severe dystonia in which deep brain stimulation was maintained despite the presence of infection, using ongoing stimulation by externalization of electrode wires and an extracorporeal pulse generator. This allowed the infection to clear and wounds to heal while maintaining stimulation. This strategy is similar to that used in the management of infected cardiac pacemakers. The authors suggest that this prolonged extracorporeal stimulation should be considered by neurosurgeons in the face of this difficult clinical situation.
Berezovskiĭ, V A; Levashov, M I
Effect of artificial mountain climate (AMC) on functional mobility of nerve processes (FMNP) was studied in a group of 46 patients with vegetovascular dystonias. The most essential physiologically significant parameters of the mountain climate were simulated on the unit "Orotron", the general atmospheric pressure remaining unchanged. It is shown that the course of AMC sessions tends to increase the working efficiency of the brain and functional mobility of the nervous processes in patients with vegetovascular dystonias. The pattern and degree of FMNP changes depend on individual characteristics of this property of the patients' nervous system. AMC may be recommended for use in clinical settings as a nonmedicamentous method of correction of functional disturbances in the central nervous system.
Shukla, Aparna Wagle; Vaillancourt, David E.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has served as an important technological breakthrough in the field of movement disorders physiology over the last three decades. TMS has grown popular due to the ease of application as well as its painless and noninvasive character. The technique has shed important insights into understanding the pathophysiology of movement disorders particularly Parkinson’s disease and dystonia. The basic applications have included the study of motor cortex excitability, functioning of excitatory and inhibitory circuits, study of interactions between sensory and motor systems, and the plasticity response of the brain. TMS has also made important contributions in understanding response to treatments such as the dopaminergic medications, botulinium toxin injections and deep brain stimulation surgery. This review summarizes the knowledge gained to date with TMS in Parkinson’s disease and dystonia and highlights the current challenges in utilization of TMS technology. PMID:24771105
Ip, Chi Wang; Isaias, Ioannis U; Kusche-Tekin, Burak B; Klein, Dennis; Groh, Janos; O'Leary, Aet; Knorr, Susanne; Higuchi, Takahiro; Koprich, James B; Brotchie, Jonathan M; Toyka, Klaus V; Reif, Andreas; Volkmann, Jens
Isolated generalized dystonia is a central motor network disorder characterized by twisted movements or postures. The most frequent genetic cause is a GAG deletion in the Tor1a (DYT1) gene encoding torsinA with a reduced penetrance of 30-40 % suggesting additional genetic or environmental modifiers. Development of dystonia-like movements after a standardized peripheral nerve crush lesion in wild type (wt) and Tor1a+/- mice, that express 50 % torsinA only, was assessed by scoring of hindlimb movements during tail suspension, by rotarod testing and by computer-assisted gait analysis. Western blot analysis was performed for dopamine transporter (DAT), D1 and D2 receptors from striatal and quantitative RT-PCR analysis for DAT from midbrain dissections. Autoradiography was used to assess the functional DAT binding in striatum. Striatal dopamine and its metabolites were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. After nerve crush injury, we found abnormal posturing in the lesioned hindlimb of both mutant and wt mice indicating the profound influence of the nerve lesion (15x vs. 12x relative to control) resembling human peripheral pseudodystonia. In mutant mice the phenotypic abnormalities were increased by about 40 % (p < 0.05). This was accompanied by complex alterations of striatal dopamine homeostasis. Pharmacological blockade of dopamine synthesis reduced severity of dystonia-like movements, whereas treatment with L-Dopa aggravated these but only in mutant mice suggesting a DYT1 related central component relevant to the development of abnormal involuntary movements. Our findings suggest that upon peripheral nerve injury reduced torsinA concentration and environmental stressors may act in concert in causing the central motor network dysfunction of DYT1 dystonia.
Charles, David; Brashear, Allison; Hauser, Robert A; Li, Hung-Ir; Boo, Lee-Ming; Brin, Mitchell F
To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and neutralizing antibodies in the treatment of cervical dystonia with onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX). Subjects received onabotulinumtoxinA (containing original bulk toxin) treatment in a 10-week open-label period (period 1). Eligible subjects who completed this period were randomized to onabotulinumtoxinA or placebo in a 10-week double-blind period (period 2). The primary outcome measures were the Cervical Dystonia Severity Scale and the physician Global Assessment Scale at week 6 in period 2. Serum samples for immunogenicity tests were taken at baseline and study exit. The potential impact of preexisting neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) was examined across subgroups for period 1 and by analysis of covariance for period 2. Of 214 subjects enrolled in period 1, 170 enrolled in period 2 and received placebo (n = 82) or onabotulinumtoxinA (n = 88). In period 1, subjects with preexisting nAbs responded similarly to those without preexisting nAbs. In period 2, onabotulinumtoxinA produced significantly greater improvements than placebo on the Cervical Dystonia Severity Scale (-1.81 vs -0.31 points; P = 0.012) and physician Global Assessment Scale (61.7% vs. 41.6% improved; P = 0.022) at the primary time point week 6, using baseline severity and neutralizing antibody (nAb) status at study entry as covariates. Two subjects seroconverted from nAb negative at baseline to nAb positive at study exit but remained responsive to onabotulinumtoxinA during both the open and blinded treatment periods. Rhinitis and treatment-related dysphagia were reported significantly more frequently with onabotulinumtoxinA than placebo. OnabotulinumtoxinA was well tolerated and more effective than placebo for the treatment of cervical dystonia. Subject nAb status at baseline was not a clear predictor of response to onabotulinumtoxinA.
Muller, J; Wissel, J; Kemmler, G; Voller, B; Bodner, T; Schneider, A; Wenning, G; Poewe, W
Objective: To develop and test a questionnaire for measuring quality of life in patients with craniocervical dystonia. Methods: A 29-item pool was developed based on semi-structured interviews of patients with cervical dystonia (CD) and blepharospasm (BSP). This preliminary questionnaire was administered to 203 consecutive patients with CD and BSP from Austrian dystonia and botulinum toxin outpatient clinics. For scale generation, a combination of exploratory factor and cluster analysis was applied. This resulted in the 24-item version of the instrument (CDQ-24) based on five subscales: Stigma, Emotional wellbeing, Pain, Activities of daily living, and Social/family life. The validity and reliability of the CDQ-24 was assessed in 231 consecutive patients with CD and BSP different from those examined with the preliminary questionnaire. This second survey included the CDQ-24, a generic QoL instrument (SF-36) and clinical rating scales. Sensitivity to change was analysed in 51 previously untreated (de novo) patients four weeks and one year following the first botulinum toxin treatment. Results: Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory for all subscales, with values of Cronbach's α ranging from 0.77 to 0.89. The CDQ-24 subscales showed moderate to high correlations with those SF-36 subscales measuring similar aspects (Pearson's correlation r = 0.50–0.73; p<0.001, each). Sensitivity to change was confirmed by highly significant improvements of all CDQ-24 subscores in the de novo patients from baseline to four week follow up. One year follow up data revealed a stable improvement. Conclusion: The CDQ-24 is the first fully validated and disease specific questionnaire to evaluate quality of life of patients with cervical dystonia and blepharospasm and we propose its use in clinical trials as well as in daily clinical practice. PMID:15090572
Brashear, Allison; Dobyns, William B; de Carvalho Aguiar, Patricia; Borg, Michel; Frijns, C J M; Gollamudi, Seema; Green, Andrew; Guimaraes, João; Haake, Bret C; Klein, Christine; Linazasoro, Gurutz; Münchau, Alexander; Raymond, Deborah; Riley, David; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Tijssen, Marina A J; Webb, David; Zaremba, Jacek; Bressman, Susan B; Ozelius, Laurie J
Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) (also known as DYT12) is characterized by the abrupt onset of dystonia and parkinsonism and is caused by mutations in the ATP1A3 gene. We obtained clinical data and sequenced the ATP1A3 gene in 49 subjects from 21 families referred with 'possible' RDP, and performed a genotype-phenotype analysis. Of the new families referred for study only 3 of 14 families (21%) demonstrated a mutation in the ATP1A3 gene, but no new mutations were identified beyond our earlier report of 6. Adding these to previously reported families, we found mutations in 36 individuals from 10 families including 4 de novo mutations and excluded mutations in 13 individuals from 11 families. The phenotype in mutation positive patients included abrupt onset of dystonia with features of parkinsonism, a rostrocaudal gradient, and prominent bulbar findings. Other features found in some mutation carriers included common reports of triggers, minimal or no tremor at onset, occasional mild limb dystonia before the primary onset, lack of response to dopaminergic medications, rare abrupt worsening of symptoms later in life, stabilization of symptoms within a month and minimal improvement overall. In comparing ATP1A3 mutation positive and negative patients, we found that tremor at onset of symptoms, a reversed rostrocaudal gradient, and significant limb pain exclude a diagnosis of RDP. A positive family history is not required. Genetic testing for the ATP1A3 gene is recommended when abrupt onset, rostrocaudal gradient and prominent bulbar findings are present.
Wang, Jia-Wei; Li, Ji-Ping; Wang, Yun-Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Qing
Myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (MDS) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by the presentation of both myoclonic jerks and dystonia. Evidence is emerging that deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be a promising treatment for MDS. However, there are no studies reporting the effects of DBS on MDS with double mutations in DYT1 and DYT11. Two refractory MDS patients with double mutations were treated between 2011 and 2015 in our center. Genetic testing for DYT1 and DYT11 was performed through polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of the specific exons of genes. For the first patient, initial bilateral ventral intermediate thalamus nucleus (Vim) DBS was performed. Because of worsening dystonia after initial improvement in symptoms, subsequent bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS was offered at 43 months after initial surgery, which reversed the deterioration and restored the motor function. For the second patient, initial improvement in motor symptoms and quality of life was sustained at the follow-up 6 months after bilateral Vim DBS treatment. Thus, DBS may be an effective therapeutic option for MDS, even in patients with double mutations. Moreover, GPi DBS may be used as a supplementary treatment when initial Vim DBS fails to control MDS symptoms. PMID:28102337
Moura, Rita C; de Carvalho Aguiar, Patrícia Maria; Bortz, Graziela; Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai
Musician's dystonia is a task-specific dystonia (TSD) worldwide disabling disorder, and most of the affected individuals may have severe difficulty to play their instrument. Many professional music players may have to quit working as a player. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and frequency of TSD in Brazilian music players and to promote awareness of this condition among musicians. We visited orchestras and music schools delivering lectures on TSD and about the scope of our survey. Musicians were invited to answer a questionnaire, and those with possible neurological dysfunction associated with musical performance were recorded by video while playing the instrument. We visited 51 orchestras and music schools in 19 Brazilian cities between March 2013 and March 2015. We collected 2,232 questionnaires, and 72 subjects with suspicion of dystonia were video recorded during specific tasks and evaluated regarding motor impairment. Forty-nine individuals (2.2%) were diagnosed as having TSD (mean age 36.4 years; 92% male). The instruments most associated with TSD were acoustic guitar (36.7%) and brass instruments (30.6%). We concluded that Brazilian TSD music players are mainly male, classical music professionals, around 30 years of age, with arms, hands, or oromandibular muscles affected. TSD is a neurological condition that can impair musical performance and should receive more attention from musicians, teachers, and health professionals.
Moura, Rita C.; de Carvalho Aguiar, Patrícia Maria; Bortz, Graziela; Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai
Musician’s dystonia is a task-specific dystonia (TSD) worldwide disabling disorder, and most of the affected individuals may have severe difficulty to play their instrument. Many professional music players may have to quit working as a player. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and frequency of TSD in Brazilian music players and to promote awareness of this condition among musicians. We visited orchestras and music schools delivering lectures on TSD and about the scope of our survey. Musicians were invited to answer a questionnaire, and those with possible neurological dysfunction associated with musical performance were recorded by video while playing the instrument. We visited 51 orchestras and music schools in 19 Brazilian cities between March 2013 and March 2015. We collected 2,232 questionnaires, and 72 subjects with suspicion of dystonia were video recorded during specific tasks and evaluated regarding motor impairment. Forty-nine individuals (2.2%) were diagnosed as having TSD (mean age 36.4 years; 92% male). The instruments most associated with TSD were acoustic guitar (36.7%) and brass instruments (30.6%). We concluded that Brazilian TSD music players are mainly male, classical music professionals, around 30 years of age, with arms, hands, or oromandibular muscles affected. TSD is a neurological condition that can impair musical performance and should receive more attention from musicians, teachers, and health professionals. PMID:28321203
Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been widely accepted as an effective treatment modality of medically refractory dystonia. However, there have been few studies regarding the safety issue of pregnancy and childbirth related with DBS. This report describes a female patient who was pregnant and delivered a baby after GPi DBS surgery. A 33-year-old female patient with acquired generalized dystonia underwent bilateral GPi DBS implantation. She obtained considerable improvement in both movement and disability after DBS implantation. Four years later, she was pregnant and the obstetricians consulted us about the safety of the delivery. At 38-weeks into pregnancy, a scheduled caesarian section was carried out under general anesthesia. After induction using thiopental and succinylcholine, intubation was done quickly, followed by DBS turn off. For hemostasis, only bipolar electrocautery was used. Before awakening from the anesthesia, DBS was turned on as the same parameters previously adjusted.